WorldWideScience

Sample records for controlling pre-harvest sprouting

  1. Genes controlling seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting in a rice-wheat-barley comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chengdao; Ni, Peixiang; Francki, Michael;

    2004-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting results in significant economic loss for the grain industry around the world. Lack of adequate seed dormancy is the major reason for pre-harvest sprouting in the field under wet weather conditions. Although this trait is governed by multiple genes it is also highly heritable....... A major QTL controlling both pre-harvest sprouting and seed dormancy has been identified on the long arm of barley chromosome 5H, and it explains over 70% of the phenotypic variation. Comparative genomics approaches among barley, wheat and rice were used to identify candidate gene(s) controlling seed...... dormancy and hence one aspect of pre-harvest sprouting. The barley seed dormancy/pre-harvest sprouting QTL was located in a region that showed good synteny with the terminal end of the long arm of rice chromosome 3. The rice DNA sequences were annotated and a gene encoding GA20-oxidase was identified...

  2. Environmental factors during seed development and their influence on pre-harvest sprouting in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciha, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The problem of pre-harvest sprouting of wheat is surveyed and a literature review of the effects of environmental conditions on pre-harvest sprouting is presenting. Physiological, biochemical, and morphological changes occurring within the wheat seed during germination, harvest, and storage are discussed. The effects of moisture, humidity, and temperature, particularly on seed dormancy, are considered. Procedures used in Europe for predicting the potential for sprouting are evaluated.

  3. Influence of pre-harvest red light irradiation on main phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of Chinese kale sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingdan; Qian, Hongmei; Chen, Lili; Sun, Bo; Chang, Jiaqi; Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Wang, Qiaomei

    2017-05-01

    The effects of pre-harvest red light irradiation on main healthy phytochemicals as well as antioxidant activity of Chinese kale sprouts during postharvest storage were investigated. 6-day-old sprouts were treated by red light for 24h before harvest and sampled for further analysis of nutritional quality on the first, second and third day after harvest. The results indicated that red light exposure notably postponed the degradation of aliphatic, indole, and total glucosinolates during postharvest storage. The vitamin C level was remarkably higher in red light treated sprouts on the first and second day after harvest when compared with the control. In addition, red light treatment also enhanced the accumulation of total phenolics and maintained higher level of antioxidant activity than the control. All above results suggested that pre-harvest red light treatment might provide a new strategy to maintain the nutritive value of Chinese kale sprouts during postharvest storage.

  4. Cloning and characterization of a critical regulator for pre-harvest sprouting in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouting of grains in mature spikes before harvest is a major problem in wheat (Triticum aestivum) production worldwide. We cloned and characterized a gene underlying a wheat quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the short arm of chromosome 3A for pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) resistance in white wheat u...

  5. Reprogramming of Seed Metabolism Facilitates Pre-harvest Sprouting Resistance of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Caixiang; Ding, Feng; Hao, Fuhua; Yu, Men; Lei, Hehua; Wu, Xiangyu; Zhao, Zhengxi; Guo, Hongxiang; Yin, Jun; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2016-02-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is a worldwide problem for wheat production and transgene antisense-thioredoxin-s (anti-trx-s) facilitates outstanding resistance. To understand the molecular details of PHS resistance, we analyzed the metabonomes of the transgenic and wild-type (control) wheat seeds at various stages using NMR and GC-FID/MS. 60 metabolites were dominant in these seeds including sugars, organic acids, amino acids, choline metabolites and fatty acids. At day-20 post-anthesis, only malate level in transgenic wheat differed significantly from that in controls whereas at day-30 post-anthesis, levels of amino acids and sucrose were significantly different between these two groups. For mature seeds, most metabolites in glycolysis, TCA cycle, choline metabolism, biosynthesis of proteins, nucleotides and fatty acids had significantly lower levels in transgenic seeds than in controls. After 30-days post-harvest ripening, most metabolites in transgenic seeds had higher levels than in controls including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, fatty acids, choline metabolites and NAD+. These indicated that anti-trx-s lowered overall metabolic activities of mature seeds eliminating pre-harvest sprouting potential. Post-harvest ripening reactivated the metabolic activities of transgenic seeds to restore their germination vigor. These findings provided essential molecular phenomic information for PHS resistance of anti-trx-s and a credible strategy for future developing PHS resistant crops.

  6. Effect of Pre-Harvest Sprouting on Physicochemical Properties of Starch in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senay Simsek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. occurs when physiologically mature kernels begin germinating in the spike. The objective of this study was to provide fundamental information on physicochemical changes of starch due to PHS in Hard Red Spring (HRS and Hard White Spring (HWS wheat. The mean values of α-amylase activity of non-sprouted and sprouted wheat samples were 0.12 CU/g and 2.00 CU/g, respectively. Sprouted samples exhibited very low peak and final viscosities compared to non-sprouted wheat samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images showed that starch granules in sprouted samples were partially hydrolyzed. Based on High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC profiles, the starch from sprouted samples had relatively lower molecular weight than that of non-sprouted samples. Overall, high α-amylase activity caused changes to the physicochemical properties of the PHS damaged wheat.

  7. The effect of proteolytic activity on the technological value of wheat flour from pre-harvest sprouted grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Dojczew

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available . Investigations were conducted on the level of the overall proteolytic activity in flour fractions as well as fine and bruise bran, obtained from four varieties of wheat (‘Zyta’, ‘Pegassus’, ‘Sukces’, ‘Tonacja’, subjected to pre-harvest sprouting. Moreover, an analysis was conducted on the effect of pre-harvest sprouting on the functional properties of flour, determining the physical properties of gluten and dough. The analyses included a determination of crude protein, non-protein nitrogen, wet gluten, proteolytic activity and the rheologic properties of dough. The studies ended with a trial baking, with vitamin C and vital gluten added as improvers to the flour from pre-harvest sprouted grain. In all the milling fractions the overall proteolytic activity increased as result of sprouting, the highest increase being recorded for variety ‘Tonacja’. Simultaneously, in all the fractions tested an increased level of non-protein nitrogen was observed. Flour obtained from pre-harvest sprouted grain was characterised by an increased water holding capacity and the dough by poorer rheologic properties. Bread obtained from flour from pre-harvest sprouted grain was of insufficient quality. The use of improvers (vital gluten and vitamin C as a rule resulted in favourable palatability and physico-chemical changes in bread.

  8. Genealogical Analysis of the North-American Spring Wheat Varieties with Different Resistance to Pre-harvest Sprouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynov Sergey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of genetic diversity of North American spring wheat varieties differing in resistance to pre-harvest sprouting was carried out. For identification of sources of resistance the genealogical profiles of 148 red-grained and 63 white-grained North-American spring wheat varieties with full pedigrees were calculated and estimates were made of pre-harvest sprouting. The cluster structure of the populations of red-grained and white-grained varieties was estimated. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the average contributions of landraces in the groups of resistant and susceptible varieties. Distribution of the putative sources of resistance in the clusters indicated that varieties having different genetic basis may have different sources of resistance. For red-grained varieties the genetic sources of resistance to pre-harvest sprouting are landraces Crimean, Hard Red Calcutta, and Iumillo, or Button, Kenya 9M-1A-3, and Kenya-U, or Red Egyptian and Kenya BF4-3B-10V1. Tracking of pedigrees showed these landraces contributed to the pedigrees, respectively, via Thatcher, Kenya-Farmer, and Kenya-58, which were likely donors of resistance for red-grained varieties. For white-grained varieties the sources of resistance were landraces Crimean, Hard Red Calcutta, Ostka Galicyjska, Iumillo, Akakomugi, Turco, Hybrid English, Rough Chaff White and Red King, and putative donors of resistance — Thatcher, RL2265, and Frontana. The genealogical profile of accession RL4137, the most important donor of resistance to pre-harvest sprouting in North American spring wheat breeding programmes, contains almost all identified sources of resistance.

  9. ABA gene expression during kernel development in relation to pre-harvest sprouting in wheat and triticale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah, De Laethauwer; Jan, De Riek; Geert, Haesaert

    2014-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) during wet and cool harvest periods remains a serious problem in the production of cereals like barley, wheat and triticale. Being involved in dormancy induction and maintenance during seed development, abscisic acid (ABA) may play a key role to improve dormancy level and hence PHS-tolerance in these grains. In this study, we investigated the ABA levels and expression profiles of ABA biosynthesis and degradation genes during kernel development to explore the potential of these genes for improving PHS-tolerance in wheat and triticale. Plants of a PHS-tolerant and a PHS-susceptible variety of both wheat and triticale were grown under controlled conditions from flowering to harvest. At regular time points, kernels were harvested for ABA analysis and RNA extraction. RNA extracts were used in an RT-qPCR assay to obtain expression profiles of the ABA synthesis genes ZEP, NCED1 and NCED2 and the ABA degradation genes CYP707A1 and CYP707A2. In contrast to reports in Arabidopsis, the ZEP gene was predominantly expressed towards harvest maturity in both wheat and triticale. NCED1 expression coincided well with the observed ABA levels during kernel development, while NCED2 expression was mainly detected in early development, indicating a potential role for dormancy induction. ABA degradation towards harvest maturity was mainly associated with increased CYP707A1 expression, whereas CYP707A2 expression appeared to correlate with the regulation of ABA levels during kernel development. However, no differential expression of the investigated genes was detected between PHS-tolerant and PHS-susceptible varieties.

  10. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to pre-harvest sprouting in US hard white winter wheat Rio Blanco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shubing; Cai, Shibin; Graybosch, Robert; Chen, Cuixia; Bai, Guihua

    2008-09-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) of wheat is a major problem that severely limits the end-use quality of flour in many wheat-growing areas worldwide. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for PHS resistance, a population of 171 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed from the cross between PHS-resistant white wheat cultivar Rio Blanco and PHS-susceptible white wheat breeding line NW97S186. The population was evaluated for PHS in three greenhouse experiments and one field experiment. After 1,430 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers were screened between the two parents and two bulks, 112 polymorphic markers between two bulks were used to screen the RILs. One major QTL, QPhs.pseru-3AS, was identified in the distal region of chromosome 3AS and explained up to 41.0% of the total phenotypic variation in three greenhouse experiments. One minor QTL, QPhs.pseru-2B.1, was detected in the 2005 and 2006 experiments and for the means over the greenhouse experiments, and explained 5.0-6.4% of phenotypic variation. Another minor QTL, QPhs.pseru-2B.2, was detected in only one greenhouse experiment and explained 4.5% of phenotypic variation for PHS resistance. In another RIL population developed from the cross of Rio Blanco/NW97S078, QPhs.pseru-3AS was significant for all three greenhouse experiments and the means over all greenhouse experiments and explained up to 58.0% of phenotypic variation. Because Rio Blanco is a popular parent used in many hard winter wheat breeding programs, SSR markers linked to the QTLs have potential for use in high-throughput marker-assisted selection of wheat cultivars with improved PHS resistance as well as fine mapping and map-based cloning of the major QTL QPhs.pseru-3AS.

  11. Study on the Physiological Biochemistry of Pre-harvest Sprouting and Scanning Electron Microscopy of Glume in Rice%水稻穗上发芽生理生化及颖壳扫描电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建秀; 陈伟

    2008-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of easy or uneasy-germinated glumes,determining the contents of endogenous hormones and the activity of α-amylase were studied from at 1-4 d pre-harvest sprouting rice.The results showed that the activity of α-amylase and the contents of IAA,GA1+3 and ZR were higher in easy-germinated rice than those in the uneasy-germinated rice,while ABA content in easy-germinated rice was lower than that in uneasy-germinated rice.The change of GA1+3/ABA rate accorded with that of GA1+3.Scanning electron microscopy showed that the cell surface of glume was loose arranged with more villus and bigger hole and germinal aperture,which had lesser mechanism resistance and better water absorptivity in easy-germinated rice.This research also indicated that pre-harvest sprouting in rice related to α-amylase activity,endogenous hormone contents and glume structure.

  12. Evaluation of sodium chlorate as a pre-harvest intervention for controlling Salmonella in the peripheral lymph nodes of cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate sodium chlorate as a potential pre-harvest intervention for reducing or eliminating Salmonella from the peripheral lymph nodes of experimentally-infected cattle. The peripheral lymph nodes of Holstein steers (approx. BW = 160 kg; 4 and 6 head in co...

  13. Description of Extended Pre-Harvest Pig Salmonella Surveillance-and-Control Programme and its Estimated Effect on Food Safety Related to Pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alban, L.; Barfod, Kristen; Petersen, J. V.;

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella in pork can be combated during pre- or post-harvest. For large slaughterhouses, post-harvest measures like decontamination might be cost-effective while this is less likely with small-to-medium sized slaughterhouses. In this study, pre-harvest measures might be more relevant. We describe...... an extended surveillance-and-control programme for Salmonella in finisher pigs, which, to establish equivalence to the Swedish control programme, is intended for implementation on the Danish island, Bornholm. The effect of the programme on food safety was estimated by analysing Salmonella data from pig...... programme were obtained from Bornholm. We used a simulation model developed to estimate the number of human cases based on the prevalence of Salmonella on carcass swabs. Herds are only accepted in the programme if they have one or less seropositive sample within the previous 6 months. In this way...

  14. Description of extended pre-harvest pig Salmonella surveillance-and-control programme and its estimated effect on food safety related to pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, L; Barfod, K; Petersen, J V; Dahl, J; Ajufo, J C; Sandø, G; Krog, H H; Aabo, S

    2010-11-01

    Salmonella in pork can be combated during pre- or post-harvest. For large slaughterhouses, post-harvest measures like decontamination might be cost-effective while this is less likely with small-to-medium sized slaughterhouses. In this study, pre-harvest measures might be more relevant. We describe an extended surveillance-and-control programme for Salmonella in finisher pigs, which, to establish equivalence to the Swedish control programme, is intended for implementation on the Danish island, Bornholm. The effect of the programme on food safety was estimated by analysing Salmonella data from pig carcasses originating from herds that would have qualified for the programme during 2006-2008. Food safety was interpreted as prevalence of Salmonella on carcasses as well as the estimated number of human cases of salmonellosis related to pork produced within the programme. Data from the Danish Salmonella programme were obtained from Bornholm. We used a simulation model developed to estimate the number of human cases based on the prevalence of Salmonella on carcass swabs. Herds are only accepted in the programme if they have one or less seropositive sample within the previous 6 months. In this way, the Salmonella load is kept to a minimum. The programme is not yet in operation and pigs that qualify for the programme are currently mixed at slaughter with those that do not qualify. Therefore, we had to assess the impact on the carcass prevalence indirectly. The prevalence of Salmonella in carcass swabs among qualifying herds was 0.46% for the 3 years as a whole, with 2006 as the year with highest prevalence. According to the simulation the expected number of human cases relating to pork produced within the programme was below 10. When the programme is in operation, an extra effect of separating pigs within the programme from those outside is expected to lower the prevalence of Salmonella even further.

  15. Breeding increases the efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum in the sprout control of birch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Hamberg

    Full Text Available We tested whether the pairing of selected isolates could be used to increase the efficiency of a decay fungus Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. Ex Fr. Pouzar to control hardwood sprouting in Finland. We paired C. purpureum strains efficient in sprout control or highly active in laccase production, and tested the efficacy of their progeny in spout control experiments. This procedure resulted in a strain with an efficacy superior to that of the parental strains. The mortality of birch (Betula pendula Roth. and B. pubescens Ehrh. 1 cm in stump diameter was 78%, 56% and 9% for the best progeny, the best parental strain and the control, respectively. Mortality was only slightly higher for B. pendula than for B. pubescens but no significant differences were found between the number or maximum height of stump sprouts. Our results showed that cross breeding of this decay fungus is a good alternative in attempts to produce efficient biocontrol agents against hardwood sprouting.

  16. Health risks due to pre-harvesting sugarcane burning in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leticia de Souza Paraiso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available After 2003, a new period of expansion of the sugarcane culture began in Brazil. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw is an agricultural practice that, despite the nuisance for the population and pollution generated, still persisted in over 70% of the municipalities of São Paulo State in 2010. In order to study the distribution of this risk factor, an ecological epidemiological study was conducted associating the rates of deaths and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, for each municipality in the State, with the exposure to the pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw. A Bayesian multivariate regression model, controlled for the possible effects of socioeconomic and climate (temperature, humidity, and rainfall variations, has been used. The effect on health was measured by the standardized mortality and morbidity ratio. The measures of exposure to the pre-harvesting burning used were: percentage of the area of sugarcane harvested with burning, average levels of aerosol, and number of outbreaks of burning. The autocorrelation between data was controlled using a neighborhood matrix. It was observed that the increase in the number of outbreaks of burning was significantly associated with higher rates of hospital admissions for respiratory disease in children under five years old. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane effectively imposes risk to population health and therefore it should be eliminated.

  17. Tolerant Mechanism and Chromosome Location of Gene Controlling Sprouting Tolerance in Aegilops Tauschii Cosson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Xiu-jin; ZHENG You-liang; LIU Deng-cai; WEI Yu-ming; YAN Ze-hong; ZHOU Yong-hong

    2002-01-01

    An artificial amphiploid RSP (2n = 42, AABBDD) between tetraploid landrace Ailanmai(Triticum turgidum L., 2n= 28, AABB) and Aegilops tauschii (DD, 2n = 14) expressed high tolerance to preharvest sprouting which derived from Ae. tauschii. Tolerance to preharvest sprouting of RSP was examined by four ways in six varying periods after anthesis. The germination percentages of preharvest intact spikes were only 6.06 % in its high peak period of germination. Its tolerance was mainly decided by the seed a recessive trait which was controlled by one gene, located on chromosome 2D.

  18. Pre-Harvest Sugarcane Burning: Determination of emission factors through laboratory measurements and quantification of emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azeredo Franca, D.; Maria Longo, K.; Gomes Soares Neto, T.; Carlos dos Santos, J.; Rudorf, B. F.; Alves de Aguiar, D.; Freitas, S.; Vieira Cortez, E.; Stockler S. Lima, R.; S. Gacita, M.; Anselmo, E.; A. Carvalho, J., Jr.

    2011-12-01

    Sugarcane is a relevant crop to Brazilian economy and roughly 50% of its production is used to produce ethanol. São Paulo state is the largest producer of sugarcane in Brazil being responsible for almost 60% of its production in a cultivated area of 4.5 Mha in 2010. Sugarcane harvest practice can be performed either with green harvest or with pre-harvest burning. A "Green Ethanol" Protocol is underway to eliminate the pre-harvest burning practice by 2014 in most of the sugarcane cultivated land in São Paulo state. During the last five years close to 2 Mha were annually harvested with the pre-harvest burning practice. This practice emits particulate material, greenhouse gases, and tropospheric ozone precursors to the atmosphere. Even with policies to eliminate the burning practice in the near future there is still a significant environmental damage due to the pre-harvest burning practice of sugarcane. Thus the generation of reliable inventories of emissions due to this activity is crucial in order to assess the environmental impact. Presently the official Brazilian emissions inventories do not include the sugarcane pre-harvest burning contribution. Therefore, this work aims to estimate the annual emissions (from 2006 to 2010) associated with pre-harvest sugarcane burning practice in São Paulo state, including the determination of emission factors for some trace gases and particulate material smaller than 2.5 μm. Annual remote sensing based mappings of burned sugarcane fields throughout the harvest season in each crop year made in the context of Canasat Project (http://www.dsr.inpe.br/laf/canasat/en/) were added to the Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model (3BEM) in order to estimate trace gases and aerosols emissions. Two laboratory combustion experiments were carried out to determine the emission factors estimation. Samples of different varieties of sugarcane were harvested in dry weather conditions and in distinct sites in the state of São Paulo to assure

  19. Determination of residue and pre-harvest interval of Imidacloprid insecticide on greenhouse cucumber in Varamin region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Morowati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of chemical pesticides to control pests in developed and developing countries has led to the increase in crop production and decrease in post-harvest losses, which has caused harmful effects on human health. When the amount of pesticides exceeds permissible limits, some measures should be undertaken to reduce their application. In order to control cucumber pests in greenhouse, farmers use pesticides extensively, which their residues threaten human health in the society. Due to the importance of this problem, the residue and pre-harvest period of the Imidacloprid insecticide in some of the greenhouses of Varamin region, Tehran province, Iran was measured. In order to determine the pre-harvest period, spraying of Imidacloprid pesticide was done in a completely randomized block design with three replications, and two treatments of Imidacloprid and control (no insecticide. Sampling was done 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 days after spraying. Samples were then transferred to the laboratory and preserved in freezer until the extraction and purification were performed and the amount of pesticide residues was measured. Based on the results, Imidacloprid residue reached below the maximum residue level (MRL of 1 mg/kg two days after spraying. But for more confidence, the third day after spraying was considered as the pre-harvest period. Sampling for determination of Imidacloprid residue was performed in four greenhouses of Varamin region. The results showed that mean Imidacloprid residue levels were above the MRL value in these greenhouses.

  20. 76 FR 63901 - Pre-Harvest Food Safety for Cattle; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... continuum. FSIS published cattle pre-harvest guidelines \\2\\ to inform beef slaughter establishments of the... slaughter establishments procure their cattle from beef producers that implement one or more documented pre...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service Pre-Harvest Food Safety for Cattle; Public...

  1. LA Sprouts Randomized Controlled Nutrition, Cooking and Gardening Program Reduces Obesity and Metabolic Risk in Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Nicole M.; Martinez, Lauren C.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Davis, Jaimie N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of a 12-week gardening, nutrition, and cooking intervention (“LA Sprouts”) on dietary intake, obesity parameters and metabolic disease risk among low-income, primarily Hispanic/Latino youth in Los Angeles. Methods Randomized control trial involving four elementary schools [2 schools randomized to intervention (172, 3rd–5th grade students); 2 schools randomized to control (147, 3rd–5th grade students)]. Classes were taught in 90-minute sessions once a week to each grade level for 12 weeks. Data collected at pre- and post-intervention included dietary intake via food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), anthropometric measures [BMI, waist circumference (WC)], body fat, and fasting blood samples. Results LA Sprouts participants had significantly greater reductions in BMI z-scores (0.1 versus 0.04 point decrease, respectively; p=0.01) and WC (−1.2 cm vs. no change; p<0.001). Fewer LA Sprouts participants had the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) after the intervention than before, while the number of controls with MetSyn increased. LA Sprouts participants had improvements in dietary fiber intake (+3.5% vs. −15.5%; p=0.04) and less decreases in vegetable intake (−3.6% vs. −26.4%; p=0.04). Change in fruit intake before and after the intervention did not significantly differ between LAS and control subjects. Conclusions LA Sprouts was effective in reducing obesity and metabolic risk. PMID:25960146

  2. Atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus isolated from peanuts collected from northern Philippines as potential biocon agents against pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination of peanut and corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin contamination of food products causes liver cancer and weakened immunity in humans, and stunted growth and reduced productivity in animals (CAST, 2003). Effective control of pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination of peanut and corn due to AflaGuard and Aflasafe in the United States and Africa...

  3. Regulating irrigation during pre-harvest to avoid the incidence of translucent flesh disorder and gamboge disorder of mangosteen fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawee Chiarawipa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In humid tropical areas, excess water during pre-harvest usually causes the occurrence of translucent flesh disorder (TFD and gamboge disorder (GD in mangosteen. To evaluate options for avoiding these incidences, an experiment was conducted with different water management regimes during pre-harvest. Twelve 14-year-old trees were grown under transparent plastic cover with three irrigation regimes: 1 Control (rainfed condition, 2 7-d interval watering, 3 4-d interval watering and 4 daily watering. A further four trees were arranged as the control (rainfed treatment, but these were grown without the plastic roof cover. The treatments were started at 9 weeks after bloom. The results showed that diurnal changes of leaf water potential and stomatal conductance were lowest in the control, because intermittent drying occurred during the study period. The highest fruit diameter, fruit weight, flesh firmness and flesh and rind water contents were found in the daily watering treatment. However, all of these values were lowest in the control trees. The amount of TFD was also lowest in the control (3.7%, and it was significantly different from the treatment where trees were watered at 4-d intervals (18.0% and where trees were watered daily (28.9%. There was no significant difference of TFD between the control and the 7-d interval watering treatments. In contrast, GD was not significantly different among the treatments. It is suggested that the risk of TFD and GD incidence could be avoided by maintaining mild soil water deficit around -70 kPa during pre-harvest.

  4. Changes in Biochemical Composition of Mango in Response to Pre-Harvest Gibberellic Acid Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Wasim Siddiqui

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L. is an important fruit of the world owing to its pleasant aroma and taste. In this investigation, the influence of gibberellic acid (GA3 at concentrations of 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg∙l-1 water sprayed 20 days before commercial harvest on postharvest behavior and quality of mango cv. ‘Himsagar’ was studied under ambient storage conditions. GA3 (100 and 150 mg∙l-1 delayed the onset of ripening and caused a reduction in respiration rate as compared to the untreated fruits and retained the total chlorophyll content of fruit peel. Pre-harvest spray of GA3 at 100 mg∙l-1 significantly delayed the onset of the climacteric rise of CO2 production, which depicted delayed ripening over control. The treated fruits also remained firmer and maintained the freshness during storage. Treatment with 100 mg∙l-1 GA3 could be a useful method to extend postharvest life and availability of mango with appreciable quality.

  5. Changes in Biochemical Composition of Mango in Response to Pre-Harvest Gibberellic Acid Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Wasim Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L. is an important fruit of the world owing to its pleasant aroma and taste. In this investigation, the influence of gibberellic acid (GA3 at concentrations of 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg∙l-1 water sprayed 20 days before commercial harvest on postharvest behavior and quality of mango cv. ‘Himsagar’ was studied under ambient storage conditions. GA3 (100 and 150 mg∙l-1 delayed the onset of ripening and caused a reduction in respiration rate as compared to the untreated fruits and retained the total chlorophyll content of fruit peel. Pre-harvest spray of GA3 at 100 mg∙l-1 significantly delayed the onset of the climacteric rise of CO2 production, which depicted delayed ripening over control. The treated fruits also remained firmer and maintained the freshness during storage. Treatment with 100 mg∙l-1 GA3 could be a useful method to extend postharvest life and availability of mango with appreciable quality.

  6. The evidentiary value of challenge trials for three pre-harvest food safety topics: a systematic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisener, L V; Sargeant, J M; O'Connor, A M; Faires, M C; Glass-Kaastra, S K

    2014-11-01

    Reducing zoonotic pathogens in food animals prior to harvest will reduce the pathogen burden that enters the food chain and the environment. Consequently, the burden of enteric illness in humans may be reduced. Evaluating interventions to reduce a pathogen in animals often begins with challenge trials, in which animals are deliberately exposed to the pathogen under controlled conditions. Challenge trials are subsequently followed by field trials, also known as randomized controlled trials, in which the animals are naturally exposed to the pathogen. Challenge trials can most effectively inform field trials only if they precede field trials, are robust, internally valid and transparently reported. Using systematic review and meta-analysis methodology, we examined the pre-harvest food safety literature for three intervention-pathogen-species combinations: probiotics/competitive exclusion products in ruminants to reduce Escherichia coli O157 shedding, vaccines in ruminants to reduce E. coli O157 shedding and vaccines in swine to reduce Salmonella shedding. We examined two outcomes, prevalence of faecal shedding at the end of the trial and prevalence of faecal shedding throughout the trial period, to compare challenge trials and field trials. We found that challenge trials occurred concurrently with field trials, challenge trials suffered from reporting deficiencies of methodological features, challenge trials tended to report a more favourable outcome than field trials, and there was some evidence of publication bias among all three intervention-pathogen-species combinations. Challenge trials would better serve to inform field trials if they precede field trials, are methodologically sound, include transparent reporting and are published regardless of their results. In addition, due to our findings of greater efficacy reported among challenge trials compared with field trials, risk models predicting the public health benefits of pre-harvest interventions to reduce

  7. Pre-Harvest Sugarcane Burning: Determination of Emission Factors through Laboratory Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Andrade Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop for the Brazilian economy and roughly 50% of its production is used to produce ethanol. However, the common practice of pre-harvest burning of sugarcane straw emits particulate material, greenhouse gases, and tropospheric ozone precursors to the atmosphere. Even with policies to eliminate the practice of pre-harvest sugarcane burning in the near future, there is still significant environmental damage. Thus, the generation of reliable inventories of emissions due to this activity is crucial in order to assess their environmental impact. Nevertheless, the official Brazilian emissions inventory does not presently include the contribution from pre-harvest sugarcane burning. In this context, this work aims to determine sugarcane straw burning emission factors for some trace gases and particulate material smaller than 2.5 μm in the laboratory. Excess mixing ratios for CO2, CO, NOX, UHC (unburned hydrocarbons, and PM2.5 were measured, allowing the estimation of their respective emission factors. Average estimated values for emission factors (g kg−1 of burned dry biomass were 1,303 ± 218 for CO2, 65 ± 14 for CO, 1.5 ± 0.4 for NOX, 16 ± 6 for UHC, and 2.6 ± 1.6 for PM2.5. These emission factors can be used to generate more realistic emission inventories and therefore improve the results of air quality models.

  8. Improvement on light penetrability and microalgae biomass production by periodically pre-harvesting Chlorella vulgaris cells with culture medium recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun; Sun, Yahui; Liao, Qiang; Fu, Qian; Xia, Ao; Zhu, Xun

    2016-09-01

    To improve light penetrability and biomass production in batch cultivation, a cultivation mode that periodically pre-harvesting partial microalgae cells from suspension with culture medium recycling was proposed. By daily pre-harvesting 30% microalgae cells from the suspension, the average light intensity in the photobioreactor (PBR) was enhanced by 27.05-122.06%, resulting in a 46.48% increase in total biomass production than that cultivated in batch cultivation without pre-harvesting under an incident light intensity of 160μmolm(-2)s(-1). Compared with the semi-continuous cultivation with 30% microalgae suspension daily replaced with equivalent volume of fresh medium, nutrients and water input was reduced by 60% in the proposed cultivation mode but with slightly decrease (12.82%) in biomass production. No additional nutrient was replenished when culture medium recycling. Furthermore, higher pre-harvesting ratios (40%, 60%) and lower pre-harvesting frequencies (every 2, 2.5days) were not advantageous for the pre-harvesting cultivation mode. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biopreservation in modified atmosphere stored mungbean sprouts: the use of vegetable-associated bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria to control the growth of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennik, M H; van Overbeek, W; Smid, E J; Gorris, L G

    1999-03-01

    Two bacteriocinogenic strains of Pediococcus parvulus and one bacteriocinogenic Enterococcus mundtii strain were evaluated for their potential to control the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on refrigerated, modified atmosphere (MA) stored mungbean sprouts. These three strains, which were isolated from minimally-processed vegetables, were shown to grow in culture broth at 4, 8, 15 and 30 degrees C. However, only Ent. mundtii was capable of bacteriocin production at 4-8 degrees C. Examination of the growth of these strains on agar under 1.5% O2 in combination with 0, 5, 20 or 50% CO2 revealed significantly higher maximum specific growth rates for Ent. mundtii than for Pediococcus parvulus at CO2 concentrations below 20%, which are relevant for MA-storage of vegetables. Enterococcus mundtii was subsequently evaluated for its ability to control the growth of L. monocytogenes on vegetable agar and fresh mungbean sprouts under 1.5% O2/20% CO2/78.5% N2 at 8 degrees C. The growth of L. monocytogenes was inhibited by bacteriocinogenic Ent. mundtii on sterile vegetable-medium but not on fresh produce. However, mundticin, the bacteriocin produced by Ent. mundtii, was found to have potential as a biopreservative agent for MA-stored mungbean sprouts when used in a washing step or a coating procedure.

  10. Completeness of reporting in abstracts from clinical trials of pre-harvest interventions against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedeker, Kate G; Canning, Paisley; Totton, Sarah C; Sargeant, Jan M

    2012-04-01

    Abstracts are the most commonly read part of a journal article, and play an important role as summaries of the articles, and search and screening tools. However, research on abstracts in human biomedicine has shown that abstracts often do not report key methodological features and results. Little research has been done to examine reporting of such features in abstracts from papers detailing pre-harvest food safety trials. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the quality of reporting of key factors in abstracts detailing trials of pre-harvest food safety interventions. A systematic search algorithm was used to identify all in vivo trials of pre-harvest interventions against foodborne pathogens in PubMed and CAB Direct published from 1999 to October 2009. References were screened for relevance, and 150 were randomly chosen for inclusion in the study. A checklist based on the CONSORT abstract extension and the REFLECT Statement was used to assess the reporting of methodological features and results. All screening and assessment was performed by two independent reviewers with disagreements resolved by consensus. The systematic search returned 3554 unique citations; 356 were found to be relevant and 150 were randomly selected for inclusion. The abstracts were from 51 different journals, and 13 out of 150 were structured. Of the 124 abstracts that reported whether the trial design was deliberate disease challenge or natural exposure, 113 were deliberate challenge and 11 natural exposure. 103 abstracts detailed studies involving poultry, 20 cattle and 15 swine. Most abstracts reported the production stage of the animals (135/150), a hypothesis or objective (123/150), and results for all treatment groups (136/150). However, few abstracts reported on how animals were grouped in housing (25/150), the location of the study (5/150), the primary outcome (2/126), level of treatment allocation (15/150), sample size (63/150) or whether study units were lost to follow up

  11. Brassinosteroids, gibberellins and light-mediated signalling are the three-way controls of plant sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaillais, Yvon; Vert, Grégory

    2012-08-01

    The steroid hormones found in plants, the brassinosteroids, were originally genetically identified about 15 years ago as critical regulators of seedling photomorphogenesis. Two studies now shed light on the molecular mechanisms behind this observation. Brassinosteroids control seedling morphogenesis through direct interaction with master transcriptional regulators downstream of growth-promoting hormones and light signalling.

  12. Unusual decline of tanoak sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Detlev R. Vogler; Dennis Mayhew

    1988-01-01

    Comparisons between abnormal and normal sprout clumps of tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus [Hook. & Am.] Rehd.) in northern California indicated that sprouts in abnormal clumps had about five times the number of sprouts per dump, were three times as wide, and only one-fifth as tall. Stunted and chlorotic sprouts were examined for virus and disease...

  13. Ethephon As a Potential Abscission Agent for Table Grapes: Effects on Pre-Harvest Abscission, Fruit Quality, and Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Giuseppe; Mazzeo, Andrea; Matarrese, Angela M. S.; Pacucci, Carmela; Trani, Antonio; Fidelibus, Matthew W.; Gambacorta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Some plant growth regulators, including ethephon, can stimulate abscission of mature grape berries. The stimulation of grape berry abscission reduces fruit detachment force (FDF) and promotes the development of a dry stem scar, both of which could facilitate the production of high quality stemless fresh-cut table grapes. The objective of this research was to determine how two potential abscission treatments, 1445 and 2890 mg/L ethephon, affected FDF, pre-harvest abscission, fruit quality, and ethephon residue of Thompson Seedless and Crimson Seedless grapes. Both ethephon treatments strongly induced abscission of Thompson Seedless berries causing >90% pre-harvest abscission. Lower ethephon rates, a shorter post-harvest interval, or berry retention systems such as nets, would be needed to prevent excessive pre-harvest losses. The treatments also slightly affected Thompson Seedless berry skin color, with treated fruit being darker, less uniform in color, and with a more yellow hue than non-treated fruit. Ethephon residues on Thompson Seedless grapes treated with the lower concentration of ethephon were below legal limits at harvest. Ethephon treatments also promoted abscission of Crimson Seedless berries, but pre-harvest abscission was much lower (≅49%) in Crimson Seedless compared to Thompson Seedless. Treated fruits were slightly darker than non-treated fruits, but ethephon did not affect SSC, acidity, or firmness of Crimson Seedless, and ethephon residues were below legal limits. PMID:27303407

  14. Evaluation of maize inbred lines for resistance to pre-harvest aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two important mycotoxins, aflatoxin and fumonisin, are among the most potent naturally occurring carcinogens, contaminating maize (Zea mays L.) and affecting the crop yield and quality. Resistance of maize to pre-harvest mycotoxin contamination, specifically aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus ...

  15. Influence of pre-harvest calcium, potassium and triazole application on the proteome of apple at harvest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buts, Kim; Hertog, M.L.A.T.M.; Ho, Quang Tri; America, A.H.P.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; Vercammen, J.; Carpentier, S.C.; Nicolaï, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Braeburn browning disorder is a storage disease characterised by flesh browning and lens-shaped cavities. The incidence of this postharvest diorder is known to be affected by pre-harvest application of fertilisers and triazole-based fungicides. Recent work has shown that calcium and potassium reduce

  16. Forging New Cocoa Keys: The Impact of Unlocking the Cocoa Bean’s Genome on Pre-harvest Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forging New Cocoa Keys: The Impact of Unlocking the Cocoa Bean’s Genome on Pre-harvest Food Safety David N. Kuhn, USDA ARS SHRS, Miami FL Sometimes it's hard to see the value and application of genomics to real world problems. How will sequencing the cacao genome affect West African farmers? Thi...

  17. Qualidade de bulbos de cebola em consequência de tratamentos pré-colheita Onion bulb quality due to pre-harvest treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos David Ferreira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se avaliar o efeito de tratamentos pré-colheita na qualidade de bulbos de cebola, através dos parâmetros perda de peso, espessura e coloração da casca, diâmetro e firmeza do bulbo, foi conduzido experimento em Paulínia, Estado de São Paulo, em 1997. Foram utilizados quatro tratamentos: testemunha; oxicloreto de cobre (250 g 100 L-1 de água; ácido bórico (250 g 100 L-1 de água; e a combinação dos dois últimos e seis cultivares: Serrana, Régia, Crioula e três híbridos da SVS, HT, HS-1 e HS-2. Os tratamentos foram aplicados durante a bulbificação. Os bulbos foram armazenados à temperatura ambiente (25ºC e analisados periodicamente para os parâmetros citados. Os resultados permitiram observar que a aplicação pré-colheita do oxicloreto de cobre, nas quatro últimas semanas do ciclo, aumentou significativamente a resistência da casca dos bulbos, reduziu a perda de peso e incrementou a coloração dos mesmos, para todas as cultivares. Cultivares com casca mais escura apresentaram melhor resposta aos tratamentos pré-colheita para a coloração, do que as de casca mais clara. A firmeza dos bulbos, não foi influenciada pelos tratamentos pré-colheita.Pre-harvest treatments were evaluated to enhance onion bulb quality in different onion cultivars adapted to tropical conditions. Parameters used were weight loss, skin color and thickness, bulb and firmness. Trials were carried out in 1997. Four treatments were used: control, copper oxicloride (250 g 100 L-1; boric acid (250 g 100 L-1, and a combination of the two chemical treatments (250 g 100 L-1 of each. Treatments were applied at bulbing stage. The six cultivars were Serrana, Régia, Crioula, and the hybrids HT, HS-1 and HS-2. Bulbs were stored at room temperature prior to evaluations. Results showed that copper oxicloride (250 g 100 L-1 induced an increase in skin thickness, decreased weight loss and enhanced color in cultivars. Dark skin cultivars had a

  18. 黑龙江省抱子甘蓝常见病害的发生与防治%Occurrence and Control of Brussels sprouts Common Diseases in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘天红

    2015-01-01

    介绍抱子甘蓝常见病害的发生特点及防治方法,包括菌核病、霜霉病、软腐病、黑腐病,以为抱子甘蓝病害的防治提供参考.%Feature and control methods of Brussels sprouts common diseases were introduced which included sclerotinia,downy mildew,soft rot disease,black rot disease,in order to provide references for Brussels sprouts disease prevention and control.

  19. Endogenous hormonal status in Pummelo fruitlets cultivar Thong Dee: relationship with pre-harvest fruit drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongnart Nartvaranant

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between endogenous hormonal status with pre-harvest fruit drop in pummelo fruitlets cultivar Thong Dee was studied during January 2013-August 2013. The results indicated that the concentration of IAA in normal and dropped fruitlets tended to decrease gradually during fruit development and the concentration of GA3 in normal and dropped fruitlets increased continually throughout the study. However, the concentration of ABA in normal and dropped fruitlets decreased during fruit development. The concentration of IAA and GA3 in normal fruitlets were significantly higher than those in dropped fruitlets during fruit development, whereas the concentration of ABA in normal fruitlets were significantly lower than that in dropped fruitlets. Consideration of plant growth promoters (IAA and GA3 and plant growth inhibitor (ABA ratio showed that IAA/ABA ratio in normal fruitlets at 6 week, 8 week and 10 week after fruit set were 7.54, 7.99 and 9.42, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in dropped fruitlets (1.81, 3.21 and 3.77, respectively. GA3 /ABA ratio in normal fruitlets at 6 week, 8 week and 10 week after fruit set were 4.54, 5.64 and 25.26 respectively which were significantly higher than those in dropped fruitlets (0.65, 3.10 and 6.71, respectively. Moreover, peel and pulp of normal fruitlets had significantly higher IAA concentration (2.63 and 3.85 mgL-1 than dropped fruitlets (2.07 and 1.45 mgL-1. Peel and pulp of normal fruitlets had also significantly higher GA3 concentration (2.52 and 4.20 mgL-1, whereas peel of normal fruitlets had significantly lower ABA concentration (0.39 mgL-1 than dropped fruitlets (5.28 mgL-1 but ABA concentration in pulp could not be detected either in normal or in dropped fruitlets. For the IAA/ABA and GA3 /ABA ratio measurement, it was found that the peel of normal fruitlets had significantly higher IAA/ABA ratio (6.74 than dropped fruitlets (0.39, whereas the peel of normal fruitlets had

  20. Ethephon as a potential abscission agent for table grapes: effects on pre-harvest abscission, fruit quality and residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eFerrara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Some plant growth regulators, including ethephon, can stimulate abscission of mature grape berries. The stimulation of grape berry abscission reduces fruit detachment force (FDF and promotes the development of a dry stem scar, both of which could facilitate the production of high quality stemless fresh-cut table grapes. The objective of this research was to determine how two potential abscission treatments, 1445 and 2890 mg/L ethephon, affected FDF, pre-harvest abscission, fruit quality, and ethephon residue of Thompson Seedless and Crimson Seedless grapes. Both ethephon treatments strongly induced abscission of Thompson Seedless berries causing >90% pre-harvest abscission. Lower ethephon rates, a shorter post-harvest interval, or berry retention systems such as nets, would be needed to prevent excessive pre-harvest losses. The treatments also slightly affected Thompson Seedless berry skin color, with treated fruit being darker, less uniform in color and with a more yellow hue than non-treated fruit. Ethephon residues on Thompson Seedless grapes treated with the lower concentration of ethephon were below legal limits at harvest. Ethephon treatments also promoted abscission of Crimson Seedless berries, but dropper-harvest abscission was much lower (49% in Crimson Seedless compared to Thompson Seedless. Treated fruit were slightly darker than non-treated fruit, but ethephon did not affect SSC, acidity, or firmness of Crimson Seedless, and ethephon residues were below legal limits.

  1. Role of gibberellins in 1,8-Cineole mediated sprout inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    At harvest and for an indeterminate period thereafter, potato tubers are dormant and will not sprout. Tuber dormancy is lost during postharvest storage and the subsequent sprouting results in the loss of tuber processing and nutritional qualities. Therefore, control of tuber sprouting is an essent...

  2. Field studies on the regulation of abscisic acid content and germinability during grain development of barley: molecular and chemical analysis of pre-harvest sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Makiko; Honda, Ichiro; Shinoda, Shoko; Kushiro, Tetsuo; Kamiya, Yuji; Nambara, Eiji; Kawakami, Naoto; Kaneko, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    To investigate whether the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) content was related to germinability during grain development, two cDNAs for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (HvNCED1 and HvNCED2) and one cDNA for ABA 8'-hydroxylase (HvCYP707A1), which are enzymes thought to catalyse key regulatory steps in ABA biosynthesis and catabolism, respectively, were cloned from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Expression and ABA-quantification analysis in embryo revealed that HvNCED2 is responsible for a significant increase in ABA levels during the early to middle stages of grain development, and HvCYP707A1 is responsible for a rapid decrease in ABA level thereafter. The change in the embryonic ABA content of imbibing grains following dormancy release is likely to reflect changes in the expression patterns of HvNCEDs and HvCYP707A1. A major change between dormant and after-ripened grains occurred in HvCYP707A1; the increased expression of HvCYP707A1 in response to imbibition, followed by a rapid ABA decrease and a high germination percentage, was observed in the after-ripened grains, but not in the dormant grains. Under field conditions, HvNCED2 showed the same expression level and pattern during grain development in 2002, 2003, and 2004, indicating that HvNCED2 expression is regulated in a growth-dependent manner in the grains. By contrast, HvNCED1 and HvCYP707A1 showed a different expression pattern in each year, indicating that the expression of these genes is affected by environmental conditions during grain development. The varied expression levels of these genes during grain development and imbibition, which would have effects on the activity of ABA biosynthesis and catabolism, might be reflected, in part, in the germinability in field-grown barley.

  3. Flavonoid analysis of buckwheat sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Tae-Gyu; Lee, Sun Mi; Park, Ji-Hae; Kim, Dae-Ok; Baek, Nam-in; Eom, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    It is known that common buckwheat sprouts contain several flavonoids, including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, rutin, and quercetrin, whereas tartary buckwheat sprouts contain only rutin. In this study, we evaluated flavonoids present in buckwheat sprouts and identified a previously unreported flavonoid. Simultaneous detection by HPLC was used to separate rutin and a compound that was not separated in previous studies. We used a novel HPLC elution gradient method to successfully separate rutin and the previously unidentified compound, for which we performed structural analysis. The identification of six flavonoids by HPLC was confirmed using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The newly identified compound, [M+H](+) =611.17, was identified by NMR as the rutin epimer quercetin-3-O-robinobioside. Unlike common buckwheat sprout, tartary buckwheat sprout contained rutin as a main flavonoid, whereas other flavonoids appeared only in trace amounts or were not detected. Quercetin-3-O-robinobioside was not detected in tartary buckwheat sprout.

  4. Application of plant growth regulators at pre-harvest for fruit development of 'PÊRA' oranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isolina Maria Leite de Almeida

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of auxins and gibberellins when applied at pre-harvest to the fruit development, and to the ripening and natural fall of the fruit, in 'Pêra' oranges. Trees of Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Pêra, 5 years old, were utilized. The treatments applied were: GA3 + 2,4-D 12.5mg L-1 of each; GA3 + 2,4-D 25mg L-1 ; GA3 + 2,4-D 37.5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 12.5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 25mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 37.5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D 12.5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D 25mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D 37.5mg L-1; and water (control. The treatments were applied 3 times, at intervals of 45 days. The variables evaluated were: rate of natural fall (%, fruit length and diameter (mm, and fresh fruit weight (g. None of the treatments promoved alterations in the development of the fruits, but they did reduce the natural fall rate, when compared to control, up to 78.05%, inhibiting the fruits' abscision as much as 3 months.O trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos de auxinas e giberelinas, combinados e aplicados em pré-colheita no desenvolvimento e na taxa de queda natural de frutos de laranjeira 'Pêra'. Foram utilizadas árvores de laranjeira (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivar Pêra com 5 anos de idade. Os tratamentos foram: GA3 + 2,4-D 12,5mg L-1 de cada; GA3 + 2,4-D 25mg L-1; GA3 + 2,4-D 37,5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 12,5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 25mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 37,5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D 12,5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D 25mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D 37,5mg L-1 e testemunha (água. Durante todo o período experimental foram realizadas três aplicações a intervalos de 45 dias. As variáveis avaliadas foram: Taxa de queda natural dos frutos (%, comprimento (mm, diâmetro (mm e massa fresca dos frutos (g. Nenhum dos tratamentos proporcionaram alterações no desenvolvimento final dos frutos, mas reduziram a taxa de queda natural em comparação com a testemunha em até 78,05%, inibindo a abscisão dos frutos em até três meses.

  5. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  6. Physiological changes in pre-harvest dropped fruits in the pummelo cultivars ‘Thong Dee’ and ‘Khao Nam Phueng’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongnart Nartvaranant

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This investigation of physiological changes in pummelo pre-harvest dropped fruit, termed “yellow fruit calyx symptoms” in Thailand, aimed to examine in two particular cultivars Thong Dee and Khao Nam Phueng grown in the central regionof Thailand. The results show that the normal pummelo fruits of either variety had statistically more total non-structuralcarbohydrate (TNC in their peel and pulp than did those of the dropped fruits. On the other hand, the leaves of normal fruittrees of both cultivars show less TNC than those found in the leaves of pre-harvest dropped fruit trees. There were significantdifferences in some plant nutrients in the leaves, peel and pulp of the dropped and normal pummelo cultivars. IAA concentration in fruit was determined with the result that normal fruits had a statistically higher IAA concentration than did those inpre-harvest dropped fruits. The PCR technique used for the greening disease test identified infections in leaves taken fromthe pre-harvest dropped fruit trees but none in leaves from the normal fruit trees. There were no differences in soil chemicalproperties between soil samples taken from the normal and pre-harvest dropped fruit trees. It seems likely that greeningdisease is the cause of ‘yellow fruit calyx symptom’ in Thailand and is the resulting from low TNC concentrations, low plantnutrients and low IAA concentrations in the pre-harvest dropped fruits in the pummelo cultivars.

  7. The effects of pre-harvest napthalene acetic acid and aminoethoxyvinylglycine treatments on storage performance of ‘ Ak Sakı’ apple cultivar grown in Erzincan conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan OZTÜRK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of pre-harvest aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, 150, 225 ve 300 mg/L and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 20 mg/L treatments in different doses on storage performance of ‘Ak Sakı’ apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. in 2012. The changes on some fruit quality parameters were measured at 2±1 oC temperature and with 90±5 % relative humidity at 45 days interval during storage. The lowest weight loss was obtained from 300 mg/L AVG treated fruits during the storage. In the all analysis date, the highest L* value was obtained from 300 mg/L AVG treated fruits, and the lowest hue angle value was reported from the fruits of control treatment. The flesh firmness was determined that the best kept in the 225 and 300 mg/L AVG treated fruits during the storage. The flesh firmness significantly reduced with NAA treatment at the end of storage. The highest soluble solids concentration (SSC was obtain from control fruit during the storage, whereas the lowest SSC was observed in fruit treated with 300 mg/L AVG. In the all analysis date, the highest titratable acidity was obtained in fruits treated with 225 and 300 mg/L AVG. The starch degradation was delayed with AVG treatments.

  8. Some Results on Sprout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep

    2015-01-01

    Sprout is a lightweight stream cipher proposed by Armknecht and Mikhalev at FSE 2015. It has a Grain-like structure with two state Registers of size 40 bits each, which is exactly half the state size of Grain v1. In spite of this, the cipher does not appear to lose in security against generic Time...... a simple key recovery attack that takes time equivalent to 266.7 encryptions with negligible memory requirement. This although is not the best attack reported against this cipher in termncryptions with negligible memory requirement. This although is not the best attack reported against this cipher in terms...

  9. Regulation of Blood Vessel Sprouting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, John C; Wiley, David M; Bautch, Victoria L

    2012-01-01

    Blood vessels are essential conduits of nutrients and oxygen throughout the body. The formation of these vessels involves angiogenic sprouting, a complex process entailing highly integrated cell behaviors and signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss how endothelial cells initiate a vessel sprout through interactions with their environment and with one another, particularly through lateral inhibition. We review the composition of the local environment, which contains an initial set of guidance cues to facilitate the proper outward migration of the sprout as it emerges from a parent vessel. The long-range guidance and sprout stability cues provided by soluble molecules, extracellular matrix components, and interactions with other cell types are also discussed. We also examine emerging evidence for mechanisms that govern sprout fusion with its target and lumen formation. PMID:22020130

  10. Pre-harvest assessment of perennial weeds in cereals based on images from unmanned aerial systems (UAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egilsson, Jon; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2015-01-01

    vision techniques to assess pre-harvest weed infestations in cereals based on true color (RGB) images from consumer graded cameras mounted on UAS. The objective is to develop a fully automatic algorithm in an open programming language, Python, to discriminate and quantify weed infestations in cereals...... before harvest. Results are compared with an in-house image analysis procedure developed in the commercial eCognition Developer software. The importance of flight altitude and robustness across fields are emphasised. Image acquisition took place during the summer of 2013 and 2014 in a number of fields...... was not competitive with results achieved with eCognition, which provided accuracies in the range of 86% to 92%. Flight altitude and image resolution (3 to 15 mm/pixel) were not important for the accuracy and ortho-mosaicking had no clear impact. Models including texture-based methods were not fully evaluated because...

  11. Pre-harvest application of oxalic acid increases quality and resistance to Penicillium expansum in kiwifruit during postharvest storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuyan; Yu, Jie; Brecht, Jeffrey K; Jiang, Tianjia; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Bruno) fruits were sprayed with 5mM oxalic acid (OA) at 130, 137, and 144 days after full blossom, and then harvested at commercial maturity [soluble solid content (SSC) around 10.0%] and stored at room temperature (20 ± 1 °C). Pre-harvest application of OA led to fruit with higher ascorbic acid content at harvest, slowed the decreases in fruit firmness and ascorbic acid content and increase in SSC during storage, and also decreased the natural disease incidence, lesion diameter, and patulin accumulation in fruit inoculated with Penicillium expansum, indicating that the OA treatment increased quality and induced disease resistance in kiwifruit. It was suggested that the increase in activities of defense-related enzymes and in levels of substances related to disease resistance might collectively contribute to resistance in kiwifruit against fungi such as P. expansum in storage.

  12. Pre-harvest UV-C irradiation triggers VOCs accumulation with alteration of antioxidant enzymes and phytohormones in strawberry leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanqun; Luo, Zisheng; Charles, Marie Thérèse; Rolland, Daniel; Roussel, Dominique

    2017-09-08

    Recent studies have highlighted the biological and physiological effects of pre-harvest ultraviolet (UV)-C treatment on growing plants. However, little is known about the involvement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their response to this treatment. In this study, strawberry plants were exposed to three different doses of UV-C radiation for seven weeks (a low dose: 9.6kJm(-2); a medium dose: 15kJm(-2); and a high-dose: 29.4kJm(-2)). Changes in VOC profiles were investigated and an attempt was made to identify factors that may be involved in the regulation of these alterations. Principle compounds analysis revealed that VOC profiles of UV-C treated samples were significantly altered with 26 VOCs being the major contributors to segregation. Among them, 18 fatty acid-derived VOCs accumulated in plants that received high and medium dose of UV-C treatments with higher lipoxygenase and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. In treated samples, the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and peroxidase was inhibited, resulting in a reduced antioxidant capacity and higher lipid peroxidation. Simultaneously, jasmonic acid level was 74% higher in the high-dose group while abscisic acid content was more than 12% lower in both the medium and high-dose UV-C treated samples. These results indicated that pre-harvest UV-C treatment stimulated the biosynthesis of fatty acid-derived VOCs in strawberry leaf tissue by upregulating the activity of enzymes of the LOX biosynthetic pathway and downregulating antioxidant enzyme activities. It is further suggested that the mechanisms underlying fatty acid-derived VOCs biosynthesis in UV-C treated strawberry leaves are associated with UV-C-induced changes in phytohormone profiles. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. RNA sequencing of contaminated seeds reveals the state of the seed permissive for pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination and points to a potential susceptibility factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination (PAC) is a major problem facing peanut production worldwide. Produced by the ubiquitous soil fungus, Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxin is the most potent naturally occurring known carcinogen. The interaction between fungus and host resulting in PAC is complex, and b...

  14. Investigation of environmental factors on the prevalence of free bacteriophages against Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains in produce pre-harvest environment in Salinas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigation of environmental factors on the prevalence of free bacteriophages against Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains in produce pre-harvest environment in Salinas, California Yen-Te Liaoa, Irwin Quintelab, Kimberly Nguyena, Alexandra Salvadora, Michael Cooleya, and Vivian C.H. Wu*a...

  15. Healthy food trends -- Brussels sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... belong to the cabbage family, which also includes kale, broccoli, collard greens, and cauliflower. In fact, Brussels ... Brussels sprouts rank high in antioxidants, just after kale and spinach. Antioxidants are substances that can help ...

  16. Effects of sulfur fertilization on the accumulation of health-promoting phytochemicals in radish sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenguang; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-08-07

    The effects of sulfur fertilization on the growth profile, the contents of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, vitamin C, carotenoids, chlorophylls, total phenolics, and the FRAP value in radish seeds and sprouts were investigated. The concentrations of glucosinolates and antioxidants in sprouts were strongly influenced by the process of germination. Sulfur fertilization induced significant increases in the contents of individual glucosinolates, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and total phenolics. The phenolic contents in sprouts cultivated using 20, 60, or 100 mg/L sulfate were 20.7%, 40.4%, and 40.8% higher, respectively, than those of 7-day-old control sprouts. No detectable effects were observed on the contents of 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin and vitamin C. In addition, the accumulation of anthocyanins in 7-day-old sprouts decreased by 14.8-39.3% upon sulfur fertilization. These findings indicated that the application of sulfur fertilization has the potential to enhance the levels of health-promoting compounds in radish sprouts.

  17. Mapping and Analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Seed Dormancy in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ling; ZHANG Wen-wei; ZHAI Hu-qu; WAN Jian-min

    2005-01-01

    Seed dormancy is one of the most important traits related to the rice grain quality and seeds application, because it is associated with pre-harvest sprouting, resulting in a downgrading of quality and severe limitations in end-use application.The recent development of DNA markers and linkage maps of rice has made possible mapping of individual genes associated with complex seed dormancy traits, analyzing the genetics effects of individual genes and genotype-byenvironment interactions. Up to now, numerous quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed dormancy in rice have been identified and mapped in the molecular genetic map by different populations. In this review, we focus on the genetic base of seed dormancy in rice, especially compare QTLs controlling seed dormancy reported up to now, analyze the expression and stability of QTLs controlling seed dormancy, and discuss the present problems. Finally we show a new pathway to further research on seed dormancy.

  18. Dissociation between mossy fiber sprouting and rapid kindling with low-frequency stimulation of the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, L L; Mohapel, P; Jenkins, E M; Hannesson, D K; Corcoran, M E

    1998-01-19

    In an attempt to determine whether sprouting of mossy fibers is invariably correlated with kindling of seizures, we subjected rats to rapid kindling with long trains of low-frequency stimulation of the amygdala that resulted in development of generalized seizures within a mean of five stimulations. For comparison, we subjected other rats to conventional kindling with short trains of high-frequency stimulation of the amygdala that resulted in development of generalized seizures within a mean of 13 stimulations. We found no evidence of mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus of rats killed one day after completion of rapid kindling, as compared to yoked controls, although significant sprouting was seen in rats killed one day after completion of conventional kindling. When we examined tissue from rats killed 20 days after rapid kindling, however, we did find significant sprouting, suggesting that mossy fiber sprouting can be triggered by rapid kindling if sufficient survival time is allowed. The observed disparity between completion of rapid low-frequency kindling and detection of mossy fiber sprouting suggests that mossy fiber sprouting may be associated more with sustained survival time after neuronal activation than with kindling per se. Furthermore, the similar time course of conventional kindling and of mossy fiber sprouting obscures the determination of a causal role of mossy fiber sprouting in conventional kindling.

  19. Effects of fruit pre-harvest bagging on fruit quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Jia, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Meng

    2006-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the effects of pre-harvest bagging on fruit ripening and quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu). Young fruits, at 50 days after full bloom (DAFB), were covered with bags made of single-, double-, and triple-layers of orange paper bag with 27.0%, 13.9% and 8.2% sunlight transmission, respectively. Ethylene production and respiration rate were measured, and fruit quality was analyzed at 111, 114, 117, 120 (firm-ripe stage) and 124 DAFB (full-ripe stage). Single- and triple-layer bagged fruits had higher ethylene production rates than double-layer bagged and un-bagged fruits. The skin of un-bagged fruit had higher brightness (L-value) but smaller hue angle (h degrees) at the full-ripe stage compared with that of bagged fruit. Flesh firmness of un-bagged fruit was higher than that of bagged fruit until the firm-ripe stage, although triple-layer bagged fruit had higher firmness than un-bagged fruit at the full-ripe stage. Total soluble solids in juice of single-layer bagged fruit were a little higher than those of other treated fruits at the full-ripe stage. Single-layer bagged fruit showed the highest level of gamma-decalactone, a main characteristic aroma of peach and total lactones at the firm-ripe and full-ripe stages. It was concluded that 'Hujingmilu' peach had high quality with abundant aromas when the fruits were bagged with single-layer orange paper bags at 50 DAFB. The biosynthesis of gamma-decalactone and other aromas may be affected by light to some extent.

  20. The effect of different concentrations of pre-harvest gibberellic acid on the quality and durability of ‘Obilnaja’ and ‘Black Star’ plum varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus HARMAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research work aimed at investigating the effect of pre-harvest gibberellic acid (GA3 treatment on the quality of ‘Obilnaja’ and ‘Black Star’ Japanese plum varieties. GA3 was sprayed onto the trees during the fruit color break at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm concentrations. After pre-cooling, the plums were placed in modified atmosphere packages and exposed to the following conditions as follows: short storage-transportation (ST [20 days at 2 °C and 90% relative humidity (RH]; distribution center (DC (5 days at 6 °C and 80% RH, and shelf life conditions (SL (2 days at 20 °C and 70% RH. Pre-harvest GA3 treatments increased the fruit weight and size. Treatment of GA3 at 50, 75, and 100 ppm increased the fruit flesh firmness and total soluble substances (TSS values in both the plum varieties during storage, transport, and marketing; it also limited the weight loss during the marketing process. Treatment of GA3 had no significant effects on the color, titratable acidity (TA, and the total phenolic and antioxidant activity values of plums. Pre-harvest GA3 treatment at 50 ppm GA3 can be thus recommended for both the plum varieties due to its effect on the fruit quality.

  1. Effect of pre-harvest application of gibberellic acid on the contents of pigments in cut leaves of Asarum europaeum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Pogroszewska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment determined the effect of gibberellic acid applied prior to harvest on the contents of plant pigments in cut leaves of wild ginger (Asarum europaeum L., cultivated in an unheated plastic tunnel and in the field. Foliar application of GA3 at a concentration of 100, 200, 400, 600 mg x dm-3 was repeated four times every two weeks. It has been proven that pre-harvest spraying of plants with gibberellic acid at a concentration of 100 mg x dm-3 has a positive effect on the content of photosynthetically active pigments in the leaves of A. europaeum cultivated in an unheated plastic tunnel. Application of GA3 at a concentration of 600 mg x dm-3 led to the accumulation of the greatest amount of anthocyanins in the leaves of Asarum europaeum cultivated both in the unheated plastic tunnel and in the field. The response of plants to GA3 application, expressed in the amount of flavonoids, depended on conditions related to the cultivation site. Pre-harvest treatment of A. europaeum plants with gibberellic acid at concentrations of 100-600 mg x dm-3 reduced the production of flavonoids in tunnel-grown wild ginger, but enhanced their accumulation in plants cultivated in the field. Pre-harvest application of gibberellic acid did not affect the fresh weight or dry mass content in plant material.

  2. Pre-harvest foliar application of humic acid, salicylic acid and calcium chloride to increase quantitative and qualitative traits of Lilium longiflorum cut flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Mortazavi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lily (Lilium longiflorum L. is one of the most important potted flowers, which is used largely as cut flower. An experiment, arranged as a factorial besed on completely randomized dasign with three replications, was carried out to evaluate the effects of pre-harvest foliar application of humic acid, salicylic acid and calcium chloride on quality and longevity of lilium cut flowers. Treatments  included humic acid as factor a (0, 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L and three salicylic acid concentrations (0, 150 and 200 mg/L and two calcium chloride concentrations (300 and 600 mg/L as factor b, which were sprayed at two stages before harvesting the flowers. Results showed that treating the plants with 500 mg/L humic acid increased water uptake and chlorophyll a content and decreased number of fallen florets. Application of 1000 mg/L humic acid increased total chlorophyll content. Pre-harvest treatment of flowers with 600 mg/L calcium chloride increased florets’ diameter, relative water content, chlorophyll b content and shelf life, as compared to other concentrations and different salicylic concentrations. In this research, the highest shelf life was observed for flowers sprayed with 1000 mg/L humic acid and 300 mg/L calcium chloride. Therefore, pre-harvest foliar application of humic acid, salicylic acid and calcium chloride could have positive effects on quantitative and qualitative traits of lilium cut flowers.

  3. Mint essential oil can induce or inhibit potato sprouting by differential alteration of apical meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Dudai, Nativ; Fischer, Ravit; Belausov, Eduard; Zemach, Hanita; Shoseyov, Oded; Eshel, Dani

    2010-06-01

    Sprouting of potatoes during storage, due to tuber dormancy release, is associated with weight loss and softening. Sprout-preventing chemicals, such as chlorpropham (CIPC), can negatively impact the environment and human health. Monthly thermal fogging with mint (Mentha spicata L.) essential oil (MEO) inhibited sprouting in eight potato cultivars during large-volume 6-month storage: the tubers remained firm with 38% lower weight loss after 140 days of storage. The sprout-inhibitory action may be nullified: treated tubers washed with water resumed sprouting within days, with reduced apical dominance. MEO application caused local necrosis of the bud meristem, and a few weeks later, axillary bud (AX) growth was induced in the same sprouting eye. MEO components analysis showed that 73% of its content is the monoterpene R-carvone. Tubers treated with synthetic R-carvone in equivalent dose, 4.5 microl l(-1), showed an inhibitory effect similar to that of MEO. Surprisingly, 0.5 microl l(-1) of MEO or synthetic R-carvone catalyzed AX sprouting in the tuber. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an essential oil vapor inducing early sprouting of potato tubers. R-carvone caused visible damage to the meristem membrane at sprout-inhibiting, but not sprout-inducing doses, suggesting different underlying mechanisms. After 5 days' exposure to R-carvone, its derivatives transcarveol and neo-dihydrocarveol were found in buds of tubers treated with the inhibitory dose, suggesting biodegradation. These experiments demonstrate the potential of MEO vapor as an environmentally friendly alternative to CIPC in stored potatoes and as a research tool for the control of sprouting in plants.

  4. Plant growth regulators on the pre-harvest period of 'Pêra' oranges Reguladores vegetais aplicados na fase pré-colheita de laranjeira "Pêra"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isolina Maria Leite de Almeida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the effects of auxins and gibberellins applied at pre-harvest on the quality of orange juice. Orange trees, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, cv. 'Pêra' were sprayed in three applications, at 45-day intervals, with the following treatments: GA3 + 2,4-D at 12.5mg L-1 each; GA3 + 2,4-D at 25mg L-1; GA3 + 2,4-D at 37.5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA at 12.5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA at 25mg L-1; GA3 + NAA at 37.5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D at 12.5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D at 25mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D at 37.5mg L-1, and a control. The treatments did not change juice quality, and showed no plant growth regulator residues 110 days after the last application in every case below 0.05mg L-1.Neste estudo, avaliou-se os efeitos de auxinas e giberelinas, combinados e aplicados em pré-colheita na qualidade interna de frutos de laranjeira "Pêra". Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivar Pêra foram pulverizadas com três aplicações, em intervalos de 45 dias, com os seguintes tratamentos: GA3 + 2,4-D a 12,5mg L-1 de cada; GA3 + 2,4-D 25mg L-1; GA3 + 2,4-D 37,5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 12,5mg L-1;GA3 + NAA 25mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 37,5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D 12,5mg L-1; NAA+2,4-D 25mg L-1; NAA+2,4-D 37,5mg L-1 e testemunha (água. Os resultados mostraram que os tratamentos não prejudicaram a qualidade interna dos frutos. Além disso, os níveis de resíduo de reguladores vegetais no suco, ficaram abaixo de 0,05mg L-1, 110 dias após a última aplicação.

  5. Growth and quality of soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) as affected by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Li, Weili; Jiang, Yuqian

    2013-01-01

    In this study, soybean seeds and sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) were exposed to radiation doses up to 3.0 kGy. The irradiated and non-irradiated seeds were germinated, and then germination rate, sprouts length, vitamin C content, antioxidants and visual and olfactory quality were determined after irradiation. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in the germination rate and sprouts length between the control and 0.3 kGy treated soybeans, however, the reductions in sprouts length of the 1.0 kGy and 3.0 kGy treated samples were quite significant with reductions of 20.4% and 58.8%, respectively. Irradiated sprouts had similar visual and olfactory quality as the non-irradiated one. Therefore, irradiation of seeds alone would have limited value in terms of commercial use due to reduced germination and length of sprouts. However, irradiation of sprouts at doses up to 3.0 kGy was feasible to enhance microbial safety of sprouts.

  6. Microbiological Safety and Food Handling Practices of Seed Sprout Products in the Australian State of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Sally; Goldsmith, Paul; Haines, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Seed sprouts have been implicated as vehicles for numerous foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Seed sprouts pose a unique food safety concern because of the ease of microbiological seed contamination, the inherent ability of the sprouting process to support microbial growth, and their consumption either raw or lightly cooked. To examine seed sprout safety in the Australian state of Victoria, a survey was conducted to detect specific microbes in seed sprout samples and to investigate food handling practices relating to seed sprouts. A total of 298 seed sprout samples were collected from across 33 local council areas. Escherichia coli was detected in 14.8%, Listeria spp. in 12.3%, and Listeria monocytogenes in 1.3% of samples analyzed. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the samples. A range of seed sprout handling practices were identified as potential food safety issues in some food businesses, including temperature control, washing practices, length of storage, and storage in proximity to unpackaged ready-to-eat potentially hazardous foods.

