WorldWideScience

Sample records for controlling initiation phase

  1. Key parameters controlling OH-initiated formation of secondary organic aerosol in the aqueous phase (aqSOA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervens, Barbara; Sorooshian, Armin; Lim, Yong B.; Turpin, Barbara J.

    2014-04-01

    Secondary organic aerosol formation in the aqueous phase of cloud droplets and aerosol particles (aqSOA) might contribute substantially to the total SOA burden and help to explain discrepancies between observed and predicted SOA properties. In order to implement aqSOA formation in models, key processes controlling formation within the multiphase system have to be identified. We explore parameters affecting phase transfer and OH(aq)-initiated aqSOA formation as a function of OH(aq) availability. Box model results suggest OH(aq)-limited photochemical aqSOA formation in cloud water even if aqueous OH(aq) sources are present. This limitation manifests itself as an apparent surface dependence of aqSOA formation. We estimate chemical OH(aq) production fluxes, necessary to establish thermodynamic equilibrium between the phases (based on Henry's law constants) for both cloud and aqueous particles. Estimates show that no (currently known) OH(aq) source in cloud water can remove this limitation, whereas in aerosol water, it might be feasible. Ambient organic mass (oxalate) measurements in stratocumulus clouds as a function of cloud drop surface area and liquid water content exhibit trends similar to model results. These findings support the use of parameterizations of cloud-aqSOA using effective droplet radius rather than liquid water volume or drop surface area. Sensitivity studies suggest that future laboratory studies should explore aqSOA yields in multiphase systems as a function of these parameters and at atmospherically relevant OH(aq) levels. Since aerosol-aqSOA formation significantly depends on OH(aq) availability, parameterizations might be less straightforward, and oxidant (OH) sources within aerosol water emerge as one of the major uncertainties in aerosol-aqSOA formation.

  2. DNA Replication Control During Drosophila Development: Insights into the Onset of S Phase, Replication Initiation, and Fork Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Brian L.; Orr-Weaver, Terry L.

    2017-01-01

    Proper control of DNA replication is critical to ensure genomic integrity during cell proliferation. In addition, differential regulation of the DNA replication program during development can change gene copy number to influence cell size and gene expression. Drosophila melanogaster serves as a powerful organism to study the developmental control of DNA replication in various cell cycle contexts in a variety of differentiated cell and tissue types. Additionally, Drosophila has provided several developmentally regulated replication models to dissect the molecular mechanisms that underlie replication-based copy number changes in the genome, which include differential underreplication and gene amplification. Here, we review key findings and our current understanding of the developmental control of DNA replication in the contexts of the archetypal replication program as well as of underreplication and differential gene amplification. We focus on the use of these latter two replication systems to delineate many of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the developmental control of replication initiation and fork elongation. PMID:28874453

  3. Towards coherent control of energetic material initiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R Jason [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moore, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Direct optical initiation (DOI) of energetic materials using coherent control of localized energy deposition requires depositing energy into the material to produce a critical size hot spot, which allows propagation of the reaction and thereby initiation, The hot spot characteristics needed for growth to initiation can be studied using quantum controlled initiation (QCI). Achieving direct quantum controlled initiation (QCI) in condensed phase systems requires optimally shaped ultrafast laser pulses to coherently guide the energy flow along the desired paths. As a test of our quantum control capabilities we have successfully demonstrated our ability to control the reaction pathway of the chemical system stilbene. An acousto-optical modulator based pulse shaper was used at 266 nm, in a shaped pump/supercontinuum probe technique, to enhance and suppress th relative yields of the cis- to trans-stilbene isomerization. The quantum control techniques tested in the stilbene experiments are currently being used to investigate QCI of the explosive hexanitroazobenzene (HNAB).

  4. National Aerospace Leadership Initiative - Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Trumpf, Volvo Aerospace. 2.2.6. Virtual Machining for NC Verification Team • CCAT – Brian Kindilien, Matt Lloyd, Nasir Mannan Software...Pegasus Manufacturing, Sterling Engineering, Volvo Aerospace. National Aerospace Leadership InitiativePhase II Final Report 39 of 128... Volvo Aerospace The CCAT-NCAL team worked closely with Volvo Aero to understand their machine tools to be modeled: • Phoenix VTL mill/turn system

  5. Opioid Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) use during the Initial Experience with the IMPROVE PCA Trial: A Phase III Analgesic Trial for Hospitalized Sickle Cell Patients with Painful Episodes

    OpenAIRE

    Dampier, Carlton D.; Smith, Wally R.; Kim, Hae-Young; Wager, Carrie Greene; Bell, Margaret C.; Minniti, Caterina P.; Keefer, Jeffrey; Hsu, Lewis; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan; Mack, A. Kyle; McClish, Donna; McKinlay, Sonja M.; Miller, Scott T.; Osunkwo, Ifeyinwa; Seaman, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Opioid analgesics administered by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) are frequently used for pain relief in children and adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) hospitalized for persistent vaso-occlusive pain, but optimum opioid dosing is not known. To better define PCA dosing recommendations, a multi-center phase III clinical trial was conducted comparing two alternative opioid PCA dosing strategies (HDLI-higher demand dose with low constant infusion or LDHI- lower demand dose and higher const...

  6. Effects of initial spatial phase in radiative neutrino pair emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Minoru; Tsumura, Koji; Sasao, Noboru; Uetake, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Motohiko

    2017-12-01

    We study radiative neutrino pair emission in a deexcitation process of atoms taking into account the coherence effect in a macroscopic target system. In the course of preparing the coherent initial state to enhance the rate, a spatial phase factor is imprinted on the macroscopic target. It is shown that this initial spatial phase changes the kinematics of the radiative neutrino pair emission. We investigate effects of the initial spatial phase in the photon spectrum of the process. It turns out that the initial spatial phase provides us with significant improvements in exploring neutrino physics, such as the Dirac-Majorana distinction and the cosmic neutrino background.

  7. Opioid Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) use during the Initial Experience with the IMPROVE PCA Trial: A Phase III Analgesic Trial for Hospitalized Sickle Cell Patients with Painful Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampier, Carlton D.; Smith, Wally R.; Kim, Hae-Young; Wager, Carrie Greene; Bell, Margaret C.; Minniti, Caterina P.; Keefer, Jeffrey; Hsu, Lewis; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan; Mack, A. Kyle; McClish, Donna; McKinlay, Sonja M.; Miller, Scott T.; Osunkwo, Ifeyinwa; Seaman, Phillip; Telen, Marilyn J.; Weiner, Debra L.

    2015-01-01

    Opioid analgesics administered by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) are frequently used for pain relief in children and adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) hospitalized for persistent vaso-occlusive pain, but optimum opioid dosing is not known. To better define PCA dosing recommendations, a multi-center phase III clinical trial was conducted comparing two alternative opioid PCA dosing strategies (HDLI-higher demand dose with low constant infusion or LDHI- lower demand dose and higher constant infusion) in 38 subjects who completed randomization prior to trial closure. Total opioid utilization (morphine equivalents, mg/kg) in 22 adults was 11.6 ± 2.6 and 4.7 ± 0.9 in the HDLI and in the LDHI arms, respectively, and in 12 children it was 3.7 ± 1.0 and 5.8 ± 2.2, respectively. Opioid-related symptoms were mild and similar in both PCA arms (mean daily opioid symptom intensity score: HDLI 0.9 ± 0.1, LDHI 0.9 ± 0.2). The slow enrollment and early study termination limited conclusions regarding superiority of either treatment regimen. This study adds to our understanding of opioid PCA usage in SCD. Future clinical trial protocol designs for opioid PCA may need to consider potential differences between adults and children in PCA usage. PMID:21953763

  8. Opioid patient controlled analgesia use during the initial experience with the IMPROVE PCA trial: a phase III analgesic trial for hospitalized sickle cell patients with painful episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampier, Carlton D; Smith, Wally R; Kim, Hae-Young; Wager, Carrie Greene; Bell, Margaret C; Minniti, Caterina P; Keefer, Jeffrey; Hsu, Lewis; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan; Mack, A Kyle; McClish, Donna; McKinlay, Sonja M; Miller, Scott T; Osunkwo, Ifeyinwa; Seaman, Phillip; Telen, Marilyn J; Weiner, Debra L

    2011-12-01

    Opioid analgesics administered by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA)are frequently used for pain relief in children and adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) hospitalized for persistent vaso-occlusive pain, but optimum opioid dosing is not known. To better define PCA dosing recommendations,a multi-center phase III clinical trial was conducted comparing two alternative opioid PCA dosing strategies (HDLI—higher demand dose with low constant infusion or LDHI—lower demand dose and higher constant infusion) in 38 subjects who completed randomization prior to trial closure. Total opioid utilization (morphine equivalents,mg/kg) in 22 adults was 11.6 ± 2.6 and 4.7 ± 0.9 in the HDLI andin the LDHI arms, respectively, and in 12 children it was 3.7 ± 1.0 and 5.8 ± 2.2, respectively. Opioid-related symptoms were mild and similar in both PCA arms (mean daily opioid symptom intensity score: HDLI0.9 ± 0.1, LDHI 0.9 ± 0.2). The slow enrollment and early study termination limited conclusions regarding superiority of either treatment regimen. This study adds to our understanding of opioid PCA usage in SCD. Future clinical trial protocol designs for opioid PCA may need to consider potential differences between adults and children in PCA usage.

  9. National Aerospace Leadership Initiative - Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    prior to making any physical changes – in essence, a virtual Kaizen . The plant layouts were completed and the product/process data were formatted for... Kaizens will be supported with this factory modeling technology. Key Players: Tom Scotton (CCAT/NCAL), Jon Fournier (CCAT/NCAL), Dr. Paul...TAKT time and inventory. Within the Excel spreadsheet, an “Improvements” tab was created that contained all the Kaizen bursts from Phase I, as

  10. Initial laboratory evaluation of color video cameras: Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, P.L.

    1993-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has considerable experience with monochrome video cameras used in alarm assessment video systems. Most of these systems, used for perimeter protection, were designed to classify rather than to identify intruders. The monochrome cameras were selected over color cameras because they have greater sensitivity and resolution. There is a growing interest in the identification function of security video systems for both access control and insider protection. Because color camera technology is rapidly changing and because color information is useful for identification purposes, Sandia National Laboratories has established an on-going program to evaluate the newest color solid-state cameras. Phase One of the Sandia program resulted in the SAND91-2579/1 report titled: Initial Laboratory Evaluation of Color Video Cameras. The report briefly discusses imager chips, color cameras, and monitors, describes the camera selection, details traditional test parameters and procedures, and gives the results reached by evaluating 12 cameras. Here, in Phase Two of the report, we tested 6 additional cameras using traditional methods. In addition, all 18 cameras were tested by newly developed methods. This Phase 2 report details those newly developed test parameters and procedures, and evaluates the results.

  11. Interplanetary field and plasma during initial phase of geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, V. L.; Wiskerchen, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    A study has been conducted of a large number of geomagnetic storms occurring during the period from 1966 to 1970. Questions of data selection are discussed and the large-scale interplanetary magnetic field during the initial phase is examined. Small-scale interplanetary fields during the initial phase are also considered, taking into account important features of small-scale variations in the interplanetary field and plasma for three storms. Details concerning 23 geomagnetic storms and the interplanetary magnetic field are presented in a table. A study of the initial phase of these storms indicates that in most of these events, the solar-ecliptic Z component of the interplanetary magnetic field turns southward when the main phase decrease begins.

  12. Three-Phase Power Factor Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Three-Phase Power-Factor Controller develops a control signal for each motor winding. As motor loading decreases, rms value of applied voltage is decreased by feedback-control circuit. Power consumption is therefore lower than in unregulated operation. Controller employs phase detector for each of three phases of delta-connected induction motor. Phase-difference sum is basis for control.

  13. Phase Change Fabrics Control Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Originally featured in Spinoff in 1997, Outlast Technologies Inc. (formerly Gateway Technologies Inc.) has built its entire product line on microencapsulated phase change materials, developed in Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Johnson Space Center after initial development for the U.S. Air Force. The Boulder, Colorado-based company acquired the exclusive patent rights and now integrates these materials into textiles or onto finished apparel, providing temperature regulation in bedding materials and a full line of apparel for both ordinary and extreme conditions.

  14. Control of Initialized Fractional-Order Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartly, Tom T.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    2002-01-01

    Due to the importance of historical effects in fractional-order systems, this paper presents a general fractional-order control theory that includes the time-varying initialization response. Previous studies have not properly accounted for these historical effects. The initialization response, along with the forced response, for fractional-order systems is determined. Stability properties of fractional-order systems are presented in the complex Airplane, which is a transformation of the s-plane. Time responses are discussed with respect to pole positions in the complex Airplane and frequency response behavior is included. A fractional-order vector space representation, which is a generalization of the state space concept, is presented including the initialization response. Control methods for vector representations of initialized fractional-order systems are shown. Nyquist, root-locus, and other input-output control methods are adapted to the control of fractional-order systems. Finally, the fractional-order differintegral is generalized to continuous order-distributions that have the possibility of including a continuum of fractional orders in a system element.

  15. African Tobacco Control Research Initiative Scoping Exercise ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The African Tobacco Situational Analysis (ATSA) supported by IDRC and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation investigated the critical determinants of success for tobacco control in 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. As the initiative evolved an additional goal was added, that of identifying, implementing and enforcing ...

  16. Np Behavior in Synthesized Uranyl Phases: Results of Initial Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Judah I.; Douglas, Matthew; McNamara, Bruce K.; Clark, Sue B.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2004-09-28

    Initial tests were completed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for developing a potential mechanism to retard the mobility of neptunium at the Yucca Mountain repository. Neptunium is of concern because of its mobility in the environment and long half life, contributing a large percentage of the potential dose over extended times at the perimeter of the site. The mobility of neptunium could be retarded by associating with uranium mineral phases. The following four uranium mineral phases were examined and are potential secondary phases expected to form as a result of interactions of spent nuclear fuel with the local environment: meta-schoepite, studtite, uranophane, and sodium boltwoodite. The fate of the neptunium was examined in these synthetic experiments.

  17. Gene networks controlling the initiation of flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, Frank; Riechmann, José L

    2010-12-01

    The onset of flower formation is a key regulatory event during the life cycle of angiosperm plants, which marks the beginning of the reproductive phase of development. It has been shown that floral initiation is under tight genetic control, and deciphering the underlying molecular mechanisms has been a main area of interest in plant biology for the past two decades. Here, we provide an overview of the developmental and genetic processes that occur during floral initiation. We further review recent studies that have led to the genome-wide identification of target genes of key floral regulators and discuss how they have contributed to an in-depth understanding of the gene regulatory networks controlling early flower development. We focus especially on a master regulator of floral initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA1 (AP1), but also outline what is known about the AP1 network in other plant species and the evolutionary implications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Harmonisation Initiatives of Copernicus Data Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, F. D.; Lankester, T.; Coleman, E.; Ottavianelli, G.

    2015-04-01

    The Copernicus Space Component Data Access system (CSCDA) incorporates data contributions from a wide range of satellite missions. Through EO data handling and distribution, CSCDA serves a set of Copernicus Services related to Land, Marine and Atmosphere Monitoring, Emergency Management and Security and Climate Change. The quality of the delivered EO products is the responsibility of each contributing mission, and the Copernicus data Quality Control (CQC) service supports and complements such data quality control activities. The mission of the CQC is to provide a service of quality assessment on the provided imagery, to support the investigation related to product quality anomalies, and to guarantee harmonisation and traceability of the quality information. In terms of product quality control, the CQC carries out analysis of representative sample products for each contributing mission as well as coordinating data quality investigation related to issues found or raised by Copernicus users. Results from the product analysis are systematically collected and the derived quality reports stored in a searchable database. The CQC service can be seen as a privileged focal point with unique comparison capacities over the data providers. The comparison among products from different missions suggests the need for a strong, common effort of harmonisation. Technical terms, definitions, metadata, file formats, processing levels, algorithms, cal/val procedures etc. are far from being homogeneous, and this may generate inconsistencies and confusion among users of EO data. The CSCDA CQC team plays a significant role in promoting harmonisation initiatives across the numerous contributing missions, so that a common effort can achieve optimal complementarity and compatibility among the EO data from multiple data providers. This effort is done in coordination with important initiatives already working towards these goals (e.g. INSPIRE directive, CEOS initiatives, OGC standards, QA4EO

  19. Ribosomal crystallography: from crystal growth to initial phasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thygesen, J.; Krumbholz, S.; Levin, I.; Zaytzev-Bashan, A.; Harms, J.; Bartels, H.; Schlünzen, F.; Hansen, H. A. S.; Bennett, W. S.; Volkmann, N.; Agmon, I.; Eisenstein, M.; Dribin, A.; Maltz, E.; Sagi, I.; Morlang, S.; Fua, M.; Franceschi, F.; Weinstein, S.; Böddeker, N.; Sharon, R.; Anagnostopoulos, K.; Peretz, M.; Geva, M.; Berkovitch-Yellin, Z.; Yonath, A.

    1996-10-01

    Preliminary phases were determined by the application of the isomorphous replacement method at low and intermediate resolution for structure factor amplitudes collected from crystals of large and small ribosomal subunits from halophilic and thermophilic bacteria. Derivatization was performed with dense heavy atom clusters, either by soaking or by specific covalent binding prior to the crystallization. The resulting initial electron density maps contain features comparable in size to those expected for the corresponding particles. The packing arrangements of these maps have been compared with motifs observed by electron microscopy in positively stained thin sections of embedded three-dimensional crystals, as well as with phase sets obtained by ab-initio computations. Aimed at higher resolution phasing, procedures are being developed for multi-site binding of relatively small dense metal clusters at selected locations. Potential sites are being inserted either by mutagenesis or by chemical modifications to facilitate cluster binding to the large halophilic and the small thermophilic ribosomal subunits which yield crystals diffracting to the highest resolution obtained so far for ribosomes, 2.9 and 7.3 Å, respectively. For this purpose the surfaces of these ribosomal particles have been characterized and conditions for quantitative reversible detachment of selected ribosomal proteins have been found. The corresponding genes are being cloned, sequenced, mutated to introduce the reactive side-groups (mainly cysteines) and overexpressed. To assist the interpretation of the anticipated electron density maps, sub-ribosomal stable complexes were isolated from H50S. One of these complexes is composed of two proteins and the other is made of a stretch of the rRNA and a protein. For exploiting the exposed parts of the surface of these complexes for heavy atom binding and for attempting the determination of their three-dimensional structure, their components are being produced

  20. Reaction Control Engine for Space Launch Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have begun a series of engine tests on a new breed of space propulsion: a Reaction Control Engine developed for the Space Launch Initiative (SLI). The engine, developed by TRW Space and Electronics of Redondo Beach, California, is an auxiliary propulsion engine designed to maneuver vehicles in orbit. It is used for docking, reentry, attitude control, and fine-pointing while the vehicle is in orbit. The engine uses nontoxic chemicals as propellants, a feature that creates a safer environment for ground operators, lowers cost, and increases efficiency with less maintenance and quicker turnaround time between missions. Testing includes 30 hot-firings. This photograph shows the first engine test performed at MSFC that includes SLI technology. Another unique feature of the Reaction Control Engine is that it operates at dual thrust modes, combining two engine functions into one engine. The engine operates at both 25 and 1,000 pounds of force, reducing overall propulsion weight and allowing vehicles to easily maneuver in space. The low-level thrust of 25 pounds of force allows the vehicle to fine-point maneuver and dock while the high-level thrust of 1,000 pounds of force is used for reentry, orbit transfer, and coarse positioning. SLI is a NASA-wide research and development program, managed by the MSFC, designed to improve safety, reliability, and cost effectiveness of space travel for second generation reusable launch vehicles.

  1. Hawaii Geothermal Project: initial Phase II progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-02-01

    Results of Phase I of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP), which consisted of a two-year study on the potential of geothermal energy for the Big Island of Hawaii, are reviewed. One conclusion from Phase I was that preliminary results looked sufficiently encouraging to warrant the drilling of the first experimental geothermal well in the Puna area of the Big Island. During the first two months of drilling, parallel activity has continued in all research and support areas. Additional gravity, seismic, and electrical surveys were conducted; water and rock samples were collected; and analysis and interpretation of data has proceeded. Earlier work on mathematical and physical modeling of geothermal reservoirs was expanded; analysis of liquid-dominated geothermal systems continued; and studies on testing of geothermal wells were initiated. An environmental assessment statement of HGP No. 1 was prepared and baselines established for crucial environmental parameters. Economic, legal, and regulatory studies were completed and alternatives identified for the development of geothermal power in Hawaii. Early stages of the drilling program proceeded slowly. The initial 9 7/8-inch drill hole to 400 feet, as well as each of the three passes required to open the hole to 26 inches, were quite time consuming. Cementing of the 20-inch surface casing to a depth of 400 feet was successfully accomplished, and drilling beyond that depth has proceeded at a reasonable rate. Penetration below the surface casing to a depth of 1050 feet was accomplished at a drilling rate in excess of 150 feet per day, with partial circulation over the entire range.

  2. Cooperative photoinduced metastable phase control in strained manganite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingdi; Tan, Xuelian; Liu, Mengkun; Teitelbaum, S. W.; Post, K. W.; Jin, Feng; Nelson, K. A.; Basov, D. N.; Wu, Wenbin; Averitt, R. D.

    2016-09-01

    A major challenge in condensed-matter physics is active control of quantum phases. Dynamic control with pulsed electromagnetic fields can overcome energetic barriers, enabling access to transient or metastable states that are not thermally accessible. Here we demonstrate strain-engineered tuning of La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 into an emergent charge-ordered insulating phase with extreme photo-susceptibility, where even a single optical pulse can initiate a transition to a long-lived metastable hidden metallic phase. Comprehensive single-shot pulsed excitation measurements demonstrate that the transition is cooperative and ultrafast, requiring a critical absorbed photon density to activate local charge excitations that mediate magnetic-lattice coupling that, in turn, stabilize the metallic phase. These results reveal that strain engineering can tune emergent functionality towards proximal macroscopic states to enable dynamic ultrafast optical phase switching and control.

  3. Least Squares Estimate of the Initial Phases in STFT based Speech Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Sidsel Marie; Krawczyk-Becker, Martin; Gerkmann, Timo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider single-channel speech enhancement in the short time Fourier transform (STFT) domain. We suggest to improve an STFT phase estimate by estimating the initial phases. The method is based on the harmonic model and a model for the phase evolution over time. The initial phase...

  4. Housing decision making methods for initiation development phase process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Rozlin; Kasim, Narimah; Sarpin, Norliana; Wee, Seow Ta; Shamsudin, Zarina

    2017-10-01

    Late delivery and sick housing project problems were attributed to poor decision making. These problems are the string of housing developer that prefers to create their own approach based on their experiences and expertise with the simplest approach by just applying the obtainable standards and rules in decision making. This paper seeks to identify the decision making methods for housing development at the initiation phase in Malaysia. The research involved Delphi method by using questionnaire survey which involved 50 numbers of developers as samples for the primary stage of collect data. However, only 34 developers contributed to the second stage of the information gathering process. At the last stage, only 12 developers were left for the final data collection process. Finding affirms that Malaysian developers prefer to make their investment decisions based on simple interpolation of historical data and using simple statistical or mathematical techniques in producing the required reports. It was suggested that they seemed to skip several important decision-making functions at the primary development stage. These shortcomings were mainly due to time and financial constraints and the lack of statistical or mathematical expertise among the professional and management groups in the developer organisations.