  7. An outbreak of Salmonella Newport associated with mung bean sprouts in Germany and the Netherlands, October to November 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, C; Bernard, H; Prager, R; Rabsch, W; Hiller, P; Malorny, B; Pfefferkorn, B; Frank, C; de Jong, A; Friesema, I; Stark, K; Rosner, Bm

    2014-01-09

    The largest Salmonella enterica serovar Newport outbreak (n=106) ever reported in Germany occurred in October and November 2011. Twenty associated cases were reported in the Netherlands. The outbreak investigation included an analytical epidemiological study, molecular typing of human and food isolates and food traceback investigations. Unspecified Salmonella had been detected in samples of mung bean sprouts at a sprout producer (producer A) in the Netherlands and mung bean sprouts contaminated with S. Newport had been found during routine sampling at a sprout distributor in Germany. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis of sprouts being the infection vehicle. In a case-control study, we compared 50 notified adult S. Newport cases with 45 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis cases regarding their food consumption in the three days before illness. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, only sprout consumption was significantly associated with S. Newport infection (odds ratio: 18.4; 95% confidence interval: 2.2-150.2). Molecular typing patterns of human isolates were indistinguishable from a mung bean sprouts isolate. Traceback of sprouts led to distributors and producer A in the Netherlands. Since sprouts are frequently contaminated with microorganisms, consumers need to be aware that consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked sprouts may pose a health risk.

  8. Delta Healthy Sprouts: Participants' Diet and Food Environment at Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local food environments influence the nutrition and health of area residents. This baseline analysis focuses on the food environments of women who participated in the Delta Healthy Sprouts project, a randomized, controlled, comparative trial designed to test the efficacy of two Maternal, Infant, an...

  9. Salmonella surveillance and control for finisher pigs and pork in Denmark — A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alban, L.; Baptista, F.M.; Møgelmose, V.

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella can either be controlled pre-harvest, post-harvest or by a combination of both approaches. This paper describes the lessons learned in Danish Salmonella surveillance and control programme for finisher pigs and pork. Initially, main focus was on pre-harvest initiatives and correct ident...

  10. Assessing the Public Health Impact and Effectiveness of Interventions To Prevent Salmonella Contamination of Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hongliu; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Sprouts have been a recurring public health challenge due to microbiological contamination, and Salmonella has been the major cause of sprout-associated outbreaks. Although seed treatment and microbiological testing have been applied as risk reduction measures during sprout production, the extent to which their effectiveness in reducing the public health risks associated with sprouts has not been well investigated. We conducted a quantitative risk assessment to measure the risk posed by Salmonella contamination in sprouts and to determine whether and how mitigation strategies can achieve a satisfactory risk reduction based on the assumption that the risk reduction achieved by a microbiological sampling and testing program at a given sensitivity is equivalent to that achieved by direct inactivation of pathogens. Our results indicated that if the sprouts were produced without any risk interventions, the health impact caused by sprouts contaminated with Salmonella would be very high, with a median annual estimated loss of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of 691,412. Seed treatment (with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite) or microbiological sampling and testing of spent irrigation water (SIW) alone could reduce the median annual impact to 734 or 4,856 DALYs, respectively. Combining seed treatment with testing of the SIW would further decrease the risk to 58 DALYs. This number could be dramatically lowered to 3.99 DALYs if sprouts were produced under conditions that included treating seeds with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite plus microbiological testing of seeds, SIW, and finished products. Our analysis shows that the public health impact due to Salmonella contamination in sprouts could be controlled if seeds are treated to reduce pathogens and microbiological sampling and testing is implemented. Future advances in intervention strategies would be important to improve sprout safety further.

  11. The effect of different concentrations of pre-harvest gibberellic acid on the quality and durability of ‘Obilnaja’ and ‘Black Star’ plum varieties

    OpenAIRE

    HARMAN,Yunus; Sen, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The research work aimed at investigating the effect of pre-harvest gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment on the quality of ‘Obilnaja’ and ‘Black Star’ Japanese plum varieties. GA3 was sprayed onto the trees during the fruit color break at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm concentrations. After pre-cooling, the plums were placed in modified atmosphere packages and exposed to the following conditions as follows: short storage-transportation (ST) [20 days at 2 °C and 90% rel...

  12. The effect of different concentrations of pre-harvest gibberellic acid on the quality and durability of ‘Obilnaja’ and ‘Black Star’ plum varieties

    OpenAIRE

    HARMAN,Yunus; Sen, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The research work aimed at investigating the effect of pre-harvest gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment on the quality of ‘Obilnaja’ and ‘Black Star’ Japanese plum varieties. GA3 was sprayed onto the trees during the fruit color break at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm concentrations. After pre-cooling, the plums were placed in modified atmosphere packages and exposed to the following conditions as follows: short storage-transportation (ST) [20 days at 2 °C and 90% relative humidity (RH)]; di...

  13. Pre-harvest foliar application of humic acid, salicylic acid and calcium chloride to increase quantitative and qualitative traits of Lilium longiflorum cut flowers

    OpenAIRE

    S.N. Mortazavi; Karimi, V.; M.H. Azimi

    2015-01-01

    Lily (Lilium longiflorum L.) is one of the most important potted flowers, which is used largely as cut flower. An experiment, arranged as a factorial besed on completely randomized dasign with three replications, was carried out to evaluate the effects of pre-harvest foliar application of humic acid, salicylic acid and calcium chloride on quality and longevity of lilium cut flowers. Treatments  included humic acid as factor a (0, 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L) and three salicylic acid concentrations...

  14. Effect of salinity stress on phenolic compounds and carotenoids in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong-Ho; Park, Kee-Jai; Kim, Bum-Keun; Jeong, Jin-Woong; Kim, Hyun-Jin

    2012-12-01

    The effect of salinity stress on the nutritional quality of buckwheat sprouts cultivated for 1, 3, 5, and 7d was investigated by analysis of the antioxidant activity and levels of phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Treatment with various concentrations of NaCl (10, 50, 100, and 200mM) resulted in an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds and carotenoids in the sprouts compared with the control (0mM). The phenolic contents of sprouts treated with 10, 50, and 100mM after 7d of cultivation were 57%, 121%, and 153%, respectively, higher than that of the control (0mM NaCl). Moreover, the accumulation of phenolic compounds was primarily caused by an increase in the levels of 4 compounds: isoorientin, orientin, rutin, and vitexin. The carotenoid content of sprouts treated with 50 and 100mM NaCl was twice higher than that of the control. In addition, the antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of the sprouts was increased by NaCl treatment. Although the growth rate of sprouts decreased with >50mM NaCl, these results suggest that treatment of an appropriate concentration of NaCl improves the nutritional quality of sprouts, including the level of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and antioxidant activity.

  15. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Sprouting Angiogenesis: Proteases Pave the Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenzana, A; Fibbi, G; Margheri, F; Biagioni, A; Luciani, C; Del Rosso, M; Chillà, A

    2015-01-01

    Sprouting angiogenesis consists of the expansion and remodelling of existing vessels, where the vascular sprouts connect each other to form new vascular loops. Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) are a subtype of stem cells, with high proliferative potential, able to differentiate into mature Endothelial Cells (ECs) during the neovascularization process. In addition to this direct structural role EPCs improve neovascularization, also secreting numerous pro-angiogenic factors able to enhance the proliferation, survival and function of mature ECs, and other surrounding progenitor cells. While sprouting angiogenesis by mature ECs involves resident ECs, the vasculogenic contribution of EPCs is a high hurdle race. Bone marrowmobilized EPCs have to detach from the stem cell niche, intravasate into bone marrow vessels, reach the hypoxic area or tumour site, extravasate and incorporate into the new vessel lumen, thus complementing the resident mature ECs in sprouting angiogenesis. The goal of this review is to highlight the role of the main protease systems able to control each of these steps. The pivotal protease systems here described, involved in vascular patterning in sprouting angiogenesis, are the matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), the serineproteinases urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) associated with its receptor (uPAR) and receptorassociated plasminogen/plasmin, the neutrophil elastase and the cathepsins. Since angiogenesis plays a critical role not only in physiological but also in pathological processes, such as in tumours, controlling the contribution of EPCs to the angiogenic process, through the regulation of the protease systems involved, could yield new opportunities for the therapeutic prospect of efficient control of pathological angiogenesis.

  16. Dissipation kinetics and pre-harvest residue limit of pyriofenone in oriental melon (Cucumis melo Var. makuwa) grown under regulated climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyung Suk; Kabir, Md Humayun; Abd El-Aty, A M; Lee, Han Sol; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Chang, Byung-Joon; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han

    2017-02-23

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection was used to estimate the disappearance rates as well as the pre-harvest residue limits of pyriofenone in oriental melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa) grown under greenhouse conditions in two different locations (A and B) in Seongju, Republic of Korea. The identity of the compound in standard solution and representative field incurred samples was confirmed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was validated in terms of linearity, limits of detection and quantification, accuracy (expressed as recovery) and precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) for accurate and precise quantitation. Notably, the residual levels of field incurred samples collected over days 0-10 post-application were below the maximum residue level (0.2 mg/kg) established by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Site A showed lower residue levels and a higher decline rate than site B, which might be attributed to seasonal variation (high temperature) and increased metabolic and enzyme profiling in the mature fruits. The half-lives were similar, 4.9 and 4.3 days, at sites A and B, respectively. Using the pre-harvest residue limit, we predicted the residue amounts at 10 and 5 days before harvest, which resulted in concentrations lower than the provisional maximum residue level at harvest time.

  17. Pre-harvest sugarcane burning emission inventories based on remote sensing data in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Daniela; Longo, Karla; Rudorff, Bernardo; Aguiar, Daniel; Freitas, Saulo; Stockler, Rafael; Pereira, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    The state of São Paulo is the largest sugarcane producer in Brazil, with a cultivated area of about 5.4 Mha in 2011. Approximately 2 Mha were harvested annually from 2006 to 2011 with the pre-harvest straw burning practice, which emits trace gases and particulate material to the atmosphere. The development of emission inventories for sugarcane straw burning is crucial in order to assess its environmental impacts. This study aimed to estimate annual emissions associated with the pre-harvest sugarcane burning practice in the state of São Paulo based on remote sensing maps and emission and combustion factors for sugarcane straw burning. Average estimated emissions (Gg/year) were 1130 ± 152 for CO, 26 ± 4 for NOx, 16 ± 2 for CH4, 45 ± 6 for PM2.5, 120 ± 16 for PM10 and 154 ± 21 for NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons). An intercomparison among annual emissions from this study and annual emissions from four other different approaches indicated that the estimates obtained by satellite fire detection or low spatial resolution approaches tend to underestimate sugarcane burned area, due to unique characteristics of this type of biomass fire. Overall, our results also indicated that government actions to reduce sugarcane straw burning emissions are becoming effective.

  18. Volatile organic compounds characterized from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec) berries increase at pre-harvest and in response to UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Mariana; Bottini, Rubén; Berli, Federico; Pontin, Mariela; Silva, María Fernanda; Piccoli, Patricia

    2013-12-01

    Ultraviolet-B solar radiation (UV-B) is an environmental signal with biological effects in plant tissues. Recent investigations have assigned a protective role of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in plant tissues submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses. This study investigated VOCs in berries at three developmental stages (veraison, pre-harvest and harvest) of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec exposed (or not) to UV-B both, in in vitro and field experiments. By Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-EIMS) analysis, 10 VOCs were identified at all developmental stages: four monoterpenes, three aldehydes, two alcohols and one ketone. Monoterpenes increased at pre-harvest and in response to UV-B in both, in vitro and field conditions. UV-B also augmented levels of some aldehydes, alcohols and ketones. These results along with others from the literature suggest that UV-B induce grape berries to produce VOCs (mainly monoterpenes) that protect the tissues from UV-B itself and other abiotic and biotic stresses, and could affect the wine flavor. Higher emission of monoterpenes was observed in the field experiments as compared in vitro, suggesting the UV-B/PAR ratio is not a signal in itself.

  19. Effect of NaCl treatments on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-fang GUO; Gao-feng YUAN; Qiao-mei WANG

    2013-01-01

    To understand the regulation mechanism of NaCl on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts,the germination rate,fresh weight,contents of glucosinolates and sulforaphane,as well as myrosinase activity of broccoli sprouts germinated under 0,20,40,60,80,and 100 mmol/L of NaCl were investigated in our experiment.The results showed that glucoerucin,glucobrassicin,and 4-hydroxy glucobrassicin in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts were significantly enhanced and the activity of myrosinase was inhibited by 100 mmol/L of NaCl.However,the total glucosinolate content in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts was markedly decreased although the fresh weight was significantly increased after treatment with NaCl at relatively low concentrations(20,40,and 60 mmol/L).NaCl treatment at the concentration of 60 mmol/L for 5 d maintained higher biomass and comparatively higher content of glucosinolates in sprouts of broccoli with decreased myrosinase activity.A relatively high level of NaCl treatment(100 mmol/L)significantly increased the content of sulforaphane in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts compared with the control.These results indicate that broccoli sprouts grown under a suitable concentration of NaCl could be desirable for human nutrition.

  20. Effects of Polysaccharide Elicitors from Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Fat9 on the Growth, Flavonoid Accumulation and Antioxidant Property of Fagopyrum tataricum Sprout Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Zhong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of four different fungal polysaccharides, named water-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (WPS, sodium hydroxide-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (SPS, hydrochloric-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (APS, and exo-polysaccharide (EPS obtained from the endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Fat9 on the sprout growth, flavonoid accumulation, and antioxidant capacity of tartary buckwheat. Without visible changes in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous polysaccharide elicitors strongly stimulated sprout growth and flavonoid production, and the stimulation effect was closely related with the polysaccharide (PS species and its treatment dosage. With application of 200 mg/L of EPS, 200 mg/L of APS, 150 mg/L of WPS, or 100 mg/L of SPS, the total rutin and quercetin yields of buckwheat sprouts were significantly increased to 41.70 mg/(100 sprouts, 41.52 mg/(100 sprouts, 35.88 mg/(100 sprouts, and 32.95 mg/(100 sprouts, respectively. This was about 1.11 to 1.40-fold compared to the control culture of 31.40 mg/(100 sprouts. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of tartary buckwheat sprouts was also enhanced after treatment with the four PS elicitors. Furthermore, the present study revealed the polysaccharide elicitation that caused the accumulation of functional flavonoid by stimulating the phenylpropanoid pathway. The application of beneficial fungal polysaccharide elicitors may be an effective approach to improve the nutritional and functional characteristics of tartary buckwheat sprouts.

  1. Effects of Polysaccharide Elicitors from Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Fat9 on the Growth, Flavonoid Accumulation and Antioxidant Property of Fagopyrum tataricum Sprout Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lingyun; Niu, Bei; Tang, Lin; Chen, Fang; Zhao, Gang; Zhao, Jianglin

    2016-11-25

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of four different fungal polysaccharides, named water-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (WPS), sodium hydroxide-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (SPS), hydrochloric-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (APS), and exo-polysaccharide (EPS) obtained from the endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Fat9 on the sprout growth, flavonoid accumulation, and antioxidant capacity of tartary buckwheat. Without visible changes in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous polysaccharide elicitors strongly stimulated sprout growth and flavonoid production, and the stimulation effect was closely related with the polysaccharide (PS) species and its treatment dosage. With application of 200 mg/L of EPS, 200 mg/L of APS, 150 mg/L of WPS, or 100 mg/L of SPS, the total rutin and quercetin yields of buckwheat sprouts were significantly increased to 41.70 mg/(100 sprouts), 41.52 mg/(100 sprouts), 35.88 mg/(100 sprouts), and 32.95 mg/(100 sprouts), respectively. This was about 1.11 to 1.40-fold compared to the control culture of 31.40 mg/(100 sprouts). Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of tartary buckwheat sprouts was also enhanced after treatment with the four PS elicitors. Furthermore, the present study revealed the polysaccharide elicitation that caused the accumulation of functional flavonoid by stimulating the phenylpropanoid pathway. The application of beneficial fungal polysaccharide elicitors may be an effective approach to improve the nutritional and functional characteristics of tartary buckwheat sprouts.

  2. AB300. SPR-27 Sonic hedgehog promotes sprouting of neurons in the pelvic ganglia and cavernous nerve during regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Ryan; Choe, Shawn; Harrington, Daniel A.; Stupp, Samuel I.; McVary, Kevin T.; Podlasek, Carol A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We’ve shown in previous studies that sonic hedgehog (SHH) protein delivered by nanoparticle based peptide amphiphile (PA) hydrogels to the cavernous nerve (CN) at the time of crush injury (mimicking prostatectomy), are neuroprotective and promote CN regeneration in a rat model. The mechanism of how SHH promotes CN regeneration is unknown. We hypothesize that SHH promotes sprouting of CN axons, in order to enhance nerve regeneration. We examine this hypothesis in an in vitro organ culture model. Methods The caudal portion of the pelvic ganglia (innervates penis) and CN were dissected from adult Sprague Dawley rats (n=47) and placed in Matrigel in growth factor reduced medium and were grown for three to five days. Pelvic ganglia were exposed to Affi-Gel beads containing: (I) SHH protein; (II) 5e1 and cyclopamine SHH inhibitors; and (III) SHH protein delivered by PA. Additional pelvic ganglia/CN tissue underwent CN crush and were exposed to SHH protein or PBS/mouse serum albumin (MSA) protein. Sprouting was evaluated for number of sprouts and their length, and by immunohistochemical analysis for sprouting markers (GAP43 and nNOS). Results Sprouting of pelvic ganglia and CN axons was increased with SHH treatment. Sprouts were more abundant, longer in length, with larger arborization of sprouts, in comparison to controls. More sprouting was promoted with SHH treatment of CN injured nerves. The CN had similar sprouting potential at 4 and 9 days after crush injury. Localization of SHH delivery makes a difference in sprouting potential. Conclusions The mechanism of how SHH PA treatment promotes CN regeneration, involves enhanced sprouting of pelvic ganglia and CN neurons. Understanding the mechanism of SHH PA action on neuronal tissue is critical for translation to prostatectomy patients and to further enhance regeneration. Funding Source(s) NIH/NIDDK DK079184

  3. Effects of Yeast Polysaccharide on Growth and Flavonoid Accumulation in Fagopyrum tataricum Sprout Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of yeast polysaccharide (YPS on growth and flavonoid accumulation in sprout cultures of Fagopyrum tataricum (tartary buckwheat. Without obvious change in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous YPS notably stimulated the production of functional metabolites in F. tataricum sprouts, and the stimulation effect was concentration-dependent. With 400 mg/L of YPS applied to the sprout cultures on day 6, the total rutin and quercentin content was effectively increased to 42.8 mg/gdw, or about 1.4-fold in comparison with the control of 31.2 mg/gdw. Feeding with 800 mg/L of YPS on day 9, the sprouts biomass was increased by about 8% compared to the control culture (0.99 gdw/100 sprouts versus 0.92 gdw/100 sprouts. Moreover, the present study revealed that the accumulation of these bioactive metabolites resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by YPS treatment. It could be an effective strategy for improving the functional quality of the F. tataricum sprouts provided with YPS.

  4. 利用外源ABA控制杂交水稻穗萌的研究%Research in the Exogenous ABA on the Pre-harvest Sprouting of Hybrid Rice Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雍太文; 杨文钰; 王小春

    2003-01-01

    利用外源ABA对水稻不育系岗46A在不同喷施时期下进行不同浓度的喷施处理.结果表明,在各个喷施时期下,喷施ABA均显著降低了岗46A的穗芽率,并且喷期不同要求ABA的有效浓度也不相同,早喷(授粉末期)要求ABA浓度较高(90 mg/L),迟喷(灌浆中期或乳熟末期)要求ABA浓度较低(50 mg/L).此外喷施ABA还影响了结实率与千粒重.处理后的种子经贮藏,未发现其种子活力下降.并且在杂交水稻繁殖制种的灌浆中期喷施50 mg/L的ABA是防治穗芽的有效途径.

  5. Composition and physiological profiling of sprout-associated microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Anabelle; Garland, Jay L.; Fett, William F.

    2002-01-01

    The native microfloras of various types of sprouts (alfalfa, clover, sunflower, mung bean, and broccoli sprouts) were examined to assess the relative effects of sprout type and inoculum factors (i.e., sprout-growing facility, seed lot, and inoculation with sprout-derived inocula) on the microbial community structure of sprouts. Sprouts were sonicated for 7 min or hand shaken with glass beads for 2 min to recover native microfloras from the surface, and the resulting suspensions were diluted and plated. The culturable fraction was characterized by the density (log CFU/g), richness (e.g., number of types of bacteria), and diversity (e.g., microbial richness and evenness) of colonies on tryptic soy agar plates incubated for 48 h at 30 degrees C. The relative similarity between sprout-associated microbial communities was assessed with the use of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) based on patterns of utilization of 95 separate carbon sources. Aerobic plate counts of 7.96 +/- 0.91 log CFU/g of sprout tissue (fresh weight) were observed, with no statistically significant differences in microbial cell density, richness, or diversity due to sprout type, sprout-growing facility, or seed lot. CLPP analyses revealed that the microbial communities associated with alfalfa and clover sprouts are more similar than those associated with the other sprout types tested. Variability among sprout types was more extensive than any differences between microbial communities associated with alfalfa and clover sprouts from different sprout-growing facilities and seed lots. These results indicate that the subsequent testing of biocontrol agents should focus on similar organisms for alfalfa and clover, but alternative types may be most suitable for the other sprout types tested. The inoculation of alfalfa sprouts with communities derived from various sprout types had a significant, source-independent effect on microbial community structure, indicating that the process of

  6. Development and quality evaluation of hypoallergic complementary foods from rice incorporated with sprouted green gram flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiya Bazaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice flour and green gram flour (sprouted as well as unsprouted were blended in different proportions with apple pulp, sugar, milk and water for formulation of 12 hypoallergic diets. The formulations were studied for physico-chemical properties, antinutrient content (phytate and oxalate and in vitro protein digestibility. Blending and sprouting significantly affected all the studied parameters. Sprouting significantly (p ≤ 0.05 improved protein content and in vitro protein digestibility, while carbohydrate content and antinutrients decreased significantly. Nutrition profile of water-based diets met RDA guidelines only after addition of sprouted green gram flour and were comparable to control (commercial weaning food. Water-based formulation showed lower sensory score than milk-based diets; however, addition of sprouted green gram flour significantly (p ≤ 0.05 improved their overall acceptability. It could be concluded that by incorporating sprouted green gram flour, milk could be replaced with water for production of hypoallergic weaning foods without affecting the nutritional and sensory attributes of formulations and thereby making the production more economical, especially for underdeveloped countries.

  7. Variations between post- and pre-harvest seasons in stunting, wasting, and Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices among children 6-23 months of age in lowland and midland agro-ecological zones of rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roba, Kedir Teji; O'Connor, Thomas Pacelli; Belachew, Tefera; O'Brien, Nora Mary

    2016-01-01

    Food availability and access are strongly affected by seasonality in Ethiopia. However, there are little data on seasonal variation in Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices and malnutrition among 6-23 months old children in different agro-ecological zones of rural Ethiopia. Socio-demographic, anthropometry and IYCF indicators were assessed in post- and pre-harvest seasons among children aged 6-23 months of age randomly selected from rural villages of lowland and midland agro-ecological zones. Child stunting and underweight increased from prevalence of 39.8% and 26.9% in post-harvest to 46.0% and 31.8% in pre-harvest seasons, respectively. The biggest increase in prevalence of stunting and underweight between post- and pre-harvest seasons was noted in the midland zone. Wasting decreased from 11.6% post-harvest to 8.5% pre-harvest, with the biggest decline recorded in the lowland zone. Minimum meal frequency, minimum acceptable diet and poor dietary diversity increased considerably in pre-harvest compared to post-harvest season in the lowland zone. Feeding practices and maternal age were predictors of wasting, while women's dietary diversity and children age was predictor of child dietary diversity in both seasons. There is seasonal variation in malnutrition and IYCF practices among children 6-23 months of age with more pronounced effect in midland agro-ecological zone. A major contributing factor for child malnutrition may be poor feeding practices. Health information strategies focused on both IYCF practices and dietary diversity of mothers could be a sensible approach to reduce the burden of child malnutrition in rural Ethiopia.

  8. Comparison of outcomes and other variables between conference abstracts and subsequent peer-reviewed papers involving pre-harvest or abattoir-level interventions against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedeker, Kate G; Campbell, Mollie; Totton, Sarah C; Guthrie, Alessia; Sargeant, Jan M

    2010-11-01

    Accuracy in the reporting of studies in conference abstracts is important because the majority of studies in such abstracts are never further detailed in peer-reviewed publications, and data from such abstracts may be used in systematic reviews. Previous research on interventional studies in human biomedicine indicates that there is no guarantee of consistency between a conference abstract and paper in the reporting of results and other key variables. However, no research has been done to determine if this lack of reporting consistency in abstracts and papers extends to interventional studies in pre-harvest/harvest-level food safety. The goal of this study was to compare outcome results and other key variables between conference abstracts and subsequent peer-reviewed publications describing studies of pre-harvest and abattoir-level interventions against foodborne pathogens, and to determine whether the agreement in the results or key variables was associated with the time to full publication. A systematic search identified 59 conference abstracts with matching peer-reviewed papers (matches), and data on variables including outcome measures and results, pathogens, species, interventions, overall efficacy of intervention, sample size and housing were extracted from both the conference abstracts and the papers. The matching of variables between abstracts and papers was described, and logistic regression used to test for associations between variable matching and time to publication. Sample size was only provided for both abstract and paper in 24 matches; the same sample size was reported in 20 of these matches. Most other variables were reported in the majority of abstracts/papers, and with the exception of outcomes and intervention effect, the reporting of variables was relatively consistent. There was no significant difference in the numbers of authors, with the first author the same in 78.3% of matches. Of 231 outcome measures reported in both abstracts and papers

  9. Acute O 3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbah, Joseph N T; Jones, Wendy S; Burton, Andrew J; Nagy, John; Kubiske, Mark E

    2011-09-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O(3)) concentration (110-490 nmol mol(-1)) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O(3) pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O(3) exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O(3) and/or CO(2) for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O(3) damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O(3) damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O(3) damage as it directly controlled O(3) uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O(3) exposure. Moreover, elevated CO(2) did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O(3) dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O(3) levels.

  10. Acute O3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darbah, J.N.; Nagy, J.; Jones, W. S.; Burton, A. J.; Kubiske, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O{sub 3}) concentration (110-490 nmol mol{sup -1}) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O{sub 3} pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O{sub 3} exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O{sub 3} and/or CO{sub 2} for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O{sub 3} damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O{sub 3} damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O{sub 3} damage as it directly controlled O{sub 3} uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O{sub 3} exposure. Moreover, elevated CO{sub 2} did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O{sub 3} dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O{sub 3} levels.

  11. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. sprouts germinated under red light irradiation induce disease resistance against bacterial rotting disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Dhakal

    Full Text Available Specific wavelengths of light can exert various physiological changes in plants, including effects on responses to disease incidence. To determine whether specific light wavelength had effects on rotting disease caused by Pseudomonas putida 229, soybean sprouts were germinated under a narrow range of wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs, including red (650-660, far red (720-730 and blue (440-450 nm or broad range of wavelength from daylight fluorescence bulbs. The controls were composed of soybean sprouts germinated in darkness. After germination under different conditions for 5 days, the soybean sprouts were inoculated with P. putida 229 and the disease incidence was observed for 5 days. The sprouts exposed to red light showed increased resistance against P. putida 229 relative to those grown under other conditions. Soybean sprouts germinated under red light accumulated high levels of salicylic acid (SA accompanied with up-regulation of the biosynthetic gene ICS and the pathogenesis- related (PR gene PR-1, indicating that the resistance was induced by the action of SA via de novo synthesis of SA in the soybean sprouts by red light irradiation. Taken together, these data suggest that only the narrow range of red light can induce disease resistance in soybean sprouts, regulated by the SA-dependent pathway via the de novo synthesis of SA and up-regulation of PR genes.

  12. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) sprouts germinated under red light irradiation induce disease resistance against bacterial rotting disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Radhika; Park, Euiho; Lee, Se-Weon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Specific wavelengths of light can exert various physiological changes in plants, including effects on responses to disease incidence. To determine whether specific light wavelength had effects on rotting disease caused by Pseudomonas putida 229, soybean sprouts were germinated under a narrow range of wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs), including red (650-660), far red (720-730) and blue (440-450 nm) or broad range of wavelength from daylight fluorescence bulbs. The controls were composed of soybean sprouts germinated in darkness. After germination under different conditions for 5 days, the soybean sprouts were inoculated with P. putida 229 and the disease incidence was observed for 5 days. The sprouts exposed to red light showed increased resistance against P. putida 229 relative to those grown under other conditions. Soybean sprouts germinated under red light accumulated high levels of salicylic acid (SA) accompanied with up-regulation of the biosynthetic gene ICS and the pathogenesis- related (PR) gene PR-1, indicating that the resistance was induced by the action of SA via de novo synthesis of SA in the soybean sprouts by red light irradiation. Taken together, these data suggest that only the narrow range of red light can induce disease resistance in soybean sprouts, regulated by the SA-dependent pathway via the de novo synthesis of SA and up-regulation of PR genes.

  13. SproutCore web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Keating, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    Written as a practical, step-by-step tutorial, Creating HTML5 Apps with SproutCore is full of engaging examples to help you learn in a practical context.This book is for any person looking to write software for the Web or already writing software for the Web. Whether your background is in web development or in software development, Creating HTML5 Apps with SproutCore will help you expand your skills so that you will be ready to apply the software development principles in the web development space.

  14. Long-term success of stump sprout regeneration in baldcypress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard F. Keim; Jim L. Chambers; Melinda S. Hughes; Emile S. Gardiner; William H. Conner; John W. Day; Stephen P. Faulkner; Kenneth W. McLeod; Craig A. Miller; J. Andrew Nyman; Gary P. Shaffer; Luben D. Dimov

    2006-01-01

    Baldcypress [Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.] is one of very few conifers that produces stump sprouts capable of becoming full-grown trees. Previous studies have addressed early survival of baldcypress stump sprouts but have not addressed the likelihood of sprouts becoming an important component of mature stands. We surveyed stands throughout south...

  15. A 5-Year Assessment Of Shortleaf Pine And Hardwood Sprouts Relative To Three Methods Of Hardwood Control In The Arkansas Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Cain

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - Compared with untreated checks, manual hardwood control and herbicide injection of hardwoods facilitated the development of direct seeded shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) regeneration following a single-tree selection harvest in a mature natural stand of shortleaf pines in northwest Arkansas. Five years after...

  16. Metabolomic analysis of phenolic compounds in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprouts treated with methyl jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Park, Kee-Jai; Lim, Jeong-Ho

    2011-05-25

    The effects of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on phytochemical production in buckwheat sprouts cultivated under dark conditions (0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 d) were investigated by metabolomic analysis, using ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight (UPLC-Q-TOF) mass spectroscopy (MS) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). MeJA-treated and control groups showed no differences in growth but were clearly discriminated from each other on PLS-DA score plots. The metabolites contributing to the discrimination were assigned as chlorogenic acid, catechin, isoorientin, orientin, rutin, vitexin, and quercitrin, which have various health effects. Moreover, isoorientin, orientin, rutin, and vitexin were assigned as the main phytochemicals of sprouts cultivated under dark conditions. The accumulation of these metabolites caused the phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity of the sprouts to increase. Further, this study revealed that their accumulation resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by MeJA treatment. Therefore, these metabolites may be useful for better understanding the effects of MeJA on buckwheat sprout phytochemicals and contribute to improving the functional quality of the sprouts.

  17. Uptake of iron by a vegetable; kaiware daikon (Japanese radish sprout).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Chika; Hirasawa, Rie; Sadayasu, Chie; Yamashiro, Sachiko; Tominaga, Mihoko; Sato, Kazuyoshi

    2004-08-01

    Uptake of iron and several other minerals into kaiware daikon (Japanese radish sprout) was investigated by changing their supplementary conditions. The supplementation of calcium sulfate (0.1% (w/v), 230 ppm as calcium ion) and iron (III) chloride (0.1% (w/v), 200 ppm as iron ion) in hydroponics promoted the growth of kaiware daikon ca. 1.0-1.5 cm longer than the control group of no additions, while magnesium sulfate (0.1% (w/ v), 100 ppm as magnesium ion) did not affect the length of sprouts so much, but caused their leaves to grow a little wider. Mineral contents in the sprout were maximal when it was added, at ca. 0.1% (w/v), to the hydroponic solution. In tests regarding iron (II) ion supplementation, the color of the kaiware daikon seeds changed from brownish to black and the sprout did not grow well. In contrast, the iron (III) ion did not affect their color and promoted growth of the sprout. When the seeds were soaked in an iron (II) sulfate (75 ppm) or an ammonium iron (III) citrate (180 ppm) solution for 24 h prior to germination, the resulting kaiware daikon contained a few times higher the amount of iron than commercially available ones.

  18. Model of pre-harvest quality of pineapple guava fruits (Acca sellowiana (O. berg burret as a function of weather conditions of the crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Parra-Coronado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Weather conditions influence the quality parameters of pineapple guava fruit during growth and development. The aim of this study was to propose a model of pre-harvest fruit quality as a function of weather conditions in the cultivation area. Twenty trees were flagged per farm in 2 localities of the Department of Cundinamarca, Colombia: Tenjo (2,580 m.a.s.l.; 12.5 °C; relative humidity between 74 and 86%; mean annual precipitation 765 mm and San Francisco de Sales (1,800 m.a.s.l.; 20.6 °C; relative humidity between 63 and 97%; mean annual precipitation 1,493 mm. Measurements were performed every 7 days during 2 harvest periods starting on days 96 (Tenjo and 99 (San Francisco de Sales after anthesis and until harvest. The models were obtained using Excel® Solver, and a set of data was obtained for the 2 different cultivar periods and each study site. The results showed that altitude, growing degree days, and accumulated precipitation are the weather variables with the highest influence on the physicochemical characteristics of the fruit during growth. The models of fresh weight, total titratable acidity, and skin firmness better predict the development of fruit quality during growth and development. Equations were obtained for increases of length and diameter as a function of fruit weight and for days from anthesis as a function of growing degree days and altitude. The regression analysis parameters showed that the models adequately predicted the fruit characteristics during growth for both localities, and a cross-validation analysis showed a good statistical fit between the estimated and observed values.

  19. Effects of pre-harvest foliar application of different rates and sources of calcium on yield and quality of ‘Illona’ cut rose flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mirza Shahi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Short vase life and low quality of cut rose flowers are the main problems of most rose greenhouses in Iran. Calcium is one of the most important nutrients that plays a major role in vase life of cut rose flowers. In this study, a factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized blocks design to elucidate the effects of foliar application of calcium rates and sources on yield and quality of rose flowers cv. Illona. Rose plants were sprayed by three rates of 0, 0.3 and 0.6 g/L calcium in combination with two sources of calcium nitrate (Ca(NO32.4H2O and calcium chelate (Ca-EDTA before the harvest. The experiment was conducted in 3 replications during 2005-2007 in Safi Abad Agricultural Research Center, Dezful. The results revealed that rose yield and flower quality indices at harvest time consisting of flowering stem fresh weight and length and length and diameter of buds were not affected by different rates and sources of calcium. But, vase life of cut rose flowers was increased significantly by 2.7 and 2.9 days in 0.3 and 0.6 g/L treatments, respectively (P<0.01. This was due to increased Ca concentration in the rose leaves and petals. There was no significant difference between the calcium nitrate and calcium chelate in supplying calcium and increasing vase life of cut rose flowers. According to the results of the present study, pre-harvest foliar application of calcium nitrate or calcium chelate at the rate of 0.3 g/L is recommended to improve vase life of cut rose flowers in north Khuzestan under greenhouse conditions.

  20. Sprouting of dormant buds on border trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1970-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of silvicultura1 systems used in managing Appalachian hardwoods, we are studying degrade of border trees surrounding harvest-cut openings made in the patch cutting and group selection systems. One facet of this research dealt with determining what portion of visually evident dormant buds on border tree boles sprouted when the openings were cut...

  1. Comparing potato tuberization and sprouting: opposite phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, D.

    2004-01-01

    The regulation of tuber formation and tuber sprouting are compared. As a starting point it is hypothesized that these two phenomena are opposite to each other. This idea is tested from three points of view: hormonal regulation, gene expression, and carbohydrate metabolism. It is concluded that there

  2. Persimmon Fruit Powder May Substitute Indolbi, a Synthetic Growth Regulator, in Soybean Sprout Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Doo; Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Park, Yong-Sung; Kim, Dong Joon; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2017-09-03

    Soybean sprouts are a major food item in Korea. Various studies have been carried out to enhance their yield and nutritional values. The objective of the present study was to examine the influence of persimmon fruit powder and Indolbi, a synthetic plant growth regulator, on the yield and nutritional value of soybean sprouts. Seeds were soaked in tap water containing 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0% (w/v) persimmon fruit powder and the samples were named as PT-1, PT-2, PT-3, and PT-4, respectively. The yield increment was almost doubled in PT-3 and PT-4 than in the Indolbi treated sprouts on basis of the control. Vitamin C, isoflavones, and total phenolic contents as well as antioxidant potentials (determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays) were also significantly (p products.

  3. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Jason B; Martin, John H

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal system-with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) - is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that 10 days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay.

  4. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B Carmel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST—is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that ten days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay.

  5. Potentially bioaccessible phenolics, antioxidant activity and nutritional quality of young buckwheat sprouts affected by elicitation and elicitation supported by phenylpropanoid pathway precursor feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the study on impact of elicitation and the phenylpropanoid pathway feeding on the nutritional quality, the potentially bioaccessible phenolics and the antioxidant capacity of young buckwheat sprouts. Phenolics content was increased by elicitation and feeding with tyrosine and shikimic acid--an elevation of 30% and 17%, respectively. Antioxidant capacity was improved by feeding with tyrosine--an increase of 16.7% and 17.1% in both untreated and treated sprouts, respectively. The highest protein digestibility was determined for the control sprouts and those obtained after tyrosine feeding. The lowest starch digestibility was found for elicited sprouts obtained from seeds fed with tyrosine (a decrease by 52%). An increase of expected glycemic index by 38% was determined for elicited sprouts obtained after phenylalanine feeding. Starch and protein digestibility were negatively correlated with total phenolics (r = -0.55 and -0.58, respectively), however starch digestibility was also affected by resistant starch content.

  6. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by Shiga toxinproducing Escherichia coli (STEC) and other pathogenic bacteria in seeds and sprouted seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    Sprouted seeds are young seedlings obtained from the germination of seeds. They are ready-to-eat foods which have caused large outbreaks. The bacterial pathogens most frequently associated with illness due to contaminated sprouted seeds are Salmonella and to a lesser extent STEC. Bacillus cereus...... be contaminated during production, harvest, storage and transport, and there may be difficulties in traceability of seeds from production to sprouting. Bacterial pathogens on seeds may survive for long periods during seed storage. There is so far no guarantee of a bactericidal step which is able to control...... contamination of seeds with bacterial foodborne pathogens acquired prior to germination. Due to the high humidity and the favourable temperature during sprouting, bacterial pathogens present on dry seeds can multiply on the sprouts. Contamination with pathogenic bacteria must be minimized by identification...

  7. Fungos e fumonisinas no período pré-colheita do milho Fungi and fumonisins at maize's pre-harvest period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Hermanns

    2006-03-01

    and associated with pulmonary edema syndrome in swine and esophageal cancer in humans. The objective of this work was to identify critical points of fungal contamination and fumonisins production during pre-harvest growth stage. Results showed fungal growth since the dough stage, with no significant difference at both following stages: dent and physiological maturity. Non sporulated fungi were predominant at the silking stage (100% and at the dough stage (95%. Saprophytes species were identified at the dent stage (23.25%. Fusarium spp. was evident since the dough stage (5% increasing considerably through the dent stage (62.5% to the physiological maturity (90%. All Fusarium spp. strains tested showed toxigenic potential. Fumonisins were evident at the latest development stages increasing considerably from the dent stage (0.2 ppm to the physiological maturity (2.5 ppm. Authors suggest special attention and adopting preventive measures in relation to the dough stage, from which Fusarium spp. begin to be evident.

  8. THE EFFECT OF SEED SPROUTING DAMAGE ON FIELD EMERGENCE AND YIELD OF SPRING TRITICALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria MOŚ

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1999-2001 two-factor fi eld experiments were carried out in which the effects of spring triticale seed sprouting damage on fi eld emergence, elements of the structure of yield and the yield were investigated. The research covered three cultivars: Gabo, Migo and Wanad. The statistical analysis of the results showed signifi cant effects of years and sprouting damage on fi eld emergence in all the years. Consequently, these factors affected the number of spikes per unit area, weight of 1,000 seeds and the yield in the years which were unfavourable for emergence (1999, 2000. In those years the decrease in yield, in the case of seeds with the most severe sprouting damage, ranged from 29% to 65% as compared with the control. In the favourable year 2001, in spite of a signifi cant effect of seed sprouting damage on fi eld emergence, the emergence level was so high that no decrease in the investigated elements of the structure of yield and the yield was observed.

  9. Distinct activities of Bartonella henselae type IV secretion effector proteins modulate capillary-like sprout formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, F; Ellner, Y; Guye, P; Rhomberg, T A; Weber, H; Augustin, H G; Dehio, C

    2009-07-01

    The zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bh) can lead to vasoproliferative tumour lesions in the skin and inner organs known as bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis. The knowledge on the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in this pathogen-triggered angiogenic process is confined by the lack of a suitable animal model and a physiologically relevant cell culture model of angiogenesis. Here we employed a three-dimensional in vitro angiogenesis assay of collagen gel-embedded endothelial cell (EC) spheroids to study the angiogenic properties of Bh. Spheroids generated from Bh-infected ECs displayed a high capacity to form sprouts, which represent capillary-like projections into the collagen gel. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system and a subset of its translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) were found to profoundly modulate this Bh-induced sprouting activity. BepA, known to protect ECs from apoptosis, strongly promoted sprout formation. In contrast, BepG, triggering cytoskeletal rearrangements, potently inhibited sprouting. Hence, the here established in vitro model of Bartonella- induced angiogenesis revealed distinct and opposing activities of type IV secretion system effector proteins, which together with a VirB/VirD4-independent effect may control the angiogenic activity of Bh during chronic infection of the vasculature.

  10. Mouse Proepicardium Exhibits a Sprouting Response to Exogenous Proangiogenic Growth Factors in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niderla-Bielińska, Justyna; Ciszek, Bogdan; Jankowska-Steifer, Ewa; Flaht-Zabost, Aleksandra; Gula, Grzegorz; Radomska-Leśniewska, Dorota M; Ratajska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis contributes to the generation of the vascular bed but also affects the progression of many diseases, such as tumor growth. Many details of the molecular pathways controlling angiogenesis are still undefined due to the lack of appropriate models. We propose the proepicardial explant as a suitable model for studying certain aspects of angiogenesis. The proepicardium (PE) is a transient embryonic structure that contains a population of undifferentiated endothelial cells (ECs) forming a vascular net continuous with the sinus venosus. In this paper, we show that PE explants give rise to CD31-positive vascular sprouts in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and 2 isoforms of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), i.e. VEGF-A120 and VEGF-A164. Vascular sprouts exhibit differences in number, length, thickness and the number of branches, depending on the combination of growth factors used. Moreover, the ECs of the sprouts express various levels of mRNA for Notch1 and its ligand Dll4. Additionally, stimulation with bFGF/VEGF-A164 upregulates the expression of Lyve-1 antigen in the ECs in the sprouts. In summary, we present a new model for angiogenesis studies involving mouse PE as a source of ECs. We believe that our model may act as a supplementary assay for angiogenesis studies along with the existing models.

  11. Responses of growing Japanese quails that received selenium from selenium enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantiratikul, Anut; Chinrasri, Orawan; Pakmaruek, Pornpan; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Thosaikham, Withpol; Aengwanich, Worapol

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of selenium (Se) from Se-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.) on the performance and Se concentrations in tissues of growing Japanese quails. Two hundred quails were divided into five treatments. Each treatment consisted of four replicates and each replicate contained ten quails in a completely randomize design. The experiment was conducted for 5 weeks. The treatments were T1, control diet; T2, control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite; T3, T4, and T5, control diet plus 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched kale sprout. The results revealed that Se supplementation had no impact on feed intake, performance, and carcass characteristics of quails (p > 0.05). However, Se supplementation from both sodium selenite and Se-enriched kale sprout increased (p kale sprout. The results indicate that Se from Se-enriched kale sprout offers no advantage over Se from sodium selenite on tissue Se concentration.

  12. In vitro digestibility and starch content, predicted glycemic index and potential in vitro antidiabetic effect of lentil sprouts obtained by different germination techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Baraniak, Barbara; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2013-06-01

    The study focuses on changes in starch content and expected glycemic index (eGI) caused by different sprouting methods of lentil. On germination, a decrease was observed in total starch content (TS), α-amylase inhibitors activity (αAI) and eGI values. After elicitation, the highest TS content was determined in 3-day-old control sprouts (100.9 mg/gf.m.), whereas the lowest was in 4-day-old sprouts induced with 300 mM NaCl (57.8 mg/gf.m.). Resistant starch (RS) content was most effectively increased by induction with 600 mM mannitol. The highest eGI values were determined for 3-day-old sprouts induced with 300 mM NaCl, whereas the lowest were for 6-day-old sprouts induced with 100mM NaCl. In treated sprouts starch digestibility was connected with αAI activity and RS content. Sprouting conditions can modify starch content, its potential bioavailability and eGI values. Optimization of this process will allow for the maximum nutritional benefit.

  13. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic and vitamin C contents of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as affected by sprouting and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura N. Laus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant capacity (AC of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cv. Real seeds and sprouts obtained after 4 days of seed germination at 20°C and 70% humidity was evaluated using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays, able to highlight reducing activity and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, respectively; phenolic content (PC was also measured. Both TEAC and ORAC assays revealed a significantly higher (about 2- and 2.8-fold, respectively AC of 4-day-old sprouts compared to seeds; consistently, also PC values of sprouts resulted about 2.6 times higher than seeds. In order to investigate the influence of storage on AC and PC, as well as on vitamin C content (VCC, 4-day-old sprouts were subjected for 7 days at 5°C to three different conditions of controlled atmosphere storage (CAS compared with air. Interestingly, whatever the CAS conditions, storage of quinoa sprouts up to 7 days induced an increase of AC evaluated in terms of reducing activity by TEAC assay. Consistently, an increase of PC and VCC was measured during storage, positively correlated to TEAC values. Moreover, a decrease of peroxyl radical scavenging activity, measured by ORAC, was observed after 7 days of storage, in accordance with a shift of AC towards the reducing activity component. Overall, these findings indicate that sprouting approach using quinoa may provide highly antioxidant-enriched seedlings that may improve nutritional quality of diet or of functional foods. Interestingly, antioxidant properties of quinoa sprouts may be deeply influenced by storage, able to increase reducing activity by increasing phenols and vitamin C.

  14. Laminar flow downregulates Notch activity to promote lymphatic sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dongwon; Park, Eunkyung; Jung, Eunson; Seong, Young Jin; Yoo, Jaehyuk; Lee, Esak; Hong, Mingu; Lee, Sunju; Ishida, Hiroaki; Burford, James; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Adams, Ralf H; Srikanth, Sonal; Gwack, Yousang; Chen, Christopher S; Vogel, Hans J; Koh, Chester J; Wong, Alex K; Hong, Young-Kwon

    2017-04-03

    The major function of the lymphatic system is to drain interstitial fluid from tissue. Functional drainage causes increased fluid flow that triggers lymphatic expansion, which is conceptually similar to hypoxia-triggered angiogenesis. Here, we have identified a mechanotransduction pathway that translates laminar flow-induced shear stress to activation of lymphatic sprouting. While low-rate laminar flow commonly induces the classic shear stress responses in blood endothelial cells and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), only LECs display reduced Notch activity and increased sprouting capacity. In response to flow, the plasma membrane calcium channel ORAI1 mediates calcium influx in LECs and activates calmodulin to facilitate a physical interaction between Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), the major regulator of shear responses, and PROX1, the master regulator of lymphatic development. The PROX1/KLF2 complex upregulates the expression of DTX1 and DTX3L. DTX1 and DTX3L, functioning as a heterodimeric Notch E3 ligase, concertedly downregulate NOTCH1 activity and enhance lymphatic sprouting. Notably, overexpression of the calcium reporter GCaMP3 unexpectedly inhibited lymphatic sprouting, presumably by disturbing calcium signaling. Endothelial-specific knockouts of Orai1 and Klf2 also markedly impaired lymphatic sprouting. Moreover, Dtx3l loss of function led to defective lymphatic sprouting, while Dtx3l gain of function rescued impaired sprouting in Orai1 KO embryos. Together, the data reveal a molecular mechanism underlying laminar flow-induced lymphatic sprouting.

  15. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  16. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  17. Regulation of sprout growth in potato tubers during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The commercial storage of potato tubers is largely dependent on the natural process of meristem dormancy and the application of growth suppressants or sprout inhibitors. Currently there are a limited number of compounds that can be applied to potato tubers to prevent sprouting. One of the most commo...

  18. Current intervention strategies for the microbial safety of sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikin, Adi Md; Zoellner, Claire; Rizvi, Syed S H

    2013-12-01

    Sprouts have gained popularity worldwide due to their nutritional values and health benefits. The fact that their consumption has been associated with numerous outbreaks of foodborne illness threatens the $250 million market that this industry has established in the United States. Therefore, sprout manufacturers have utilized the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommended application of 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite solution to seeds before germination as a preventative method. Concentrations of up to 200 ppm of chlorine wash are also commonly used on sprouts. However, chlorine-based treatment achieves on average only 1- to 3-log reductions in bacteria and is associated with negative health and environmental issues. The search for alternative strategies has been widespread, involving chemical, biological, physical, and hurdle processes that can achieve up to 7-log reductions in bacteria in some cases. The compilation here of the current scientific data related to these techniques is used to compare their efficacy for ensuring the microbial safety of sprouts and their practicality for commercial producers. Of specific importance for alternative seed and sprout treatments is maintaining the industry-accepted germination rate of 95% and the sensorial attributes of the final product. This review provides an evaluation of suggested decontamination technologies for seeds and sprouts before, during, and after germination and concludes that thermal inactivation of seeds and irradiation of sprouts are the most practical stand-alone microbial safety interventions for sprout production.

  19. Lack of central sprouting of primary afferent fibers after ricin deafferentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pubols, L M; Bowen, D C

    1988-09-08

    A new deafferentation technique, the application of ricin to peripheral nerves, was used to test for collateral sprouting of undamaged primary afferent fibers within the adult mammalian spinal cord dorsal horn. The right sciatic nerves in rats were injected with ricin 14 to 57 days prior to bilateral labelling of dorsal rootlets with horseradish peroxidase. To equate the number of surviving dorsal root fibers on the two sides, the left sciatic nerves were injected 5 days prior to labelling. In each animal, horseradish peroxidase was applied to a bilateral pair of lumbar or low thoracic dorsal rootlets 18 hours prior to sacrifice to test for sprouting by labelling primary afferent fibers and terminals in the right (experimental) and left (control) dorsal horns. Although there is overlap of degenerated and intact primary afferent fields in this preparation, a postulated precondition for sprouting (Murray and Goldberger: J. Neurosci. 6:3205-3217, '86), we found no evidence for sprouting of undamaged, myelinated afferent fibers in the experimental dorsal horns. The pattern of labelling was symmetrical in all animals, and the density of labelling was not consistently greater on the experimental side. These results support the conclusions of Rodin et al. (J. Comp. Neurol. 215:187-198, '83) and Rodin and Kruger (Somatosens. Res. 2:171-192, '84), who also found no sprouting in the rat's dorsal horn after surgical deafferentation, and do not support the assertion that the difference between the results of those studies and earlier studies in cats was due to a lack of overlap of degenerated and intact dorsal roots in the rat.

  20. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation, pulsed electric field, hot water dip and ethanol vapours treatment on keeping and sensory quality of mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ankit; Siddiqui, Saleem

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this research work was to evaluate the effects of UV- irradiation, pulsed electric field (PEF), hot water dip (HWD) and ethanol vapours on the quality and storage life of mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The sprouts were subjected to various treatments viz., UV-Irradiation (10 kJm(-2) in laminar flow chamber for 1 h), PEF (10,000 V for 10s), HWD (50 °C for 2 min) and ethanol vapours (1 h); and then stored in thermocol cups wrapped with perforated cling films at room (25 ± 1 °C) and low (7 ± 1 °C) temperature conditions. The sprouts were analyzed regularly at 24 h interval for sprout length, sprout weight, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity, non-enzymatic browning, total plate count and overall acceptability. Sprout length and weight increased during storage. There was no significant effect of various treatments on sprout length and weight, except in ethanol treatment, where suppression was observed. HWD showed higher TSS and acidity than that of control. The least browning was observed in ethanol treatment. The total plate count was not significantly affected by various treatments. Overall acceptability under various treatments decreased during storage period both at room and low temperature. Hot water and ethanol vapour treated sprouts showed higher acceptability than other treatments. However, the acceptability scores for sprouts remained within the acceptable range (≥6) up to 72 h at room temperature and 120 h at low temperature conditions.

  1. Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment and the Phenylpropanoid Pathway Precursors Feeding Improve Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Quinoa Sprouts via an Induction of L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyases Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Świeca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide treatment and the phenylpropanoid pathway precursors feeding affected the antioxidant capacity of quinoa sprouts. Compared to the control, total phenolics content was significantly increased by treatment of control sprouts with 50 mM and 200 mM H2O2—an elevation of about 24% and 28%, respectively. The highest increase of flavonoids content was found for the sprouts treated with 200 mM H2O2 obtained from seeds fed with shikimic acid. All the studied modifications increased the antioxidant potential of sprouts (at least by 50% compared to control. The highest reducing power was found for the sprouts treated with 200 mM H2O2 obtained by phenylalanine feeding (5.03 mg TE/g DW and those obtained from the seeds fed with tyrosine (5.26 mg TE/g DW. The activities of L-tyrosine (TAL and L-phenylalanine (PAL ammonia-lyases were strongly affected by germination time as well as the applied modification of sprouting. On the 3rd day the highest PAL activity was determined for both untreated and induced with 50 mM H2O2 sprouts obtained by phenylalanine feeding. H2O2 induced TAL activity; the highest TAL activity was determined for 3-day-old sprouts induced with 200 mM H2O2 obtained from seeds fed with phenylalanine.

  2. Starch and protein analysis of wheat bread enriched with phenolics-rich sprouted wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2017-08-01

    Wheat flour in the bread formula was replaced with sprouted wheat flour (SF) characterized by enhanced nutraceutical properties, at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% levels. The addition of SF slightly increased the total protein content; however, it decreased their digestibility. Some qualitative and quantitative changes in the electrophoretic pattern of proteins were also observed; especially, in the bands corresponding with 27kDa and 15-17kDa proteins. These results were also confirmed by SE-HPLC technique, where a significant increase in the content of proteins and peptides (molecular masses breads with 20% of SF. Bread enriched with sprouted wheat flour had more resistant starch, but less total starch, compared to control bread. The highest in vitro starch digestibility was determined for the control bread. The studied bread with lowered nutritional value but increased nutritional quality can be used for special groups of consumers (obese, diabetic). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhancement of Alcohol Metabolism by Sprouted Peanut Extract in SD Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Seong Soon; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Excessive ethanol intake is known to induce a number of physiological symptoms, including headache, dizziness and vertigo. In this study, we investigated the attenuation effect of sprouted peanut extract (SPE) on ethanol-induced hangover in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into five groups: the control group, which was administered ethanol only; the ethanol plus SPE experimental groups, which were administered ethanol and 100, 200, or 400 mg SPE/kg b.w.; and the positive con...

  4. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    OpenAIRE

    Carmel, Jason B; John eMartin

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) – is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-d...

  5. Decontamination of seeds for seed sprout production by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuytack, Elke Y; Diels, Ann M J; Meersseman, Katelijne; Michiels, Chris W

    2003-06-01

    Garden cress, sesame, radish, and mustard seeds immersed in water were treated with high pressure (250, 300, 350, and 400 MPa) for 15 min at 20 degrees C. After treatment, percentages of seeds germinating on water agar were recorded for up to 11 days. Of the seeds tested, radish seeds were found to be the most pressure sensitive, with seeds treated at 250 MPa reaching 100% germination 9 days later than untreated control seeds did. Garden cress seeds, on the other hand, were the most pressure resistant, with seeds treated at 250 MPa reaching 100% germination 1 day later than untreated control seeds did. Garden cress sprouts from seeds treated at 250 and 300 MPa also took about 1 day longer to reach average sprout length than sprouts from untreated control seeds did, indicating that sprout growth was not retarded once germination had occurred. Garden cress seeds were inoculated with suspensions of seven different bacteria (10(7) CFU/ml) and processed with high pressure. Treatment at 300 MPa (15 min, 20 degrees C) resulted in 6-log reductions of Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli MG1655, and Listeria innocua, > 4-log reductions of Shigella flexneri and pressure-resistant E. coli LMM1010, and a 2-log reduction of Staphylococcus aureus. Enterococcus faecalis was virtually not inactivated. For suspensions of the gram-positive bacteria, similar levels of inactivation in water in the absence of garden cress seeds were found, but the inactivation of E. coil LMM1010 and S. flexneri in water in the absence of garden cress seeds was significantly less extensive. These data suggest that garden cress seeds contain a component that acts synergistically with high hydrostatic pressure against gram-negative bacteria.

  6. Investigation into Causal Factors of Eucalyptus Second Generation Sprout Forest Etiolation and the Control Measures%桉树第二代萌芽林黄化原因调查及防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    农必昌; 曹继钊; 宋贤冲; 唐健

    2012-01-01

    Based on investigations at plantation sites and indoor chemical analyses,we found that the main factors causing etiolation in second generation Eucalyptus plantations regenerated from coppice sprouts included: poor forest soil condition;thin soil layer overlying gravelly sub-soils,low content and effectiveness of substitution Fe and Mn;bad ventilation and photopermeability in untended forest.Based on the casual factors found in this study,corresponding preventive measures were proposed which include: using rational fertilization which is mainly organic-fertilizer with the supply of Fe and Mn;and,using forest tending to increase exposed soil and improve ventilation and photopermeability.%通过林地调查和室内分析化验,结果表明广西楼梯坳林场桉树二代萌芽林黄化的主要原因是:林地土壤条件差,土层薄且砾石多;代换性Fe、Mn含量低,有效性差;林地未抚育,通风透气透光差。针对上述原因提出了相应的防治措施:合理施肥即以有机肥为主,添加Fe、Mn等微量元素;及时抚育增加土壤裸露和林内通风透气透光,可以防治桉树二代萌芽林黄化。

  7. Effects of magnetic fields pretreatment of mungbean seeds on sprout ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tony

    2012-05-03

    May 3, 2012 ... exposed to magnetic field as a case study, and some yield parameters (for .... determined according to Duncan's multiple range tests at P<0.05. RESULTS .... applying fertilizer to improve sprouts yield and economy benefit.

  8. Survival of Salmonella Typhimurium on soybean sprouts after treatment with gaseous chlorine dioxide and biocontrol Pseudomonas bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of Salmonella Typhimurium on sprouts and minimally processed produce is crucial for food and consumer safety. The aim of this research was to assess natural microflora populations on soybean and evaluate the effects of gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and biocontrol Pseudomonas on the surviva...

  9. The efficacy of six elite isolates of the fungus Chondrostereum purpureum against the sprouting of European aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg, Leena; Hantula, Jarkko

    2016-04-15

    The sprouting of broad-leaved trees after cutting is problematic in forest regeneration areas, along roads and railways, under electric power and above gas pipe lines. In Finland, one of the most difficult species to control in these areas is the European aspen (Populus tremula), which produces both stump sprouts and root suckers after saplings have been cut. In this study, we investigated whether a decay fungus of broad-leaved trees, Chondrostereum purpureum, could be used as a biological control agent against aspen sprouting. The efficacy of six elite strains of C. purpureum (improved earlier in a breeding process) was investigated on aspen for three years. The most efficient C. purpureum strain, R53, tested earlier on birch (Betula pendula and B. pubescens), was efficient in causing mortality of aspen stumps and preventing the development of root suckers. With this strain, stump mortality was 78%, while significantly lower in control stumps which were cut only (47%). Aspen trees in the vicinity of the treatments (within a 10 m radius around each sapling) decreased the efficacy of C. purpureum. This study shows that the decay fungus C. purpureum can successfully be used in the sprout control of aspen saplings.

  10. Diet quality of a pregnant, primarily African American cohort residing in the Mississippi Delta: Delta Healthy Sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    At no point during a woman’s life is good nutrition more important than during her reproductive years as her dietary choices affect not only her health but also that of her child. Delta Healthy Sprouts is a randomized, controlled, comparative trial testing the impact of two Maternal, Infant, and Ea...

  11. Survival of Salmonella enterica on soybean sprouts following treatments with gaseous chlorine dioxide and biocontrol Pseudomonas bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of Salmonella enterica on sprouts and minimally processed, ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables is important for food and consumer safety. The aim of this research was to assess the effects of gaseous chlorine dioxide(ClO2)and biocontrol microorganisms (Pseudomonas chlororaphis and P. fluoresc...

  12. Changes in phenols contents from buckwheat sprouts during growth stage

    OpenAIRE

    Koyama, Masahiro; Nakamura, Chiho; Nakamura, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    Germinated buckwheat is buckwheat seeds soaked in water just until it begins to bud. Buckwheat sprouts are seedling plants of buckwheat grown up to 10–15 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal growth period for accumulating the most abundant functional phenol(s) in germinated buckwheat that had been soaked in darkness and buckwheat sprouts cultivated by hydroponic culture. The rutin contained in germinated buckwheat was analyzed by CE (capillary electrophoresis). Phenols, ...

  13. Identification and quantification of glucosinolates in sprouts derived from seeds of wild Eruca sativa L. (salad rocket) and Diplotaxis tenuifolia L. (wild rocket) from diverse geographical locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard N; Carvalho, Rosa; Mellon, Fred A; Eagles, John; Rosa, Eduardo A S

    2007-01-10

    The Brassicaceae rocket species Eruca sativa L. (salad rocket) and Diplotaxis tenuifolia L. (wild rocket) are consumed throughout the world in salads, predominantly the leaves but also the flowers and more recently the sprouts (seedlings). Ontogenic profiling of glucosinolates and flavonoids in plants derived from commercial seed of these species has previously been done, but no studies have been conducted to determine how geographical origin affects glucosinolate composition in rocket species. Seeds from wild E. sativa L. and D. tenuifolia L. from diverse regions of the world were obtained from gene banks and grown under controlled conditions. Sprouts were harvested when they would normally be harvested for consumption, and glucosinolates were extracted and profiled in these accessions. All of the sprouts from Italian E. sativa L. had consistently high total glucosinolate content, with only a few exceptions, and also the highest percentage contents of 4-mercaptobutylglucosinolate. In contrast, sprouts produced from Central and Eastern European seeds had a much higher percentage of 4-methylthiobutylglucosinolate. With a single exception, Tunisia, all sprouts produced from North African seeds had very high 4-methylthiobutylglucosinolate contents. The single sample from China had a high total glucosinolate content and glucosinolate profile that was very similar to the accessions from Uzbekistan and Pakistan. All of the D. tenuifolia L. sprouts had consistently high total glucosinolate contents, and a high percentage of this was 4-mercaptobutylglucosinolate. This glucosinolate variation in levels and profiles of the rockets can be used for genetic studies, selected breeding, and human intervention studies.

  14. Human iPSC-Derived Endothelial Cell Sprouting Assay in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) by growth factors initiates a cascade of events in vivo consisting of EC tip cell selection, sprout formation, EC stalk cell proliferation, and ultimately vascular stabilization by support cells. Although EC functional assays can recapitulate one or more aspects of angiogenesis in vitro, they are often limited by a lack of definition to the substratum and lack of dependence on key angiogenic signaling axes. Here, we designed and characterized a chemically-defined model of endothelial sprouting behavior in vitro using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells (iPSC-ECs). Thiol-ene photopolymerization was used to rapidly encapsulate iPSC-ECs at high density in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel spheres and subsequently to rapidly encapsulate iPSC-EC-containing hydrogel spheres in a cell-free over-layer. The hydrogel sprouting array here maintained pro-angiogenic phenotype of iPSC-ECs and supported growth factor-dependent proliferation and sprouting behavior. The sprouting model responded appropriately to several reference pharmacological angiogenesis inhibitors, which suggests the functional role of vascular endothelial growth factor, NF-κB, matrix metalloproteinase-2/9, protein kinase activity, and β-tubulin in endothelial sprouting. A blinded screen of 38 putative vascular disrupting compounds (pVDCs) from the US Environmental Protection Agency’s ToxCast library identified five compounds th

  15. Garlic sprouting is associated with increased antioxidant activity and concomitant changes in the metabolite profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakarova, Alexandra; Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyang Yeon; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Shin, Jung-Hye; Cho, Kye Man; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2014-02-26

    Although garlic (Allium sativum) has been extensively studied for its health benefits, sprouted garlic has received little attention. We hypothesized that sprouting garlic would stimulate the production of various phytochemicals that improve health. Ethanolic extracts from garlic sprouted for different periods had variable antioxidant activities when assessed with in vitro assays, including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity assay and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. Extracts from garlic sprouted for 5 days had the highest antioxidant activity, whereas extracts from raw garlic had relatively low antioxidant activity. Furthermore, sprouting changed the metabolite profile of garlic: the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 5-6 days was distinct from the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 0-4 days, which is consistent with the finding that garlic sprouted for 5 days had the highest antioxidant activity. Therefore, sprouting may be a useful way to improve the antioxidant potential of garlic.

  16. Mathematical modeling and assessment of microbial migration during the sprouting of alfalfa in trays in a nonuniformly contaminated seed batch using Enterobacter aerogenes as a surrogate for Salmonella Stanley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Schaffner, Donald W

    2007-11-01

    Raw seed sprouts have been implicated in several food poisoning outbreaks in the past 10 years. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends that sprout growers use interventions (such as testing of spent irrigation water) to control the presence of pathogens in the finished product. During the sprouting process, initially low concentrations of pathogen may increase, and contamination may spread within a batch of sprouting seeds. A model of pathogen growth as a function of time and distance from the contamination spot during the sprouting of alfalfa in trays has been developed with Enterobacter aerogenes. The probability of detecting contamination was assessed by logistic regression at various time points and distances by sampling from sprouts or irrigation water. Our results demonstrate that microbial populations and possibility of detection were greatly reduced at distances of > or = 20 cm from the point of contamination in a seed batch during tray sprouting; however, the probability of detecting microbial contamination at distances less than 10 cm from the point of inoculation was almost 100% at the end of the sprouting process. Our results also show that sampling irrigation water, especially large volumes of water, is highly effective at detecting contamination: by collecting 100 ml of irrigation water for membrane filtration, the probability of detection was increased by three to four times during the first 6 h of seed germination. Our findings have quantified the degree to which a small level of contamination will spread throughout a tray of sprouting alfalfa seeds and subsequently be detected by either sprout or irrigation water sampling.

  17. Bud sprouting and floral induction and expression of FT in loquat [Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Carmina; Gil-Muñoz, Francisco; Vera-Sirera, Francisco; García-Lorca, Ana; Martínez-Fuentes, Amparo; Mesejo, Carlos; Pérez-Amador, Miguel A; Agustí, Manuel

    2017-07-14

    EjFT1 and EjFT2 genes were isolated and sequenced from leaves of loquat. EjFT1 is involved in bud sprouting and leaf development, and EjFT2 in floral bud induction. Loquat [Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.] is an evergreen species belonging to the family Rosaceae, such as apple and pear, whose reproductive development, in contrast with these species, is a continuous process that is not interrupted by winter dormancy. Thus, the study of the mechanism of flowering in loquat has the potential to uncover the environmental and genetic networks that trigger flowering more accurately, contributing for a better understanding of the Rosaceae floral process. As a first step toward understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling flowering, extensive defoliation and defruiting assays, together with molecular studies of the key FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, were carried out. FT exhibited two peaks of expression in leaves, the first one in early to mid-May, the second one in mid-June. Two FT genes, EjFT1 and EjFT2, were isolated and sequenced and studied their expression. Expression of EjFT1 and EjFT2 peaks in mid-May, at bud sprouting. EjFT2 expression peaks again in mid-June, coinciding with the floral bud inductive period. Thus, when all leaves of the tree were continuously removed from early to late May vegetative apex differentiated into panicle, but when defoliation was performed from early to late June apex did not differentiate. On the other hand, fruit removal advanced EjFT1 expression in old leaves and the sooner the fruit detached, the sooner the bud sprouted. Accordingly, results strongly suggest that EjFT1 might be related to bud sprouting and leaf development, while EjFT2 might be involved in floral bud induction. An integrative model for FT functions in loquat is discussed.

  18. Transcriptional changes in sensory ganglia associated with primary afferent axon collateral sprouting in spared dermatome model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Harrison

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary afferent collateral sprouting is a process whereby non-injured primary afferent neurons respond to some stimulus and extend new branches from existing axons. Neurons of both the central and peripheral nervous systems undergo this process, which contributes to both adaptive and maladaptive plasticity (e.g., [1–9]. In the model used here (the “spared dermatome” model, the intact sensory neurons respond to the denervation of adjacent areas of skin by sprouting new axon branches into that adjacent denervated territory. Investigations of gene expression changes associated with collateral sprouting can provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Consequently, it can be used to develop treatments to promote functional recovery for spinal cord injury and other similar conditions. This report includes raw gene expression data files from microarray experiments in order to study the gene regulation in spared sensory ganglia in the initiation (7 days and maintenance (14 days phases of the spared dermatome model relative to intact (“naïve” sensory ganglia. Data has been deposited into GEO (GSE72551.

  19. Evaluation of Safety of Iron-Fortified Soybean Sprouts, a Potential Component of Functional Food, in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, Małgorzata; Ewertowska, Małgorzata; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Adamska, Teresa; Szaefer, Hanna; Zielińska-Dawidziak, Magdalena; Piasecka-Kwiatkowska, Dorota; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga

    2016-03-01

    Ferritin-iron is currently considered as one of the most promising iron forms to prevent iron deficiency anaemia. We found that the cultivation of soybean seeds in a solution of ferrous sulfate results in material with extremely high iron content - 560.6 mg Fe/100 g of dry matter, while ferritin iron content was 420.5 mg/100 g dry matter. To assess the potential adverse effects of a preparation containing such a high concentration of iron, male and female Wistar rats were exposed via diet to 10, 30, 60 g soybean sprouts powder/kg feed for 90 days. There were no differences in final body weight and mean food consumption between controls and rats administered sprouts. No statistically significant differences in haematology and clinical chemistry parameters were found between controls and treated rats. Microscopic examination of 22 tissues did not reveal any pathology due to soybean sprouts intake. Long term administration of the test material did not cause oxidative damage to DNA and protein in the liver as evidenced by the unchanged basal levels of DNA damage as well as carbonyl groups content. Lipid peroxidation was slightly increased only in females. The activity of several antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase was increased, which substantially enhanced the antioxidant status in the liver from the rats treated with soybean sprouts. Hence, the material tested can be recommended as a component of food supplements for individuals with iron deficiency anaemia and inflammatory bowel diseases.

  20. Comparison in accumulation of lanthanide elements among three Brassicaceae plant sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Yasumi; Awaya, Yumi; Ogihara, Yurie; Yoshida, Miyuki; Yawata, Ayako; Ogra, Yasumitsu

    2012-07-01

    Three kinds of sprouts in the Brassicaceae family of plants, namely, pink kale, radish and mustard were evaluated for the possibility of phytoremediation of lanthanides. The mustard sprout more efficiently accumulated lanthanides (e.g. 0.26 nmol La/g) than other Brassicaceae family plant sprouts (0.16 nmol La/g in the radish), however the radish sprout showed the fastest growth among three sprouts. Faster growth compensated for less efficiency in lanthanide accumulation (28 pmol La in the radish vs. 12 pmol La in the mustard) indicating that the radish is the most preferable sprout for the phytoremediation of lanthanides.

  1. Changes in phenols contents from buckwheat sprouts during growth stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Masahiro; Nakamura, Chiho; Nakamura, Kozo

    2013-02-01

    Germinated buckwheat is buckwheat seeds soaked in water just until it begins to bud. Buckwheat sprouts are seedling plants of buckwheat grown up to 10-15 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal growth period for accumulating the most abundant functional phenol(s) in germinated buckwheat that had been soaked in darkness and buckwheat sprouts cultivated by hydroponic culture. The rutin contained in germinated buckwheat was analyzed by CE (capillary electrophoresis). Phenols, including isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, vitexin, and rutin were separated from buckwheat sprouts by HPLC and identified by LC-MS. The highest rutin content in germinated buckwheat was found to be 15.8 mg/100 g DW at 20 h after germination. Buckwheat sprouts contained five kinds of major phenols. The highest amounts of isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin were measured at day 3, with the exception of rutin, and then a gradual decrease was observed as the sprouts grew. The quantities of isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin at day 3 were 5.8, 11.7, 26.2, and 28.9 mg/100 g FW, respectively. The rutin content rapidly increased to 109.0 mg/100 g FW until day 6. The highest total phenols in buckwheat sprouts were 162.9 mg/100 g FW at day 6. Germinated buckwheat soaked for 20 h and buckwheat sprouts cultivated for 6 days were rich in dietary phenol(s), which makes these plants a valuable functional food for human consumption.

  2. Acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting induced by botulinum toxin type A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Jiang; Yi Xiang; Xingyue Hu; Huaying Cai

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum toxin type A is a potent muscle relaxant that blocks the transmission and release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A has served as an effective and safe therapy for strabismus and focal dystonia. However, muscular weakness is temporary and after 3-4 months, muscle strength usually recovers because function-al recovery is mediated by nerve sprouting and reconstruction of the neuromuscular junction. Acrylamide may produce neurotoxic substances that cause retrograde necrotizing neuropathy and inhibit nerve sprouting caused by botulinum toxin type A. This study investigated whether acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A. A tibial nerve sprouting model was established through local injection of botulinum toxin type A into the right gastrocnemius muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats. Following intramuscular injection, rats were given intraperitoneal injection of 3%acrylamide every 3 days for 21 days. Nerve sprout-ing appeared 2 weeks after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A and single-fiber electromyography revealed abnormal conduction at the neuromuscular junction 1 week after intra-muscular injection of botulinum toxin type A. Following intraperitoneal injection of acrylamide, the peak muscle ifber density decreased. Electromyography jitter value were restored to normal levels 6 weeks after injection. This indicates that the maximal decrease in ifber density and the time at which functional conduction of neuromuscular junction was restored were delayed. Addition-ally, the increase in tibial nerve ifbers was reduced. Acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting caused by botulinum toxin type A and may be used to prolong the clinical dosage of botulinum toxin type A.

  3. LA Sprouts: a garden-based nutrition intervention pilot program influences motivation and preferences for fruits and vegetables in Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Nicole M; Ventura, Emily E; Cook, Lauren T; Gyllenhammer, Lauren E; Davis, Jaimie N

    2012-06-01

    Garden-based approaches to nutrition education may be effective for improving nutrition habits in adolescents. A quasi-experimental, garden-based intervention for Latino youth (LA Sprouts) was piloted and assessed for its influence on behavior associated with dietary intake and psychosocial factors. Study participants were 104 predominately Latino fourth and fifth grade students in Los Angeles (mean age, 9.8±0.7 years; n=70 control subjects, n=34 LA Sprouts participants); more than half (n=61, 59.8%) were overweight or obese (body mass index ≥85th percentile). LA Sprouts participants received an intervention of weekly 90-minute culturally tailored, interactive classes for 12 consecutive weeks at a community garden during the spring of 2010; control participants received an abbreviated delayed intervention. Questionnaire data were obtained before and after the intervention. Compared with control subjects, LA Sprouts participants had an increased preference for vegetables overall, increased preferences for three target fruits and vegetables, as well as improved perceptions that "vegetables from the garden taste better than vegetables from the store." In the overweight/obese subgroup (n=61), LA Sprouts participants had a 16% greater increase in their preference for vegetables compared with control subjects (P=0.009). Results from this pilot study suggest that a cooking, nutrition, and gardening after-school program in a garden-based setting can improve attitudes and preferences for fruits and vegetables in Latino youth, which may lead to improved nutritional habits and dietary intake and reduced health disparities.

  4. Elicitation and treatment with precursors of phenolics synthesis improve low-molecular antioxidants and antioxidant capacity of buckwheat sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Świeca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, an increase of interest in the modification of food products on each step of production (breeding, production technology, storage condition is observed. Nutritional properties as well as level and activity of bioactive compounds in plant-origin food may be modified using a range of technological and biotechnological practices and elicitation should be mentioned between them. Material and methods. Elicitation with willow bark infusion supported by feeding with the phenylpropa- noid pathway precursors were used for improving the quality of buckwheat sprouts. Special emphasis has been placed on the metabolomic and biochemical changes and the mechanism of overproduction of low-molecular antioxidants. Results. The accumulation of phenolics is caused by stimulation of two main enzymes the phenylpropanoid pathway (tyrosine ammonia-lyase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. Tyrosine ammonia-lyase activities were effectively induced by feeding with tyrosine (about four times that of the control, whereas phenylala- nine ammonia-lyase activity was the highest in the elicited control sprouts and those fed with shikimic acid (an increase by 60% compared to the control. Shikimic acid feeding (both elicited and non-elicited sprouts effectively improved the total phenolics (by about 10% and 20%, respectively, condensed tannins (by about 30% and 28%, respectively, and flavonoids (by about 46% and 70%, respectively. Significant increase of vitexin, rutin, chlorogenic acid and isoorientin contents was also observed. The treatments increased the ascorbic acid content, too. Total antioxidant capacity of sprouts was most effectively increased by feeding with shikimic acid and further elicitation. Conclusion. The studies transfer biotechnology commonly used for the induction of overproduction of sec- ondary metabolites in plant cell line systems to low-processed food production. The obtained results could be used for better understanding of

  5. An experimental case study to estimate Pre-harvest Wheat Acreage/Production in Hilly and Plain region of Uttarakhand state: Challenges and solutions of problems by using satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniyal, D.; Kimothi, M. M.; Bhagya, N.; Ram, R. D.; Patel, N. K.; Dhaundiya, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    Wheat is an economically important Rabi crop for the state, which is grown on around 26 % of total available agriculture area in the state. There is a variation in productivity of wheat crop in hilly and tarai region. The agricultural productivity is less in hilly region in comparison of tarai region due to terrace cultivation, traditional system of agriculture, small land holdings, variation in physiography, top soil erosion, lack of proper irrigation system etc. Pre-harvest acreage/yield/production estimation of major crops is being done with the help of conventional crop cutting method, which is biased, inaccurate and time consuming. Remote Sensing data with multi-temporal and multi-spectral capabilities has shown new dimension in crop discrimination analysis and acreage/yield/production estimation in recent years. In view of this, Uttarakhand Space Applications Centre (USAC), Dehradun with the collaboration of Space Applications Centre (SAC), ISRO, Ahmedabad and Uttarakhand State Agriculture Department, have developed different techniques for the discrimination of crops and estimation of pre-harvest wheat acreage/yield/production. In the 1st phase, five districts (Dehradun, Almora, Udham Singh Nagar, Pauri Garhwal and Haridwar) with distinct physiography i.e. hilly and plain regions, have been selected for testing and verification of techniques using IRS (Indian Remote Sensing Satellites), LISS-III, LISS-IV satellite data of Rabi season for the year 2008-09 and whole 13 districts of the Uttarakhand state from 2009-14 along with ground data were used for detailed analysis. Five methods have been developed i.e. NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index), Supervised classification, Spatial modeling, Masking out method and Programming on visual basics methods using multitemporal satellite data of Rabi season along with the collateral and ground data. These methods were used for wheat discriminations and preharvest acreage estimations and subsequently results

  6. Selecting sprouts of brassicaceae for optimum phytochemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Nieves; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2012-11-14

    Cruciferous foods (Brassicaceae spp.) are rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds. Edible sprouts are becoming popular fresh foods and, therefore, the phytochemical profiling of nine varieties of Brassicaceae (broccoli, kohlrabi, red cabbage, rutabaga, turnip, turnip greens, radish, garden cress, and white mustard) was evaluated for this purpose. The glucosinolates in seeds were significantly higher than in sprouts, and day 8 of germination was considered the optimum for consumption. The sprouts with higher concentrations of glucosinolates in 8-day-old sprouts were white mustard, turnip, and kohlrabi (∼815, ∼766, and ∼653 mg 100 g⁻¹ FW, respectively). Red cabbage and radish presented great total glucosinolates content (∼516 and ∼297 mg 100 g⁻¹ FW, respectively, in 8-day-old sprouts) and also higher total phenolic contents, biomass, and antioxidant capacity. The selection of the best performers in terms of germination quality and phytochemical composition is the key to optimize new fresh foods enriched in health-bioactive compounds. Further research on the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds in Brassica foods will allow backing of recommendations for dietarily effective dosages for nutrition and health.

  7. Peanut cross-reacting allergens in seeds and sprouts of a range of legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.B.; Pedersen, M.H.; Skov, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes.......Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes....

  8. The effect of essential oil formulations for potato sprout suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Moses S; Lajide, Labunmi; Oladimeji, Matthew O; Setzer, William N

    2010-04-01

    The concerns over safety and environmental impact of synthetic pesticides such as chlorpropham (CIPC) has stimulated interest in finding environmentally benign, natural sprout suppressants, including essential oils. The effects of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Lippia multiflora essential oils on sprout growth and decay of stored potatoes has been investigated. Formulations of essential oils with alumina, bentonite, or kaolin, both with and without Triton X-100 additive, were tested. These formulations have been compared to the pulverized plant materials themselves as well as wick-volatilized essential oils. The results showed that the tested oils possess compositions that make them suitable for application as sprout suppressants. Additionally, the formulation seems to be able to reduce the volatility of the essential oil and artificially extend dormancy of stored potatoes.

  9. Food safety evaluation of broccoli and radish sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Frías, Juana; Gulewicz, Piotr; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción

    2008-05-01

    Three cultivars of broccoli seeds (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cv. Tiburon, cv. Belstar and cv. Lucky, and two cultivars of radish seeds (Raphanus sativus), cv. Rebel and cv. Bolide, were germinated for three and five days and safety aspects such as microbiological counts and biogenic amines were investigated. Cytotoxicity evaluation was also carried out. Broccoli and radish sprouts contained numbers of mesophilic, psychrotrophic, total and faecal coliform bacteria which are the usual counts for minimally processed germinated seeds. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine increased during sprout production although these levels were below those permitted by legislation (5 mg/100 g of edible food). Broccoli and radish sprouts demonstrated no toxic effects on proliferation and viability of HL-60 cells and should be included in our diets as healthy and safe fresh foods.

  10. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity in selected seeds and sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pająk, Paulina; Socha, Robert; Gałkowska, Dorota; Rożnowski, Jacek; Fortuna, Teresa

    2014-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of germination on the phenolic acids and flavonoids profile, as well as antioxidant activity (AA), in selected edible seeds of mung beans, radish, broccoli and sunflower. Germination increased the total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) levels, as well as the AA of the seeds, and influenced the profile of free and bound phenolic compounds. Among the samples, mung bean was characterised by lowest levels of TP and TF, as well as AA, evaluated using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays. Sunflower and radish sprouts were the most rich in phenolic compounds. Insignificant amounts of free phenolic acids were found in the free phenolic acid fraction; alkaline hydrolysis of the seeds and sprouts extracts provided the majority of the phenolic acids. The amounts of free and bound flavonoids were inconsiderable both for seeds and sprouts.

  11. Selenium Supplementation of Amaranth Sprouts Influences Betacyanin Content and Improves Anti-Inflammatory Properties via NFκB in Murine RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka-Czochara, Malgorzata; Pasko, Pawel; Zagrodzki, Pawel; Gajdzik, Ewelina; Wietecha-Posluszny, Renata; Gorinstein, Shela

    2016-02-01

    Sprouts contain potent compounds which while influencing crucial transduction pathways in cell reveal anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we report the biological activity for seeds and colourful sprouts of four types of edible amaranth, as amaranth has recently attracted interest due to its appreciable nutritional value. MTT assay conducted for the amaranth seeds and sprouts did not show any adverse effect on the viability of murine RAW 264.7 cells. As amaranth accumulates selenium, the sprouts were supplemented with this trace element (10 mg/L; 15 mg/L Se as sodium selenite) while growing. Selenium concentration in sprouts was observed to be significantly correlated with betacyanins content of the tested species. The amounts of Se and betacyanins in sprouts varied for various Amaranth species. In the present study, Amaranthus cruentus sprouts with the highest betacyanins (19.30 ± 0.57-28.85 ± 2.23 mg of amaranthin/100 g of fresh weight) and high total selenium (22.51 ± 1.57-1044.75 ± 73.08 μg/L in methanol extracts) content prevented NFκB translocation to the cell nucleus and subsequently exerted an anti-inflammatory effect by significant decreasing inflammatory interleukin 6 production (587.3 ± 34.2-710.0 ± 88.1 pg/mL) in the cell culture of activated RAW 264.7 macrophages (vs LPS control 1520 ± 114 pg/mL).

  12. A Comparative Study of Collagen Matrix Density Effect on Endothelial Sprout Formation Using Experimental and Computational Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, Amir; Mohammadaliha, Negar; Heilshorn, Sarah C; Bauer, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    A thorough understanding of determining factors in angiogenesis is a necessary step to control the development of new blood vessels. Extracellular matrix density is known to have a significant influence on cellular behaviors and consequently can regulate vessel formation. The utilization of experimental platforms in combination with numerical models can be a powerful method to explore the mechanisms of new capillary sprout formation. In this study, using an integrative method, the interplay between the matrix density and angiogenesis was investigated. Owing the fact that the extracellular matrix density is a global parameter that can affect other parameters such as pore size, stiffness, cell-matrix adhesion and cross-linking, deeper understanding of the most important biomechanical or biochemical properties of the ECM causing changes in sprout morphogenesis is crucial. Here, we implemented both computational and experimental methods to analyze the mechanisms responsible for the influence of ECM density on the sprout formation that is difficult to be investigated comprehensively using each of these single methods. For this purpose, we first utilized an innovative approach to quantify the correspondence of the simulated collagen fibril density to the collagen density in the experimental part. Comparing the results of the experimental study and computational model led to some considerable achievements. First, we verified the results of the computational model using the experimental results. Then, we reported parameters such as the ratio of proliferating cells to migrating cells that was difficult to obtain from experimental study. Finally, this integrative system led to gain an understanding of the possible mechanisms responsible for the effect of ECM density on angiogenesis. The results showed that stable and long sprouts were observed at an intermediate collagen matrix density of 1.2 and 1.9 mg/ml due to a balance between the number of migrating and proliferating

  13. Involvement of bacterial quorum-sensing signals in spoilage of bean sprouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Maria; Andersen, Jens Bo; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2005-01-01

    sprouts. Thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed the presence of N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone in spoiled bean sprouts and in extracts from pure cultures of bacteria. During normal spoilage, the pH of the sprouts increased due to proteolytic...

  14. Changes in microbial contamination levels and prevalence of foodborne pathogens in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and rapeseed (Brassica napus) during sprout production in manufacturing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S A; Kim, O M; Rhee, M S

    2013-01-01

    Samples were taken from three sprout processing plants at five different stages of production (a total of 20 investigations). Quantitative analyses comprised aerobic plate counts (APCs) and the measurement of coliforms and Bacillus cereus levels, whereas qualitative analyses involved assessing the levels of Escherichia coli and major foodborne pathogens (E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus). The APC for alfalfa seeds (3·71-4·61 log CFU g(-1)) and rapeseed (4·25-5·11 log CFU g(-1)) increased by approximately 3 log CFU g(-1) during sprouting, reaching 7·17-7·61 and 7·33-8·28 log CFU g(-1), respectively, by the final stage of production. Similarly, increasing trends were noted in the level of coliforms (0·58-4·03 log CFU g(-1) at the seed stage, increasing to 5·52-6·99 log CFU g(-1) by the sprout stage). Bacillus cereus was detected in eight alfalfa (40%) and 14 rapeseed (70%) sprouts, and L. monocytogenes was isolated from one pregermination soaked alfalfa seed. A slight reduction in the level of bacterial contamination was noted after washing the sprouts with water prior to storage, indicating that improvements to the current washing protocol, or other efficient intervention methods, may be needed. Taken together, these results suggest that improved hygiene control during production and processing and a more sanitary environment are needed. The present study provides comprehensive information regarding the microbiological safety of seeds and sprouts during manufacturing. The present study investigated the levels of microbial contamination present in alfalfa and rapeseed sprouts by examining the samples taken at different stages of the manufacturing process in three actual plants. The results provide detailed information regarding the levels of seed and sprout contamination during production. The results may be useful to those involved in the sprout industry and/or academic research in terms of developing

  15. Evaluation of PCR detection of Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts and spent irrigation water collected during sprouting of naturally contaminated seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maks, Nicole; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a PCR-based system (DuPont Qualicon BAX) for detection of Salmonella in sprouts and spent irrigation water collected during sprouting of seeds naturally contaminated with Salmonella. Alfalfa seeds were grown in Mason jars at 20 and 30°C for 3 days. Levels of Salmonella present in the water and sprouts were determined by most-probable-number (MPN) analysis. Background microflora levels were also determined. Samples of spent irrigation water and sprouts were enriched overnight individually in tetrathionate broth and in buffered peptone water with novobiocin at 42°C and then run in the BAX system. Samples were also enriched according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA BAM) method for Salmonella as a comparison. Salmonella levels were lower at 20°C compared with 30°C for some trials, and background microflora levels ranged from 10(7) to 10(8) CFU/g or ml at 20°C and 10(8) to 10(9) CFU/g or ml at 30°C. In trials with a Salmonella level >1.1 MPN/g or ml, both the BAX and FDA BAM methods were able to detect Salmonella in all samples. In trials with lower levels (0.21 MPN/g or ml or lower) of Salmonella, BAX was able to detect more positive samples than FDA BAM. For one trial with <0.003 MPN/g or ml of Salmonella, the presence of the pathogen was not indicated by either the BAX or the FDA BAM method. The results suggest that PCR detected low levels of Salmonella in sprouts or spent irrigation water collected from sprouting of naturally contaminated seeds.

  16. Seed sprout production: Consumables and a foundation for higher plant growth in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Michelle; Thomas, Terri; Johnson, Steve; Luttges, Marvin

    1990-01-01

    Seed sprouts can be produced as a source of fresh vegetable materials and as higher plant seedlings in space. Sprout production was undertaken to evaluate the mass accumulations possible, the technologies needed, and the reliability of the overall process. Baseline experiments corroborated the utility of sprout production protocols for a variety of seed types. The automated delivery of saturated humidity effectively supplants labor intensive manual soaking techniques. Automated humidification also lend itself to modest centrifugal sprout growth environments. A small amount of ultraviolet radiation effectively suppressed bacterial and fungal contamination, and the sprouts were suitable for consumption.

  17. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A.; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E.

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  18. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... but its protein is of lower nutritional quality than milk, soy, pea and lupin ... amino acid and available vitamins with modified functional properties .... Proximate composition of unsprouted and sprouted soybean flours.1. Proximate ..... similar to that of purified soyabean protein in human subjects: a study using ...

  19. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substance...

  20. Shake, Bake, & Sprout: Nutrition Education at Vinton Farmer's Market

    OpenAIRE

    Butterfield, KM

    2016-01-01

    Presentation on healthy breakfast options for parents and children attending the Shake, Bake, & Sprout event at the Vinton Farmer's Market. Children participated in creating their own breakfast pizzas and parents received nutrition education handouts. This program reached twenty participants. true (Invited?) false (Extension publication?)

  1. Nutritional quality of sous vide cooked carrots and brussels sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavaro, Emma; Mazzeo, Teresa; Visconti, Attilio; Manzi, Chiara; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2012-06-13

    Phytochemicals (carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid) and antioxidant capacity (measured by TEAC, FRAP, and TRAP assays) were evaluated on carrots and Brussels sprouts sous vide processed and then stored refrigerated for 1, 5, and 10 days and compared with the corresponding raw and oven-steamed products. Data showed that sous vide cooked carrots had higher amounts of carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid than steamed products, and only a slight decrease of phenolic compounds was recorded during sous vide storage. Contrasting results were obtained on sous vide processed Brussels sprouts: higher carotenoid amounts and TEAC and TRAP values and lower phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and FRAP values were exhibited by sous vide in comparison with steamed samples. Phytochemicals and TAC also decreased during Brussels sprout sous vide storage with the exception of carotenoids. The results of this study demonstrated that sous vide preparation can preserve and/or enhance the nutritional quality of carrots, which remain a good source of carotenoids also after long refrigerated storage, whereas the same treatment could be recommended as an alternative to oven-steaming in the preparation of Brussels sprouts for short-term maintenance to avoid a large ascorbic acid depletion.

  2. Phytase activity in brown rice during steeping and sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, K.; Cheng, Y.; Xing, Y.; Lin, L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Liang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Phytase in brown rice will be activated and accumulated during seed germination. Changes of phytase activity in brown rice during two stages of germination (steeping and sprouting) affected by process conditions were studied. It was shown that steeping led to significant decrease of phytase activity

  3. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E

    2016-02-18

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  4. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Baenas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo, a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  5. Fortifi cation of white fl at bread with sprouted red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiruthika Viswanathan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Protein quantity in diet including the digestibility and bioavailability of protein is of importance to eradicate undernutrition in developing countries. Bread protein is an incomplete source as it lacks an essential amino acid lysine. When they are combined with other plant foods like pulses and legumes, they become a complete source of protein. Since bread is most common staple food the objective of this study is to fortify bread with legumes in order to increase the total protein content of bread to 13-15% which is required to meet at least 1/3rd of protein requirement of an adult recommended daily allowance. Material and methods. Fortifi cation of fl at bread was done by adding sprouted red kidney bean flour (Phaseolus vulgaris at 5, 15 and 25% to white fl our. The composite bread was analysed for crude protein and in vitro protein digestibility using the Kjeldahl and pepsin-pancreatin method. Results. The protein content of raw beans showed trivial increase on soaking for 17h and sprouting for 3 days. On the other hand, a remarkable increase was observed in protein digestibility i.e., 8% and 11% respectively. The protein content of control and composite breads increased gradually at 1% and protein digestibility decreased by 12% from control. This is due to the presence of dietary fi bers which bind with protein and inhibit its digestibility. Conclusion. The study infers that sprouting the beans for 72 h did not show any remarkable increase in protein content but a signifi cant increase in invitro protein digestibility was observed. Overall, breads made using 15% legume fl our was comparatively equal in protein content, with overall acceptable quality.

  6. Growth enhancement effects of radish sprouts: atmospheric pressure plasma irradiation vs. heat shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarinont, T.; Amano, T.; Kitazaki, S.; Koga, K.; Uchida, G.; Shiratani, M.; Hayashi, N.

    2014-06-01

    We compare growth enhancement effects due to atmospheric air dielectric barrier discharge plasma irradiation and heat shock to seeds of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.). Interactions between radicals and seeds in a short duration of 3 min. lead to the growth enhancement of radish sprouts in a long term of 7 days and the maximum average length is 3.7 times as long as that of control. The growth enhancement effects become gradually weak with time, and hence the ratio of the average length for plasma irradiation to that for control decreases from 3.7 for the first day to 1.3 for 7 day. The average length for heat shock of 60°C for 10 min. and 100°C for 3 min. is longer than that for control, and the maximum average length is 1.3 times as long as that of control. Heat shock has little contribution to the growth enhancement due to plasma irradiation, because the maximum temperature due to plasma irradiation is less than 60°C.

  7. The water factor in harvest-sprouting of hard red spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A.; Black, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Sprouting in unthreshed, ripe, hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is induced by rain, but sprouting does not necessarily occur because the crop is wetted. The spike and grain water conditions conducive to sprouting were determined in a series of laboratory experiments. Sprouting did not occur in field growing wheat wetted to 110% water concentration until the spike water concentration was reduced to 12% and maintained at this concentration for 2 days before wetting. When cut at growth stage 11.3, Feekes scale, Saratovskaya 20 (USSR) sprouted after 4 days drying, Olaf and Alex between 7 and 15 days drying and Columbus, recognized for its resistance to harvest time sprouting, after more than 15 days drying. Sprouting potential was enhanced after 4 wetting drying cycles in which any wetted interval was too brief to permit sufficient water imbibition to initiate sprouting. At harvest ripeness, grain water concentration exceeded spike water concentration by 0.7 percentage units. Following 6 months storage, 20% of the kernels in 300 spike bundles (simulating windrows) sprouted within 28 hrs after initiation of wetting to saturation (150% water concentration). Ninety percent sprouting occurred within 8 days in bundles maintained at 75% water concentration and higher, but less sprouting occurred in bundles dried to 50% water concentration before resaturation.

  8. Free cyclitol, soluble carbohydrate and protein contents in Vigna unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Centeno, Danilo da Cruz; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amancio

    2011-04-27

    Seeds sprouts have been used as a good source of basic nutrients and nutraceutical compounds. The high nutritional value of seeds derives from the deposition of compounds during development. However some of these molecules are used in metabolic processes like germination, which leads to a considerable variation in their concentrations once these events are completed. In this work, we investigate the levels of inositols (myo-inositol, D-pinitol and ononitol), soluble carbohydrates and proteins in cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata sprouts. Sprouting increased myo-inositol and glucose content and reduction of raffinose and ononitol was observed. The protein levels increased in P. vulgaris and decreased in V. unguiculata sprouting. The level of sucrose was maintained in both sprouts. D-Pinitol was detected only in quiescent seeds. Our results suggested that bean sprout is an important source of proteins, sucrose, glucose and myo-inositol. Additionally, bean sprouts have low levels of raffinose, an antinutritional compound.

  9. Isoflavone content and composition in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) sprouts germinated under different conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Yao, Yang; Zhu, Yingying; Ren, Guixing

    2015-03-18

    The influence of different germination conditions on isoflavone contents in chickpea sprouts was investigated in this study. Chickpea sprouts were germinated under different experimental conditions, including germination in the dark (GD), in the light (GL), under ethanol stress (GE), or under salt stress (GS) in the dark. The results demonstrated that the isoflavone contents in chickpea sprouts germinated with these various conditions significantly increased (pchickpea seeds. The maximum amount of total isoflavones was obtained from chickpea sprouts in the GL group on day 8. The contents of formononetin and biochanin A in this group were 154 and 130 times higher, respectively, than in untreated seeds and 1.2 times higher than in sprouts in the GD group. Moreover, the isoflavone contents of chickpea sprouts in the GE and GS groups were also higher (pchickpeas. This finding could expand the potential for the development of chickpea sprouts as a functional food.

  10. Changes in biochemical constituents and induction of early sprouting by triadimefon treatment in white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) tubers during storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JALEEL Cheruth Abdul; GOPI Ragupathi; MANIVANNAN Paramasivam; KISHOREKUMAR Ashok; GOMATHINAYAGAM Muthiah; PANNEERSELVAM Rajaram

    2007-01-01

    The ability of triadimefon (TDM), a triazolic fungicide, to alter the biochemical constituents and thereby minimizing the days required for sprouting in white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) tubers during storage under (30±2) ℃ in the dark, was studied. TDM at 20 mg/L was given to tubers by dipping the tubers in treatment solution containing 20 mg/L TDM on 10, 25 and40 d after storage (DAS). Starch, sugars, protein, amino acid contents as well as protease and α-amylase activities were estimated on 15, 30 and 45 DAS from two physiological regions viz., apical and basal regions of the tubers. In normal conditions (control)sprouting occurred on 70 to 80 DAS. The starch content decreased, while protein, amino acid, sugar contents and protease and α-amylase activities were increased due to TDM treatment and led to early sprouting.

  11. Optimization of the composition of the powdered cereal sprouts mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumbas-Šaponjac Vesna T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sprouts of cereals have received significant attention as functional food due to their nutritional and functional value. Consumption of sprouts has become increasingly popular among people interested in improving and maintaining their health status by changing dietary habits. Cereal grains contain several classes of phytochemicals, i.e. phenolics, chlorophylls, and carotenoids. However, their nutritional and chemical profile is altered and improved during germination. The purpose of this study was to find the best ratio of the powdered wheat (WS, oat (OS and barley (BS sprouts for designing the cereal sprout mixture (CSM with the highest total phenolic content (TPh and antioxidant capacity (AC, using Simplex-Centroid experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM. Single- and multi-response optimizations showed that OS did not contribute to TPh or AC values of CSM and, therefore, was not included in any of the compositions of the optimized CSM. Single-response optimizations showed that the highest TPh was found for CSM containing 82% BS and 18% WS, while the best AC was found for pure BS. The predicted ratio of cereal sprout powders in CSM obtained by multi-response optimization was: 96% BS and 4% WS. This mixture possessed the highest predicted TPh and AC (372.32 mg GAE/100 g, 549.99 μmol TE/100 g, respectively, which was confirmed to be in accordance with the experimental values. Based on the results obtained in this study, a designed CSM is proposed as a convenient ingredient of functional food products, dietary supplements and nutraceuticals.

  12. Replacing corn with pearl millet (raw and sprouted) with and without enzyme in chickens' diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharmanesh, M; Ghorbani, N; Mehdipour, Z

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare a commercial corn-soya bean meal diet with a pearl millet (raw and sprouted) diet containing less soya bean meal, alone or in combination with exogenous enzyme, on growth performance and ileal villus development of chicks. Two-hundred-and-forty-one-day-old male broilers (10/pen) were randomly allocated to one of the following dietary treatments: (i) a standard corn-soya bean meal control diet (CTL); (ii) a raw pearl millet-soya bean meal diet (PM); (iii) a sprouted pearl millet-soya bean meal diet (SPM); (iv) CTL + exogenous enzymes (CE); (v) PM + exogenous enzymes (PE); and (vi) SPM + exogenous enzymes (SPE) with four replicate pens/treatment. Body weight of birds at day 21 did not differ between those fed the CTL, and SPM and PE diets. In comparison with feeding broilers the CTL diet, feeding the PE and SPM diets caused significant decrease in feed intake, but with equivalent growth and feed efficiency. However, at day 21, feed conversion ratio did not differ between birds fed the CTL diet and those fed the PM, PE and SPM diets. At day 21, broilers fed the PM and PE diets had longer villi (p diet. At day 21, villi width was reduced (p diet. It is concluded that, in comparison with corn, broiler diets formulated with sprouted pearl millet or pearl millet with enzyme require less soya bean meal and can be used to improve growth performance traits and villus development.

  13. Bioconversion of biomass residue from the cultivation of pea sprouts on spent Pleurotus sajor-caju compost employing Lumbricus rubellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi Abu Bakar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting is a green technology for the purpose of nutrient enrichment from a variety of organic waste products. In this study, saw dust-based spent mushroom compost (SMC, an organic waste and biomass residue, was used as a medium for the cultivation of pea sprouts. After harvesting the pea sprouts, the growth medium was reused to culture earthworms, Lumbricus rubellus. The culturing activity was conducted for 50 days without any pre-composting or thermocomposting. Thus duration of vermicomposting process was shortened as opposed to previous work on vermicomposting of saw dust-based SMC (no amendment for 70 days. The culturing treatments were conducted in triplicate, including one treatment without earthworms as the control. The analysis showed that concentrations of macronutrients in vermicompost were higher compared to controls, in which N = 4.12%, P = 2.07% and K = 1.56%. The C:N ratio was 11.77, which indicates a stabilisation and maturity of the organic waste compost, compared with the C:N ratio for the control, which was 59.34. At the end of the experiment, increment of total biomass and number of earthworms were observed and no mortality was recorded. The results suggested that vermicomposting could be used as an environmentally valuable technology to convert saw dust used for mushroom and pea sprouts cultivation into vermicompost or bio-fertiliser by employing L. rubellus.

  14. Associations among maternal nutrition and infant birth outcomes in a cohort of pregnant, primarily African American, rural, Southern women: Delta Healthy Sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and aims: At no point during a woman’s life is good nutrition more important than during her reproductive years as her dietary choices affect not only her health but also that of her child. Delta Healthy Sprouts is a randomized, controlled, comparative trial testing the impact of two Ma...

  15. Effects of sprouting and postharvest storage under cool temperature conditions on starch content and antioxidant capacity of green pea, lentil and young mung bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-10-15

    The effects of germination of selected legumes and further storage of sprouts under cool conditions on the phenolics, antioxidant activity and starch content and their potential bioaccessibility were elucidated. In green pea and mung bean sprouts a slight increase of chemically extractable phenolics (including flavonoids) during the first 4 days of sprouting was observed. Digestion in vitro released phenolics; however, flavonoids were poorly bioaccessible. Storage of green pea sprouts decreased reducing power and increased the antiradical ability. Reducing potential of potentially bioaccessible fraction of stored lentil sprouts was elevated of 40%, 31% and 23% in 3-, 4- and 5-day-old sprouts, respectively. Postharvest storage significantly increases the starch digestibility and values of expected glycemic index (eGI)--the highest eGIs were determined for 5-day-old stored sprouts; 75.17-green pea, 83.18-lentil and 89.87-mung bean. Bioactivity and nutritional quality of legumes is affected by sprouting and further storage at low temperatures.

  16. MMP-sensitive PEG diacrylate hydrogels with spatial variations in matrix properties stimulate directional vascular sprout formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael V Turturro

    Full Text Available The spatial presentation of immobilized extracellular matrix (ECM cues and matrix mechanical properties play an important role in directed and guided cell behavior and neovascularization. The goal of this work was to explore whether gradients of elastic modulus, immobilized matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-sensitivity, and YRGDS cell adhesion ligands are capable of directing 3D vascular sprout formation in tissue engineered scaffolds. PEGDA hydrogels were engineered with mechanical and biofunctional gradients using perfusion-based frontal photopolymerization (PBFP. Bulk photopolymerized hydrogels with uniform mechanical properties, degradation, and immobilized biofunctionality served as controls. Gradient hydrogels exhibited an 80.4% decrease in elastic modulus and a 56.2% decrease in immobilized YRGDS. PBFP hydrogels also demonstrated gradients in hydrogel degradation with degradation times ranging from 10-12 hours in the more crosslinked regions to 4-6 hours in less crosslinked regions. An in vitro model of neovascularization, composed of co-culture aggregates of endothelial and smooth muscle cells, was used to evaluate the effect of these gradients on vascular sprout formation. Aggregate invasion in gradient hydrogels occurred bi-directionally with sprout alignment observed in the direction parallel to the gradient while control hydrogels with homogeneous properties resulted in uniform invasion. In PBFP gradient hydrogels, aggregate sprout length was found to be twice as long in the direction parallel to the gradient as compared to the perpendicular direction after three weeks in culture. This directionality was found to be more prominent in gradient regions of increased stiffness, crosslinked MMP-sensitive peptide presentation, and immobilized YRGDS concentration.

  17. 抗条锈、抗穗发芽六倍体人工合成小麦Cereta/Aegilops tauschii783的SSR标记分析%Genetic Evaluation of a Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat Cereta/Aegilops tauschii783 with Resistances to Stripe Rust and Pre-harvest Sprouting by SSR Marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 魏会廷; 杨武云; 彭正松

    2005-01-01

    Cereta/Aegilops tauschii783是由CIMMYT引进的硬粒小麦/节节麦人工合成种,具有高抗条锈和高抗穗发芽等优良特性.本文选用小麦A、B、D染色体组的91对SSR引物将人工合成小麦Cereta/Aegilops tauschii783与绵阳26在分子水平上进行了比较分析,结果表明:91对引物中有88对引物能扩增出清晰条带;88对引物中除3对引物外,86对引物(96.59%)均能揭示出Cereta/Aegilops tauschii783与绵阳26之间的差异.人工合成小麦Cereta/Aegilops tauschii783与育成小麦品种遗传差异很大,是丰富现代小麦遗传多样性的优异基因源;利用人工合成小麦Cereta/Aegilops tauschii783与绵阳26构建SSR标记群体,可有效标记双亲优良基因.

  18. Flavonoid synthesis in buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench ) sprout grown under pseudo-microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Iwasawa, Hiroko; Hiraishi, Kanae; Sato, Seigo; Miyagawa, Teruo; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges. We are studying space agriculture to provide foods and oxygen for space habitats. However, careful assessment should be made on the effects of exotic environment on the endogenous production of biologically active substances in plants, which will be cultivated in space. We found that production of functional substances is affected by gravity in broccoli sprout (Brassica coleracea var. italica). The production of sulforaphane (4-methylsulfinybutyl isothiocyanate), in broccoli was slightly affected by gravity. Buckwheat is also known to produce several species of flavonoids, which act as an antioxidant, and enhance immunity of human. Such production of physiologically active substances, those agricultural species are accepted as good food materials. Buckwheat sprouts were cultivated for 4 days under the 3D-clinorotation. The amount of flavonoids, such as orientin, isoorientin, isovitexin, vitexin, rutin, produced by this treatment showed significant differences compared to those in the ground control. We examined effects of the gravity to the flavonoid synthesis pathways.

  19. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging detects mossy fiber sprouting in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiros, Jackeline M.; Polli, Roberson S.; Paiva, Fernando F.; Longo, Beatriz M.; Mello, Luiz E.; Silva, Afonso C.; Tannús, Alberto; Covolan, Luciene

    2012-01-01

    Summary Purpose Mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) is a frequent finding following status epilepticus (SE). The present study aimed to test the feasibility of using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to detect MFS in the chronic phase of the well-established pilocarpine (Pilo) rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Methods To modulate MFS, cycloheximide (CHX), a protein synthesis inhibitor, was co-administered with Pilo in a sub-group of animals. In vivo MEMRI was performed 3 months after induction of SE and compared to the neo-Timm histological labeling of zinc mossy fiber terminals in the dentate gyrus (DG). Key findings Chronically epileptic rats displaying MFS as detected by neo-Timm histology had a hyperintense MEMRI signal in the DG, while chronically epileptic animals that did not display MFS had minimal MEMRI signal enhancement compared to non-epileptic control animals. A strong correlation (r = 0.81, P<0.001) was found between MEMRI signal enhancement and MFS. Significance This study shows that MEMRI is an attractive non-invasive method to detect mossy fiber sprouting in vivo and can be used as an evaluation tool in testing therapeutic approaches to manage chronic epilepsy. PMID:22642664

  20. Effect of broccoli sprouts on nasal response to live attenuated influenza virus in smokers: a randomized, double-blind study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry L Noah

    Full Text Available Smokers have increased susceptibility and altered innate host defense responses to influenza virus infection. Broccoli sprouts are a source of the Nrf2 activating agentsulforaphane, and short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates (BSH has been shown to reduce nasal inflammatory responses to oxidant pollutants.Assess the effects of BSH on nasal cytokines, virus replication, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in smokers and nonsmokers.We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effects of BSH on serially sampled nasal lavage fluid (NLF cytokines, viral sequence quantity, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in NLF cells and biopsied epithelium. Healthy young adult smokers and nonsmokers ingested BSH or placebo (alfalfa sprout homogenate for 4 days, designated Days -1, 0, 1, 2. On Day 0 they received standard vaccine dose of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV intranasally. Nasal lavage fluids and nasal biopsies were collected serially to assess response to LAIV.In area under curve analyses, post-LAIV IL-6 responses (P = 0.03 and influenza sequences (P = 0.01 were significantly reduced in NLF from BSH-treated smokers, whilequinoneoxidoreductasein NLF cells was significantly increased. In nonsmokers, a similar trend for reduction in virus quantity with BSH did not reach statistical significance.In smokers, short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates appears to significantly reduce some virus-induced markers of inflammation, as well as reducing virus quantity. Nutritional antioxidant interventions have promise as a safe, low-cost strategy for reducing influenza risk among smokers and other at risk populations.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01269723.

  1. Selective loss and axonal sprouting of GABAergic interneurons in the sclerotic hippocampus induced by LiCl-pilocarpine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lili; Xiao, Bo; Feng, Li; Yi, Fang; Li, Guoliang; Li, Shuyu; Mutasem, M Abuhamed; Chen, Si; Bi, Fangfang; Li, Yi

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we performed immunohistochemistry for somatostatin (SS), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and parvalbumin (PV) in LiCl-pilocarpine-treated rats to observe quantitative changes and axonal sprouting of GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus, especially in the sclerotic hippocampus. Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) was performed to detect the specific degeneration of GABAergic interneurons. Compared with age-matched control rats, there were fewer SS/NPY/PV-immunoreactive (IR) interneurons in the hilus of the sclerotic hippocampus in pilocarpine-treated rats; hilar dentritic inhibitory interneurons were most vulnerable. FJB stain revealed degeneration was evident at 2 months after status epilepticus. Some SS-IR and NPY-IR interneurons were also stained for FJB, but there was no evidence of degeneration of PV-IR interneurons. Axonal sprouting of GABAergic interneurons was present in the hippocampus of epileptic rats, and a dramatic increase of SS-IR fibers was observed throughout all layers of CA1 region in the sclerotic hippocampus. These results confirm selective loss and degeneration of a specific subset of GABAergic interneurons in specific subfields of the hippocampus. Axonal sprouting of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons, especially numerous increase of SS-IR neutrophils within CA1 region of the sclerotic hippocampus, may constitute the aberrant inhibitory circum and play a significant role in the generation and compensation of temporal lobe epilepsy.

  2. Antifungal and sprout regulatory bioactivities of phenylacetic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and tyrosol isolated from the potato dry rot suppressive bacterium Enterobacter cloacae S11:T:07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slininger, P J; Burkhead, K D; Schisler, D A

    2004-12-01

    Enterobacter cloacae S11: T:07 (NRRL B-21050) is a promising biological control agent that has significantly reduced both fungal dry rot disease and sprouting in laboratory and pilot potato storages. The metabolites phenylacetic acid (PAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and tyrosol (TSL) were isolated from S11:T:07 liquid cultures provided with three different growth media. The bioactivities of these metabolites were investigated via thin-layer chromatography bioautography of antifungal activity, wounded potato assays of dry rot suppressiveness, and cored potato eye assays of sprout inhibition. Relative accumulations of PAA, IAA, and TSL in cultures were nutrient dependent. For the first time, IAA, TSL, and PAA were shown to have antifungal activity against the dry rot causative pathogen Gibberella pulicaris, and to suppress dry rot infection of wounded potatoes. Disease suppression was optimal when all three metabolites were applied in combination. Dosages of IAA that resulted in disease suppression also resulted in sprout inhibition. These results suggest the potential for designing culture production and formulation conditions to achieve a dual purpose biological control agent able to suppress both dry rot and sprouting of stored potatoes.

  3. Comparison of phenolic compositions between common and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum) sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ju; Zaidul, I S M; Suzuki, Tatsuro; Mukasa, Yuji; Hashimoto, Naoto; Takigawa, Sigenobu; Noda, Takahiro; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Yamauchi, Hiroaki

    2008-10-15

    The phenolic compositions of non-germinated/germinated seeds and seed sprouts (at 6-10 day-old) of common (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench) and tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) buckwheats were investigated. Phenolic compounds, including chlorogenic acid, four C-glycosylflavones (orientin, isoorientin vitexin, isovitexin), rutin and quercetin, were determined in the seed sprouts by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the edible parts of common buckwheat sprouts, individual phenolics significantly increased during sprout growth from 6 to 10 days after sowing (DAS), whereas in tartary buckwheat sprouts they did not. While the sum contents of phenolic compounds in the edible part (mean 24.4mg/g DW at 6-10 DAS) of tartary buckwheat sprouts were similar to those of common buckwheat sprouts, rutin contents in the non-germinated/germinated seeds (mean 14.7mg/g DW) and edible parts (mean 21.8mg/g DW) of tartary buckwheat were 49- and 5-fold, respectively, higher than those of common buckwheat. Extracts of the edible parts of both species showed very similar free radical-scavenging activities (mean 1.7μmol trolox eq/g DW), suggesting that the overall antioxidative activity might be affected by the combination of identified phenolics and unidentified (minor) components. Therefore, buckwheat seed sprouts are recommended for their high antioxidative activity, as well as being an excellent dietary source of phenolic compounds, particularly tartary buckwheat sprouts, being rich in rutin.

  4. Exuberant sprouting of sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers in nonhealed bone fractures and the generation and maintenance of chronic skeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Stephane R; Thompson, Michelle L; Longo, Geraldine; Fealk, Michelle N; Majuta, Lisa A; Mantyh, Patrick W

    2014-11-01

    Skeletal injury is a leading cause of chronic pain and long-term disability worldwide. While most acute skeletal pain can be effectively managed with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opiates, chronic skeletal pain is more difficult to control using these same therapy regimens. One possibility as to why chronic skeletal pain is more difficult to manage over time is that there may be nerve sprouting in nonhealed areas of the skeleton that normally receive little (mineralized bone) to no (articular cartilage) innervation. If such ectopic sprouting did occur, it could result in normally nonnoxious loading of the skeleton being perceived as noxious and/or the generation of a neuropathic pain state. To explore this possibility, a mouse model of skeletal pain was generated by inducing a closed fracture of the femur. Examined animals had comminuted fractures and did not fully heal even at 90+days post fracture. In all mice with nonhealed fractures, exuberant sensory and sympathetic nerve sprouting, an increase in the density of nerve fibers, and the formation of neuroma-like structures near the fracture site were observed. Additionally, all of these animals exhibited significant pain behaviors upon palpation of the nonhealed fracture site. In contrast, sprouting of sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers or significant palpation-induced pain behaviors was never observed in naïve animals. Understanding what drives this ectopic nerve sprouting and the role it plays in skeletal pain may allow a better understanding and treatment of this currently difficult-to-control pain state. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Probiotic Diversity from Soybean (Glycine max) Seeds and Sprouts Using Illumina-Based Sequencing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yali; Zhang, Miaomiao; Deng, Zujun; Cao, Lixiang

    2017-07-24

    There is increasing interest in the use of plant probiotics as environmental-friendly and healthy biofertilizers. The study aimed at selecting for novel probiotic candidates of soybean (Glycine max). The bacteriome and mycobiome of soybean sprouts and seeds were analyzed by Illumina-based sequencing. Seeds contained more diverse bacteria than those in sprouts. The seeds contained similar fungal diversity with sprouts. Total 15 bacterial OTUs and 4 fungal OTUs were detected in seeds and sprouts simultaneously, suggesting that the sprouts contained bacterial and fungal taxa transmitted from seeds. The Halothiobacillus was the most dominant bacterial genus observed and coexisted in seeds and sprouts. The OTUs belonged to Ascomycota were the most dominant fungal taxa observed in seeds and sprouts. Halothiobacillus was firstly identified as endophytic probiotics of soybean. The results suggested that sprouts might contain diverse plant probiotics of mature plants and Illumina-based sequencing can be used to screen for probiotic candidates.

  6. Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Radish Sprouts: Root Growth Reduction and Modifications in the Nutritional Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Armendariz, Raul; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-01-01

    Reports indicate that silver nanoparticles (nAg) are toxic to vegetation, but little is known about their effects in crop plants. This study examines the impacts of nAg on the physiology and nutritional quality of radish (Raphanus sativus) sprouts. Seeds were germinated and grown for 5 days in nAg suspensions at 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg/L. Seed germination and seedling growth were evaluated with traditional methodologies; the uptake of Ag and nutrients was quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and changes in macromolecules were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. None of the nAg concentrations reduced seed germination. However, the water content (% of the total weight) was reduced by 1.62, 1.65, and 2.54% with exposure to 125, 250, and 500 mg/L, respectively, compared with the control. At 500 mg/L, the root and shoot lengths were reduced by 47.7 and 40%, with respect to the control. The seedlings exposed to 500 mg/L had 901 ± 150 mg Ag/kg dry wt and significantly less Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn, compared with the control. The infrared spectroscopy analysis showed changes in the bands corresponding to lipids (3000-2800 cm(-1)), proteins (1550-1530 cm(-1)), and structural components of plant cells such as lignin, pectin, and cellulose. These results suggest that nAg could significantly affect the growth, nutrient content and macromolecule conformation in radish sprouts, with unknown consequences for human health.

  7. Effects of silver nanoparticles on radish sprouts: Root growth reduction and modifications in the nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia eZuverza-Mena

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reports indicate that silver nanoparticles (nAg are toxic to vegetation, but little is known about their effects in crop plants. This study examines the impacts of nAg on the physiology and nutritional quality of radish (Raphanus sativus sprouts. Seeds were germinated and grown for five days in nAg suspensions at 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg/L. Seed germination and seedling growth were evaluated with traditional methodologies; the uptake of Ag and nutrients was quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES and changes in macromolecules were analyzed by infrared (IR spectroscopy. None of the nAg concentrations reduced seed germination. However, the water content (% of the total weight was reduced by 1.62%, 1.65%, and 2.54% with exposure to 125, 250 and 500 mg/L, respectively, compared with the control. At 500 mg/L, the root and shoot lengths were reduced by 47.7% and 40%, with respect to the control. The seedlings exposed to 500 mg/L had 901±150 mg Ag/kg dry wt and significantly less Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn, compared with the control. The infrared spectroscopy analysis showed changes in the bands corresponding to lipids (3000 – 2800 cm-1, proteins (1550 - 1530, and structural components of plant cells such as lignin, pectin and cellulose. These results suggest that nAg could significantly affect the growth, nutrient content and macromolecule conformation in radish sprouts, with unknown consequences for human health.

  8. Different aspects of S-carvone A natural potato sprout growth inhibitor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhaven, J.

    1995-01-01

    After harvest, potato tubers are usually stored at a temperature of 6-8°C in combination with the application of a synthetic sprout inhibitor. Frequently used sprout inhibitors are isopropyl N-phenyl-carbamate (propham or IPC), isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl)carbamate (chlorpropham or CIPC) or a combin

  9. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hee Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol.

  10. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Sprouted Chia and Flax Seed Powders

    OpenAIRE

    Ronholm, Jennifer; Petronella, Nicholas; Tamber, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    A 2014 foodborne salmonellosis outbreak in Canada and the United States implicated, for the first time, sprouted chia seed powder as the vehicle of transmission. Here, we report the draft whole genome sequences of two Salmonella enterica strains isolated from sprouted powders related to the aforementioned outbreak.

  11. The spatial and temporal rooting pattern of Brussels sprouts and leeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.L.; Booij, R.; Werf, van der A.

    1996-01-01

    Rooting intensity and root distribution of Brussels sprouts and leeks were assessed in field experiments and in the Wageningen Rhizolab, a rhizotron facility built in 1990, in relation to their contrasting N uptake behaviour (Brussels sprouts usually take up N rapidly after planting, resulting in so

  12. Different aspects of S-carvone, a natural potato sprout growth inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhaven, J.

    1995-01-01

    After harvest, potato tubers are usually stored at a temperature of 6-8°C in combination with the application of a synthetic sprout inhibitor. Frequently used sprout inhibitors are isopropyl N-phenyl-carbamate (propham or IPC), isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl)carbamate (chlorpropham or CIPC) or

  13. Kinetics of Sulforaphane in Mice after Consumption of Sulforaphane-Enriched Broccoli Sprout Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xiaoqin; Zou, Peng; Schwartz, Steven J.; Sun, Duxin

    2013-01-01

    Scope Sulforaphane is a natural isothiocyanate in broccoli sprouts with cancer chemopreventive activity. This study is aimed to to use different methods to develop broccoli sprout preparations to compare their ability to deliver sulforaphane to the mice and to evaluate the kinetics and biodistribution of sulforaphane. Methods and Results The sulforaphane-enriched sprout preparation generated by two-step procedure (quick-steaming followed by myrosinase treatment) contained the highest level of sulforaphane, which was 11 and 5 times higher than the freeze-dried fresh broccoli sprouts and the quick-steamed, freeze-dried broccoli sprouts, respectively. After oral administration of 2.5 mg/g body weight of the broccoli sprout preparations, sulforaphane was quickly absorbed and distributed throughout the tissues. The sulforaphane-rich preparation resulted in the highest exposure, with peak plasma sulforaphane concentration of 337 ng/ml, which is 6.0 times and 2.6 times higher compared to the other two preparations. A whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model (developed with ADAPT 5 software) suggests that distribution of sulforaphane is perfusion-limited in all organs. Conclusion This study provides a broccoli sprout preparation that can serve as a good source of sulforaphane, and the model can be utilized to guide the dose design for the use of broccoli sprout preparation in chemoprevention. PMID:23929742

  14. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility.

  15. Evaluation of oak stump sprouting in the Missouri Ozarks ten years after harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy G. Jensen; Daniel C. Dey

    2008-01-01

    Managers in Missouri often want to manage forests to retain oak in the future. Oaks are valuable for timber and many wildlife species depend on acorns. Large advance reproduction and stump sprouts are the most competitive sources of regeneration. It is well known that oak stump sprouts contribute to future stands in even-age clearcuts in the Missouri Ozarks, but there...

  16. 牛奶对绿豆芽生长及其品质的影响%Effects of Milk on the Growth and Quality of Mung Bean Sprouts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春霞; 卫其巍; 程须珍; 王素华; 张明珠; 李海良; 高华利; 王静

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine the influence of milk on growth and quality of mung bean sprouts,the sold sterilized milk diluted 4 times,20 times,100 times,500 times and distilled water had been used to treat mung bean sprouts.The results show that,the milk diluted 500 times and the milk diluted 100 times could promote the growth of mung bean sprouts,and the milk diluted 500 times showed better effect on growth of mung bean sprouts; however,the milk diluted 4 times and the milk diluted 20 times inhibited the growth of mung bean sprouts,and the inhibitory effect of the milk diluted 4 times was more serious; the N content and VC content in mung bean sprouts treated by high concentration (such as the milk diluted 4 times groups and the milk diluted 20 times group) were higher than those treated by low concentration (such as the milk diluted 500 times and the milk diluted 100 times); the dried weight of mung bean sprouts treated by the milk diluted 4 times group and milk diluted 20 times group was higher than the control group.%为测定牛奶对绿豆芽生长及其品质的影响,将市售蒙牛纯牛奶稀释4倍、20倍、100倍和500倍分别对绿豆进行处理,以去离子水处理的作对照.结果表明,用牛奶500倍和100倍稀释液淋洒绿豆可以促进绿豆芽的生长,且牛奶500倍稀释液的促进效果比牛奶100倍稀释液的效果更明显;牛奶20倍和4倍稀释液则抑制绿豆芽的生长,且牛奶4倍稀释液抑制效果更严重;牛奶浓度相对高的处理的绿豆芽N含量和VC含量高于低浓度处理:牛奶4倍和20倍稀释液处理的绿豆芽干重比对照高.

  17. Antioxidant activity of tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.) and common (Fagopyrum esculentum moench) buckwheat sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the differences of two types of buckwheat sprouts, namely, common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and tartary buckwheat ( Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.), in general composition, functional components, and antioxidant capacity. The ethanol extracts of tartary buckwheat sprouts (TBS) had higher reducing power, free radical scavenging activity, and superoxide anion scavenging activity than those of common buckwheat sprouts (CBS). As for chelating effects on ferrous ions, CBS had higher values than TBS. Rutin was the major flavonoid found in these two types of buckwheat sprouts, and TBS was 5 fold higher in rutin than CBS. The antioxidant effects of buckwheat sprouts on human hepatoma HepG2 cells revealed that both of TBS and CBS could decrease the production of intracellular peroxide and remove the intracellular superoxide anions in HepG2 cells, but TBS reduced the cellular oxidative stress more effectively than CBS, possibly because of its higher rutin (and quercetin) content.

  18. Cloning of genes related to aliphatic glucosinolate metabolism and the mechanism of sulforaphane accumulation in broccoli sprouts under jasmonic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liping; Yang, Runqiang; Gu, Zhenxin

    2016-10-01

    Cytochrome P450 79F1 (CYP79F1), cytochrome P450 83A1 (CYP83A1), UDP-glucosyltransferase 74B1 (UGT74B1), sulfotransferase 18 (ST5b) and flavin-containing monooxygenase GS-OX1 (FMOGS - OX1 ) are important enzymes in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. In this study, their full-length cDNA in broccoli was firstly cloned, then the mechanism of sulforaphane accumulation under jasmonic acid (JA) treatment was investigated. The full-length cDNA of CYP79F1, CYP83A1, UGT74B1, ST5b and FMOGS - OX1 comprised 1980, 1652, 1592, 1378 and 1623 bp respectively. The increase in aliphatic glucosinolate accumulation in broccoli sprouts treated with JA was associated with elevated expression of genes in the aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. Application of 100 µmol L(-1) JA increased myrosinase (MYR) activity but did not affect epithiospecifier protein (ESP) activity in broccoli sprouts, which was supported by the expression of MYR and ESP. Sulforaphane formation in 7-day-old sprouts treated with 100 µmol L(-1) JA was 3.36 and 1.30 times that in the control and 300 µmol L(-1) JA treatment respectively. JA enhanced the accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts via up-regulation of related gene expression. Broccoli sprouts treated with 100 µmol L(-1) JA showed higher sulforphane formation than those treated with 300 µmol L(-1) JA owing to the higher glucoraphanin content and myrosinase activity under 100 µmol L(-1) JA treatment. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Flow cytometry for rapid detection of Salmonella spp. in seed sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bledar Bisha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed sprouts (alfalfa, mung bean, radish, etc. have been implicated in several recent national and international outbreaks of salmonellosis. Conditions used for sprouting are also conducive to the growth of Salmonella. As a result, this pathogen can quickly grow to very high cell densities during sprouting without any detectable organoleptic impact. Seed sprouts typically also support heavy growth (~108 CFU g−1 of a heterogeneous microbiota consisting of various bacterial, yeast, and mold species, often dominated by non-pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. This heavy background may present challenges to the detection of Salmonella, especially if this pathogen is present in relatively low numbers. We combined DNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with flow cytometry (FCM for the rapid molecular detection of Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium in artificially contaminated alfalfa and other seed sprouts. Components of the assay included a set of cooperatively binding probes, a chemical blocking treatment intended to reduce non-specific background, and sample concentration via tangential flow filtration (TFF. We were able to detect S. Typhimurium in sprout wash at levels as low as 103 CFU ml−1 sprout wash (104 CFU g−1 sprouts against high microbial backgrounds (~108 CFU g−1 sprouts. Hybridization times were typically 30 min, with additional washing, but we ultimately found that S. Typhimurium could be readily detected using hybridization times as short as 2 min, without a wash step. These results clearly demonstrate the potential of combined DNA-FISH and FCM for rapid detection of Salmonella in this challenging food matrix and provide industry with a useful tool for compliance with sprout production standards proposed in the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA.

  20. Comportamento pós-colheita de frutos de morangueiro após a aplicação pré-colheita de quitosana e acibenzolar-S-metil Post harvest behavior of strawberry fruits after pre harvest treatment with chitosan and acibenzolar-S-methyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Miguel Mazaro

    2008-03-01

    (0.5; 1.0 and 2.0% and ASM (0.0025% in relation to control plants (distilled water only and those with fungicides application. The chitosan treatment in all three evaluated concentrations, delayed the fruit maturation, increased the flesh firmness and titratable acidity and decreased the mass loss. It was also observed reduction in the ethylene production and in the reduced sugars and increased the total polyphenol in strawberry fruits. The chitosan treatment in all three evaluated concentrations induced greater plant resistance to diseases with effect on the reduction of the fruit rots in the post harvest by Botrytis cindered. Although, chitosan treatment in the concentration of 2% caused damage to the fruits in the post harvest increased the respiration rate and the reduced sugar. The ASM had effect on the retention of the titratable acidity and acted efficiently on the rot reduction similar to the treatment with fungicides. The application of chitosan and ASM pre-harvest did not interfere in the organoleptic quality of the fruits in the post harvest.

  1. Potential Properties of Plant Sprout Extracts on Amyloid β

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Mizue; Okada, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the amyloid β (Aβ) inhibition mechanism of plant sprouts' aqueous extracts (PSAE). In this study, we screened the effects of five plant sprouts' extracts on Aβ (1–42) structure modification using gel electrophoresis. In PSAE, no band of Aβ monomer was recognized in Japanese butterbur. Similarly, the Aβ monomer band became light in buckwheat, red cabbage, broccoli, and brussels. The neuroprotective effects of PSAE were evaluated by measuring levels of Aβ in mixtures (Aβ  and PSAE) with Aβ ELISA assay. The treatment with PSAE decreased Aβ levels. The results indicated that the levels of red cabbage, Japanese butterbur, and broccoli were 9.6, 28.0, and 44.0%, respectively. The lowest value was observed with buckwheat. Furthermore, we carried out a Congo Red (CR) and Aβ binding experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. The correlation coefficient for the absorption spectrum peak of CR was found to be bigger than 0.8 (r = 0.882) which proved that the Aβ levels could be attributed to the peak of CR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with PSAE effectively decreases Aβ concentration. Thus, the mechanism that decreased the Aβ levels may be modification by PSAE. PMID:27429807

  2. Sprouted buckwheat an important vegetable source of antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Brajdes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Germination process is the only food processing which provides asignificant increase of the nutritional value by enhancing the bioavailability of some nutritional compounds, such as vitamins. The aim of our study was to test the antioxidant properties of the buckwheat sprout. The total polyphenols, flavonoids and ascorbic acid contents during seven days of germination were determined. The results indicate that important changes occur in the amount of biologically active compounds during germination: the amount of polyphenols increases from 50.26 to 298.03 mg/100g d.w., the amount of rutin increases from 13.66 to 283.43 mg/100g d.w., the amount of quercitin increases from 4.77 to 223.76 mg/100g d.w., whereasthe amount of ascorbic acid increases from 0 to 1.09 mg/100g d.w. Due to the excellent antioxidant properties, the buckwheat sprouts can be considered good candidate ingredients for functional foods to be used for lowering the risk of various diseases and/or for exerting health promoting effects in addition to its nutritive value.

  3. Antihyperlipidemic activity of chickpea sprouts supplementation in ovariectomy-induced dyslipidemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagili Harini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phytoestrogens are increasingly becoming popular as alternatives for hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal condition. Objective: In this study, the antihyperlipidemic effect of chickpea (Cicer arientum sprouts was evaluated in ovariectomy-induced dyslipidemia in rat model in comparison with standard antihyperlipidemic agent atorvastatin. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 female adult Wistar rats were divided into four groups that is, Group I - Control; Group II - Ovariectomized (OVX rats; Group III - OVX + germinated chickpea sprouts (20% in diet and Group IV OVX + atorvastatin (1.2 mg/kg b.wt, p.o.. Body and organ weights, serum, and liver lipid profile were assessed at the end of 8 weeks. Results: The results indicated that ovariectomy significantly (P < 0.05 increased total cholesterol, nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs in serum and liver. The total lipid and phospholipid content in liver were also significantly (P < 0.05 increased. The weights of uterus and heart were significantly (P < 0.05 decreased. Dietary supplementation with germinated chickpea normalized the lipid profile in serum and liver. Further, high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, body weight, uterine, heart, and spleen weights were significantly (P < 0.05 increased. Atorvastatin administration showed similarly normalized lipid profile, but showed no improvement on decreased uterus and heart weights. Histopathological examination revealed fatty changes in liver, uterine atrophy, and subintimal fat accumulation in aorta in OVX group. The changes were mild in chickpea group with no improvement in statin group. Conclusions: Germinated seeds of chickpea showed significant antihyperlipidemic activity, which was comparable to atorvastatin. Further, germinated chickpea improved organ weights and helped in the reversal of histopathological changes suggesting its usefulness in postmenopausal condition.

  4. ABA pretreatment can alter the distribution of polysomes in salt-stressed barley sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szypulska Ewa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed caryopses of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Stratus. Caryopses were germinated in darkness at 20°C in three experimental setups: (a in distilled water for 24 hours, followed by 100 mM NaCl for another 24 hours (salinity stress, SS, (b in 100 μM of abscisic acid for the first 24 hours, followed by rinsing with distilled water to remove residual ABA, and in 100 mM NaCl for another 24 hours (ABA pretreatment + salinity stress, ABAS, (c in distilled water only (control, C. Changes in the content of free polysomes (FP, membrane-bound polysomes (MBP, cytoskeleton-bound polysomes (CBP and cytomatrix-bound polysomes (CMBP were examined in barley sprouts germinated in SS and ABAS treatments for 48 hours. In salt-stressed barley sprouts, the concentrations of membrane-bound and cytoskeleton-bound polysomes (MBP, CBP and CMBP decreased significantly, whereas an increase was noted only in the free polysome (FP fraction. ABA pretreatment altered the distribution of polysomes in stressed plants. The content of cytoskeletonbound polysomes (CBP and CMBP increased, FP levels decreased, whereas no changes in MBP content were observed in response to ABA treatment. Our results suggest that plants respond to salt stress by increasing the concentrations of free polysomes that are probably released from damaged cell structures, mainly membranes. Our present and previous findings indicate that ABA could inhibit the release of FP in stressed plants by enhancing polysome binding to the cytoskeleton.