  5. The geometric phase controls ultracold chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, B K; Hazra, Jisha; Balakrishnan, N

    2015-07-30

    The geometric phase is shown to control the outcome of an ultracold chemical reaction. The control is a direct consequence of the sign change on the interference term between two scattering pathways (direct and looping), which contribute to the reactive collision process in the presence of a conical intersection (point of degeneracy between two Born-Oppenheimer electronic potential energy surfaces). The unique properties of the ultracold energy regime lead to an effective quantization of the scattering phase shift enabling maximum constructive or destructive interference between the two pathways. By taking the O+OH→H+O2 reaction as an illustrative example, it is shown that inclusion of the geometric phase modifies ultracold reaction rates by nearly two orders of magnitude. Interesting experimental control possibilities include the application of external electric and magnetic fields that might be used to exploit the geometric phase effect reported here and experimentally switch on or off the reactivity.

  6. Ultrasound cylindrical phased array for transoesophageal thermal therapy: initial studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melodelima, David [INSERM, Unite 556, 151 Cours Albert Thomas, 69424 Lyon (France); Lafon, Cyril [INSERM, Unite 556, 151 Cours Albert Thomas, 69424 Lyon (France); Prat, Frederic [Centre Hospitalier Bicetre, 78 Avenue General Leclerc, 94275 Le Kremlin Bicetre (France); Birer, Alain [INSERM, Unite 556, 151 Cours Albert Thomas, 69424 Lyon (France); Cathignol, Dominique [INSERM, Unite 556, 151 Cours Albert Thomas, 69424 Lyon (France)

    2002-12-07

    This work was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of constructing a cylindrical phased array composed of 64 elements spread around the periphery (OD 10.6 mm) for transoesophageal ultrasound thermotherapy. The underlying operating principle of this applicator is to rotate a plane ultrasound beam electronically. For this purpose, eight adjacent transducers were successively excited with appropriate delay times so as to generate a plane wave. The exposure direction was changed by exciting a different set of eight elements. For these feasibility studies, we used a cylindrical prototype (OD 10.6 mm) composed of 16 elementary transducers distributed over a quarter of the cylinder, all operating at 4.55 MHz. The active part was mechanically reinforced by a rigid damper structure behind the transducers. It was shown that an ultrasound field similar to that emitted by a plane transducer could be generated. Ex vivo experiments on pig's liver demonstrated that the ultrasound beam could be accurately rotated to generate sector-based lesions to a suitable depth (up to 19 mm). Throughout these experiments, exposures lasting 20 s were delivered at an acoustic intensity of 17 W cm{sup -2}. By varying the power from exposure to exposure, the depth of the lesion at different angles could be controlled.

  7. Ultrasound cylindrical phased array for transoesophageal thermal therapy: initial studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melodelima, David; Lafon, Cyril; Prat, Frederic; Birer, Alain; Cathignol, Dominique

    2002-12-01

    This work was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of constructing a cylindrical phased array composed of 64 elements spread around the periphery (OD 10.6 mm) for transoesophageal ultrasound thermotherapy. The underlying operating principle of this applicator is to rotate a plane ultrasound beam electronically. For this purpose, eight adjacent transducers were successively excited with appropriate delay times so as to generate a plane wave. The exposure direction was changed by exciting a different set of eight elements. For these feasibility studies, we used a cylindrical prototype (OD 10.6 mm) composed of 16 elementary transducers distributed over a quarter of the cylinder, all operating at 4.55 MHz. The active part was mechanically reinforced by a rigid damper structure behind the transducers. It was shown that an ultrasound field similar to that emitted by a plane transducer could be generated. Ex vivo experiments on pig's liver demonstrated that the ultrasound beam could be accurately rotated to generate sector-based lesions to a suitable depth (up to 19 mm). Throughout these experiments, exposures lasting 20 s were delivered at an acoustic intensity of 17 W cm-2. By varying the power from exposure to exposure, the depth of the lesion at different angles could be controlled.

  8. Summary of semi-initiative and initiative control automobile engine vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Qu, Zhou

    2009-07-01

    Engine vibration accounts for around 55% of automobile vibration, separating the engine vibration from transmitting to automobile to the utmost extent is significant for improving NVH performance. Semi-initiative and initiative control of engine vibration is one of the hot spots of technical research in domestic and foreign automobile industry, especially luxury automobiles which adopt this technology to improve amenity and competitiveness. This article refers to a large amount of domestic and foreign related materials, fully introduces the research status of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension of engine vibration suspension and many kinds of structural style, and provides control policy and method of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension system. Compare and analyze the structural style of semi-initiative and initiative control and merits and demerits of current structures of semi-initiative and initiative control of mechanic electrorheological, magnetorheological, electromagnetic actuator, piezoelectric ceramics, electrostriction material, pneumatic actuator etc. Models of power assembly mounting system was classified.Calculation example indicated that reasonable selection of engine mounting system parameters is useful to reduce engine vibration transmission and to increase ride comfort. Finally we brought forward semi-initiative and initiative suspension which might be applied for automobiles, and which has a promising future.

  9. Solution-phase reaction dynamics: Gaining control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Amanda S.

    2018-02-01

    Using infrared light to control the outcome of a chemical reaction is problematic in solution because of numerous interactions and non-specific sample heating. Now, condensed-phase results showing the vibrational enhancement of an otherwise thermally driven reaction may reinvigorate discussion of the practical applications of vibrational control.

  10. Regional Tobacco Control Research Initiative (Latin America and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco control initiative. IDRC and Cancer Research UK are pleased to announce the launch of a new five-year initiative aimed at preventing tobacco-related diseases. View moreIDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco control initiative.

  11. Small modular biopower initiative Phase 1 feasibility studies executive summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, R.

    2000-03-06

    The Phase 1 objective is a feasibility study that includes a market assessment, resource assessment, preliminary system design, and assessment of relevant environmental and safety considerations, and evaluation of financial and cost issues, and a preliminary business plan and commercialization strategy. Each participating company will share at least 20% of the cost of the first phase.

  12. Postural control during gait initiation and termination of adults with incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Jean-François; Duclos, Cyril; Nadeau, Sylvie; Gagnon, Dany H

    2015-06-01

    Gait initiation and termination are potentially challenging tasks for balance due to the transition from a quasi-static bipedal phase to a dynamic single-support phase. The purpose of this study was to compare the bipedal and single-support phases of gait initiation and termination in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (ISCI). Twelve individuals with ISCI were evaluated on the dynamic and postural components of balance using the stabilizing and destabilizing forces during gait initiation, termination and natural gait. Phase comparisons were made using non parametric tests. Visual inspection of the force profile of the factors explaining the forces was also conducted. Gait termination challenged more the postural control during the single-support phase than the bipedal phase for the dynamic component of the stabilizing/destabilizing forces model (p=.002). For gait initiation, the most challenging phase varied with the components analyzed (single-support phase for the dynamic component, bipedal phase for the postural component) (p⩽.008). The single support phase is more challenged during gait termination (both components) (p⩽.015) while the bipedal phase is more challenged during gait initiation (dynamic components) (p=.012). The stabilizing force and the speed of the center of mass on the one hand, and destabilizing force and the distance between the center of pressure and the base of support on the other hand, had a similar profile. The single-support phase of gait termination was the most challenging among all phases evaluated, being as challenging as the single-support phase of level natural gait. This phase should be targeted in rehabilitation in order to improve balance and decrease the risk of falling in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Measuring Controller for Initial Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Skriabina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes to apply a combined measuring controller in order to solve a problem pertaining to redundancy of information transmitted from technical means which have passed  lifetime extension procedure at Atomic Power Stations (APS. The controller operates on the basis of digital and probabilistic forms of  information presentation that allows to obtain the best possible fit and combination of  accuracy, fast operation and hardware capacity.  

  14. Resonance controlled transport in phase space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoncini, Xavier; Vasiliev, Alexei; Artemyev, Anton

    2018-02-01

    We consider the mechanism of controlling particle transport in phase space by means of resonances in an adiabatic setting. Using a model problem describing nonlinear wave-particle interaction, we show that captures into resonances can be used to control transport in momentum space as well as in physical space. We design the model system to provide creation of a narrow peak in the distribution function, thus producing effective cooling of a sub-ensemble of the particles.

  15. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.T. Amrhein; R.T. Bailey; W. Downs; M.J. Holmes; G.A. Kudlac; D.A. Madden

    1999-07-01

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses - BH), and wet flue gas desulfurization systems (WFGD). Development work concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, with an emphasis on the control of mercury. The AECDP project is jointly funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO), and Babcock and Wilcox, a McDermott company (B and W). This report discusses results of all three phases of the AECDP project with an emphasis on Phase III activities. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on characterization of the emissions of mercury and other air toxics and the control of these emissions for typical operating conditions of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment. Some general comments that can be made about the control of air toxics while burning a high-sulfur bituminous coal are as follows: (1) particulate control devices such as ESP's and baghouses do a good job of removing non-volatile trace metals, (2) particulate control devices (ESPs and baghouses) effectively remove the particulate-phase mercury, but the particulate-phase mercury was only a small fraction of the total for the coals tested, (3) wet scrubbing can effectively remove hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, and (4) wet scrubbers show good potential for the removal of mercury when operated under certain conditions, however, for certain applications, system enhancements can be required to achieve

  16. Establishing a research agenda for Foundation Phase i initial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor literacy and numeracy levels in schools have raised questions in South Africa, as they have internationally, on the quality and appropriateness of initial teacher education for preparing teachers for the complexities faced in schools generally and for the mediation of literacy and numeracy in the early years in particular.

  17. Initiation of the ice phase by marine biogenic surfaces in supersaturated gas and supercooled aqueous phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Peter A; Aller, Josephine Y; Knopf, Daniel A

    2011-11-28

    Biogenic particles have the potential to affect the formation of ice crystals in the atmosphere with subsequent consequences for the hydrological cycle and climate. We present laboratory observations of heterogeneous ice nucleation in immersion and deposition modes under atmospherically relevant conditions initiated by Nannochloris atomus and Emiliania huxleyi, marine phytoplankton with structurally and chemically distinct cell walls. Temperatures at which freezing, melting, and water uptake occur are observed using optical microscopy. The intact and fragmented unarmoured cells of N. atomus in aqueous NaCl droplets enhance ice nucleation by 10-20 K over the homogeneous freezing limit and can be described by a modified water activity based ice nucleation approach. E. huxleyi cells covered by calcite plates do not enhance droplet freezing temperatures. Both species nucleate ice in the deposition mode at an ice saturation ratio, S(ice), as low as ~1.2 and below 240 K, however, for each, different nucleation modes occur at warmer temperatures. These observations show that markedly different biogenic surfaces have both comparable and contrasting effects on ice nucleation behaviour depending on the presence of the aqueous phase and the extent of supercooling and water vapour supersaturation. We derive heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients, J(het), and cumulative ice nuclei spectra, K, for quantification and analysis using time-dependent and time-independent approaches, respectively. Contact angles, α, derived from J(het)via immersion freezing depend on T, a(w), and S(ice). For deposition freezing, α can be described as a function of S(ice) only. The different approaches yield different predictions of atmospheric ice crystal numbers primarily due to the time evolution allowed for the time-dependent approach with implications for the evolution of mixed-phase and ice clouds.

  18. A comparison of phase I control charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho, Margarethe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A carefully done Phase I analysis is a vital part of an overall statistical process control and monitoring regime. Distribution-free control charts can play a useful role in this analysis, as a parametric model assumption often cannot be adequately verified. The performance of two distribution-free charts for the location – the mean-rank and the median chart – are compared in this paper. For benchmarking reasons, the parametric -chart is included in the comparisons. It is seen that the distribution-free charts are in-control robust, whereas the -chart is not, and they both perform similarly to the -chart for normally distributed data. However, for non-normal data, they both outperform the -chart. The results provide evidence in favour of using distribution-free Phase I charts in practice. Concluding remarks and suggestions for future research are given.

  19. Sliding Mode Control of Induction Motor Phase Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, R.B.; Hattel, T.; Bork, J

    1995-01-01

    Sliding mode control of induction motor phase currents are investigated through development of two control concepts.......Sliding mode control of induction motor phase currents are investigated through development of two control concepts....

  20. Sample-Clock Phase-Control Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Gin, Jonathan W.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy

    2012-01-01

    To demodulate a communication signal, a receiver must recover and synchronize to the symbol timing of a received waveform. In a system that utilizes digital sampling, the fidelity of synchronization is limited by the time between the symbol boundary and closest sample time location. To reduce this error, one typically uses a sample clock in excess of the symbol rate in order to provide multiple samples per symbol, thereby lowering the error limit to a fraction of a symbol time. For systems with a large modulation bandwidth, the required sample clock rate is prohibitive due to current technological barriers and processing complexity. With precise control of the phase of the sample clock, one can sample the received signal at times arbitrarily close to the symbol boundary, thus obviating the need, from a synchronization perspective, for multiple samples per symbol. Sample-clock phase-control feedback was developed for use in the demodulation of an optical communication signal, where multi-GHz modulation bandwidths would require prohibitively large sample clock frequencies for rates in excess of the symbol rate. A custom mixedsignal (RF/digital) offset phase-locked loop circuit was developed to control the phase of the 6.4-GHz clock that samples the photon-counting detector output. The offset phase-locked loop is driven by a feedback mechanism that continuously corrects for variation in the symbol time due to motion between the transmitter and receiver as well as oscillator instability. This innovation will allow significant improvements in receiver throughput; for example, the throughput of a pulse-position modulation (PPM) with 16 slots can increase from 188 Mb/s to 1.5 Gb/s.

  1. Influence of the initial conditions for the numerical simulation of two-phase slug flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachas Napa, Alex A.; Morales, Rigoberto E.M.; Medina, Cesar D. Perea

    2010-07-01

    Multiphase flows in pipelines commonly show several patterns depending on the flow rate, geometry and physical properties of the phases. In oil production, the slug flow pattern is the most common among the others. This flow pattern is characterized by an intermittent succession in space and time of an aerated liquid slug and an elongated gas bubble with a liquid film. Slug flow is studied through the slug tracking model described as one-dimensional and Lagrangian frame referenced. In the model, the mass and the momentum balance equations are applied in control volumes constituted by the gas bubble and the liquid slug. Initial conditions must be determined, which need to reproduce the intermittence of the flow pattern. These initial conditions are given by a sequence of flow properties for each unit cell. Properties of the unit cell in initial conditions should reflect the intermittence, for which they can be analyzed in statistical terms. Therefore, statistical distributions should be obtained for the slug flow variables. Distributions are complemented with the mass balance and the bubble design model. The objective of the present work is to obtain initial conditions for the slug tracking model that reproduce a better adjustment of the fluctuating properties for different pipe inclinations (horizontal, vertical or inclined). The numerical results are compared with experimental data obtained by PFG/FEM/UNICAMP for air-water flow at 0 deg, 45 deg and 90 deg and good agreement is observed. (author)

  2. Hawaii Geothermal Project initial Phase II progress report, February 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-02-01

    Additional gravity, seismic, and electrical surveys were conducted; water and rock samples were collected; and analysis and interpretation of data has proceeded. The engineering program has expanded its earlier work on mathematical and physical modeling of geothermal reservoirs; continued with the analysis of liquid-dominated geothermal systems; and initiated studies on geothermal well testing. An environmental assessment statement of HGP No. 1 was prepared and baselines established for crucial environmental parameters. Economic, legal, and regulatory studies were completed and alternatives identified for the development of geothermal power in Hawaii. The Drilling Program has provided assistance in contract negotiations, preparation of the drilling and testing programs, and scientific input to the drilling operation. (MHR)

  3. Origin and control of instability in SCR/triac three-phase motor controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearth, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The energy savings and reactive power reduction functions initiated by the power factor controller (PFC) are discussed. A three-phase PFC with soft start is examined analytically and experimentally to determine how well it controls the open loop instability and other possible modes of instability. The detailed mechanism of the open loop instability is determined and shown to impose design constraints on the closed loop system. The design is shown to meet those constraints.

  4. Phase-controlled integrated photonic quantum circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian J; Kundys, Dmytro; Thomas-Peter, Nicholas; Smith, P G R; Walmsley, I A

    2009-08-03

    Scalable photonic quantum technologies are based on multiple nested interferometers. To realize this architecture, integrated optical structures are needed to ensure stable, controllable, and repeatable operation. Here we show a key proof-of-principle demonstration of an externallycontrolled photonic quantum circuit based upon UV-written waveguide technology. In particular, we present non-classical interference of photon pairs in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer constructed with X couplers in an integrated optical circuit with a thermo-optic phase shifter in one of the interferometer arms.

  5. Rilonacept (interleukin-1 trap) in the prevention of acute gout flares during initiation of urate-lowering therapy: results of a phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, H Ralph; Sundy, John S; Terkeltaub, Robert; Knapp, Howard R; Mellis, Scott J; Stahl, Neil; Yancopoulos, George D; Soo, Yuhwen; King-Davis, Shirletta; Weinstein, Steven P; Radin, Allen R

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the interleukin-1 inhibitor rilonacept (Interleukin-1 Trap) for prevention of gout flares occurring in the first few months following initiation of urate-lowering therapy. In this double-blind study, adult patients with hyperuricemia and gout were randomized to receive rilonacept administered subcutaneously once per week (loading dose 320 mg followed by 160 mg weekly) or placebo, and started on allopurinol (300 mg/day, titrated to serum urate physical and laboratory assessments were performed and information on any adverse events was ascertained. Baseline characteristics were similar between the rilonacept and placebo groups (n = 41 and n = 42, respectively). The mean number of gout flares per patient through week 12 (primary efficacy end point) was markedly lower in the rilonacept group than in the placebo group (0.15 [6 flares] versus 0.79 [33 flares]; P = 0.0011). Fewer flares were observed with rilonacept as early as 4 weeks after initiation of treatment (P = 0.007). The proportion of patients experiencing a flare during the 12 weeks was lower in the rilonacept group than in the placebo group (14.6% versus 45.2%; P = 0.0037). No rebound in the flare rate was observed for 6 weeks after discontinuation of rilonacept or placebo at week 16. Adverse events were similar between groups, and no deaths or serious infectious adverse events were reported; the most common adverse events were infections (14.6% and 26.2% of rilonacept- and placebo-treated patients, respectively) and musculoskeletal disorders (14.6% and 21.4%, respectively). A higher percentage of rilonacept-treated patients (98%) compared with placebo-treated patients (79%) completed the primary 12-week evaluation period (P = 0.015). The current findings indicate that rilonacept significantly reduces the frequency of gout flares during the initial period of treatment with urate-lowering therapy, with a favorable safety profile. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  6. Uniaxial stress control of skyrmion phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, Y; Nakajima, T; Kikkawa, A; Yamasaki, Y; Ohishi, K; Suzuki, J; Taguchi, Y; Arima, T; Tokura, Y; Iwasa, Y

    2015-10-13

    Magnetic skyrmions, swirling nanometric spin textures, have been attracting increasing attention by virtue of their potential applications for future memory technology and their emergent electromagnetism. Despite a variety of theoretical proposals oriented towards skyrmion-based electronics (that is, skyrmionics), few experiments have succeeded in creating, deleting and transferring skyrmions, and the manipulation methodologies have thus far remained limited to electric, magnetic and thermal stimuli. Here, we demonstrate a new approach for skyrmion phase control based on a mechanical stress. By continuously scanning uniaxial stress at low temperatures, we can create and annihilate a skyrmion crystal in a prototypical chiral magnet MnSi. The critical stress is merely several tens of MPa, which is easily accessible using the tip of a conventional cantilever. The present results offer a new guideline even for single skyrmion control that requires neither electric nor magnetic biases and consumes extremely little energy.

  7. Kinematics in the terminal swing phase of unilateral transfemoral amputees: microprocessor-controlled versus swing-phase control prosthetic knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mâaref, Khaled; Martinet, Noël; Grumillier, Constance; Ghannouchi, Slaheddine; André, Jean Marie; Paysant, Jean

    2010-06-01

    To analyze the spatiotemporal parameters in the terminal swing phase of the prosthetic limb in unilateral transfemoral amputees (TFAs) compared with a group of asymptomatic subjects, and to identify a latency period (LP) in the TFA between the full extension of the prosthetic knee and the initial ground contact of the ipsilateral foot. To study the correlation between the LP and the duration of the swing phase. To evaluate the influence of the type of knee, the time since amputation, and the amputation level on the latency period. Three-dimensional gait analysis with an optoelectronic device. Gait analysis laboratory of a re-education and functional rehabilitation service. TFA (n=29) and able-bodied (n=15) subjects. Not applicable. Spatiotemporal and kinematics gait parameters. The swing phase and the LP of the prosthetic limb, associated with a consequently longer single-limb stance phase in the intact limb, were significantly longer than those measured in the intact limbs of these subjects, as well as those measured on both lower limbs of the able-bodied subjects (Pprosthetic side. The LP measured in the prosthetic limb of TFA with a swing-phase control prosthetic knee is significantly greater than in those using the microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee (Plimb of TFA, the LP is significantly greater in the prosthetic limb. It can explain the lengthened swing phase on the prosthetic side of those subjects. The use of a microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee allows the LP to be reduced. This LP appears to be necessary to insure the stability of the prosthetic knee. We suggest calling this time "confidence time." Copyright 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Partially dark optical molecule via phase control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. H.; Xu, Xun-Wei; Li, Yong

    2017-01-01

    We study the tunable photonic distribution in an optical molecule consisting of two linearly coupled single-mode cavities. With the intercavity coupling and two driving fields, the energy levels of the optical-molecule system form a closed cyclic energy-level diagram, and the phase difference between the driving fields serves as a sensitive controller on the dynamics of the system. Due to the quantum interference effect, we can realize a partially dark optical molecule, where the steady-state mean photon number in one of the cavities achieves zero even under the external driving. And the dark cavity can be changed from one of the cavities to the other by only adjusting the phase difference. We also show that our proposal is robust to the noise at zero temperature. Furthermore, we show that when one of the cavities couples with an atomic ensemble, it will be dark under the same condition as that in the case without atoms, but the condition for the other cavity to be dark is modified.