  5. Total polyphenols and bioactivity of seeds and sprouts in several legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Sang-Uk

    2013-01-01

    Seeds and sprouts from legume crop plants have received attention as functional foods, because of their nutritive values including amino acid, fiber, trace elements, vitamins, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Consumption of seeds and sprouts has become increasingly popular among people interested in improving and maintaining their health status by changing dietary habits. The seeds and sprouts are excellent examples of functional food defined as lowering the risk of various diseases and/or exerting health promoting effects in addition to its nutritive value. Phenolic compounds are considered as secondary metabolites that are synthesized by plants during normal development and in response to stress conditions, and the compounds occur ubiquitously in plants as the diversified group of phytochemicals derived from phenylalanine and tyrosine. Plant phenolics include simple phenols, phenolic acids, coumarins, flavonoids, stilbenes, hydrolyzable and condensed tannins, lignans, and lignins. In plant, phenolics may act as phytoalexins, antifeedants, attractants for pollinators, contributors to the plant pigmentation, antioxidants, and protective agents against UV light, among others. In food, phenolics may contribute to the bitterness, astringency, color, flavor, odor, and oxidative stability of products. In addition, health-protecting capacity of some and antinutritional properties of other plant phenolics are of great importance to producers, processors and consumers. Several researches were conducted to compare the content of phenolics and flavonoids, antioxidant activity and antioxidant enzyme activity from seeds and sprouts of legume plants. Total phenolics (TP) content and total flavonoids (TF) level were highest in soybean sprout extracts, followed by cowpea and mungbean sprout extracts (p < 0.05). DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical) free radical scavenging activity was higher in cowpea or mungbean sprouts than in soybean sprouts. Among antioxidant enzymes

  6. Regenerating sprouts of axotomized cat muscle afferents express characteristic firing patterns to mechanical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R D; Munson, J B

    1991-12-01

    1. In cats, we studied the physiological properties of regenerating sprouts of muscle afferent fibers and compared them with sprouts from cutaneous afferent fibers. 2. Muscle nerves to the triceps surae and cutaneous sural nerves were axotomized in the popliteal fossa, and the proximal ends were inserted into nerve cuffs. Six days later, we recorded action potentials from single Groups I and II muscle and mostly Group II cutaneous afferents driven by mechanostimulation of the cuff. 3. Most muscle afferent sprouts (91%) had a regular slowly adapting discharge in response to sustained mechanical displacement of the cuff, particularly to sustained stretch stimuli, whereas most cutaneous afferents (92%) did not. Muscle afferents were more likely to have a spontaneous discharge and afterdischarge. 4. Group II muscle afferent sprouts had lower stretch thresholds and a higher incidence of spontaneous discharge compared with Group I fiber sprouts, whereas Group I fibers had a higher incidence of high-frequency afterdischarge to mechanical stimuli. 5. We conclude that, 6 days after axotomy, regenerating sprouts of muscle afferents, particularly Group II afferents, have become mechanosensitive in the absence of a receptor target and exhibit physiological properties similar to those found when innervating their native muscle but significantly different from sprouts of cutaneous afferents. Expression of these native muscle afferent firing patterns after the inappropriate reinnervation of hairy skin may be due to inherent properties of the muscle afferent fiber.

  7. Inactivation of Salmonella on Sprouting Seeds Using a Spontaneous Carvacrol Nanoemulsion Acidified with Organic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Kyle S; Komaiko, Jennifer; Wong, Dana E; Xu, Ting; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2016-07-01

    Over the past decade, demand has increased for natural, minimally processed produce, including sprout-based products. Sanitization with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite is currently recommended for all sprouting seeds before germination to limit sprout-related foodborne outbreaks. A potentially promising disinfectant as an alternative to calcium hypochlorite is acidified spontaneous essential oil nanoemulsions. In this study, the efficacy of an acidified carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested against mung beans and broccoli seeds artificially contaminated with a Salmonella enterica Enteritidis cocktail (ATCC BAA-709, ATCC BAA-711, and ATCC BAA-1045). Treatments were performed by soaking inoculated seeds in acidified (50 mM acetic or levulinic acid) carvacrol nanoemulsions (4,000 or 8,000 ppm) for 30 or 60 min. After treatment, the number of surviving cells was determined via plate counts and/or the most probable number (MPN) approach. Treatment for 30 min successfully reduced Salmonella Enteritidis by 4 log CFU/g on mung beans (from an initial contamination level of 4.2 to 4.6 log CFU/g) and by 2 log CFU/g on broccoli seeds (from an initial contamination level of 2.4 to 2.6 log CFU/g) to below our detection limit (≤3 MPN/g). Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of pathogens and sprout yield. The final sprout product had no detectable pathogens, and total sprout yield was not influenced by any treatment.

  8. Infestation of Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae on re-sprout of cotton plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Jurca Grigolli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The destruction of cotton crop residues at the end of the crop cycle is a key strategy for the phytosanitary crop management, since its off-season re-sprout can provide sites for feeding and oviposition of pests such as the boll weevil. This study aimed to evaluate the re-sprout capacity of cotton cultivars, as well as their infestation by Anthonomus grandis. A randomized blocks design, in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with three cultivars (FM 910, DeltaOPAL and NuOPAL, two mowing heights (10 cm and 20 cm and four replications, was used. Weekly evaluations were carried out for measuring the percentage of plant re-sprout for both mowing heights, percentage of flower buds infested by the boll weevil and number of adults per re-sprout. Plants mowed at 10 cm presented a lower sprout capacity and consequently less flower buds, reducing the boll weevil population density in the area, while plants mowed at 20 cm showed high re-sprouts rates, seven days after mowing. The FM 910 cultivar had the highest number of re-sprout plants, while the DeltaOPAL cultivar showed the highest number of flower buds and adults per plant, as well as the highest percentage of buds damaged by the boll weevil.

  9. Preemergence infection of potato sprouts by Phytophthora infestans in the highland tropics of Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Peter; Taipe, Arturo; Andrade-Piedra, Jorge L.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether preemergence infection of potato sprouts by Phytophthora infestans occurs in the highland tropics of Ecuador. In three separate experiments in the field, P. infestans was identified on the preemerged sprouts of 49, 5, and 43% of tubers, respectively...... over 24 h in the field. Deposition had been measured at 1 m from a severely infected potato plot. Our study demonstrated the potential for preemergence infection of potato sprouts by P. infestans in the highlands of Ecuador, where year-round aerial inoculum is present. Preemergence infection...

  10. Caloric values for young sprouts of nine hardwood species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neenan, M. (An Foras Taluntais, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland); Steinbeck, K.

    1979-09-01

    Caloric content, specific gravity, and ash content of 6- to 15-year-old sprouts of nine hardwood species were determined in midsummer. Energy values for wood, bark, first order branches, twigs, and leaves were determined with an adiabatic bomb calorimeter. The values found for coppice material averaged 4791 cal/g and were comparable to published values for older wood. Intraspecific differences among tissues were greater than the relatively small but significant differences among species. Differences in yield potential are therefore likely to outweigh variations in caloric content among species where total energy production per unit of land area is concerned. Ash content varied from 0.65 percent for wood to 5.88 percent for bark.

  11. Calorific values for young sprouts of nine hardwood species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neenan, M.; Steinbeck, K.

    Calorific content, specific gravity and ash content of 10 to 15 year old sprouts of nine hardwood species were determined in mid-summer. Energy values for wood, bark, first order branches, twigs and leaves were determined with an adiabatic bomb calorimeter. The values found for coppice material averaged 4791 cal/g and were comparable to published values for older wood. Intraspecific differences among tissues were greater than the relatively small but significant differences among species. Differences in yield potential are therefore likely to outweigh variations in calorific content among species where total energy production per unit of land area is concerned. Ash content varied from 0.65% for wood to 5.88% for bark.

  12. Sympathetic nerve fibers sprout into rat odontoblast layer, but not into dentinal tubules, in response to cavity preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimeno, Yoichi; Sugawara, Yumiko; Iikubo, Masahiro; Shoji, Noriaki; Sasano, Takashi

    2008-04-11

    This study was designed to determine if sympathetic nerve fibers exist in dentinal tubules in rat normal dental pulp, and if they sprout into the dentinal tubules in response to artificial cavity preparation in dentin. Sympathetic nerve fibers in rat molar dental pulp were labeled using an anterograde axonal transport technique involving injection of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) into the superior cervical ganglion (SCG). They were then observed using light and electron microscopes. In normal dental pulp (control), scattered WGA-HRP reaction products were observed in unmyelinated nerve endings in the odontoblast layer and subodontoblastic region. In injured pulp 3 weeks after cavity preparation, reaction products were about 1.8-times more plentiful in the above areas (versus control pulp). However, no labeled nerve fibers were observed in the dentinal tubules in either control or injured dental pulp. These results indicate that although sympathetic nerve fibers do indeed sprout in rat dental pulp in response to cavity preparation, they do not penetrate into the dentinal tubules in which postganglionic nerve endings derived from the SCG were not originally present.

  13. Autonomic fiber sprouting in the skin in chronic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Geraldine

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pain is a major symptom associated with chronic inflammation. In previous work from our laboratory, we have shown that in animal models of neuropathic pain there is a sprouting of sympathetic fibers into the upper dermis, a territory normally devoid of them. However, it is not known whether such sympathetic spouting, which is likely trophic factor mediated, also occurs in chronic inflammation and arthritis. In the present study, we used a rat model of chronic inflammation in which a small single dose of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA was injected subcutaneously, unilaterally, into the plantar surface of the hindpaw. This led to a localized long-term skin inflammation and arthritis in all joints of the hindpaw. Animals were perfused with histological fixatives at 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks after the injection. Experimental animals treated with CFA were compared to saline-injected animals. We then investigated the changes in the pattern of peripheral innervation of the peptidergic nociceptors and sympathetic fibers in rat glabrous hindpaw skin. Antibodies directed towards calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH were used for the staining of peptidergic and sympathetic fibers, respectively. Immunofluorescence was then used to analyze the different nerve fiber populations of the upper dermis. At 4 weeks following CFA treatment, DBH-immunoreactive (IR fibers were found to sprout into the upper dermis, in a pattern similar to the one we had observed in animals with a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in a previous publication. There was also a significant increase in the density of CGRP-IR fibers in the upper dermis in CFA treated animals at 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-injection. The increased peptidergic fiber innervation and the ectopic autonomic fibers found in the upper dermis may have a role in the pain-related behavior displayed by these animals.

  14. Evaluation of techniques for enrichment and isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from artificially contaminated sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weagant, S D; Bound, A J

    2001-12-04

    Because sprouted seed products are kept wet during and after production, have high levels of nutrients, and a neutral pH, they are subject to the outgrowth of pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. For these same reasons, these products also contain high levels of heterotrophic organisms and in particular coliform bacteria. Recent outbreaks have focused attention on the need to improve methodology for isolating this pathogen from sprouts. When 40 E. coli O157:H7 strains were grown in pure culture in enterohemorrhagic E. coli enrichment broth (EEB) as prescribed in the U.S. FDA-Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) and in EEB modified by varying the cefixime concentration, outgrowth for all strains in EEB was inhibited at 0.05 mg/l but for only 2 of 40 strains when the cefixime level was adjusted to 0.0125 mg/l. These two enrichment formulae were compared to modified E. coli broth (mEC), modified Tryptic Soy Broth with 20 mg/l novobiocin (mTSB + N), modified Buffered Peptone Water (mBPW), and mBPW with added 10 mg/l acriflavin, 10 mg/l cefsulodin, and 8 mg/l vancomycin (mBPW + ACV) for isolation of E. coli O157:H7 from sprouts. These comparisons were performed using low-level (0.12 to 0.42 cfu/g) artificially contaminated alfalfa and mixed salad sprouts. After enrichment, two isolation methods were compared for recovery; direct plating to Tellurite-Cefixime Sorbitol MacConkey agar (TCSMAC) and immunomagnetic separation (IMS) (Dynabeads anti-E. coli O157, Dynal, Oslo, Norway) followed by plating to TCSMAC. In addition, an immunoprecipitin detection kit, VIP (BioControl, Bellevue, WA), was evaluated for detection after enrichment. We found that five of the six enrichments were equivalent for detection or recovery while one enrichment (mTSB + N without agitation) was less productive. Incubation for 24 h was more effective in recovering E. coli O157:H7 from sprouts than 6 h for all enrichment broths. Plating after IMS was more productive than direct plating

  15. Histogenesis of potato light sprouts in healthy plants and those infected with potato leaf roll virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Garbaczewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Developmental stages of potato (Solanum tuberosum light sprouts in healthy plants and those infected with potato leaf roll virus (PLRV have been distinguished. Potato light sprouts from healthy tubers differentiate in the early stages to the apical and basal parts, which are characterized by distinct dynamics of growth. Ultrastructural examination of apex meristem and phloem ontogeny was carried out for healthy plants. In the development of potato light sprouts of plants infected with PLRV a great many anomalies have been described. Three types of light sprouts developed from infected tubers. Anatomical investigations indicated a rapid growth of the number of necroses in the phloem, and submicroscopic observations showed the presence of virus particles and cytopathological structures: tubular and vesicular structures, paramural bodies and callose deposits. In the companion cells of the phloem the occurrence of very regular inclusions of virus particles was recorded.

  16. Trace element water improves the antioxidant activity of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Chiang, Been-Huang; Hsu, Cheng-Kuang

    2007-10-31

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) was grown in trace element water (TEW) (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm) and deionized water (DIW) to evaluate whether the beneficial effects of trace elements on the antioxidant activity could be accomplished with the supplement of TEW. At 300 ppm, TEW significantly increased the Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe contents in buckwheat sprout but not the Se content. However, the levels of rutin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin did not differ between buckwheat sprouts grown in TEW and DIW. The ethanolic extract from buckwheat sprout grown in 300 ppm of TEW showed higher ferrous ion chelating activity and inhibitory activity toward lipid peroxidation than that grown in DIW. The extract in the TEW group also enhanced intracellular superoxide dismutase activity and lowered reactive oxygen species and superoxide anion in the human Hep G2 cell. It was concluded that TEW could increase the antioxidant activities of buckwheat sprouts.

  17. Development of a method for the analysis of four plant growth regulators (PGRs) residues in soybean sprouts and mung bean sprouts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengzu; Zhao, Pengyue; Shan, Weili; Gong, Yong; Jian, Qiu; Pan, Canping

    2012-09-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of four plant growth regulators (PGRs) residues in soybean sprouts and mung bean sprouts. The sample preparation procedure was based on a QuEChERS method. The method showed excellent linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.9985) and precision (RSDs ≤ 13.0%). Average recoveries of four PGRs ranged between 74.9% and 106.3% at spiking levels 0.05, 0.5 and 1 mg kg(-1). The LODs and LOQs were in the ranges of 0.27-9.3 μg kg(-1) and 0.90-31 μg kg(-1), respectively. The procedure was applied to 18 bean sprout samples, and benzyladenine was found in some of the analyzed samples.

  18. The Force at the Tip--Modelling Tension and Proliferation in Sprouting Angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Santos-Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sprouting angiogenesis, where new blood vessels grow from pre-existing ones, is a complex process where biochemical and mechanical signals regulate endothelial cell proliferation and movement. Therefore, a mathematical description of sprouting angiogenesis has to take into consideration biological signals as well as relevant physical processes, in particular the mechanical interplay between adjacent endothelial cells and the extracellular microenvironment. In this work, we introduce the first phase-field continuous model of sprouting angiogenesis capable of predicting sprout morphology as a function of the elastic properties of the tissues and the traction forces exerted by the cells. The model is very compact, only consisting of three coupled partial differential equations, and has the clear advantage of a reduced number of parameters. This model allows us to describe sprout growth as a function of the cell-cell adhesion forces and the traction force exerted by the sprout tip cell. In the absence of proliferation, we observe that the sprout either achieves a maximum length or, when the traction and adhesion are very large, it breaks. Endothelial cell proliferation alters significantly sprout morphology, and we explore how different types of endothelial cell proliferation regulation are able to determine the shape of the growing sprout. The largest region in parameter space with well formed long and straight sprouts is obtained always when the proliferation is triggered by endothelial cell strain and its rate grows with angiogenic factor concentration. We conclude that in this scenario the tip cell has the role of creating a tension in the cells that follow its lead. On those first stalk cells, this tension produces strain and/or empty spaces, inevitably triggering cell proliferation. The new cells occupy the space behind the tip, the tension decreases, and the process restarts. Our results highlight the ability of mathematical models to suggest

  19. Effects of the 3D-clinorotation on endogenous substances of broccoli sprout (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and its food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, K.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Miyagawa, T.; Yamashita, M.

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges in this century We are studying on space agriculture to provide foods for space living people However careful assessment should be made on the effects of exotic environment on the endogenous production of biologically active substances and food safety of plants cultivated in space Broccoli sprout Brassica oleracea var italica is known to produce sulforaphane 4-methylsulfinybutyl isothiocyanate which is effective to function as an antioxidant and enhance immunity Because of such substance it is recognized to be good food materials Broccoli sprouts were then cultivated for 3 days under the 3D-clinorotation The amount of sulforaphane produced by this treatment showed no significant difference compared to the ground control Secondly we examined population of microorganisms adhered on the surface of sprout cultivated under the 3D-clinorotation Number of the microorganisms colony formed was statistically higher than the control Mold species was identified to penicillium sp based on the microscopic observation Poor construction of plant cell wall elements cellulose lignin etc is well known effects of microgravity Defense function of the broccoli plant cells might be weakened against microorganism We also speculate other possible causes for the high rate of contamination such as photosynthetic activity of the plant or microclimate air flow heat transport and humidity around the seedling affected by pseudo-microgravity or the 3D-clinorotation Those factors may relate to the difference in proliferation

  20. Evaluation of chlorine dioxide gas treatment to inactivate Salmonella enterica on mungbean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodduk, Vara; Annous, Bassam A; Liu, Linshu; Yam, Kit L

    2014-11-01

    Although freshly sprouted beans and grains are considered to be a source of nutrients, they have been associated with foodborne outbreaks. Sprouts provide good matrices for microbial localization and growth due to optimal conditions of temperature and humidity while sprouting. Also, the lack of a kill step postsprouting is a major safety concern. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide gas treatment to reduce Salmonella on artificially inoculated mungbean sprouts. The effectiveness of gaseous chlorine dioxide (0.5 mg/liter of air) with or without tumbling (mechanical mixing) was compared with an aqueous chlorine (200 ppm) wash treatment. Tumbling the inoculated sprouts during the chlorine dioxide gas application for 15, 30, and 60 min reduced Salmonella populations by 3.0, 4.0, and 5.5 log CFU/g, respectively, as compared with 3.0, 3.0, and 4.0 log CFU/g reductions obtained without tumbling, respectively. A 2.0 log CFU/g reduction in Salmonella was achieved with an aqueous chlorine wash. The difference in microbial reduction between chlorine dioxide gas versus aqueous chlorine wash points to the important role of surface topography, pore structure, bacterial attachment, and/or biofilm formation on sprouts. These data suggested that chlorine dioxide gas was capable of penetrating and inactivating cells that are attached to inaccessible sites and/or are within biofilms on the sprout surface as compared with an aqueous chlorine wash. Consequently, scanning electron microscopy imaging indicated that chlorine dioxide gas treatment was capable of penetrating and inactivating cells attached to inaccessible sites and within biofilms on the sprout surfaces.

  1. Macronutrients, Phytochemicals, and Antioxidant Activity of Soybean Sprout Germinated with or without Light Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yeming; Chang, Sam K C

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the macronutrients, phytochemicals, and antioxidant activities of yellow soybean sprout (YSS) and green soybean sprout (GSS) with different germination days. YSS and GSS were obtained by sprouting soybean in darkness or with light exposure at 21 °C. Lipid, protein, carbohydrate, and ash contents were analyzed before and after soybean germination. Phytochemicals (total phenolic compounds, saponin, and isoflavone) were also determined. DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were determined to examine the antioxidant activities of soybean sprout. Results showed YSS had a higher yield than GSS. Based on dry mass composition, 7-d germination of GSS decreased 14% protein, 37% lipid, 22% carbohydrate, and 16% ash, whereas 7-d germination of YSS decreased 6% protein and 47% lipid. Carbohydrate did not change and ash significantly increased for the 7-d germinated YSS. Lipid was greatly metabolized in germination, which explained why the protein relative percentage in dried soybean sprout was higher than that in the corresponding soybean. Total phenolic compounds and saponin (mg/g soybean sprout, dry basis) had the same accumulation trend in soybean sprout with the increases in germination days. Aglycone isoflavones (genistein, glycitein, and daidzein) and daidzin showed an increased trend, whereas malonylgenistin and malonylglycitin showed a decreased trend with germination days for both GSS and YSS. The change in other isoflavones did not show definite trends. GSS had 20% more antioxidant activities than YSS (7-d germinated soybean sprout). The increases in ORAC antioxidant activity suggest eating GSS may be more beneficial than GSS for promoting human health.

  2. Growth Enhancement of Radish Sprouts Induced by Low Pressure O2 Radio Frequency Discharge Plasma Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazaki, Satoshi; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2012-01-01

    We studied growth enhancement of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.) induced by low pressure O2 radio frequency (RF) discharge plasma irradiation. The average length of radish sprouts cultivated for 7 days after O2 plasma irradiation is 30-60% greater than that without irradiation. O2 plasma irradiation does not affect seed germination. The experimental results reveal that oxygen related radicals strongly enhance growth, whereas ions and photons do not.

  3. Variation of unsaturated fatty acids in soybean sprout of high oleic acid accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Krishna Hari; Jung, Ki-Hwal; Chae, Jong-Hyun; Shannon, J Grover; Lee, Jeong-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Oleic acid and oleic acid rich foods may have beneficial health effects in humans. Soybeans with high oleic acid (around 80% in seed oil) have been developed. Soybean sprouts are an important vegetable in Korea, Japan and China. The objective of this study was to investigate the variation of unsaturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids, in sprouts from soybeans with normal and high oleic acid concentration. Twelve soybean accessions with six high oleic acid lines, three parents of high oleic acid lines, and three checks with normal and high oleic acid concentration were used in this study. The unsaturated fatty acid concentration in sprouts from each genotype was similar to the concentration in the ungerminated seed. The oleic acid concentration in the sprouts of high oleic acid lines (up to 80%) was still high (>70%) compared to the ungerminated seed. Thus, high oleic soybean varieties developed for sprout production could add valuable health benefits to sprouts and the individuals who consume this vegetable.

  4. Inosine enhances axon sprouting and motor recovery after spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kim

    Full Text Available Although corticospinal tract axons cannot regenerate long distances after spinal cord injury, they are able to sprout collateral branches rostral to an injury site that can help form compensatory circuits in cases of incomplete lesions. We show here that inosine enhances the formation of compensatory circuits after a dorsal hemisection of the thoracic spinal cord in mature rats and improves coordinated limb use. Inosine is a naturally occurring metabolite of adenosine that crosses the cell membrane and, in neurons, activates Mst3b, a protein kinase that is part of a signal transduction pathway that regulates axon outgrowth. Compared to saline-treated controls, rats with dorsal hemisections that were treated with inosine showed three times as many synaptic contacts between corticospinal tract collaterals and long propriospinal interneurons that project from the cervical cord to the lumbar level. Inosine-treated rats also showed stronger serotonergic reinnervation of the lumbar cord than saline-treated controls, and performed well above controls in both open-field testing and a horizontal ladder rung-walking test. Inosine was equally effective whether delivered intracranially or intravenously, and has been shown to be safe for other indications in humans. Thus, inosine might be a useful therapeutic for improving outcome after spinal cord injury.

  5. Isothiocyanate metabolism, distribution, and interconversion in mice following consumption of thermally processed broccoli sprouts or purified sulforaphane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Gregory V; Riedl, Kenneth M; Ralston, Robin A; Tober, Kathleen L; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2014-10-01

    Broccoli sprouts are a rich source of glucosinolates, a group of phytochemicals that when hydrolyzed, are associated with cancer prevention. Our objectives were to investigate the metabolism, distribution, and interconversion of isothiocyanates (ITCs) in mice fed thermally processed broccoli sprout powders (BSPs) or the purified ITC sulforaphane. For 1 wk, mice were fed a control diet (n = 20) or one of four treatment diets (n = 10 each) containing nonheated BSP, 60°C mildly heated BSP, 5-min steamed BSP, or 3 mmol purified sulforaphane. Sulforaphane and erucin metabolite concentrations in skin, liver, kidney, bladder, lung, and plasma were quantified using HPLC-MS/MS. Thermal intensity of BSP processing had disparate effects on ITC metabolite concentrations upon consumption. Mild heating generally resulted in the greatest ITC metabolite concentrations in vivo, followed by the nonheated and steamed BSP diets. We observed interconversion between sulforaphane and erucin species or metabolites, and report that erucin is the favored form in liver, kidney, and bladder, even when only sulforaphane is consumed. ITC metabolites were distributed to all tissues analyzed, suggesting the potential for systemic benefits. We report for the first time tissue-dependent ratio of sulforaphane and erucin, though further investigation is warranted to assess biological activity of individual forms. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Bread Enriched with Broccoli Sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Sęczyk, Łukasz; Złotek, Urszula; Różyło, Renata; Kaszuba, Kinga; Ryszawy, Damian; Czyż, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    This study is focused on antioxidant and anticancer capacity of bread enriched with broccoli sprouts (BS) in the light of their potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Generally, bread supplementation elevated antioxidant potential of product (both nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant capacities); however, the increase was not correlated with the percent of BS. A replacement up to 2% of BS gives satisfactory overall consumers acceptability and desirable elevation of antioxidant potential. High activity was especially found for extracts obtained after simulated digestion, which allows assuming their protective effect for upper gastrointestinal tract; thus, the anticancer activity against human stomach cancer cells (AGS) was evaluated. A prominent cytostatic response paralleled by the inhibition of AGS motility in the presence of potentially mastication-extractable phytochemicals indicates that phenolic compounds of BS retain their biological activity in bread. Importantly, the efficient phenolics concentration was about 12 μM for buffer extract, 13 μM for extracts after digestion in vitro, and 7 μM for extract after absorption in vitro. Our data confirm chemopreventive potential of bread enriched with BS and indicate that BS comprise valuable food supplement for stomach cancer chemoprevention. PMID:25050366

  7. Effect of sprouting of soybean on the chemical composition and quality of soymilk and tofu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugkar, D Agrahar

    2014-05-01

    The effect of sprouting of soybean and preparing soymilk and tofu on the yield, nutritional quality, anti-nutritional profile, colour attributes, organoleptic quality and texture profile (tofu) of four commonly used varieties of India were studied to assess the feasibility of using sprouting as a non-chemical, non-thermal tool to improve quality of soy products. Soymilk was prepared from sprouted and unsprouted seeds with process parameters of 121 °C for 25 min. Coagulation of soymilk was done with 3% CaSO4 at 80 °C. Products from sprouted varieties showed an increase in protein (fb) of 7% in milk and 13% in tofu across varieties; a reduction in fat (fb) of 24% in milk and 12% in tofu; in trypsin inhibitor (db) of 73% in milk and 81% in tofu; in phytic acid (db) of 59% in milk and 56% in tofu across varieties. Tofu from sprouted seeds had higher protein and whiteness index but tofu strength was around 43% lesser than its unsprouted counterpart. Taste acceptability showed an increase of 10% and 6.3%; flavour of 23.2% and 11.6% and overall acceptability of 9.9% and 4.4% in milk and in tofu respectively from sprouted varieties. The improvements in composition and quality parameters was seen in all the varieties tested showing that sprouting could be beneficial for product development across varieties. The time and temperature used for production of soymilk was conventional (121 °C for 25 min). Evaluation of time and/temperature reductions could be tried out to reduce the heat requirement and intensity, which could result in better nutritional and functional quality products.

  8. Green synthesis of soya bean sprouts-mediated superparamagnetic Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian; Li, Shikuo; Wang, Xiufang

    2010-10-01

    Superparamagnetic Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles were first synthesized via soya bean sprouts (SBS) templates under ambient temperature and normal atmosphere. The reaction process was simple, eco-friendly, and convenient to handle. The morphology and crystalline phase of the nanoparticles were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. The effect of SBS template on the formation of Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles was investigated using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicate that spherical Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles with an average diameter of 8 nm simultaneously formed on the epidermal surface and the interior stem wall of SBS. The SBS are responsible for size and morphology control during the whole formation of Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles. In addition, the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) results indicate the products are superparamagnetic at room temperature, with blocking temperature ( TB) of 150 K and saturation magnetization of 37.1 emu/g.

  9. Impact of Elicitation on Antioxidant and Potential Antihypertensive Properties of Lentil Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Elena; Limón, Rocío I; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Restani, Patrizia; Pihlanto, Anne; Frias, Juana

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the application of elicitors (500 μM ascorbic acid, 50 μM folic acid, 5 mM glutamic acid and 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM glutamic acid) during lentil germination up to 8 days as a strategy to increase germination rate and to enhance the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and phenolic compounds. The effect of elicitation on the protein profile and antioxidant and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of sprouted lentils was also evaluated. The application of elicitors did not negatively affect the germination yield of lentils and no significant changes on the protein pattern of lentils germinated in the presence of elicitors were observed. Chitosan/glutamic acid increased by 1.6-fold the GABA content in lentil sprouts, whilst ascorbic and folic acids as well as chitosan/glutamic acid were highly effective to enhance the total content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of sprouted lentils. All elicited lentil sprouts showed ability to inhibit ACE activity (IC50: 9.5-11.9 μg peptides/mL). Therefore, elicitation can be considered a promising approach to improve the content of compounds with antioxidant and potential antihypertensive activities in lentil sprouts.

  10. Effect of sheath gas in atmospheric-pressure plasma jet for potato sprouting suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, S.; Monma, M.; Sasaki, K.

    2016-09-01

    Recently, low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (APPJs) attract much interest for medical and agricultural applications. We try to apply APPJs for the suppression of potato sprouting in the long-term storage. In this study, we investigated the effect of sheath gas in APPJ on the suppression efficiency of the potato sprouting. Our APPJ was composed of an insulated thin wire electrode, a glass tube, a grounded electrode which was wound on the glass tube, and a sheath gas nozzle which was attached at the end of the glass tube. The wire electrode was connected to a rectangular-waveform power supply at a frequency of 3 kHz and a voltage of +/- 7 kV. Helium was fed through the glass tube, while we tested dry nitrogen, humid nitrogen, and oxygen as the sheath gas. Eyes of potatoes were irradiated by APPJ for 60 seconds. The sprouting probability was evaluated at two weeks after the plasma irradiation. The sprouting probability was 28% when we employed no sheath gases, whereas an improved probability of 10% was obtained when we applied dry nitrogen as the sheath gas. Optical emission spectroscopy was carried out to diagnose the plasma jet. It was suggested that reactive species originated from nitrogen worked for the efficient suppression of the potato sprouting.

  11. Effect of sodium selenite on isoflavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardado-Félix, Daniela; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Edith O; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2017-07-01

    Isoflavonoid compositions, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and antioxidant capacity were evaluated in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) sprouts germinated after soaking with different sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) concentrations (0, 1 and 2mg/100g seeds). Chickpea seeds were germinated during four days at 24°C and the isoflavonoid profiles and concentrations evaluated by HPLC-UV daily during four days of germination. Eleven isoflavones and two pterocarpan phytoalexins forms were identified in sprouts, being malonylated formononetin glycoside, formononetin, isoformononetin glycoside and malonylated biochanin A glycoside the major compounds. Compared to untreated sprouts, total isoflavonoid, PAL activity and antioxidant capacity showed a remarkable increase of 83%, 56%, and 33%, respectively in chickpea sprouts that were treated with a high sodium selenite content (2mg/100g seeds). Results suggest that Se-enriched chickpea sprouts could represent a good source of dietary Se and as an upgraded source of isoflavonoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Study on Production of Beverage Using Soybean Sprouts Enzymatic Hydrolysis%黄豆芽酶解液生产饮料工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔蕊静

    2012-01-01

    This article studies the production of beverage using soybean sprouts enzymatic hydrolysis. To make the beverage,bean sprouts germinating 3 day long were chosen and were put into 95℃ hot water for 3 minutes, and water 10 times as much as the bean sprouts was put in microwave with power 180 W for 20 s. Papayin and flavor proteinase of 0.03 were then put in. Control the hydrolysis fluid pH at 7.0, temperature at 50 ℃ for 50 rain. The soybean sprouts milk hydrolysis fluid which is rich in amino acid was obtained. Subsequently the hy- drolysate could be developed into soybean sprouts beverage with pleasant flavor, rich nutrition and good stabili- ty when 0.03 of HDZ-2030 fermented soybean curd compound stabilizer,0.02 of Sodium citrate,0.03 of Sodi- um tripolyphosphate,and 0.03 of sugar were added and homogenized twice at 30 MPa.%研究了黄豆芽乳酶解液加工饮料的工艺条件,结果表明,黄豆室温发芽3 d后,黄豆芽用95℃热水烫漂3 min,加黄豆芽质量10倍的水磨浆,浆液经微波功率180 W处理20 s后加入质量等比混合的木瓜蛋白酶与风味蛋白酶,使其质量分数为0.03,控制水解液pH值7.0,50℃水解50 min,得富含氨基氮的豆芽乳酶解液;此酶解液中加入HDZ-2030豆奶复合稳定剂、柠檬酸钠、三聚磷酸钠、白砂糖,使其质量分数分别为0.03,0.02,0.03,0.03,30 MPa压力均质2次,制得风味可口、营养丰富、稳定性好豆芽乳饮料。

  13. Biosynthesis and Accumulation of Sulphur Compounds in White Radish During the First Three Days of Sprouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doinița Borș

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Glucosinolates (GLs and S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide (SMCSO are natural sulphur containing phytochemicals. They are two of the most important bioactive compounds found in brassica vegetables, which are highly regarded for their health-promoting activity. In this study we have analysed the content of GLs and SMCSO in white radish, by an HPLC-MS method, in order to illustrate their biosynthesis and accumulation during the first 72 hours of sprouting. Total GLs content ranged between  54.17 and 126.86 µmol/g DW. There were eight GLs identified, in radish sprouts and around 94 % of them were aliphatic. Obvious differences, during the 72 hours of sprouting, were noticed in glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin. S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide content ranged between 0.21 and 35.95 µmol/g DW. Our results revealed a negative strong correlation between GLs and SMCSO.

  14. Combined Effects of Blue and Ultraviolet Lights on the Accumulation of Flavonoids in Tartary Buckwheat Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hongbin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blue and UV-A (365 nm/UV-C (254 nm or their combinations on the levels of total flavonoids, rutin, quercetin, phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL, chalcone isomerase (CHI, rutin degrading enzymes (RDEs and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity in tartary buckwheat sprouts were investigated in this study. The total flavonoids content in the tartary buckwheat sprouts irradiated with blue light followed by UV-C (BL+UV-C raised by 10%, compared with the opposite combination sequence (UV-C+BL. However, blue light did not show the same results when combined with UV-A, and their combinations on the accumulation of total flavonoids were still lower than that of UV-A/UV-C. Key enzymes (PAL, CHI and RDEs revealed a significant correlation with total flavonoids in tartary buckwheat sprouts.

  15. The Involvement of Gibberellins in 1,8-Cineole-Mediated Inhibition of Sprout Growth in Russet Burbank Tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The involvement of gibberellins in 1,8-cineole-mediated inhibition of tuber sprout growth was investigated in non-dormant field- and greenhouse-grown tubers of Russet Burbank. Continuous exposure of tubers to cineole in the vapor-phase resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of sprout growth. Comp...

  16. Gene expression regulation of sprout inhibition and water retention genes in potatoes by 1,4-dimethylnapthalene (DMN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potato is the fifth largest agricultural crop in the world and a dietary staple in many cultures. When sprouting, the potato produces the toxin solanine and begins to sweeten, a process that makes the potato undesirable for consumer use. Sprout inhibitors such as 1,4-dimethylnapthalene (DMN) ar...

  17. Long-term effects of burning on woody plant species sprouting on the False thornveld of Eastern Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ratsele, C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sprouting allows woody plant species to persist in a site after a wide range of disturbances (e.g. prolonged fire), where opportunities for seedling establishment are limited. A study to investigate long-term effects of fire sprouting of woody...

  18. Sweet potato cysteine proteases SPAE and SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsien-Jung; Liang, Shu-Hao; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Lin, Yaw-Huei

    2015-08-15

    Sweet potato sporamins are trypsin inhibitors and exhibit strong resistance to digestion by pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. In addition, they constitute the major storage proteins in the sweet potato and, after degradation, provide nitrogen as a nutrient for seedling regrowth in sprouting storage roots. In this report, four cysteine proteases-one asparaginyl endopeptidase (SPAE), two papain-like cysteine proteases (SPCP1 and SPCP2), and one granulin-containing cysteine protease (SPCP3)-were studied to determine their association with sporamin degradation in sprouting storage roots. Sporamin degradation became significant in the flesh of storage roots starting from week 4 after sprouting and this correlated with expression levels of SPAE and SPCP2, but not of SPCP1 and SPCP3. In the outer flesh near the skin, sporamin degradation was more evident and occurred earlier than in the inner flesh of storage roots. Degradation of sporamins in the outer flesh was inversely correlated with the distance of the storage root from the sprout. Exogenous application of SPAE and SPCP2, but not SPCP3, fusion proteins to crude extracts of the outer flesh (i.e., extracted from a depth of 0.3cm and within 2cm of one-week-old sprouts) promoted in vitro sporamin degradation in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment of SPAE and SPCP2 fusion proteins at 95°C for 5min prior to their application to the crude extracts reduced sporamin degradation. These data show that sweet potato asparaginyl endopeptidase SPAE and papain-like cysteine protease SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting.

  19. The microtubule-stabilizing drug Epothilone D increases axonal sprouting following transection injury in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizuela, Mariana; Blizzard, Catherine A; Chuckowree, Jyoti A; Dawkins, Edgar; Gasperini, Robert J; Young, Kaylene M; Dickson, Tracey C

    2015-05-01

    Neuronal cytoskeletal alterations, in particular the loss and misalignment of microtubules, are considered a hallmark feature of the degeneration that occurs after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Therefore, microtubule-stabilizing drugs are attractive potential therapeutics for use following TBI. The best-known drug in this category is Paclitaxel, a widely used anti-cancer drug that has produced promising outcomes when employed in the treatment of various animal models of nervous system trauma. However, Paclitaxel is not ideal for the treatment of patients with TBI due to its limited blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Herein we have characterized the effect of the brain penetrant microtubule-stabilizing agent Epothilone D (Epo D) on post-injury axonal sprouting in an in vitro model of CNS trauma. Epo D was found to modulate axonal sprout number in a dose dependent manner, increasing the number of axonal sprouts generated post-injury. Elevated sprouting was observed when analyzing the total population of injured neurons, as well as in selective analysis of Thy1-YFP-labeled excitatory neurons. However, we found no effect of Epo D on axonal sprout length or outgrowth speed. These findings indicate that Epo D specifically affects injury-induced axonal sprout generation, but not net growth. Our investigation demonstrates that primary cultures of cortical neurons are tolerant of Epo D exposure, and that Epo D significantly increases their regenerative response following structural injury. Therefore Epo D may be a potent therapeutic for enhancing regeneration following CNS injury. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Traumatic Brain Injury'.

  20. Contact-inhibited chemotaxis in de novo and sprouting blood-vessel growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roeland M H Merks

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessels form either when dispersed endothelial cells (the cells lining the inner walls of fully formed blood vessels organize into a vessel network (vasculogenesis, or by sprouting or splitting of existing blood vessels (angiogenesis. Although they are closely related biologically, no current model explains both phenomena with a single biophysical mechanism. Most computational models describe sprouting at the level of the blood vessel, ignoring how cell behavior drives branch splitting during sprouting. We present a cell-based, Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model (also called Cellular Potts Model simulation of the initial patterning before the vascular cords form lumens, based on plausible behaviors of endothelial cells. The endothelial cells secrete a chemoattractant, which attracts other endothelial cells. As in the classic Keller-Segel model, chemotaxis by itself causes cells to aggregate into isolated clusters. However, including experimentally observed VE-cadherin-mediated contact inhibition of chemotaxis in the simulation causes randomly distributed cells to organize into networks and cell aggregates to sprout, reproducing aspects of both de novo and sprouting blood-vessel growth. We discuss two branching instabilities responsible for our results. Cells at the surfaces of cell clusters attempting to migrate to the centers of the clusters produce a buckling instability. In a model variant that eliminates the surface-normal force, a dissipative mechanism drives sprouting, with the secreted chemical acting both as a chemoattractant and as an inhibitor of pseudopod extension. Both mechanisms would also apply if force transmission through the extracellular matrix rather than chemical signaling mediated cell-cell interactions. The branching instabilities responsible for our results, which result from contact inhibition of chemotaxis, are both generic developmental mechanisms and interesting examples of unusual patterning instabilities.

  1. Comparative transcriptome analyses reveal a special glucosinolate metabolism mechanism in Brassica alboglabra sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongfang Guo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Brassica sprouts contain abundant phytochemicals, especially glucosinolates (GSs. Various methods have been used to enhance GS content in sprouts. However, the molecular basis of GS metabolism in sprouts remains an open question. Here we employed RNA-seq analysis to compare the transcriptomes of high-GS (JL-08 and low-GS (JL-09 Brassica alboglabra sprouts. Paired-end Illumina RNA-seq reads were generated and mapped to the B. oleracea reference genome. The differentially expressed genes were analyzed between JL-08 and JL-09. Among these, 1,477 genes were up-regulated and 1,239 down-regulated in JL-09 compared with JL-08. Enrichment analysis of these differentially expressed genes showed that the GS biosynthesis had the smallest enrichment factor and the highest Q value of all metabolic pathways in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, indicating the main metabolic difference between JL-08 and JL-09 is the GS biosynthetic pathway. Thirty-seven genes of the sequenced data were annotated as putatively involved in GS biosynthesis, degradation and regulation, of which 11 were differentially expressed in JL-08 and JL-09. The expression level of GS degradation enzyme myrosinase in high-GS JL-08 was lower compared with low-GS JL-09. Surprisingly, in high-GS JL-08, the expression levels of GS biosynthesis genes were also lower than those in low-GS JL-09. As the GS contents in sprouts are determined by dynamic equilibrium of seed stored GS mobilization, de novo synthesis, degradation, and extra transport, the result of this study leads us to suggest that efforts to increase GS content should focus on either raising GS content in seeds or decreasing myrosinase activity, rather than improving the expression level of GS biosynthesis genes in sprouts.

  2. Development of Buckwheat Sprouts Dried Noodles%苦荞苗挂面的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠

    2013-01-01

    The effects on dose of buckwheat sprouts in dried noodles on its cooking time,cooked-off rate and cooking loss were studied.Experiments results showed that with the increasing of buckwheat sprouts addition dose,the cooking time gradually reduced,while cooked-off rate and cooking loss decreased firstly and then increased.The cooked-off rate was the lowest when buckwheat sprouts addition dose was 5%,10%,15%; and cooking loss was the lowest when buckwheat sprouts addition dose was 20%.Considering the quality and nutritional value of buckwheat sprouts dry noodles,the appropriate addition dose of buckwheat sprouts should be 20%~25%.%研究了苦荞(Fagopyrum tataricum)苗添加量对挂面烹调时间、熟断条率、烹调损失率的影响.结果表明,随着苦荞苗添加量的增加,烹调时间逐渐减少,熟断条率和烹调损失率先降低后增加;熟断条率在苦荞苗添加量为5%、10%、15%时最低,烹调损失率在苦荞苗添加量为20%时最低;综合考虑苦荞苗挂面的品质和营养价值,苦荞苗合适的添加量为20%~25%.

  3. Combined role of seizure-induced dendritic morphology alterations and spine loss in newborn granule cells with mossy fiber sprouting on the hyperexcitability of a computer model of the dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Julian; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Roque, Antonio C

    2014-05-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy strongly affects hippocampal dentate gyrus granule cells morphology. These cells exhibit seizure-induced anatomical alterations including mossy fiber sprouting, changes in the apical and basal dendritic tree and suffer substantial dendritic spine loss. The effect of some of these changes on the hyperexcitability of the dentate gyrus has been widely studied. For example, mossy fiber sprouting increases the excitability of the circuit while dendritic spine loss may have the opposite effect. However, the effect of the interplay of these different morphological alterations on the hyperexcitability of the dentate gyrus is still unknown. Here we adapted an existing computational model of the dentate gyrus by replacing the reduced granule cell models with morphologically detailed models coming from three-dimensional reconstructions of mature cells. The model simulates a network with 10% of the mossy fiber sprouting observed in the pilocarpine (PILO) model of epilepsy. Different fractions of the mature granule cell models were replaced by morphologically reconstructed models of newborn dentate granule cells from animals with PILO-induced Status Epilepticus, which have apical dendritic alterations and spine loss, and control animals, which do not have these alterations. This complex arrangement of cells and processes allowed us to study the combined effect of mossy fiber sprouting, altered apical dendritic tree and dendritic spine loss in newborn granule cells on the excitability of the dentate gyrus model. Our simulations suggest that alterations in the apical dendritic tree and dendritic spine loss in newborn granule cells have opposing effects on the excitability of the dentate gyrus after Status Epilepticus. Apical dendritic alterations potentiate the increase of excitability provoked by mossy fiber sprouting while spine loss curtails this increase.

  4. Combined role of seizure-induced dendritic morphology alterations and spine loss in newborn granule cells with mossy fiber sprouting on the hyperexcitability of a computer model of the dentate gyrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Tejada

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Temporal lobe epilepsy strongly affects hippocampal dentate gyrus granule cells morphology. These cells exhibit seizure-induced anatomical alterations including mossy fiber sprouting, changes in the apical and basal dendritic tree and suffer substantial dendritic spine loss. The effect of some of these changes on the hyperexcitability of the dentate gyrus has been widely studied. For example, mossy fiber sprouting increases the excitability of the circuit while dendritic spine loss may have the opposite effect. However, the effect of the interplay of these different morphological alterations on the hyperexcitability of the dentate gyrus is still unknown. Here we adapted an existing computational model of the dentate gyrus by replacing the reduced granule cell models with morphologically detailed models coming from three-dimensional reconstructions of mature cells. The model simulates a network with 10% of the mossy fiber sprouting observed in the pilocarpine (PILO model of epilepsy. Different fractions of the mature granule cell models were replaced by morphologically reconstructed models of newborn dentate granule cells from animals with PILO-induced Status Epilepticus, which have apical dendritic alterations and spine loss, and control animals, which do not have these alterations. This complex arrangement of cells and processes allowed us to study the combined effect of mossy fiber sprouting, altered apical dendritic tree and dendritic spine loss in newborn granule cells on the excitability of the dentate gyrus model. Our simulations suggest that alterations in the apical dendritic tree and dendritic spine loss in newborn granule cells have opposing effects on the excitability of the dentate gyrus after Status Epilepticus. Apical dendritic alterations potentiate the increase of excitability provoked by mossy fiber sprouting while spine loss curtails this increase.

  5. Serum From Advanced Heart Failure Patients Promotes Angiogenic Sprouting and Affects the Notch Pathway in Human Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannella, Micaela; Caliceti, Cristiana; Fortini, Francesca; Aquila, Giorgio; Vieceli Dalla Sega, Francesco; Pannuti, Antonio; Fortini, Cinzia; Morelli, Marco Bruno; Fucili, Alessandro; Francolini, Gloria; Voltan, Rebecca; Secchiero, Paola; Dinelli, Giovanni; Leoncini, Emanuela; Ferracin, Manuela; Hrelia, Silvana; Miele, Lucio; Rizzo, Paola

    2016-12-01

    It is unknown whether components present in heart failure (HF) patients' serum provide an angiogenic stimulus. We sought to determine whether serum from HF patients affects angiogenesis and its major modulator, the Notch pathway, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In cells treated with serum from healthy subjects or from patients at different HF stage we determined: (1) Sprouting angiogenesis, by measuring cells network (closed tubes) in collagen gel. (2) Protein levels of Notch receptors 1, 2, 4, and ligands Jagged1, Delta-like4. We found a higher number of closed tubes in HUVECs treated with advanced HF patients serum in comparison with cells treated with serum from mild HF patients or controls. Furthermore, as indicated by the reduction of the active form of Notch4 (N4IC) and of Jagged1, advanced HF patients serum inhibited Notch signalling in HUVECs in comparison with mild HF patients' serum and controls. The circulating levels of NT-proBNP (N-terminal of the pro-hormone brain natriuretic peptide), a marker for the detection and evalutation of HF, were positively correlated with the number of closed tubes (r = 0.485) and negatively with Notch4IC and Jagged1 levels in sera-treated cells (r = -0.526 and r = -0.604, respectively). In conclusion, we found that sera from advanced HF patients promote sprouting angiogenesis and dysregulate Notch signaling in HUVECs. Our study provides in vitro evidence of an angiogenic stimulus arising during HF progression and suggests a role for the Notch pathway in it. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2700-2710, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Case study of a new method for the classification and analysis of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu damage to young chestnut sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tani A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dryocosmus kuriphilus is a new chestnut pest that is causing a serious problem worldwide. This gall wasp causes severe infestations of Italian Castanea sativa stands, which lowers their productivity. The most effective method for controlling gall wasp infestations is to introduce the parasitoid, Torymus sinensis, although experience shows that it can be 6-18 years before it is effective in reducing the infestation to acceptable levels. From a silvicultural point of view, it is important to reduce the damage as rapidly as possible to maintain plant vigour and fruit production, thereby avoiding chestnut stand degradation and abandonment before biological control is effective. This study analyzed the damage caused by Dryocosmus kuriphilus during normal plant development and detected differences in plant susceptibility, irrespective of genetic factors. Data were collected from a young Castanea sativa coppice stand in Tuscany (Italy where damage was evaluated during the 2010 growing season. The study consisted of two phases: (1 classification of the damages caused by galls; and (2 studying the galls and damage distribution effects on different vigour chestnut sprouts to determine whether there were preferred oviposition sites or different degrees of susceptibility to gall wasp attack depending on a plant’s physiological state. The D. kuriphilus damage classification scale was based on two factors: damage position (the vegetative organ attacked and damage effect (abnormal organ development caused by galls. This classification included damage types that had not been previously described in literature. The statistical analysis identified differences in damage susceptibility in terms of: axis (stem or branches, plant organs (shoots, leaves, or buds, position of the attacked node (high or low region of the axis, and sprout vigour. Information on the D. kuriphilus damage distribution and its effect on plants with different levels vigour can be used to

  7. Ketogenic diet change cPLA2/clusterin and autophagy related gene expression and correlate with cognitive deficits and hippocampal MFs sprouting following neonatal seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hong; Zhao, Dong-Jing; Tian, Tian

    2016-02-01

    Because the ketogenic diet (KD) was affecting expression of energy metabolism- related genes in hippocampus and because lipid membrane peroxidation and its associated autophagy stress were also found to be involved in energy depletion, we hypothesized that KD might exert its neuroprotective action via lipid membrane peroxidation and autophagic signaling. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining the long-term expression of lipid membrane peroxidation-related cPLA2 and clusterin, its downstream autophagy marker Beclin-1, LC3 and p62, as well as its execution molecule Cathepsin-E following neonatal seizures and chronic KD treatment. On postnatal day 9 (P9), 48 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: flurothyl-induced recurrent seizures group and control group. On P28, they were further randomly divided into the seizure group without ketogenic diet (RS+ND), seizure plus ketogenic diet (RS+KD), the control group without ketogenic diet (NS+ND), and the control plus ketogenic diet (NS+KD). Morris water maze test was performed during P37-P43. Then mossy fiber sprouting and the protein levels were detected by Timm staining and Western blot analysis, respectively. Flurothyl-induced RS+ND rats show a long-term lower amount of cPLA2 and LC3II/I, and higher amount of clusterin, Beclin-1, p62 and Cathepsin-E which are in parallel with hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting and cognitive deficits. Furthermore, chronic KD treatment (RS+KD) is effective in restoring these molecular, neuropathological and cognitive changes. The results imply that a lipid membrane peroxidation and autophagy-associated pathway is involved in the aberrant hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting and cognitive deficits following neonatal seizures, which might be a potential target of KD for the treatment of neonatal seizure-induced brain damage.

  8. SAYSOY- Space Apparatus to Yield SOY sprouts: Growing sprouts in a growth support system for experiments on unmanned platforms in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna; Scala, Michele; Eduardo, Pasquale; Haladich, Marco; Castagnolo, Dario; Fortezza, Raimondo

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to design and develop an automatic growth support system for sprouts production in Space addressing a main biological requirement: seedling development had to occur completely under microgravity conditions from seed imbibition until chemical fixation of seedlings. This research is placed within the scenario of producing sprouts of soy, and other species, on board of Space platforms to integrate astronauts' diet with fresh food.The project SAYSOY was submitted within the Education programmes of ESA and was selected for the flight onboard of FOTON M2 satellite. The experiment is based on previous tests conducted on ground in simulated low-gravity conditions where emphasis was addressed to the effect of altered gravity on biological processes that affect nutritional value (metabolism of phenolics) and taste satisfaction (hydration of tissues, vascular differentiation and lignification affecting turgidity and softness of sprouts). The hardware was developed according to the specifications of the FOTON capsule and biological requirements in the sight of the planned analyses of biometrical anatomy on the recovered seedlings. The experiment SAYSOY was successfully conducted flying from May 31st to June 16th, 2005.

  9. Precommercial Stocking Control of Coast Redwood at Caspar Creek, Jackson Demonstration State Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Lindquist

    2007-01-01

    Regeneration of coast redwood by stump sprouting often results in a stand condition that is very dense. A precommercial thinning of redwood sprouts allows managers to select trees and spacing that can best utilize the productivity of the site. The study of five thinning treatments with an unthinned control was initiated on a 19-year old third growth stand. Treatments...

  10. Effects of different media on the enrichment of low numbers of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in mung bean sprouts and on the development of the sprout microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, H; Tasara, T; Zwietering, M H; Joosten, H; Stephan, R

    2016-09-01

    Sprouted seeds have been implicated in a number of serious outbreaks caused by Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Sprouts pose a very complex challenge to bacterial pathogen enrichment and detection since they naturally contain high levels of background microflora including members of the Enterobacteriaceae. As such, the currently used method cannot ensure reliable detection of STEC in sprouts. In this study, we compared different media for the enrichment of Enterobacteriaceae in their ability to promote the growth of stressed STEC at 37°C and 42°C. Mung bean sprouts were spiked with low levels of STEC and their growth was recorded over time. In addition, the microbiome of mung bean sprouts was analysed before and after enrichment. Our results indicate that the growth of dry-stressed STEC is comparable in all of the tested enrichment media except for mTSB+Novobiocin and not influenced by the incubation temperature. Low levels of STEC spiked into the sprouts resuspended in media only grew to levels of around 4logcfu/ml during enrichment, which could reduce the probability of detection. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum detected within the microbiome of non-enriched mung bean sprouts. During enrichment in EE-broth, Proteobacteria remained the most abundant phylum. In contrast, during enrichment in BPW the relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased whereas Firmicutes increased when compared to the non-enriched mung bean sprout microbiome. The microbiome composition was not significantly influenced by the incubation temperature during enrichment in both BPW and EE-broth. This is the first study to examine the microbiome on sprouted mung bean seeds during BPW and EE enrichment and relates the bacterial community composition changes to the enrichment of pathogens.

  11. Perforant path lesioning induces sprouting of CA3-associated fibre systems in mouse hippocampal formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drøjdahl, Nina; Hegelund, Iørn V; Poulsen, Frantz R

    2002-01-01

    mice. We found that lesioning led to translaminar sprouting of Timm stained regio inferior hippocampus (CA3)-associated fibre systems into the denervated termination zones of the CA3 and dentate gyrus, from the adjacent non-denervated stratum radiatum of CA3. Differences were seen in the Timm staining...

  12. Inhibition of oxidative DNA damage in vitro by extracts of brussels sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C; Poulsen, H E; Loft, S

    2000-08-01

    Cruciferous vegetables have cancer preventive effects which may be due to reduction of oxidative DNA damage. We investigated the effect of an aqueous extract of cooked Brussels sprouts on formation of 7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in calf thymus DNA in vitro. Damage was induced by a Fenton reaction, UVC (254 nm), UVA (365 nm), sunlamp light, and methylene blue with visible light. The extract inhibited 8-oxodG formation in all systems except visible light with methylene blue. The IC50 values were 6-20 microg/ml corresponding to the extract of 5-20 g of Brussels sprouts distributed in a volume of 50 L. The protective effect in the Fenton reaction was unaffected by addition of EDTA. After HPLC separation fractions were identified with similar DNA protective effects. Sinigrin, a glucosinolate abundant in Brussels sprouts, co-eluted with the most effective fraction and had DNA protective effects. In comparison with other antioxidants the patterns of effect of the extract in the five damage systems were more similar to that of sodium azide than to those of dimethylsulfoxide and vitamin C. Constituents of Brussels sprouts can protect DNA by direct scavenging, e.g. hydroxyl radical and other oxidants, without prooxidant effects at concentrations potentially achievable by modest intake of the vegetable.

  13. Axonal sprouting regulates myelin basic protein gene expression in denervated mouse hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M B; Poulsen, F R; Finsen, B

    2000-01-01

    radiatum of CA3 and the dentate hilus, which display axonal sprouting but no degenerative changes or microglial activation, and (2) the outer part of the molecular layer of the fascia dentata, and in stratum moleculare of CA3 and stratum lacunosum-moleculare of CA1, areas that display dense anterograde...

  14. Cell autonomy of HIF effects in Drosophila: tracheal cells sense hypoxia and induce terminal branch sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanin, Lázaro; Dekanty, Andrés; Romero, Nuria; Irisarri, Maximiliano; Gorr, Thomas A; Wappner, Pablo

    2008-04-01

    Drosophila tracheal terminal branches are plastic and have the capacity to sprout out projections toward oxygen-starved areas, in a process analogous to mammalian angiogenesis. This response involves the upregulation of FGF/Branchless in hypoxic tissues, which binds its receptor Breathless on tracheal cells. Here, we show that extra sprouting depends on the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF)-alpha homolog Sima and on the HIF-prolyl hydroxylase Fatiga that operates as an oxygen sensor. In mild hypoxia, Sima accumulates in tracheal cells, where it induces breathless, and this induction is sufficient to provoke tracheal extra sprouting. In nontracheal cells, Sima contributes to branchless induction, whereas overexpression of Sima fails to attract terminal branch outgrowth, suggesting that HIF-independent components are also required for full induction of the ligand. We propose that the autonomous response to hypoxia that occurs in tracheal cells enhances tracheal sensitivity to increasing Branchless levels, and that this mechanism is a cardinal step in hypoxia-dependent tracheal sprouting.

  15. Abundance, diversity and community composition of free-living protozoa on vegetable sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavatte, N; Lambrecht, E; Van Damme, I; Sabbe, K; Houf, K

    2016-05-01

    Interactions with free-living protozoa (FLP) have been implicated in the persistence of pathogenic bacteria on food products. In order to assess the potential involvement of FLP in this contamination, detailed knowledge on their occurrence, abundance and diversity on food products is required. In the present study, enrichment and cultivation methods were used to inventory and quantify FLP on eight types of commercial vegetable sprouts (alfalfa, beetroot, cress, green pea, leek, mung bean, red cabbage and rosabi). In parallel, total aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli counts were performed. The vegetable sprouts harbored diverse communities of FLP, with Tetrahymena (ciliate), Bodo saltans and cercomonads (flagellates), and Acanthamoeba and Vannella (amoebae) as the dominant taxa. Protozoan community composition and abundance significantly differed between the sprout types. Beetroot harbored the most abundant and diverse FLP communities, with many unique species such as Korotnevella sp., Vannella sp., Chilodonella sp., Podophrya sp. and Sphaerophrya sp. In contrast, mung bean sprouts were species-poor and had low FLP numbers. Sampling month and company had no significant influence, suggesting that seasonal and local factors are of minor importance. Likewise, no significant relationship between protozoan community composition and bacterial load was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ingestion of broccoli sprouts does not improve endothelial function in humans with hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Buris; Bellostas Muguerza, Natalia; Petersen, Atheline Major;

    2010-01-01

    be the case in humans suffering from essential hypertension. METHODS: 40 hypertensive individuals without diabetes and with normal levels of cholesterol were examined. The participants were randomized either to ingest 10 g dried broccoli sprouts, a natural donor of glucosinolates with high in vitro...

  17. Effects of consumption of Brussels sprouts on intestinal and lymphocytic glutathione S-transferases in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhoff, W.A.; Grubben, M.J.A.L.; Nagengast, F.M.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Verhagen, H.; Poppel, G. van; Peters, W.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    A high intake of glucosinolate-containing cruciferous vegetables, such as Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleraceae), has been linked to a decreased cancer risk, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. The aim of this study was to reveal possible modulating effects of consumption of Brussels sprou

  18. Reduction of oxidative DNA-damage in humans by Brussels sprouts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.; Poulsen, H.E.; Loft, S.; Poppel, G. van; Willems, M.I.; Bladeren, P.J. van

    1995-01-01

    The effect of consumption of Brussels sprouts on levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in human urine was investigated in 10 healthy, male, non-smoking volunteers. Following a 3 week run-in period, five volunteers continued on a diet free of cruciferous vegetables for a subsequent

  19. Salmonella internalization in mung bean sprouts and pre- and postharvest intervention methods in a hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Chongtao; Rymut, Susan; Lee, Cheonghoon; Lee, Jiyoung

    2014-05-01

    Mung bean sprouts, typically consumed raw or minimally cooked, are often contaminated with pathogens. Internalized pathogens pose a high risk because conventional sanitization methods are ineffective for their inactivation. The studies were performed (i) to understand the potential of internalization of Salmonella in mung bean sprouts under conditions where the irrigation water was contaminated and (ii) to determine if pre- and postharvest intervention methods are effective in inactivating the internalized pathogen. Mung bean sprouts were grown hydroponically and exposed to green fluorescence protein-tagged Salmonella Typhimurium through maturity. One experimental set received contaminated water daily, while other sets received contaminated water on a single day at different times. For preharvest intervention, irrigation water was exposed to UV, and for postharvest intervention-contaminated sprouts were subjected to a chlorine wash and UV light. Harvested samples were disinfected with ethanol and AgNO3 to differentiate surface-associate pathogens from the internalized ones. The internalized Salmonella Typhimurium in each set was quantified using the plate count method. Internalized Salmonella Typhimurium was detected at levels of 2.0 to 5.1 log CFU/g under all conditions. Continuous exposure to contaminated water during the entire period generated significantly higher levels of Salmonella Typhimurium internalization than sets receiving contaminated water for only a single day (P hydroponic system.

  20. Relations between the physiological state of onions and an effective sprout inhibition by irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlhelm, H.; Matejko, C.

    The mitotic activity in shoot meristem was examined during the entire storage period of onions ( Allium cepa L.) and was compared with the growth of the inner bud of the bulbs unirradiated and after irradiation. The meaning of cell division at the shoot apex for the sprouting of onions and the effect of γ-irradiation are discussed.

  1. Study of Active Ingredients in Black Soybean Sprouts and Their Safety in Cosmetic Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinmao Dong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Active ingredients in different lengths of black soybean sprouts were extracted with water. Concentrations of the main proteins and polysaccharides were determined by the Forint phenol assay and phenol-sulfuric acid assay, respectively. Anti-oxidizing capacities of the extracts were measured in vitro using the DPPH scavenging test and whitening capacity was measured in vitro using the tyrosinase inhibition test. The effects of the bean sprout extracts on human skin fibroblasts damnified by H2O2 were studied using an MTT colorimetric assay. The safety of the extracts was determined using the red blood cell (RBC test, chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay and human patch test. Results show that DPPH radical scavenging rates at different shoot lengths were all greater than 95%, while the tyrosinase inhibition capacity of the extracts reached 98%. Hemolysis rate in all extracts were lower than 10%, below the 20% regulatory limit for the RBC test. No signs of allergic reactions were observed in the human patch tests. The optimum extract was obtained from bean sprouts grown to 0.5 cm. Extracts of black bean sprouts are safe and can be used as additives in anti-aging and whitening cosmetic products.

  2. Neuronal sFlt1 and Vegfaa determine venous sprouting and spinal cord vascularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wild, Raphael; Klems, Alina; Takamiya, Masanari

    2017-01-01

    -Kdrl mediated angiogenesis at the neurovascular interface. Neuron-specific loss of flt1 or increased neuronal vegfaa expression promotes angiogenesis and peri-neural tube vascular network formation. Combining loss of neuronal flt1 with gain of vegfaa promotes sprout invasion into the neural tube. On loss...

  3. A cold treatment promotes both sprouting and sink strength of lily bulblets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Lily bulblets produced in tissue culture at 20 or 25ºC are cold-treated before planting to break dormancy. Bulblets produced in tissue culture at a relatively low temperature (15ºC), though, are nondormant and sprout without a preceding cold treatment. Leaves generated after planting by noncold-trea

  4. Relations between the physiological state of onions and an effective sprout inhibition by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlhelm, H.; Matejko, C. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig (Germany, F.R.). Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1990-01-01

    The mitotic activity in shoot meristem was examined during the entire storage period of onions (Allium cepa L.) and was compared with the growth of the inner bud of the bulbs unirradiated and after irradiation. The meaning of cell division at the shoot apex for the sprouting of onions and the effect of {gamma}-irradiation are discussed. (author).

  5. Human iPSC-Derived Endothelial Cell Sprouting Assay in Synthetic Hydrogel Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) by growth factors initiates a cascade of events in vivo consisting of EC tip cell selection, sprout formation, EC stalk cell proliferation, and ultimately vascular stabilization by support cells. Although EC functional assays can rec...

  6. Comparison of bioactive phytochemical content and release of isothiocyanates in selected brassica sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Bagatta, Manuela; Pagnotta, Eleonora; Angelino, Donato; Gennari, Lorenzo; Ninfali, Paolino; Rollin, Patrick; Iori, Renato

    2013-11-01

    The consumption of brassica sprouts as raw vegetables provides a fair amount of glucosinolates (GLs) and active plant myrosinase, which enables the breakdown of GLs into health-promoting isothiocyanates (ITCs). This study reports the determination of the main constituents related to human health found in edible sprouts of two Brassica oleracea varieties, broccoli and Tuscan black kale, and two Raphanus sativus varieties, Daikon and Sango. Radish sprouts exhibited the highest ability to produce ITCs, with Daikon showing the greatest level of conversion of GLs into bioactive ITCs (96.5%), followed by Sango (90.0%). Tuscan black kale gave a value of 68.5%, whereas broccoli displayed the lowest with 18.7%. ITCs were not the exclusive GL breakdown products in the two B. oleracea varieties, since nitriles were also produced, thus accounting for the lower conversion observed. Measuring the release of plant ITCs is a valuable tool in predicting the potential level of exposure to these bioactive compounds after the consumption of raw brassica sprouts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gestational weight gain: results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts comparative impact trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reporte...

  8. UVA, UVB Light Doses and Harvesting Time Differentially Tailor Glucosinolate and Phenolic Profiles in Broccoli Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Moreira-Rodríguez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli sprouts contain health-promoting glucosinolate and phenolic compounds that can be enhanced by applying ultraviolet light (UV. Here, the effect of UVA or UVB radiation on glucosinolate and phenolic profiles was assessed in broccoli sprouts. Sprouts were exposed for 120 min to low intensity and high intensity UVA (UVAL, UVAH or UVB (UVBL, UVBH with UV intensity values of 3.16, 4.05, 2.28 and 3.34 W/m2, respectively. Harvest occurred 2 or 24 h post-treatment; and methanol/water or ethanol/water (70%, v/v extracts were prepared. Seven glucosinolates and 22 phenolics were identified. Ethanol extracts showed higher levels of certain glucosinolates such as glucoraphanin, whereas methanol extracts showed slight higher levels of phenolics. The highest glucosinolate accumulation occurred 24 h after UVBH treatment, increasing 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin, glucobrassicin and glucoraphanin by ~170, 78 and 73%, respectively. Furthermore, UVAL radiation and harvest 2 h afterwards accumulated gallic acid hexoside I (~14%, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (~42%, gallic acid derivative (~48% and 1-sinapoyl-2,2-diferulolyl-gentiobiose (~61%. Increases in sinapoyl malate (~12%, gallotannic acid (~48% and 5-sinapoyl-quinic acid (~121% were observed with UVBH Results indicate that UV-irradiated broccoli sprouts could be exploited as a functional food for fresh consumption or as a source of bioactive phytochemicals with potential industrial applications.

  9. Features of a reciprocating sprout-broadcaster in the process of granular fertilizer application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, L.

    1979-01-01

    IntroductionSince the end of the 1950's, variable bout width distributors were used for broadcast application of granular fertilizers. The bout width is a multiple of the width of the metering and distribution devices. The most important types are the spinning disc and reciprocating sprout broadcast

  10. Axonal sprouting regulates myelin basic protein gene expression in denervated mouse hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M B; Poulsen, F R; Finsen, B

    2000-01-01

    radiatum of CA3 and the dentate hilus, which display axonal sprouting but no degenerative changes or microglial activation, and (2) the outer part of the molecular layer of the fascia dentata, and in stratum moleculare of CA3 and stratum lacunosum-moleculare of CA1, areas that display dense anterograde...

  11. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation, pulsed electric field, hot water and ethanol vapours treatment on functional properties of mung bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ankit; Siddiqui, Saleem; Upadhyay, Neelam; Soni, Jyoti

    2014-04-01

    The present investigation was conducted with the objective to study the effects of various treatments and storage conditions on ascorbic acid, total phenols, antioxidant activity and polyphenol oxidase activity of mung bean sprouts. The sprouts subjected to various treatments viz., pulsed electric field (PEF) (10,000 V for 10 s), hot water dip (HWD) (50 °C for 2 min), ethanol vapours (1 h) and UV-Irradiation (10 kJm(-2) in laminar flow chamber for 1 h); and then stored at room (25 ± 1 °C) and low (7 ± 1 °C) temperature conditions. The sprouts were analyzed regularly at 24 h interval till end of shelf life. Different treatments given to sprouts resulted in differential effect on various parameters. The ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity were highest in ethanol vapours treated sprouts. There was a general decrease in polyphenol oxidase activity by various treatments. During storage ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity of sprouts first increased and then decreased significantly, however, for polyphenol oxidase activity a progressive increase with increase in storage period was observed. The trends were similar at room and low temperature storage conditions. Thus, it can be concluded that the ethanol vapours significantly improved the ascorbic acid content, total phenols and antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts, both at room as well as low temperature conditions of storage.

  12. Mercury content of sprouts and harvested roots from treated sweet potato mother roots. [Ipomoea batatas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisingh, D.; Nielsen, L.W.

    1972-01-01

    Mercury containing fungicides have been used extensively for seed and root disease control, but data on the fate of the mercury (Hg) are scarce. Experiments were designed to see if Hg applied to propagative sweet potato roots increased the Hg-content of edible roots. Roots were treated with Semesan Bel(hydroxymercurinitrophenol + hydroxymercurichlorophenol), Mertect (Thiabendazole: 2-(4-Thiazolyl)-benzimidazole), or Botran (2,6-Dichloro-4-nitroanaline) at recommended rates or with water. Treated roots were bedded into sandy loam soil, and the plants were harvested at 2 and 3 months after bedding. Some sprouts transplanted at 2 months were grown to maturity, and the harvested roots were analyzed. Hg analyses were performed by flameless atomic absorption. Roots treated prior to planting with Semesan Bel, Mertect, Botran, and water contained 23.0, 0.05, 0.03 and 0.03 ..mu..g/g dry wt, respectively. At the 2-month harvest, the leaves and stems of the Semesan Bel-treated plants contained 5 times more Hg than those of the other treatments. By the 3-month harvest, the amount of Hg in plant leaves and stems from Hg-treated roots was 2 to 3 times that of the others. Fall harvested fleshy roots contained 0.03, 0.02, 0.03, and 0.03 ..mu..g/g dry wt Hg for the Semesan Bel, Mertect, Botran, and water treatments, respectively. This demonstrates that the Hg applied to the mother root was translocated to the new plant, but little if any was translocated to the new fleshy roots.

  13. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L. "seed" cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel David Dufoo-Hurtado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature conditioning of garlic seed cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that seed bulbs from ‘Coreano’ variety conditioned at 5 °C for five weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic seed cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23 °C, and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5 °C for five weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic seed cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous

  14. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L.) "seed" cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufoo-Hurtado, Miguel D; Huerta-Ocampo, José Á; Barrera-Pacheco, Alberto; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M

    2015-01-01

    Low-temperature conditioning of garlic "seed" cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that "seed" bulbs from "Coreano" variety conditioned at 5°C for 5 weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic "seed" cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23°C), and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5°C) for 5 weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic "seed" cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous studies.

  15. Substratos no enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de figueira oriundas da desbrota Substrates in the rooting of fig tree herbaceous cuttings originated from the sprouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pio

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho teve-se como objetivo verificar o enraizamento de estacas de figueira oriundas da desbrota, por meio da utilização de diferentes substratos. Foram coletadas estacas herbáceas de figueira 'Roxo de valinhos', aproximadamente com 10 cm de comprimento, no momento da desbrota da figueira. As estacas com apenas duas folhas e sem gema apical foram acondicionadas em bandejas de polipropileno, contendo diferentes substratos: casca de pinus®, vermiculita®, fibra de coco®, plantmax®, solo + esterco bovino (1:1 v/v e tropstrato® . Posteriormente, as estacas foram colocadas em casa-de-vegetação, com umidade e temperatura controlada. Após 50 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, brotadas e mortas, número de folhas e raízes emitidas da estaca. Os substratos fibra de coco® e plantmax® promoveram melhores resultados.The present work had the objective to verify the rooting of fig tree cuttings originating from sprouting, through the use of different substrates. Herbaceous cuttings were collected of 'Roxo de valinhos' fig tree with 10 cm of length when the sprouting was happening. The cuttings with two leaves and not of the apical bud to conditioned in polypropylene trays containing different substrates: casca de pinus®, vermiculita®, coconut fiber®, plantmax®, soil + cow mature(1:1 v/v and tropstrato® . The cuttings were placed at greenhouse, under humidity and temperature control. After 50 days, the rooting, sprouting and death cutting percentage, the number of leaves and roots of each cutting were evaluated. The substrates coconut fiber® and plantmax® promoted better results.

  16. The unusual response of serotonergic neurons after CNS Injury: lack of axonal dieback and enhanced sprouting within the inhibitory environment of the glial scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Alicia L; Hu, Hongmei; Kundu, Bornali; Steinmetz, Michael P; Wylie, Christi J; Deneris, Evan S; Silver, Jerry

    2011-04-13

    Serotonergic neurons possess an enhanced ability to regenerate or sprout after many types of injury. To understand the mechanisms that underlie their unusual properties, we used a combinatorial approach comparing the behavior of serotonergic and cortical axon tips over time in the same injury environment in vivo and to growth-promoting or growth-inhibitory substrates in vitro. After a thermocoagulatory lesion in the rat frontoparietal cortex, callosal axons become dystrophic and die back. Serotonergic axons, however, persist within the lesion edge. At the third week post-injury, 5-HT+ axons sprout robustly. The lesion environment contains both growth-inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and growth-promoting laminin. Transgenic mouse serotonergic neurons specifically labeled by enhanced yellow fluorescent protein under control of the Pet-1 promoter/enhancer or cortical neurons were cultured on low amounts of laminin with or without relatively high concentrations of the CSPG aggrecan. Serotonergic neurons extended considerably longer neurites than did cortical neurons on low laminin and exhibited a remarkably more active growth cone on low laminin plus aggrecan during time-lapse imaging than did cortical neurons. Chondroitinase ABC treatment of laminin/CSPG substrates resulted in significantly longer serotonergic but not cortical neurite lengths. This increased ability of serotonergic neurons to robustly grow on high amounts of CSPG may be partially due to significantly higher amounts of growth-associated protein-43 and/or β1 integrin than cortical neurons. Blocking β1 integrin decreased serotonergic and cortical outgrowth on laminin. Determining the mechanism by which serotonergic fibers persist and sprout after lesion could lead to therapeutic strategies for both stroke and spinal cord injury.

  17. Integrated Control Sytems of Mycotoxin Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Name\tRomsyah

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp . and Penicillium s pp . i n agricultural products has been a concern regarding their effect to health and economic impact. Integrated control system should be based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP approach involving Good Agricultural Practices (GAP and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP . Prevention should be carried out through pre harvest, harvest, post harvest, as well as control quality at all stages of production. Pre harvest control is conducted through the selection of resistant varieties, insect control and weeds management mechanically or applying fungicides and herbicides, plant rotation, irrigation and soil management, as well as biological control . Harvesting at the right time using clean equipments from fungal contamination and insect infestation avoids the contamination of mycotoxins . Post harvest control by physical selection, washing and dilution, drying, storage, application of chemicals and binding agents, natural products, nutrients and vitamins, microbiological control, heating and radiation could also minimize mycotoxin in food and feed . Although chemicals can effectively reduce mycotoxin, the use of those on food/feed should be considered the safety . The addition of natural products, nutrition supplements and vitamins suppress the negative effect of mycotoxin on animals . The use of non-toxigenic fungi and other microbes as biological control is the effective and safe methods for food/feed . The implementation of integrated mycotoxin control system by utilizing the HACCP concept would meet the qualified and safe food/feed products .

  18. Embyo-Specific Expression of Tomato S/AB/3 Results in Inhibition of Preharvest Sprouting in G46B of Rice%种胚特异性表达番茄SlABI3对水稻冈46B穗萌的抗性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖英勇; 高永峰; 唐维; 余进德; 刘亮亮; 张霞; 孟蒙; 刘永胜

    2012-01-01

    [目的]利用水稻胚特异表达基因OsVP1的启动子驱动与OsVP1同源的番茄SlABI3在穗萌严重的水稻保持系冈46B中表达,以增强冈46B对穗萌的抗性,进而为改良水稻穗萌抗性的分子设计育种提供理论依据.[方法]构建SlABI3的胚特异表达载体pHB-0sVP1P::SlABI3,利用根癌农杆菌介导的遗传转化法将其导入籼稻冈46B中,通过研究转基因和野生型植株的穗萌差异,验证种胚特异表达的SlABI3在穗萌抑制中的生理功能.[结果]获得了pHB-0sVP1P::SlABI3转冈46B的转基因植株;转基因植株种子的萌发速率较野生型冈46B慢,并且萌发后第8天转基因植株的苗长、根长显著(P<0.05)短于野生型冈46B;此外,在不同浓度ABA处理的试验中,随着ABA浓度的升高,转基因和野生型种子的萌发速率都呈现下降的趋势,但转基因种子的萌发速率均比野生型种子慢.[结论]SlABI3在水稻胚中特异表达能够降低种子的萌发速率并且抑制穗萌发生.%[Objective] In order to increase resistance to preharvest sprouting in maintain line G46B of rice, the promoter of rice OsVP1 was used to drive tomato SIABI3 (homologous to OsVP1) expression in rice embryos. This will probably provide a theoretical basis of molecular design for improving preharvest sprouting resistance in hybrid rice.[Method]The expression vector containing the full-length coding region of SlABI3 whose expression is driven by the OsVPl promoter was constructed and introduced into rice G46B by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. To further elucidate the physiological function of SIABI3 in inhibiting the pre-harvest sprouting, the phenotypic differences in germination between transgenic and wild-type seeds were observed. [Result] A number of transgenic plants containing pHB-OsVPlP::SLABI3 were obtained. Germination experiments showed that the percentage of geminated seeds from transgenic plants was lower than that of wild-type G46B plants

  19. Pre-harvest muskmelon fruit cracking: causes and potential remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit cracking is a serious disorder that causes a major loss of marketable yield and revenue in the muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit industry. The physiological and environmental factors causing cracking are poorly understood. Although generally considered a physiological disorder caused by fluctu...

  20. Efeito da queima da palhada da cana-de-açúcar e de aplicações de vinhaça e adubo nitrogenado em características tecnológicas da cultura Effect of pre-harvest burning and applications of nitrogen fertilizer and vinasse on sugarcane industrial characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Silva de Resende

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As práticas da queima, aplicação de vinhaça e fertilizante nitrogenado são comuns na cultura de cana-de-açúcar. No entanto, estudos de longa duração são pouco encontrados na literatura. Neste trabalho, realizado na Usina Cruangi, Timbaúba, PE, transição entre a Zona da Mata e o Agreste daquele Estado, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da aplicação de N (80 kg ha-1 na forma de uréia, da vinhaça (80 m³ ha-1 e da queima (com ou sem queima da palhada antes do corte, entre 1983 e 1999, em características tecnológicas da cultura de cana-de-açúcar. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial completo 2 x 2 x 2, e quatro repetições. O experimento teve duas fases: a primeira, de 1983-1992, e a segunda, de 1992-1999. A aplicação de N afetou as características tecnológicas da cana-de-açúcar; no entanto, o ganho de produtividade de colmos proporcionado por esta prática favoreceu a produção de açúcar e compensou tais efeitos. A aplicação de vinhaça e a manutenção da palhada no sistema não afetaram, de forma consistente, as características tecnológicas da cultura de cana-de-açúcar, embora tenham influenciado, de forma positiva, a produção de açúcar, de acordo com o ganho de produtividade.Practices of pre-harvest burning and the application of vinasse and N fertilizer are common in sugarcane cultivation. However, results of few long-term studies have been published. This study carried in sugarcane plantations of Cruangi sugar mill, Timbaúba, state of Pernambuco, Brazil, located in the semi-arid-wet transition region of the State aimed at studying the effects of vinasse (80 m³ ha-1 and nitrogen fertilizer (N - 80 kg ha-1 and two harvesting systems (with or without pre-harvest burning on sugarcane yield and industrial parameters in a long-term study (1983 to 1999. The experiment was set up in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design in complete randomized blocks with four replicates and had two

  1. Effects of light quality on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hongmei; Liu, Tianyu; Deng, Mingdan; Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Shen, Wangshu; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-04-01

    The effects of different light qualities, including white, red and blue lights, on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts were investigated using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a light source. Our results showed that blue light treatment significantly decreased the content of gluconapin, the primary compound for bitter flavor in shoots, while increased the glucoraphanin content in roots. Moreover, the maximum content of vitamin C was detected in the white-light grown sprouts and the highest levels of total phenolic and anthocyanins, as well as the strongest antioxidant capacity were observed in blue-light grown sprouts. Taken together, the application of a colorful light source is a good practice for improvement of the consumers' acceptance and the nutritional phtyochemicals of Chinese kale sprouts.

  2. Influence of selenium supplementation on fatty acids profile and biological activity of four edible amaranth sprouts as new kind of functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasko, Pawel; Gdula-Argasinska, Joanna; Podporska-Carroll, Joanna; Quilty, Brid; Wietecha-Posluszny, Renata; Tyszka-Czochara, Malgorzata; Zagrodzki, Pawel

    2015-08-01

    Suitability assessment of amaranth sprouts as a new functional food was carried out. The optimisation of sprouting process and the influence of selenium supplementation, in doses 10, 15, and 30 mg/l of selenium as sodium selenite, on amaranth growth and fatty acid profile were examined. Methods such as FRAP, DPPH, polyphenols content and GPX activity were applied to characterize antioxidant potential of seeds and sprouts of four different edible amaranth genera. E. coli, S. aureus, C. albicans were used to evaluate amaranth sprouts antimicrobial properties. Interaction between amaranth sprouts and biological systems was assessed by analysing antibacterial and antifungal properties with a disc diffusion test. The studies proved amaranth sprouts to be potentially attractive as functional food. As confirmed by all the data amaranth sprouts are suitable as a moderate selenium accumulator and are rich in essential fatty acids, especially linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids, which are precursors of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, it opens dietary opportunities for amaranth sprouts. They can also serve as a moderate source of antioxidant compounds. Nevertheless, the experiments revealed neither antibacterial, nor antifungal properties of sprouts. In general, amaranth sprouts biological activity under evaluation has failed to prove to be significantly impacted by selenium fertilization.

  3. Computational Screening of Tip and Stalk Cell Behavior Proposes a Role for Apelin Signaling in Sprout Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Margriet M.; Dallinga, Marchien G.; Klaassen, Ingeborg; Schlingemann, Reinier O.

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis involves the formation of new blood vessels by sprouting or splitting of existing blood vessels. During sprouting, a highly motile type of endothelial cell, called the tip cell, migrates from the blood vessels followed by stalk cells, an endothelial cell type that forms the body of the sprout. To get more insight into how tip cells contribute to angiogenesis, we extended an existing computational model of vascular network formation based on the cellular Potts model with tip and stalk differentiation, without making a priori assumptions about the differences between tip cells and stalk cells. To predict potential differences, we looked for parameter values that make tip cells (a) move to the sprout tip, and (b) change the morphology of the angiogenic networks. The screening predicted that if tip cells respond less effectively to an endothelial chemoattractant than stalk cells, they move to the tips of the sprouts, which impacts the morphology of the networks. A comparison of this model prediction with genes expressed differentially in tip and stalk cells revealed that the endothelial chemoattractant Apelin and its receptor APJ may match the model prediction. To test the model prediction we inhibited Apelin signaling in our model and in an in vitro model of angiogenic sprouting, and found that in both cases inhibition of Apelin or of its receptor APJ reduces sprouting. Based on the prediction of the computational model, we propose that the differential expression of Apelin and APJ yields a “self-generated” gradient mechanisms that accelerates the extension of the sprout. PMID:27828952

  4. A comparison of the retention of pathogenic Escherichia coli O157 by sprouts, leaves and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Stephanie L; Smith, Rachel B; Matthysse, Ann G

    2014-11-01

    The retention (binding to or association with the plant) of Escherichia coli by cut leaves and fruits after vigorous water washing was compared with that by sprouts. Retention by fruits and leaves was similar but differed from retention by sprouts in rate, effect of wounding and requirement for poly-β,1-6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Escherichia coli was retained by cut ends of lettuce leaves within 5 min while more than 1 h was required for retention by the intact epidermis of leaves and fruits, and more than 1 day for sprouts. Retention after 5 min at the cut leaf edge was specific for E. coli and was not shown by the plant-associated bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Sinorhizobium meliloti. Escherichia coli was retained by lettuce, spinach, alfalfa, bean, tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, cucumber, and pepper leaves and fruits faster than by sprouts. Wounding of leaves and fruits but not sprouts increased bacterial retention. Mutations in the exopolysaccharide synthesis genes yhjN and wcaD reduced the numbers of bacteria retained. PgaC mutants were retained by cut leaves and fruits but not by sprouts. There was no significant difference in the retention of an O157 and a K12 strain by fruits or leaves. However, retention by sprouts of O157 strains was significantly greater than K12 strains. These findings suggest that there are differences in the mechanisms of E  coli retention among sprouts, and leaves and fruits.

  5. FT-ICR/MS and GC-EI/MS Metabolomics Networking Unravels Global Potato Sprout's Responses to Rhizoctonia solani Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Aliferis, Konstantinos A.; Suha Jabaji

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of plant-pathogen interactions makes their dissection a challenging task for metabolomics studies. Here we are reporting on an integrated metabolomics networking approach combining gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance/mass spectrometry (FT-ICR/MS) and bioinformatics analyses for the study of interactions in the potato sprout-Rhizoctonia solani pathosystem and the fluctuations in the global metabolome of sprouts. The develop...

  6. Optimisation of enzymatic production of sulforaphane in broccoli sprouts and their total antioxidant activity at different growth and storage days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ming; Xu, Xiaoyun; Hu, Hao; Liu, Yu; Pan, Siyi

    2017-01-01

    Sulforaphane, a type of isothiocyanate hydrolysed from glucosinolate, is a powerful anticancer compound naturally found in food especially in broccoli sprouts. Despite the function of sulforaphane has been extensively studied in recent years, little attention has been given to methods that can maximize the production of this compound in broccoli sprouts. The present study optimised the enzymolysis conditions for sulforaphane production in broccoli sprouts using response surface methodology. The maximum sulforaphane production (246.95 μg/g DW) was achieved using a solid-liquid ratio of 1:30, hydrolysis time of 1.5 h, ascorbic acid content of 3.95 mg/g DW sample, and temperature of 65 °C. The highest sulforaphane content in broccoli sprouts were 233.80 μg/g DW in 5-day-old sprouts and 1555.95 μg/g DW at day 4 of storage. The highest antioxidant activities were 37.22 U/min/g DW in 3-day-old sprouts and 35.08 U/min/g DW on 4th day of storage.

  7. Effect of sprouting and roasting processes on some physico-chemical properties and mineral contents of soybean seed and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2014-07-01

    Free fatty acid contents of sprouted soybean oil were found between 1.26% (Adasoy) and 4.20% (Nazlıcan and Türksoy). Peroxide values (PV) of sprouted soybean oils were found between 1.52meq/kg (Adasoy) and 3.85meq/kg (A3935), while peroxide values of roasted seed oils were determined between 2.52meq/kg (Adasoy) and 4.03meq/kg (Nova). Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were found as major fatty acids of soybean genotypes. Oleic acid contents of samples were found between 19.07% (roasted Adasoy) and 35.31% (roasted A3935), linoleic contents of oils ranged between 42.17% (roasted Nazlican) and 54.76% (sprouted A3127). Macro and micro element contents of sprouted, oven roasted and raw (untreated) soybean seeds were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry. The potassium contents of soybean seeds ranged between 16,375mg/kg (raw Adasoy) and 20,357mg/kg (sprouted A3127, while phosphorus contents of seeds varied from 5427mg/kg (oven roasted Türksoy) to 7759mg/kg (sprouted Nova). The micro element contents of samples were found to be different depending on the processing procedures and soybean genotypes.

  8. Determination of the variations in levels of phenolic compounds in soybean (Glycine max Merr.) sprouts infected by anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Han; Jeong, Sung Woo; Cho, Young Ah; Park, Semin; Kim, Yun-Hi; Bae, Dong Won; Chung, Jong Il; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Jeong, Mi-Jeong; Park, Soo-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han; Jin, Jong Sung; Shin, Sung Chul

    2013-09-01

    Soybean sprouts (Kongnamool) are one of the most popular and nutritive traditional vegetables in East Asia. Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most serious diseases of soybean sprouts. In order to obtain basic information for breeding and/or selecting soybean genotypes with increased natural defense against anthracnose, phenolic compounds were profiled for healthy and infected soybean (Glycine max Merr.) sprouts by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Tryptophan and eight phenolic compounds (daidzin, genistin, malonyldaidzin, malonylgenistin, daidzein, glycitein, genistein and coumestrol) were determined from healthy and inoculated sprouts. Total identified phenolic content was 40.02 ± 0.03 mg kg⁻¹, 99.4% of which was isoflavones. The monitoring suggested that de novo induced glycitein appeared to act as a phytoalexin in the defence mechanism of the soybean sprouts against C. gloeosporioides, and constitutively formed seven phenolic components that functioned as phytoanticipins in the diseased soybean sprouts. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Targeted NGF siRNA delivery attenuates sympathetic nerve sprouting and deteriorates cardiac dysfunction in rats with myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesheng Hu

    Full Text Available Nerve growth factor (NGF is involved in nerve sprouting, hyper-innervation, angiogenesis, anti-apoptosis, and preservation of cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI. Positively modulating NGF expression may represent a novel pharmacological strategy to improve post-infarction prognosis. In this study, lentivirus encoding NGF short interfering RNA (siRNA was prepared, and MI was modeled in the rat using left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. Rats were randomly grouped to receive intramyocardial injection of lentiviral solution containing NGF-siRNA (n = 19, MI-SiNGF group, lentiviral solution containing empty vector (n = 18, MI-GFP group or 0.9% NaCl solution (n = 18, MI-control group, or to receive thoracotomy and pericardiotomy (n = 17, sham-operated group. At 1, 2, 4, and 8 wk after transduction, rats in the MI-control group had higher levels of NGF mRNA and protein than those in the sham-operated group, rats in the MI-GFP group showed similar levels as the MI-control group, and rats in the MI-SiNGF group had lower levels compared to the MI-GFP group, indicating that MI model was successfully established and NGF siRNA effectively inhibited the expression of NGF. At 8 wk, echocardiographic and hemodynamic studies revealed a more severe cardiac dysfunction in the MI-siRNA group compared to the MI-GFP group. Moreover, rats in the MI-siRNA group had lower mRNA and protein expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and growth-associated protein 43-positive nerve fibers (GAP-43 at both the infarcted border and within the non-infarcted left ventricles (LV. NGF silencing also reduced the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression and decreased the arteriolar and capillary densities at the infarcted border compared to the MI-GFP group. Histological analysis indicated a large infarcted size in the MI-SiNGF group. These findings suggested that endogenous NGF silencing attenuated sympathetic nerve sprouting

  10. Response surface optimization and identification of isothiocyanates produced from broccoli sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qianghui; Guo, Liping; Wang, Zhiying; Zhuang, Yan; Gu, Zhenxin

    2013-12-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are proved as one of natural anticarcinogenic compounds, which are produced from the decomposition of glucosinolates by myrosinase. The present study optimized the enzymolysis conditions (pH, addition of EDTA and ascorbic acid) for ITCs production from glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts using response surface methodology. ITCs production was clearly enhanced by a suitable pH, addition content of EDTA and ascorbic acid. The optimal enzymolysis conditions were determined to be adding EDTA 0.02 mmol and 0.16 mg ascorbic acid to 4 ml of the homogenized phosphate-citrate buffer solution (pH 4.00). ITCs profiles were identified and seven kinds of individual ITCs were detected, among which sulforaphane accounted the most. Four kinds of individual ITCs including isobutyl isothiocyanate, 4-isothiocyanato-1-butene, 1-isothiocyanato-3-methyl-butane and 1-isothiocyanato-butane are firstly reported in broccoli sprouts.

  11. Dendritic sprouting and compensatory synaptogenesis in an identified interneuron follow auditory deprivation in a cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, R R; Nolen, T G; Casaday, G C

    1985-11-01

    We examined the effect of chronic afferent deprivation on an identified interneuron (Int-1) in the auditory system of the Australian field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. In normal intact crickets, the auditory afferents from each ear terminate ipsilaterally onto a single Int-1. Each bilaterally paired Int-1 is excited by ultrasound stimulation of its ipsilateral ear but not by the contralateral ear. Unilateral removal of an ear early in postembryonic development deprives the developing Int-1 of ipsilateral auditory innervation. Consequently, the ipsilateral dendrites of the deprived interneuron sprout, grow aberrantly across the ganglionic midline, and terminate specifically in the intact auditory neuropile of the contralateral (unlesioned) side, where they form functional synapses with the contralateral afferents. This unusual compensatory dendritic sprouting restores auditory function to the neuron. Thus, it is demonstrated that the dendritic shape of an identified Int, as well as its synaptic connectivity, is altered as a consequence of chronic sensory deprivation.

  12. Elongation, proliferation & migration differentiate endothelial cell phenotypes and determine capillary sprouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popel Aleksander S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiogenesis, the growth of capillaries from preexisting blood vessels, has been extensively studied experimentally over the past thirty years. Molecular insights from these studies have lead to therapies for cancer, macular degeneration and ischemia. In parallel, mathematical models of angiogenesis have helped characterize a broader view of capillary network formation and have suggested new directions for experimental pursuit. We developed a computational model that bridges the gap between these two perspectives, and addresses a remaining question in angiogenic sprouting: how do the processes of endothelial cell elongation, migration and proliferation contribute to vessel formation? Results We present a multiscale systems model that closely simulates the mechanisms underlying sprouting at the onset of angiogenesis. Designed by agent-based programming, the model uses logical rules to guide the behavior of individual endothelial cells and segments of cells. The activation, proliferation, and movement of these cells lead to capillary growth in three dimensions. By this means, a novel capillary network emerges out of combinatorially complex interactions of single cells. Rules and parameter ranges are based on literature data on endothelial cell behavior in vitro. The model is designed generally, and will subsequently be applied to represent species-specific, tissue-specific in vitro and in vivo conditions. Initial results predict tip cell activation, stalk cell development and sprout formation as a function of local vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations and the Delta-like 4 Notch ligand, as it might occur in a three-dimensional in vitro setting. Results demonstrate the differential effects of ligand concentrations, cell movement and proliferation on sprouting and directional persistence. Conclusion This systems biology model offers a paradigm closely related to biological phenomena and highlights previously

  13. Plasma inactivation of microorganisms on sprout seeds in a dielectric barrier discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butscher, Denis; Van Loon, Hanne; Waskow, Alexandra; Rudolf von Rohr, Philipp; Schuppler, Markus

    2016-12-05

    Fresh produce is frequently contaminated by microorganisms, which may lead to spoilage or even pose a threat to human health. In particular sprouts are considered to be among the most risky foods sold at retail since they are grown in an environment practically ideal for growth of bacteria and usually consumed raw. Because heat treatment has a detrimental effect on the germination abilities of sprout seeds, alternative treatment technologies need to be developed for microbial inactivation purposes. In this study, non-thermal plasma decontamination of sprout seeds is evaluated as a promising option to enhance food safety while maintaining the seed germination capabilities. In detail, investigations focus on understanding the efficiency of non-thermal plasma inactivation of microorganisms as influenced by the type of microbial contamination, substrate surface properties and moisture content, as well as variations in the power input to the plasma device. To evaluate the impact of these parameters, we studied the reduction of native microbiota or artificially applied E. coli on alfalfa, onion, radish and cress seeds exposed to non-thermal plasma in an atmospheric pressure pulsed dielectric barrier discharge streamed with argon. Plasma treatment resulted in a maximum reduction of 3.4 logarithmic units for E. coli on cress seeds. A major challenge in plasma decontamination of granular food products turned out to be the complex surface topology, where the rough surface with cracks and crevices can shield microorganisms from plasma-generated reactive species, thus reducing the treatment efficiency. However, improvement of the inactivation efficiency was possible by optimizing substrate characteristics such as the moisture level and by tuning the power supply settings (voltage, frequency) to increase the production of reactive species. While the germination ability of alfalfa seeds was considerably decreased by harsh plasma treatment, enhanced germination was observed under

  14. One hour of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus is sufficient to develop chronic epilepsy in mice, and is associated with mossy fiber sprouting but not neuronal death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-Lin Chen; Hang-Feng Feng; Xue-Xia Mao; Qing Ye; Ling-Hui Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Determining the minimal duration of status epilepticus (SE) that leads to the development of subsequent spontaneous seizures (i.e.,epilepsy) is important,because it provides a critical time-window for seizure intervention and epilepsy prevention.In the present study,male ICR (Imprinting Control Region) mice were injected with pilocarpine to induce acute seizures.SE was terminated by diazepam at 10 min,30 min,1 h,2 h and 4 h after seizure onset.Spontaneous seizures occurred in the 1,2 and 4 h SE groups,and the seizure frequency increased with the prolongation of SE.Similarly,the Morris water maze revealed that the escape latency was significantly increased and the number of target quadrant crossings was markedly decreased in the 1,2 and 4 h SE groups.Robust mossy fiber sprouting was observed in these groups,but not in the 10 or 30 min group.In contrast,Fluoro-Jade B staining revealed significant cell death only in the 4 h SE group.The incidence and frequency of spontaneous seizures were correlated with Timm score (P =0.004) and escape latency (P =0.004).These data suggest that SE longer than one hour results in spontaneous motor seizures and memory deficits,and spontaneous seizures are likely associated with robust mossy fiber sprouting but not neuronal death.

  15. Chemical diversity in Mentha spicata: antioxidant and potato sprout inhibition activity of its essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Shailendra S; Prakash, Om; Padalia, Rajendra C; Vivekanand; Pant, Anil K; Mathela, Chandra S

    2011-09-01

    The essential oils from fresh aerial parts of Mentha spicata L. collected from ten different natural habitats of Uttarakhand, India were analyzed by a combination of GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. The analysis revealed that monoterpenoids (46.1%-91.6%), mainly carvone (15.3%-68.5%), piperetenone oxide (24.0%-79.2%) and alpha-humulene (0.1%-29.9%), were the major constituents of the essential oils, but with significant qualitative and quantitative differences among the other constituents. Cluster analysis of the oil composition was carried out in order to discern the differences and similarities within different accessions collected from different natural habitats. The essential oils were also screened for their antioxidant activities by chelating properties of Fe2+, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, and their reducing power. The essential oils of two chemo variants (viz. carvone and piperetenone oxide types) were also tested for potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) sprout suppressant activity. The results showed that these oils exhibit good sprout inhibition activity in comparison to CIPC and iodine, the standard sprout suppressant.

  16. Modulation of in vivo neuronal sprouting by serotonin in the adult CNS of the snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, M W; Croll, R P

    1996-10-01

    1. During in situ recovery from a lesion to the cerebrobuccal connective (CBC) in the snail Achatina fulica, neurons of the buccal ganglia undergo extensive regeneration and sprouting as assessed by axonal dye-fillings of the CBC. 2. These changes are preceded by the distal degeneration of severed fibres from the serotonergic metacerebral giant neuron (MCG), which results in the depletion of serotonin (5-HT) in the ipsilateral buccal ganglion. We have investigated the potential role of this depletion in causing some of the ensuing neuroplastic events. 3. Pharmacological depletion of 5-HT using either 5,7-dihydroxtryptamine or p-chlorophenylalanine in normal, unlesioned animals was found to produce supernumerary neuronal labelling similar to that seen following a lesion. 4. Systemic daily injections of 5-HT were found to partly suppress the sprouting response following the CBC lesion. For example, the contralateral, uninjured MCG which is normally induced by the lesion to sprout novel projections into the denervated ganglion, is suppressed from doing so by the 5-HT treatment. 5. These growth inhibiting effects of 5-HT upon the contralateral MCG could be antagonized by the prior administration of the 5-HT receptor blocker cyproheptadine, suggesting a specific receptor mediated action. 6. We suggest that 5-HT may play a role in governing the state of neuronal outgrowth in vivo in the CNS of the adult snail, as has been suggested by early development and neuronal cultural studies.

  17. Three-dimensional rapid visualization of matrix deformations around angiogenic sprouts (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuwe, Christian; Vayens, Marie-Mo; Jorge Peñas, Alvaro; Krajnik, Bartosz; Van Oosterwyck, Hans; Roeffaers, Maarten B. J.

    2017-02-01

    At the cell - extracellular matrix interface, physiologically important traction forces exerted by angiogenic sprouts can be investigated indirectly by mapping the consecutive matrix deformations. In this paper we present an approach to study these forces in three dimensions and with high time resolution. The technique employs lightsheet microscopy, in which a sheet of light is used to illuminate the sample - resulting in z-sectioning capability, superior image recording speed and reduced phototoxicity. For this study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) are transduced with a LifeAct adenoviral vector to visualize the actin cytoskeleton during live sprouting into a collagen type I hydrogel. The calculation of the matrix deformations is formulated as a B-spline-based 3D non-rigid image registration process that warps the image of beads inside the stressed gel to match the image after stress relaxation. Using this approach we study the role of fast moving actin filaments for filopodia- and tip-cell dynamics in 3D under chemically defined culture conditions such as inhibited acto-myosin force generation. With a time resolution in the range of ten seconds, we find that our technique is at least 20 times faster than conventional traction force microscopy based on confocal imaging. Ultimately, this approach will shed light on rapid mechano-chemical feedback mechanisms important for sprouting angiogenesis.

  18. The estrogenic activity of isoflavones extracted from chickpea Cicer arietinum L sprouts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HaiRong, Ma; HuaBo, Wei; Zhen, Chen; Yi, Yang; ZhengHua, Wang; Madina, Habasi; Xu, Cao; Akber, Aisa Haji

    2013-08-01

    Isoflavones have drawn attention due to their potential therapeutic use. Isoflavones are the important chemical components of the seeds and sprouts of chickpea and higher isoflavones in sprouts than in seeds. However, there have been no previous reports of the estrogenic activity of isoflavones extracted from chickpea Cicer arietinum L sprouts (ICS) in vitro. In this study, which incorporated several in vitro bioassays methods, we systematically evaluated the estrogenic properties of ICS. MTT assay showed that ICS at the low concentration ranges (10(-3)-1 mg/L) promoted MCF-7 cell growth, while at high concentrations, (>1 mg/L) inhibited cell proliferation, indicating ICS worked at a diphasic mechanism. Flow cytometric analysis further calculated the proliferation rate of ICS at low concentration (1 mg/L). ERα/Luc trans-activation assay and then semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that ICS at low concentrations induced ERα-mediated luciferase activity in MCF-7 cells and promoted the ER downstream target gene pS2 and PR trans-activation. These effects were inhibited by ICI 182,780, a special antagonist of ER, indicating that an ER-mediating pathway was involved. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) expression in Ishikawa cells showed that ICS at low concentrations stimulated AP expression. Our current study is the first to demonstrate that ICS has significant estrogenic activity in vitro. ICS may be useful as a supplement to hormone replacement therapy and in dietary supplements.

  19. VEGF-A/Notch-Induced Podosomes Proteolyse Basement Membrane Collagen-IV during Retinal Sprouting Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Spuul

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During angiogenic sprouting, endothelial tip cells emerge from existing vessels in a process that requires vascular basement membrane degradation. Here, we show that F-actin/cortactin/P-Src-based matrix-degrading microdomains called podosomes contribute to this step. In vitro, VEGF-A/Notch signaling regulates the formation of functional podosomes in endothelial cells. Using a retinal neovascularization model, we demonstrate that tip cells assemble podosomes during physiological angiogenesis in vivo. In the retina, podosomes are also part of an interconnected network that surrounds large microvessels and impinges on the underlying basement membrane. Consistently, collagen-IV is scarce in podosome areas. Moreover, Notch inhibition exacerbates podosome formation and collagen-IV loss. We propose that the localized proteolytic action of podosomes on basement membrane collagen-IV facilitates endothelial cell sprouting and anastomosis within the developing vasculature. The identification of podosomes as key components of the sprouting machinery provides another opportunity to target angiogenesis therapeutically.

  20. Effects of white, blue, and red light-emitting diodes on carotenoid biosynthetic gene expression levels and carotenoid accumulation in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, Yeon Bok; Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Sun-Ju; Lee, Sanghyun; Chung, Sun-Ok; Park, Sang Un

    2013-12-18

    In this study, the optimum wavelengths of light required for carotenoid biosynthesis were determined by investigating the expression levels of carotenoid biosynthetic genes and carotenoid accumulation in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) exposed to white, blue, and red light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Most carotenoid biosynthetic genes showed higher expression in sprouts irradiated with white light at 8 days after sowing than in those irradiated with blue and red lights. The dominant carotenoids in tartary buckwheat sprouts were lutein and β-carotene. The richest accumulation of total carotenoids was observed in sprouts grown under white light (1282.63 μg g(-1) dry weight), which was relatively higher than that in sprouts grown under blue and red lights (940.86 and 985.54 μg g(-1), respectively). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing the production of carotenoids and other important secondary metabolites in tartary buckwheat sprouts by using LED technology.

  1. Analysis of preharvest sprouting in three Brazilian wheat populations Análise da germinação pré-colheita em três populações brasileiras de trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Carlos Bassoi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the possibility of obtaining recombinant inbred wheat lines more resistant to preharvest sprouting, independently of colour genes, in three red-grained Brazilian wheat populations. The results showed statistical significance among lines within all populations, which presented a normal distribution and transgressive segregation for preharvest sprouting. The normal distribution of the lines from all red-grained populations suggests that sprouting, excluding the genes expressing seed coat pigmentation, is, probably, controlled by many genes. These findings also indicate that it may be possible to improve resistance to preharvest sprouting, independently of the colour genes.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a possibilidade de obtenção de linhas recombinantes homozigotas de trigo mais resistentes à germinação pré-colheita independentemente dos genes de cor, em três populações brasileiras de grãos vermelhos. Os resultados mostraram significância estatística entre linhas, em todas as populações, distribuição normal e segregação transgressiva. A distribuição normal apresentada por todas as populações com grãos vermelhos sugere que a germinação pré-colheita, excluindo-se os genes responsáveis pela pigmentação dos grãos, é, provavelmente, controlada por muitos genes. Os resultados indicam, também, que é possível aumentar a resistência à germinação pré-colheita, independentemente dos genes de cor.

  2. Application of Combined Process of Ozone/Activated Carbon and UF in Bean Sprouts Spray Water Reuse Project%臭氧活性炭/超滤工艺用于豆芽喷淋水回用工程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伟芳; 陈国伟; 韩东梅; 郭浩

    2011-01-01

    The combined process of ozone/activated carbon, UF membrane and UV disinfection was used for treatment and reuse of bean sprouts spray water. The effluent quality can reach Standards for Drinking Water Quality (GB 5749 -2006 ). The quality of bean sprouts has no significant difference compared with the control group, and it can reach Hygienic Standard for Bean Sprouts (GB 22556 - 2008). This combined process is feasible in economy and reliable in technology, and it provides a new idea for high-quality miscellaneous wastewater reclamation and reuse.%采用臭氧活性岌/超滤/紫外消毒组合工艺对豆芽喷淋水进行处理后回用,出水水质可满足国家(GB 5749-2006),豆芽品质与对照试验相比没有显著性差异,达到国家(GB 22556-2008).该组合工艺技术可靠,经济可行,为优质杂排水再生回用提供了新思路.

  3. Assessment of the estrogenic activities of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) sprout isoflavone extract in ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-rong MA; Jie WANG; Hong-xue QI; Yan-hua GAO; Li-juan PANG; Yi YANG; Zhen-hua WANG

    2013-01-01

    Aim:Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) is a traditional Uighur herb.In this study we investigated the estrogenic activities of the isoflavones extracted from chickpea sprouts (ICS) in ovariectomized rats.Methods:Ten-week-old virgin Sprague-Dawley female rats were ovariectomized (OVX).The rats were administered via intragastric gavage 3 different doses of ICS (20,50,or 100 mg·kg-1.d-1) for 5 weeks.Their uterine weight and serum levels of 17β-estradiol (E2),follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured.The epithelial height,number of glands in the uterus,and number of osteoclasts in the femur were histologically quantified,and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was assessed immunohistochemically.Bone structural parameters,including bone mineral density (BMD),bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV),trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) were measured using Micro-CT scanning.Results:Treatments of OVX rats with ICS (50 or 100 mg·kg-1.d-1) produced significant estrogenic effects on the uteruses,including the increases in uterine weight,epithelial height and gland number,as well as in the expression of the cell proliferation marker PCNA.The treatments changed the secretory profile of ovarian hormones and pituitary gonadotropins:serum E2 level was significantly increased,while serum LH and FSH levels were decreased compared with the vehicle-treated OVX rats.Furthermore,the treatments significantly attenuated the bone loss,increased BMD,BV/TV and Tb.Th and decreased Tb.Sp and the number of osteoclasts.Treatment of OVX rats with the positive control drug E2 (0.25 mg·kg-1.d-1) produced similar,but more prominent effects.Conclusion:ICS exhibits moderate estrogenic activities as compared to E2 in ovariectomized rats,suggesting the potential use of ICS for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis caused by estrogen deficiency.

  4. Sprouting from chicken embryo dorsal root ganglia induced by nerve growth factor is specifically inhibited by affinity-purified antiganglioside antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, M; Spirman, N

    1982-01-01

    The involvement of gangliosides in processes related to nerve regeneration and sprouting has been demonstrated recently. The type of interaction by which gangliosides may influence neuronal sprouting was investigated in the present work. Affinity-purified rabbit anti-GM1 antibodies were found to block the sprouting from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of chicken embryo induced by nerve growth factor (NGF). Only a moderately inhibitory effect was produced by antibodies directed to GM2, suggesting a ...

  5. Does inter-plant variation in sprouting time affect the growth/reproduction trade-off and herbivory in a tropical tree species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilio Fagundes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The timing of phenological events varies within and among populations, affecting the performance of individual plants differently. We evaluated the effects of relative variation in sprouting time on the display of reproductive events, vegetative growth and herbivory in Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae. A total of 93 trees of C. langsdorffii was monitored daily to determine their sprouting time. We collected ten terminal branches of each plant to evaluate vegetative growth, production of defense compounds and insect herbivore damage. The sprouting time for the studied population lasted 67 days. Variation in sprouting time did not affect the probability of plants to enter the reproductive stage. Plants that entered the reproductive stage showed greater vegetative biomass. Variation in sprouting time had a negative relationship with branch growth and a positive relationship with the number of leaflets. Leaf phenol concentration did not vary in relation to sprouting time or plant phenology, but herbivory was higher in plants that sprouted later. The relationships among plant sprouting time, vegetative development and display of reproductive stage in C. langsdorffii are discussed. The results of this study also suggest that early sprouting prior to the rainy season is a strategy used by C. langsdorffii to escape herbivores attacks.

  6. Extent of mossy fiber sprouting in patients with mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy correlates with neuronal cell loss and granule cell dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeiser, Barbara; Zentner, Josef; Prinz, Marco; Brandt, Armin; Freiman, Thomas M

    2017-01-01

    The most frequent finding in temporal lobe epilepsy is hippocampal sclerosis, characterized by selective cell loss of hippocampal subregions CA1 and CA4 as well as mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) towards the supragranular region and granule cell dispersion. Although selective cell loss is well described, its impact on mossy fiber sprouting and granule cell dispersion remains unclear. In a single center series, we examined 319 human hippocampal specimens, collected in a 15-years period. Hippocampal specimens were stained for neuronal loss, granule cell dispersion (Wyler scale I-IV, Neu-N, HE) and mossy fiber sprouting (synaptoporin-immunohistochemistry). For seizure outcome Engel score I-IV was applied. In Wyler I and II specimens, mossy fibers were found along their natural projection exclusively in CA4 and CA3. In Wyler III and IV, sprouting of mossy fibers into the molecular layer and a decrease of mossy fibers in CA4 and CA3 was detected. Mean granule cell dispersion was extended from 121μm to 185μm and correlated with Wyler III-IV as well as mossy fiber sprouting into the molecular layer. Wyler grade, mossy fiber sprouting and granule cell dispersion correlated with longer epilepsy duration, late surgery and higher preoperative seizure frequency. Parameters analyzed above did not correlate with postoperative seizure outcome. Mossy fiber sprouting might be a compensatory phenomenon of cell death of the target neurons in CA4 and CA3 in Wyler III-IV. Axonal reorganization of granule cells is accompanied by their migration and is correlated with the severity of cell loss and epilepsy duration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of Listeria monocytogenes recoveries from spiked mung bean sprouts by the enrichment methods of three regulatory agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchon, Kaitlin E; Hitchins, Anthony D; Smiley, R Derike

    2017-09-01

    Three selective enrichment methods, the United States Food and Drug Administration's (FDA method), the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety Inspection Service's (USDA method), and the EN ISO 11290-1 standard method, were assessed for their suitability for recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from spiked mung bean sprouts. Three parameters were evaluated; the enrichment L. monocytogenes population from singly-spiked sprouts, the enrichment L. monocytogenes population from doubly-spiked (L. monocytogenes and Listeria innocua) sprouts, and the population differential resulting from the enrichment of doubly-spiked sprouts. Considerable L. monocytogenes inter-strain variation was observed. The mean enrichment L. monocytogenes populations for singly-spiked sprouts were 6.1 ± 1.2, 4.9 ± 1.2, and 6.9 ± 2.3 log CFU/mL for the FDA, USDA, and EN ISO 11290-1 methods, respectively. The mean L. monocytogenes populations for doubly-spiked sprouts were 4.7 ± 1.1, 5.5 ± 1.3, and 4.6 ± 1.4 log CFU/mL for the FDA, USDA, and ISO 11290-1 enrichment methods, respectively. The corresponding mean population differentials were 2.8 ± 1.1, 3.3 ± 1.3, and 3.6 ± 1.4 Δlog CFU/mL for the same three enrichment methods, respectively. The presence of L. innocua and resident microorganisms on the sprouts negatively impacted final levels of L. monocytogenes with all three enrichment methods. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Effect of germination time on proximate analysis, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmed Fouad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The lentil plant, Lens culinaris L., is a member of the Leguminoceae family and constitutes one of the most important traditional dietary components. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of sprouting for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days on proximate, bioactive compounds and antioxidative characteristics of lentil (Lens culinaris sprouts. Material and methods. Lentil seeds were soaked in distilled water (1:10, w/v for 12 h at room temperature (~25°C, then kept between thick layers of cotton cloth and allowed to germinate in the dark for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days. The nutritional composition, protein solubility, free amino acids, antinutritional factors, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raw and germinated samples were determined using standard official procedures. Results. Sprouting process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05 increases in moisture, protein, ash, crude fiber, protein solubility, free amino acids, total, reducing and nonreducing sugars. However, oil content, antinutritional factors (tannins and phytic acid significantly (P ≤ 0.05 decreased. Results indicated that total essential amino acids of lentil seeds protein formed 38.10% of the total amino acid content. Sulfur-containing amino acids were the first limiting amino acid, while threonine was the second limiting amino acid in raw and germinated lentil seeds. Sprouting process has a positive effect on the essential amino acid contents and protein efficiency ratio (PER of lentil sprouts. Phenolics content increased from 1341.13 mg/100 g DW in raw lentil seeds to 1411.50, 1463.00, 1630.20 and 1510.10 in those samples germinated for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days, respectively. Sprouted seeds had higher DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities. Conclusions. Based on these results, sprouting process is recommended to increase nutritive value, and antioxidant activity of lentil seeds.

  9. Administration of a tropomyosin receptor kinase inhibitor attenuates sarcoma-induced nerve sprouting, neuroma formation and bone cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloom Aaron P

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pain often accompanies cancer and most current therapies for treating cancer pain have significant unwanted side effects. Targeting nerve growth factor (NGF or its cognate receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA has become an attractive target for attenuating chronic pain. In the present report, we use a mouse model of bone cancer pain and examine whether oral administration of a selective small molecule Trk inhibitor (ARRY-470, which blocks TrkA, TrkB and TrkC kinase activity at low nm concentrations has a significant effect on cancer-induced pain behaviors, tumor-induced remodeling of sensory nerve fibers, tumor growth and tumor-induced bone remodeling. Early/sustained (initiated day 6 post cancer cell injection, but not late/acute (initiated day 18 post cancer cell injection administration of ARRY-470 markedly attenuated bone cancer pain and significantly blocked the ectopic sprouting of sensory nerve fibers and the formation of neuroma-like structures in the tumor bearing bone, but did not have a significant effect on tumor growth or bone remodeling. These data suggest that, like therapies that target the cancer itself, the earlier that the blockade of TrkA occurs, the more effective the control of cancer pain and the tumor-induced remodeling of sensory nerve fibers. Developing targeted therapies that relieve cancer pain without the side effects of current analgesics has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life and functional status of cancer patients.

  10. Green synthesis of soya bean sprouts-mediated superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Shen Yuhua, E-mail: s_yuhua@163.co [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China) and State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xie Anjian, E-mail: anjx@163.co [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China) and State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li Shikuo; Wang Xiufang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were first synthesized via soya bean sprouts (SBS) templates under ambient temperature and normal atmosphere. The reaction process was simple, eco-friendly, and convenient to handle. The morphology and crystalline phase of the nanoparticles were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. The effect of SBS template on the formation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was investigated using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicate that spherical Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with an average diameter of 8 nm simultaneously formed on the epidermal surface and the interior stem wall of SBS. The SBS are responsible for size and morphology control during the whole formation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. In addition, the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) results indicate the products are superparamagnetic at room temperature, with blocking temperature (T{sub B}) of 150 K and saturation magnetization of 37.1 emu/g.

  11. The potential of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.), an Israeli native, as a source of edible sprouts rich in antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaknin, Yiftach; Hadas, Rivka; Schafferman, Dan; Murkhovsky, Leonid; Bashan, Neta

    2008-06-01

    The potential of wild plants in Israel as sources of edible sprouts has not been investigated until now. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) is native to the Mediterranean basin and is now widespread throughout the world; its young fleshy stems are traditionally eaten by the local Arab sector in Israel, and its sprouts are rich in antioxidants and have been used as a traditional medicine for diseases of the liver and biliary tract. The active extract of milk thistle, silymarin, is a mixture of flavonolignans and is a strong antioxidant that has been proved to promote liver cell regeneration, to reduce blood cholesterol and to help prevent cancer. The present objective was to investigate the potential of milk thistle as a source of edible sprouts rich in antioxidants. We found that seed germination within 3-4 days was high (96%, except for striated seeds). Exposure to light significantly reduced sprout growth and significantly increased the polyphenol content and antioxidative capacity. The polyphenol content was 30% higher in seeds originating from purple inflorescences than in those from white ones. We thus found milk thistle to be a good candidate source of healthy edible sprouts.

  12. Metabolic alterations of lutein, β-carotene and chlorophyll a during germination of two soybean sprout varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinwook; Hwang, Young-Sun; Lee, Jeong-Dong; Chang, Woo-Suk; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2013-12-01

    The metabolic changes of lutein, β-carotene and chlorophyll a during germination of the soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) sprout varieties, 'Pungsannamulkong' and 'Bosug', have been studied. Seeds were germinated at 20 °C with 80% humidity in the darkness and sampled at 2 day intervals for 10 days. Partial least squares (PLS) scores plot showed that the responses of three metabolites during germination were linearly linked with each other except for day 2 in both varieties. PLS loading plots indicated that lutein content in whole sprout and cotyledon was closely associated with germination in 'Pungsannamulkong' while the chlorophyll a content in whole sprouts was highly linked with germination in 'Bosug'. Heatmap analyses revealed that lutein and β-carotene levels, but not those of chlorophyll a, accumulated in whole soybean sprouts and cotyledon. While hypocotyls did not accumulate lipophilic pigments during germination, the accumulation of lutein and β-carotene in the cotyledons was greater in 'Pungsannamulkong' than in 'Bosug' sprouts. In addition, the contents of lutein, β-carotene and chlorophyll a increased from those in the seeds. Overall, the metabolic changes of lutein, β-carotene and chlorophyll a during germination are affected not only by variety but also by organ type.

  13. Legume seeds and cereal grains’ capacity to accumulate iron while sprouting in order to obtain food fortifi cant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zielińska-Dawidziak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prepared sprouts, after culturing in a medium with an increased iron concentration, could become a benefi cial food iron fortifi cant. However, the effi cient iron accumulation depends on the plants genus, species and/or varieties. The aim of the study was to indicate the seeds or grains which accumulate iron most effi ciently during the sprouting process. Material and methods. Alfalfa, lentil, lupine and soybean seeds as well as wheat grains were sprouted in abiotic stress conditions induced by the excess of iron(II in culture media. The tolerance of these plants to iron concentration and its accumulation in the material obtained (with FAAS method were analyzed. Results. The smallest tolerance was noted for lentil seeds and wheat grains. Other plants developed in 25 mM solution of FeSO4. The highest accumulation of iron was observed in alfalfa sprouts. However, lupine and soybean seeds are the most recommended raw material for the production of the sprouts on an industrial scale.

  14. The effect of dietary alfalfa and flax sprouts on rabbit meat antioxidant content, lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bosco, A; Castellini, C; Martino, M; Mattioli, S; Marconi, O; Sileoni, V; Ruggeri, S; Tei, F; Benincasa, P

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with flax and alfalfa sprouts on fatty acid, tocopherol and phytochemical contents of rabbit meat. Ninety weaned New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to three dietary groups: standard diet (S); standard diet+20g/d of alfalfa sprouts (A); and standard diet+20g/d of flax sprouts (F). In the F rabbits the Longissimus dorsi muscle showed a higher thio-barbituric acid-reactive value and at the same time significantly higher values of alpha-linolenic acid, total polyunsaturated and n-3 fatty acids. Additionally n-3/n-6 ratio and thrombogenic indices were improved. The meat of A rabbits showed intermediate values of the previously reported examined parameters. Dietary supplementation with sprouts produced meat with a higher total phytoestrogen content. The addition of fresh alfalfa and flax sprouts to commercial feed modified the fat content, fatty acid and phytochemical profile of the meat, but the flax ones worsened the oxidative status of meat.

  15. Qualidade de manga 'tommy atkins' pós-colheita com uso de cloreto de cálcio na pré-colheita Quality of 'tommy atkins' mangoes in post-harvest with calcium choride spray use in the pre-harvest period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Hissayuki Hojo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mangas da cultivar Tommy Atkins produzidas em Livramento de Nossa Senhora, Bahia, foram analisadas com o objetivo de verificar a influência da aplicação pré-colheita de cloreto de cálcio na vida útil pós-colheita e em relação ao distúrbio fisiológico. As pulverizações de CaC1(2 foram realizadas em três épocas: 35; 65 e 95 dias após o florescimento. Os tratamentos foram concentrações de cloreto de cálcio: 0,0%; 2,0%; 3,5%; 5,0% e 6,5%. Frutos foram colhidos, transportados para o Laboratório de Biotecnologia da UESB, armazenados em câmara fria a 10ºC e 90% UR e avaliados por período de 35 dias. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 6 (concentração x tempo de armazenamento, com 3 repetições e 2 frutos por parcela. Os parâmetros analisados foram: perda de massa, firmeza, acidez titulável, pH, sólidos solúveis, relação sólidos solúveis/acidez, incidência e severidade de colapso interno. Durante o período de armazenamento, observou-se que, a partir do 28º dia de armazenamento, a perda de massa dos frutos foi menor em doses maiores de cloreto de cálcio. A firmeza e o teor de sólidos solúveis foram influenciados em maiores concentrações de CaC1(2, enquanto as demais características não foram influenciadas significativamente. A incidência e a severidade do colapso interno dos frutos não foram afetadas com uso de cloreto de cálcio. Verificou-se que a aplicação pré-colheita de cloreto de cálcio, em doses maiores (> 3,5%, aumenta a vida útil pós-colheita da manga, contudo não reduz a incidência do colapso interno.The fruits produced in Livramento de Nossa Senhora, Bahia, had been analyzed with the objective to verify the influence of spraying application of calcium chloride in pre-harvest period on shelf life of 'Tommy Atkins' mangoes. The sprayings of CaC1(2 were made three times: 35, 65 and 95 days after mango flowering. The used treatments were composed

  16. Efficacy of selenium from hydroponically produced selenium-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.) in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantiratikul, Anut; Pakmaruek, Pornpan; Chinrasri, Orawan; Aengwanich, Worapol; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee; Maneetong, Sarunya; Chantiratikul, Piyanete

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of Se from hydroponically produced Se-enriched kale sprout (HPSeKS) on performance, carcass characteristics, tissue Se concentration, and physiological responses of broilers in comparison to that of Se from Se-enriched yeast and sodium selenite. Three hundred and sixty male broilers, 10 days of age, were assigned to 6 groups, 4 replicates of 15 broilers each, according to the completely randomized design. The dietary treatments were the following: T1: control diet; T2: control diet plus 0.3 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite; T3: control diet plus 0.3 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched yeast; and T4, T5, and T6: control diet plus 0.3, 1.0, and 2.0 mg Se/kg from HPSeKS, respectively. The results found that dietary Se supplementation did not (p > 0.05) alter performance and carcass characteristics of broilers. Se supplementation increased (p < 0.05) Se concentrations in the liver and kidney of broilers. Heart tissue Se concentration of broilers fed Se from sodium selenite was lower (p < 0.05) than that of broilers fed Se from HPSeKS and Se-enriched yeast. Selenium from HPSeKS increased higher (p < 0.05) GSH-Px activity when compared to Se from sodium selenite and Se-enriched yeast. The results indicated that the efficacy of Se from HPSeKS was comparable in increasing tissue Se concentration, but higher in improving GSH-Px activity in Rbc when compared to those of Se from Se-enriched yeast.

  17. Untargeted Metabolomics Reveals Predominant Alterations in Lipid Metabolism Following Light Exposure in Broccoli Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa Maldini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower is linked to a reduced incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The molecular composition of such plants is strongly affected by growing conditions. Here we developed an unbiased metabolomics approach to investigate the effect of light and dark exposure on the metabolome of broccoli sprouts and we applied such an approach to provide a bird’s-eye view of the overall metabolic response after light exposure. Broccoli seeds were germinated and grown hydroponically for five days in total darkness or with a light/dark photoperiod (16 h light/8 h dark cycle. We used an ultra-performance liquid-chromatography system coupled to an ion-mobility, time-of-flight mass spectrometer to profile the large array of metabolites present in the sprouts. Differences at the metabolite level between groups were analyzed using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis and correlation analysis. Altered metabolites were identified by searching publicly available and in-house databases. Metabolite pathway analyses were used to support the identification of subtle but significant changes among groups of related metabolites that may have gone unnoticed with conventional approaches. Besides the chlorophyll pathway, light exposure activated the biosynthesis and metabolism of sterol lipids, prenol lipids, and polyunsaturated lipids, which are essential for the photosynthetic machinery. Our results also revealed that light exposure increased the levels of polyketides, including flavonoids, and oxylipins, which play essential roles in the plant’s developmental processes and defense mechanism against herbivores. This study highlights the significant contribution of light exposure to the ultimate metabolic phenotype, which might affect the cellular physiology and nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, this study highlights the

  18. Evidence of vagus nerve sprouting to innervate the urinary bladder and clitoris in a canine model of lower motoneuron lesioned bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbe, Mary F; Gomez-Amaya, Sandra; Braverman, Alan S; Brown, Justin M; Lamarre, Neil S; Massicotte, Vicky S; Lewis, Jennifer K S; Dachert, Stephen R; Ruggieri, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Complete spinal cord injury does not block perceptual responses or inferior solitary nucleus activation after genital self-stimulation, even though the vagus is not thought to innervate pelvic structures. We tested if vagus nerve endings sprout after bladder decentralization to innervate genitourinary structures in canines with decentralized bladders. Four reinnervation surgeries were performed in female hounds: bilateral genitofemoral nerve transfer to pelvic nerve with vesicostomy (GNF-V) or without (GFN-NV); and left femoral nerve transfer (FNT-V and FNT-NV). After 8 months, retrograde dyes were injected into genitourinary structures. Three weeks later, at euthanasia, reinnervation was evaluated as increased detrusor pressure induced by functional electrical stimulation (FES). Controls included un-operated, sham-operated, and decentralized animals. Increased detrusor pressure was seen in 8/12 GFNT-V, 4/5 GFNT-NV, 5/5 FNT-V, and 4/5 FNT-NV animals after FES, but not decentralized controls. Lumbar cord segments contained cells labeled from the bladder in all nerve transfer animals with FES-induced increased detrusor pressure. Nodose ganglia cells labeled from the bladder were observed in 5/7 nerve transfer animals (1/2 GNT-NV; 4/5 FNT-V), and from the clitoris were in 6/7 nerve transfer animals (2/2 GFNT-NV; 4/5 FNT-V). Dorsal motor nucleus vagus cells labeled from the bladder were observed in 3/5 nerve transfer animals (1/2 GFNT-NV; 2/3 FNT-V), and from the clitoris in 4/5 nerve transfer animals (1/2 GFNT-NV; 3/3 FNT-V). Controls lacked this labeling. Evidence of vagal nerve sprouting to the bladder and clitoris was observed in canines with lower motoneuron lesioned bladders. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:91-97, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Sprout inhibition in roots, tubers and bulbs; Inhibicion de brotes en raices, tuberculos y bulbos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna C, P.C

    1992-05-15

    The treatment with ionizing radiations to low dose impedes that appear sprouts in the tubers (potatoes); bulbs (onion and garlic) and in roots like the ginger and the yucca. The purpose is to inhibit the germination during the process of manipulation and storage, and this way to avoid the lost ones post crop of these products. The radiation dose required to inhibit the germination goes to depend of: the development conditions, the differences of variety, of the storage state of the bulbs and the conditions of cured and storage. (Author)

  20. Ingestion of broccoli sprouts does not improve endothelial function in humans with hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Buris; Bellostas Muguerza, Natalia; Petersen, Atheline Major

    2010-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Ingestion of glucosinolates has previously been reported to improve endothelial function in spontaneously hypertensive rats, possibly because of an increase in NO availability in the endothelium due to an attenuation of oxidative stress; in our study we tried to see if this also would...... be the case in humans suffering from essential hypertension. METHODS: 40 hypertensive individuals without diabetes and with normal levels of cholesterol were examined. The participants were randomized either to ingest 10 g dried broccoli sprouts, a natural donor of glucosinolates with high in vitro...... endothelial function in the presence of hypertension in humans. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00252018....

  1. Behavior of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, and enterotoxigenic E. coli strains on alfalfa sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Torres-Vitela, M Del Refugio; Villarruel-López, Angélica; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2013-08-01

    Data about the behavior of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (non-O157 STEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) on seeds and alfalfa sprouts are not available. The behavior of STEC, EIEC, ETEC, and EPEC was determined during germination and sprouting of alfalfa seeds at 20 ± 2°C and 30 ± 2°C and on alfalfa sprouts at 3 ± 2°C. When alfalfa seeds were inoculated with STEC, EIEC, ETEC, or EPEC strains, all these diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs) grew during germination and sprouting of seeds, reaching counts of approximately 5 and 6 log CFU/g after 1 day at 20 ± 2°C and 30 ± 2°C, respectively. However, when the sprouts were inoculated after 1 day of seed germination and stored at 20 ± 2°C or 30 ± 2°C, no growth was observed for any DEP during sprouting at 20 ± 2°C or 30 ± 2°C for 9 days. Refrigeration reduced significantly (P < 0.0.5) the number of viable DEPs on sprouts after 20 days in storage; nevertheless, these decreases have no practical significance for the safety of the sprouts.

  2. Cutaneous collateral axonal sprouting re-innervates the skin component and restores sensation of denervated Swine osteomyocutaneous alloflaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhaib Ibrahim

    Full Text Available Reconstructive transplantation such as extremity and face transplantation is a viable treatment option for select patients with devastating tissue loss. Sensorimotor recovery is a critical determinant of overall success of such transplants. Although motor function recovery has been extensively studied, mechanisms of sensory re-innervation are not well established. Recent clinical reports of face transplants confirm progressive sensory improvement even in cases where optimal repair of sensory nerves was not achieved. Two forms of sensory nerve regeneration are known. In regenerative sprouting, axonal outgrowth occurs from the transected nerve stump while in collateral sprouting, reinnervation of denervated tissue occurs through growth of uninjured axons into the denervated tissue. The latter mechanism may be more important in settings where transected sensory nerves cannot be re-apposed. In this study, denervated osteomyocutaneous alloflaps (hind- limb transplants from Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC-defined MGH miniature swine were performed to specifically evaluate collateral axonal sprouting for cutaneous sensory re-innervation. The skin component of the flap was externalized and serial skin sections extending from native skin to the grafted flap were biopsied. In order to visualize regenerating axonal structures in the dermis and epidermis, 50 um frozen sections were immunostained against axonal and Schwann cell markers. In all alloflaps, collateral axonal sprouts from adjacent recipient skin extended into the denervated skin component along the dermal-epidermal junction from the periphery towards the center. On day 100 post-transplant, regenerating sprouts reached 0.5 cm into the flap centripetally. Eight months following transplant, epidermal fibers were visualized 1.5 cm from the margin (rate of regeneration 0.06 mm per day. All animals had pinprick sensation in the periphery of the transplanted skin within 3 months post

  3. Raphanus sativus cv. Sango Sprout Juice Decreases Diet-Induced Obesity in Sprague Dawley Rats and Ameliorates Related Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Vivarelli

    Full Text Available Obesity is recognized as a leading global health problem, correlated with an increased risk for several chronic diseases. One strategy for weight control management includes the use of vegetables rich in bioactive compounds to counteract weight gain, improve the antioxidant status and stimulate lipid catabolism.The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Raphanus sativus Sango sprout juice (SSJ, a Brassica extraordinarily rich in anthocyanins (AC and isothiocyanates (ITCs, in a non-genetic model of obesity (high fat diet-HFD induced.Control groups were fed with HFD or regular diet (RD. After a 10-week period, animals were assigned to experimental units and treated by gavage for 28 days as follows: HFD and RD control groups (rats fed HFD or RD and treated with vehicle only and HFD-treated groups (rats fed HFD and treated with 15, 75 or 150 mg/kg b.w. of SSJ. Body weight and food consumption were recorded and serum lipid profile was measured (total cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-esterified fatty acids. Hepatic phase-I, phase-II as well as antioxidant enzymatic activities were assessed.SSJ lowered total cholesterol level, food intake and liver weight compared with HFD rodents. SSJ at medium dose proved effective in reducing body-weight (~19 g reduction. SSJ was effective in up-regulating the antioxidant enzymes catalase,quinone reductase, oxidised glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase, which reached or exceeded RD levels, as well as the phase II metabolic enzyme UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (up to about 43%. HFD up-regulated almost every cytochrome P450 isoform tested, and a mild down-regulation to baseline was observed after SSJ intervention.This work reveals, for the first time, the antioxidant, hypolipidemic and antiobesity potential of SSJ, suggesting its use as an efficient new functional food/nutraceutical product.

  4. Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors modify kainic acid-induced epileptiform activity and mossy fiber sprouting but do not protect against limbic cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Queiroz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Intrahippocampal administration of kainic acid (KA induces synaptic release of neurotrophins, mainly brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which contributes to the acute neuronal excitation produced by the toxin. Two protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, herbimycin A and K252a, were administered intracerebroventricularly, in a single dose, to attenuate neurotrophin signaling during the acute effects of KA, and their role in epileptogenesis was evaluated in adult, male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g. The latency for the first Racine stage V seizure was 90 ± 8 min in saline controls (N = 4 which increased to 369 ± 71 and 322 ± 63 min in animals receiving herbimycin A (1.74 nmol, N = 4 and K252a (10 pmol, N = 4, respectively. Behavioral alterations were accompanied by diminished duration of EEG paroxysms in herbimycin A- and K252a-treated animals. Notwithstanding the reduction in seizure severity, cell death (60-90% of cell loss in KA-treated animals in limbic regions was unchanged by herbimycin A and K252a. However, aberrant mossy fiber sprouting was significantly reduced in the ipsilateral dorsal hippocampus of K252a-treated animals. In this model of temporal lobe epilepsy, both protein kinase inhibitors diminished the acute epileptic activity triggered by KA and the ensuing morphological alterations in the dentate gyrus without diminishing cell loss. Our current data indicating that K252a, but not herbimycin, has an influence over KA-induced mossy fiber sprouting further suggest that protein tyrosine kinase receptors are not the only factors which control this plasticity. Further experiments are necessary to elucidate the exact signaling systems associated with this K252a effect.

  5. Tracer studies on the incorporation of [2-14C]-DL-mevalonate into chlorophylls a and b, alpha-chaconine, and alpha-solanine of potato sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozukue, N; Tsuchida, H; Friedman, M

    2001-01-01

    Chlorophyll and glycoalkaloids are synthesized in different parts of the potato plant including leaves, tubers, and sprouts. Although light stimulates the biosynthesis of both constituents, the question of whether the two biosynthetic pathways are under the same genetic control has not been resolved. This study investigated the dynamics of incorporation of labeled [2-(14)C]-DL-mavalonate into chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and the glycoalkaloids alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine in potato sprouts after 7 and 14 days of storage in the light and in the dark. No chlorophyll synthesis occurred in the dark. Fractionation of the "glycoalkaloid" extract followed by high-performance liquid chromatography produced four peaks. The fractions were collected and analyzed for radioactivity. About 80% of the radioactivity resided in fraction 1, the composition of which is unknown. Two of the fractions, with 1-14% of the original label, were alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine. The radioactivity derived from mevalonate largely resides in unidentified compound(s) eluting as a single peak on the HPLC column before the peaks associated with the glycoalkaloids. The specific radioactivity of alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine increased approximately 2-fold in going from 7 to 14 days of exposure in the light and in the dark. These and additional observations point to the near identity of the dynamics of biosynthesis of the two glycoalkaloids. These data also implicate a non-mevalonate pathway for the synthesis of both chlorophylls and the glycoalkaloids and are consistent with independent genetic control of the concurrent formation of the two classes of compounds during greening of potatoes.