  9. Reliability of Two Methods for Identifying the Postural Phase of Gait Initiation in Healthy and Poststroke Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Andreia S; Silva, Augusta; Santos, Rubim

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to compare 2 methods of assessing the postural phase of gait initiation, in regard to intrasession reliability, in healthy and poststroke subjects. As a secondary aim, this study aims to analyze anticipatory postural adjustments during gait initiation based on the center of pressure (CoP) displacements in poststroke participants. The CoP signal was acquired during gait initiation in 15 poststroke subjects and 23 healthy controls. Postural phase was identified through a baseline-based method and a maximal displacement-based method. In both healthy and poststroke participants, higher intraclass correlation coefficient and lower coefficient of variation values were obtained with the baseline-based method when compared with the maximal displacement-based method. Poststroke participants presented decreased CoP displacement backward and toward the first swing limb compared with controls when the baseline-based method was used. With the maximal displacement based method, there were differences between groups only regarding backward CoP displacement. Postural phase duration in medial-lateral direction was also increased in poststroke participants when using the maximal displacement based method. The findings obtained indicate that the baseline-based method is more reliable detecting the onset of gait initiation in both groups, while the maximal displacement-based method presents greater sensitivity for poststroke participants.

  10. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The initiative funds innovative fiscal policy research supporting tobacco control in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Aimed at preventing tobacco-related diseases and promoting public health, this is a five-year partnership between IDRC and the world's leading independent cancer charity dedicated to saving lives ...

  11. Control of Initialized Fractional-Order Systems. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Tom T.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    2002-01-01

    Due to the importance of historical effects in fractional-order systems, this paper presents a general fractional-order control theory that includes the time-varying initialization response. Previous studies have not properly accounted for these historical effects. The initialization response, along with the forced response, for fractional-order systems is determined. Stability properties of fractional-order systems are presented in the complex w-plane, which is a transformation of the s-plane. Time responses are discussed with respect to pole positions in the complex w-plane and frequency response behavior is included. A fractional-order vector space representation, which is a generalization of the state space concept, is presented including the initialization response. Control methods for vector representations of initialized fractional-order systems are shown. Nyquist, root-locus, and other input-output control methods are adapted to the control of fractional-order systems. Finally, the fractional-order differintegral is generalized to continuous order-distributions that have the possibility of including a continuum of fractional orders in a system element.

  12. Management Control System Support of Initiatives for Disruptive Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to investigate the management control system (MCS) support of school initiatives to develop the school climate and to re-engage disruptive students. Design/methodology/approach: The paper adopts an approach of critical action research interviews with management and document reviews informed by Habermasian…

  13. Controlling propulsive forces in gait initiation in transfemoral amputees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Keeken, Helco G.; Vrieling, Aline H.; Hof, At L.; Halbertsma, Jan P. K.; Schoppen, Tanneke; Postema, Klaas; Otten, Bert

    During prosthetic gait initiation, transfemoral (TF) amputees control the spatial and temporal parameters that modulate the propulsive forces, the positions of the center of pressure (CoP), and the center of mass (CoM). Whether their sound leg or the prosthetic leg is leading, the TF amputees reach

  14. Measuring the initial phase of few-cycle laser pulses through few-photon ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makris, M G [Department of Physics, University of Crete, PO Box 2208, Heraklion 711 10, Crete (Greece); Lambropoulos, P [Department of Physics, University of Crete, PO Box 2208, Heraklion 711 10, Crete (Greece)

    2004-06-14

    In view of recent experimental developments and interest, we evaluate the possibility of measuring the absolute phase of a short laser pulse via the asymmetry in the angular distribution of the electron emission. On the basis of quantitative calculations of the ionization of Cs, we demonstrate that the asymmetry is directly related to the initial phase of the field. Our results show that this approach may turn out to have some experimental advantages.

  15. Electric field controlled emulsion phase contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Timothy C.

    1995-01-01

    A system for contacting liquid phases comprising a column for transporting a liquid phase contacting system, the column having upper and lower regions. The upper region has a nozzle for introducing a dispersed phase and means for applying thereto a vertically oriented high intensity pulsed electric field. This electric field allows improved flow rates while shattering the dispersed phase into many micro-droplets upon exiting the nozzle to form a dispersion within a continuous phase. The lower region employs means for applying to the dispersed phase a horizontally oriented high intensity pulsed electric field so that the dispersed phase undergoes continuous coalescence and redispersion while being urged from side to side as it progresses through the system, increasing greatly the mass transfer opportunity.

  16. A single phase photovoltaic inverter control for grid connected system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    /fulltext/sadh/041/01/0015-0030. Keywords. Current controller; MPPT; photovoltaic; PLL; PV inverter; voltage controller. Abstract. This paper presents a control scheme for single phase grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system operating under ...

  17. Initiating a New Research Phase in the Field of International Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coviello, Nicole; Tanev, Stoyan

    2017-01-01

    In a recent publication, Nicole Coviello (2015) emphasized the need to re-think existing research on international entrepreneurship and, more specifically, research on born-global firms. She pointed out that the main value of a critical review lies in initiating a new research phase focusing...

  18. Soutien organisationnel de la phase 2 de l'Initiative Think tank ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Soutien organisationnel de la phase 2 de l'Initiative Think tank : Advocates Coalition for Development and Environment. This funding will help strengthen the Advocates Coalition for Development and Environment's (ACODE) role as a credible public policy institution in Uganda by enhancing its ability to provide high-quality, ...

  19. Sensorless speed control of a five-phase induction machine under open-phase condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Morsy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, multiphase machines have been promoted as competitors to their three-phase counterparts in high-power safety-critical drive applications. Among numerous advantages of multiphase induction machine (IM drives, self-starting and operation under open phase(s stand as the most salient features. With open phase(s, optimal current control provides disturbance- free operation given a set of objective functions. Although hysteresis current control was merely employed in the literature as it offers a simple controller structure to control the remaining healthy phases, it is not suitable for high-power applications. In the literature, multiple synchronous reference frame (dq control can be an alternative; however, it requires back and forth transformations with several calculations and additional sophistication. In this paper, a simple technique employing adaptive proportional resonant (PR current controllers is presented to control a five-phase IM under open-phase conditions. Results for both volt/hertz (V/f and field oriented control (FOC systems are presented. Moreover, sensorless operation under fault condition is also demonstrated by estimating the machine speed using a rotor flux-based model reference adaptive system (MRAS speed estimator. The proposed controllers are experimentally verified and compared. Although FOC provides better dynamic performance, V/f control offers a simpler control structure and a lower number of PR controllers.

  20. Calcium and initial surface binding phase of pinocytosis in Amoeba proteus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prusch, R.D.

    1986-08-01

    The uptake of membrane-bound solute and external medium by bulk-phase pinocytosis in Amoeba proteus is influenced by the level of Ca/sup 2 +/ in the external medium. Increasing external Ca/sup 2 +/ to approx.10/sup -4/ M increases pinocytotic intensity, while increases in Ca/sup 2 +/ above this level decrease the intensity of pinocytosis. The initial interaction of pinocytotic inducers and Ca/sup +2/ at the surface of A moeba proteus was therefore examined. Alcain blue and Na/sup +/, both inducers of pinocytosis, differ in the manner with which they associate with the amoeba surface, suggesting the possibility of different pinocytosis-inducing sites on the amoeba surface. Low levels of external Ca/sup 2 +/ in the range of 3 x 10/sup -5/ to 4.5 x 10/sup -4/ M increase the amount of cationic inducer associated with the cell surface while, at the same time, decreasing anion association with the cell surface. It is suggested that Ca/sup 2 +/ influences ion association with the cell surface by controlling the availability of negative surface sites, which in turn influences pinocytotic intensity. Surface binding of Na/sup +/, Ca/sup 2 +/ and Cl/sup -/ was determined by adding /sup 22/Na, /sup 45/Ca or /sup 36/Cl.

  1. Structural control of void formation in dual phase steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azuma, Masafumi

    The objective of this study is to explore the void formation mechanisms and to clarify the influence of the hardness and structural parameters (volume fraction, size and morphology) of martensite particles on the void formation and mechanical properties in dual phase steels composed of ferrite...... measurements, tensile tests and hole-expansion tests. The initial microstructure and the deformed microstructure were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In situ tensile tests in a SEM were applied for direct observation of the void formation...... of the martensite accelerates the void formation in the martensite by enlarging the size of voids both in the martensite and ferrite. It is suggested that controlling the hardness and structural parameters associated with the martensite particles such as morphology, size and volume fraction are the essential...

  2. Four Phases Driver for Stepper Motor Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Morar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents two pulse distributors are remarkable for simplicity, highreliability, multifunctional facilities and a unipolar bilevel R/L- driver circuit for four phases stepper motor.

  3. SIMRAC, silicosis control programme - phase 1

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stanton, WD

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available . There is current international debate on these exposure levels. ? At the national level, laws and regulations; enforcement of occupational exposure limits and technical standards; governmental advisory services; an effective system of inspection; a well...-06-03). Phase 1 of this project was to scope the Phase 2 research required to work towards eliminating silicosis and included two regional workshops on silicosis elimination and a National Workshop. Research efforts aimed at the elimination of silicosis...

  4. Linking Initial Microstructure to ORR Related Property Degradation in SOFC Cathode: A Phase Field Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Y. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States). Albany Research Center (ARC); Cheng, T. -L. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States). Albany Research Center (ARC); AECOM, Albany, OR (United States); Wen, Y. H. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States). Albany Research Center (ARC)

    2017-07-05

    Microstructure evolution driven by thermal coarsening is an important factor for the loss of oxygen reduction reaction rates in SOFC cathode. In this work, the effect of an initial microstructure on the microstructure evolution in SOFC cathode is investigated using a recently developed phase field model. Specifically, we tune the phase fraction, the average grain size, the standard deviation of the grain size and the grain shape in the initial microstructure, and explore their effect on the evolution of the grain size, the density of triple phase boundary, the specific surface area and the effective conductivity in LSM-YSZ cathodes. It is found that the degradation rate of TPB density and SSA of LSM is lower with less LSM phase fraction (with constant porosity assumed) and greater average grain size, while the degradation rate of effective conductivity can also be tuned by adjusting the standard deviation of grain size distribution and grain aspect ratio. The implication of this study on the designing of an optimal initial microstructure of SOFC cathodes is discussed.

  5. The effects of menstrual phase on orthodontic pain following initial archwire engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, H; Gao, M; Zhu, Y; Liu, H; Zhou, Y; Liao, L; Lai, W

    2017-04-01

    To explore the effects of menstrual cycle on orthodontic pain following initial archwire engagement. Female participants with regular menstrual cycles were recruited and assigned into follicular group or luteal group. Demographical and baseline variables were collected: age, education, menstrual duration, anxiety, oral health impact profile-14 (OHIP-14), and index of complexity outcome and need (ICON). Following initial archwire engagement, orthodontic pain was determined through visual analogue scale (VAS) on 1st day, 2nd day, and 3rd day. Demographical and baseline variables were compared between the two groups. Two-way repeated-measures anova was used to examine the effects of menstrual phase, time, and their interactions on orthodontic pain. Multivariate linear regression was employed to examine the independent effect of each variable on orthodontic pain. Finally, 37 and 39 were assigned to the follicular and luteal groups, respectively, with balanced demographical and baseline data. Orthodontic pain was significantly affected by menstrual phase and time (both P  0.05). Moreover, orthodontic pain was independently predicted by menstrual phase, OHIP, education level, and anxiety (all P initial archwire engagement during their follicular phases to relieve orthodontic pain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Simulating mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds: sensitivity to ice initiation mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. McFarquhar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Arctic mixed-phase clouds on radiation and the Arctic climate is well known. However, the development of mixed-phase cloud parameterization for use in large scale models is limited by lack of both related observations and numerical studies using multidimensional models with advanced microphysics that provide the basis for understanding the relative importance of different microphysical processes that take place in mixed-phase clouds. To improve the representation of mixed-phase cloud processes in the GISS GCM we use the GISS single-column model coupled to a bin resolved microphysics (BRM scheme that was specially designed to simulate mixed-phase clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions. Using this model with the microphysical measurements obtained from the DOE ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE campaign in October 2004 at the North Slope of Alaska, we investigate the effect of ice initiation processes and Bergeron-Findeisen process (BFP on glaciation time and longevity of single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds. We focus on observations taken during 9–10 October, which indicated the presence of a single-layer mixed-phase clouds. We performed several sets of 12-h simulations to examine model sensitivity to different ice initiation mechanisms and evaluate model output (hydrometeors' concentrations, contents, effective radii, precipitation fluxes, and radar reflectivity against measurements from the MPACE Intensive Observing Period. Overall, the model qualitatively simulates ice crystal concentration and hydrometeors content, but it fails to predict quantitatively the effective radii of ice particles and their vertical profiles. In particular, the ice effective radii are overestimated by at least 50%. However, using the same definition as used for observations, the effective radii simulated and that observed were more comparable. We find that for the single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds simulated, process

  7. Phase and amplitude control system for Stanford Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, S.J.

    1983-09-26

    The computer controlled phase and amplitude detection system measures the instantaneous phase and amplitude of a 1 micro-second 2856 MHz rf pulse at a 180 Hz rate. This will be used for phase feedback control, and also for phase and amplitude jitter measurement. The program, which was originally written by John Fox and Keith Jobe, has been modified to improve the function of the system. The software algorithms used in the measurement are described, as is the performance of the prototype phase and amplitude detector system.

  8. Initial Reaction Steps in the Condensed-Phase Decomposition of Propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melius, C F; Piqueras, M C

    2001-12-11

    Understanding the reaction mechanisms for the decomposition of energetic materials in the condensed phase is critical to our development of detailed kinetic models of propellant combustion. To date, the reaction mechanisms in the condensed phase have been represented by global, reactions. The detailed elementary reactions subsequent to the initial NO{sub 2} bond scissioning are not known. Using quantum chemical calculations, we have investigated the possible early steps in the decomposition of energetic materials that can occur in the condensed phase. We have used methylnitrate, methylnitramine, and nitroethane as prototypes for O-NO{sub 2}, N-NO{sub 2} and C-NO{sub 2} nitro compounds. We find the energetic radicals formed from the initial NO{sub 2} bond scissioning can be converted to unsaturated non-radical intermediates as an alternative to the unzipping of the energetic radical. We propose a new, prompt oxidation mechanism in which the trapped HONO can add back onto the energetic molecule. This produces oxidation products in the condensed phase that normally would not be produced until much later in the flame. We have shown that this prompt oxidation mechanism is a general feature of both nitramines and nitrate esters. The resulting HONO formed by the H-atom abstraction will be strongly influenced by the cage effect of the condensed phase. The applicability of this mechanism is demonstrated for decomposition of ethylnitrate, illustrating the importance of the cage effect in enabling this mechanism to occur at low temperatures.

  9. Korea Brain Initiative: Integration and Control of Brain Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sung-Jin; Lee, Haejin; Hur, Eun-Mi; Choe, Youngshik; Koo, Ja Wook; Rah, Jong-Cheol; Lee, Kea Joo; Lim, Hyun-Ho; Sun, Woong; Moon, Cheil; Kim, Kyungjin

    2016-11-02

    This article introduces the history and the long-term goals of the Korea Brain Initiative, which is centered on deciphering the brain functions and mechanisms that mediate the integration and control of brain functions that underlie decision-making. The goal of this initiative is the mapping of a functional connectome with searchable, multi-dimensional, and information-integrated features. The project also includes the development of novel technologies and neuro-tools for integrated brain mapping. Beyond the scientific goals this grand endeavor will ultimately have socioeconomic ramifications that not only facilitate global collaboration in the neuroscience community, but also develop various brain science-related industrial and medical innovations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Initial signatures of magnetic field and energetic particle fluxes at tail reconfiguration - Explosive growth phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, S.; Takahashi, K.; Zanetti, L. J.; Potemra, T. A.; Mcentire, R. W.; Iijima, T.

    1992-01-01

    The initial signatures of tail field reconfiguration observed in the near-earth magnetotail are examined using data obtained by the AMPTE/CCE magnetometer and the Medium Energy Particle Analyzer. It is found that the tail reconfiguration events could be classified as belonging to two types, Type I and Type II. In Type I events, a current disruption is immersed in a hot plasma region expanding from inward (earthward/equatorward) of the spacecraft; consequently, the spacecraft is immersed in a hot plasma region expanding from inward. The Type II reconfiguration event is characterized by a distinctive interval (explosive growth phase) just prior to the local commencement of tail phase.

  11. Fully controlled 5-phase, 10-pulse, line commutated rectifier

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud, Mahmoud I.

    2015-01-01

    The development and production of multiphase machines either generators or motors, specially five-phase, offers improved performance compared to three-phase counterpart. Five phase generators could generate power in applications such as, but not limited to, wind power generation, electric vehicles, aerospace, and oil and gas. The five-phase generator output requires converter system such as ac–dc converters. In this paper, a fully controlled 10-pulse line commutated rectifier, suitable to be ...

  12. Control of Movement Initiation Underlies the Development of Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, David E; Schoppik, David

    2017-02-06

    Balance arises from the interplay of external forces acting on the body and internally generated movements. Many animal bodies are inherently unstable, necessitating corrective locomotion to maintain stability. Understanding how developing animals come to balance remains a challenge. Here we study the interplay among environment, sensation, and action as balance develops in larval zebrafish. We first model the physical forces that challenge underwater balance and experimentally confirm that larvae are subject to constant destabilization. Larvae propel in swim bouts that, we find, tend to stabilize the body. We confirm the relationship between locomotion and balance by changing larval body composition, exacerbating instability and eliciting more frequent swimming. Intriguingly, developing zebrafish come to control the initiation of locomotion, swimming preferentially when unstable, thus restoring preferred postures. To test the sufficiency of locomotor-driven stabilization and the developing control of movement timing, we incorporate both into a generative model of swimming. Simulated larvae recapitulate observed postures and movement timing across early development, but only when locomotor-driven stabilization and control of movement initiation are both utilized. We conclude the ability to move when unstable is the key developmental improvement to balance in larval zebrafish. Our work informs how emerging sensorimotor ability comes to impact how and why animals move when they do. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Broadband metasurface for independent control of reflected amplitude and phase

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng Li Jia; Xiang Wan; Pei Su; Yong Jiu Zhao; Tie Jun Cui

    2016-01-01

    We propose an ultra-thin metasurface to control the amplitudes and phases independently of the reflected waves by changing geometries and orientations of I-shaped metallic particles. We demonstrate that the particles can realize independent controls of reflection amplitudes and phases with a magnitude range of [0, 0.82] and a full phase range of 360° in broad frequency band. Based on such particles, two ultrathin metasurface gratings are further proposed to form anomalous reflection with pola...

  14. Anomalous Surface Wave Launching by Handedness Phase Control

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xueqian

    2015-10-09

    Anomalous launch of a surface wave with different handedness phase control is achieved in a terahertz metasurface based on phase discontinuities. The polarity of the phase profile of the surface waves is found to be strongly correlated to the polarization handedness, promising polarization-controllable wavefront shaping, polarization sensing, and environmental refractive-index sensing. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Phase and anti-phase synchronization of fractional order chaotic systems via active control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghvafard, Hadi; Erjaee, G. H.

    2011-10-01

    This paper is devoted to investigate the phase and anti-phase synchronization between two identical and non-identical fractional order chaotic systems using techniques from active control theory. The techniques are applied to fractional order chaotic Lü and Liu systems. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed control techniques.

  16. Controlling quantum interference in phase space with amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yinghong; Li, Tingyu; Kasai, Katsuyuki; Okada-Shudo, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Zhang, Yun

    2017-05-23

    We experimentally show a quantum interference in phase space by interrogating photon number probabilities (n = 2, 3, and 4) of a displaced squeezed state, which is generated by an optical parametric amplifier and whose displacement is controlled by amplitude of injected coherent light. It is found that the probabilities exhibit oscillations of interference effect depending upon the amplitude of the controlling light field. This phenomenon is attributed to quantum interference in phase space and indicates the capability of controlling quantum interference using amplitude. This remarkably contrasts with the oscillations of interference effects being usually controlled by relative phase in classical optics.

  17. Control of cell cycle transcription during G1 and S phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli, Cosetta; Skotheim, Jan M; de Bruin, Robertus A M

    2013-08-01

    The accurate transition from G1 phase of the cell cycle to S phase is crucial for the control of eukaryotic cell proliferation, and its misregulation promotes oncogenesis. During G1 phase, growth-dependent cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity promotes DNA replication and initiates G1-to-S phase transition. CDK activation initiates a positive feedback loop that further increases CDK activity, and this commits the cell to division by inducing genome-wide transcriptional changes. G1-S transcripts encode proteins that regulate downstream cell cycle events. Recent work is beginning to reveal the complex molecular mechanisms that control the temporal order of transcriptional activation and inactivation, determine distinct functional subgroups of genes and link cell cycle-dependent transcription to DNA replication stress in yeast and mammals.

  18. Performance Evaluation of Orbit Determination System during Initial Phase of INSAT-3 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, B.; Vighnesam, N. V.

    INSAT-3C is the second in the third generation of ISRO's INSAT series of satellites that was launched by ARIANE-SPACE on 23 January 2002 at 23 h 46 m 57 s (lift off time in U.T). The ARIANE-4 Flight Nr.147 took off from Kourou in French Guyana and injected the 2750-kg communications satellite in a geostationary transfer orbit of (571 X 35935) km with an inclination of 4.007 deg at 00 h 07 m 48 s U.T on 24 January 2002 (1252 s after lift off). The satellite was successfully guided into its intended geostationary position of 74 deg E longitude by 09 February 2002 after a series of four firings of its Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM) and four station acquisition (STAQ) maneuvers. Six distinct phases of the mission were categorized based on the orbit characteristics of the INSAT- 3C mission, namely, the pre-launch phase, the launch phase, transfer orbit phase, intermediate orbit phase, drift orbit phase and synchronous orbit phase. The orbit with a perigee height of 571 km at injection of the satellite, was gradually raised to higher orbits with perigee height increasing to 9346 km after Apogee Motor Firing #1 (AMF #1), 18335 km after AMF #2, 32448 km after AMF #3 and 35493 km after AMF #4. The North and South solar panels and the reflectors were deployed at this stage of the mission and the attitude of the satellite with respect to the three axes was stabilized. The Orbit Determination System (ODS) that was used in the initial phase of the mission played a crucial role in realizing the objectives of the mission. This system which consisted of Tracking Data Pre-Processing (TDPP) software, Ephemeris Generation (EPHGEN) software and the Orbit Determination (OD) software, performed rigorously and its results were used for planning the AMF and STAQ strategies with a greater degree of accuracy. This paper reports the results of evaluation of the performance of the apogee-motor firings employed to place the satellite in its intended position where it is collocated with INSAT-1D

  19. Accurate Control of Josephson Phase Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    conducting phase difference across the junction, respectively, and have a commutation relationship @ d̂ ,Q̂#52ei . A quan- tum mechanical behavior can be...varying bias current Imw(t) at fre- quency v5v10 , given by I~ t !5Idc1DI~ t ! ~4! 5Idc2Imw~ t !cos~vt1f!. ~5! In general, the Hamiltonian for the...Idc→I0 , the system Hamiltonian has a potential U( d̂) that is cubic. We calculate this Hamiltonian , and solve for its eigenstates via diagonalization

  20. Controlling geometric phase optically in a single spin in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yale, Christopher G.