  6. VAMP-2 promotes neurite elongation and SNAP-25A increases neurite sprouting in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasu, M; Kimura, K; Kataoka, M; Takahashi, M; Okajima, S; Kawaguchi, S; Hirasawa, Y; Ide, C; Mizoguchi, A

    2000-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attached protein (SNAP) receptor (SNARE)-mediated membrane fusion system is involved in vesicle fusion in the plasma membrane that allows expansion for neurite elongation. There have been several reports analyzing the effects of neurite outgrowth by inhibition of SNAREs. In this study, we took the opposite approach by overexpressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion SNAREs, including VAMP-2, SNAP-25A, and syntaxin1A, in PC12 cells to investigate the role of SNAREs in the neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. Neurite outgrowth analysis demonstrated that: (1) GFP-VAMP-2 increased the length of individual neurites, without changing the number of neurites per cell; (2) GFP-SNAP-25A increased the number of neurites per cell, with no change in the length of the individual neurites. In both cases, the total length of neurites per cell was increased; (3) GFP-syntaxin1A resulted in no significant change, either in neurite length, or in the number of neurites per cell. These findings suggest that when overexpressed in PC12 cells, VAMP-2 can promote neurite elongation, while SNAP-25A can stimulate neurite sprouting. On the other hand, overexpression of syntaxin1A neither promotes nor inhibits neurite outgrowth. Thus VAMP-2 and SNAP-25A play different roles in neurite elongation and sprouting.

  7. Vanadium-enriched chickpea sprout ameliorated hyperglycemia and impaired memory in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xueqin; Zhang, Ling; Xia, Qing; Sun, Zhaofeng; Zhao, Xiaomin; Cai, Hongxin; Yang, Xiaoda; Xia, Zuoli; Tang, Yujing

    2008-10-01

    Vanadium compounds have been recognized for their hypoglycemic effects; however, potential short and long-term vanadium toxicity has slowed the acceptance for therapeutic use. In the present work, three batches of vanadium-enriched chickpea sprout (VCS) were prepared by incubating chickpea seeds in presence of 200, 100, and 50 microg/ml of sodium orthovanadate (SOV). The effects of oral administration of chickpea sprout (CS) and VCS food for 8 weeks on streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic rats were investigated. Both CS and VCS food was found to ameliorate some hyperglycemic symptoms of the diabetic rats, i.e. improve lipid metabolism, decrease blood glucose level, prevent body weight loss, and reduce impairment of diabetic related spatial learning and memory. Serum insulin was substantially elevated in treated diabetic rats, which is probably one important reason for the hypoglycemic effect. Compared with CS alone, VCS100 food exhibited remarkably enhanced effectiveness in alleviating diabetes induced hyperglycemia and memory loss. Moreover, vanadium-enriched chickpeas appeared to abolish the vanadium induced toxicity associated with administration of this metal for diabetes during the 8-week study period. This study suggested further work of the vanadium speciation in CS and novel hypoglycemic mechanism for the antidiabetic activity of vanadium agents. Vanadium containing (VCS) food could be a dietary supplement for the diabetic status.

  8. Acylated anthocyanins from sprouts of Raphanus sativus cv. Sango: isolation, structure elucidation and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, Riccardo; Gabbanini, Simone; Berretti, Serena; Amorati, Riccardo; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Valgimigli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Little is known on structure-activity relationships of antioxidant anthocyanins. Raphanus sativus cv Sango sprouts are among the richest sources (270 mg/100 g fresh weight). We isolated from sprouts' juice 9 acylated anthocyanins, including 4 new compounds. All comprise a cyanidin core bearing 3-4 glucose units, multiply acylated with malonic and phenolic acids (ferulic and sinapic). All compounds were equally effective in inhibiting the autoxidation of linoleic acid in aqueous micelles, with rate constant for trapping peroxyl radicals kinh=(3.8 ± 0.7) × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1) at 37 °C. In acetonitrile solution kinh varied with acylation: (0.9-2.1) × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) at 30 °C. Each molecule trapped a number n of peroxyl radicals ranging from 4 to 7. Anthocyanins bearing sinapic acid were more effective than those bearing the ferulic moiety. Under identical settings, deacylated cyanin, ferulic and sinapic acids had kinh of 0.4 × 10(5), 0.3 × 10(5) and 1.6 × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) respectively, with n ranging 2-3. Results show the major role of acylation on antioxidant performance.

  9. Increased Sucrose in the Hypocotyls of Radish Sprouts Contributes to Nitrogen Deficiency-Induced Anthocyanin Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Nana; Wu, Qi; Cui, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Effects of nitrogen (N) deficiency and sucrose (Suc) addition on regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis and their relationship were investigated in this study. Radish sprouts subjected to N deficiency had 50% higher anthocyanin accumulation than when grown in Hoagland solution (a nutrient medium with all macronutrients). The contents of endogenous soluble sugars (Suc, fructose, and glucose) in the hypocotyls were also markedly increased by N limitation, with Suc showing the highest increase. Inhibition of carbohydrate biosynthesis by addition of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) also eliminated N deficiency-induced anthocyanin accumulation. The latter was further supported by the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis related genes and decreased activities of nitrate reductase in the presence of Suc. Together our results indicate that N deficiency-induced anthocyanin accumulation was, at least partly, dependent on the increase of the soluble sugar, especially Suc. This work is the first comprehensive study on relationship between N deficiency and sugar content on anthocyanin accumulation in the hypocotyls of radish sprouts. PMID:28083009

  10. Phenylalanine and LED lights enhance phenolic compound production in Tartary buckwheat sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong-Min; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Yeon-Bok; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2015-06-15

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of different l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) concentrations and various light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the accumulation of phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, vitexin, rutin, quercetin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside) in Tartary buckwheat sprouts. We found that 5mM was the optimum l-Phe concentration for the synthesis of total and individual phenolic compounds. The highest rutin (53.09 mg/g DW) and chlorogenic acid (5.62 mg/g DW) content was observed with Red+Blue and white lights. Comprehensive differences in total and individual anthocyanin content were observed between different lights; however, the total anthocyanin content (9.12 mg/g DW) was 1.5-fold higher in blue light. The expression levels of regulatory genes, such as FtDFR and FtANS, were 7.1-fold higher with l-Phe treatment. Gene expression results showed that the phenolic compounds in Tartary buckwheat sprouts increased with the use of l-Phe and LED lights.

  11. Ethyl acetate extracts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. sprouts inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Miaw-Ling

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to investigate if food components that exert anti-inflammatory effects may be used for inflammatory disorders by examining alfalfa sprout ethyl acetate extract (ASEA. The cytokine profile and life span of BALB/c mice with acute inflammation after intra-peritoneal (ip injection of 15 mg/kg BW lipopolysaccharide (LPS were determined. The results showed that the life span of LPS-induced inflammatory mice were negatively correlated with serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β at 9 hr after LPS-injection, which indicated that suppressing these cytokines in the late phase of inflammation may be beneficial for survival. The in vitro experiment then showed that ASEA significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-1β production and the NF-κB trans-activation activity of mitogen-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. To further evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of ASEA in vivo, BALB/c mice were tube-fed with 25 mg ASEA/kg BW/day in 50 μl sunflower oil, while the control and PDTC (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an anti-inflammatory agent groups were tube-fed with 50 μl sunflower oil/day only. After one week of tube-feeding, the PDTC group was injected with 50 mg/kg BW PDTC and one hour later, all of the mice were injected with 15 mg/kg BW LPS. The results showed that the ASEA and PDTC groups had significantly lower serum TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β levels at 9 hr after LPS challenge, and significantly higher survival rates than the control group. This study suggests that ASEA supplementation can suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and alleviate acute inflammatory hazards.

  12. Effect of Broccoli Sprouts and Live Attenuated Influenza Virus on Peripheral Blood Natural Killer Cells: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Müller

    Full Text Available Enhancing antiviral host defense responses through nutritional supplementation would be an attractive strategy in the fight against influenza. Using inoculation with live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV as an infection model, we have recently shown that ingestion of sulforaphane-containing broccoli sprout homogenates (BSH reduces markers of viral load in the nose. To investigate the systemic effects of short-term BSH supplementation in the context of LAIV-inoculation, we examined peripheral blood immune cell populations in non-smoking subjects from this study, with a particular focus on NK cells. We carried out a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study measuring the effects of BSH (N = 13 or placebo (alfalfa sprout homogenate, ASH; N = 16 on peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses to a standard nasal vaccine dose of LAIV in healthy volunteers. Blood was drawn prior to (day-1 and post (day2, day21 LAIV inoculation and analyzed for neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, T cells, NKT cells, and NK cells. In addition, NK cells were enriched, stimulated, and assessed for surface markers, intracellular markers, and cytotoxic potential by flow cytometry. Overall, LAIV significantly reduced NKT (day2 and day21 and T cell (day2 populations. LAIV decreased NK cell CD56 and CD158b expression, while significantly increasing CD16 expression and cytotoxic potential (on day2. BSH supplementation further increased LAIV-induced granzyme B production (day2 in NK cells compared to ASH and in the BSH group granzyme B levels appeared to be negatively associated with influenza RNA levels in nasal lavage fluid cells. We conclude that nasal influenza infection may induce complex changes in peripheral blood NK cell activation, and that BSH increases virus-induced peripheral blood NK cell granzyme B production, an effect that may be important for enhanced antiviral defense responses.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01269723.

  13. Potential application of high hydrostatic pressure to eliminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa sprouted seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neetoo, Hudaa; Ye, Mu; Chen, Haiqiang

    2008-12-10

    Sprouts eaten raw are increasingly being perceived as hazardous foods as they have been implicated in Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks where the seeds were found to be the likely source of contamination. The objective of our study was to evaluate the potential of using high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology for alfalfa seed decontamination. Alfalfa seeds inoculated with a cocktail of five strains of E. coli O157:H7 were subjected to pressures of 500 and 600 MPa for 2 min at 20 degrees C in a dry or wet (immersed in water) state. Immersing seeds in water during pressurization considerably enhanced inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 achieving reductions of 3.5 log and 5.7 log at 500 and 600 MPa, respectively. When dry seeds were pressurized, both pressure levels reduced the counts by 5 log reduction in the population was achieved when 600 MPa was applied for durations of > or =6 min although survivors were still detected by enrichment. When the pressure was stepped up to 650 MPa, the threshold time required to achieve complete elimination was 15 min. Un-inoculated seeds pressure-treated at 650 MPa for 15 min at 20 degrees C successfully sprouted achieving a germination rate identical to untreated seeds after eight days of sprouting. These results therefore demonstrate the promising application of HHP on alfalfa seeds to eliminate the risk of E. coli O157:H7 infections associated with consumption of raw alfalfa sprouts.

  14. Effect of iron-chelate treatments during imbibition on the concentration of minerals and phenolic compounds in three edible sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe is an essential micronutrient involved in fundamental biological processes in humans, as well as in plants. In particular, Fe is known as a very important mineral due to its frequent deficiency in humans. The objectives of this study were to increase Fe concentration in three species of sprouts (...

  15. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ageing induces changes in the proteome and antioxidants associated with the sprouting pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaplace, P.; Fauconnier, M.L.; Sergeant, K.; Dierick, J.F.; Oufir, M.; Wal, van der F.; America, A.H.P.; Renaut, J.; Hausman, J.F.; Jardin, du P.

    2009-01-01

    During post-harvest storage, potato tubers age as they undergo an evolution of their physiological state influencing their sprouting pattern. In the present study, physiological and biochemical approaches were combined to provide new insights on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desiree) tuber ageing

  16. Sprouting as a gardening strategy to obtain superior supplementary food: evidence from a seed-caching marine worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenchang; van Belzen, Jim; Hong, Tao; Kunihiro, Tadao; Ysebaert, Tom; Herman, Peter M J; Bouma, Tjeerd J

    2016-12-01

    Only a handful of non-human animals are known to grow their own food by cultivating high-yield fungal or algal crops as staple food. Here we report an alternative strategy utilized by an omnivorous marine worm, Hediste diversicolor, to supplement its diet: gardening by sprouting seeds. In addition to having many other known feeding modes, we showed using video recordings and manipulative mesocosm experiments that this species can also behave like gardeners by deliberately burying cordgrass seeds in their burrows, which has been previously shown to reduce the loss of seeds to water. These seeds, however, are protected by the seed husk, and we used feeding experiments to show that they were not edible for H. diversicolor until they had sprouted or the seed husk had been artificially removed. Additionally, sprouts were shown to be highly nutritious, permitting higher growth rates in H. diversicolor than the low-quality basal food, detritus. We propose both a proximate cause (seed husk as a physical barrier) and ultimate cause (nutritional demand) for this peculiar feeding behavior. Our findings suggest that sprouting may be a common strategy used by seed-collecting animals to exploit nutrients from well-protected seeds.

  17. Isolation of 4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate from Raphanus sativus sprouts (kaiware daikon) and its redox properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillari, Jessica; Cervellati, Rinaldo; Paolini, Moreno; Tatibouët, Arnaud; Rollin, Patrick; Iori, Renato

    2005-12-28

    The most promising among glucosinolates (GLs) are those bearing in their aglycon an extra sulfur function, such as glucoraphasatin (4-methylthio-3-butenyl GL; GRH) and glucoraphenin (4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenyl GL; GRE). The GRE/GRH redox couple is typically met among secondary metabolites of Raphanus sativus L. and, whereas GRE prevails in seeds, GRH is the major GL in full-grown roots. During the 10 days of sprouting of R. sativus seeds, the GRE and GRH contents were determined according to the Eurpean Union official method (ISO 9167-1). In comparison to the seeds, the GRE content in sprouts decreased from about 90 to about 12 micromol g(-1) of dry weight (dw), whereas a 25-fold increase--from about 3 to 76 micromol g(-1) of dw--of the GRH content was measured. An efficient pure GRH gram-scale production process from R. sativus (kaiware daikon) sprouts resulted in significant yield improvement of up to 2.2% (dw basis). The reaction of GRH with both H2O2 and ABTS*+ radical cation was investigated. Whereas H2O2 oxidation of GRH readily resulted in complete transformation into GRE, ABTS*+ caused complete decay of the GL. Even though not directly related to its radical scavenging activity, the assessed reducing capacity of GRH suggests that R. sativus sprouts might possess potential for health benefits.

  18. Microbiological quality of fresh, minimally-processed fruit and vegetables, and sprouts from retail establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadias, M; Usall, J; Anguera, M; Solsona, C; Viñas, I

    2008-03-31

    A survey of fresh and minimally-processed fruit and vegetables, and sprouts was conducted in several retail establishments in the Lleida area (Catalonia, Spain) during 2005-2006 to determine whether microbial contamination, and in particular potentially pathogenic bacteria, was present under these commodities. A total of 300 samples--including 21 ready-to-eat fruits, 28 whole fresh vegetables, 15 sprout samples and 237 ready-to-eat salads containing from one to six vegetables--were purchased from 4 supermarkets. They were tested for mesophilic and psychrotrophic aerobic counts, yeasts and moulds, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, presumptive E. coli and Listeria monocytogenes counts as well as for the presence of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica and thermotolerant Campylobacter. Results for the fresh-cut vegetables that we analyzed showed that, in general, the highest microorganism counts were associated with grated carrot, arugula and spinach (7.8, 7.5 and 7.4 log cfu g(-1) of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms; 6.1, 5.8 and 5.2 log cfu g(-1) of yeast and moulds; 5.9, 4.0 and 5.1 log cfu g(-1) lactic acid bacteria and 6.2, 5.3 and 6.0 log cfu g(-1) of Enterobacteriaceae). The lowest counts were generally associated with fresh-cut endive and lettuce (6.2 and 6.3 log cfu g(-1) of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms; 4.4 and 4.6 log cfu g(-1) of yeast and moulds; 2.7 and 3.8 log cfu g(-1) lactic acid bacteria and 4.8 and 4.4 log cfu g(-1) of Enterobacteriaceae). Counts of psychrotrophic microorganisms were as high as those of mesophilic microorganisms. Microbiological counts for fresh-cut fruit were very low. Sprouts were highly contaminated with mesophilic (7.9 log cfu g(-1)), psychrotrophic microorganisms (7.3 log cfu g(-1)) and Enterobacteriaceae (7.2 log cfu g(-1)) and showed a high incidence of E. coli (40% of samples). Of the samples analyzed, four (1.3%) were Salmonella positive and two (0.7%) harboured L. monocytogenes. None of the

  19. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L.) “seed” cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufoo-Hurtado, Miguel D.; Huerta-Ocampo, José Á.; Barrera-Pacheco, Alberto; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P.; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M.

    2015-01-01

    Low-temperature conditioning of garlic “seed” cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that “seed” bulbs from “Coreano” variety conditioned at 5°C for 5 weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic “seed” cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23°C), and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5°C) for 5 weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic “seed” cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous studies

  20. FT-ICR/MS and GC-EI/MS metabolomics networking unravels global potato sprout's responses to Rhizoctonia solani infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos A Aliferis

    Full Text Available The complexity of plant-pathogen interactions makes their dissection a challenging task for metabolomics studies. Here we are reporting on an integrated metabolomics networking approach combining gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance/mass spectrometry (FT-ICR/MS and bioinformatics analyses for the study of interactions in the potato sprout-Rhizoctonia solani pathosystem and the fluctuations in the global metabolome of sprouts. The developed bioanalytical and bioinformatics protocols provided a snapshot of the sprout's global metabolic network and its perturbations as a result of pathogen invasion. Mevalonic acid and deoxy-xylulose pathways were substantially up-regulated leading to the biosynthesis of sesquiterpene alkaloids such as the phytoalexins phytuberin, rishitin, and solavetivone, and steroidal alkaloids having solasodine and solanidine as their common aglycons. Additionally, the perturbation of the sprout's metabolism was depicted in fluctuations of the content of their amino acids pool and that of carboxylic and fatty acids. Components of the systemic acquired resistance (SAR and hypersensitive reaction (HR such as azelaic and oxalic acids were detected in increased levels in infected sprouts and strategies of the pathogen to overcome plant defense were proposed. Our metabolic approach has not only greatly expanded the multitude of metabolites previously reported in potato in response to pathogen invasion, but also enabled the identification of bioactive plant-derived metabolites providing valuable information that could be exploited in biotechnology, biomarker-assisted plant breeding, and crop protection for the development of new crop protection agents.

  1. Lentiviral vectors express chondroitinase ABC in cortical projections and promote sprouting of injured corticospinal axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rong-Rong; Muir, Elizabeth M; Alves, João Nuno; Rickman, Hannah; Allan, Anna Y; Kwok, Jessica C; Roet, Kasper C D; Verhaagen, Joost; Schneider, Bernard L; Bensadoun, Jean-Charles; Ahmed, Sherif G; Yáñez-Muñoz, Rafael J; Keynes, Roger J; Fawcett, James W; Rogers, John H

    2011-09-30

    Several diseases and injuries of the central nervous system could potentially be treated by delivery of an enzyme, which might most effectively be achieved by gene therapy. In particular, the bacterial enzyme chondroitinase ABC is beneficial in animal models of spinal cord injury. We have adapted the chondroitinase gene so that it can direct secretion of active chondroitinase from mammalian cells, and inserted it into lentiviral vectors. When injected into adult rat brain, these vectors lead to extensive secretion of chondroitinase, both locally and from long-distance axon projections, with activity persisting for more than 4 weeks. In animals which received a simultaneous lesion of the corticospinal tract, the vector reduced axonal die-back and promoted sprouting and short-range regeneration of corticospinal axons. The same beneficial effects on damaged corticospinal axons were observed in animals which received the chondroitinase lentiviral vector directly into the vicinity of a spinal cord lesion.

  2. Enhanced mossy fiber sprouting and synapse formation in organotypic hippocampal cultures following transient domoic acid excitotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gómez, Anabel; Tasker, R Andrew

    2014-05-01

    We have previously reported evidence of BDNF upregulation and increased neurogenesis in rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC) after a transient excitotoxic injury to the hippocampal CA1 area induced by low concentrations of the AMPA/kainate receptor agonist domoic acid (DOM). The changes observed in OHSC were consistent with observations in vivo, where low concentrations of DOM administered to rats during perinatal development caused increased BDNF and TrkB expression in the resulting adult animals. The in vivo low dose-DOM treatment also results in permanent alterations in hippocampal structure and function, including abnormal formation of dentate granule cell axons projecting to area CA3 (mossy fiber sprouting). Our objective in the current study is to determine if low concentrations of DOM induce mossy fiber sprouting and/or synaptogenesis in OHSC in order to facilitate future studies on the mechanisms of structural hippocampal plasticity induced by DOM. We report herein that application of a low concentration of DOM (2 μM) for 24 h followed by recovery induced a significant increase in the expression of the mossy fiber marker ZnT3 that progressed over time in culture. The DOM insult (2 μM, 24 h) also resulted in a significant upregulation of both the presynaptic marker synaptophysin and the postsynaptic marker PSD-95. All of the observed effects were fully antagonized by co-administration of the AMPA/kainate antagonists CNQX or NBQX but only partly by the NMDA antagonist CPP and not by the calcium channel blocker nifedipine. We conclude that exposure of OHSC to concentrations of DOM below those required to induce permanent neurotoxicity can induce a progressive change in hippocampal structure that can effectively model DOM effects in vivo.

  3. Acceleration of vascular sprouting from fabricated perfusable vascular-like structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Osaki

    Full Text Available Fabrication of vascular networks is essential for engineering three-dimensional thick tissues and organs in the emerging fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this study, we describe the fabrication of perfusable vascular-like structures by transferring endothelial cells using an electrochemical reaction as well as acceleration of subsequent endothelial sprouting by two stimuli: phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA and fluidic shear stress. The electrochemical transfer of cells was achieved using an oligopeptide that formed a dense molecular layer on a gold surface and was then electrochemically desorbed from the surface. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, adhered to gold-coated needles (ϕ600 μm via the oligopeptide, were transferred to collagen gel along with electrochemical desorption of the molecular layer, resulting in the formation of endothelial cell-lined vascular-like structures. In the following culture, the endothelial cells migrated into the collagen gel and formed branched luminal structures. However, this branching process was strikingly slow (>14 d and the cell layers on the internal surfaces became disrupted in some regions. To address these issues, we examined the effects of the protein kinase C (PKC activator, PMA, and shear stress generated by medium flow. Addition of PMA at an optimum concentration significantly accelerated migration, vascular network formation, and its stabilization. Exposure to shear stress reoriented the cells in the direction of the medium flow and further accelerated vascular network formation. Because of the synergistic effects, HUVECs began to sprout as early as 3 d of perfusion culture and neighboring vascular-like structures were bridged within 5 d. Although further investigations of vascular functions need to be performed, this approach may be an effective strategy for rapid fabrication of perfusable microvascular networks when engineering three-dimensional fully

  4. Synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, and sprouting by cyclosporin A and itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacev, Benjamin A; Liu, Jun O

    2011-01-01

    Pathological angiogenesis contributes to a number of diseases including cancer and macular degeneration. Although angiogenesis inhibitors are available in the clinic, their efficacy against most cancers is modest due in part to the existence of alternative and compensatory signaling pathways. Given that angiogenesis is dependent on multiple growth factors and a broad signaling network in vivo, we sought to explore the potential of multidrug cocktails for angiogenesis inhibition. We have screened 741 clinical drug combinations for the synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. We focused specifically on existing clinical drugs since the re-purposing of clinical drugs allows for a more rapid and cost effective transition to clinical studies when compared to new drug entities. Our screen identified cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressant, and itraconazole, an antifungal drug, as a synergistic pair of inhibitors of endothelial cell proliferation. In combination, the IC(50) dose of each drug is reduced by 3 to 9 fold. We also tested the ability of the combination to inhibit endothelial cell tube formation and sprouting, which are dependent on two essential processes in angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration and differentiation. We found that CsA and itraconazole synergistically inhibit tube network size and sprout formation. Lastly, we tested the combination on human foreskin fibroblast viability as well as Jurkat T cell and HeLa cell proliferation, and found that endothelial cells are selectively targeted. Thus, it is possible to combine existing clinical drugs to synergistically inhibit in vitro models of angiogenesis. This strategy may be useful in pursuing the next generation of antiangiogenesis therapy.

  5. Synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, and sprouting by cyclosporin A and itraconazole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Nacev

    Full Text Available Pathological angiogenesis contributes to a number of diseases including cancer and macular degeneration. Although angiogenesis inhibitors are available in the clinic, their efficacy against most cancers is modest due in part to the existence of alternative and compensatory signaling pathways. Given that angiogenesis is dependent on multiple growth factors and a broad signaling network in vivo, we sought to explore the potential of multidrug cocktails for angiogenesis inhibition. We have screened 741 clinical drug combinations for the synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. We focused specifically on existing clinical drugs since the re-purposing of clinical drugs allows for a more rapid and cost effective transition to clinical studies when compared to new drug entities. Our screen identified cyclosporin A (CsA, an immunosuppressant, and itraconazole, an antifungal drug, as a synergistic pair of inhibitors of endothelial cell proliferation. In combination, the IC(50 dose of each drug is reduced by 3 to 9 fold. We also tested the ability of the combination to inhibit endothelial cell tube formation and sprouting, which are dependent on two essential processes in angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration and differentiation. We found that CsA and itraconazole synergistically inhibit tube network size and sprout formation. Lastly, we tested the combination on human foreskin fibroblast viability as well as Jurkat T cell and HeLa cell proliferation, and found that endothelial cells are selectively targeted. Thus, it is possible to combine existing clinical drugs to synergistically inhibit in vitro models of angiogenesis. This strategy may be useful in pursuing the next generation of antiangiogenesis therapy.

  6. Lymphangiogenesis by blind-ended vessel sprouting is concurrent with hemangiogenesis by vascular splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; McKay, Terri L; Leontiev, Dmitry; Vickerman, Mary B; Condrich, Terence K; Dicorleto, Paul E

    2006-03-01

    Development of effective vascular therapies requires the understanding of all modes of vessel formation involved in angiogenesis (here termed "hemangiogenesis") and lymphangiogenesis. Two major modes of vessel morphogenesis include sprouting of a new vessel from a preexisting vessel and splitting of a preexisting parent vessel into two offspring vessels. In the quail chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) during mid-development (embryonic days E6-E9), lymphangiogenesis progressed primarily via blind-ended vessel sprouting. Isolated lymphatic endothelial progenitor cells were recruited to the tips of growing vessels. During concurrent hemangiogenesis, parent blood vessels expanded from the capillary network and split into offspring vessels, accompanied by transient capillary expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA) and recruitment of polarized mural progenitor cells. Lymphatics and blood vessels were identified by confocal/fluorescence microscopy of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor VEGFR-2, alphaSMA (specific to CAM blood vessels), homeobox transcription factor Prox1 (specific to lymphatics), and the quail hematopoetic marker, QH-1. VEGFR-2 was expressed intensely in isolated cells and lymphatics, and moderately in blood vessels. Prox1 was absent from isolated progenitor cells prior to lymphatic recruitment. Exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF165) increased blood vessel density and anastomotic frequency without changing endogenous modes of vascular/lymphatic vessel formation or marker expression. Although VEGF165 is a key cellular regulator of hemangiogenesis and vasculogenesis, the role of VEGF165 in lymphangiogenesis is less clear. Interestingly, VEGF165 increased lymphatic vessel diameter and density as measured by novel Euclidean distance mapping, and the antimaturational dissociation of lymphatics from blood vessels, accompanied by lymphatic reassociation into homogeneous networks.

  7. Synergistic Inhibition of Endothelial Cell Proliferation, Tube Formation, and Sprouting by Cyclosporin A and Itraconazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacev, Benjamin A.; Liu, Jun O.

    2011-01-01

    Pathological angiogenesis contributes to a number of diseases including cancer and macular degeneration. Although angiogenesis inhibitors are available in the clinic, their efficacy against most cancers is modest due in part to the existence of alternative and compensatory signaling pathways. Given that angiogenesis is dependent on multiple growth factors and a broad signaling network in vivo, we sought to explore the potential of multidrug cocktails for angiogenesis inhibition. We have screened 741 clinical drug combinations for the synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. We focused specifically on existing clinical drugs since the re-purposing of clinical drugs allows for a more rapid and cost effective transition to clinical studies when compared to new drug entities. Our screen identified cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressant, and itraconazole, an antifungal drug, as a synergistic pair of inhibitors of endothelial cell proliferation. In combination, the IC50 dose of each drug is reduced by 3 to 9 fold. We also tested the ability of the combination to inhibit endothelial cell tube formation and sprouting, which are dependent on two essential processes in angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration and differentiation. We found that CsA and itraconazole synergistically inhibit tube network size and sprout formation. Lastly, we tested the combination on human foreskin fibroblast viability as well as Jurkat T cell and HeLa cell proliferation, and found that endothelial cells are selectively targeted. Thus, it is possible to combine existing clinical drugs to synergistically inhibit in vitro models of angiogenesis. This strategy may be useful in pursuing the next generation of antiangiogenesis therapy. PMID:21969860

  8. Efficacy of herbicide treatments for controlling residual sprouting of tree-of-heaven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Bowker; Jeff. Stringer

    2011-01-01

    Tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima [Mill.] Swingle) is one of the most widely distributed exotic invasive tree species in the United States and has become naturalized throughout the central hardwood forest. It opportunistically establishes in areas associated with silvicultural regeneration treatments and extirpation often requires the targeting of...

  9. Effects of cutting characteristics on sprouting and early growth of willow; Effekter av sticklingsparametrar paa grobarhet och tillvaext hos salix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verwijst, Theo; Nordh, Nils-Erik; Lundkvist, Anneli

    2010-06-15

    In plantations of willow, the size- and weight variability of established plants is increasing over time. This size-hierarchy development is enforced by competition for resources between plants, and is preserved by root reserves and maintained over harvest. This long-term development causes mortality of entire willow plants, and thereby to gaps in the stand, and production losses under later cutting cycles. Variations in productivity across a field may be caused by soil fertility- and moisture gradients and by differences in weed pressure. Even difference between adjacent plants during the establishment phase may be caused by small scale differences in the biotic (weeds) and abiotic (moisture, nutrients) direct environment of the plants. But the central question here is whether differences between single cuttings may contribute to the development of a size- and weight hierarchy between willow plants during the early establishment phase? And if so, (i) to what degree do differences between cuttings contribute to the development of a hierarchy and (ii) are we able, in commercial practice, to modify cutting handling and selection to minimise the development of early size variations between plants? This research project aimed to quantify how cutting length and -origin and cutting handling during planting affects survival and growth of plants in a willow stand under establishment. The goal was to identify and quantify cutting characteristics which are of relevance for a high viability and for a fast and equal establishment of a willow stand, and thereby to be able to recommend advice which leads to a faster and more reliable establishment of willows. The study was performed by means of two box experiments under controlled conditions and by means of a field experiment during May 2008 - September 2009, on the Ultuna campus (SLU) nearby Uppsala. In all trials, the clones Tora (Salix schwerinii x S. viminalis), Jorr (Salix viminalis), Olof (Salix viminalis x (Salix

  10. Productivity and selenium concentrations in egg and tissue of laying quails fed selenium from hydroponically produced selenium-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinrasri, Orawan; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Maneetong, Sarunya; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee; Chantiratikul, Anut

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Se from hydroponically produced Se-enriched kale sprout (HPSeKS) on productive performance, egg quality, and Se concentrations in egg and tissue of laying quails. Two-hundred quails, 63 days of age, were divided into four groups. Each group consisted of five replicates and each replicate had ten birds, according to a completely randomized design. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were T1 (control diet), T2 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite), T3 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched yeast), T4 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from HPSeKS). The findings revealed that productive performance and egg quality of quails were not altered (p > 0.05) by Se sources. Whole egg Se concentrations of quails fed Se from HPSeKS and Se-enriched yeast were higher (p  0.05), but higher (p < 0.05) than that of quails fed Se from sodium selenite. The results reveal that Se from HPSeKS did not change the performance and egg quality of quails. The effectiveness of Se from HPSeKS was comparable to that of Se-enriched yeast, which was higher than that of Se from sodium selenite.

  11. IEC与UV测定黄豆芽和绿豆芽中亚硝酸盐含量%Determination of Nitrite Content in Yellow Bean Sprouts and Mung Bean Sprouts by Ion Chromatography and Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏晓燕; 马光路; 张海芳

    2016-01-01

    The bean sprouts on the market were determined by nitrite content. The contents of nitrite in the sam-ples were determined by ion chromatography and spectrophotometry. The contents of nitrite in yellow bean sprouts and mung bean sprouts were different. Ion chromatography is a new type of chromatographic separation technology,and it is more suitable for the detection of nitrite,which is characterized by rapid,simple,sensitive and selective.%对市场上豆芽进行亚硝酸盐含量测定。采用离子色谱法和分光光度法比较测定样品中的亚硝酸盐含量。黄豆芽和绿豆芽中亚硝酸盐含量各不相同。离子色谱作为一种新型的色谱分离技术,比分光光度法更适合于亚硝酸盐的检测,具有快速、简便、灵敏、选择性强等特点。

  12. Differences between the Bud End and Stem End of Potatoes in Dry Matter Content, Starch Granule Size, and Carbohydrate Metabolic Gene Expression at the Growing and Sprouting Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bailin; Zhang, Guodong; Murphy, Agnes; De Koeyer, David; Tai, Helen; Bizimungu, Benoit; Si, Huaijun; Li, Xiu-Qing

    2016-02-10

    Potatoes usually have the tuber bud end dominance in growth during tuber bulking and in tuber sprouting, likely using carbohydrates from the tuber stem end. We hypothesized that the tuber bud end and tuber stem end coordination in carbohydrate metabolism gene expression is different between the bulking dominance and sprouting dominance of the tuber bud end. After comparing the growing tubers at harvest from a green vine and the stage that sprouts just started to emerge after storage of tubers at room temperature, we found the following: (1) Dry matter content was higher in the tuber stem end than the tuber bud end at both stages. (2) The starch granule size was larger in the tuber bud end than in the tuber stem end. (3) The tuber bud end had higher gene expression for starch synthesis but a lower gene expression of sucrose transporters than the tuber stem end during tuber growing. (4) The tuber stem end at the sprouting stage showed more active gene expression in both starch degradation and resynthesis, suggesting more active export of carbohydrates, than the tuber bud end. The results indicate that the starch accumulation mechanism in the tuber bud end was different between field growing and post-harvest sprouting tubers and that tubers already increased dry matter and average starch granule sizes in the tuber bud end prior to the rapid growth of sprouts.

  13. Manejo de rebrotes de Digitaria insularis no plantio direto de milho Management of Digitaria insularis sprouts under no-till corn cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Timossi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Com a dessecação da vegetação espontânea, nem sempre se consegue obter controle total das espécies daninhas, o que leva à perenização e ao aumento da importância daquelas selecionadas. Em área de plantio direto com predominância de rebrotes de Digitaria insularis, foi testado nicosulfuron isolado (60 g ha-1 e em mistura em tanque com atrazine (40 + 1.500 g ha-1, foramsulfuron + iodosulfuron-methyl (45 + 3 g ha-1 e mesotrione em mistura em tanque com atrazine (144 + 1.500 g ha-1 sob delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Cada parcela apresentava 6 x 4 m, contendo seis linhas de milho. A aplicação dos herbicidas foi feita com pulverizador costal na pressão constante de 30 lbf pol-2, com gasto de 200L ha-1 de calda. Foram avaliadas a eficácia e a intoxicação dos herbicidas aos 7, 15 e 30 dias após a aplicação na cultura. Na época da colheita, realizouse levantamento da cobertura vegetal reinfestante e do seu grau de dificuldade de colheita mecanizada, além da produtividade da cultura. Pode-se inferir que o melhor resultado para o manejo de rebrotes de D. insularis foi com a utilização de nicosulfuron isolado a 60 g ha-1.Total weed control is not always possible under no-till desiccation leading to perennial and increased number of weeds. In no-till cultivation areas with predominant occurrence of Digitaria insularis sprouts, nicosulfuron alone (60 g ha-1 and in tank mix with atrazine (40 + 1.500 g ha-1, foramsulfuron + iodosulfuron-methyl (45 + 3 g ha-1 and mesotrione in tank mix with atrazine (144 + 1.500 g ha-1 were tested in a randomized block design, with four replications. Each plot was 6 x 4 m, containing six corn culture rows. The herbicides were applied with a back spray at a constant pressure of 30 lbf pol-2, using 200 L ha-1 solution. Herbicide efficacy and toxicity were evaluated at 7, 15 and 30 days after application. During harvest, reinfesting plant cover and its degree of mechanized harvest

  14. Differential gene expression during compensatory sprouting of dendrites in the auditory system of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horch, H W; McCarthy, S S; Johansen, S L; Harris, J M

    2009-08-01

    Neurones that lose their presynaptic partners because of injury usually retract or die. However, when the auditory interneurones of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus are denervated, dendrites respond by growing across the midline and forming novel synapses with the opposite auditory afferents. Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to detect transcriptional changes 3 days after denervation. This is a stage at which we demonstrate robust compensatory dendritic sprouting. Whereas 49 unique candidates were down-regulated, no sufficiently up-regulated candidates were identified at this time point. Several candidates identified in this study are known to influence the translation and degradation of proteins in other systems. The potential role of these factors in the compensatory sprouting of cricket auditory interneurones in response to denervation is discussed.

  15. Effects of gamma radiation on sprouting turmeric rhizome and the quality and resulting characteristics in powdered form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peret-Almeida, Lucia [UNI-BH, Centro Universitario de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Junqueira, Roberto Goncalves; Gloria, Maria Beatriz A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (FAFAR/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia

    2008-07-01

    Rhizomes were submitted to doses of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 kGy and stored at 26 {+-} 1 deg C and 85% relative humidity for 135 days. In 45 day intervals samples were collected for analysis of the rhizomes and processed into ground turmeric. The higher the dose the longer the time required for sprouting. At 0.15 kGy there was no sprouting up to 135 days of storage, however callus started to appear. The levels of curcuminoid pigments in ground turmeric were not affected by irradiation dose; however they varied with storage time. The CIE L{sup *}a{sup *}b{sup *} color characteristics of ground turmeric were not affected by radiation dose, but changed with storage time, except for 0.15 kGy. (author)

  16. Physicochemical and Bacteriological Characteristics of Organic Sprouted Chia and Flax Seed Powders Implicated in a Foodborne Salmonellosis Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamber, Sandeep; Swist, Eleonora; Oudit, Denise

    2016-05-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of sprouted chia and flax seed powders, no data have been reported on their intrinsic physicochemical properties and background microflora. Here, we report the moisture content, water activity, pH, and fatty acid methyl ester and bacteriological profiles of 19 sprouted chia and flax seed samples, 10 of which were associated with an outbreak of salmonellosis in Canada and the United States. The physicochemical parameters of the Salmonella-positive samples did not differ significantly from those of the negative samples. However, the higher Enterobacteriaceae and coliform levels on the contaminated powders were associated with the presence of Salmonella. Enumeration of Salmonella by the most probable number (MPN) method revealed concentrations ranging from 1 MPN per 3 g of powder to 1 MPN per 556 g of powder. The results of this study demonstrate that low numbers of Salmonella may be linked to foodborne outbreaks.

  17. Content of amino acids and the quality of protein in Brussels sprouts, both raw and prepared for consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisiewska, Zofia; Slupski, Jacek; Skoczen-Slupska, Radoslawa; Kmiecik, Waldemar [Department of Raw Materials and Processing of Fruit and Vegetables, Agricultural University of Krakow, Balicka 122, 30-149 Krakow (Poland)

    2009-03-15

    The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the content of amino acids and the quality of protein in Brussels sprouts. The investigation included the raw material, cooked sample and two types of frozen product stored at -20 C for 12 months and then prepared for consumption. The frozen products investigated were obtained using the traditional method (blanching before freezing) and the modified method (cooking before freezing, then defrosting and heating in microwave oven after refrigerated storage) of the ready-to-eat type. Brussels sprouts, both fresh and prepared for consumption, were a good source of protein and amino acids. Proline and glutamic acid were dominating; leucine and tyrosine with phenylalanine were limiting amino acids. The product obtained by modified method contained 16% less amino acids in 16 g N than the raw material and 14% less than the raw material after cooking, and also 10% lower than that of the traditionally obtained product. (author)

  18. GROWTH RATE AND IDENTIFICATION OF YEASTS IN THREE DIFFERENT MEDIA: FLOUR, SPROUT OF CEREALS AND COMMERCIAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P DEHGHAN

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The yeasts are a large group of fungi. In addition to their different uses in food industries and pharmacology they can also cause human and animal infections under predisposing factors. For investigating the yeast"s growth phases and diagnosis of the species, they should culture in media from natural sources like the seeds on the commercial media. According to yeast"s nutritinal requierments and considering the various nutritional materials of seeds like wheat, rice, barney and better use of these seed"s compounds during sprouting, this research was done with the aim of measurment of growth rate and yeasts characterization in such media. Methods. For making seeds media, a fixed quantity of seed"s flour or sprout"s flour was added to a certain amount of agar in acidotic condition (pH=5.8. The germination of seeds was done by Hus method and for colony counting Mc, Farland tubes were used and microscopic and macroscopic characteristics were investigated and compared in both synthetic and seed media Results. The results showed that the rate of yeasts growth in all germinated seeds was more than the seeds themeselves. Statistical analysis showed no significal difference between the growth rate of yeasts in both wheat and barney sprout compared to the commercial media. In the microscopic studies, the species of Candida albicans in wheat flour has produced more chlamydoconidia than the synthetic medium of corn meal agar. Also production of the capsule in C.neoformans in the seed"s media has been better than the synthetic media. Discussion. According to the promising results obtained from the present study regard to the growth rate and differentiation of the fungal species in such media, standardization and mass production of them in our country would seem to be an productive step towards self sufficiency.

  19. Characteristics of Fermentation Drink made from Juice of Winged Bean Sprouts (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus and Red Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novelina Novelina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented milk is a product that was produced from fermentation of fresh milk using lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. A variety of plant materials can also be used as raw material in making of  fermentation drinks, such as nuts and tubers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of fermentation drink made from juice of winged bean sprout and red sweet potatoes. The treatment in this study is the level of mixing between juice of winged bean sprout with red sweet potatoes , consist of ;A (30:70, B (40:60, C (50:50, D (60:40 and E (70:30. Completely randomized design had been used with 5 treatments and 3 replications. The data colected was pH, viscosity, protein content, fat content, total solids, total acid, ash content, calcium content, total lactic acid bacteria, total plate count and sensory evaluation. Data processing is performed using statistical 8, followed by Tuckey test HSD All-Pair wise Comparisons Test at level of 5%. Mixing of winged bean sprouts with red sweet potato can increase the value of pH, viscosity, protein content, fat content, total solids, total acid, ash content, calcium content, and total lactic acid bacteria. The best product was the product of B (40% winged bean sprout and 60% red sweet potatoes already meets SNI 7552:2009, contain : 2.36% protein content, fat content of 1.24%, 18.77% total solids, pH was 4, 2, 0.54% total acid, 0.23% ash content, 0.173% calcium content, viscosity was 3.56 DPA,  total  lactic acid bacteria (CFU / ml was 1.9 x1010 , total plate count was 2.1 x1010 (CFU / ml.

  20. Circuit mechanisms of seizures in the pilocarpine model of chronic epilepsy: cell loss and mossy fiber sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, L E; Cavalheiro, E A; Tan, A M; Kupfer, W R; Pretorius, J K; Babb, T L; Finch, D M

    1993-01-01

    We used the pilocarpine model of chronic spontaneous recurrent seizures to evaluate the time course of supragranular dentate sprouting and to assess the relation between several changes that occur in epileptic tissue with different behavioral manifestations of this experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) invariably led to cell loss in the hilus of the dentate gyrus (DG) and to spontaneous recurrent seizures. Cell loss was often also noted in the DG and in hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3. The seizures began to appear at a mean of 15 days after SE induction (silent period), recurred at variable frequencies for each animal, and lasted for as long as the animals were allowed to survive (325 days). The granule cell layer of the DG was dispersed in epileptic animals, and neo-Timm stains showed supra- and intragranular mossy fiber sprouting. Supragranular mossy fiber sprouting and dentate granule cell dispersion began to appear early after SE (as early as 4 and 9 days, respectively) and reached a plateau by 100 days. Animals with a greater degree of cell loss in hippocampal field CA3 showed later onset of chronic epilepsy (r = 0.83, p seizure spread. These results demonstrate that the pilocarpine model of chronic seizures replicates several of the features of human temporal lobe epilepsy (hippocampal cell loss, supra- and intragranular mossy fiber sprouting, dentate granule cell dispersion, spontaneous recurrent seizures) and that it may be a useful model for studying this human condition. The results also suggest that even though a certain amount of cell loss in specific areas may be essential for chronic seizures to occur, excessive cell loss may hinder epileptogenesis.

  1. A novel method for efficient and abundant production of Phytophthora brassicae zoospores on Brussels sprout leaf discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govers Francine

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora species are notorious oomycete pathogens that cause diseases on a wide range of plants. Our understanding how these pathogens are able to infect their host plants will benefit greatly from information obtained from model systems representative for plant-Phytophthora interactions. One attractive model system is the interaction between Arabidopsis and Phytophthora brassicae. Under laboratory conditions, Arabidopsis can be easily infected with mycelial plugs as inoculum. In the disease cycle, however, sporangia or zoospores are the infectious propagules. Since the current P. brassicae zoospore isolation methods are generally regarded as inefficient, we aimed at developing an alternative method for obtaining high concentrations of P. brassicae zoospores. Results P. brassicae isolates were tested for pathogenicity on Brussels sprout plants (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera. Microscopic examination of leaves, stems and roots infected with a GFP-tagged transformant of P. brassicae clearly demonstrated the susceptibility of the various tissues. Leaf discs were cut from infected Brussels sprout leaves, transferred to microwell plates and submerged in small amounts of water. In the leaf discs the hyphae proliferated and abundant formation of zoosporangia was observed. Upon maturation the zoosporangia released zoospores in high amounts and zoospore production continued during a period of at least four weeks. The zoospores were shown to be infectious on Brussels sprouts and Arabidopsis. Conclusion The in vitro leaf disc method established from P. brassicae infected Brussels sprout leaves facilitates convenient and high-throughput production of infectious zoospores and is thus suitable to drive small and large scale inoculation experiments. The system has the advantage that zoospores are produced continuously over a period of at least one month.

  2. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M. Sprout Treated with Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA Improved Anti-Adipogenic Activity Associated with the Oxidative Stress System in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Ho Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat sprouts contain various bioactive compounds including rutin which have a number of biological activities. We have previously shown that buckwheat sprouts (TBWE treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA significantly increased the amount of phenolics and the antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of TBWE in adipocytes by using the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Our data showed that TBWE markedly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control groups. Moreover, TBWE has strongly shown the inhibition of adipogenic transcription factor as well as pro-oxidant enzymes. Together, we demonstrate that the MeJA treatment significantly increased the amount of phenolic compound, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and ROS production in the 3T3-L1 cells. These findings indicate that TBWE has the potential for anti-adipogenesis activity with anti-oxidative properties.

  3. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprout treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) improved anti-adipogenic activity associated with the oxidative stress system in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Kui-Jin; Park, Kee-Jai; Yoon, Bo-Ra; Lim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2013-01-11

    Buckwheat sprouts contain various bioactive compounds including rutin which have a number of biological activities. We have previously shown that buckwheat sprouts (TBWE) treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) significantly increased the amount of phenolics and the antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of TBWE in adipocytes by using the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Our data showed that TBWE markedly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control groups. Moreover, TBWE has strongly shown the inhibition of adipogenic transcription factor as well as pro-oxidant enzymes. Together, we demonstrate that the MeJA treatment significantly increased the amount of phenolic compound, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and ROS production in the 3T3-L1 cells. These findings indicate that TBWE has the potential for anti-adipogenesis activity with anti-oxidative properties.

  4. Potential efficacy of broccoli sprouts as a unique supplement for management of type 2 diabetes and its complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2013-05-01

    Functional foods and their nutraceutical components are now considered as supplementary treatments in type 2 diabetes and prevention of its long-term complications. Young broccoli sprouts as a functional food contain many bioactive compounds specially sulforaphane. In hyperglycemic and oxidative conditions, sulforaphane has the potential to activate the NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2)-dependent antioxidant response-signaling pathway, induces phase 2 enzymes, attenuates oxidative stress, and inactivates nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), a key modulator of inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, sulforaphane induces some peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, which contribute to lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis. In animal and in vitro models, sulforaphane also shows antihypertensive, anticancer, cardioprotective, and hypocholesterolemic capacity, and has bactericidal properties against Helicobacter pylori. Supplementation of type 2 diabetics with high sulforaphane content broccoli sprouts resulted in increased total antioxidant capacity of plasma and in decreased oxidative stress index, lipid peroxidation, serum triglycerides, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/LDL-cholesterol ratio, serum insulin, insulin resistance, and serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein. Sulforaphane could prevent nephropathy, diabetes-induced fibrosis, and vascular complications. Potential efficacy of sulforaphane and probably other bioactive components of young broccoli sprouts makes it as an excellent choice for supplementary treatment in type 2 diabetes.

  5. Bacteriological survey of ready-to-eat lettuce, fresh-cut fruit, and sprouts collected from the Swiss market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, D; Hofer, E; Corti, S; Julmi, A; Stephan, R

    2012-07-01

    The consumption of ready-to-eat fresh vegetables has increased significantly in the recent decades. So far, no data are available on the bacteriological burden and the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in ready-to-eat lettuce, fresh-cut fruit, and sprouts on the Swiss market. This study was based on investigations carried out during 2 months of the summer season in 2011. Samples of 142 salads, 64 fresh-cut fruit, and 27 sprouts were included in this study. Escherichia coli, an indicator microorganism for fecal contamination, was only found in 5 lettuce samples, with amounts ranging between 2 and 3 log CFU/g. No Salmonella spp. were detected from any of the 233 samples analyzed in this study, and a low occurrence was found for contamination with L. monocytogenes, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, and Cronobacter. From the results of the present study, we conclude that even in a country where the use of chlorine solutions to sanitize fruits and vegetables in the fresh-cut industry is not allowed, it is possible to produce ready-to-eat lettuce, fresh-cut fruit, and sprouts with high microbiological standards. Strict maintenance of good practices of hygiene at preharvest, harvest, and postharvest levels is of central importance to ensure both public health protection and product quality.

  6. Transgenic inhibition of astroglial NF-κB leads to increased axonal sparing and sprouting following spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Roberta; Hurtado, Andres; Persaud, Trikaldarshi; Esham, Kim; Pearse, Damien D.; Oudega, Martin; Bethea, John R.

    2014-01-01

    We previously showed that NF-κB inactivation in astrocytes leads to improved functional recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI). This correlated with reduced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans, and increased white matter preservation. Hence we hypothesized that inactivation of astrocytic NF-κB would create a more permissive environment for axonal sprouting and regeneration. We induced both contusive and complete transection SCI in GFAP-IκBα-dn and WT mice and performed retrograde (fluorogold) and anterograde (biotinylated dextran amine) tracing eight weeks after injury. Following contusive SCI, more fluorogold-labeled cells were found in motor cortex, reticular formation, and raphe nuclei of transgenic mice. Spared and sprouting biotinylated dextran amine-positive corticospinal axons were found caudal to the lesion in GFAP-IκBα-dn mice. Higher numbers of fluorogold-labeled neurons were detected immediately rostral to the lesion in GFAP-IκBα-dn mice, accompanied by increased expression of synaptic and axonal growth-associated molecules. After transection, however, no fluorogold-labeled neurons or biotinylated dextran amine-filled axons were found rostral and caudal to the lesion, respectively, in either genotype. These data demonstrated that inhibiting astroglial NF-κB resulted in a growth-supporting terrain promoting sparing and sprouting, rather than regeneration, of supraspinal and propriospinal circuitries essential for locomotion, hence contributing to the improved functional recovery observed after SCI in GFAP-IκBα-dn mice. PMID:19522780

  7. Molecular characterisation and the light-dark regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Yeon Bok; Lee, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Un

    2013-12-15

    Seven partial-length cDNAs and 1 full-length cDNA that were involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and 2 partial-length cDNAs that encoded carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases were first isolated and characterised in 2 tartary buckwheat cultivars (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.), Hokkai T8 and Hokkai T10. They were constitutively expressed at high levels in the leaves and flowers, where carotenoids are mostly distributed. During the seed development of tartary buckwheat, an inverse correlation between transcription level of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase and carotenoid content was observed. The light-grown sprouts exhibited higher levels of expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in T10 and carotenoid content in both T8 and T10 compared to the dark-grown sprouts. The predominant carotenoids in tartary buckwheat were lutein and β-carotene, and very abundant amounts of these carotenoids were found in light-grown sprouts. This study might broaden our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and indicates targets for increasing the production of carotenoids in tartary buckwheat.

  8. Identification and analysis of isothiocyanates and new acylated anthocyanins in the juice of Raphanus sativus cv. Sango sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, Riccardo; Gabbanini, Simone; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Petrillo, Gianna; Valgimigli, Luca

    2012-07-15

    The freeze-dried sprouts' juice of Raphanus sativus (L.) cv. Sango was prepared and analysed for the first time. HPLC analysis of total isothiocyanates, after protein displacement, resulted in 77.8 ± 3.0 μmol/g of dry juice while GC-MS analysis of hexane and acetone extracts showed E- and Z-raphasatin (8.9 and 0.11 μmol/g, respectively) and sulforaphene (11.7 μmol/g), summing up to 20.7 ± 1.7 μmol/g of free isothiocyanates. Sprouts' juice contained an unprecedented wealth of anthocyanins and a new fractionation methodology allowed us to isolate 34 mg/g of acylated anthocyanins (28.3 ± 1.9 μmol/g), belonging selectively to the cyanidin family. Analysis was performed by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS(n) and extended to deacylated anthocyanins and aglycones, obtained, respectively, by alkaline and acid hydrolysis. This study identified 70 anthocyanins, 19 of which have never been described before and 32 of which are reported here in R. sativus for the first time. Sango radish sprouts are exceptional dietary sources of heath-promoting micronutrients.

  9. HPLC Separation of Sulforaphane Enantiomers in Broccoli and Its Sprouts by Transformation into Diastereoisomers Using Derivatization with (S)-Leucine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Makiko; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Aizawa, Sen-Ichi; Taga, Atsushi; Terashima, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Shuji

    2017-01-11

    Racemic sulforaphane, which was derivatized with (S)-leucine (l-leucine), was resolved by reversed phase HPLC with UV detection. The optimum mobile phase conditions were found to be 10 mM citric acid (pH 2.8) containing 22% methanol at 35 °C using detection at 254 nm. Sulforaphane enantiomers in florets and stems of five brands of broccoli and leaves and stems of three brands of broccoli sprouts were analyzed by the proposed HPLC method. Both sulforaphane enantiomers were detected in all of the samples. The S/R ratios of sulforaphane in broccoli samples were 1.5-2.6/97.4-98.5% for florets and 5.0-12.1/87.9-95.0% for stems. The S/R ratios in broccoli sprout samples were higher than those in broccoli samples and were found to be 8.3-19.7/80.3-91.7% for leaves and 37.0-41.8/58.2-63.0% for stems. (S)-Sulforaphane detected in the broccoli and its sprout samples was positively identified by separately using an HPLC with a chiral column (Chiralpak AD-RH) and mass spectrometry.

  10. GSK-3β may be involved in hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting in the pentylenetetrazole-kindling model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Jiao; Tian, Fa-Fa; Chen, Jin-Mei; Guo, Ting-Hui; Ma, Yun-Feng; Fang, Jia; Dang, Jing; Song, Ming-Yu

    2013-11-01

    Mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) is a pathological phenomenon that is commonly observed in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying MFS remain unclear. It has been demonstrated that the tau protein is important in the progression of MFS by the regulation of microtubule dynamics and axonal transport, with all of these functions of tau modulated by its site-specific phosphorylation. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is an active kinase that regulates the phosphorylation of tau protein. Therefore, it was hypothesized that GSK-3β contributes to MFS by phosphorylating tau protein. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression and activity of GSK-3β at different regions in the rat hippocampus during the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindling process in order to demonstrate the possible correlation with MFS, and to investigate the involvement of GSK-3β in epileptogenesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=180) were randomly divided into the control and PTZ-treated groups. The chronic epileptic model was established by intraperitoneal injection of PTZ and the hippocampus was observed for the presence of MFS using Timm staining. GSK-3β mRNA, protein and activity were analyzed in various regions of the hippocampus using in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and immunoprecipitation followed by a kinase assay and liquid scintillation counting, respectively. MFS was observed prior to kindling and an increased distribution of Timm granules were observed in the CA3 region of the PTZ-treated rats; however, this was not demonstrated in the supragranular layer of the dentate gyrus. The expression of GSK-3β mRNA and protein, as well as the GSK-3β activity, increased significantly from 3 days to 4 weeks in the PTZ group, and this was correlated with the progression of MFS in the CA3 area. In addition, it was demonstrated that MFS did not result from TLE. GSK-3β may therefore be involved in the progression of MFS and is important in

  11. Cultivation Trial of F1 Hybrids of Several Cabbage Sprouts%几个白菜薹杂种一代试种小结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利丹; 王先琳; 林馥芬

    2012-01-01

      为了充分了解6个新选育的白菜薹品种在华南地区的特征特性以及适应性,以雪莹为对照进行品比试验,试验中充分调查了各杂种一代的特征特性,连续采收统计产量,进行多重比较。试验结果表明,组合1002和对照雪莹产量高,适应性强,品质佳,适宜在广东地区推广。%  In order to fully understand the characteristics and adaptability of the six new cabbage sprouts cultivars in south China, we studied the characteristics of their F1 hybrids, and carried out the multiple comparison of their total yields, by taking the cultivar Xueying as control. The results showed that the combination 1002 and the control cultivar Xueying possessed high yield, strong adaptability and good quality, which could be promoted in Guangdong area.

  12. LINGO-1 antagonist promotes functional recovery and axonal sprouting after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Benxiu; Li, Mingwei; Wu, Wu-Tian; Yick, Leung-Wah; Lee, Xinhua; Shao, Zhaohui; Wang, Joy; So, Kwok-Fai; McCoy, John M; Pepinsky, R Blake; Mi, Sha; Relton, Jane K

    2006-11-01

    LINGO-1 is a CNS-specific protein and a functional component of the NgR1/p75/LINGO-1 and NgR1/TAJ(TROY)/LINGO-1 signaling complexes that mediate inhibition of axonal outgrowth. These receptor complexes mediate the axonal growth inhibitory effects of Nogo, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) via RhoA activation. Soluble LINGO-1 (LINGO-1-Fc), which acts as an antagonist of these pathways by blocking LINGO-1 binding to NgR1, was administered to rats after dorsal or lateral hemisection of the spinal cord. LINGO-1-Fc treatment significantly improved functional recovery, promoted axonal sprouting and decreased RhoA activation and increased oligodendrocyte and neuronal survival after either rubrospinal or corticospinal tract transection. These experiments demonstrate an important role for LINGO-1 in modulating axonal outgrowth in vivo and that treatment with LINGO-1-Fc can significantly enhance recovery after spinal cord injury.

  13. Effects of a Brussels sprouts extract on oxidative DNA damage and metabolising enzymes in rat liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M; Jensen, B R; Poulsen, H E

    2001-01-01

    The apparent anticarcinogenic effect of cruciferous vegetables found in numerous epidemiological and experimental studies has been associated with their influence on phase I and phase II metabolising enzymes as well as on the antioxidant status. In the present study we investigated the effect...... of administration of a Brussels sprouts extract on the expression at the mRNA level and/or catalytic activity in rat liver of three phase I enzymes [cytochrome P450-1A2 (CYP1A2),-2B1/2 (CYP2B1/2) and-2E1 (CYP2E1)] and two phase II enzyme [NADPH:quinone reductase (QR) and glutathione S-transferase pi 7 (GSTpi)], all...... previously suggested to be induced by vegetables. We also examined the activity and/or expression of several important antioxidant enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase and gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (GCS) and the activity of the repair enzyme 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1). QR, GPx...

  14. Phyllanthus emblica L. Enhances Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Wound Healing and Sprouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Chularojmontri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction is the hallmark of impaired wound healing and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Antioxidants from natural sources decrease oxidative stress and protect against cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS. In this study, we examined the antioxidant constituents and capacity of Phyllanthus emblica L. (PE fruit in freeze-dried power form. The pharmacological properties of PE were investigated using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs in the aspects of endothelial cell proliferation, nitric oxide (NO production, wound healing, cell migration, in vitro angiogenesis, and VEGF gene expression. The ASC content of PE was 1.574% + 0.046% (w/w as determined by HPLC and the total phenolic content was 36.1% ± 0.7% gallic acid equivalent when measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The FRAP assay revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity at 3,643 + 192.5 µmole/mg. PE at 0.1 to 10 µg/mL did not significantly influence endothelial cell proliferation, but at higher concentrations PE decreased cell survival to 62%. PE significantly promoted NO production, endothelial wound closure, endothelial sprouting, and VEGF mRNA expression. Therefore, PE is a candidate for antioxidant supplement that promotes endothelial function and restores wound healing competency.

  15. Absence of hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting in transgenic mice overexpressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, X; Suri, C; Knusel, B; Noebels, J L

    2001-05-01

    Excess neuronal activity upregulates the expression of two neurotrophins, nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in adult hippocampus. Nerve growth factor has been shown to contribute the induction of aberrant hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, however the role of prolonged brain-derived neurotrophic factor exposure is uncertain. We examined the distribution and plasticity of mossy fibers in transgenic mice with developmental overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Despite 2--3-fold elevated BDNF levels in the hippocampus sufficient to increase the intensity of neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity in interneurons, no visible changes in mossy fiber Timm staining patterns were observed in the inner molecular layer of adult mutant hippocampus compared to wild-type mice. In addition, no changes of the mRNA expression of two growth-associated proteins, GAP-43 and SCG-10 were found. These data suggest that early and persistent elevations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in granule cells are not sufficient to elicit this pattern of axonal plasticity in the hippocampus.

  16. Recent evidence for activity-dependent initiation of sympathetic sprouting and neuropathic pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Ming ZHANG; Judith A. Strong

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic injury or inflammatory irritation of the peripheral nervous system often leads to persistent pathophysiological pain states. It has been well-documented that, after peripheral nerve injury or inflammation, functional and anatomical alterations sweep over the entire peripheral nervous system including the peripheral nerve endings, the injured or inflamed afferent fibers, the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and the central afferent terminals in the spinal cord. Among all the changes, ectopic discharge or spontaneous activity of primary sensory neurons is of great clinical interest, as such discharges doubtless contribute to the develop-ment of pathological pain states such as neuropathic pain. Two key sources of abnormal spontaneous activity have been identified following peripheral nerve injury: the injured afferent fibers (neuroma) leading to the DRG, and the DRG somata. The purpose of this review is to provide a global account of the abnormal spontaneous activity in various animal models of pain. Particular attention is focused on the consequence of peripheral nerve injury and localized inflammation. Further, mechanisms involved in the generation of spontaneous activity are also reviewed; evidence of spontaneous activity in contributing to abnormal sympathetic sprouting in the axotomized DRG and to the initiation of neuropathic pain based on new findings from our research group are discussed. An improved understanding of the causes of spontaneous activity and the origins of neuropathic pain should facilitate the development of novel strategies for effective treatment of pathological pain.

  17. Aliskiren ameliorates sympathetic nerve sprouting and suppresses the inducibility of ventricular tachyarrhythmia in postinfarcted rat heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Yin-yu; BAO Zhi-wei; WEI Mei-fang; ZHU Jian-hua; GUI Le

    2013-01-01

    Background Aliskiren is an oral renin inhibitor,which inhibits the first rate limiting step in the renin angiotensin aldosterone system.In this study,sympathetic nerve sprouting and the inducibility of ventricular fibrillation after aliskiren treatment in myocardial infarction were investigated.Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats after coronary artery ligation were randomly allocated to four groups:angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril,angiotensin receptor blocker valsartan,β adrenergic receptor blocker carvedilol and rennin inhibitor aliskiren treatment for six weeks.Electrophysiological study,histological examination and Western blotting were performed.Results The plasma norepinephrine level and sympathetic nerve innervation significantly increased in treated infarcted rats compared to untreated rats.Aliskiren treatment reduced the sympathetic nerve innervations after myocardial infarction.There is no significant difference in sympathetic nerve innervations after myocardial infarction among the enalapril,valsartan,carvediloand or aliskiren treated groups.Programmed electrical stimulation study showed that inducible ventricular arrhythmia was reduced,ventricular fibrillation threshold was increased and ventricular effective refractory period was prolonged in enalapril,valsartan,carvedilol and aliskiren treated infarcted rats compared to untreated infarcted rats.Cardiomyocytic apoptosis in infarcted region was significantly decreased in enalapril,valsartan,carvedilol and aliskiren treated infarcted rats.Conclusions Aliskiren ameliorated cardiomyocytic apoptosis,attenuated the sympathetic nerve innervations and reduced the vulnerability of ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction.Enalapril,valsartan and carvedilol have similar effects as aliskiren on cardiomyocytic apoptosis,sympathetic nerve innervations and vulnerability of ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction.

  18. Purification and characterization of catalase from sprouted black gram (Vigna mungo) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandukuri, Sai Srikar; Noor, Ayesha; Ranjini, S Shiva; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2012-03-15

    Black gram (Vigna mungo) is a legume which belongs to Fabaceae family. It is a rich source of protein. It has been known to have interesting small molecule antioxidant activity. However, its enzymatic antioxidant properties have not been explored much. In the present work we studied catalase, a principal antioxidant enzyme from black gram seeds. Day four sprouted black gram seeds were found to have a significant catalase content approximately of 15,240 U/g seeds. IMAC (Seph 4B-IDA-Zn(II)) was used for purifying this catalase, a purification fold of 106 and a high specific activity of 25,704 U/mg was obtained. The K(m) and V(max) of the purified catalase were found to be 16.2 mM and 2.5 μmol/min. The effect of inhibitors like Sodium azide (NaN(3)) and EDTA and different metal ions on catalase activity were studied. NaN(3), Fe(3+)and Cu(2+) were found to have profound inhibitory effects on the enzyme activity. Other metal ions like Ni(2+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) had both enhancing and inhibitory effects. The enzyme showed optimal activity at a temperature of 40°C and pH 7.0. It was stable over a broad range of pH 6.0-10.0 and had a half life of 7h 30 min at 50°C.

  19. Gestational Weight Gain: Results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts Comparative Impact Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olender, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts trial was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reported. Methods. Participants (n = 82), enrolled early in their second trimester of pregnancy, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms. Gestational weight gain, measured at six monthly home visits, was calculated by subtracting measured weight at each visit from self-reported prepregnancy weight. Weight gain was classified as under, within, or exceeding the Institute of Medicine recommendations based on prepregnancy body mass index. Chi-square tests and generalized linear mixed models were used to test for significant differences in percentages of participants within recommended weight gain ranges. Results. Differences in percentages of participants within the gestational weight gain guidelines were not significant between treatment arms across all visits. Conclusions. Enhancing the gestational nutrition and physical activity components of an existing home visiting program is feasible in a high risk population of primarily low income African American women. The impact of these enhancements on appropriate gestational weight gain is questionable given the more basic living needs of such women. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01746394, registered 4 December 2012. PMID:27595023

  20. Evaluation of Medicago sativa L. sprouts as antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seida, Ahmed; El-Hefnawy, Hala; Abou-Hussein, Dina; Mokhtar, Fatma Alzahraa; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf

    2015-11-01

    Medicago sativa L. (Alfalfa) is traditionally used to treat diabetes. This study was designed to investigate the potential antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic activity of M. sativa sprouts in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes via i.p. injection of 55 mg/kg of STZ. Experimental animals were divided into the following groups: GP1 (normal), GP2 (STZ-hyperlipidemic), GP3 (rouvastatin), GP4 (metformin), GP 5-9 (diabetic treated with methanolic, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts). The administration of the total methanolic extract (500 mg/kg), the petroleum ether (32.5mg) and butanol fractions (60 mg) for 4 weeks significantly decreased (p<0.05) triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) in comparison to rouvastatin. Petroleum ether fraction proved to exhibit the best activity as antihyperlipidemic agent (12.23%). On the other hand, ethyl acetate fraction retained the best activity (vs. metformin) as antihyperglycemic agent. Histopathological evidences on liver, pancreas and spleen were in agreement with the above mentioned results. Purification, characterization, and identification of isolated compounds from the active fractions afforded 9 compounds: β-sitosterol and stigmasterol from the petroleum ether fraction; 10-hydroxy-coumestrol, apigenin, genistein, p-hydroxy-benzoic-acid, 7, 4'- dihydroxyflavone, quercetin-3-glucoside and sissotrin from the ethyl acetate fraction.

  1. Prevention of Preharvest Sprouting through Hormone Engineering and Germination Recovery by Chemical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, Mariko; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Vivipary, germination of seeds on the maternal plant, is observed in nature and provides ecological advantages in certain wild species, such as mangroves. However, precocious seed germination in agricultural species, such as preharvest sprouting (PHS) in cereals, is a serious issue for food security. PHS reduces grain quality and causes economical losses to farmers. PHS can be prevented by translating the basic knowledge of hormone biology in seeds into technologies. Biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), which is an essential hormone for seed dormancy, can be engineered to enhance dormancy and prevent PHS. Enhancing nine-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a rate-limiting enzyme of ABA biosynthesis, through a chemically induced gene expression system, has successfully been used to suppress germination of Arabidopsis seeds. The more advanced system NCED positive-feedback system, which amplifies ABA biosynthesis in a seed-specific manner without chemical induction, has also been developed. The proofs of concept established in the model species are now ready to be applied to crops. A potential problem is recovery of germination from hyperdormant crop grains. Hyperdormancy induced by the NCED systems can be reversed by inducing counteracting genes, such as NCED RNA interference or gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis genes. Alternatively, seed sensitivity to ABA can be modified to rescue germination using the knowledge of chemical biology. ABA antagonists, which were developed recently, have great potential to recover germination from the hyperdormant seeds. Combination of the dormancy-imposing and -releasing approaches will establish a comprehensive technology for PHS prevention and germination recovery.