    Geometric phase, or Berry phase, is an intriguing quantum mechanical phenomenon that arises from the cyclic evolution of a quantum state. Unlike dynamical phases, which rely on the time and energetics of the interaction, the geometric phase is determined solely by the geometry of the path travelled in parameter space. As such, it is robust to certain types of noise that preserve the area enclosed by the path, and shows promise for the development of fault-tolerant logic gates. Here, we demonstrate the optical control of geometric phase within a solid-state spin qubit, the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. Using stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), we evolve a coherent dark state along `tangerine slice' trajectories on the Bloch sphere and probe these paths through time-resolved state tomography. We then measure the accumulated geometric phase through phase reference to a third ground spin state. In addition, we examine the limits of this control due to adiabatic breakdown as well as the longer timescale effect of far-detuned optical fields. Finally, we intentionally introduce noise into the experimental control parameters, and measure the distributions of the resulting phases to probe the resilience of the phase to differing types of noise. We also examine this robustness as a function of traversal time as well as the noise amplitude. Through these studies, we demonstrate that geometric phase is a promising route toward fault-tolerant quantum information processing. This work is supported by the AFOSR, the NSF, and the German Research Foundation.

  1. Imaging complement by phase-plate cryo-electron tomography from initiation to pore formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Thomas H; Faas, Frank G A; Koster, Abraham J; Gros, Piet

    2017-02-01

    Phase plates in cryo-electron tomography (cryoET) improve contrast, increasing the ability to discern separate molecules and molecular complexes in dense biomolecular environments. Here, we applied this new technology to the activation of the human complement system. Binding of C1 to antigen-antibody complexes initiates a cascade of proteolytic events that deposits molecules onto adjacent surfaces and terminates with the formation of membrane-attack-complex (MAC) pores in the targeted membranes. We imaged steps in this process using a Volta phase plate mounted on a Titan Krios equipped with a Falcon-II direct electron detector. The data show patches of single-layer antibodies on the surface and C1 bound to antibody platforms, with ca. ∼4% of instances where C1r and C1s proteases have dissociated from C1, and potentially instances of C1 transiently interacting with its substrate C4 or product C4b. Next, extensive deposition of C4b and C3b molecules is apparent, although individual molecules cannot always be properly distinguished with the current methods. Observations of MAC pores include formation of both single and composite pores, and instances of potential soluble-MAC dissociation upon failure of membrane insertion. Overall, application of the Volta phase plate cryoET markedly improved the contrast in the tomograms, which allowed for individual components to be more readily interpreted. However, variability in the phase shift induced by the phase-plate during the course of an experiment, together with incomplete sampling during tomogram acquisition, limited the interpretability of the resulting tomograms. Our studies exemplify the potential in studying molecular processes with complex spatial topologies by phase-plate cryoET. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of initial thermomechanical treatment on high temperature properties of laves phase strengthened ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talik, Michal

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this work was to design 17 wt%Cr Laves phase strengthened HiperFer (High performance Ferrite) steels and evaluate their properties. This class of steel is supposed to be used in Advanced Ultra Super Critical power plants. Such cycles exhibit higher efficiency and are environmentally friendly, but improved materials with high resistance to reside/steam oxidation and sufficient creep strength are required. The work focused on the characterization of creep properties of 17Cr2.5W0.5Nb0.25Si heat resistant steel. Small batches of steels with nominal compositions of 17Cr3W0.5Nb0.25Si and 17Cr3W0.9Nb0.25Si were used to analyze the influence of chemical composition on the precipitation behaviour in comparison to 17Cr2.5W0.5Nb0.25Si steel. Creep strength of HiperFer steels is ensured by ne dispersion of thermodynamically stable Laves phase particles, while maintaining high corrosion resistance by a relatively high chromium content. Design of HiperFer steels was accomplished by thermodynamic modeling (Thermocalc) with the main tasks of elimination of the unwelcome brittle (Fe,Cr)-σ phase and maximization of the content of the strengthening C14 Fe{sub 2}Nb type Laves phase particles. Long term annealing experiments of all HiperFer steels were performed at 650 C in order to evaluate the role of chemical composition and initial thermo-mechanical treatment state on precipitation behaviour. Laves phase particles formed quickly after few hours and the size of precipitates did not change significantly within 1,000 hours. The observed development of Laves phase particles was compared with thermodynamical calculations (TC-Prisma). The creep properties of 17Cr2.5W0.5Nb0.25Si steel in different initial thermo-mechanical treatment states were tested at 650 C. The influence of different cold rolling procedures, and heat treatments was investigated. Increased cold rolling deformation had a positive effect resulting not only from work hardening, but from the acceleration of

  3. The basic research on the CDA initiation phase for a metallic fuel FBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Go; Hirakawa, Naohiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Kawada, Ken-ichi; Niwa, Hazime

    1998-03-01

    A metallic fuel with novel design has received great deal of interest recently as an option of advanced fuel to be substituted MOX fuel, however, the behavior at the transient has not been studied in many aspects. Therefore, for the purpose to show the basic tendency of the behavior and released energy at CDA (core disruptive accident) for a metallic fuel FBR and to prepare the basic knowledge for consideration of the adoption of the advanced fuel, Tohoku University and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation have made a joint research entitled. (1) Target and Results of analysis: The accident initiator considered is a LOF accident with ATWS. The LOF analysis was performed for a metallic fuel 600 MWe homogeneous two region core at the beginning of cycle, both for an ordinary metallic fuel core and for a metallic fuel core with ZrH pins. It was necessary mainly to change the constants of input parameters to apply the code for the analysis of a metallic fueled reactor. These changes were made by assuming appropriate models. Basic LOF cases and all blackout case that assumed using electromagnetic pumps were analyzed. The results show that the basic LOF cases for a metallic fuel core and all the cases for a metallic fuel core with ZrH pins could be avoided to become prompt-critical, and mildly transfer to the transient phase. (2) Improvement of CDA initiation phase analysis code: At present, it is difficult for the code to adapt to the large material movement to in the core at the transient. Therefore, the nuclear calculation model in the code was improved by using the adiabatic space dependent kinetics. The results of a sample case, that is a metallic fueled core at the beginning of cycle, show this improvement is appropriate. (3) Conclusion: The behavior at CDA of a metallic fueled core of a fast reactor was analyzed using the CDA initiation phase analysis code and the knowledge of the important characteristics at the CDA initiation phase was obtained

  4. Control of Single-Stage Single-Phase PV inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the issue of control strategies for single-stage photovoltaic (PV) inverter is addressed. Two different current controllers have been implemented and an experimental comparison between them has been made. A complete control structure for the single-phase PV system is also presented....... The main elements of the PV control structure are: - a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) algorithm using the incremental conductance method; - a synchronization method using the phase-locked-loop (PLL), based on delay; - the input power control using the dc voltage controller and power feed......-forward; - and the grid current controller implemented in two different ways, using the classical proportional integral (PI) and the novel proportional resonant (PR) controllers. The control strategy was tested experimentally on 1.5 kW PV inverter....

  5. Velocity control in three-phase induction motors using PIC; Controle de velocidade de motor de inducao trifasico usando PIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcelino, M.A.; Silva, G.B.S.; Grandinetti, F.J. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia; Universidade de Taubate (UNITAU), SP (Brazil)], Emails: abud@feg.unesp.br, gabonini@yahoo.com.br, grandinetti@unitau.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a technique for speed control three-phase induction motor using the pulse width modulation (PWM), in open loop while maintaining the tension for constant frequency. The technique is adapted from a thesis entitled 'Control of the three-phase induction motor, using discrete PWM generation, optimized and synchronized', where studies are presented aimed at their application in home appliances, to eliminate mechanical parts, replaced by low cost electronic control, thus having a significant reduction in power consumption. Initially the experiment was done with the Intel 80C31 micro controller. In this paper, the PWM modulation is implemented using a PIC micro controller, and the speed control kept a low profile, based on tables, synchronized with transitions and reduced generation of harmonics in the network. Confirmations were made using the same process of building tables, but takes advantage of the program of a RISC device.

  6. Factors controlling the initiation of Snowball Earth events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, A.

    2012-12-01

    During the Neoproterozoic glaciations tropical continents were covered by active glaciers that extended down to sea level. To explain these glaciers, the Snowball Earth hypothesis assumes that oceans were completely sea-ice covered during these glaciation, but there is an ongoing debate whether or not some regions of the tropical oceans remained open. In this talk, I will describe past and ongoing climate modelling activities with the comprehensive coupled climate model ECHAM5/MPI-OM that identify and compare factors that control the initiation of Snowball Earth events. I first show that shifting the continents from their present-day location to their Marinoan (635 My BP) low-latitude location increases the planetary albedo, cools the climate, and thereby allows Snowball Earth initiation at higher levels of total solar irradiance and atmospheric CO2. I then present simulations with successively lowered bare sea-ice albedo, disabled sea-ice dynamics, and switched-off ocean heat transport. These simulations show that both lowering the bare sea-ice albedo and disabling sea-ice dynamics increase the critical sea-ice cover in ECHAM5/MPI-OM, but sea-ice dynamics due to strong equatorward sea-ice transport have a much larger influence on the critical CO2. Disabling sea-ice transport allows a state with sea-ice margin at 10 deg latitude by virtue of the Jormungand mechanism. The accumulation of snow on land, in combination with tropical land temperatures below or close to freezing, suggests that tropical land glaciers could easily form in such a state. However, in contrast to aquaplanet simulations without ocean heat transport, there is no sign of a Jormungand hysteresis in the coupled simulations. Ocean heat transport is not responsible for the lack of a Jormungand hysteresis in the coupled simulations. By relating the above findings to previous studies, I will outline promising future avenues of research on the initiation of Snowball Earth events. In particular, an

  7. Fast, optically controlled Kerr phase shifter for digital signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R B; Deng, L; Hagley, E W; Payne, M G; Bienfang, J C; Levine, Z H

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrate an optically controlled Kerr phase shifter using a room-temperature 85Rb vapor operating in a Raman gain scheme. Phase shifts from zero to π relative to an unshifted reference wave are observed, and gated operations are demonstrated. We further demonstrate the versatile digital manipulation of encoded signal light with an encoded phase-control light field using an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Generalizations of this scheme should be capable of full manipulation of a digitized signal field at high speed, opening the door to future applications.

  8. Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project. Phase 1; The Critical Components to Simulate Cirrus Initiation Explicitly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David OC; DeMott, Paul J.; Cotton, Richard; Sassen, Kenneth; Jensen, Eric; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project, a project of the GCSS (GEWEX Cloud System Studies) Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems, involves the systematic comparison of current models of ice crystal nucleation and growth for specified, typical, cirrus cloud environments. In Phase I of the project reported here, simulated cirrus cloud microphysical properties are compared for situations of "warm" (40 C) and "cold" (-60 C) cirrus, both subject to updrafts of 4, 20 and 100 centimeters per second. Five models participated. The various models employ explicit microphysical schemes wherein the size distribution of each class of particles (aerosols and ice crystals) is resolved into bins or treated separately. Simulations are made including both the homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanisms. A single initial aerosol population of sulfuric acid particles is prescribed for all simulations. To isolate the treatment of the homogeneous freezing (of haze droplets) nucleation process, the heterogeneous nucleation mechanism is disabled for a second parallel set of simulations. Qualitative agreement is found for the homogeneous-nucleation- only simulations, e.g., the number density of nucleated ice crystals increases with the strength of the prescribed updraft. However, significant quantitative differences are found. Detailed analysis reveals that the homogeneous nucleation rate, haze particle solution concentration, and water vapor uptake rate by ice crystal growth (particularly as controlled by the deposition coefficient) are critical components that lead to differences in predicted microphysics. Systematic bias exists between results based on a modified classical theory approach and models using an effective freezing temperature approach to the treatment of nucleation. Each approach is constrained by critical freezing data from laboratory studies, but each includes assumptions that can only be justified by further laboratory research. Consequently, it is not yet

  9. Surface and Interface Control on Photochemically Initiated Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Li; Engelhard, Mark H.; Yan, Mingdi

    2006-11-01

    Surface and interface properties are important in controlling the yield and efficiency of the photochemically initiated immobilization. Using a silane-functionalized perfluorophenylazide (PFPA-silane) as the photoactive crosslinker, the immobilization of polymers was studied by adjusting the density of the surface azido groups. Dilution of the photolinker resulted in a gradual decrease in the density of surface azido groups as well as the thickness of the immobilized film. When a non-photoactive silane was added to PFPA-silane, the film thickness decreased more rapidly, indicating that the additive competed with PFPA-silane and effectively reduced the density of the surface azido groups. The effect of surface topography was studied by adding a non-photoactive silane with either a shorter (n-propyltrimethoxysilane (PTMS)) or a longer spacer (n-octadecyltrimethoxysilane (ODTMS)). In most cases the long chain ODTMS shielded the surface azido groups resulting in more rapid decrease in film thickness as compared to PTMS treated under the same conditions. As the density of the surface azido groups decreased, the immobilized polymer changed from smooth films to patched structures, and eventually single polymer molecules.

  10. Controlled initial surge despite high drug fraction and high solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar Das, Srilekha; Lucas, Anne D; Carlin, Alan S; Zheng, Jiwen; Patwardhan, Dinesh V; Saylor, David M

    2017-02-01

    Potential connections between release profiles and solvent evaporation rates alongside polymer chemistry were elucidated for the release of tetracycline hydrochloride from two different poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) film matrices containing high drug fractions (50%, 30%, and 15%), and prepared at two distinct solvent evaporation rates. At highest tetracycline concentrations (50%), (i) the early release rates were ≤0.5 μg/min in all cases; (ii) release was linear from systems fabricated with lower lactic content and slower solvent evaporation rate and bimodal from systems fabricated with higher lactic content and faster evaporation rate; (iii) surface fractions covered by the drug were similar at both evaporation rates for 85:15 PLGA but very different for 50:50 PLGA, leading to unexpectedly reduced early release from 50:50 PLGA than from 85:15 PLGA when both the matrices were fabricated using a slower evaporation rate. These features remained unaffected in case of low drug concentration. Results suggested that during the formation of the drug-polymer microstructure, the combined effect of polymer chemistry and solvent evaporation rate sets apart the surface characteristics and the initial release profiles of systems containing high drug fraction, and an appropriate combination of these parameters may be utilized to control the early stage of drug release.

  11. Initial design of a stall-controlled wind turbine rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygaard, T.A. [Inst. for Energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway)

    1997-08-01

    A model intended for initial design of stall-controlled wind turbine rotors is described. The user specifies relative radial position of an arbitrary number of airfoil sections, referring to a data file containing lift-and drag curves. The data file is on the same format as used in the commercial blade-element code BLADES-/2/, where lift- and drag coefficients are interpolated from tables as function of Reynolds number, relative thickness and angle of attack. The user can set constraints on a selection of the following: Maximum power; Maximum thrust in operation; Maximum root bending moment in operation; Extreme root bending moment, parked rotor; Tip speed; Upper and lower bounds on optimisation variables. The optimisation variables can be selected from: Blade radius; Rotational speed; Chord and twist at an arbitrary number of radial positions. The user can chose linear chord distribution and a hyperbola-like twist distribution to ensure smooth planform and twist, or cubic spline interpolation for one or both. The aerodynamic model is based on classical strip theory with Prandtl tip loss correction, supplemented by empirical data for high induction factors. (EG)

  12. Initial Droplet Size Impacts pH-Induced Structural Changes in Phase-Separated Polymer Dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongkaew, Chutima; Zeeb, Benjamin; Gibis, Monika; Hinrichs, Jörg; Weiss, Jochen

    2016-05-01

    The effect of pH change on the morphology of whey protein isolate (WPI)-pectin dispersions obtained from phase-separated systems after mild shear was studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of mixing speed on the initial particle size of biopolymer complexes and their structure morphology after sequentially changing the pH. Therefore, solutions of WPI and pectin were combined at pH 6.1, allowed to phase separate and were then mildly homogenized at 50, 100, and 150 rpm, respectively, to form a dispersion containing differently sized WPI droplets in a surrounding pectin-rich phase. Each dispersion was then subjected to a pH change, such as 6.1 to 5.2 and 3.2, by slowly adding hydrochloric acid. The systems morphology, size, appearance, rheology, and storage stability was then characterized by optical microscopy, static light scattering, visual inspections, and steady shear rheometry to gain insights into the structural rearrangements. Results indicated substantial changes in the structure of the dispersion when the pH was changed. Formation of core-shell structures from the WPI droplets was observed at an intermediate pH. There, initial droplet size was found to affect structures formed, that is, core-shell type particles would only form if droplets were large (>1.5 μm) prior to pH change. Insights gained may be of importance to food manufacturers intending to create new structures from mixtures of proteins and carbohydrates. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A dephosphorylation is required for translational arrest in stationary phase cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Janete; Rocha, Antonio A; Tonelli, Renata R; Castilho, Beatriz A; Schenkman, Sergio

    2013-04-15

    The protein known as eIF5A (eukaryotic initiation factor 5A) has an elusive role in translation. It has a unique and essential hypusine modification at a conserved lysine residue in most eukaryotes. In addition, this protein is modified by phosphorylation with unknown functions. In the present study we show that a phosphorylated state of eIF5A predominates in exponentially growing Trypanosoma cruzi cells, and extensive dephosphorylation occurs in cells in stationary phase. Phosphorylation occurs mainly at Ser(2), as shown in yeast eIF5A. In addition, a novel phosphorylation site was identified at Tyr(21). In exponential cells, T. cruzi eIF5A is partially associated with polysomes, compatible with a proposed function as an elongation factor, and becomes relatively enriched in polysomal fractions in stationary phase. Overexpression of the wild-type eIF5A, or eIF5A with Ser(2) replaced by an aspartate residue, but not by alanine, increases the rate of cell proliferation and protein synthesis. However, the presence of an aspartate residue instead of Ser(2) is toxic for cells reaching the stationary phase, which show a less-pronounced protein synthesis arrest and a decreased amount of eIF5A in dense fractions of sucrose gradients. We conclude that eIF5A phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cycles regulate translation according to the growth conditions.

  14. Morphology and phase control of iron oxide polymorph nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongtao; Wang, Li; Shi, Min; Li, Yanhong

    2017-04-01

    In this work, lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) nanobundles were prepared by a facile NH4F assisted epoxide precipitation route. The reactions between epoxide and [Fe(H2O)6]2+ promoted the hydrolysis and condensation of [Fe(H2O)6]2+, resulting in the formation of iron oxyhydroxide. After calcination of γ-FeOOH nanobundles at 400 °C, the produced α-Fe2O3 still kept the bundle morphology. Due to the unique chemistry of epoxide, the morphology and phase of iron oxide polymorph nanoparticles (goethite, akaganeite, lepidocrocite, magnetite) were well-controlled through controlling reaction conditions such as Fe2+ concentration, NH4F additive and reaction temperature. It is particularly interesting that NH4F working as phase controlling agent is able to control the phase development of iron oxyhydroxides. This phase control effect of NH4F is attributed to the promoted reaction rate of epoxide originating from the higher electronegativity of fluoride ions than chloride ions. Based on the results in this work and our other preliminary works, it is considered that this route can be used as a general strategy for controlling the morphology and phase of transition element compounds.

  15. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors as Initial Therapy for Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Accelerated Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohanian, Maro; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Quintas-Cardama, Alfonso; Jabbour, Elias; Abruzzo, Lynne; Verstovsek, Srdan; Borthakur, Gautam; Ravandi, Farhad; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Champlin, Richard; Pierce, Sherry; Alattar, Mona Lisa; Trinh, Long Xuan; Luthra, Raja; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Kadia, Tapan; O’Brien, Susan; Cortes, Jorge E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Accelerated phase CML (CML-AP) most frequently represents a progression state in CML. However, some patients present with AP features at the time of diagnosis. There is limited information on the outcome of these patients when receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) as initial therapy. Methods We analyzed the outcome of 51 consecutive patients with CML who presented with features of AP at the time of diagnosis, including blasts ≥15% (n=6), basophils ≥20%, (n=22), platelets <100×109/L (n=3), cytogenetic clonal evolution (n=17), or more than 1 feature (n=3). Patients received initial therapy with imatinib (n=30), dasatinib (n=5) or nilotinib (n=16). Results The rate of complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) for patients treated with imatinib was 80%, and with dasatinib or nilotinib was 90%. Major molecular response (MMR, BCR-ABL/ABL ≤0.1%, by International Scale [IS]) was achieved in 69% including complete molecular responses (MR4.5, BCR-ABL/ABL ≤0.0032% IS) in 49%. MMR rates for patients treated with imatinib were 63%, and with second generation TKI (2GTKIs) 76%. Overall survival at 36 months was 87% with imatinib and 95% with 2GTKI’s. Conclusion TKIs should be considered standard initial therapy for patients with AP at the time of diagnosis. PMID:24332214

  16. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors as initial therapy for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in accelerated phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohanian, Maro; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Quintas-Cardama, Alfonso; Jabbour, Elias; Abruzzo, Lynne; Verstovsek, Srdan; Borthakur, Gautam; Ravandi, Farhad; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Champlin, Richard; Pierce, Sherry; Alattar, Mona Lisa; Trinh, Long Xuan; Luthra, Raja; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Kadia, Tapan; O'Brien, Susan; Cortes, Jorge E

    2014-04-01

    Accelerated phase CML most frequently represents a progression state in CML. However, some patients present with AP features at the time of diagnosis. There is limited information on the outcome of these patients who received TKIs as initial therapy. We analyzed the outcome of 51 consecutive patients with CML who presented with features of AP at the time of diagnosis, including blasts ≥ 15% (n = 6), basophils ≥ 20% (n = 22), platelets < 100 × 10(9)/L (n = 3), cytogenetic clonal evolution (n = 17), or more than 1 feature (n = 3). Patients received initial therapy with imatinib (n = 30), dasatinib (n = 5), or nilotinib (n = 16). The rate of complete cytogenetic response for patients treated with imatinib was 80%, and with dasatinib or nilotinib was 90%. Major molecular response (MMR) (Breakpoint Cluster Region (BCR)-Abelson (ABL)/ABL ≤ 0.1%, International Scale [IS]) was achieved in 69% of patients including complete molecular response (BCR-ABL/ABL ≤ 0.0032% IS) in 49%. MMR rates for patients treated with imatinib were 63%, and with 2GTKIs, 76%. Overall survival at 36 months was 87% with imatinib and 95% with 2GTKIs. TKIs should be considered standard initial therapy for patients with AP at the time of diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Initial results of local grid control using wind farms with grid support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Iov, F.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes initial results with simulation of power system control using wind farms with grid support.......This report describes initial results with simulation of power system control using wind farms with grid support....

  18. A single phase photovoltaic inverter control for grid connected system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    e-mail: aurobind.panda@gmail.com. MS received 15 October 2014; revised 2 June 2015; accepted 16 October 2015. Abstract. This paper presents a control scheme for single phase grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system operating under both grid connected and isolated grid mode. The control techniques include voltage ...

  19. Torque ripple reduction in direct torque controlled five-phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yogesh Tatte

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... In [10], a sensorless DTC-controlled five-phase. IM drive is proposed, wherein the voltage vectors are selected so that the x–y stator flux is eliminated with full utilization of dc-bus voltage. In [11], the predictive torque control technique is introduced as an alternative to clas- sical DTC, wherein the torque ...

  20. Response of rice plants to heat stress during initiation of panicle primordia or grain-filling phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Restrepo-Diaz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaf photosynthesis, a major determinant for yield sustainability in rice, is greatly conditioned by high temperature stress during growth. The effect of short-term high temperatures on leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, Fv/Fm, SPAD readings and yield characteristics was studied in two Colombian rice cultivars. Two genotypes, cv. Fedearroz 50 (F50 and cv. Fedearroz 733 (F733 were used in pot experiments with heat stress treatment (Plants were exposed to 40°C for two and half hours for five consecutive days and natural temperature (control treatment. Heat treatments were carried out at the initiation of panicle primordial (IP or grain-filling (GF phases. The results showed that short-term high temperature stress produced a reduction on the photosynthesis rate in both cultivars either IP or GF phases. Similar trends were found on stomatal conductance in all cases due to high temperatures. Although Fv/Fm and SPAD readings were not affected by high temperatures, these variables diminished significantly among phenological phases. 'F733' rice plants showed higher number spikelet sterility due to heat stress treatments. These results seem to indicate that heat-tolerant cultivars of rice is associated with high levels of photosynthesis rate in leaves.

  1. Three-phase power factor controller with induced EMF sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A power factor controller for an ac induction motor is provided which is of the type comprising thyristor switches connected in series with the motor, phase detectors for sensing the motor current and voltage and providing an output proportional to the phase difference between the motor voltage and current, and a control circuit, responsive to the output of the phase detector and to a power factor command signal, for controlling switching of the thyristor. The invention involves sensing the induced emf produced by the motor during the time interval when the thyristor is off and for producing a corresponding feedback signal for controlling switching of the thyristor. The sensed emf is also used to enhance soft starting of the motor.

  2. Ab initio quantum-enhanced optical phase estimation using real-time feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berni, Adriano; Gehring, Tobias; Nielsen, Bo Melholt

    2015-01-01

    as demonstrated in a variety of different optical systems(3-8). Most of these accounts, however, deal with the measurement of a very small shift of an already known phase, which is in stark contrast to ab initio phase estimation where the initial phase is unknown(9-12). Here, we report on the realization...... of a quantum-enhanced and fully deterministic ab initio phase estimation protocol based on real-time feedback control. Using robust squeezed states of light combined with a real-time Bayesian adaptive estimation algorithm, we demonstrate deterministic phase estimation with a precision beyond the quantum shot...... noise limit. The demonstrated protocol opens up new opportunities for quantum microscopy, quantum metrology and quantum information processing....

  3. DSP Based Vector Control of Five-Phase Induction Using Fuzzy Logic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria Mohamed Salem

    2012-01-01

    Abstract - This paper proposes an indirect field oriented controller for five-phase induction motor drives. The controller is based on fuzzy logic control technique. Simulation is carried out by using the Matlab/Simulink package. A complete control system experimentally implemented using digital signal processing (DSP) board. The performance of the proposed system is investigated at different operating conditions. The proposed controller is robust and suitable to high performance five-phase i...

  4. 78 FR 57391 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Capacity...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Times and Dates...

  5. 77 FR 5026 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control SEP: Occupational Safety and Health Education and Research...

  6. Historical analysis indicates seepage control on initiation of meandering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhout, J.P.C.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Makaske, B.

    2013-01-01

    In analytical and numerical models of river meandering, initiation of meandering typically occurs uniformly along the streamwise coordinate in the channel. Based on a historical analysis of the Nierskanaal, here we show how and under which circumstances meandering has initiated in isolated sections

  7. Immunomodulatory Factors Control the Fate of Melanoma Tumor Initiating Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuccitto, A.; Tazzari, M.; Beretta, V.; Rini, F.; Miranda, C.; Greco, A; Santinami, M.; Patuzzo, R.; Vergani, B.; Villa, A.; Manenti, G.; Cleris, L.; Giardiello, D.; Alison, M.; Rivoltini, L.; Castelli, C.; Perego, M.

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is a highly heterogeneous tumor for which recent evidence supports a model of dynamic stemness. Melanoma cells might temporally acquire tumor-initiating properties or switch from a status of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) to a more differentiated one depending on the tumor context. However,

  8. Electrically controllable spontaneous magnetism in nanoscale mixed phase multiferroics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q; Chu, Y-H; Heron, J T; Yang, S Y; Liang, W I; Kuo, C Y; Lin, H J; Yu, P; Liang, C W; Zeches, R J; Kuo, W C; Juang, J Y; Chen, C T; Arenholz, E; Scholl, A; Ramesh, R

    2011-01-01

    Magnetoelectrics and multiferroics present exciting opportunities for electric-field control of magnetism. However, there are few room-temperature ferromagnetic-ferroelectrics. Among the various types of multiferroics the bismuth ferrite system has received much attention primarily because both the ferroelectric and the antiferromagnetic orders are quite robust at room temperature. Here we demonstrate the emergence of an enhanced spontaneous magnetization in a strain-driven rhombohedral and super-tetragonal mixed phase of BiFeO₃. Using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism-based photoemission electron microscopy coupled with macroscopic magnetic measurements, we find that the spontaneous magnetization of the rhombohedral phase is significantly enhanced above the canted antiferromagnetic moment in the bulk phase, as a consequence of a piezomagnetic coupling to the adjacent tetragonal-like phase and the epitaxial constraint. Reversible electric-field control and manipulation of this magnetic moment at room temperature is also shown.

  9. Application benefits of single-phase digitally controlled vacuum reclosers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadbury, J.E. [Cooper Industries, South Milwaukee, WI (United States). Cooper Power Systems

    1994-12-31

    The merging of digital control technology and vacuum interruption technology has given engineers a tool that allows them to successfully coordinate parts of their system where compromises would have been made in the past. This technology has recently been used in the area of single phase reclosers. The electronic method of recloser control is more flexible, more easily adjusted and tested, and more accurate than hydraulic control. The minimum trip level chosen does not alter the maximum continuous current capacity of the recloser as with traditional hydraulic control. The sequence coordination feature greatly enhances coordination. These benefits can all be provided without the need for additional distribution transformers, arresters, or other auxiliary power supplies. Installation costs of digitally controlled reclosers remain the same as the installation costs of hydraulic reclosers. Because of the innovations, single-phase digitally-controlled vacuum reclosers lend themselves to many specific applications. These would include long rural lines where several single phase reclosers are in series, single phase taps close to the substation where potential fault currents run high, remote areas where supervisory control and status indication would most likely be utilized, and in climates with low temperature extremes.

  10. Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission: Status at the Initiation of the Science Mapping Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Asmar, Sami W.; Alomon; Konopliv, Alexander S.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Melosh, H. Jay; Neumann, Gregory A.; Phillips. Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, a component of NASA's Discovery Program, launched successfully from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on September 10, 2011. The dual spacecraft traversed independent, low-energy trajectories to the Moon via the EL-1 Lagrange point and inserted into elliptical, 11.5-hour polar orbits around the Moon on December 31, 2011, and January 1, 2012. The spacecraft are currently executing a series of maneuvers to circularize their orbits at 55-km mean altitude. Once the mapping orbit is achieved, the spacecraft will undergo additional maneuvers to align them into mapping configuration. The mission is on track to initiate the Science Phase on March 8, 2012.

  11. Essential oils in the initial phase of broodstock diets of Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Freccia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of feed supplementation (at doses of 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg with SALUTO®, a microencapsulated blend of essential oils including carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, 1,8-cineol, and pepper oleoresin, in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus broodstock on reproductive and growth parameters during the initial phase of rearing. The growth parameters, somatic indexes and gonadal and hepatic parameters were analyzed. Quantitative parameters of growth, ovary fat and crude protein were not affected by supplementation of the additive. However, an increase in crude protein in the female liver was observed in correlation with increased essential oil levels. The female hepatosomatic index was also correlated with supplementation of essential oils. Feeding Nile tilapia broodstock diets containing an essential oil compound (SALUTO® affects only the females, promoting an increase in liver protein inclusion and hepatosomatic index without impairing performance.

  12. Control of the spin geometric phase in semiconductor quantum rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Fumiya; Frustaglia, Diego; Saarikoski, Henri; Richter, Klaus; Nitta, Junsaku

    2013-01-01

    Since the formulation of the geometric phase by Berry, its relevance has been demonstrated in a large variety of physical systems. However, a geometric phase of the most fundamental spin-1/2 system, the electron spin, has not been observed directly and controlled independently from dynamical phases. Here we report experimental evidence on the manipulation of an electron spin through a purely geometric effect in an InGaAs-based quantum ring with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. By applying an in-plane magnetic field, a phase shift of the Aharonov-Casher interference pattern towards the small spin-orbit-coupling regions is observed. A perturbation theory for a one-dimensional Rashba ring under small in-plane fields reveals that the phase shift originates exclusively from the modulation of a pure geometric-phase component of the electron spin beyond the adiabatic limit, independently from dynamical phases. The phase shift is well reproduced by implementing two independent approaches, that is, perturbation theory and non-perturbative transport simulations.

  13. Fully controlled 5-phase, 10-pulse, line commutated rectifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud I. Masoud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development and production of multiphase machines either generators or motors, specially five-phase, offers improved performance compared to three-phase counterpart. Five phase generators could generate power in applications such as, but not limited to, wind power generation, electric vehicles, aerospace, and oil and gas. The five-phase generator output requires converter system such as ac–dc converters. In this paper, a fully controlled 10-pulse line commutated rectifier, suitable to be engaged with wind energy applications, fed from five-phase source is introduced. A shunt active power filter (APF is used to improve power factor and supply current total harmonic distortion (THD. Compared to three-phase converters, 6-pulse or 12-pulse rectifiers, the 10-pulse rectifier engaged with 5-phase source alleviate their drawbacks such as high dc ripples and no need for electric gear or phase shifting transformer. MATLAB/SIMULINK platform is used as a simulation tool to investigate the performance of the proposed rectifier.

  14. Impact of proprioception during the oral phase on initiating the swallowing reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hikaru; Saitoh, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    We hypothesized that proprioceptive signals during the oral phase play a pivotal role in the initiation of pharyngeal phase during volitional swallowing. Therefore, we tested if swallowing could be modified by changing the amount of proprioceptive feedback from a number of different receptors while holding a food bolus in the mouth and clenching. Basic research. Surface electromyography (sEMG) recordings of the masticatory muscles were obtained during volitional swallowing movements from seven healthy adults with no clinical history of swallowing difficulties. The swallowing procedure involved holding 5 ml of jelly on the tongue before swallowing it completely, according to visual cues on a computer display. Initiation of the swallowing reflex was detected by an anterior shift of the thyroid cartilage using a laser displacement sensor and by submental sEMG signals. To vary the proprioceptive input, the participants were instructed to occlude their teeth at various intensities (weak, intermediate, and strong) while holding the 5-ml jelly bolus on the tongue. Rectified and integrated sEMG (iEMG) signals obtained from the submental area showed two upward deflections. Contractile forces of the masseter muscles showed significant negative values for Pearson correlation coefficient against time intervals from the onset of the second submental iEMG deflection to the onset of the anterior shift of the thyroid cartilage in six of the seven participants (average -0.534, standard deviation 0.176). Contractile forces of the masseter muscles during occlusion tended to correlate negatively with electromechanical delays on suprahyoid muscle contraction. NA Laryngoscope, 126:1595-1599, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Phase transformations in a human tooth tissue at the initial stage of caries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Seredin

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to study phase transformations in solid tissues of the human teeth during the development of fissure caries by Raman and fluorescence microspectroscopy. The study of the areas with fissure caries confirmed the assumption of the formation of a weak interaction between phosphate apatite enamel and organic acids (products of microorganisms. The experimental results obtained with by Raman microspectroscopy showed the formation of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate - CaHPO4-2H2O in the area of mural demineralization of carious fissure. A comparative analysis of structural and spectroscopic data for the intact and carious enamel shows that emergence of a more soluble phase - carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite - is typical for the initial stage of caries. It is shown that microareas of dental hard tissues in the carious fissure due to an emerging misorientation of apatite crystals have a higher fluorescence yield than the area of the intact enamel. These areas can be easily detected even prior to a deep demineralization (white spot stage for the case of irreversibly changed organomineral complex and intensive removal of the mineral component.

  16. Phase Transformations in a Human Tooth Tissue at the Initial Stage of Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prutskij, Tatiana; Ippolitov, Yury

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study phase transformations in solid tissues of the human teeth during the development of fissure caries by Raman and fluorescence microspectroscopy. The study of the areas with fissure caries confirmed the assumption of the formation of a weak interaction between phosphate apatite enamel and organic acids (products of microorganisms). The experimental results obtained with by Raman microspectroscopy showed the formation of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate - CaHPO4-2H2O in the area of mural demineralization of carious fissure. A comparative analysis of structural and spectroscopic data for the intact and carious enamel shows that emergence of a more soluble phase - carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite - is typical for the initial stage of caries. It is shown that microareas of dental hard tissues in the carious fissure due to an emerging misorientation of apatite crystals have a higher fluorescence yield than the area of the intact enamel. These areas can be easily detected even prior to a deep demineralization (white spot stage) for the case of irreversibly changed organomineral complex and intensive removal of the mineral component. PMID:25901743

  17. Phase Contrast Imaging of Damage Initiation During Ballistic Impact of Boron Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Brian; Tonge, Andrew; Ramos, Kyle; Rigg, Paulo; Iverson, Adam; Schuman, Adam; Lorenzo, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    For several decades, flash X-ray imaging has been used to perform time-resolved investigations of the response of ceramics under ballistic impact. Traditional absorption based contrast offers little insight into the early initiation of inelastic deformation mechanisms and instead typically only shows the gross deformation and fracture behavior. In the present work, we employed phase contrast imaging (PCI) at the Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS) at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, to investigate crack initiation and propagation following the impact of copper penetrators into boron carbide targets. These experiments employed a single-stage propellant gun to launch small-scale (0.6 mm diameter by 3 mm long) pure copper impactors at velocities ranging from 0.9 to 1.9 km/s into commercially available boron carbide targets that were 8 mm on a side. At the lowest striking velocities the penetrator undergoes dwell or interface defeat and the target response is consistent with the cone crack formation at the impact site. At higher striking velocities there is a distinct transition to massive fragmentation leading to the onset of penetration.

  18. Stability Analysis of Digital Controlled Single-Phase Inverter with Synchronous Reference Frame Voltage Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yang; Fang, Xu; Yang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Stability analysis of single-phase power converters controlled in stationary reference frame is now mature and well developed, by using either linear or nonlinear methods. However, for the single-phase converters with synchronous reference frame (SRF) control loops, little work has been done...

  19. Stability Analysis of Digital Controlled SinglePhase Inverter with Synchronous Reference Frame Voltage Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yang; Fang, Xy; Yang, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Stability analysis of single-phase power converters controlled in stationary reference frame is now mature and well developed, by using either linear or nonlinear methods. However, for the single-phase converters with synchronous reference frame (SRF) control loops, little work has been done...

  20. Force systems in the initial phase of orthodontic treatment -- a comparison of different leveling arch wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuck, Lars-Michael; Drescher, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    The determination of orthodontically-effective forces and moments places great demands on the technical equipment. Many patients report severe pain after fixed appliance insertion. Since it is assumed that pain from orthodontic appliances is associated with the force and moment levels applied to the teeth and since the occurrence of root resorption is a common therapeutic side effect, it would seem important to know the actual magnitudes of the components of the active orthodontic force systems. The aim of the present study was therefore to measure initial force systems produced by different leveling arch-wires in a complete multi-bracket appliance and to assess whether force and moment levels can be regarded as biologically acceptable or not. The actual bracket position in 42 patients was transferred onto a measurement model. Forces and moments produced by a super-elastic nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwire, a 6-strand stainless steel archwire, and a 7-strand super-elastic NiTi archwire were determined experimentally on different teeth. Average forces and moments produced by the super-elastic NiTi arch wires were found to be the highest. In spite if their larger diameter, the stranded arch wires' average force and moment levels were lower, especially that of the stranded super-elastic archwire. Nevertheless, maximum force levels sometimes exceeded recommended values in the literature and must be considered as too high. The measured arch wires' initial force systems differed significantly depending on the type of archwire and its material structure. Stranded arch wires produced lower force and moment levels, and we recommend their use in the initial phase of orthodontic treatment.

  1. Energy constraints in pulsed phase control of chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meucci, R., E-mail: riccardo.meucci@ino.it [Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Euzzor, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Zambrano, S. [Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milano (Italy); Pugliese, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Firenze, Via G. La Pira 4, 50100 Firenze (Italy); Francini, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Arecchi, F.T. [Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Università di Firenze, Firenze (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    Phase control of chaos is a powerful technique but little is known about its physical constraints, relevant for real systems. As a fact, it has not been explored whether this technique can also be applied when the controlling perturbation is not harmonic. Here we apply phase control on a driven double well Duffing oscillator using periodic rectangular pulsed perturbations instead of the classical sinusoidal perturbations. Experimental measurements and numerical simulations show that this kind of perturbation is also able to stabilize the chaotic orbits for an adequate selection of the phase. Furthermore, as the duty cycle of the perturbation (that is, the fraction of the time that the periodically pulsed control is active) is increased, two separate regimes occur. In the first one, the perturbations leading to stabilization of periodic solutions are of constant energy (taken as the product of the duty cycle and the amplitude) and in the second one, a saturation phenomenon occurs, implying that increasing energy values of the perturbations are wasted. Our results unveil the versatility of the pulsed phase control scheme and the importance of energy constraints.

  2. Optical control of Berry phase in a diamond spin qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yale, Christopher G.; Heremans, F. Joseph; Zhou, Brian B.; Awschalom, David D.; Auer, Adrian; Burkard, Guido

    Geometric phase, a fascinating quantum mechanical phenomenon that arises from cyclic state evolution, is a promising avenue to realize fault-tolerant quantum information processing. Here, we demonstrate an all-optical approach to accumulate a geometric phase, or Berry phase, within a solid-state spin qubit, the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. With stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), we evolve two light fields to cycle the resulting dark state of a low temperature lambda system in a `tangerine slice' trajectory that we examine through time-resolved state tomography. This type of trajectory acquires a Berry phase which we then measure through phase comparison to a reference state. We then probe the limits of this control as a result of adiabatic breakdown for short timescales and unintended excitation driven by far-detuned optical fields that accumulate for long timescales. We also investigate the intrinsic resilience of this Berry phase to noise introduced into the system, which is the focus of the following talk. As an all-optical approach, this geometric control represents a pathway to the development of optical geometric gates in the solid state. This work is supported by the AFOSR, the NSF, and the German Research Foundation.

  3. Semiconductor diode laser having an intracavity spatial phase controller for beam control and switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, John P.

    1994-01-01

    A high-power broad-area semiconductor laser having a intracavity spatial phase controller is disclosed. The integrated intracavity spatial phase controller is easily formed by patterning an electrical contact metallization layer when fabricating the semiconductor laser. This spatial phase controller changes the normally broad far-field emission beam of such a laser into a single-lobed near-diffraction-limited beam at pulsed output powers of over 400 mW. Two operating modes, a thermal and a gain operating mode, exist for the phase controller, allowing for steering and switching the beam as the modes of operation are switched, and the emission beam may be scanned, for example, over a range of 1.4 degrees or switched by 8 degrees. More than one spatial phase controller may be integrated into the laser structure.

  4. Broadband metasurface for independent control of reflected amplitude and phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Li Jia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose an ultra-thin metasurface to control the amplitudes and phases independently of the reflected waves by changing geometries and orientations of I-shaped metallic particles. We demonstrate that the particles can realize independent controls of reflection amplitudes and phases with a magnitude range of [0, 0.82] and a full phase range of 360° in broad frequency band. Based on such particles, two ultrathin metasurface gratings are further proposed to form anomalous reflection with polarization orthogonal to the incident waves. The simulated and measured results of the presented metasurfaces show very good agreements. The proposed method has potential applications in engineering high-efficiency holography and complex electromagnetic and optical patterns.

  5. MDCT of acute pancreatitis: Intraindividual comparison of single-phase versus dual-phase MDCT for initial assessment of acute pancreatitis using different CT scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanesov, Maxim; Weinrich, Julius M; Kraus, Thomas; Derlin, Thorsten; Adam, Gerhard; Yamamura, Jin; Karul, Murat

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the retrospective study was to evaluate the additional value of dual-phase multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) protocols over a single-phase protocol on initial MDCT in patients with acute pancreatitis using three CT-based pancreatitis severity scores with regard to radiation dose. In this retrospective, IRB approved study MDCT was performed in 102 consecutive patients (73 males; 55years, IQR48-64) with acute pancreatitis. Inclusion criteria were CT findings of interstitial edematous pancreatitis (IP) or necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) and a contrast-enhanced dual-phase (arterial phase and portal-venous phase) abdominal CT performed at ≥72h after onset of symptoms. The severity of pancreatic and extrapancreatic changes was independently assessed by 2 observers using 3 validated CT-based scoring systems (CTSI, mCTSI, EPIC). All scores were applied to arterial phase and portal venous phase scans and compared to score results of portal venous phase scans, assessed ≥14days after initial evaluation. For effective dose estimation, volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) were recorded in all examinations. In neither of the CT severity scores a significant difference was observed after application of a dual-phase protocol compared with a single-phase protocol (IP: CTSI: 2.7 vs. 2.5, p=0.25; mCTSI: 4.0 vs. 4.0, p=0.10; EPIC: 2.0 vs. 2.0, p=0.41; NP: CTSI: 8.0 vs. 7.0, p=0.64; mCTSI: 8.0 vs. 8.0, p=0.10; EPIC: 3.0 vs. 3.0, p=0.06). The application of a single-phase CT protocol was associated with a median effective dose reduction of 36% (mean dose reduction 31%) compared to a dual-phase CT scan. An initial dual-phase abdominal CT after ≥72h after onset of symptoms of acute pancreatitis was not superior to a single-phase protocol for evaluation of the severity of pancreatic and extrapancreatic changes. However, the effective radiation dose may be reduced by 36% using a single-phase protocol. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier

  6. MDCT of acute pancreatitis: Intraindividual comparison of single-phase versus dual-phase MDCT for initial assessment of acute pancreatitis using different CT scoring systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avanesov, Maxim, E-mail: m.avanesov@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Weinrich, Julius M.; Kraus, Thomas [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Derlin, Thorsten [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover Medical School (Germany); Adam, Gerhard; Yamamura, Jin [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Karul, Murat [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Objectives: The purpose of the retrospective study was to evaluate the additional value of dual-phase multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) protocols over a single-phase protocol on initial MDCT in patients with acute pancreatitis using three CT-based pancreatitis severity scores with regard to radiation dose. Methods: In this retrospective, IRB approved study MDCT was performed in 102 consecutive patients (73 males; 55years, IQR48–64) with acute pancreatitis. Inclusion criteria were CT findings of interstitial edematous pancreatitis (IP) or necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) and a contrast-enhanced dual-phase (arterial phase and portal-venous phase) abdominal CT performed at ≥72 h after onset of symptoms. The severity of pancreatic and extrapancreatic changes was independently assessed by 2 observers using 3 validated CT-based scoring systems (CTSI, mCTSI, EPIC). All scores were applied to arterial phase and portal venous phase scans and compared to score results of portal venous phase scans, assessed ≥14 days after initial evaluation. For effective dose estimation, volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) were recorded in all examinations. Results: In neither of the CT severity scores a significant difference was observed after application of a dual-phase protocol compared with a single-phase protocol (IP: CTSI: 2.7 vs. 2.5, p = 0.25; mCTSI: 4.0 vs. 4.0, p = 0.10; EPIC: 2.0 vs. 2.0, p = 0.41; NP: CTSI: 8.0 vs. 7.0, p = 0.64; mCTSI: 8.0 vs. 8.0, p = 0.10; EPIC: 3.0 vs. 3.0, p = 0.06). The application of a single-phase CT protocol was associated with a median effective dose reduction of 36% (mean dose reduction 31%) compared to a dual-phase CT scan. Conclusions: An initial dual-phase abdominal CT after ≥72 h after onset of symptoms of acute pancreatitis was not superior to a single-phase protocol for evaluation of the severity of pancreatic and extrapancreatic changes. However, the effective radiation dose may be reduced by 36% using a

  7. Controller evaluation of initial data link en route air traffic control services : ISSS design development : study 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This report documents the first Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) design : development study of an initial group of en route air traffic control (ATC) : services designed for transmission by Data Link technologies using the Initial : Sector Suite...