  2. Gestational Weight Gain: Results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts Comparative Impact Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Thomson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts trial was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reported. Methods. Participants (n=82, enrolled early in their second trimester of pregnancy, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms. Gestational weight gain, measured at six monthly home visits, was calculated by subtracting measured weight at each visit from self-reported prepregnancy weight. Weight gain was classified as under, within, or exceeding the Institute of Medicine recommendations based on prepregnancy body mass index. Chi-square tests and generalized linear mixed models were used to test for significant differences in percentages of participants within recommended weight gain ranges. Results. Differences in percentages of participants within the gestational weight gain guidelines were not significant between treatment arms across all visits. Conclusions. Enhancing the gestational nutrition and physical activity components of an existing home visiting program is feasible in a high risk population of primarily low income African American women. The impact of these enhancements on appropriate gestational weight gain is questionable given the more basic living needs of such women. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01746394, registered 4 December 2012.

  3. Sulforaphane, a Dietary Component of Broccoli/Broccoli Sprouts, Inhibits Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Tao; Korkaya, Hasan; Liu, Suling; Lee, Hsiu-Fang; Newman, Bryan; Yu, Yanke; Clouthier, Shawn G.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Wicha, Max S.; Sun, Duxin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in breast cancer has profound implications for cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated sulforaphane, a natural compound derived from broccoli/broccoli sprouts, for its efficacy to inhibit breast CSCs and its potential mechanism. Experimental Design Aldefluor assay and mammosphere formation assay were used to evaluate the effect of sulforaphane on breast CSCs in vitro. A NOD/SCID xenograft model was employed to determine whether sulforaphane could target breast CSCs in vivo, as assessed by Aldefluor assay and tumor growth upon cell re-implantation in secondary mice. The potential mechanism was investigated utilizing Western blotting analysis and β-catenin reporter assay. Results Sulforaphane (1~5 μM) decreased aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-positive cell population by 65%~80% in human breast cancer cells (P sulforaphane for two weeks reduced ALDH-positive cells by more than 50% in NOD/SCID xenograft tumors (P = 0.003). Sulforaphane eliminated breast CSCs in vivo, thereby abrogating tumor growth after re-implantation of primary tumor cells into the secondary mice (P sulforaphane down-regulated Wnt/β-catenin self-renewal pathway. Conclusions Sulforaphane inhibits breast CSCs and down-regulates Wnt/β-catenin self-renewal pathway. These findings support the use of sulforaphane for chemoprevention of breast cancer stem cells and warrant further clinical evaluation. PMID:20388854

  4. Sequential light programs shape kale (Brassica napus) sprout appearance and alter metabolic and nutrient content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sofia D; Folta, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    Different light wavelengths have specific effects on plant growth and development. Narrow-bandwidth light-emitting diode (LED) lighting may be used to directionally manipulate size, color and metabolites in high-value fruits and vegetables. In this report, Red Russian kale (Brassica napus) seedlings were grown under specific light conditions and analyzed for photomorphogenic responses, pigment accumulation and nutraceutical content. The results showed that this genotype responds predictably to darkness, blue and red light, with suppression of hypocotyl elongation, development of pigments and changes in specific metabolites. However, these seedlings were relatively hypersensitive to far-red light, leading to uncharacteristically short hypocotyls and high pigment accumulation, even after growth under very low fluence rates (<1 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). General antioxidant levels and aliphatic glucosinolates are elevated by far-red light treatments. Sequential treatments of darkness, blue light, red light and far-red light were applied throughout sprout development to alter final product quality. These results indicate that sequential treatment with narrow-bandwidth light may be used to affect key economically important traits in high-value crops.

  5. Prevention of Preharvest Sprouting through Hormone Engineering and Germination Recovery by Chemical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, Mariko; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Vivipary, germination of seeds on the maternal plant, is observed in nature and provides ecological advantages in certain wild species, such as mangroves. However, precocious seed germination in agricultural species, such as preharvest sprouting (PHS) in cereals, is a serious issue for food security. PHS reduces grain quality and causes economical losses to farmers. PHS can be prevented by translating the basic knowledge of hormone biology in seeds into technologies. Biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), which is an essential hormone for seed dormancy, can be engineered to enhance dormancy and prevent PHS. Enhancing nine-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a rate-limiting enzyme of ABA biosynthesis, through a chemically induced gene expression system, has successfully been used to suppress germination of Arabidopsis seeds. The more advanced system NCED positive-feedback system, which amplifies ABA biosynthesis in a seed-specific manner without chemical induction, has also been developed. The proofs of concept established in the model species are now ready to be applied to crops. A potential problem is recovery of germination from hyperdormant crop grains. Hyperdormancy induced by the NCED systems can be reversed by inducing counteracting genes, such as NCED RNA interference or gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis genes. Alternatively, seed sensitivity to ABA can be modified to rescue germination using the knowledge of chemical biology. ABA antagonists, which were developed recently, have great potential to recover germination from the hyperdormant seeds. Combination of the dormancy-imposing and -releasing approaches will establish a comprehensive technology for PHS prevention and germination recovery.

  6. Evaluation of real-time PCR coupled with immunomagnetic separation or centrifugation for the detection of healthy and sanitizer-injured Salmonella spp. on mung bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qianwang; Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yang, Yishan; Lee, Sang-Myun; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2016-04-02

    Fresh mung bean sprouts have been identified as a source of many Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and accurate detection methodology for low levels of healthy and sanitizer-injured Salmonella on mung bean sprouts using real-time PCR coupled with either immunomagnetic separation (PCR-IMS) or centrifugation (PCR-cen). Initially, three parameters of IMS; specificity/sensitivity, bacterial concentration and bead incubation time were optimized. Secondly, limit of detection (LOD) was determined for the optimized PCR-IMS and PCR-cen. These two methods were compared against PCR alone (PCR) and the standard culture method (ISO) for their ability to detect Salmonella using inoculated and uninoculated sprouts. Under optimum IMS conditions (10(5)CFU/ml for 30 min), capture efficiency of Salmonella in sprout suspensions was lower than 40%, most probably due to the non-specific binding of the background microbiota. PCR-IMS and PCR-cen had a similar LOD at 10(3)CFU/ml, which was one log unit lower than PCR. Enrichment of 10h was sufficient to detect 100% of the inoculated sprouts with both PCR-IMS and PCR-cen, which was significantly faster compared to PCR and the ISO method. Moreover, the validation study using uninoculated sprouts revealed that PCR-IMS and PCR-cen were equally effective on Salmonella detection, showing 98.3% accuracy. These results suggest that PCR-cen would be the effective and less costly method for the detection of both healthy and sanitizer-injured Salmonella on mung bean sprouts.

  7. ADAM17 Promotes Motility, Invasion, and Sprouting of Lymphatic Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mężyk-Kopeć

    Full Text Available Tumor-associated lymphatic vessels actively participate in tumor progression and dissemination. ADAM17, a sheddase for numerous growth factors, cytokines, receptors, and cell adhesion molecules, is believed to promote tumor development, facilitating both tumor cell proliferation and migration, as well as tumor angiogenesis. In this work we addressed the issue of whether ADAM17 may also promote tumor lymphangiogenesis. First, we found that ADAM17 is important for the migratory potential of immortalized human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC. When ADAM17 was stably silenced in LEC, their proliferation was not affected, but: (i single-cell motility, (ii cell migration through a 3D Matrigel/collagen type I matrix, and (iii their ability to form sprouts in a 3D matrix were significantly diminished. The differences in the cell motility between ADAM17-proficient and ADAM17-silenced cells were eliminated by inhibitors of EGFR and HER2, indicating that ADAM17-mediated shedding of growth factors accounts for LEC migratory potential. Interestingly, ADAM17 depletion affected the integrin surface expression/functionality in LEC. ADAM17-silenced cells adhered to plastic, type I collagen, and fibronectin faster than their ADAM17-proficient counterparts. The difference in adhesion to fibronectin was abolished by a cyclic RGD peptide, emphasizing the involvement of integrins in the process. Using a soluble receptor array, we identified BIG-H3 among several candidate proteins involved in the phenotypic and behavioral changes of LEC upon ADAM17 silencing. In additional assays, we confirmed the increased expression of BIG-H3, as well as TGFβ2 in ADAM17-silenced LEC. The antilymphangiogenic effects of ADAM17 silencing in lymphatic endothelial cells suggest further relevance of ADAM17 as a potential target in cancer therapy.

  8. ADAM17 Promotes Motility, Invasion, and Sprouting of Lymphatic Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mężyk-Kopeć, Renata; Wyroba, Barbara; Stalińska, Krystyna; Próchnicki, Tomasz; Wiatrowska, Karolina; Kilarski, Witold W; Swartz, Melody A; Bereta, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-associated lymphatic vessels actively participate in tumor progression and dissemination. ADAM17, a sheddase for numerous growth factors, cytokines, receptors, and cell adhesion molecules, is believed to promote tumor development, facilitating both tumor cell proliferation and migration, as well as tumor angiogenesis. In this work we addressed the issue of whether ADAM17 may also promote tumor lymphangiogenesis. First, we found that ADAM17 is important for the migratory potential of immortalized human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC). When ADAM17 was stably silenced in LEC, their proliferation was not affected, but: (i) single-cell motility, (ii) cell migration through a 3D Matrigel/collagen type I matrix, and (iii) their ability to form sprouts in a 3D matrix were significantly diminished. The differences in the cell motility between ADAM17-proficient and ADAM17-silenced cells were eliminated by inhibitors of EGFR and HER2, indicating that ADAM17-mediated shedding of growth factors accounts for LEC migratory potential. Interestingly, ADAM17 depletion affected the integrin surface expression/functionality in LEC. ADAM17-silenced cells adhered to plastic, type I collagen, and fibronectin faster than their ADAM17-proficient counterparts. The difference in adhesion to fibronectin was abolished by a cyclic RGD peptide, emphasizing the involvement of integrins in the process. Using a soluble receptor array, we identified BIG-H3 among several candidate proteins involved in the phenotypic and behavioral changes of LEC upon ADAM17 silencing. In additional assays, we confirmed the increased expression of BIG-H3, as well as TGFβ2 in ADAM17-silenced LEC. The antilymphangiogenic effects of ADAM17 silencing in lymphatic endothelial cells suggest further relevance of ADAM17 as a potential target in cancer therapy.

  9. Expression of different forms of transglutaminases by immature cells of Helianthus tuberosus sprout apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beninati, Simone; Iorio, Rosa Anna; Tasco, Gianluca; Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Casadio, Rita; Del Duca, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Immature cells of etiolated apices of sprouts growing from Helianthus tuberosus (H. t.) tubers showed Ca(2+)-dependent transglutaminase (TG, EC 2.3.2.13) activity on fibronectin (more efficiently) and dimethylcasein as substrates. Three main TG bands of about 85, 75 and 58 kDa were isolated from the 100,000×g apices supernatant through a DEAE-cellulose column at increasing NaCl concentrations and immuno-identified by anti-TG K and anti-rat prostate gland TG antibodies. These three fractions had catalytic activity as catalyzed polyamine conjugation to N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-γ-glutaminyl-L-leucine (Z-L-Gln-L-Leu) and the corresponding glutamyl-derivatives were identified. The amino acid composition of these TG proteins was compared with those of several sequenced TGs of different origin. The composition of the two larger bands presented great similarities with annotated TGs; in particular, the 75 kDa form was very similar to mammalian inactive EPB42. The 58 kDa form shared a low similarity with other TGs, including a maize sequence of similar molecular mass, which, however, did not present the catalytic triad in the position of all annotated TGs. A 3D model of the H. t. TGs was built adopting TG2 as template. These novel plant TGs are hypothesized to be constitutive and discussed in relation to their possible roles in immature cells. These data suggest that in plants, multiple TG forms are active in the same organ and that plant and animal enzymes probably are very close not only for their catalytic activity but also structurally.

  10. Novel molecular, cytotoxical, and immunological study on promising and selective anticancer activity of Mung bean sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafidh Rand R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anticancer and immunomodulatory activity of mung bean sprouts (MBS and the underlying mechanisms against human cervical and hepatocarcinoma cancer cells were explored. Methods MBS cytotoxicity and MBS-induced anticancer cytokines, TNF-α and IFN-β from cancer cells, and immunological cytokines, IL-4, IFN-γ, and IL-10 from peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC were assessed by MTS and ELISA assays. Apoptotic cells were investigated by flow cytometry. The expression level of apoptotic genes (Bax, BCL-2, Capsases 7–9 and cell cycle regulatory genes (cyclin D, E, and A and tumor suppressor proteins (p27, p21, and p53 was assessed by real-time qPCR in the cancer cells treated with extract IC50. Results The cytotoxicity on normal human cells was significantly different from HeLa and HepG2 cells, 163.97 ± 5.73, 13.3 ± 0.89, and 14.04 ± 1.5 mg/ml, respectively. The selectivity index (SI was 12.44 ± 0.83 for HeLa and 11.94 ± 1.2 for HepG2 cells. Increased levels of TNF-α and IFN-β were observed in the treated HeLa and HepG2 culture supernatants when compared with untreated cells. MBS extract was shown to be an immunopolarizing agent by inducing IFNγ and inhibiting IL-4 production by PBMC; this leads to triggering of CMI and cellular cytotoxicity. The extract induced apoptosis, in a dose and time dependent manner, in treated HeLa and HepG2, but not in untreated, cells (P Conclusion MBS extract was shown to be a potent anticancer agent granting new prospects of anticancer therapy using natural products.

  11. Delayed kindling development after rapidly recurring seizures: relation to mossy fiber sprouting and neurotrophin, GAP-43 and dynorphin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmér, E; Kokaia, M; Kokaia, Z; Ferencz, I; Lindvall, O

    1996-03-11

    Development of kindling and mossy fiber sprouting, and changes of gene expression were studied after 40 seizures produced during about 3 h by electrical stimulation every 5 min in the ventral hippocampus. As assessed by 5 test stimulations, enhanced responsiveness was present already after 6-24 h but from 1 week post-seizure increased gradually up to 4 weeks without additional stimuli. Sprouting of mossy fibers in the dentate gyrus was demonstrated only at 4 weeks with Timm's staining. In situ hybridization showed a transient increase (maximum at 2 h) of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), TrkB and TrkC mRNA levels and reduction (maximum at 12-24 h) of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) mRNA expression in dentate granule cells after the seizures. In addition, BDNF mRNA levels were elevated in CA1 and CA3 regions, amygdala and piriform cortex. Marked increases of mRNA for growth-associated protein (GAP-43), with maximum expression at 12-24 h, were observed in dentate granule cells and in amygdala-piriform cortex. Dynorphin mRNA levels showed biphasic changes in dentate granule cells with an increase at 2 h followed by a decrease at 24 h. No long-term alterations of gene expression were observed. These findings indicate that increased responsiveness develops rapidly after recurring seizures but that the kindled state is reached gradually in about 4 weeks. Mossy fiber sprouting occurs in parallel to epileptogenesis and may play a causative role. Short-term changes of neurotrophin and Trk, GAP-43 and dynorphin mRNA levels and the assumed alterations of the corresponding proteins could trigger structural rearrangements underlying kindling but might also contribute to the initial increase of seizure susceptibility.

  12. Transgenic inhibition of astroglial NF-kappa B leads to increased axonal sparing and sprouting following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Roberta; Hurtado, Andres; Persaud, Trikaldarshi; Esham, Kim; Pearse, Damien D; Oudega, Martin; Bethea, John R

    2009-07-01

    We previously showed that Nuclear Factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) inactivation in astrocytes leads to improved functional recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI). This correlated with reduced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, and increased white matter preservation. Hence we hypothesized that inactivation of astrocytic NF-kappaB would create a more permissive environment for axonal sprouting and regeneration. We induced both contusive and complete transection SCI in GFAP-Inhibitor of kappaB-dominant negative (GFAP-IkappaBalpha-dn) and wild-type (WT) mice and performed retrograde [fluorogold (FG)] and anterograde [biotinylated dextran amine (BDA)] tracing 8 weeks after injury. Following contusive SCI, more FG-labeled cells were found in motor cortex, reticular formation, and raphe nuclei of transgenic mice. Spared and sprouting BDA-positive corticospinal axons were found caudal to the lesion in GFAP-IkappaBalpha-dn mice. Higher numbers of FG-labeled neurons were detected immediately rostral to the lesion in GFAP-IkappaBalpha-dn mice, accompanied by increased expression of synaptic and axonal growth-associated molecules. After transection, however, no FG-labeled neurons or BDA-filled axons were found rostral and caudal to the lesion, respectively, in either genotype. These data demonstrated that inhibiting astroglial NF-kappaB resulted in a growth-supporting terrain promoting sparing and sprouting, rather than regeneration, of supraspinal and propriospinal circuitries essential for locomotion, hence contributing to the improved functional recovery observed after SCI in GFAP-IkappaBalpha-dn mice.

  13. SpRoUTS (Space Robot Universal Truss System): Reversible Robotic Assembly of Deployable Truss Structures of Reconfigurable Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenett, Benjamin; Cellucci, Daniel; Cheung, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Automatic deployment of structures has been a focus of much academic and industrial work on infrastructure applications and robotics in general. This paper presents a robotic truss assembler designed for space applications - the Space Robot Universal Truss System (SpRoUTS) - that reversibly assembles a truss from a feedstock of hinged andflat-packed components, by folding the sides of each component up and locking onto the assembled structure. We describe the design and implementation of the robot and show that the assembled truss compares favorably with prior truss deployment systems.

  14. Assessment of regeneration potential in the clonal macrophyte Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Poaceae) after burial disturbance based on bud bank size and sprouting capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinsheng; Cao, Chenshu; Deng, Zhengmiao; Xie, Yonghong; Li, Feng; Hou, Zhiyong; Li, Xu

    2015-01-01

    The demography of the bud bank and its sprouting capacity are important for understanding the population dynamics of clonal plants and their potential responses to disturbances. To this end, we investigated the size and composition of the bud bank of Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Hack. immediately after flooding (November), in winter (January), in spring (March), and before flooding (May) in the wetlands of Dongting Lake. We then examined the sprouting capacity of axillary buds after sediment burial at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm. Total bud density of M. sacchariflorus ranged from 2524 buds m(-2) in November to 4293 buds m(-2) in March. Rhizome segments with inactive axillary buds, which represented the majority of the bud population (88.7% in November, 93.3% in May), did not sprout during the 140 days of the experiment (n = 250). The sprouting ratio was the highest for active axillary buds buried at 0 cm (64%) and decreased when buried at 10-20 cm (34%-40%). Due to the large number of active axillary buds in the bud bank (211-277 buds m(-2) from November to the following March), M. sacchariflorus could completely replace its aboveground shoot population, except in May (142 buds m(-2)). Increasing burial depth delayed bud emergence and reduced the growth period of shoots; however, burial depth did not affect the resulting plant height and only reduced the accumulated biomass at 20 cm. Therefore, the belowground bud bank and its strong sprouting capacity are important factors in the maintenance of local populations and colonization of new habitats for M. sacchariflorus after burial disturbances. The present methodology, which combined measurements of bud bank demography and sprouting capacity, may reflect the regeneration potential of clonal plants after burial disturbances.

  15. Mitigation of starch-induced postprandial glycemic spikes in rats by antioxidants-rich extract of Cicer arietinum Linn. seeds and sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashok Kumar; Sahana, Chinthapatla; Zehra, Amtul; Madhusudana, Kuncha; Kumar, Domati Anand; Agawane, Sachin Bharat

    2013-10-01

    Consumption of highly processed calories dense diet leads abrupt increase in postprandial blood glucose level, which in turn induces immediate oxidative stress. Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) and resultant oxidative stress is one of the earliest detectable abnormalities in diabetes prone individuals, independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular disorders (CVD), a major pathophysiological link between diabetes and CVD and an important contributing factor in atherogenesis even in non-diabetic individuals. Therefore, dietary supplements mitigating PPHG spikes along with potent antioxidant activities may help decrease development of PPHG and oxidative stress induced pathogenesis. The study evaluated free radicals scavenging, antioxidant properties and intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in methanol extract of two varieties of Cicer arietinum Linn viz. Bengal gram and Kabuli chana and green gram (Vigna radiata Linn. Wilczek) raw grains and their sprouts and studied their influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats. Healthy grains were procured from local markets. Free radicals scavenging antioxidant and glucose-induced hemoglobin (Hb)-glycation inhibition activities were analyzed using standard in vitro procedures. In vitro antihyperglycemic activity was evaluated by assessing rat intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats was studied by pre-treatment of rats with extracts. Compared with raw seeds increase in total polyphenol and flavonoids concentration in green gram sprouts and Kabuli chana sprouts (KCs) were observed. Total protein concentrations in sprouts did not differ from non-sprouted grains. 2,2'- Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) cation scavenging activity was more than twice in Bengal gram sprouts of (BGs) and KCs than their raw seeds. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, nitro blue tetrazolium

  16. Mitigation of starch-induced postprandial glycemic spikes in rats by antioxidants-rich extract of Cicer arietinum Linn. seeds and sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Consumption of highly processed calories dense diet leads abrupt increase in postprandial blood glucose level, which in turn induces immediate oxidative stress. Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG and resultant oxidative stress is one of the earliest detectable abnormalities in diabetes prone individuals, independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular disorders (CVD, a major pathophysiological link between diabetes and CVD and an important contributing factor in atherogenesis even in non-diabetic individuals. Therefore, dietary supplements mitigating PPHG spikes along with potent antioxidant activities may help decrease development of PPHG and oxidative stress induced pathogenesis. Objectives: The study evaluated free radicals scavenging, antioxidant properties and intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in methanol extract of two varieties of Cicer arietinum Linn viz. Bengal gram and Kabuli chana and green gram (Vigna radiata Linn. Wilczek raw grains and their sprouts and studied their influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy grains were procured from local markets. Free radicals scavenging antioxidant and glucose-induced hemoglobin (Hb-glycation inhibition activities were analyzed using standard in vitro procedures. In vitro antihyperglycemic activity was evaluated by assessing rat intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats was studied by pre-treatment of rats with extracts. Results: Compared with raw seeds increase in total polyphenol and flavonoids concentration in green gram sprouts and Kabuli chana sprouts (KCs were observed. Total protein concentrations in sprouts did not differ from non-sprouted grains. 2,2′- Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid cation scavenging activity was more than twice in Bengal gram sprouts of (BGs and KCs than their raw seeds. 2,2-diphenyl-1

  17. Análise físico-química, microbiológica e sensorial de brotos de lentilha da variedade PRECOZ = Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory analysis of lentil sprouts, Precoz variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neoraldo Thadeu Pacheco Loures

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a variedade precoce de lentilha (Lens esculenta, PRECOZ, desenvolvida e cultivada na Argentina, para uso como broto alimentício, em caixa térmica de poliuretano com dreno lateral para escoamento da água, com ausência de luz e temperatura controlada. Aporcentagem de germinação era de 86% e iniciou-se a partir do segundo dia após a embebição,com desenvolvimento dos brotos até o sexto dia. Após 48h, para aumentar a síntese de etileno e melhorar a qualidade dos brotos produzidos, para criar estresse fisiológico, foram usados pesos sobre os brotos, os quais também foram submetidos a provas microbiológicas, cujos valores foram maiores que 1,1 x 104 NMP g-1 para coliformes fecais e com acidez de 2,64% e pH de 5,48 (pouco ácido. Não houve crescimento de Salmonella e, para Escherichia coli, os níveis foram inferiores a 10 UFC g-1. Em 100 g de brotos, foram encontrados 54,34 g de carboidratos, 6,24 g de fibra bruta e 25,56 g de proteínas. Testes sensoriais foram realizados em comparação combrotos de alfafa e feijão, com provadores não-treinados. A aceitabilidade foi de 73,3%, com apenas 13,3% de rejeição e 13,3% de indiferença, valores inferiores aos do feijão, com 96,7% de aceitaçãoe 3,3% de rejeição, e alfafa, com 83,3% de aceitação e 10,00% de rejeição. Pela baixa rejeição e indiferença, é possível sugerir que a variedade de lentilha em estudo pode ser utilizada para produzir brotos alimentícios, como complemento nutricional na dieta alimentar.This trial aimed to evaluate a precocious variety of lentil (Lens esculenta, developed and grown in Argentina, named PRECOZ, to be used for sprout production, using a thermal polyurethane box with a lateral drain to allow the water to flow off. The process was carried out in darkness at room-controlled temperature. Germination began in the second day after the imbibing practice, while sprouts development came on until the sixth day, with 86% germination

  18. Immunodetection and quantification of insulin-like antigens in sprouts: development of an efficient functional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Pathak

    2011-11-01

    significant presence of insulin showing positive immuno-reactivity towards anti-insulin antibodies were observed at 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, and at 96 hours of germination.Conclusion: The study is suggesting that insulin-like proteins are synthesized only during the process of embryo development, the sprouts of such legumes, particularly soybeans, can be a good source of insulin.

  19. Occurrence and characterization of food-borne pathogens isolated from fruit, vegetables and sprouts retailed in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojkovská, Hana; Myšková, Petra; Gelbíčová, Tereza; Skočková, Alena; Koláčková, Ivana; Karpíšková, Renáta

    2017-05-01

    Food of non-animal origin is a major component of the human diet and has been considered to pose a low risk from the point of view of bacteriological safety. However, an increase in the number of outbreaks of illness caused by such pathogens and linked to the consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables have been reported from around the world recently. Salmonella spp., STEC (Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli) and Listeria monocytogenes are among the most frequently identified agents. Additionally, the transmission of antibiotic resistant strains including also the methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) to humans via the food chain is one of the greatest public health problems being confronted today. Therefore, we focused on the bacterial safety of fruit, vegetables and sprouts on sale in the Czech Republic. One strain (0.3%) of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type PT8, one strain (0.3%) of MRSA and 17 strains (5.0%) of L. monocytogenes were isolated from a total of 339 collected samples. The most problematic commodities were frozen fruit and vegetables (packed and unpacked) and fresh-cut vegetables. Our findings indicate deficiencies in hygiene practices during harvesting, processing and distribution of these commodities. Although sprouts and berries are the most likely to be contaminated by human pathogens, only two samples were positive for the presence of L. monocytogenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 荞麦芽功能性成分研究综述%Research Review on the Functional Composition of Buckwheat Sprouts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国娟; 徐红艳; 崔泰花; 金铁岩; 李官浩; 崔承弼

    2012-01-01

    发芽可以提高荞麦的营养价值和功能特性,荞麦芽具有口感良好、营养丰富、无过敏性反应等优点。该文介绍了荞麦芽的培养过程及其在生长过程中各种功能性成分的变化,对荞麦芽产品的开发前景进行展望,以期促进荞麦芽的开发利用。%Malting can enhance the nutritional and functional properties of buckwheat.Buckwheat sprouts as a new type of food with good taste,nutrient-rich,non-allergic reactions and so on.The change of buckwheat sprouts various functional components during the growth process were introduced in this paper,and the development prospects of buckwheat sprouts product were discussed,so as to promote the development and utilization of buckwheat sprout.

  1. Targeted P2X7 R shRNA delivery attenuates sympathetic nerve sprouting and ameliorates cardiac dysfunction in rats with myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongmei; Yin, Jie; Shi, Yugen; Hu, Hesheng; Li, Xiaolu; Xue, Mei; Cheng, Wenjuan; Wang, Ye; Li, Xinran; Li, Yongkang; Wang, Yu; Yan, Suhua

    2017-04-01

    Inflammation-dominated sympathetic sprouting adjacent to the necrotic region following myocardial infarction (MI) has been implicated in the etiology of arrhythmias resulting in sudden cardiac death; however, the mechanisms responsible remain to be elucidated. Although P2X7 R is a key immune mediator, its role has yet to be explored. We investigated whether P2X7 R regulates NF-κB and affects cardiac sympathetic reinnervation in rats undergoing MI. An adenoviral vector with a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) sequence inserted was adopted for the inhibition of P2X7 R in vivo. Myocardial infarction was induced by left coronary artery ligation, and immediately after that, recombinant P2X7 R-shRNA adenovirus, negative adenovirus (control), or normal saline solution (vehicle) was injected intramyocardially around the MI region and border areas. A high level of P2X7 R was activated in the infarcted tissue at an early stage. The administration of P2X7 R RNAi resulted in the inhibition of Akt and Erk1/2 phosphorylation and decreased the activation of NF-κB and macrophage infiltration, as well as attenuated the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF). Eventually, the NGF-induced sympathetic hyperinnervation was blunted, as assessed by the immunofluorescence of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP 43). At 7 days post-MI, the arrhythmia score of programmed electrical stimulation in the vehicle-treated infarcted rats was higher than the MI-shRNA group. Further amelioration of cardiac dysfunction was also detected. The administration of P2X7 R RNAi during the acute inflammatory response phase prevented the process of sympathetic hyperinnervation after MI, which was associated in part with inhibiting the Akt and ERK1/2 pathways and NF-κB activation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Exploring Molecular Markers of Preharvest Sprouting Resistance Gene Using Wheat Intact Spikes by Association Analysis%以关联分析发掘小麦整穗发芽抗性基因分子标记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉磊; 张海萍; 王升星; 赵良侠; 张德新; 胡建帮; 曹雪连; 杨亚杰; 常成; 马传喜

    2014-01-01

    利用分布于小麦全基因组的181对分子标记,分析264份自然群体的基因型,采用TASSLE软件的GLM和MLM模型检测与整穗发芽抗性紧密关联的标记位点,发掘相关位点内的优异等位变异。在2012年和2013年室内整穗发芽率、2013年田间自然降雨整穗发芽率3个环境中,共关联到20个显著位点(P<0.05),分布于小麦染色体1AS、2DS、3AS、3BL、4AL、5AS、5BL、6BS、6DS、7AL和7BL上。分别位于2DS和7BL上的分子标记gwm102和barc340同时在3个环境下关联到,属于稳定的抗性位点;另有6个标记位点同时在2个环境下关联到;其余12个标记位点仅在1个环境下关联到。位于7BL上的barc340标记位点为一新报道位点。从重复关联的8个标记位点内共检测出10种优异等位变异。barc28-229bp和barc28-217bp对提高整穗发芽抗性效应最显著,主要分布在地方品种中(如遂宁坨坨麦等),而gwm102-142bp和barc186-199bp效应虽然相对较小,但多分布在推广品种中(如扬麦158等),有利于穗发芽抗性分子育种的直接应用。%To improve pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) resistance in wheat breeding, it is important to explore marker loci and elite alleles associated with PHS resistance using intact spikes. In this study, a total of 181 markers were used to 264 genotype materi-als. General and mixed linear models (GLM and MLM) were used to analyze PHS phenotypic data in three environments (2012-in house, 2013-in house and 2013-in field). The results showed that twenty markers were identified by association analysis, and lo-cated on chromosomes 1AS, 2DS, 3AS, 3BL, 4AL, 5AS, 5BL, 6BS, 6DS, 7AL, and 7BL. The markers gwm102 on 2DS and barc340 on 7BL were detected stably in three environments, among which barc340 was likely to be novel and needs to be further studied through biparental linkage mapping analysis. Six markers were detected in two environments, and the other loci linked with 12 markers

  3. Actions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in slices from rats with spontaneous seizures and mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfman, H E; Goodman, J H; Sollas, A L

    1999-07-01

    This study examined the acute actions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the rat dentate gyrus after seizures, because previous studies have shown that BDNF has acute effects on dentate granule cell synaptic transmission, and other studies have demonstrated that BDNF expression increases in granule cells after seizures. Pilocarpine-treated rats were studied because they not only have seizures and increased BDNF expression in granule cells, but they also have reorganization of granule cell "mossy fiber" axons. This reorganization, referred to as "sprouting," involves collaterals that grow into novel areas, i.e., the inner molecular layer, where granule cell and interneuron dendrites are located. Thus, this animal model allowed us to address the effects of BDNF in the dentate gyrus after seizures, as well as the actions of BDNF on mossy fiber transmission after reorganization. In slices with sprouting, BDNF bath application enhanced responses recorded in the inner molecular layer to mossy fiber stimulation. Spontaneous bursts of granule cells occurred, and these were apparently generated at the site of the sprouted axon plexus. These effects were not accompanied by major changes in perforant path-evoked responses or paired-pulse inhibition, occurred only after prolonged (30-60 min) exposure to BDNF, and were blocked by K252a. The results suggest a preferential action of BDNF at mossy fiber synapses, even after substantial changes in the dentate gyrus network. Moreover, the results suggest that activation of trkB receptors could contribute to the hyperexcitability observed in animals with sprouting. Because human granule cells also express increased BDNF mRNA after seizures, and sprouting can occur in temporal lobe epileptics, the results may have implications for understanding temporal lobe epilepsy.

  4. Isolation and chemoenzymatic treatment of glycoalkaloids from green, sprouting and rotting Solanum tuberosum potatoes for solanidine recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, Grokoré Yvonne; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Due, Ahipo Edmond; Combes, Didier

    2017-04-01

    The estimation of glycoalkaloids in the flesh of different types of decayed potatoes was evaluated. The results showed that turned green and also sprouting or rotting potato flesh contain high amounts of toxic solanine and chaconine, exceeding by 2-5-fold the recommended limit, and ranging from 2578±86mg/kg to 5063±230mg/kg of dry weight potato flesh. For safety consideration, these decayed potatoes should be systematically set aside. To avoid a net economic loss and encourage the removal of this hazardous food, a recycling process was investigated to generate added-value compounds from the toxic glycoalkaloids. A simple chemo-enzymatic protocol comprising a partial acidic hydrolysis followed by an enzymatic treatment with the β-glycosidase from Periplaneta americana allowed the efficient conversion of α-chaconine to solanidine.

  5. Optimization of ultrasonic assisted extraction of antioxidants from black soybean (Glycine max var) sprouts using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jixiang; Xin, Can; Zhao, Ya; Feng, Bing; He, Congfen; Dong, Yinmao; Fang, Yun; Wei, Shaomin

    2013-01-16

    Response surface methodology (RSM) using a central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the conditions for extraction of antioxidants from black soybean (Glycine max var) sprouts. Three influencing factors: liquid-solid ratio, period of ultrasonic assisted extraction and extraction temperature were investigated in the ultrasonic aqueous extraction. Then Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the extraction process focused on DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the antioxidants with respect to the above influencing factors. The best combination of each significant factor was determined by RSM design and optimum pretreatment conditions for maximum radical-scavenging capacity were established to be liquid-solid ratio of 29.19:1, extraction time of 32.13 min, and extraction temperature of 30 °C. Under these conditions, 67.60% of DPPH radical-scavenging capacity was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 66.36%.

  6. Optimization of Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction of Antioxidants from Black Soybean (Glycine max var Sprouts Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM using a central composite design (CCD was employed to optimize the conditions for extraction of antioxidants from black soybean (Glycine max var sprouts. Three influencing factors: liquid-solid ratio, period of ultrasonic assisted extraction and extraction temperature were investigated in the ultrasonic aqueous extraction. Then Response Surface Methodology (RSM was applied to optimize the extraction process focused on DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the antioxidants with respect to the above influencing factors. The best combination of each significant factor was determined by RSM design and optimum pretreatment conditions for maximum radical-scavenging capacity were established to be liquid-solid ratio of 29.19:1, extraction time of 32.13 min, and extraction temperature of 30 °C. Under these conditions, 67.60% of DPPH radical-scavenging capacity was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 66.36%.

  7. Peanut sprout extract attenuates cisplatin-induced ototoxicity by induction of the Akt/Nrf2-mediated redox pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Cha Kyung; Jo, Eu-Ri; Sim, Ju-Hwan; Cho, Sung Il

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is commonly used to treat solid tumors. However, permanent hearing loss is a major side effect of cisplatin chemotherapy and often results in dose reduction of the cisplatin chemotherapy. Peanut sprouts show cytoprotective properties owing to their antioxidant activities. This study was designed to investigate the effect of peanut sprout extract (PSE) on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in an auditory cell line, HEI-OC1 cells. Cells were exposed to cisplatin for 24 h, with or without pre-treatment with PSE, cell viability was examined using the MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were identified by double staining with Hoechst 33258 and propidium iodide. Western blot analysis was performed to examine apoptotic proteins including C-PARP and C-caspase, anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and Nrf2 redox system activation. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated to examine whether PSE could scavenge cisplatin-induced ROS. Real-time PCR analyses were performed to investigate the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes including NQO1, HO-1, GPx2, Gclc, and catalase. The cisplatin-treated group showed reduced cell viability, increased apoptotic properties and markers, and increased ROS levels. PSE pre-treatment before cisplatin exposure significantly increased cell viability and reduced apoptotic properties and ROS production. These effects resulted from the up-regulation of antioxidant genes, including NQO1, HO-1, GPx2, Gclc, and catalase through Akt phosphorylation and Nrf2 activation. Our results demonstrate that PSE protects from cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity by activating the antioxidant effects via the Akt/Nrf-2 pathway in this auditory cell line, and indicate that PSE may provide novel treatment to prevent cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. TsTx toxin isolated from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom induces spontaneous recurrent seizures and mossy fiber sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Maria Regina Lopes; Lebrun, Ivo

    2003-07-01

    To characterize the long-term behavioral, electroencephalographic (EEG) and histopathologic features after a single TsTx microinjection into the hippocampus of rats. TsTx, 2 microg, or 1 microl of 0.1 M phosphate buffer was injected into the right dorsal hippocampus of the rat. EEG records and behavioral observations were made over a period of 10 h after injection. For a period of 4 months, the animals were observed for the occurrence of convulsive seizures. At the end of the experiment, the brains were processed by the neo-Timm and Nissl methods. After intrahippocampal TsTx injection, three distinct phases were observed: (a) an immediate period that lasted 1 day, during which the motor and electrographic seizures characteristic of status epilepticus (SE) were seen; (b) a silent period (31-49 days), characterized by normal EEG and behavior; and (c) a period of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs). The seizure frequency was one to two per week. Four months after TsTx injection, hippocampal neuronal loss and mossy fiber sprouting in the supragranular layer of the dentate gyrus were observed. The SRSs observed in this study may be associated with the TsTx-induced SE and brain damage. All animals injected with the toxin showed massive pyramidal neuronal loss in the dorsal hippocampus as well as intense gliosis and atrophy. Mossy fiber sprouting in the supragranular layer of the dentate gyrus was observed in those animals that had SRSs. The effects observed may be due, at least in part, to TsTx-enhanced release of glutamate in hippocampal pathways.

  9. Human neural stem cell grafts modify microglial response and enhance axonal sprouting in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daadi, Marcel M; Davis, Alexis S; Arac, Ahmet; Li, Zongjin; Maag, Anne-Lise; Bhatnagar, Rishi; Jiang, Kewen; Sun, Guohua; Wu, Joseph C; Steinberg, Gary K

    2010-03-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury in newborn infants represents a major cause of cerebral palsy, development delay, and epilepsy. Stem cell-based therapy has the potential to rescue and replace the ischemic tissue caused by HI and to restore function. However, the mechanisms by which stem cell transplants induce functional recovery are yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we sought to investigate the efficacy of human neural stem cells derived from human embryonic stem cells in a rat model of neonatal HI and the mechanisms enhancing brain repair. The human neural stem cells were genetically engineered for in vivo molecular imaging and for postmortem histological tracking. Twenty-four hours after the induction of HI, animals were grafted with human neural stem cells into the forebrain. Motor behavioral tests were performed the fourth week after transplantation. We used immunocytochemistry and neuroanatomical tracing to analyze neural differentiation, axonal sprouting, and microglia response. Treatment-induced changes in gene expression were investigated by microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Bioluminescence imaging permitted real time longitudinal tracking of grafted human neural stem cells. HI transplanted animals significantly improved in their use of the contralateral impeded forelimb and in the Rotorod test. The grafts showed good survival, dispersion, and differentiation. We observed an increase of uniformly distributed microglia cells in the grafted side. Anterograde neuroanatomical tracing demonstrated significant contralesional sprouting. Microarray analysis revealed upregulation of genes involved in neurogenesis, gliogenesis, and neurotrophic support. These results suggest that human neural stem cell transplants enhance endogenous brain repair through multiple modalities in response to HI.

  10. Isoflavones extracted from chickpea Cicer arietinum L. sprouts induce mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Ma, Hai-Rong; Gao, Yan-Hua; Zhang, Xue; Habasi, Madina; Hu, Rui; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2015-02-01

    Isoflavones are important chemical components of the seeds and sprouts of chickpeas. We systematically investigated the effects of isoflavones extracted from chickpea sprouts (ICS) on the human breast cancer cell lines SKBr3 and Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7). 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays showed that ICS (10-60 µg/mL) significantly inhibited the proliferation of both cell lines in a time-dependent and dose-dependent fashion. Wright-Giemsa staining as well as annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide (Annexin V/PI) staining showed that ICS significantly increased cytoclasis and apoptotic body formation. Quantitative Annexin V/PI assays further showed that the number of apoptotic cells increased in a dose-dependent manner following ICS treatment. Semiquantitative reverse transcription PCR showed that ICS increased the expression of the apoptosis-promoting gene Bcl-2-associated X protein and decreased the expression of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2. Western blot analysis showed that treatment of SKBr3 and MCF-7 cells with ICS increased the expression of caspase 7, caspase 9, P53, and P21 in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry assays using the fluorescent probe 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide showed a dose-dependent decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential following ICS treatment. Treatment using ICS also induced a dose-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species production. This is the first study to demonstrate that ICS may be a chemopreventive or therapeutic agent against breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. By Different Cellular Mechanisms, Lymphatic Vessels Sprout by Endothelial Cell Recruitment Whereas Blood Vessels Grow by Vascular Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; McKay, Terri L.; Leontiev, Dmitry; Condrich, Terence K.; DiCorleto, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    The development of effective vascular therapies requires the understanding of all modes of vessel formation contributing to vasculogenesis, angiogenesis (here termed hemangiogenesis) and lymphangiogenesis. We show that lymphangiogenesis proceeds by blind-ended vessel sprouting via recruitment of isolated endothelial progenitor cells to the tips of growing vessels, whereas hemangiogenesis occurs by non-sprouting vessel expansion from the capillary network, during middevelopment in the quail chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Blood vessels expanded out of capillaries that displayed transient expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA), accompanied by mural recruitment of migratory progenitor cells expressing SMA. Lymphatics and blood vessels were identified by confocal/fluorescence microscopy of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, alphaSMA (expressed on CAM blood vessels but not on lymphatics), homeobox transcription factor Prox-1 (specific to CAM lymphatic endothelium), and the quail hematopoetic/vascular marker, QH-1. Expression of VEGFR-1 was highly restricted to blood vessels (primarily capillaries). VEGFR-2 was expressed intensely in isolated hematopoietic cells, lymphatic vessels and moderately in blood vessels. Prox-1 was absent from endothelial progenitor cells prior to lymphatic recruitment. Although vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF(sub 165)) is a key regulator of numerous cellular processes in hemangiogenesis and vasculogenesis, the role of VEGF(sub 165) in lymphangiogenesis is less clear. Exogenous VEGF(sub 165) increased blood vessel density without changing endogenous modes of vascular/lymphatic vessel formation or marker expression patterns. However, VEGF(sub 165) did increase the frequency of blood vascular anastomoses and strongly induced the antimaturational dissociation of lymphatics from blood vessels, with frequent formation of homogeneous lymphatic networks.

  12. Avaliação da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde de cortadores de cana-de-açúcar nos períodos de entressafra e safra Evaluación de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud de cortadores de caña de azúcar en los períodos de entre-cosecha y cosecha Assessment of health-related quality of life of sugarcane cutters in the pre-harvest and harvest periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Soares de Carvalho Junior

    2012-12-01

    al período de cosecha en el dominio vitalidad. Los trabajadores que permanecieron en la cosecha presentaron peores aspectos sociales, mostrando la necesidad de promoción de políticas asistencialistas de salud a dicha población específica, principalmente durante la cosecha de caña.OBJECTIVE: To assess health-related quality of life in sugarcane cutters. METHODS: Longitudinal study conducted in a sugar and ethanol plant located in the western region of the State of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil from April (pre-harvest to October (harvest 2010. A total of 44 sugarcane cutters, smokers and non-smokers, was evaluated in three periods: pre-harvest, at the end of the third month during harvest and at the end of harvest. Health-related quality of life was assessed by the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36. Analysis of variance for repeated measures and the Friedman test were performed to compare quality of life among the periods. To identify the frequency of workers whose score increased in the harvest periods compared to pre-harvest (positive responders, the Goodman test was used, considering the qualitative variables of the SF-36 domains. RESULTS: At the end of pre-harvest, 23% workers drop out of work; 27% were smokers. There was a significant decrease in the vitality domain at the end of harvest compared to pre-harvest. The dropouts presented higher score in the social aspect domain compared to the group that remained working. There was no difference in health-related quality of life between smokers and non-smokers. However, there was a higher percentage of positive responders among non-smokers in the physical, social and emotional domains in the third month of harvest and in the general health status and social domains at the end of harvest, compared to smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Health-related quality of life in sugarcane cutters was reduced after the harvest period in the vitality domain. The individuals who remained working during

  13. Aplicações pré-colheita de cálcio na qualidade pós-colheita de maçãs 'Fuji' Pre-harvest applications of calcium in post-harvest quality of 'Fuji' apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes números de aplicações de cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2 no pomar, durante a formação do fruto, sobre as qualidades físico-químicas de maçãs 'Fuji', após o armazenamento em atmosfera controlada (AC. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições e 12 frutos por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: controle, três, seis e nove aplicações de CaCl2 (0,6%. O armazenamento em AC se deu na condição de 1,2kPa de O2 e 0,0kPa de CO2 durante 9,5 meses, a -0,5°C. A produção de etileno e respiração foi avaliada aos seis dias, a 20°C, e os outros parâmetros foram avaliados aos sete dias de exposição à temperatura de 20°C. O número de aplicações de CaCl2 não interfere na acidez titulável e respiração dos frutos. Nove aplicações proporcionam maior firmeza de polpa e menor incidência de podridões. A incidência de podridões apresentou relação inversa com a firmeza de polpa. O aumento no número de aplicações de CaCl2 diminui a produção de etileno e aumenta o teor sólidos solúveis totais (SST de maçãs 'Fuji' após 9,5 meses em AC.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different numbers of calcium chloride (CaCl2 application in the orchard during the fruit formation on the physico-chemical qualities of 'Fuji' apples after storage in controlled atmosphere (CA. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with five replications of 12 fruit. The evaluated treatments were: control, three, six and 9 applications of CaCl2 (0.6%. Fruits were stored in AC with 1.2kPa of O2 and 0.0kPa of CO2 during 9.5 months at -0.5°C. The production of ethylene and respiration were measured at the 6th day at 20°C and the other parameters after 7 days exposure at 20°C. The number of CaCl2 applications did not influence the acidity and fruit respiration. Nine applications provide greater flesh

  14. Decepa de plantas jovens de eucalipto e manejo de brotações, em um sistema agroflorestal Juvenile eucalypt plant coppicing and sprout management in agroforestry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Valadão Cacau

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de decepa de plantas jovens de eucalipto, para produção de árvores de menor diâmetro, com colheita facilitada por pequenos produtores; ou para recuperação de povoamentos jovens severamente danificados e produção de biomassa para energia em ciclos curtos. O experimento foi conduzido em sistema agroflorestal, com espaçamento entre plantas de 9,5x4 m. O crescimento de plantas intactas foi comparado ao de brotações de decepas realizadas aos nove ou doze meses após plantio. Aos seis ou nove meses após a decepa, realizou-se a desbrota, para deixar dois ou três brotos por cepa. Quando a desbrota foi realizada aos 12 meses após a decepa, todos os brotos dominantes foram deixados. Um tratamento sem desbrota também foi avaliado. Aos 42 meses após plantio, o tratamento sem desbrota apresentou o mesmo número de brotos por cepa que o de plantas desbrotadas para três brotos. O diâmetro das brotações foi equivalente a 69% do valor estimado para as plantas intactas. O valor assintótico de produção das brotações, da maioria dos tratamentos de decepa aos nove meses, foi igual ao das plantas intactas, o que evidencia a viabilidade da decepa sem a realização da desbrota, em sistemas agroflorestais.This study aimed to evaluate juvenile eucalypt clone plant coppicing, in order to obtain small diameter logs, in the first rotation, which facilitates harvesting by small farmers; or to recover damaged young stands and to produce biomass for energy in short rotations. The experiment was carried out in an agroforestry system with 9.5x4 m spacing. Intact plant growth was compared to sprout growth from coppicing at nine and twelve months after planting. At six or nine months after coppicing, sprout thinning was carried out to leave two or three sprouts per stump. When thinning was done after 12 months of coppicing, all dominant sprouts were left. A treatment without thinning was also evaluated. Forty

  15. Combined EGFR- and notch inhibition display additive inhibitory effect on glioblastoma cell viability and glioblastoma-induced endothelial cell sprouting in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staberg, Mikkel; Michaelsen, Signe Regner; Stobbe Olsen, Marie-Louise;

    2016-01-01

    aimed at testing a combination treatment strategy using inhibitors targeting the notch and EGFR pathways. METHODS: For evaluation of cell viability a standard MTT assay was used. Western blotting (WB) and Q-RT-PCR were employed in order to assess the protein- and mRNA expression levels, respectively....... In order to determine angiogenic processes, we used an endothelial spheroid sprouting assay. For assessment of secreted VEGF from GBM cells we performed a VEGF-quantikine ELISA. RESULTS: GBM cells were confirmed to express EGFR and Notch and to have the capacity to induce endothelial cell sprouting....... Inhibition of EGFR and Notch signaling was achieved using either Iressa (gefitinib) or the gamma-secretase inhibitor DAPT. Our data showed that DAPT combined with Iressa treatment displayed increased inhibitory effect on cell viability and abrogated expression and activation of major pro-survival pathways...

  16. Neuroprotective Effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla in Kainic Acid-Induced Epileptic Seizures by Modulating Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Sprouting, Neuron Survival, Astrocyte Proliferation, and S100B Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsiang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR, which is a traditional Chinese medicine, has anticonvulsive effect in our previous studies, and the cellular mechanisms behind this are still little known. Because of this, we wanted to determine the importance of the role of UR on kainic acid- (KA- induced epilepsy. Oral UR for 6 weeks can successfully attenuate the onset of epileptic seizure in animal tests. Hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting dramatically decreased, while neuronal survival increased with UR treatment in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas. Furthermore, oral UR for 6 weeks significantly attenuated the overexpression of astrocyte proliferation and S100B proteins but not γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA receptors. These results indicate that oral UR for 6 weeks can successfully attenuate mossy fiber sprouting, astrocyte proliferation, and S100B protein overexpression and increase neuronal survival in KA-induced epileptic rat hippocampus

  17. Gibberellin-induced inhibition and promotion of sprouting in aerial tubers of Begonia evansiana Andr. in relation to photoperiodic treatment and tuber stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagami, N; Esashi, Y; Nagao, M

    1977-01-01

    Gibberellic-acid (GA3) treatment, when applied within a period ranging from the start of short-day (SD) treatment until about 10 SD, GA3 strongly inhibited formation of aerial tubers in response to SD and brought about sprouting of developing aerial tubers. In contrast, when applied after about 10 SD or more, GA3 hastened the completion of the dormant state in the tubers and prolonged their dormancy. The dormancy-promoting effect of GA3 on detached tubers increased with their degree of maturation. Application of growth retardants N-dimethylaminosuccinamic acid (B-9), 2-isopropyl-4-dimethylamino-5-methylphenyl-1-piperidine carboxylate methyl chloride (AMO-1618) and 2-chloroethyltrimethylammonium chloride (CCC) to the cuttings delayed the onset of dormancy in the aerial tuber. When the retardants were applied to detached aerial tubers, however, such a delay of dormancy was not observed, and GA3 application did not inhibit sprouting in aerial tubers detached from CCC-treated cuttings.

  18. Quantification of the In Vitro Radiosensitivity of Mung Bean Sprout Elongation to 6MV X-Ray: A Revised Target Model Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu Hwei Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, a revised target model for quantifying the in vitro radiosensitivity of mung bean sprout elongation to 6-MV X-rays was developed. The revised target model, which incorporated the Poisson prediction for a low probability of success, provided theoretical estimates that were highly consistent with the actual data measured in this study. The revised target model correlated different in vitro radiosensitivities to various effective target volumes and was successfully confirmed by exposing mung beans in various elongation states to various doses of 6-MV X-rays. For the experiment, 5,000 fresh mung beans were randomly distributed into 100 petri dishes, which were randomly divided into ten groups. Each group received an initial watering at a different time point prior to X-ray exposure, resulting in different effective target volumes. The bean sprouts were measured 70 hr after X-ray exposure, and the average length of the bean sprouts in each group was recorded as an index of the mung bean in vitro radiosensitivity. Mung beans that received an initial watering either six or sixteen hours before X-ray exposure had the shortest sprout length, indicating that the maximum effective target volume was formed within that specific time period. The revised target model could be also expanded to interpret the "two-hit" model of target theory, although the experimental data supported the "one-hit" model. If the "two-hit" model was sustained, theoretically, the target size would be 2.14 times larger than its original size to produce the same results.

  19. Parallel comparative studies on the toxic effects of unmodified CdTe quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, and carbon nanodots on live cells as well as green gram sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanchao; Feng, Duan; Shi, Wen; Li, Xiaohua; Ma, Huimin

    2013-11-15

    By using confocal fluorescence microscopy and direct visualization, a parallel comparative investigation has been systematically made on the relative toxicity of three common nanomaterials, such as unmodified CdTe quantum dots (QDs), Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) and carbon nanodots (C-dots), to live cells as well as green gram sprouts. Bare CdTe QDs exert the most toxic effect on a variety of cell lines (HeLa, MCF-7, NIH/3T3 cells) as well as live plants (green gram sprouts). For cells, this toxic effect leads to the partial death of cells, the decrease of cell metabolic activity, the shrinkage of cells, the breakage of chromatin, the damage of cell membrane integrity, and the fragmentation of mitochondria; for green gram sprouts, the presence of CdTe QDs markedly inhibits their growth. Moreover, the toxic behaviors of CdTe QDs are dose- and time-dependent. Under the same conditions, Au NPs only decrease the metabolic activity of cells to a small extent, and do not affect the appearance of cellular/subcellular structures and the plant growth; interestingly, C-dots exert no obvious toxicity to both live cells and the growth of green gram sprouts, showing good biocompatibility. These parallel comparative studies clearly reveal that the relative toxicity of the three nanomaterials in their native forms is bare CdTe QDs>Au NPs>C-dots, whose IC50 values for normal NIH/3T3 cells are 0.98 μg/mL, 62 μg/mL, and >250 μg/mL, respectively. This quantitative information is of great importance for right choice of the nanomaterials in their practical applications.

  20. A molecular approach to pre-harvest impact on post-harvest quality of trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Hyldig, Grethe; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch;

    damage in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Needle disrupted muscle tissue was sampled at different time points and subject to real-time RT-PCR for measuring the expression of the genes IL-1ß, IL-8, IL-10, TGF-ß, Myostatin-1ab, MMP-2, CTGF, Collagen-1alfa, VEGF, iNOS, Arg-2 and FGF. The results showed...

  1. Special aspects of ecological farm management on pre-harvest food safety in meat and milk

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmann, Gerold

    2001-01-01

    Consumer expect organic food as safe and healthy. The standards of organic farming are able to prevent contaminations and diseases effecting human health direct and indirect: · Direct food safety means the prohibition of specific production and processing inputs. Organic farming is minimising the use of external inputs (positive lists), the prohibition of synthetic fertilisers, pesticids, preservatives and additives, no GMOs and irradiation, no human waste water slurry (heavy methals, che...

  2. Pre-Harvest light intensity affects shelf-Life of fresh-cut lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkowska, I.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    The industry of fresh-cut produce is continuously growing due to increasing demand for fresh, healthy and convenient foods. However, processing of vegetables accelerates quality deterioration due to structural, physiological and biochemical changes. Therefore, the value of the produce to the consume

  3. Mitigation strategies for Campylobacter spp. in broiler at pre-harvest and harvest level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Günter; Jansen, Wiebke; Kittler, Sophie; Reich, Felix

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to other foodborne zoonotic agents an elimination of Campylobacter spp. from animal production, especially poultry production, seems not to be feasible. Therefore mitigation strategies focus on reduction of the Campylobacter spp. concentration in primary production and further minimalisation during processing. In primary production biosecurity measures (incl. hygiene barriers and restricted access) are the methods applied most commonly and most effectively so far. Experimental approaches and few field trials also showed that bacteriophages, electrolyzed oxidizing water, organic acids or medium chain fatty acids (applied via drinking water) are also effective in reducing Campylobacter prevalence and/or concentration However this reduction cannot be transferred in all cases to the situation in the slaughterhouse. Therefore additional measures have to be taken in account in the slaughterhouse to prevent cross-contamination. Logistic or scheduled slaughter can prevent cross-contamination but cannot further reduce Campylobacter concentration. Process parameters like elevated scalding temperature can contribute to such a reduction, but may also alter the product quality. Therefore no single pre- or harvest measure is sufficient for the reduction of Campylobacter concentration, but a combination of measures in both production levels is needed.

  4. Pre-harvest surveillance of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Danish broiler flocks: a 2-year study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Gradel, K.O.; Jorgensen, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    In national surveillance programmes of broiler flocks carried out in Denmark during 1998 and 1999, 89,110 samples for Campylobacter representing 8911 broiler flocks were taken at 10 different abattoirs, and 44,550 samples for Salmonella were taken from the same flocks in the broiler houses...... at the farms. Of the swabs, 42.5% were Campylobacter positive. Most positive samples were found during July, August and September, while the lowest number of positive samples were found during January, February, March and April. Of the flocks, 5.5% were Salmonella positive, but no seasonal variation...... was observed. For each flock, the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella was recorded in order to estimate the possible correlation between colonisation with the two pathogens. In conclusion, no significant effects on intensive cleaning and disinfection procedures on Campylobacter occurrence could...

  5. Direct antioxidant activity of purified glucoerucin, the dietary secondary metabolite contained in rocket (Eruca sativa Mill.) seeds and sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillari, Jessica; Canistro, Donatella; Paolini, Moreno; Ferroni, Fiammetta; Pedulli, Gian Franco; Iori, Renato; Valgimigli, Luca

    2005-04-01

    Rocket (Eruca sativa Mill. or Eruca vesicaria L.) is widely distributed all over the world and is usually consumed fresh (leafs or sprouts) for its typical spicy taste. Nevertheless, it is mentioned in traditional pharmacopoeia and ancient literature for several therapeutic properties, and it does contain a number of health promoting agents including carotenoids, vitamin C, fibers, flavonoids, and glucosinolates (GLs). The latter phytochemicals have recently gained attention as being the precursors of isothiocyanates (ITCs), which are released by myrosinase hydrolysis during cutting, chewing, or processing of the vegetable. ITCs are recognized as potent inducers of phase II enzymes (e.g., glutathione transferases, NAD(P)H:quinone reductase, epoxide hydrolase, etc.), which are important in the detoxification of electrophiles and protection against oxidative stress. The major GL found in rocket seeds is glucoerucin, GER (108 +/- 5 micromol g(-)(1) d.w.) that represents 95% of total GLs. The content is largely conserved in sprouts (79% of total GLs), and GER is still present to some extent in adult leaves. Unlike other GLs (e.g., glucoraphanin, the bio-precursor of sulforaphane), GER possesses good direct as well as indirect antioxidant activity. GER (and its metabolite erucin, ERN) effectively decomposes hydrogen peroxide and alkyl hydroperoxides with second-order rate constants of k(2) = 6.9 +/- 0.1 x 10(-)(2) M(-)(1) s(-)(1) and 4.5 +/- 0.2 x 10(-)(3) M(-)(1) s(-) , respectively, in water at 37 degrees C, thereby acting as a peroxide-scavenging preventive antioxidant. Interestingly, upon removal of H(2)O(2) or hydroperoxides, ERN is converted into sulforaphane, the most effective inducer of phase II enzymes among ITCs. On the other hand, ERN (and conceivably GER), like other ITCs, does not possess any chain-breaking antioxidant activity, being unable to protect styrene from its thermally (37 degrees C) initiated autoxidation in the presence of AMVN. The mechanism

  6. Codominance of Acer saccharum and Fagus grandifolia: the role of Fagus root sprouts along a slope gradient in an old-growth forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Koichi; Arii, Ken; Lechowicz, Martin J

    2010-09-01

    We studied how the unusual capacity of mature Fagus grandifolia to form clumps of clonal stems from root sprouts can contribute to its frequent codominance with Acer saccharum in southern Quebec, Canada. In an old-growth forest, the degree of dominance by the two species shifted along topographic gradients spanning a few hundreds of meters, with Fagus more frequent on lower slopes and Acer on upper slopes. The frequency distribution of Fagus stem diameter had an inverse J distribution at all slope positions, which is indicative of continuous recruitment. Acer stem diameter also had an inverse J pattern, except at lower slope positions where size structure was discontinuous. For stems Fagus regenerated mainly by sprouts at the upper and mid-slopes, while regeneration from seed was more pronounced on the lower slope. This change of regeneration mode affected the spatial pattern of Fagus stems. Understory trees of Fagus were positively correlated with conspecific canopy trees on upper and mid-slopes, but not on lower slopes where Fagus regenerated mainly by seedlings. Understory trees of Acer were positively correlated with conspecific canopy trees only on the mid-slope. There were many Fagus seedlings around Acer canopy trees at the lower slope, suggesting the potential replacement of Acer canopy trees by Fagus. This study suggests that the regeneration traits of the two species changed with slope position and that Fagus patches originating from root sprouts can contribute to the maintenance of Acer-Fagus codominance at the scale of local landscapes.

  7. Growth-inducing effects of argon plasma on soybean sprouts via the regulation of demethylation levels of energy metabolism-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiao Jiao; Jo, Jin Oh; Huynh, Do Luong; Mongre, Raj Kumar; Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Singh, Amit Kumar; Lee, Sang Baek; Mok, Young Sun; Hyuk, Park; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of argon plasma on the growth of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] sprouts and investigate the regulation mechanism of energy metabolism. The germination and growth characteristics were modified by argon plasma at different potentials and exposure durations. Upon investigation, plasma treatment at 22.1 kV for 12 s maximized the germination and seedling growth of soybean, increasing the concentrations of soluble protein, antioxidant enzymes, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as well as up-regulating ATP a1, ATP a2, ATP b1, ATP b2, ATP b3, target of rapamycin (TOR), growth-regulating factor (GRF) 1-6, down-regulating ATP MI25 mRNA expression, and increasing the demethylation levels of the sequenced region of ATP a1, ATP b1, TOR, GRF 5, and GRF 6 of 6-day-old soybean sprouts. These observations indicate that argon plasma promotes soybean seed germination and sprout growth by regulating the demethylation levels of ATP, TOR, and GRF.

  8. Stem girdling evidences a trade-off between cambial activity and sprouting and dramatically reduces plant transpiration due to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis and hormone signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana eLópez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthesis source-sink relationship in young Pinus canariensis seedlings was modified by stem girdling to investigate sprouting and cambial activity, feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, and stem and root hydraulic capacity. Removal of bark tissue showed a trade-off between sprouting and diameter growth. Above the girdle, growth was accelerated but the number of sprouts was almost negligible, whereas below the girdle the response was reversed. Girdling resulted in a sharp decrease in whole plant transpiration and root hydraulic conductance. The reduction of leaf area after girdling was strengthened by the high levels of ABA found in buds which pointed to stronger bud dormancy, preventing a new needle flush. Accumulation of sugars in leaves led to a coordinated reduction in net photosynthesis (AN and stomatal conductance (gS in the short term, but later (gS below 0.07 mol m-2 s-1 AN decreased faster. The decrease in maximal efficiency of photosystem II (FV/FM and the operating quantum efficiency of photosystem II (ΦPSII in girdled plants could suggest photoprotection of leaves, as shown by the vigorous recovery of AN and ΦPSII after reconnection of the phloem. Stem girdling did not affect xylem embolism but increased stem hydraulic conductance above the girdle. This study shows that stem girdling affects not only the carbon balance, but also the water status of the plant.

  9. Stem girdling evidences a trade-off between cambial activity and sprouting and dramatically reduces plant transpiration due to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis and hormone signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rosana; Brossa, Ricard; Gil, Luis; Pita, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The photosynthesis source-sink relationship in young Pinus canariensis seedlings was modified by stem girdling to investigate sprouting and cambial activity, feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, and stem and root hydraulic capacity. Removal of bark tissue showed a trade-off between sprouting and diameter growth. Above the girdle, growth was accelerated but the number of sprouts was almost negligible, whereas below the girdle the response was reversed. Girdling resulted in a sharp decrease in whole plant transpiration and root hydraulic conductance. The reduction of leaf area after girdling was strengthened by the high levels of abscisic acid found in buds which pointed to stronger bud dormancy, preventing a new needle flush. Accumulation of sugars in leaves led to a coordinated reduction in net photosynthesis (AN) and stomatal conductance (gS) in the short term, but later (gS below 0.07 mol m(-2) s(-1)) AN decreased faster. The decrease in maximal efficiency of photosystem II (FV/FM) and the operating quantum efficiency of photosystem II (ΦPSII) in girdled plants could suggest photoprotection of leaves, as shown by the vigorous recovery of AN and ΦPSII after reconnection of the phloem. Stem girdling did not affect xylem embolism but increased stem hydraulic conductance above the girdle. This study shows that stem girdling affects not only the carbon balance, but also the water status of the plant.

  10. Comparison of Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Flavonoid-Rich Common and Tartary Buckwheat Sprout Extracts in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 and Peritoneal Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Gyu Nam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat sprouts have been widely consumed all around world due to their great abundance of bioactive compounds. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoid-rich common buckwheat sprout (CBS and tartary buckwheat sprout (TBS extracts were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages and primary peritoneal macrophages from male BALB/c mice. Based on the reversed-phase HPLC analysis, the major flavonoids in CBS were determined to be C-glycosylflavones (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin, quercetin-3-O-robinobioside, and rutin, whereas TBS contained only high amounts of rutin. The TBS extract exhibited higher inhibitory activity as assessed by the production of proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide and cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin- (IL- 6, and IL-12 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages than CBS extract. In addition, TBS extract suppressed nuclear factor-kappa B activation by preventing inhibitor kappa B-alpha degradation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, the TBS extract markedly reduced LPS-induced cytokine production in peritoneal macrophages. Taken together, these findings suggest that TBS extract can be a potential source of anti-inflammatory agents that may influence macrophage-mediated inflammatory disorders.

  11. 我国芽苗菜生产现状及发展对策研究%The Production Status and Development Strategies of Sprouts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗哲; 李德远; 苏丹; 葛政委

    2015-01-01

    介绍芽苗菜的生产现状,指出我国芽苗菜在发展过程中存在食品安全风险较高、能耗大、货架期短等问题,提出了相应的发展对策,包括改善生产环境,规范市场管理,研发新型栽培技术和品种等,并展望了芽苗菜的应用前景.%The production status of sprouts is introduced in this article , the problems existed in the process of developing the sprouts are pointed out in china , including high food safety risk , large energy consumption , short shelf life and so on. Corresponding development strategies are put forward , including improving the production environment, standardizing the market management, developing new cultivation technology and varieties and so on. The application prospect of sprouts is looked forward.