  8. Real time correlation function in a single phase spaceintegral--beyond the linearized semiclassical initial valuerepresentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian; Miller, William H.

    2007-07-10

    It is shown how quantum mechanical time correlation functions [defined, e.g., in Eq. (1.1)] can be expressed, without approximation, in the same form as the linearized approximation of the semiclassical initial value representation (LSC-IVR), or classical Wigner model, for the correlation function [cf. Eq. (2.1)], i.e., as a phase space average (over initial conditions for trajectories) of the Wigner functions corresponding to the two operators. The difference is that the trajectories involved in the LSC-IVR evolve classically, i.e., according to the classical equations of motion, while in the exact theory they evolve according to generalized equations of motion that are derived here. Approximations to the exact equations of motion are then introduced to achieve practical methods that are applicable to complex (i.e., large) molecular systems. Four such methods are proposed in the paper--the full Wigner dynamics (full WD) and the 2nd order WD based on 'Winger trajectories', and the full Donoso-Martens dynamics (full DMD) and the 2nd order DMD based on 'Donoso-Martens trajectories'--all of which can be viewed as generalizations of the original LSC-IVR method. Numerical tests of these four versions of this new approach are made for two anharmonic model problems, and for each the momentum autocorrelation function (i.e., operators linear in coordinate or momentum operators) and the force autocorrelation function (non-linear operators) have been calculated. These four new approximate treatments are indeed seen to be significant improvements to the original LSC-IVR approximation.

  9. miRNA control of vegetative phase change in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Wei; Park, Mee Yeon; Wang, Ling-Jian; Koo, Yeonjong; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Weigel, Detlef; Poethig, R Scott

    2011-02-01

    After germination, plants enter juvenile vegetative phase and then transition to an adult vegetative phase before producing reproductive structures. The character and timing of the juvenile-to-adult transition vary widely between species. In annual plants, this transition occurs soon after germination and usually involves relatively minor morphological changes, whereas in trees and other perennial woody plants it occurs after months or years and can involve major changes in shoot architecture. Whether this transition is controlled by the same mechanism in annual and perennial plants is unknown. In the annual forb Arabidopsis thaliana and in maize (Zea mays), vegetative phase change is controlled by the sequential activity of microRNAs miR156 and miR172. miR156 is highly abundant in seedlings and decreases during the juvenile-to-adult transition, while miR172 has an opposite expression pattern. We observed similar changes in the expression of these genes in woody species with highly differentiated, well-characterized juvenile and adult phases (Acacia confusa, Acacia colei, Eucalyptus globulus, Hedera helix, Quercus acutissima), as well as in the tree Populus x canadensis, where vegetative phase change is marked by relatively minor changes in leaf morphology and internode length. Overexpression of miR156 in transgenic P. x canadensis reduced the expression of miR156-targeted SPL genes and miR172, and it drastically prolonged the juvenile phase. Our results indicate that miR156 is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of vegetative phase change in both annual herbaceous plants and perennial trees.

  10. miRNA control of vegetative phase change in trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Wei Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available After germination, plants enter juvenile vegetative phase and then transition to an adult vegetative phase before producing reproductive structures. The character and timing of the juvenile-to-adult transition vary widely between species. In annual plants, this transition occurs soon after germination and usually involves relatively minor morphological changes, whereas in trees and other perennial woody plants it occurs after months or years and can involve major changes in shoot architecture. Whether this transition is controlled by the same mechanism in annual and perennial plants is unknown. In the annual forb Arabidopsis thaliana and in maize (Zea mays, vegetative phase change is controlled by the sequential activity of microRNAs miR156 and miR172. miR156 is highly abundant in seedlings and decreases during the juvenile-to-adult transition, while miR172 has an opposite expression pattern. We observed similar changes in the expression of these genes in woody species with highly differentiated, well-characterized juvenile and adult phases (Acacia confusa, Acacia colei, Eucalyptus globulus, Hedera helix, Quercus acutissima, as well as in the tree Populus x canadensis, where vegetative phase change is marked by relatively minor changes in leaf morphology and internode length. Overexpression of miR156 in transgenic P. x canadensis reduced the expression of miR156-targeted SPL genes and miR172, and it drastically prolonged the juvenile phase. Our results indicate that miR156 is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of vegetative phase change in both annual herbaceous plants and perennial trees.

  11. Lyapunov exponents and phase diagrams reveal multi-factorial control over TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Bree B; Gaudet, Suzanne; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Sorger, Peter K

    2011-11-22

    Receptor-mediated apoptosis proceeds via two pathways: one requiring only a cascade of initiator and effector caspases (type I behavior) and the second requiring an initiator-effector caspase cascade and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (type II behavior). Here, we investigate factors controlling type I versus II phenotypes by performing Lyapunov exponent analysis of an ODE-based model of cell death. The resulting phase diagrams predict that the ratio of XIAP to pro-caspase-3 concentrations plays a key regulatory role: type I behavior predominates when the ratio is low and type II behavior when the ratio is high. Cell-to-cell variability in phenotype is observed when the ratio is close to the type I versus II boundary. By positioning multiple tumor cell lines on the phase diagram we confirm these predictions. We also extend phase space analysis to mutations affecting the rate of caspase-3 ubiquitylation by XIAP, predicting and showing that such mutations abolish all-or-none control over activation of effector caspases. Thus, phase diagrams derived from Lyapunov exponent analysis represent a means to study multi-factorial control over a complex biochemical pathway.

  12. Code blue: chaos or control, an educational initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, Paulette

    2011-01-01

    Participation in a cardiopulmonary resuscitation team can create pandemonium among novice as well as experienced healthcare providers. Staff development educators, faced with the challenge of providing continuous education to improve efficiency in code organization and management, may benefit from lessons learned in the field. This author describes an institution's initiative to address multidisciplinary code blue education using a creative acronym coupled with multilevel didactic and simulation exercises.

  13. Quasi-dynamic pressure and temperature initiated βδ solid phase transitions in HMX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaug, Joseph M.; Farber, Daniel L.; Craig, Ian M.; Blosch, Laura L.; Shuh, David K.; Hansen, Donald W.; Aracne-Ruddle, Chantel M.

    2000-04-01

    The phase transformation of β-HMX (>0.5% RDX) to δ phase has been studied for over twenty years and more recently with an high-contrast optical second harmonic generation technique. Shock studies of the plastic binder composites of HMX have indicated that the transition is perhaps irreversible, a result that concurs with the static pressure results published by F. Goetz et al. [1] in 1978. However, the stability field favors the β polymorph over δ as pressure is increased (up to 5.4 GPa) along any thermodynamically reasonable isotherm. In this experiment, strict control of pressure and temperature is maintained while x-ray and optical diagnostics are applied to monitor the conformational dynamics of HMX. Unlike the temperature induced β→δ transition, the pressure induced is heterogeneous in nature. The 1 bar 25 °C δ→β transition is not immediate, occuring over tens of hours. Transition points and kinetics are path dependent and consequently this paper describes our work in progress.

  14. Backstepping controller of five-level three-phase inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdoul R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel converters are becoming increasingly used in many industrial applications due to the many advantages that they offer. The improvements in the output signal quality, lower Total Harmonic Distortion (THD and many other properties make multilevel converters very attractive for connecting photovoltaic generators to medium voltage grid directly or to be used in a local power supply. In this paper, we focus on the implementation of a three-phase five-level diode clamped inverter and design of a performing nonlinear controller using the Backstepping approach. The control objective is to generate, at the system output, sinusoidal three-phase voltages with amplitude and frequency fixed by the reference signal independently of load variations. The performance study of the multilevel inverter and the designed controller are made by simulations in Matlab/Simulink environment.

  15. A DSP controlled one-to-three phase matrix converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubovsky, J.; Dobrucly, B; Tabacek, R.; Havrila, R. [Department of Electric Traction and Energetics Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    This paper deals with the theoretical analysis computer simulation and experimental results of IM fed by a one-to-three phase matrix converter which offers a unique solution for single phase electric traction applications. The proposed drive in comparison with currently used conventional drives reduces the number of power switching elements of the converter, which increases drives dependability and brings lower investment in power electronics used in drive. Further advantage is that the converter is controlled with nearly unity power factor which cuts down the operational expenses and offers higher overall performance of the drive. (orig.) 6 refs.

  16. Performance indicators for initial regional medical response to major incidents: a possible quality control tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Heléne

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely decisions concerning mobilization and allocation of resources and distribution of casualties are crucial in medical management of major incidents. The aim of this study was to evaluate documented initial regional medical responses to major incidents by applying a set of 11 measurable performance indicators for regional medical command and control and test the feasibility of the indicators. Methods Retrospective data were collected from documentation from regional medical command and control at major incidents that occurred in two Swedish County Councils. Each incident was assigned to one of nine different categories and 11 measurable performance indicators for initial regional medical command and control were systematically applied. Two-way analysis of variance with one observation per cell was used for statistical analysis and the post hoc Tukey test was used for pairwise comparisons. Results The set of indicators for regional medical command and control could be applied in 102 of the130 major incidents (78%, but 36 incidents had to be excluded due to incomplete documentation. The indicators were not applicable as a set for 28 incidents (21.5% due to different characteristics and time frames. Based on the indicators studied in 66 major incidents, the results demonstrate that the regional medical management performed according to the standard in the early phases (1–10 min after alert, but there were weaknesses in the secondary phase (10–30 min after alert. The significantly lowest scores were found for Indicator 8 (formulate general guidelines for response and Indicator 10 (decide whether or not resources in own organization are adequate. Conclusions Measurable performance indicators for regional medical command and control can be applied to incidents that directly or indirectly involve casualties provided there is sufficient documentation available. Measurable performance indicators can enhance follow- up and be

  17. Cyclin-dependent kinase suppression by WEE1 kinase protects the genome through control of replication initiation and nucleotide consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Halfdan; Nähse-Kumpf, Viola; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo

    2012-01-01

    . Furthermore, addition of nucleosides counteracts the effects of unscheduled CDK activity on fork speed and DNA DSB formation. Finally, we show that WEE1 regulates the IR-induced S phase checkpoint, consistent with its role in control of replication initiation. In conclusion, these results suggest...... that deregulated CDK activity, such as that occurring following inhibition of WEE1 kinase or activation of oncogenes, induces replication stress and loss of genomic integrity through increased firing of replication origins and subsequent nucleotide shortage....

  18. Fault tolerance control of phase current in permanent magnet synchronous motor control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kele; Chen, Ke; Chen, Xinglong; Li, Jinying

    2014-08-01

    As the Photoelectric tracking system develops from earth based platform to all kinds of moving platform such as plane based, ship based, car based, satellite based and missile based, the fault tolerance control system of phase current sensor is studied in order to detect and control of failure of phase current sensor on a moving platform. By using a DC-link current sensor and the switching state of the corresponding SVPWM inverter, the failure detection and fault control of three phase current sensor is achieved. Under such conditions as one failure, two failures and three failures, fault tolerance is able to be controlled. The reason why under the method, there exists error between fault tolerance control and actual phase current, is analyzed, and solution to weaken the error is provided. The experiment based on permanent magnet synchronous motor system is conducted, and the method is proven to be capable of detecting the failure of phase current sensor effectively and precisely, and controlling the fault tolerance simultaneously. With this method, even though all the three phase current sensors malfunction, the moving platform can still work by reconstructing the phase current of the motor.

  19. Anticipatory Postural Control of Stability during Gait Initiation Over Obstacles of Different Height and Distance Made Under Reaction-Time and Self-Initiated Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiou, Eric; Artico, Romain; Teyssedre, Claudine A.; Labaune, Ombeline; Fourcade, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Despite the abundant literature on obstacle crossing in humans, the question of how the central nervous system (CNS) controls postural stability during gait initiation with the goal to clear an obstacle remains unclear. Stabilizing features of gait initiation include anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and lateral swing foot placement. To answer the above question, 14 participants initiated gait as fast as possible in three conditions of obstacle height, three conditions of obstacle distance and one obstacle-free (control) condition. Each of these conditions was performed with two levels of temporal pressure: reaction-time (high-pressure) and self-initiated (low-pressure) movements. A mechanical model of the body falling laterally under the influence of gravity and submitted to an elastic restoring force is proposed to assess the effect of initial (foot-off) center-of-mass position and velocity (or “initial center-of-mass set”) on the stability at foot-contact. Results showed that the anticipatory peak of mediolateral (ML) center-of-pressure shift, the initial ML center-of-mass velocity and the duration of the swing phase, of gait initiation increased with obstacle height, but not with obstacle distance. These results suggest that ML APAs are scaled with swing duration in order to maintain an equivalent stability across experimental conditions. This statement is strengthened by the results obtained with the mechanical model, which showed how stability would be degraded if there was no adaptation of the initial center-of-mass set to swing duration. The anteroposterior (AP) component of APAs varied also according to obstacle height and distance, but in an opposite way to the ML component. Indeed, results showed that the anticipatory peak of backward center-of-pressure shift and the initial forward center-of-mass set decreased with obstacle height, probably in order to limit the risk to trip over the obstacle, while the forward center-of-mass velocity at foot

  20. Phase Control of BR/SBR Blends by Silica Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inai, Motoyuki; Aizawa, Seiji; Ito, Masayoshi

    A phase control of butadiene rubber (BR)/styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) blends was examined by using silica particles. The phase structure of the blends was qualitatively evaluated from transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation and temperature dependence of mechanical tanδ. It was found that the temperature dependence of tanδ was dependent on the size of agglomerate formed by silica particles in the blend. The vulcanized blends with small agglomerates showed a single tanδ peak suggesting a pseudo-miscible state. The vulcanized blends with large agglomerates showed two tanδ peaks corresponding to the Tgs of BR and SBR. The mutual dissolution of BR and SBR phases above the UCST line where the vulcanization was carried out might be disturbed by large agglomerates formed by silica particles in the blends.

  1. Optical Mode Control by Geometric Phase in Quasicrystal Metasurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulevich, Igor; Maguid, Elhanan; Shitrit, Nir; Veksler, Dekel; Kleiner, Vladimir; Hasman, Erez

    2015-11-13

    We report on the observation of optical spin-controlled modes from a quasicrystalline metasurface as a result of an aperiodic geometric phase induced by anisotropic subwavelength structure. When geometric phase defects are introduced in the aperiodic structured surface, the modes exhibit polarization helicity dependence resulting in the optical spin-Hall effect. The radiative thermal dispersion bands from a quasicrystal structure are studied where the observed bands arise from the optical spin-orbit interaction induced by the aperiodic space-variant orientations of anisotropic antennas. The optical spin-flip behavior of the revealed modes that arise from the geometric phase pickup is experimentally observed within the visible spectrum by measuring the spin-projected diffraction patterns. The introduced ability to manipulate the light-matter interaction of quasicrystals in a spin-dependent manner provides the route for molding light via spin-optical aperiodic artificial planar surfaces.

  2. Optical Mode Control by Geometric Phase in Quasicrystal Metasurface

    CERN Document Server

    Yulevich, Igor; Shitrit, Nir; Veksler, Dekel; Kleiner, Vladimir; Hasman, Erez

    2015-01-01

    We report on the observation of optical spin-controlled modes from a quasicrystalline metasurface as a result of an aperiodic geometric phase induced by anisotropic subwavelength structure. When geometric phase defects are introduced in the aperiodic structured surface, the modes exhibit polarization helicity dependence resulting in the optical spin-Hall effect. The radiative thermal dispersion bands from a quasicrystal structure were studied where the observed bands arise from the optical spin-orbit interaction induced by the aperiodic space-variant orientations of anisotropic antennas. The optical spin-flip behavior of the revealed modes that arise from the geometric phase pickup was experimentally observed within the visible spectrum by measuring the spin-projected diffraction patterns. The introduced ability to manipulate the light-matter interaction of quasicrystals in a spin-dependent manner provides the route for molding light via spin-optical aperiodic artificial planar surfaces.

  3. Rigid Ankle Foot Orthosis Deteriorates Mediolateral Balance Control and Vertical Braking during Gait Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Delafontaine

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rigid ankle-foot orthoses (AFO are commonly used for impeding foot drop during the swing phase of gait. They also reduce pain and improve gait kinematics in patients with weakness or loss of integrity of ankle-foot complex structures due to various pathological conditions. However, this comes at the price of constraining ankle joint mobility, which might affect propulsive force generation and balance control. The present study examined the effects of wearing an AFO on biomechanical variables and electromyographic activity of tibialis anterior (TA and soleus muscles during gait initiation (GI. Nineteen healthy adults participated in the study. They initiated gait at a self-paced speed with no ankle constraint as well as wearing an AFO on the stance leg, or bilaterally. Constraining the stance leg ankle decreased TA activity ipsilaterally during the anticipatory postural adjustment (APA of GI, and ipsilateral soleus activity during step execution. In the sagittal plane, the decrease in the stance leg TA activity reduced the backward displacement of the center of pressure (CoP resulting in a reduction of the forward velocity of the center of mass (CoM measured at foot contact (FC. In the frontal plane, wearing the AFO reduced the displacement of the CoP in the direction of the swing leg during the APA phase. The mediolateral velocity of the CoM increased during single-stance prompting a larger step width to recover balance. During step execution, the CoM vertical downward velocity is normally reduced in order to lessen the impact of the swing leg with the floor and facilitates the rise of the CoM that occurs during the subsequent double-support phase. The reduction in stance leg soleus activity caused by constraining the ankle weakened the vertical braking of the CoM during step execution. This caused the absolute instantaneous vertical velocity of the CoM at FC to be greater in the constrained conditions with respect to the control condition. From

  4. A variable frequency control for three-phase induction motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.

    The speed control of a three-phase induction motor using a microprocessor controller is discussed. The motor is fed from a three-phase inverter, the frequency and voltage of which are controlled by the microprocessor controller. The v/f ratio is kept constant up to the rated frequency, and the voltage is kept constant above the rated frequency. To have satisfactory performance for the motor, the control strategies have to be carefully planned and evaluated. For transient performance of the motor, such as starting and speed changing, the in-rush current has to be minimized. In regard to the steady state performance of the motor, the controller should minimize the torque pulsations and heating of the motor and prevent short circuits of the power source. It is also of interest to compare various modulation techniques with regard to the harmonic losses in the motor and the pulsating torques developed. This comparison will lead to an optimized modulation technique which is suitable for the selected speed range.

  5. Robustification and Optimization in Repetitive Control For Minimum Phase and Non-Minimum Phase Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasitmeeboon, Pitcha

    Repetitive control (RC) is a control method that specifically aims to converge to zero tracking error of a control systems that execute a periodic command or have periodic disturbances of known period. It uses the error of one period back to adjust the command in the present period. In theory, RC can completely eliminate periodic disturbance effects. RC has applications in many fields such as high-precision manufacturing in robotics, computer disk drives, and active vibration isolation in spacecraft. The first topic treated in this dissertation develops several simple RC design methods that are somewhat analogous to PID controller design in classical control. From the early days of digital control, emulation methods were developed based on a Forward Rule, a Backward Rule, Tustin's Formula, a modification using prewarping, and a pole-zero mapping method. These allowed one to convert a candidate controller design to discrete time in a simple way. We investigate to what extent they can be used to simplify RC design. A particular design is developed from modification of the pole-zero mapping rules, which is simple and sheds light on the robustness of repetitive control designs. RC convergence requires less than 90 degree model phase error at all frequencies up to Nyquist. A zero-phase cutoff filter is normally used to robustify to high frequency model error when this limit is exceeded. The result is stabilization at the expense of failure to cancel errors above the cutoff. The second topic investigates a series of methods to use data to make real time updates of the frequency response model, allowing one to increase or eliminate the frequency cutoff. These include the use of a moving window employing a recursive discrete Fourier transform (DFT), and use of a real time projection algorithm from adaptive control for each frequency. The results can be used directly to make repetitive control corrections that cancel each error frequency, or they can be used to update a

  6. Synthesis of adaptive traffic control discrete neminimalno-phase system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.М. Азарсков

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available  An adaptive approach to synthesizing the digital tracking system with direct set-point coupling is extended under conditions when a plant is non-minimum phase. Some bounded set of belonging of servo drive unknown parameters vector is believed to be known. The object’s model non-singularity condition is established. The asymptotical properties of control system are studied. Simulation results are given.

  7. Dynamic cosine-Gauss plasmonic beam through phase control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kai; Wei, Shibiao; Min, Changjun; Yuan, Guanghui; Zhu, S W; Lei, T; Yuan, X-C

    2014-06-02

    We carry out an approach to dynamic manipulation of a nondiffracting cosine-Gauss plasmonic beam (CGPB) illuminated with an incident phase modulation within nanostructures by a spatial light modulator (SLM). By changing the hologram addressed on the SLM, dynamic control on the lobe width and the propagating direction of the CGPB is experimentally verified. Finally, we demonstrate an application example of this dynamic CGPB in routing optical signals to multichannel subwavelength wave guides through numerical simulation.

  8. Power System Control Study. Phase I. Integrated Control Techniques. Phase II. Detail Design and System Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    status data is exchanged between generator channels. 195 TABLE 37 EMX/GENERATOR CONTROL - CONCEPT 3 ADVATAGES DISADVANTAGES 1. Localized processing at main...FORTRAN allows BLOCK IR structures that eliminate the need for GO TO statements. Extensive use of the BLOCK IR structure was made in writing this code for...the firing logic. After the state of the switches have been determined by the firing logic, it is necessary to write the system equations for that

  9. Control-oriented modeling and adaptive backstepping control for a nonminimum phase hypersonic vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Linqi; Zong, Qun; Tian, Bailing; Zhang, Xiuyun; Wang, Fang

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the nonminimum phase problem of a flexible hypersonic vehicle is investigated. The main challenge of nonminimum phase is the prevention of dynamic inversion methods to nonlinear control design. To solve this problem, we make research on the relationship between nonminimum phase and backstepping control, finding that a stable nonlinear controller can be obtained by changing the control loop on the basis of backstepping control. By extending the control loop to cover the internal dynamics in it, the internal states are directly controlled by the inputs and simultaneously serve as virtual control for the external states, making it possible to guarantee output tracking as well as internal stability. Then, based on the extended control loop, a simplified control-oriented model is developed to enable the applicability of adaptive backstepping method. It simplifies the design process and releases some limitations caused by direct use of the no simplified control-oriented model. Next, under proper assumptions, asymptotic stability is proved for constant commands, while bounded stability is proved for varying commands. The proposed method is compared with approximate backstepping control and dynamic surface control and is shown to have superior tracking accuracy as well as robustness from the simulation results. This paper may also provide a beneficial guidance for control design of other complex systems. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamic phases in control and information processing biological circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan

    2015-03-01

    Recent work using the mathematical framework of large deviation theory has shown that fluctuations about the steady state can have a particularly rich structure even in extremely simple non-equilibrium systems [Phys. Rev. E. 89, 062108, 2014]. In certain instances the fluctuations can encode the presence of a dynamical phase with properties distinct from those of the steady state of the system. The transition between these two regimes is akin to a first order thermodynamic phase transition. Specifically, it implies an extreme sensitivity of the system to changes in certain sets of parameters. I will show that such dynamical phase transitions can serve as a general organizing principle to understand biological circuits that are involved in information processing and control. I will focus on two specific examples: adaptation control in E. coli chemotaxis and ultra sensitive response of the E. coli flagella motor, to illustrate these calculations. This work also elucidates the role played by energy dissipation in ensuring control and suggests general guidelines for the construction of robust non equilibrium circuits that perform various specified functions.

  11. Phase I trial of rituximab, cladribine, and temsirolimus (RCT) for initial therapy of mantle cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inwards, D J; Fishkin, P A; LaPlant, B R; Drake, M T; Kurtin, P J; Nikcevich, D A; Wender, D B; Lair, B S; Witzig, T E

    2014-10-01

    We conducted this trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of temsirolimus added to an established regimen comprised of rituximab and cladribine for the initial treatment of mantle cell lymphoma. A standard phase I cohort of three study design was utilized. The fixed doses of rituximab and cladribine were 375 mg/m(2) i.v. day 1 and 5 mg/m(2)/day i.v. days 1-5 of a 28-day cycle, respectively. There were five planned temsirolimus i.v. dose levels: 15 mg day 1; 25 mg day 1; 25 mg days 1 and 15; 25 mg days 1, 8 and 15; and 25 mg days 1, 8, 15, and 22. Seventeen patients were treated: three each at levels 1-4 and five at dose level 5. The median age was 75 years (52-86 years). Mantle Cell International Prognostic Index (MIPI) scores were low in 6% (1), intermediate in 59% (10), and high in 35% (6) of patients. Five patients were treated at level 5 without dose limiting toxicity. Hematologic toxicity was frequent: grade 3 anemia in 12%, grade 3 thrombocytopenia in 41%, grade 4 thrombocytopenia in 24%, grade 3 neutropenia in 6%, and grade 4 neutropenia in 18% of patients. The overall response rate (ORR) was 94% with 53% complete response and 41% partial response. The median progression-free survival was 18.7 months. Temsirolimus 25 mg i.v. weekly may be safely added to rituximab and cladribine at 375 mg/m(2) i.v. day 1 and 5 mg/m(2)/day i.v. days 1-5 of a 28-day cycle, respectively. This regimen had promising preliminary activity in an elderly cohort of patients with mantle cell lymphoma. NCT00787969. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Active control of the spatial MRI phase distribution with optimal control theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Pauline M.; Van Reeth, Eric; Ratiney, Hélène; Beuf, Olivier; Brusseau, Elisabeth; Lambert, Simon A.; Glaser, Steffen J.; Sugny, Dominique; Grenier, Denis; Tse Ve Koon, Kevin

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the use of Optimal Control (OC) theory to design Radio-Frequency (RF) pulses that actively control the spatial distribution of the MRI magnetization phase. The RF pulses are generated through the application of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle and optimized so that the resulting transverse magnetization reproduces various non-trivial and spatial phase patterns. Two different phase patterns are defined and the resulting optimal pulses are tested both numerically with the ODIN MRI simulator and experimentally with an agar gel phantom on a 4.7 T small-animal MR scanner. Phase images obtained in simulations and experiments are both consistent with the defined phase patterns. A practical application of phase control with OC-designed pulses is also presented, with the generation of RF pulses adapted for a Magnetic Resonance Elastography experiment. This study demonstrates the possibility to use OC-designed RF pulses to encode information in the magnetization phase and could have applications in MRI sequences using phase images.

  13. 78 FR 6329 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), FOA DD13-002, initial review.'' Contact Person for More... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Evaluation of Treatments and Services Provided to People with ] Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), FOA DD13-002, initial...

  14. Advanced nonlinear control of three phase series active power filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abouelmahjoub Y.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of controlling three-phase series active power filter (TPSAPF is addressed in this paper in presence of the perturbations in the voltages of the electrical supply network. The control objective of the TPSAPF is twofold: (i compensation of all voltage perturbations (voltage harmonics, voltage unbalance and voltage sags, (ii regulation of the DC bus voltage of the inverter. A controller formed by two nonlinear regulators is designed, using the Backstepping technique, to provide the above compensation. The regulation of the DC bus voltage of the inverter is ensured by the use of a diode bridge rectifier which its output is in parallel with the DC bus capacitor. The Analysis of controller performances is illustrated by numerical simulation in Matlab/Simulink environment.

  15. Mitochondrial control by DRP1 in brain tumor initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Wu, Qiulian; Horbinski, Craig M; Flavahan, William A; Yang, Kailin; Zhou, Wenchao; Dombrowski, Stephen M; Huang, Zhi; Fang, Xiaoguang; Shi, Yu; Ferguson, Ashley N; Kashatus, David F; Bao, Shideng; Rich, Jeremy N

    2015-04-01

    Brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) co-opt the neuronal high affinity glucose transporter, GLUT3, to withstand metabolic stress. We investigated another mechanism critical to brain metabolism, mitochondrial morphology, in BTICs. BTIC mitochondria were fragmented relative to non-BTIC tumor cell mitochondria, suggesting that BTICs increase mitochondrial fission. The essential mediator of mitochondrial fission, dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), showed activating phosphorylation in BTICs and inhibitory phosphorylation in non-BTIC tumor cells. Targeting DRP1 using RNA interference or pharmacologic inhibition induced BTIC apoptosis and inhibited tumor growth. Downstream, DRP1 activity regulated the essential metabolic stress sensor, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and targeting AMPK rescued the effects of DRP1 disruption. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) phosphorylated DRP1 to increase its activity in BTICs, whereas Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2 (CAMK2) inhibited DRP1 in non-BTIC tumor cells, suggesting that tumor cell differentiation induces a regulatory switch in mitochondrial morphology. DRP1 activation correlated with poor prognosis in glioblastoma, suggesting that mitochondrial dynamics may represent a therapeutic target for BTICs.

  16. 78 FR 28221 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Youth Violence... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 12:30 p.m.-5:00 p.m...

  17. 78 FR 20319 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review. The meeting announced below concerns Research Grants...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Time and Date...

  18. Guaranteeing Isochronous Control of Networked Motion Control Systems Using Phase Offset Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhwan Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Guaranteeing isochronous transfer of control commands is an essential function for networked motion control systems. The adoption of real-time Ethernet (RTE technologies may be profitable in guaranteeing deterministic transfer of control messages. However, unpredictable behavior of software in the motion controller often results in unexpectedly large deviation in control message transmission intervals, and thus leads to imprecise motion. This paper presents a simple and efficient heuristic to guarantee the end-to-end isochronous control with very small jitter. The key idea of our approach is to adjust the phase offset of control message transmission time in the motion controller by investigating the behavior of motion control task. In realizing the idea, we performed a pre-runtime analysis to determine a safe and reliable phase offset and applied the phase offset to the runtime code of motion controller by customizing an open-source based integrated development environment (IDE. We also constructed an EtherCAT-based motion control system testbed and performed extensive experiments on the testbed to verify the effectiveness of our approach. The experimental results show that our heuristic is highly effective even for low-end embedded controller implemented in open-source software components under various configurations of control period and the number of motor drives.

  19. Cognitive inconsistency in bipolar patients is determined by increased intra-individual variability in initial phase of task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukow, Paweł; Szaniawska, Ola; Harciarek, Michał; Plechawska-Wójcik, Małgorzata; Jonak, Kamil

    2017-03-01

    Bipolar patients show high intra-individual variability during cognitive processing. However, it is not known whether there are a specific fluctuations of variability contributing to the overall high cognitive inconsistency. The objective was to compare dynamic profiles of patients and healthy controls to identify hypothetical differences and their associations with overall variability and processing speed. Changes of reaction times iSD during processing speed test performance over time was measured by dividing the iSD for whole task into four consecutive parts. Motor speed and cognitive effort were controlled. Patients with BD exhibited significantly lower results regarding processing speed and higher intra-individual variability comparing with HC. The profile of intra-individual variability changes over time of performance was significantly different in BD versus HC groups: F(3, 207)=8.60, pperformance was three times higher than in the last. There was no significant differences between four intervals in HC group. Inter-group difference in the initial part of the profiles was significant also after controlling for several cognitive and clinical variables. Applied computer version of Cognitive Speed Test was relatively new and, thus, replication studies are needed. Effect seen in the present study is driven mainly by the BD type I. Patients with BD exhibits problems with setting a stimulus-response association in starting phase of cognitive processing. This deficit may negatively interfere with the other cognitive functions, decreasing level of psychosocial functioning, therefore should be explored in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Conventional arms control initiatives: Russia as a special case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khripunov, I. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The post-Cold War period has provided several spectacular breakthroughs in what seemed to be intractable arms control problems that were pushing the world to the brink of global disaster. One of the serious remaining gaps is the still largely unrestricted flow of conventional weapons, whose increasing sophistication and overkill potential is understandably a matter of growing concern. In addition to recognizing the continued priority of curbing the spread of weapons of mass destruction and drastically reducing their stockpiles, the time has come to engage major weapons exporters in developing new international understandings and mechanisms to stop the flood of conventional arms on the global market and to drastically curb conventional arms transfers.

  1. Control of two-phase flow in microfluidics using out-of-phase electroconvective streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiyu; Ren, Yukun; Tao, Ye; Chen, Xiaoming; Yao, Bobin; Hui, Meng; Bai, Lin

    2017-11-01

    We propose herein to make use of rotating electric fields for achieving flexible control on the hydrodynamic behavior of two miscible co-flowing water solutions in straight microchannels, in the context of a new manipulation tool for stratified liquid contents of microfluidic systems. Our theoretical analysis indicates that, while fluids of distinct electrical conductivities and identical permittivity are parallel pumped into the mainchannel, a circularly traveling field, as emitted from a four-phase electrode array surrounding the channel sidewalls, can direct the deflection of diffusing phase interface between the side-by-side miscible electrolyte streams asynchronously at half of the interfacial relaxation frequency, where the co-field electrorotational torque becomes most appreciable. An immediate application of the out-of-phase electroconvective streaming is that time required for electrolyte mixing is reduced because the area of two-phase contact interface is dramatically enlarged, and a serial combination of several rotating electrode arrays of alternate propagating directions can further rectify the mixing of microfluidics by inducing chaotic advection.

  2. Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assali, S; Lähnemann, J; Vu, T T T; Jöns, K D; Gagliano, L; Verheijen, M A; Akopian, N; Bakkers, E P A M; Haverkort, J E M

    2017-10-11

    One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the zinc-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) phases. Such a crystal phase switching results in the formation of crystal phase quantum wells (CPQWs) and quantum dots (CPQDs). For GaP CPQWs, the inherent electric fields due to the discontinuity of the spontaneous polarization at the WZ/ZB junctions lead to the confinement of both types of charge carriers at the opposite interfaces of the WZ/ZB/WZ structure. This confinement leads to a novel type of transition across a ZB flat plate barrier. Here, we show digital tuning of the visible emission of WZ/ZB/WZ CPQWs in a GaP nanowire by changing the thickness of the ZB barrier. The energy spacing between the sharp emission lines is uniform and is defined by the addition of single ZB monolayers. The controlled growth of identical quantum wells with atomically flat interfaces at predefined positions featuring digitally tunable discrete emission energies may provide a new route to further advance entangled photons in solid state quantum systems.

  3. 0-π phase-controllable thermal Josephson junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornieri, Antonio; Timossi, Giuliano; Virtanen, Pauli; Solinas, Paolo; Giazotto, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    Two superconductors coupled by a weak link support an equilibrium Josephson electrical current that depends on the phase difference ϕ between the superconducting condensates. Yet, when a temperature gradient is imposed across the junction, the Josephson effect manifests itself through a coherent component of the heat current that flows opposite to the thermal gradient for |ϕ| structures opened new possibilities for superconducting quantum logic and ultralow-power superconducting computers. Here, we report the first experimental realization of a thermal Josephson junction whose phase bias can be controlled from 0 to π. This is obtained thanks to a superconducting quantum interferometer that allows full control of the direction of the coherent energy transfer through the junction. This possibility, in conjunction with the completely superconducting nature of our system, provides temperature modulations with an unprecedented amplitude of ∼100 mK and transfer coefficients exceeding 1 K per flux quantum at 25 mK. Then, this quantum structure represents a fundamental step towards the realization of caloritronic logic components such as thermal transistors, switches and memory devices. These elements, combined with heat interferometers and diodes, would complete the thermal conversion of the most important phase-coherent electronic devices and benefit cryogenic microcircuits requiring energy management, such as quantum computing architectures and radiation sensors.

  4. Combination Therapy Is Superior to Sequential Monotherapy for the Initial Treatment of Hypertension: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Thomas M; Williams, Bryan; Webb, David J; Morant, Steve; Caulfield, Mark; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Ford, Ian; Sever, Peter; Mackenzie, Isla S; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; McCann, Gerald P; Salsbury, Jackie; McInnes, Gordon; Brown, Morris J

    2017-11-18

    Guidelines for hypertension vary in their preference for initial combination therapy or initial monotherapy, stratified by patient profile; therefore, we compared the efficacy and tolerability of these approaches. We performed a 1-year, double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 605 untreated patients aged 18 to 79 years with systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥150 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥95 mm Hg. In phase 1 (weeks 0-16), patients were randomly assigned to initial monotherapy (losartan 50-100 mg or hydrochlorothiazide 12.5-25 mg crossing over at 8 weeks), or initial combination (losartan 50-100 mg plus hydrochlorothiazide 12.5-25 mg). In phase 2 (weeks 17-32), all patients received losartan 100 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 to 25 mg. In phase 3 (weeks 33-52), amlodipine with or without doxazosin could be added to achieve target BP. Hierarchical primary outcomes were the difference from baseline in home systolic BP, averaged over phases 1 and 2 and, if significant, at 32 weeks. Secondary outcomes included adverse events, and difference in home systolic BP responses between tertiles of plasma renin. Home systolic BP after initial monotherapy fell 4.9 mm Hg (range: 3.7-6.0 mm Hg) less over 32 weeks (P150/95 mm Hg. URL: http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00994617. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  5. Tailoring Terahertz Propagation by Phase and Amplitude Control in Metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jingjing; Zhang, Xueqian; Liu, Lixiang; Li, Quan; Singh, Leena; Han, Jiaguang; Yan, Fengping; Zhang, Weili

    2017-09-01

    Metasurfaces have been very successful at demonstrating the ability to control the wave propagation over the broad electromagnetic spectrum in recent years. The output wavefronts can be controlled at will, by encoding specially designed abrupt changes of electromagnetic parameters into the metasurfaces, such as phase and amplitude. Constituted by a single- or few-layer of planar structures, metasurfaces are straightforward in design and fabrication, thus promising many credible applications. Moreover, such control concept can be further extended to the surface wave regime. In this review, we present our recent progress on metasurfaces capable of tailoring the propagation of both free-space and surface terahertz waves. Following an introduction of the basic concept and theory, a number of unique terahertz metasurfaces are presented, showing the ability to device ultra-thin and compact functional terahertz components.

  6. Evaluate fundamental approaches to longwall dust control. Phase III report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babbitt, C.; Bartlett, P.; Kelly, J.; Ludlow, J.; Mangolds, A.; Rajan, S.; Ruggieri, S.; Varga, E.

    1984-03-31

    The overall objective of the contract is to evaluate the effectiveness of available dust control technology for double-drum shearer longwall sections in a coordinated, systematic program at a few longwall test sections and to make the results available to the entire coal mining industry. This program is investigating nine different dust control techniques. These nine subprograms encompass a broad range of dust control measures ranging from administrative controls to new hardware. They span not only presently employed methods but also those recently adopted in the United States and those proposed for the future. This report documents the Phase III effort on each of the subprograms. For clarity, the report is divided in sections by subprogram as follows: Section 2, Subprogram A - passive barriers/spray air movers for dust control; Section 3, Subprogram B - practical aspects of deep cutting; Section 4, Subprogram C - stage loader dust control; Section 5, Subprogram D - longwall automation technology; Section 6, Subprogram E - longwall application of ventilation curtains; Section 7, Subprogram F - reversed drum rotation; Section 8, Subprogram G - reduction of shield generated dust; Section 9, Subprogram H - air canopies for longwalls; and Section 10, Subprogram I - mining practices. 43 figures, 11 tables.

  7. Assessment of global phase uncertainty in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Houwelingen Hans C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The measure 1 quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: and based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies. Results A new global relative efficiency measure was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity. Conclusion Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk.

  8. Digital Interface Board to Control Phase and Amplitude of Four Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amy E.; Cook, Brian M.; Khan, Abdur R.; Lux, James P.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of parts are designed with digital control interfaces, including phase shifters and variable attenuators. When designing an antenna array in which each antenna has independent amplitude and phase control, the number of digital control lines that must be set simultaneously can grow very large. Use of a parallel interface would require separate line drivers, more parts, and thus additional failure points. A convenient form of control where single-phase shifters or attenuators could be set or the whole set could be programmed with an update rate of 100 Hz is needed to solve this problem. A digital interface board with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) can simultaneously control an essentially arbitrary number of digital control lines with a serial command interface requiring only three wires. A small set of short, high-level commands provides a simple programming interface for an external controller. Parity bits are used to validate the control commands. Output timing is controlled within the FPGA to allow for rapid update rates of the phase shifters and attenuators. This technology has been used to set and monitor eight 5-bit control signals via a serial UART (universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter) interface. The digital interface board controls the phase and amplitude of the signals for each element in the array. A host computer running Agilent VEE sends commands via serial UART connection to a Xilinx VirtexII FPGA. The commands are decoded, and either outputs are set or telemetry data is sent back to the host computer describing the status and the current phase and amplitude settings. This technology is an integral part of a closed-loop system in which the angle of arrival of an X-band uplink signal is detected and the appropriate phase shifts are applied to the Ka-band downlink signal to electronically steer the array back in the direction of the uplink signal. It will also be used in the non-beam-steering case to compensate for

  9. A Novel Method for Vector Control of Three-Phase Induction Motor under Open-Phase Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jannati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of electrical machines such as induction motors can be modeled by an equivalent two-phase machine model (d-q model. A three-phase induction motor with one of the stator phases opened (faulty three-phase induction motor can be also modeled by an equivalent two-phase machine. If a conventional vector control method for balanced three-phase induction motors is used for this faulty machine, significant oscillations in speed and torque will result. In this paper, a novel technique for vector control of faulty three-phase induction motors based on rotor-field oriented control (RFOC is presented. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using MATLAB software. The results show that it achieves significant improvements in the oscillation reduction of the speed and torque responses.

  10. An active interferometer-stabilization scheme with linear phase control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vardhan Krishnamachari, Vishnu; Andresen, Esben Ravn; Potma, Eric Olaf

    2006-01-01

    We report a simple and robust computer-based active interferometer stabilization scheme which does not require modulation of the interfering beams and relies on an error signal which is linearly related to the optical path difference. In this setup, a non-collinearly propagating reference laser b...... beam stabilizes the interference output of the laser light propagating collinearly through the interferometer. This stabilization scheme enables adjustable phase control with 20 ms switching times in the range from 0.02π radians to 6π radians at 632.8 nm....

  11. Strong phase-controlled fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yisi; Dong, Liang; Pan, J. J.; Gu, Claire

    2003-05-01

    Dispersion-compensating fiber Bragg gratings with ~99.9% reflectivity that are made by continuous apodization and phase control are demonstrated. These strong dispersion-compensating gratings provide precision second-order, third-order, or even more complex dispersion compensation, as well as sufficient transmission isolation to be used at add-drop stages without additional filtering. A 99.84% grating with a constant -700-ps/nm dispersion and a 99.94% grating with dispersion varying linearly from 1000 to -1000 ps/nm are demonstrated.

  12. Phase transitions in distributed control systems with multiplicative noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Nicolas; Bamieh, Bassam; Mitra, Partha; Sire, Clément

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary technological challenges often involve many degrees of freedom in a distributed or networked setting. Three aspects are notable: the variables are usually associated with the nodes of a graph with limited communication resources, hindering centralized control; the communication is subject to noise; and the number of variables can be very large. These three aspects make tools and techniques from statistical physics particularly suitable for the performance analysis of such networked systems in the limit of many variables (analogous to the thermodynamic limit in statistical physics). Perhaps not surprisingly, phase-transition like phenomena appear in these systems, where a sharp change in performance can be observed with a smooth parameter variation, with the change becoming discontinuous or singular in the limit of infinite system size. In this paper, we analyze the so called network consensus problem, prototypical of the above considerations, that has previously been analyzed mostly in the context of additive noise. We show that qualitatively new phase-transition like phenomena appear for this problem in the presence of multiplicative noise. Depending on dimensions, and on the presence or absence of a conservation law, the system performance shows a discontinuous change at a threshold value of the multiplicative noise strength. In the absence of the conservation law, and for graph spectral dimension less than two, the multiplicative noise threshold (the stability margin of the control problem) is zero. This is reminiscent of the absence of robust controllers for certain classes of centralized control problems. Although our study involves a ‘toy’ model, we believe that the qualitative features are generic, with implications for the robust stability of distributed control systems, as well as the effect of roundoff errors and communication noise on distributed algorithms.