  12. Microbiological quality of selected ready-to-eat leaf vegetables, sprouts and non-pasteurized fresh fruit-vegetable juices including the presence of Cronobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold-Pluta, Anna; Garbowska, Monika; Stefańska, Ilona; Pluta, Antoni

    2017-08-01

    Bacteria of the genus Cronobacter are emerging food-borne pathogens. Foods contaminated with Cronobacter spp. may pose a risk to infants or adults with suppressed immunity. This study was aimed at determining the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) plant-origin food products available on the Polish market with special emphasis on the prevalence of Cronobacter genus bacteria. Analyses were carried out on 60 samples of commercial RTE type plant-origin food products, including: leaf vegetables (20 samples), sprouts (20 samples) and non-pasteurized vegetable, fruit and fruit-vegetable juices (20 samples). All samples were determined for the total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and for the presence of Cronobacter spp. The isolates of Cronobacter spp. were subjected to genetic identification and differentiation by 16S rDNA sequencing, PCR-RFLP analysis and RAPD-PCR and evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility by the disk diffusion assay. The TAMB count in samples of lettuces, sprouts and non-pasteurized fruit, vegetable and fruit-vegetable juices was in the range of 5.6-7.6, 6.7-8.4 and 2.9-7.7 log CFU g(-1), respectively. The presence of Cronobacter spp. was detected in 21 (35%) samples of the products, including in 6 (30%) samples of leaf vegetables (rucola, lamb's lettuce, endive escarola and leaf vegetables mix) and in 15 (75%) samples of sprouts (alfalfa, broccoli, small radish, lentil, sunflower, leek and sprout mix). No presence of Cronobacter spp. was detected in the analyzed samples of non-pasteurized fruit, vegetable and fruit-vegetable juices. The 21 strains of Cronobacter spp. isolated from leaf vegetable and sprouts included: 13 strains of C. sakazakii, 4 strains of C. muytjensii, 2 strains of C. turicensis, one strain of C. malonaticus and one strain of C. condimenti. All isolated C. sakazakii, C. muytjensii, C. turicensis and C. malonaticus strains were sensitive to ampicillin, cefepime, chloramphenicol, gentamycin

  13. 花生芽低温乳化肠的研究开发%Research and development of peanut sprout low temperature emulsion sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴广辉; 毕韬韬; 张学全

    2016-01-01

    花生芽中不仅含有丰富的蛋白质、脂肪、维生素、矿物质等营养成分,还含有丰富的白藜芦醇,把花生芽添加到低温乳化肠中开发出新的产品,有利于扩大花生芽豆的应用范围,丰富我国肠类制品的种类。本实验对低温乳化肠中添加花生芽进行了研究,经单因素和正交试验确定花生低温乳化肠的最佳配方为:猪肉55%,花生芽8%,大豆蛋白5%、玉米淀粉6%、卡拉胶0.5%、复合磷酸盐0.5%、食盐2.5%、香辛料1%、味精0.3%、白糖2%、红曲红色素0.05%、冰水19%。%Peanut sprout not only contained abundant nutritional components of protein, fat, vita-mins and minerals, but also had abundant resveratrol.The peanut sprout was added to low temperature e-mulsion sausage to develop new products, which was beneficial to enlarge the application range of peanut sprout bean, and enrich species of sausage products in our country.The low temperature emulsion sau-sage which peanut sprout was added in was studied.Through the single factor and orthogonal experiment, the optimum formula of low temperature peanut emulsion sausage was determined.The formula was:pork 55%, peanut sprout 8%, soybean protein 5%, corn starch 8%, carrageenan0 .5%, compound phos-phate 0.5%, salt 2.5%, spices 1%, monosodium glutamate 0.3%, sugar 2%, monascus red pigment 0 .05%and ice water 19%.

  14. Neuroprotective Effect of Brassica oleracea Sprouts Crude Juice in a Cellular Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Masci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available β-Amyloid peptide (Aβ aberrant production and aggregation are major factors implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, causing neuronal death via oxidative stress. Several studies have highlighted the importance of polyphenolic antioxidant compounds in the treatment of AD, but complex food matrices, characterized by a different relative content of these phytochemicals, have been neglected. In the present study, we analyzed the protective effect on SH-SY5Y cells treated with the fragment Aβ25–35 by two crude juices of broccoli sprouts containing different amounts of phenolic compounds as a result of different growth conditions. Both juices protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death as evidenced by cell viability, nuclear chromatin condensation, and apoptotic body formation measurements. These effects were mediated by the modulation of the mitochondrial function and of the HSP70 gene transcription and expression. Furthermore, the juices upregulated the intracellular glutathione content and mRNA levels or activity of antioxidant enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1, thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, and NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 via activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2. Although the effects of the two juices were similar, the juice enriched in phenolic compounds showed a greater efficacy in inducing the activation of the Nrf2 signalling pathway.

  15. Sprouted innervation into uterine transplants contributes to the development of hyperalgesia in a rat model of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Stacy L; Dmitrieva, Natalia; Berkley, Karen J

    2012-01-01

    Endometriosis is an enigmatic painful disorder whose pain symptoms remain difficult to alleviate in large part because the disorder is defined by extrauteral endometrial growths whose contribution to pain is poorly understood. A rat model (ENDO) involves autotransplanting on abdominal arteries uterine segments that grow into vascularized cysts that become innervated with sensory and sympathetic fibers. ENDO rats exhibit vaginal hyperalgesia. We used behavioral, physiological, and immunohistochemical methods to test the hypothesis that cyst innervation contributes to the development of this hyperalgesia after transplant. Rudimentary sensory and sympathetic innervation appeared in the cysts at two weeks, sprouted further and more densely into the cyst wall by four weeks, and matured by six weeks post-transplant. Sensory fibers became abnormally functionally active between two and three weeks post-transplant, remaining active thereafter. Vaginal hyperalgesia became significant between four and five weeks post-transplant, and stabilized after six to eight weeks. Removing cysts before they acquired functional innervation prevented vaginal hyperalgesia from developing, whereas sham cyst removal did not. Thus, abnormally-active innervation of ectopic growths occurs before hyperalgesia develops, supporting the hypothesis. These findings suggest that painful endometriosis can be classified as a mixed inflammatory/neuropathic pain condition, which opens new avenues for pain relief. The findings also have implications beyond endometriosis by suggesting that functionality of any transplanted tissue can be influenced by the innervation it acquires.

  16. Sprouted innervation into uterine transplants contributes to the development of hyperalgesia in a rat model of endometriosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy L McAllister

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is an enigmatic painful disorder whose pain symptoms remain difficult to alleviate in large part because the disorder is defined by extrauteral endometrial growths whose contribution to pain is poorly understood. A rat model (ENDO involves autotransplanting on abdominal arteries uterine segments that grow into vascularized cysts that become innervated with sensory and sympathetic fibers. ENDO rats exhibit vaginal hyperalgesia. We used behavioral, physiological, and immunohistochemical methods to test the hypothesis that cyst innervation contributes to the development of this hyperalgesia after transplant. Rudimentary sensory and sympathetic innervation appeared in the cysts at two weeks, sprouted further and more densely into the cyst wall by four weeks, and matured by six weeks post-transplant. Sensory fibers became abnormally functionally active between two and three weeks post-transplant, remaining active thereafter. Vaginal hyperalgesia became significant between four and five weeks post-transplant, and stabilized after six to eight weeks. Removing cysts before they acquired functional innervation prevented vaginal hyperalgesia from developing, whereas sham cyst removal did not. Thus, abnormally-active innervation of ectopic growths occurs before hyperalgesia develops, supporting the hypothesis. These findings suggest that painful endometriosis can be classified as a mixed inflammatory/neuropathic pain condition, which opens new avenues for pain relief. The findings also have implications beyond endometriosis by suggesting that functionality of any transplanted tissue can be influenced by the innervation it acquires.

  17. Effect of high pressure processing and storage on the free amino acids in seedlings of Brussels sprouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba Orellana, Francisco Jose; Poojary, Mahesha Manjunatha; Wang, Jia

    2017-01-01

    The potential of high pressure (HP) to affect the content of free amino acids (FAA) using seedlings of Brussels sprouts as a simple non-chopped vegetable system was examined. Firstly, the effect on FAA composition during growth was assessed and it was found that the composition of total free amino...... acids (TFAA) and individual FAA changed dramatically during growth of the seeds to the seedling at 7 days with the highest content of TFAA. Secondly, 7-day-old seedlings were HP-treated at various pressure levels (200–800 MPa for 3 min at 5 °C). As expected the HP-treatment did not affect the amino......, His, Ile, Lys, Thr, and Val) concluding that the short pressure time (3 min) was insufficient to activate indigenous proteolytic enzymes. Furthermore, changes in the FAA content and composition of HP-treated seedlings during storage (0, 1, 2, and 4 days at 4 ± 2 °C) were evaluated in order to assess...

  18. Biomassa da rebrota de copas de pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke em plantios sob sombra parcial em floresta primária Canopy sprouting biomass of rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke in an Amazonian terra firme forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Barbosa Sampaio

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo propõe uma nova metodologia de exploração do pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke em substituição ao método tradicional, predatório, de corte raso. Avaliando-se a biomassa da rebrota de copas (galhos e folhas e de cepas cortadas a 1 m de altura do solo, será possível inferir sobre o manejo de plantios visando maximizar a produção de óleo essencial desta espécie. Os plantios estão localizados na Reserva Florestal Adolph Ducke, Manaus, Brasil. Treze anos após a poda das copas e do corte das árvores a 1 m do solo, o peso seco da rebrota da copa (39,5 kg foi significativamente superior ao peso seco de galhos e folhas das árvores testemunha (23 kg e da rebrota das cepas (13,7 kg, revelando que a poda da copa estimulou maior produtividade de galhos e folhas das árvores do plantio. Como o peso do fuste representou 85,5% da média do peso total das árvores e a produtividade de óleo é diretamente proporcional á biomassa aérea, a exploração atual é predominantemente feita através do corte raso das árvores. A alta capacidade de rebrota da copa e o maior rendimento de óleo a partir de galhos e folhas em relação à madeira, no entanto, indicam que o manejo dos plantios desta espécie poderá ser feito através da poda da copa das árvores, evitando a destruição total das árvores e uma possível extinção da espécie.The aim of this study is to develop a new management technique in rosewood trees (Aniba roseodora Ducke to replace the traditional clear-cut method. The biomass of branches and leaves originated by sprouting is used to estimate oil productivity, focusing on the silvicultural management of this species. The plantation is located at the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, Manaus, Brazil. The biomass of branches and leaves was quantified 13 years after the first pruning. The average dry weight of tree canopy sprouts (39.5 kg was greater than the control (23 kg. That is one indication that the canopy pruning

  19. 尾巨桉萌芽林土壤种子库特征分析%Studies on the Characteristics of Soil Seed Banks of Eucalyptus urophylla × E.grandis Sprout Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宇林; 唐庆兰; 陆绍锋; 张照远; 刘建

    2012-01-01

    The soil seed bank of Eucalyptus urophyllaxE. Grandis sprout forest and Castanopsis fissa mixed forest were investigated and the characteristics of soil seed bank were studied using the method of seed germination. The results showed that the rule of seed germination was the same in different soil layers. The seeds entered germination peak period from the 7th day, then to slow period followed by end period from the 19th day. The seed density of soil seed banks in E. Urophylla x E. Grandis sprout forest was 7 356 grain/m2, significantly higher than that of control (3 614 grain/m2). A total of 8 species, belonging to 7 families, among which Microstegium ciliatum was the dominant species (accounted for 95.8% of total soil seed bank) was identified. More than 80% of the seeds were stored in the litter layer and 0~5 cm soil layer. The ecological dominance index of soil seed banks in E. Urophylla x E. Grandis sprout forest was obviously higher than that of C. Fissa mixed forest, but the Margalef richness index (R), Shannon-Wiener index (H'), Pielou evenness index (E), Simpson index (D) were lower than that of C. Fissa mixed forest.%对尾巨桉萌芽林和大叶栎杂木林土壤种子库进行了取样调查,采用种子萌发试验研究了不同森林类型的土壤种子库特征.结果表明,各土壤层种子萌发的规律基本一致,大约从第7天开始进入种子萌发高峰期,第19天后进入缓慢萌发期,至最后停止萌发;土壤种子库种子密度尾巨桉萌芽林(7 356粒/m2)显著高于对照大叶栎杂木林(3 614粒/m2).尾巨桉萌芽林土壤种子库共计物种8种,分属于7科,其中以禾本科的刚莠竹为优势种,占土壤种子库总量的95.8%;种子库垂直分布格局显示,80%以上的种子储存在枯枝落叶层和0~5 cm的土壤中.尾巨桉萌芽林土壤种子库具有较高的生态优势度指数,但Margalef丰富度指数、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Simpson多样性指数、Pielou均匀度指数及

  20. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ageing induces changes in the proteome and antioxidants associated with the sprouting pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaplace, Pierre; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Sergeant, Kjell; Dierick, Jean-François; Oufir, Mouhssin; van der Wal, Froukje; America, Antoine H P; Renaut, Jenny; Hausman, Jean-François; du Jardin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    During post-harvest storage, potato tubers age as they undergo an evolution of their physiological state influencing their sprouting pattern. In the present study, physiological and biochemical approaches were combined to provide new insights on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée) tuber ageing. An increase in the physiological age index (PAI) value from 0.14 to 0.83 occurred during storage at 4 degrees C over 270 d. Using this reference frame, a proteomic approach was followed based on two-dimensional electrophoresis. In the experimental conditions of this study, a marked proteolysis of patatin occurred after the PAI reached a value of 0.6. In parallel, several glycolytic enzymes were up-regulated and cellular components influencing protein conformation and the response to stress were altered. The equilibrium between the 20S and 26S forms of the proteasome was modified, the 20S form that recycles oxidized proteins being up-regulated. Two proteins belonging to the cytoskeleton were also differentially expressed during ageing. As most of these changes are also observed in an oxidative stress context, an approach focused on antioxidant compounds and enzymes as well as oxidative damage on polyunsaturated fatty acids and proteins was conducted. All the changes observed during ageing seemed to allow the potato tubers to maintain their radical scavenging activity until the end of the storage period as no accumulation of oxidative damage was observed. These data are interpreted considering the impact of reactive oxygen species on the development and the behaviour of other plant systems undergoing ageing or senescence processes.

  1. Lovastatin modulates glycogen synthase kinase-3β pathway and inhibits mossy fiber sprouting after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yao Lee

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to assay the effect of lovastatin on the glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β and collapsin responsive mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2 signaling pathway and mossy fiber sprouting (MFS in epileptic rats. MFS in the dentate gyrus (DG is an important feature of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE and is highly related to the severity and the frequency of spontaneous recurrent seizures. However, the molecular mechanism of MFS is mostly unknown. GSK-3β and CRMP-2 are the genes responsible for axonal growth and neuronal polarity in the hippocampus, therefore this pathway is a potential target to investigate MFS. Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus animal model was taken as our researching material. Western blot, histological and electrophysiological techniques were used as the studying tools. The results showed that the expression level of GSK-3β and CRMP-2 were elevated after seizure induction, and the administration of lovastatin reversed this effect and significantly reduced the extent of MFS in both DG and CA3 region in the hippocampus. The alteration of expression level of GSK-3β and CRMP-2 after seizure induction proposes that GSK-3β and CRMP-2 are crucial for MFS and epiletogenesis. The fact that lovastatin reversed the expression level of GSK-3β and CRMP-2 indicated that GSK-3β and CRMP-2 are possible to be a novel mechanism of lovatstain to suppress MFS and revealed a new therapeutic target and researching direction for studying the mechanism of MFS and epileptogenesis.

  2. Evaluation of the toxicity of selenium from hydroponically produced selenium-enriched kale sprout in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantiratikul, Anut; Borisuth, Lalita; Chinrasri, Orawan; Saenthaweesuk, Nattanan; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee; Thosaikham, Witphon; Sriart, Noppong; Chantiratikul, Piyanete

    2016-05-01

    Hydroponically produced Se-enriched kale sprouts (HPSeKS) are studied for their use as an alternative dietary Se supplement for poultry. The study experimented with different levels and sources of Se to determine toxicity and how the toxicity may affect productive performance, Se concentration in egg and tissues, and physiological responses of laying hens. One-hundred and twenty hens, 59 weeks of age, were divided into 5 groups. Each group consisted of 4 replicates and each replicate had 6 birds according to a 2 × 2 + 1 Augmented Factorial Experiment in a Completely Randomized Design. The experiment was conducted over a 4 week period, and 5 dietary treatments (T) were used: T1 basal diet, T2 and T3 basal diet plus 5 and 10mg Se/kg from sodium selenite (SS), T4 and T5 basal diet plus 5 and 10mg Se/kg from HPSeKS, respectively. The results make clear that Se from HPSeKS, at 5-10mg/kg, did not affect (P>0.05) feed intake and egg production; however, Se bioavailability decreased (P<0.05). Egg, tissue and plasma Se concentrations, and GSH-Px activity in red blood cells increased (P<0.05) compared to those in T1. Final body weight, feed intake, Se bioavailability, concentration of Se in breast muscle and plasma of hens fed Se from SS were lower (P<0.05) than those of hens fed Se from HPSeKS. The findings demonstrate that dietary Se from HPSeKS at 5-10mg/kg is not considered a toxic level for laying hens. The toxicity of Se from HPSeKS was less than the toxicity of Se from SS.

  3. Survival of murine norovirus, Tulane virus, and hepatitis A virus on alfalfa seeds and sprouts during storage and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Hirneisen, Kirsten A; Markland, Sarah M; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2013-11-01

    Human norovirus (huNoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) have been involved in several produce-associated outbreaks and identified as major food-borne viral etiologies. In this study, the survival of huNoV surrogates (murine norovirus [MNV] and Tulane virus [TV]) and HAV was investigated on alfalfa seeds during storage and postgermination. Alfalfa seeds were inoculated with MNV, TV, or HAV with titers of 6.46 ± 0.06 log PFU/g, 3.87 ± 0.38 log PFU/g, or 7.01 ± 0.07 log 50% tissue culture infectious doses (TCID50)/g, respectively. Inoculated seeds were stored for up to 50 days at 22°C and sampled during that storage period on days 0, 2, 5, 10, and 15. Following storage, virus presence was monitored over a 1-week germination period. Viruses remained infectious after 50 days, with titers of 1.61 ± 0.19 log PFU/g, 0.85 ± 0.21 log PFU/g, and 3.43 ± 0.21 log TCID50/g for MNV, TV, and HAV, respectively. HAV demonstrated greater persistence than MNV and TV, without a statistically significant reduction over 20 days (seed planting. Results revealed the persistence of viruses in seeds for a prolonged period of time, and perhaps of greater importance these data suggest the ease of which virus may transfer from seeds to sprouts and spent water during germination. These findings highlight the importance of sanitation and prevention procedures before and during germination.

  4. 米心水青冈种群萌条更新与高度生长%Sprouting and height in a Fagus engeriana population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵睿; 周学峰; 徐娜娜; 赵明水; 刘亮; 陈小勇

    2009-01-01

    Resprouting plays an important role in the regeneration of many tree species, especially in disturbed habitats. It was suggested that there is a trade-off between sprouting and height growth. This hypothesis was previously tested by comparing the heights of sprouters and its non-sprouting congeners. However, differences in life history and other biological characteristics may invalidate such a comparison. In this paper, we try to test such a hypothesis in Fagus engleriana and to understand the effect of resprouting on demography. We investigated characteristics of Fagus engleriana individuals from a community in Tianmushan. We compared the heights of single and multi-stem individuals with similar diameter at breast height (DBH) as well the heights of mature individuals of the similar size with few and abundant stems. We also quantified the sprouting characteristics and their relationship with height and DBH of the largest individual. Positive relationship was found between number of stems and DBH of the largest stem. No significant difference was found in height between single and multi-stem individuals, also between mature individuals with few and abundant stems, indicating that there is no trade-off between sprouting and height growth in F. engleriana. Positive relationship was found between height and number of stems. Negative relationship was found between variation coefficient of the largest three stem and number of stems, indicating that difference among the largest three stems decreased with increasing number of stems, due to photosynthesis of each stem. Size of the studied population was much larger at the ramet level than that at the genet level. Almost all seedling, saplings and small individuals were formed by sprouting, indicating that sprouting plays a critical role in the regeneration of the F. engleriana population in Tianmushan.%萌条是许多木本植物更新的重要方式,尤其是在干扰生境中.有种观点认为萌条需要消耗大量

  5. Research Progress on the Radiosensitivity of Legume Crops for Sprouting%芽用豆科作物的辐射敏感性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖伶俐; 康玉凡

    2011-01-01

    芽菜专用豆科作物优良品种的缺乏已成为制约我国现代芽菜产业快速发展的瓶颈.辐射诱变具有安全简便经济、突变频率高、变异性状稳定早等特点,可缩短育种年限,创造新的基因型,是现代作物育种的重要方法之一;作物辐射敏感性评价研究,是辐射育种的前提和基础,对芽用豆科作物辐射敏感性的研究有助于提高辐射育种的效率.文章从大豆、绿豆、蚕豆、豌豆、小豆、苜蓿、花生等芽用豆科作物辐射敏感性评定指标(当代植株生长发育、农艺性状、生理生化特性、细胞及遗传物质变化等)、品种间辐射敏感性强弱、辐射敏感性的分析方法、品种间辐射敏感性差异机制的研究进展以及运用芽用豆科作物辐射敏感性对辐射处理方法进行改进方面进行了阐述,并对芽用豆科作物辐射敏感性研究前景进行了探讨,以期为芽用豆科作物的辐射育种提供理论与技术支持.%The lack of good legume crops for sprouting has become the choke point of the rapid developing of sprout industry in China. Irradiation breeding is an important breeding method. Besides safe, convenient, and economic, radiation mutation could cause high mutation frequency and make the mutative traits stable early. So it can shorten breeding time and create new genotype. Mutation breeding is an effective method in selecting and breeding legume crop varieties for sprouting. Radiosensitivity research is the premise and foundation of irradiation breeding. Radiosensitivity research of legume crops for sprouting could improve its breeding efficiency. This paper stated the research progress of the radiosensitivity indexes, radiosensitivity differences among varieties, the analyse method of radiosensitivity, the mechanism of radiosensitivity among varieties, and the improvement of radiation treatment method. This paper also discussed the research prospect of radiosensitivity of legume crops

  6. Chaotic electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus - mossy fiber sprouting, epileptic seizures, and brain electrical activity in pentylenetetrazol-kindled rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenggen Chen; Chunhui Che; Huapin Huang; Changyun Liu; Xiaoyun Zhuang; Fang Jiang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that appropriate interventions can alter brain electrical activity of epileptic patients prior to and during a seizure, leading to maintenance of a highly chaotic state, thereby inhibiting abnormal epileptic discharges, and eventually controlling epileptic seizure. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to observe the effects of chaotic electrical stimulation to the subthalamic nucleus on mossy fiber sprouting, epileptic seizures, and electrical discharges, and to summarize the most suitable intervention. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: This randomized grouping, neuroelectrophysiological study was performed at the Laboratory of Neurology, Union Hospital Affiliated to Fujian Medical University in September 2007.MATERIALS: Fifty-five healthy, male, Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to an epileptic model by an intraperitoneal injection of pentylenetetrazol. The YC-2 programmed electrical stimulator was provided by Chengdu Instrument Factory, China; the video electroencephalographic system (KT-88-2400) and 24-hour active electroencephalographic system were products of Contec Medical System Co., Ltd., China; pentylenetetrazol was purchased from Sigma, USA.METHODS: The present interventional method consisted of electrical stimulation to the subthalamic nucleus with an intensity of 500 μ A, pulse width 0.05 ms, frequency 30 Hz, and a duration of 20 minutes for 14 successive days. Fifty-five rats were divided into 6 groups: (1) pre-stimulation (n = 10), pentylenetetrazol was administered and 30 minutes later, chaotic electrical stimulation was performed; (2) synchronous stimulation (n = 10), rats received pentylenetetrazol and chaotic electrical stimulation concurrently; (3) post-administration stimulation (n = 10), after pentylenetetrazol administration, chaotic electrical stimulation was performed immediately after cessation of a seizure; (4) sham-stimulation (n = 10), following pentylenetetrazol administration, an electrode was

  7. The observation of mossy fiber sprouting in hippocampus zone of rat eoilepsy models induced by pilocarpine%匹鲁卡品癫痫模型慢性期大鼠海马苔藓纤维出芽的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽丽; 黄靓妹; 詹红艳; 曹亦宾

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the onset of rots epilepsy after pilocarpine injection and mossy fiber sprouting in hippocampus zone. Methods 60 rats were randomly divided into two groups: epilepsy group and control group, 30 rats in each group. The neuronal damage, mossy fiber sprouting were detected by Nissl and neo-Timm staining. The ECG was performed in the day of experiment for all the rats. Results After the rats were injected with pilocarpine,93% of them developed epilepsy,and most of them showed spontaneous onset during the chronic period. Timm stainning results showed that there was a significant difference in the neuron deletion in epilepsy group between CA3 region and dentate hilus region, and between CA3 region and CA1 region ( P <0.05 ) ,and there was a significant difference in silver staining granules scoring of mossy fiber sprouting between epilepsy group and control group ( P < 0.05 ). Conclusion The epilepsy models can be induced by pilocarpine injection in rots,with basic pathological characteristics of human epilepsy, which is a useful and simple way for studying epilepsy.%目的 观察腹腔注射匹鲁卡品后大鼠痫性发作及海马苔藓出芽.方法 Wistra大鼠60只随机分为模型组和对照组,每组30只,均进行Nissl染色及Timm银染.并于实验当天行脑电图检查.结果 腹腔注射匹鲁卡品后大鼠可见急性癫痫发作,观察慢性期自发性发作.Nissl染色示模型组各区评分两两比较,结果 示CA3、门区与CA1区神经元缺失差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).Timm银染示2组苔藓纤维出芽Timm银染颗粒评分比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 腹腔注射匹鲁卡品简单复制了人类癫痫的基本病理特征,是研究癫痫的一种简便方法.

  8. The effect of growth regulators on the healthiness, growth and sprouting of inflorescence shoot of lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Borkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out under greenhouse conditions on lettuce cv. Ilanka. Seeds were sown in January 1982 and 1984. Lettuce was cultivated to middle of June up to full flowering time. It was found that the preparation fenoprop (2,4,5-trichlorofenoxypropionic acid as a dimethylamine salt in concentrations of 10, 20 and 50 mg·dm-3 significantly decreased latex tipburn symptoms. Fenoprop increased the healthiness of the plants because treated plants were also less attacked by grey mould Botritis sp. Fenoprop also inhibited head formation in lettuce, but the weight of these plants was never smaller than control ones. Sometimes the weight of plants treated with fenoprop was significantly higher than of the control plants. Lettuce plants without heads had bolted earlier. Only the concentration of 100 mg·dm-3 of fenoprop retarded plant growth. The effect of K-NAA (potassium salt of α-naphthaleneacetic acid on lettuce was weaker than the effect of fenoprop. After K-NAA treatment at a concentration of 25 mg·dm-3, lettuce plants formed normal heads but latex tipburn symptoms were retarded.

  9. Shining Light on the Sprout of Life: Optogenetics Applications in Stem Cell Research and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzapour Delavar, Hadi; Karamzadeh, Arezou; Pahlavanneshan, Saghar

    2016-06-01

    Optogenetics is the integration of genetics and optics to achieve gain or loss of function of well-defined events in specific cells of living tissue. As a versatile tool, upon light illumination, it allows fast control of precisely defined events in biological systems from single cell to different parts of whole tissue in freely moving animals. Taking advantage of this method, a multitude of studies have been published to understand brain functions and dysfunctions. Although from the beginning, it has been used to target neurons within the neural networks and to understand how specific neurons contribute to brain function, it gradually has been extended to other fields of biology such as stem cell research and therapy. With a combination of optogenetics and stem cells, new opportunities were opened up in stem cell biology and also its integration in new circuit as a cell-based treatment strategy for more common disorders like neurodegenerative and cardiovascular one. Recently, some studies showed that engineered stem cells expressing exogenous light-activated opsins can be used in stem cell biology including tracking the differentiation of stem cells, functional analysis of embryonic stem cell-derived graft, and testing the functional integration of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons. With the advent of non-invasive approach, such as transcranial excitation or inhibition, optogenetics also holds promise for non-invasive control of engineered stem cell.

  10. Preparation of amino acid-based polymer functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as adsorbents for analysis of plant growth regulators in bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shilei; Qi, Li; Li, Nan; Wang, Minglin

    2016-09-01

    A novel magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbent has been developed for enriching two plant growth regulators, including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA), in bean sprouts. For preparing the MSPE adsorbent, poly(N-methacryloyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (P(MA-L-Phe-OMe)), amino acid-based polymer, was modified onto the magnetic nanoparticles via "grafting to" method by free radical polymerization. The resultant P(MA-L-Phe-OMe)-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe)) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The adsorption amount of Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe) nanoparticles to 2,4-D and 4-CPA were 39.82mgg(-1) and 29.02mgg(-1), respectively. Moreover, the prepared MSPE adsorbents showed good selectivity towards 2,4-D and 4-CPA due to the hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic forces between the target analytes and Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe). The results demonstrated that the proposed MSPE adsorbents have high affinity to the targets 2,4-D and 4-CPA. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed materials were successfully applied to enrich 2,4-D and 4-CPA in bean sprouts samples. The recovery values of the bean sprouts solution spiked the targets were from 90.9% to 96.4% with the relative standard deviations of 2.3-3.9%. Our work proved that the novel Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe) nanoparticles were the good adsorbents of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) and have good potential for the analysis of trace compound in real samples.

  11. Suppression subtractive hybridization and comparative expression of a pore-forming toxin and glycosyl hydrolase genes in Rhizoctonia solani during potato sprout infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoun, Rony; Samsatly, Jamil; Pakala, Suman B; Cubeta, Marc A; Jabaji, Suha

    2015-06-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes black scurf on tubers and stem and stolon canker on underground parts of potato plant. Early in the season, the fungus attacks germinating sprouts underground before they emerge from the soil. Damage at this stage results in delayed emergence of weakened plants with poor and uneven stands. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon has been investigated in this study by coupling a cDNA-suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library to differential screening to identify transcripts of R. solani that are down-regulated during infection of potato sprouts. We report on the identification of 33 unique genes with functions related to carbohydrate binding, vitamin synthesis, pathogenicity, translation, ATP and nucleic acid binding and other categories. RACE-PCR was used to clone and characterize the first full-length cDNA clones, RSENDO1 and RSGLYC1 that encode for an eukaryotic delta-endotoxin CytB protein and an intracellular glycosyl hydrolase, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed the down-regulation of RSENDO1 during infection of potato sprouts and the up-regulation of RSGLYC1 when the fungus was grown on a cellulose-based nutrient medium. In contrast, additional experiments have highlighted the down-regulation of RSENDO1 when R. solani was co-cultured with the mycoparasite Stachybotrys elegans and the bacterial antagonist Bacillus subtilis B26. These results advance our understanding of R. solani-potato interaction in subterranean parts of the plant. Such approaches could be considered in building an efficient integrated potato disease management program.

  12. Applications of immunomagnetic capture and time-resolved fluorescence to detect outbreak Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shu-I.; Gordon, Marsha; Fett, William F.; Gehring, Andrew G.; Irwin, Peter L.

    2004-03-01

    Commercially available alfalfa seeds were inoculated with low levels (~ 4 CFU/g) of pathogenic bacteria. The inoculated seeds were then allowed to sprout in sterile tap water at 22°C. After 48 hours, the irrigation water and sprouts were separately transferred to bovine heart infusion (BHI) media. The microbes in the BHI samples were allowed to grow for 4 hours at 37°C and 160 rpm. Specific immunomagnetic beads (IMB) were then applied to capture the E.coli O157 and/or Salmonella in the growth media. Separation and concentration of IMB-captured pathogens were achieved using magnetic separators. The captured E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp were further tagged with europium (Eu) labeled anti-E. coli O157 antibodies and samarium (Sm) labeled anti-Salmonella antibodies, respectively. After washing, the lanthanide labels were extracted out from the complexes by specific chelators to form strongly fluorescent chelates. The specific time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) associated with Eu or Sm was measured to estimate the extent of capture of the E. coli O157 and Salmonella, respectively. The results indicated that the approach could detect E. coli O157 and Salmonella enterica from the seeds inoculated with ~ 4 CFU/g of the pathogens. Non-targeted bacteria, e.g., Aeromonas and Citrobacter exhibited essentially no cross reactivity. Since the pathogen detection from the sprouts was achieved within 6 hours, the developed methodology could be use as a rapid, sensitive and specific screening process for E. coli O157 and Salmonella enterica in this popular salad food.

  13. UV-B irradiation changes specifically the secondary metabolite profile in broccoli sprouts: induced signaling overlaps with defense response to biotic stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewis, Inga; Schreiner, Monika; Nguyen, Chau Nhi; Krumbein, Angelika; Ulrichs, Christian; Lohse, Marc; Zrenner, Rita

    2012-09-01

    Only a few environmental factors have such a pronounced effect on plant growth and development as ultraviolet light (UV). Concerns have arisen due to increased UV-B radiation reaching the Earth's surface as a result of stratospheric ozone depletion. Ecologically relevant low to moderate UV-B doses (0.3-1 kJ m(-2) d(-1)) were applied to sprouts of the important vegetable crop Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli), and eco-physiological responses such as accumulation of non-volatile secondary metabolites were related to transcriptional responses with Agilent One-Color Gene Expression Microarray analysis using the 2×204 k format Brassica microarray. UV-B radiation effects have usually been linked to increases in phenolic compounds. As expected, the flavonoids kaempferol and quercetin accumulated in broccoli sprouts (the aerial part of the seedlings) 24 h after UV-B treatment. A new finding is the specific UV-B-mediated induction of glucosinolates (GS), especially of 4-methylsulfinylbutyl GS and 4-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS, while carotenoids and Chl levels remained unaffected. Accumulation of defensive GS metabolites was accompanied by increased expression of genes associated with salicylate and jasmonic acid signaling defense pathways and up-regulation of genes responsive to fungal and bacterial pathogens. Concomitantly, plant pre-exposure to moderate UV-B doses had negative effects on the performance of the caterpillar Pieris brassicae (L.) and on the population growth of the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Moreover, insect-specific induction of GS in broccoli sprouts was affected by UV-B pre-treatment.

  14. Sympathetic fibre sprouting in the skin contributes to pain-related behaviour in spared nerve injury and cuff models of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Francisney P; Magnussen, Claire; Yousefpour, Noosha; Ribeiro-da-Silva, Alfredo

    2015-09-17

    Cuff and spared nerve injury (SNI) in the sciatic territory are widely used to model neuropathic pain. Because nociceptive information is first detected in skin, it is important to understand how alterations in peripheral innervation contribute to pain in each model. Over 16 weeks in male rats, changes in sensory and autonomic innervation of the skin were described after cuff and SNI using immunohistochemistry to label myelinated (neurofilament 200 positive-NF200+) and peptidergic (calcitonin gene-related peptide positive-CGRP+) primary afferents and sympathetic fibres (dopamine β-hydroxylase positive-DBH+) Cuff and SNI caused an early loss and later reinnervation of NF200 and CGRP fibres in the plantar hind paw skin. In both models, DBH+ fibres sprouted into the upper dermis of the plantar skin 4 and 6 weeks after injury. Despite these similarities, behavioural pain measures were significantly different in each model. Sympathectomy using guanethidine significantly alleviated mechanical allodynia 6 weeks after cuff, when peak sympathetic sprouting was observed, having no effect at 2 weeks, when fibres were absent. In SNI animals, mechanical allodynia in the lateral paw was significantly improved by guanethidine at 2 and 6 weeks, and the development of cold hyperalgesia, which roughly paralleled the appearance of ectopic sympathetic fibres, was alleviated by guanethidine at 6 weeks. Sympathetic fibres did not sprout into the dorsal root ganglia at 2 or 6 weeks, indicating their unimportance to pain behaviour in these two models. Alterations in sympathetic innervation in the skin represents an important mechanism that contributes to pain in cuff and SNI models of neuropathic pain.

  15. Extração e isolamento de alfa-solanina de brotos de batata Extraction and isolation of alpha-solanine from potato sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Soave Spoladore

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh potato sprouts were extracted with 2% aqueous acetic acid for 48 hours. The crude alkaloidal extract was purified by repeating the operation. Precipitation by concentrated ammonium hydroxide, centrifugation, dissolution of the resulting precipitate in 2% acetic acid, till a clear alkaline supernatant was obtained. The alpha-solanine, obtained by this procedure was purified by successive recristalizations with ethyl alcohol. The total yield was about 0.02% of the fresh material, with purity greater than 99%. IR, ¹H and 13C NMR spectra are shown.

  16. UV-B Irradiation Changes Specifically the Secondary Metabolite Profile in Broccoli Sprouts: Induced Signaling Overlaps with Defense Response to Biotic Stressors

    OpenAIRE

    Mewis, Inga; Schreiner, Monika; Nguyen, Chau Nhi; Krumbein, Angelika; Ulrichs, Christian; Lohse, Marc; Zrenner, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Only a few environmental factors have such a pronounced effect on plant growth and development as ultraviolet light (UV). Concerns have arisen due to increased UV-B radiation reaching the Earth’s surface as a result of stratospheric ozone depletion. Ecologically relevant low to moderate UV-B doses (0.3–1 kJ m–2 d–1) were applied to sprouts of the important vegetable crop Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli), and eco-physiological responses such as accumulation of non-volatile secondary m...

  17. PKCε ACTIVATION PROMOTES FGF-2 EXOCYTOSIS AND INDUCES ENDOTHELIAL CELL PROLIFERATION AND SPROUTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Martina; Donnini, Sandra; Morbidelli, Lucia; Giachetti, Antonio; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Mignatti, Paolo; Ziche, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) activation controls fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) angiogenic signaling. Here, we examined the effect of activating PKCε on FGF-2 dependent vascular growth and endothelial activation. ψεRACK, a selective PKCε agonist induces pro-angiogenic responses in endothelial cells, including formation of capillary like structures and cell growth. These effects are mediated by FGF-2 export to the cell membrane, as documented by biotinylation and immunofluorescence, and FGF-2/FGFR1 signaling activation, as attested by ERK1/2-STAT-3 phosphorylation and de novo FGF-2 synthesis. Similarly, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) activates PKCε in endothelial cells, and promotes FGF-2 export and FGF-2/FGFR1 signaling activation. ψεRACK fails to elicit responses in FGF-2−/− endothelial cells, and in cells pretreated with methylamine (MeNH2), an exocytosis inhibitor, indicating that both intracellular FGF-2 and its export toward the membrane are required for the ψεRACK activity. In vivo ψεRACK does not induce angiogenesis in the rabbit cornea. However, ψεRACK promotes VEGF angiogenic responses, an effect sustained by endothelial FGF-2 release and synthesis, since anti-FGF-2 antibody strongly attenuates VEGF responses. The results demonstrate that PKCε stimulation promotes angiogenesis and modulates VEGF activity, by inducing FGF-2 release and autocrine signaling. PMID:23880610

  18. Dawn and Dusk Set States of the Circadian Oscillator in Sprouting Barley (Hordeum vulgare Seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Deng

    Full Text Available The plant circadian clock is an internal timekeeper that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the external environment. The transcript levels of clock genes, which oscillate to control circadian outputs, were examined during early seedling development in barley (Hordeum vulgare, a model for temperate cereal crops. Oscillations of clock gene transcript levels do not occur in barley seedlings grown in darkness or constant light but were observed with day-night cycles. A dark-to-light transition influenced transcript levels of some clock genes but triggered only weak oscillations of gene expression, whereas a light-to-dark transition triggered robust oscillations. Single light pulses of 6, 12 or 18 hours induced robust oscillations. The light-to-dark transition was the primary determinant of the timing of subsequent peaks of clock gene expression. After the light-to-dark transition the timing of peak transcript levels of clock gene also varied depending on the length of the preceding light pulse. Thus, a single photoperiod can trigger initiation of photoperiod-dependent circadian rhythms in barley seedlings. Photoperiod-specific rhythms of clock gene expression were observed in two week old barley plants. Changing the timing of dusk altered clock gene expression patterns within a single day, showing that alteration of circadian oscillator behaviour is amongst the most rapid molecular responses to changing photoperiod in barley. A barley EARLY FLOWERING3 mutant, which exhibits rapid photoperiod-insensitive flowering behaviour, does not establish clock rhythms in response to a single photoperiod. The data presented show that dawn and dusk cues are important signals for setting the state of the circadian oscillator during early development of barley and that the circadian oscillator of barley exhibits photoperiod-dependent oscillation states.

  19. Cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate from Raphanus sativus L. (Kaiware Daikon) sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Alessio; Orlandi, Marina; Bartolini, Giovanna; Barillari, Jessica; Iori, Renato; Paolini, Moreno; Ferroni, Fiammetta; Grazia Fumo, Maria; Pedulli, Gian Franco; Valgimigli, Luca

    2008-02-13

    There is high current interest in the chemopreventive potential of Brassica vegetables (cruciferae), particularly due to their content in glucosinolates (GL), which upon myrosinase hydrolysis release the corresponding isythiocyanates (ITC). Some ITCs, such as sulforaphane (SFN) from broccoli ( Brassica oleacea italica), have been found to possess anticancer activity through induction of apoptosis in selected cell lines, as well as indirect antioxidant activity through induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes. Japanese daikon ( Raphanus sativus L.) is possibly the vegetable with the highest per capita consumption within the Brassicaceae family. Thanks to a recently improved gram scale production process, it was possible to prepare sufficient amounts of the GL glucoraphasatin (GRH) as well as the corresponding ITC 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (GRH-ITC) from its sprouts. This paper reports a study on the cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of GRH-ITC compared with the oxidized counterpart 4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (GRE-ITC) on three human colon carcinoma cell lines (LoVo, HCT-116, and HT-29) together with a detailed kinetic investigation of the direct antioxidant/radical scavenging ability of GRH and GRH-ITC. Both GRH-ITC and GRE-ITC reduced cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis in the three cancer cell lines. The compounds significantly ( p GRH-ITC treatment was shown to have no toxicity with regard to normal human lymphocytes (-15 +/- 5%) in comparison with SFN (complete growth inhibition). GRH and GRH-ITC were able to quench the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, with second-order rate constants of 14.0 +/- 2.8 and 43.1 +/- 9.5 M(-1) s(-1), respectively (at 298 K in methanol), whereas the corresponding value measured here for the reference antioxidant alpha-tocopherol was 425 +/- 40 M (-1) s (-1). GRH reacted with H2O2 and tert-butyl hydroperoxide in water (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C, with rate constants of 1

  20. Compensatory axon sprouting for very slow axonal die-back in a transgenic model of spinal muscular atrophy type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udina, Esther; Putman, Charles T; Harris, Luke R; Tyreman, Neil; Cook, Victoria E; Gordon, Tessa

    2017-03-01

    Smn(+/-) transgenic mouse is a model of the mildest form of spinal muscular atrophy. Although there is a loss of spinal motoneurons in 11-month-old animals, muscular force is maintained. This maintained muscular force is mediated by reinnervation of the denervated fibres by surviving motoneurons. The spinal motoneurons in these animals do not show an increased susceptibility to death after nerve injury and they retain their regenerative capacity. We conclude that the hypothesized immaturity of the neuromuscular system in this model cannot explain the loss of motoneurons by systematic die-back. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common autosomal recessive disorder in humans and is the leading genetic cause of infantile death. Patients lack the SMN1 gene with the severity of the disease depending on the number of copies of the highly homologous SMN2 gene. Although motoneuron death in the Smn(+/-) transgenic mouse model of the mildest form of SMA, SMA type III, has been reported, we have used retrograde tracing of sciatic and femoral motoneurons in the hindlimb with recording of muscle and motor unit isometric forces to count the number of motoneurons with intact neuromuscular connections. Thereby, we investigated whether incomplete maturation of the neuromuscular system induced by survival motoneuron protein (SMN) defects is responsible for die-back of axons relative to survival of motoneurons. First, a reduction of ∼30% of backlabelled motoneurons began relatively late, at 11 months of age, with a significant loss of 19% at 7 months. Motor axon die-back was affirmed by motor unit number estimation. Loss of functional motor units was fully compensated by axonal sprouting to retain normal contractile force in four hindlimb muscles (three fast-twitch and one slow-twitch) innervated by branches of the sciatic nerve. Second, our evaluation of whether axotomy of motoneurons in the adult Smn(+/-) transgenic mouse increases their susceptibility to cell death

  1. AAV-mediated expression of BAG1 and ROCK2-shRNA promote neuronal survival and axonal sprouting in a rat model of rubrospinal tract injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challagundla, Malleswari; Koch, Jan Christoph; Ribas, Vinicius Toledo; Michel, Uwe; Kügler, Sebastian; Ostendorf, Thomas; Bradke, Frank; Müller, Hans Werner; Bähr, Mathias; Lingor, Paul

    2015-07-01

    A lesion to the rat rubrospinal tract is a model for traumatic spinal cord lesions and results in atrophy of the red nucleus neurons, axonal dieback, and locomotor deficits. In this study, we used adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated over-expression of BAG1 and ROCK2-shRNA in the red nucleus to trace [by co-expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)] and treat the rubrospinal tract after unilateral dorsal hemisection. We investigated the effects of targeted gene therapy on neuronal survival, axonal sprouting of the rubrospinal tract, and motor recovery 12 weeks after unilateral dorsal hemisection at Th8 in rats. In addition to the evaluation of BAG1 and ROCK2 as therapeutic targets in spinal cord injury, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility and the limits of an AAV-mediated protein over-expression versus AAV.shRNA-mediated down-regulation in this traumatic CNS lesion model. Our results demonstrate that BAG1 and ROCK2-shRNA both promote neuronal survival of red nucleus neurons and enhance axonal sprouting proximal to the lesion.

  2. Repeated long-term potentiation induces mossy fibre sprouting and changes the sensibility of hippocampal granule cells to subconvulsive doses of pentylenetetrazol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, H; Pohle, W; Rüthrich, H; Brödemann, R; Krug, M

    2000-04-01

    Electrical and chemical kindling induces sprouting of the mossy fibre system and potentiation of evoked field potentials in the dentate gyrus. It has been postulated that such changes may also be induced by repeated induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) with tetanic stimulation of the perforant pathway. LTP was induced in rats chronically implanted with stimulation electrodes in the ipsilateral and contralateral angular bundles and with a recording electrode in the ipsilateral dorsal dentate gyrus. The animals were stimulated 10 times on 10 consecutive days but with different tetanization strengths. Sprouting of the mossy fibres terminating in the CA3 region was significantly induced only in the group of 'strongly' tetanized animals, but not in that of 'weakly' tetanized animals, or in low-frequency stimulated animals. Additionally, a novel form of potentiation which was previously found in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-kindled animals was also observed in the group of 'strongly' and 'weakly' tetanized rats. Differences in duration of this potentiation were found between the two groups of animals tetanized with different strengths. The results further demonstrate that morphological and functional changes in the hippocampus, similar to those seen after kindling, can also occur in an activation paradigm leading to long-lasting synaptic plasticity but not accompanied by seizure activity.

  3. Effects of the sequence wildfire-harvesting-coppice sprout selection on nutrient export via streamfloe in a small E. globulus watershed in Galicia (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, C.; Vega, J. A.; Bara, S.; Alonso, M.; Fonturbel, T.

    2011-07-01

    An experimental study was carried out between 1987 and 1999, to assess the effect of the sequence wildfire-clear felling-coppice sprout selection thinning, on stream flow nutrient export in a Eucalyptus globulus Labill. watershed in Galicia (NW Spain). The effects of such a sequence on nutrient export via stream flow had not been previously evaluated. A wildfire in 1989 caused a significant increase in nutrient exports in stream flow during the following two years. No significant effect was observed the third year after wildfire. After clear felling in 1992, inputs via precipitation compensated for nutrient exports in stream flow, except for K the first year following harvest and NO{sub 3}- during the three years after this operation. Coppice sprout selection thinning in 1995 had less effect on nutrient exports than wildfire or harvest. The results presented here could may help in evaluating the effects of current intensive forest management and perturbations that affect eucalypt stands in NW Spain. (Author) 39 refs.

  4. Techniques of functional sprouting soybean milk with polypeptide%功能性发芽多肽豆乳的生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉; 钱方

    2011-01-01

    To get functional sprouting soybean milk with polypeptide, the soybean is processed as following steps: sprout treatment, heat treatment, hydrolysis with enzyme, nutrient concoction, homogenizing, UHT, etc.This product is abundant in soybean protein, which can be digested and absorbed more easily.Moreover, it contains soybean peptide, Bifidus Factor, essential microelements, vitamin and so on, which make this product one of the best beverages made of plant protein with full nutrient components.%大豆经发芽处理、热处理、酶解、营养调配、均质、灭菌等工艺生产出功能性发芽豆乳.产品具有更易消化吸收的优质大豆蛋白,是富含大豆多肽、双歧因子、微量元素及维生素等全价营养成分的最佳植物蛋白饮品.

  5. Potato Sprout Inhibitor chlorpropham

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The title compound chlorpropham (CAS number: 101-21-3, C10H12ClNO2, Mr = 213.66) was prepared by the addition reaction of 3-chlorophenyl isocyanate with isopropanol. Spectral data, IR, NMR and MS, were reported. This paper provides some related information about Regulatory Status, Toxicological Effects, Ecological Effects and Environmental Fate also.

  6. Sprouting Healthy Kids Promotes Local Produce and Healthy Eating Behavior in Austin, Texas, Middle Schools: Promoting the Use of Local Produce and Healthy Eating Behavior in Austin City Schools. Program Results Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiden, Karyn

    2010-01-01

    The Sustainable Food Center, which promotes healthy food choices, partnered with six middle schools in Austin, Texas, to implement Sprouting Healthy Kids. The pilot project was designed to increase children's knowledge of the food system, their consumption of fruits and vegetables and their access to local farm produce. Most students at these…

  7. Targeted overexpression of the neurite growth-associated protein B-50/GAP-43 in cerebellar Purkinje cells induces sprouting after axotomy but not axon regeneration into growth-permissive transplants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Buffo, A.; Hoftmaat, A.J.; Savio, T.; Verbeek, J.S.; Oberdick, J.; Oestreicher, A.B.; Verhaagen, J.; Rossi, F.; Strata, P.

    1997-01-01

    B-50/GAP-43 is a nervous tissue-specific protein, the expression of which is associated with axon growth and regeneration. Its overexpression in transgenic mice produces spontaneous axonal sprouting and enhances induced remodeling in several neuron populations (; ). We examined the capacity of this

  8. Primary Study on Sprout Regeneration of Mangrove after Logging in Futian,Shenzhen Bay%深圳湾福田红树林砍伐后萌生更新的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢群; 石俊慧; 曾小康; 周凯; 雷安平; 昝启杰

    2013-01-01

    The sprout regeneration of three dominant mangrove species were studied after 4 years of logging in Futian,Shenzhen bay,China.The results showed that the average sprouting number of three mangrove species were as follows:Aegiceras corniculatum (12.4) > Avicennia marina (5.4) > Kandelia candel (4.4).The sprouting rates were 72.73%,67.42% and 20.77% for A.corniculatum,K.candel,and A.marina,respectively.The sprouting ability of different intertidal zones were as follows:high tidal level>middle tidal level>low tidal level,that height of the tidal zone can affect the sprout regeneration of mangrove.The survival and growth rate of sprouting mangrove plant were higher than those of mangrove seeding plant,indicating that sprouting regeneration play a vital role in mangrove community recovery after clear cutting.Additionally,the physiological and ecological of mangrove plant itself may be one of the most important factors which affecting initiation.%采用固定样地定位调查的方法,研究深圳湾福田3种红树植物桐花树Aegiceras corniculatum、秋茄Kandelia candel、白骨壤Avicennia marina伐后萌枝更新对伐迹地早期群落恢复的影响.结果表明:伐后4年时,3种红树植物平均萌生枝数由多到少的顺序为:桐花树(12.4)>白骨壤(5.4)>秋茄(4.4);桐花树的萌生率最大(72.73%),其次为秋茄(67.42%),白骨壤最小(20.77%).滩涂潮位可能影响红树植物的萌生率,不同潮位滩涂上的红树植物萌生率为:内滩>中滩>外滩.红树植物萌生植株较人工种植植株的存活率高,且生长速度较快,表明萌枝更新对砍伐后早期红树林群落的恢复有重要意义.此外,红树植物种类自身的生理生态差异可能是影响萌生的重要因素之一.

  9. Effect of Branch Bending Angle on the Sprouting and Fruiting of Jatropha curcas Plants%拉枝角度对麻疯树萌枝与结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐平; 顾国栋; 安杰; 罗建勋

    2012-01-01

    According to the growth characteristics of Jatropha curcas, the trees in the same experiment plot with similar initial fruit bearing stage, similar tree shape and about the same growth status were sampled to be treated with branch bending before sprouting. Four treatments of branch bending angles were designed, i. e. , the angles between the trunk and the main branches was 50°, 60°, 70° and 80° individually, 4 plants were contained in each treatment and there were 3 replications for each treatment, which were grouped by random block design method. The sprout number and distribution, sprout growth rate and fruiting rate per inflorescence were recorded and statistically analyzed. The results indicated that the angle of branch bending influenced significantly on the sprout number and distribution, the sprout type and the fruit bearing capacity per inflorescence of Jatropha curcas trees.%根据麻疯树的生长特性,在同一试验地选择结果初期、树势基本一致的植株作为研究对象,在其萌发前按主侧枝与主干夹角为50°、60°、70°和80°等4个水平作拉枝处理,每处理4株小区,按随机区组设计3次重复,分别统计萌枝分布、萌枝生长量和花序坐果量,结果表明:拉枝角度对麻疯树萌枝分布、萌枝类型及花序坐果力均有显著影响.

  10. Assessment of control strategies against Cydia pomonella (L. in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraqui Salma El

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L., is the key pest of apple production worldwide. In Morocco, there is a sustainable presence of codling moth causing considerable damage in apple orchards despite frequent applications of broad spectrum insecticides. For 12 years, sexual trapping and chemical control were performed and the development of the codling moth population was analysed in an orchard which was in the region of Azrou. The efficacy of some insecticides (azinphos-methyl, chlorpyriphos-ethyl, diflubenzuron, thiacloprid, methoxyfenozide, spinosad, and deltamethrin was also evaluated on neonate larvae and compared with a laboratory sensitive strain. This procedure was done to assess an eventual resistance in Moroccan populations. The action threshold was usually exceeded, leading to an intensive chemical control, with an average frequency of 9 to 13 days. The chemical control was done according to the action persistence time of the insecticides and the trap captures. However, those two parameters are compromised in Moroccan conditions because of the high summer temperatures which disrupt the action of insecticides and exacerbate populations. The pheromone traps may become ineffective and useless. Neonate larvae were resistant to five insecticides out of seven. Such results suggest the presence of a cross resistance in local strains. Overall, the insect resistance, the functioning of the sexual traps, and some insecticides properties (persistence action, pre-harvest interval are the key factors that could explain the failure to control these moths under Moroccan conditions.

  11. Effects of seed priming, salinity and methyl jasmonate treatment on bioactive composition of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (white and red varieties) sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassini, Ismahen; Baenas, Nieves; Moreno, Diego A; Carvajal, Micaela; Boughanmi, Neziha; Martinez Ballesta, Maria Del Carmen

    2017-06-01

    Brassica spp. sprouts are rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds, especially glucosinolates and phenolic acid derivatives, and the composition of these young germinating seeds can be altered by several external factors. In this study two cabbage varieties (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, red and white) were studied using seed priming (KCl 50 mmol L(-1) ; NaCl 150 mmol L(-1) ) and MeJA spraying (25 µmol L(-1) ) to elicit the phytochemical content of edible sprouts. The red variety was richer in glucosinolates and phenolic compounds than the white one but not in mineral nutrients. Seed priming enhanced the potassium (K) content and flavonols in both varieties, while the total content of glucosinolates was reduced after seed priming only in the red variety. The white variety responded better than the red one to KCl seed priming, increasing the flavonols (89%). Salinity did not induce any change in the phytochemical content of these two varieties. Elicitation with sprayed MeJA was effective in significantly increasing the content of indolic glucosinolates glucobrassicin (5.7-fold) and neoglucobrassicin (9.7-fold) in the red cultivar. In the white variety, in addition to glucobrassicin (19.4-fold) and neoglucobrassicin (9.4-fold), 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin (2.3-fold) was also enhanced. MeJA also elicited significant amounts of anthocyanins (41%) and chlorogenic acid derivatives (329%) in the white variety. KCl seed priming and MeJA elicitation promoted the phytochemical composition of the cabbage varieties, especially in the white variety. The application of NaCl resulted in less efficient elicitation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Extract of buckwheat sprouts scavenges oxidation and inhibits pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages (RAW264.7)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajendra Karki; Cheol-Ho Park; Dong-Wook Kim

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Buckwheat has been considered as a potential source of nutraceutical components on the world market of probiotic foodstuffs.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) sprouts on oxidation and pro-inflammatory mediators.METHODS:The anti-oxidant effects of buckwheat extract (BWE) and rutin were evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-and nitric oxide (NO)-scavenging activities,serum peroxidation and chelating assays.Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were used to evaluate anti-inflammatory activities of buckwheat and rutin.NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells was determined by using Griess reagent.The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS),cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2),nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit in cytosolic and nuclear portions were determined by Western blot analysis.Also,the production of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS:Inhibitory concentration 50 values for DPPH-and NO-scavenging activities of BWE were 24.97 and 72.54 μg/mL respectively.BWE inhibited serum oxidation and possessed chelating activity.Furthermore,BWE inhibited IL-6 and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.Also,BWE inhibited iNOS and COX-2 expression and NF-κB p65 translocation.CONCLUSION:Buckwheat sprouts possessed strong antioxidant activity and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory mediators in the applied model systems.Thus,buckwheat can be suggested to be beneficial in inflammatory diseases by inhibiting the free radicals and inflammatory mediators.

  13. Bioavailability of sulforaphane from two broccoli sprout beverages: Results of a short term, cross-over clinical trial in Qidong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Patricia A.; Chen, Jian Guo; Wang, Jin Bing; Wu, Yan; Sun, Yan; Lu, Jian Hua; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Yong Hui; Chen, Yong Sheng; Friesen, Marlin D.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Muñoz, Alvaro; Ng, Derek; Qian, Geng Sun; Zhu, Yuan Rong; Chen, Tao Yang; Botting, Nigel P.; Zhang, Qingzhi; Fahey, Jed W.; Talalay, Paul; Groopman, John D; Kensler, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    One of several challenges in design of clinical chemoprevention trials is the selection of the dose, formulation and dose schedule of the intervention agent. Therefore, a cross-over clinical trial was undertaken to compare the bioavailability and tolerability of sulforaphane from two of broccoli sprout-derived beverages: one glucoraphanin-rich (GRR) and the other sulforaphane-rich (SFR). Sulforaphane was generated from glucoraphanin contained in GRR by gut microflora or formed by treatment of GRR with myrosinase from daikon (Raphanus sativus) sprouts to provide SFR. Fifty healthy, eligible participants were requested to refrain from crucifer consumption and randomized into two treatment arms. The study design was as follows: 5-day run-in period, 7-day administration of beverages, 5-day washout period, and 7-day administration of the opposite intervention. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry was used to measure levels of glucoraphanin, sulforaphane and sulforaphane thiol conjugates in urine samples collected daily throughout the study. Bioavailability, as measured by urinary excretion of sulforaphane and its metabolites (in approximately 12 hour collections after dosing), was substantially greater with the SFR (mean = 70%) than with GRR (mean = 5%) beverages. Interindividual variability in excretion was considerably lower with SFR than GRR beverage. Elimination rates were considerably slower with GRR allowing for achievement of steady state dosing as opposed to bolus dosing with SFR. Optimal dosing formulations in future studies should consider blends of sulforaphane and glucoraphanin as SFR and GRR mixtures to achieve peak concentrations for activation of some targets and prolonged inhibition of others implicated in the protective actions of sulforaphane. PMID:21372038

  14. Genetic mapping of major-effect seed dormancy quantitative trait loci on chromosome 2B using recombinant substitution lines in tetraploid wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durum wheat cultivars can benefit from having some level of seed dormancy to help reduce seed damage and lower grain quality caused by pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) occurring during wet harvesting conditions. Previously a single chromosome substitution line carrying chromosome 2B of wild emmer in the...

  15. Fbxw7 controls angiogenesis by regulating endothelial Notch activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanae Izumi

    Full Text Available Notch signaling controls fundamental aspects of angiogenic blood vessel growth including the selection of sprouting tip cells, endothelial proliferation and arterial differentiation. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Fbxw7 is part of the SCF protein complex responsible for the polyubiquitination and thereby proteasomal degradation of substrates such as Notch, c-Myc and c-Jun. Here, we show that Fbxw7 is a critical regulator of angiogenesis in the mouse retina and the zebrafish embryonic trunk, which we attribute to its role in the degradation of active Notch. Growth of retinal blood vessel was impaired and the Notch ligand Dll4, which is also a Notch target, upregulated in inducible and endothelial cell-specific Fbxw7(iECKO mutant mice. The stability of the cleaved and active Notch intracellular domain was increased after siRNA knockdown of the E3 ligase in cultured human endothelial cells. Injection of fbxw7 morpholinos interfered with the sprouting of zebrafish intersegmental vessels (ISVs. Arguing strongly that Notch and not other Fbxw7 substrates are primarily responsible for these phenotypes, the genetic inactivation of Notch pathway components reversed the impaired ISV growth in the zebrafish embryo as well as sprouting and proliferation in the mouse retina. Our findings establish that Fbxw7 is a potent positive regulator of angiogenesis that limits the activity of Notch in the endothelium of the growing vasculature.

  16. Genetic architecture of seed longevity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MIAN ABDUR REHMAN ARIF; MANUELA NAGEL; ULRIKE LOHWASSER; ANDREAS BÖRNER

    2017-03-01

    The deterioration in the quality of ex situ conserved seed over time reflects a combination of both physical andchemical changes. Intraspecific variation for longevity is, at least in part, under genetic control. Here, the grain of 183bread wheat accessions maintained under low-temperature storage at the IPK-Gatersleben genebank over somedecades have been tested for their viability, along with that of fresh grain subjected to two standard artificial ageingprocedures. A phenotype–genotype association analysis, conducted to reveal the genetic basis of the observedvariation between accessions, implicated many regions of the genome, underling the genetic complexity of the trait.Some, but not all, of these regions were associated with variation for both natural and experimental ageing, implyingsome non-congruency obtains between these two forms of testing for longevity. The genes underlying longevityappear to be independent of known genes determining dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting.

  17. 番红花种球定量留芽增产效果研究简报%Bulb yield of saffron as influenced by number of seed bulb sprouts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董卫明

    2012-01-01

    为实现番红花球茎高产,提高繁殖率,开展了番红花种球定量留芽田间试验.结果表明:26~30 g的大球茎留3芽、18~25 g的中球茎留2芽、18 g以下的小球茎留1芽为合理留芽量.%In order to improve the bulb yield and reproduction rate of saffron,field experiments with saffron were carried out under different numbers of sprouts reserved on the seed bulb. The result showed that the suitable number of sprouts reserved on the bulb was 3 if the bulb weighed 26 - 30 g,2 if the bulb weighed 18-25 g,and 1 if the bulb weighed less than 18 g.

  18. Biolog Automated Microbes Identification System in the Production of Strains Identified from Yibin Sprouts%Biolog微生物自动鉴定系统对宜宾芽菜生产菌种的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左勇; 鞠帅; 刘利平; 李东; 谢晖; 李杨; 彭述刚

    2012-01-01

    通过对芽菜生产菌种的鉴定,指导芽菜生产,提高产品的风味和品质.采用形态学特征和显微观察,初步得到A、B、C 3株优势菌.经Biolog微生物自动鉴系统鉴定:A菌为浅黄隐球酵母菌,B菌为橙黄红酵母菌B,C菌为木糖葡萄球菌.%In order to guide the bean sprouts production and improve the quality and flavor of the product, we identified producing strains of bean sprouts. Three advantage strains (A, B and C) were preliminarily separated by the observation of morphology and microscopic, and then the result of identified by the Biolog Automated Microbes Identification System Identification as follows: A bacteria was Cryptococcus luteolus, B was Rhodotorula aurantiaca and C was Staphylococcus xylosus.

  19. 荞麦芽提取物抗突变和抑制肿瘤作用的实验研究%Study on antimutangenic andantitumor effect of buckwheat sprout extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国娟; 李善姬; 崔泰花; 崔承弼

    2013-01-01

    对荞麦芽提取物的抗突变和抗肿瘤作用进行研究,为开发荞麦的保健作用提供依据.实验以小鼠骨髓细胞微核实验观察荞麦芽提取物的抗突变作用,以小鼠S-180移植性肿瘤观察荞麦芽提取物的抗肿瘤效果.结果显示,荞麦芽提取物对N-甲基-N-硝基-N-亚硝基胍(MNNG)诱发的小鼠骨髓细胞微核的发生有明显的抑制效果,其中荞麦芽乙醇提取物、乙酸乙酯提取物、正丁醇提取物在80mg/kg度下,对小鼠骨髓微核的抑制率达73.4%、75.8%、74.2%;对小鼠S-180移植性肿瘤生长也有明显的抑制作用,其中荞麦芽乙醇提取物、乙酸乙酯提取物的抑瘤率达39.5%、38.0%.说明荞麦芽对体细胞DNA损伤有保护作用,对肿瘤也有一定的预防作用.%The antimutangenic and antitumor effect of buckwheat sprout extracts were studied to provide scientific basis for exploiting health function of buckwheat sprout.Antimutangenic effect of buckwheat sprout extracts were testified based on the mice bone marrow cell micronuclei test.Antitumor effects of buckwheat sprout extracts were testified based on S-180 tumor cell transplanting test.The micronuclei frequency induced by MNNG in mouse bone marrow cells was inhibited significantly by buckwheat sprout extracts.Under 80mg/kg,buckwheat ethanol extract,ethyl acetate extract and butanol extract on mouse bone marrow micronucleus inhibition rate reached to 73.4%,75.8%,74.2%.Buckwheat sprout extracts on the growth of transplanted tumor of mouse S-180 also had the obvious inhibitory action,including buckwheat sprout ethanol extract,ethyl acetate extract tumor inhibition rate reached to 39.5%,38.0%.Buckwheat sprouts had preventive effect on DNA damage in body cell,and had inhibitory effect on tumor growth.

  20. Assessment of the Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Ready-to-Eat Salads, Fresh-Cut Fruit, and Sprouts from the Swiss Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüesch-Inderbinen, Magdalena; Zurfluh, Kathrin; Peterhans, Sophie; Hächler, Herbert; Stephan, Roger

    2015-06-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) prepacked salads and fruit have been successfully marketed for the last decade in Switzerland and are increasingly important as a component of everyday diets. To determine whether extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are present in RTE salads, fresh-cut fruit, and sprouts on the Swiss market, samples of 238 mixed and unmixed RTE produce from a large production plant and 23 sprout samples from two sprout farms were analyzed. Further, four samples from the production plant's recycled wash water, which is used for crop irrigation, were analyzed. Twelve (5%) of the 238 RTE products and one of the recycled wash water samples yielded ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Strain identification and PCR analysis of the blaESBL genes revealed Kluyvera ascorbata isolated from a tomato sample harboring a blaCTX-M-2-like gene; multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterobacter cloacae detected in a chives sample imported from Spain harboring the clinically important bla(CTX-M-15) gene; and 10 Serratia spp. isolated from mixed salads (bla(FONA-2) and bla(FONA-2)-like genes were found in 6 [60%] and bla(FONA-4)-like and bla(FONA-5)-like genes were each found in 2 [20%] of the isolates). The recycled wash water sample tested positive for one extraintestinal pathogenic MDR Escherichia coli B2:ST131 harboring bla(CTX-M-27) and for one MDR E. coli A:ST88 containing bla(CTX-M-3). None of the sprout samples tested positive for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Overall, the majority of the Enterobacteriaceae detected in Swiss RTE produce were environmental strains producing minor ESBLs. The detection of an isolate producing a clinically important ESBL in a single sample and of an international circulating pathogenic strain (B2:ST131) in recycled wash water highlights the importance of surveillance of fresh produce and of recycled wash water that will be reused for irrigation purposes.

  1. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-Producing Fusarium Species and Reduction of the Fumonisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Johanna F; van Zyl, Willem H; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof, or clay minerals pre- and post-harvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Post-harvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although, the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, post-harvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) production, and storage management, together with

  2. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-producing Fusarium species and Reduction of the Fumonisins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Francina Alberts

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof or clay minerals pre- and postharvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Postharvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, postharvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP production and storage management

  3. Speed Control of Bldc Motor Drive By Using Pid Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Narendra Kumar,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly deals with the Brushless DC (BLDC motor speed driving systems have sprouted in various small scale and large scale applications like automobile industries, domestic appliances etc. This leads to the development in Brushless DC motor (BLDCM. The usage of BLDC Motor enhances various performance factors ranging from higher efficiency, higher torque in low-speed range, high power density ,low maintenance and less noise than other motors. The BLDC Motor can act as an alternative for traditional motors like induction and switched reluctance motors. In this paper PID controller is implemented with speed feedback loop and it is observe that torque ripples are minimized. Simulation is carried out using MATLAB / SIMULINK. The results show that the performance of BLDC Motor is quite satisfactory for various loading conditions. Brushless DC motor drives are typically employed in speed controlled applications.

  4. Investigation of glucosinolate profile and qualitative aspects in sprouts and roots of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) using LC-ESI-hybrid linear ion trap with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and infrared multiphoton dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agneta, Rosa; Rivelli, Anna Rita; Ventrella, Emanuela; Lelario, Filomena; Sarli, Giulio; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2012-08-01

    Within the family of Brassicaceae, an important source of glucosinolates (GLSs) is represented by horseradish ( Armoracia rusticana P. Gaertner, B. Meyer & Scherbius), cultivated for its roots, which are grated fresh or processed into a sauce and used as a condiment. The characteristic pungent flavor of the root depends on the abundance of the bioactive GLS molecules. In crude plant extracts (sprouts and roots) of an accession of horseradish largely diffused in the Basilicata region (southern Italy), which develops many sprouts and produces white, fiery, and sharp-flavored marketable roots, we characterized the GLS profile by LC-ESI-LTQ-FTICR-MS and IRMPD. In sprouts and roots we identified 16 and 11 GLSs, respectively. We confirmed the presence of sinigrin, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, glucobrassicin, gluconasturtin, and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin and identified glucoiberin, gluconapin, glucocochlearin, glucoconringianin, glucosativin, glucoibarin, 5-hydroxyglucobrassicin, glucocapparilinearisin or glucobrassicanapin, glucotropaeolin, and glucoarabishirsutain, not previously characterized in horseradish. Of particular note was the presence of the putative 2-methylsulfonyl-oxo-ethyl-GLS.

  5. <