  13. NCC Simulation Model: Simulating the operations of the network control center, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Norman M.; Paul, Arthur S.; Gill, Tepper L.

    1992-12-01

    The simulation of the network control center (NCC) is in the second phase of development. This phase seeks to further develop the work performed in phase one. Phase one concentrated on the computer systems and interconnecting network. The focus of phase two will be the implementation of the network message dialogues and the resources controlled by the NCC. These resources are requested, initiated, monitored and analyzed via network messages. In the NCC network messages are presented in the form of packets that are routed across the network. These packets are generated, encoded, decoded and processed by the network host processors that generate and service the message traffic on the network that connects these hosts. As a result, the message traffic is used to characterize the work done by the NCC and the connected network. Phase one of the model development represented the NCC as a network of bi-directional single server queues and message generating sources. The generators represented the external segment processors. The served based queues represented the host processors. The NCC model consists of the internal and external processors which generate message traffic on the network that links these hosts. To fully realize the objective of phase two it is necessary to identify and model the processes in each internal processor. These processes live in the operating system of the internal host computers and handle tasks such as high speed message exchanging, ISN and NFE interface, event monitoring, network monitoring, and message logging. Inter process communication is achieved through the operating system facilities. The overall performance of the host is determined by its ability to service messages generated by both internal and external processors.

  14. Controllable Thermal Rectification Realized in Binary Phase Change Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renjie; Cui, Yalong; Tian, He; Yao, Ruimin; Liu, Zhenpu; Shu, Yi; Li, Cheng; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tianling; Zhang, Gang; Zou, Ruqiang

    2015-03-01

    Phase transition is a natural phenomenon happened around our daily life, represented by the process from ice to water. While melting and solidifying at a certain temperature, a high heat of fusion is accompanied, classified as the latent heat. Phase change material (PCM) has been widely applied to store and release large amount of energy attributed to the distinctive thermal behavior. Here, with the help of nanoporous materials, we introduce a general strategy to achieve the binary eicosane/PEG4000 stuffed reduced graphene oxide aerogels, which has two ends with different melting points. It's successfully demonstrated this binary PCM composites exhibits thermal rectification characteristic. Partial phase transitions within porous networks instantaneously result in one end of the thermal conductivity saltation at a critical temperature, and therefore switch on or off the thermal rectification with the coefficient up to 1.23. This value can be further raised by adjusting the loading content of PCM. The uniqueness of this device lies in its performance as a normal thermal conductor at low temperature, only exhibiting rectification phenomenon when temperature is higher than a critical value. The stated technology has broad applications for thermal energy control in macroscopic scale such as energy-efficiency building or nanodevice thermal management.

  15. Controlling block copolymer phase behavior using ionic surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, D.; Aswal, V. K. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India E-mail: debes.phys@gmail.com (India)

    2016-05-23

    The phase behavior of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide-poly(ethylene oxide) PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer [P85 (EO{sub 26}PO{sub 39}EO{sub 26})] in presence of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solution as a function of temperature has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements have been carried out for fixed concentrations (1 wt%) of block copolymer and surfactants. Each of the individual components (block copolymer and surfactant) and the nanoparticle–surfactant mixed system have been examined at varying temperature. The block copolymer P85 forms spherical micelles at room temperature whereas shows sphere-to-rod like micelle transition at higher temperatures. On the other hand, SDS surfactant forms ellipsoidal micelles over a wide temperature range. Interestingly, it is found that phase behavior of mixed micellar system (P85 + SDS) as a function of temperature is drastically different from that of P85, giving the control over the temperature-dependent phase behavior of block copolymers.

  16. iron phase control during pressure leaching at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriault, Camille

    Iron is a common contaminant encountered in most metal recovery operations, and particularly hydrometallurgical processes. For example, the Hematite Process uses autoclaves to precipitate iron oxide out of the leaching solution, while other metals are solubilized for further hydrometallurgical processing. In some cases, Basic Iron Sulfate (BIS) forms in place of hematite. The presence of BIS is unwanted in the autoclave discharge because it diminishes recovery and causes environmental matters. The focus of this master thesis is on the various iron phases forming during the pressure oxidation of sulfates. Artificial leaching solutions were produced from CuSO4, FeSO4 and H2SO4 in an attempt to recreate the matrix composition and conditions used for copper sulfides autoclaving. The following factors were investigated in order to determine which conditions hinder the formation of BIS: initial free acidity (5 -- 98 g/L), initial copper concentration (12.7 -- 63.5 g/L), initial iron concentration (16.7 -- 30.7 g/L) and initial iron oxidation state. There were three solid species formed in the autoclave: hematite, BIS and hydronium jarosite. The results show that free acid is the main factor influencing the composition of the residue. At an initial concentration of 22.3 g/L iron and no copper added, the upper limit for iron oxide formation is 41 g/L H2SO4. The increase of BIS content in the residue is not gradual and occurs over a change of a few grams per liter around the aforementioned limit. Increasing copper sulfate concentration in the solution hinders the formation of BIS. At 63.5g/L copper, the upper free acidity limit is increased to 61g/L. This effect seems to be related to the buffering action of copper sulfate, decreasing the overall acid concentration and thus extending the stability range of hematite. The effect of varying iron concentration on the precipitate chemistry is unclear. At high iron levels, the only noticeable effect was the inhibition of jarosite

  17. Harmonics Phase Shifter for a Three-Phase System with Voltage Control by Integral-Cycle Triggering Mode of Thyristors

    OpenAIRE

    I. Badran; A. L. Mahmood; M. T. Lazim

    2008-01-01

    n integral-cycle triggering mode of voltage control, subharmonic as well as higher order harmonic components are generated in the load voltage waveforms of a three-phase system. These harmonic components are found to be unbalanced in phase displacement. The correction of the unbalanced phase displacement angles of a particular subharmonic or higher order harmonic for this type of triggering is investigated to solve the limitation of use of this important type of control as a drive and many ot...

  18. FPGA based control circuit for single phase inverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M.I.; Husin, Z.; Abd Rahim, H.; Abu Hassan, M.S. [Malaysia Perlis Univ., Perlis (Malaysia). School of Computer and Communication Engineering; Ismail, B. [Malaysia Perlis Univ., Perlis (Malaysia). School of Microelectronic Engineering; Isa, M.N. [Malaysia Perlis Univ., Perlis (Malaysia). School of Power System Engineering

    2008-07-01

    A study was conducted in which DC voltage was successfully converted to a pure sine wave AC source. This paper described the controller circuit for a single phase inverter, which was used to convert DC to AC voltage. Inverters typically have various switching techniques, depending on the application, such as emergency lighting systems, AC variable speed drives, uninterrupted power supplies and frequency converters. The techniques include pulse width modulation, sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) and modified SPWM. In this study, the circuitry of the SPWM inverter was constructed using power MOSFET. However, it could also be constructed using other power semiconductor devices such as a bipolar junction transistor or an insulated gate bipolar transistor. A low cost, field programmable gate array FPGA chip developed by Altera was used as the main controller unit to control the operation of the full bridge circuit and generate a control signal for SPWM. The whole control unit consisted of 1734 logic elements. The high logic density of the FPGA chip served as an efficient hardware for rapid prototyping. As such, the use of the FPGA increased signal accuracy. The output was a pure sine wave of 242 volt rms with low harmonics distortion which is less than 3 per cent. This is suitable for use in complex electrical equipment and frequency sensitive equipment. 4 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  19. Control of Complex Components with Smart Flexible Phased Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casula, O.; Poidevin, C.; Cattiaux, G.; Dumas, Ph.

    2006-03-01

    The inspection of piping in nuclear plants is mainly performed in contact with ultrasonic wedge transducers. During the scanning, the fixed shape of wedges cannot fit the irregular surfaces and complex geometries of components (butt weld, nozzle, elbow). The variable thickness of the coupling layer, between the wedge and the local surface, leads to beam distortions and losses of sensitivity. Previous studies have shown that these two phenomena contribute to reduce the inspection performances leading to shadow area, split beam. To improve such controls, a new concept of contact "Smart Flexible Phased Array" has been developed with the support of the French "Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire". The phased array is flexible to fit the complex profile and to minimize the thickness of the coupling layer. The independent piezoelectric elements composing the radiating surface are mechanically assembled in order to build an articulated structure. A profilometer, embedded in the transducer, measures the local surface distortion allowing to compute in real-time the optimized delay laws and compensating the distortions of 2D or 3D profiles. Those delay laws are transferred to the real-time UT acquisition system, which applies them to the piezoelectric elements. This self-adaptive process preserves, during the scanning, the features of the focused beam (orientation and focal depth) in the specimen. To validate the concept of the Smart Flexible Phased Array Transducer, two prototypes have been integrated to detect flaws machined in mock-ups with realistic irregular 2D and 3D shapes. Inspections have been carried out on samples showing the enhancement performances of the "Smart Flexible Phased Array" and validating the mechanical and acoustical behaviours of these probes.

  20. Field-Control, Phase-Transitions, and Life's Emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra-Delmotte, Gargi; Mitra, A N

    2012-01-01

    Instances of critical-like characteristics in living systems at each organizational level (bio-molecules to ecosystems) as well as the spontaneous emergence of computation (Langton), do suggest the relevance of self-organized criticality (SOC). But extrapolating complex bio-systems to life's origins, brings up a paradox: how could simple organics - lacking the "soft-matter" response properties of today's complex bio-molecules - have dissipated energy from primordial reactions (eventually reducing CO(2)) in a controlled manner for their "ordering"? Nevertheless, a causal link of life's macroscopic irreversible dynamics to the microscopic reversible laws of statistical mechanics is indicated via the "functional-takeover" of a soft magnetic scaffold by organics (c.f. Cairns-Smith's "crystal-scaffold"). A field-controlled structure offers a mechanism for boot-strapping - bottom-up assembly with top-down control: its super-paramagnetic colloidal components obey reversible dynamics, but its dissipation of magnetic (H)-field energy for aggregation breaks time-reversal symmetry. The responsive adjustments of the controlled (host) mineral system to environmental changes would bring about mutual coupling between random organic sets supported by it; here the generation of long-range correlations within organic (guest) networks could include SOC-like mechanisms. And, such cooperative adjustments enable the selection of the functional configuration by altering the inorganic dipolar network's capacity to assist a spontaneous process. A non-equilibrium dynamics could now drive the kinetically oriented system (trimming the phase-space via sterically coupled organics) toward a series of phase-transitions with appropriate organic replacements "taking-over" its functions. Where available, experiments are cited in support of these speculations and for designing appropriate tests.

  1. DNA - peptide polyelectrolyte complexes: Phase control by hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieregg, Jeffrey; Lueckheide, Michael; Marciel, Amanda; Leon, Lorraine; Tirrell, Matthew

    DNA is one of the most highly-charged molecules known, and interacts strongly with charged molecules in the cell. Condensation of long double-stranded DNA is one of the classic problems of biophysics, but the polyelectrolyte behavior of short and/or single-stranded nucleic acids has attracted far less study despite its importance for both biological and engineered systems. We report here studies of DNA oligonucleotides complexed with cationic peptides and polyamines. As seen previously for longer sequences, double-stranded oligonucleotides form solid precipitates, but single-stranded oligonucleotides instead undergo liquid-liquid phase separation to form coacervate droplets. Complexed oligonucleotides remain competent for hybridization, and display sequence-dependent environmental response. We observe similar behavior for RNA oligonucleotides, and methylphosphonate substitution of the DNA backbone indicates that nucleic acid charge density controls whether liquid or solid complexes are formed. Liquid-liquid phase separations of this type have been implicated in formation of membraneless organelles in vivo, and have been suggested as protocells in early life scenarios; oligonucleotides offer an excellent method to probe the physics controlling these phenomena.

  2. Integrated corridor management initiative : demonstration phase evaluation, San Diego institutional and organizational analysis test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report presents the test plan for conducting the Institutional and Organizational Analysis for the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) evaluation of the San Diego Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) Initiative Demonstration. T...

  3. Integrated corridor management initiative : demonstration phase evaluation. Dallas institutional and organizational analysis test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report presents the test plan for conducting the Institutional and Organizational Analysis for the : United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) evaluation of the Dallas U.S. 75 Integrated : Corridor Management (ICM) Initiative Demonst...

  4. Integrated corridor management initiative : demonstration phase evaluation - Dallas technical capability analysis test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents the test plan for conducting the Technical Capability Analysis for the United States : Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) evaluation of the Dallas U.S. 75 Integrated Corridor : Management (ICM) Initiative Demonstration. The ...

  5. Integrated corridor management initiative : demonstration phase evaluation, San Diego technical capability analysis test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report presents the test plan for conducting the Technical Capability Analysis for the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) evaluation of the San Diego Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) Initiative Demonstration. The ICM proje...

  6. Integrated corridor management initiative : demonstration phase evaluation - San Diego benefit-cost analysis test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents the test plan for conducting the Benefit-Cost Analysis (BCA) for the United States : Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) evaluation of the San Diego Integrated Corridor Management : (ICM) Initiative Demonstration. The ICM pro...

  7. Integrated corridor management initiative : demonstration phase evaluation, San Diego air quality test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report presents the test plan for conducting the Air Quality Analysis for the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) evaluation of the San Diego Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) Initiative Demonstration. The ICM projects being...

  8. Integrated corridor management initiative : demonstration phase evaluation, Dallas air quality test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report presents the test plan for conducting the Air Quality Analysis for the United States : Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) evaluation of the Dallas U.S. 75 Integrated Corridor : Management (ICM) Initiative Demonstration. The ICM proje...

  9. Integrated corridor management initiative : demonstration phase evaluation, San Diego decision support system analysis test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report presents the test plan for conducting the Decision Support System Analysis for the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) evaluation of the San Diego Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) Initiative Demonstration. The ICM pr...

  10. Integrated corridor management initiative : demonstration phase evaluation - Dallas decision support system analysis test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report presents the test plan for conducting the Decision Support System (DSS) Analysis for the : United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) evaluation of the Dallas U.S. 75 Integrated : Corridor Management (ICM) Initiative Demonstrat...

  11. Generation of entanglement in quantum parametric oscillators using phase control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Henao, J C; Pugliese, E; Euzzor, S; Abdalah, S F; Meucci, R; Roversi, J A

    2015-08-19

    The control of quantum entanglement in systems in contact with environment plays an important role in information processing, cryptography and quantum computing. However, interactions with the environment, even when very weak, entail decoherence in the system with consequent loss of entanglement. Here we consider a system of two coupled oscillators in contact with a common heat bath and with a time dependent oscillation frequency. The possibility to control the entanglement of the oscillators by means of an external sinusoidal perturbation applied to the oscillation frequency has been theoretically explored. We demonstrate that the oscillators become entangled exactly in the region where the classical counterpart is unstable, otherwise when the classical system is stable, entanglement is not possible. Therefore, we can control the entanglement swapping from stable to unstable regions by adjusting amplitude and phase of our external controller. We also show that the entanglement rate is approximately proportional to the real part of the Floquet coefficient of the classical counterpart of the oscillators. Our results have the intriguing peculiarity of manipulating quantum information operating on a classical system.

  12. Robust initialization of 2D-3D image registration using the projection-slice theorem and phase correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bom, M J; Bartels, L W; Gounis, M J; Homan, R; Timmer, J; Viergever, M A; Pluim, J P W

    2010-04-01

    The image registration literature comprises many methods for 2D-3D registration for which accuracy has been established in a variety of applications. However, clinical application is limited by a small capture range. Initial offsets outside the capture range of a registration method will not converge to a successful registration. Previously reported capture ranges, defined as the 95% success range, are in the order of 4-11 mm mean target registration error. In this article, a relatively computationally inexpensive and robust estimation method is proposed with the objective to enlarge the capture range. The method uses the projection-slice theorem in combination with phase correlation in order to estimate the transform parameters, which provides an initialization of the subsequent registration procedure. The feasibility of the method was evaluated by experiments using digitally reconstructed radiographs generated from in vivo 3D-RX data. With these experiments it was shown that the projection-slice theorem provides successful estimates of the rotational transform parameters for perspective projections and in case of translational offsets. The method was further tested on ex vivo ovine x-ray data. In 95% of the cases, the method yielded successful estimates for initial mean target registration errors up to 19.5 mm. Finally, the method was evaluated as an initialization method for an intensity-based 2D-3D registration method. The uninitialized and initialized registration experiments had success rates of 28.8% and 68.6%, respectively. The authors have shown that the initialization method based on the projection-slice theorem and phase correlation yields adequate initializations for existing registration methods, thereby substantially enlarging the capture range of these methods.

  13. 78 FR 6329 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Birth Defects Study to Evaluate Pregnancy exposureS (BD-STEPS), FOA DD13-003, initial review. In accordance with... received in response to ``Birth Defects Study to Evaluate Pregnancy exposureS (BD-STEPS), FOA DD13-003...

  14. 77 FR 31358 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... Activity, Nutrition, and Obesity Counseling for Primary Prevention of Cancer, SIP12-053, Panel C, initial... Prevention of Cancer, SIP12-053, Panel C, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...

  15. Initiation of home mechanical ventilation at home : A randomised controlled trial of efficacy, feasibility and costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, A; Kerstjens, H A M; Prins, S C L; Vermeulen, K M; Wijkstra, P J

    Introduction: Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) in the Netherlands is normally initiated in hospital, but this is expensive and often a burden for the patient. In this randomised controlled study we investigated whether initiation of HMV at home in patients with chronic respiratory failure is

  16. Physical Analysis of the Initial Core and Running-In Phase for Pebble-Bed Reactor HTR-PM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pebble-bed reactor HTR-PM is being built in China and is planned to be critical in one or two years. At present, one emphasis of engineering design is to determine the fuel management scheme of the initial core and running-in phase. There are many possible schemes, and many factors need to be considered in the process of scheme evaluation and analysis. Based on the experience from the constructed or designed pebble-bed reactors, the fuel enrichment and the ratio of fuel spheres to graphite spheres are important. In this paper, some relevant physical considerations of the initial core and running-in phase of HTR-PM are given. Then a typical scheme of the initial core and running-in phase is proposed and simulated with VSOP code, and some key physical parameters, such as the maximum power per fuel sphere, the maximum fuel temperature, the refueling rate, and the discharge burnup, are calculated. Results of the physical parameters all satisfy the relevant design requirements, which means the proposed scheme is safe and reliable and can provide support for the fuel management of HTR-PM in the future.

  17. Preparation and initial characterization of fluidized bed steam reforming pure-phase standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missimer, D. M.; Rutherford, R. L.

    2013-03-21

    Hanford is investigating the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process for their Low Activity Waste. The FBSR process offers a low-temperature continuous method by which liquid waste can be processed with the addition of clay into a sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) waste form. The NAS waste form is mainly comprised of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}), sodalite (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}Cl{sub 2}), and nosean (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}SO{sub 4}). Anions such as perrhenate (ReO{sub 4}{sup -}), pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}), and iodine (I{sup -}) are expected to replace sulfate in the nosean structure and/or chloride in the sodalite mineral structure (atomically bonded inside the aluminosilicate cages that these mineral structures possess). In the FBSR waste form, each of these phases can exist in a variety of solid solutions that differ from the idealized forms observed in single crystals in nature. The lack of understanding of the durability of these stoichiometric or idealized mineral phases complicates the ability to deconvolute the durability of the mixed phase FBSR product since it is a combination of different NAS phases. To better understand the behavior, fabrication and testing of the individual phases of the FBSR product is required. Analytical Development (AD) of the Science and Technology directorate of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to prepare the series of phase-pure standards, consisting of nepheline, nosean, and Cl, Re, and I sodalite. Once prepared, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to confirm the products were phase pure. These standards are being used for subsequent characterization studies consisting of the following: single-pass flow-through (SPFT) testing, development of thermodynamic data, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) calibration curves. In addition to the above mentioned phase-pure standards, AD was tasked with fabricating a mixed Tc-Re sodalite.

  18. FY98 Final Report Initial Interfacial Chemical Control for Enhancement of Composite Material Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GE Fryxell; KL Alford; KL Simmons; RD Voise; WD Samuels

    1999-10-14

    The U.S. Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) sponsored this research project to support the development of new self-assembled monolayer fiber coatings. These coatings can greatly increase the bond strength between the fiber and the resin matrix of a composite material. Composite ammunition components molded from such materials will exhibit higher strength than current materials, and will provide a major improvement in the performance of composites in military applications. Use of composite materials in military applications is desirable because of the lighter weight of the materials and their high strengths. The FY97 project investigated initial interfacial chemical control for enhancement of composite material strength. The core of the project was to modify the covalent interface of glass fibers (or other reinforcing fibers) to induce strong, uniform, defect-free adhesion between the fibers' surfaces and the polymer matrix. Installing a self-assembled monolayer tailored to the specific matrix resin accomplished this. Simply, the self-assembled monolayer modifies the fiber to make it appear to have the same chemical composition as the resin matrix. The self-assembled monolayer creates a receptive, hydrophobic interface that the thermoset resin (or polymer precursors) would wet more effectively, leading to a higher contact surface area and more efficient adhesion. The FY97 work phase demonstrated that it is possible to increase the adhesive strength, as well as increase the heat deflection temperature through the use of self-assembled monolayer.

  19. 78 FR 66937 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of Cancellation: This notice concerns...). This SEP, scheduled to convene on November 6, 2013, is canceled. Notice will be provided if the meeting...

  20. 78 FR 23768 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Developing... Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 1:00 p.m.-4:00 p.m., June 18, 2013 (Closed...

  1. 78 FR 66938 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of Cancellation: This notice concerns...). This SEP, scheduled to convene on November 12-15, 2013, is canceled. Notice will be provided if the...

  2. 78 FR 24751 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Continuing... aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 12:00 p.m.-3:30 p.m., June 13, 2013 (Closed). Place: Teleconference. Status...

  3. U.S. Department of Energy's regional carbon sequestration partnership initiative: Update on validation and development phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodosta, T.; Litynski, J.; Plasynski, S.; Spangler, L.; Finley, R.; Steadman, E.; Ball, D.; Gerald, H.; McPherson, B.; Burton, E.; Vikara, D.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead federal agency for the development and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) are the mechanism DOE utilizes to prove the technology and to develop human capital, stakeholder networks, information for regulatory policy, best practices documents and training to work toward the commercialization of carbon capture and storage (CCS). The RCSPs are tasked with determining the most suitable technologies, regulations, and infrastructure for carbon capture, transport, and storage in their respective geographic areas of responsibility. The seven partnerships include more than 400 state agencies, universities, national laboratories, private companies, and environmental organizations, spanning 43 states and four Canadian provinces. The Regional Partnerships Initiative is being implemented in three phases: Characterization, Validation, and Development. The initial Characterization Phase began in 2003 and was completed in 2005 and focused on characterization of CO2 storage potential within each region. It was followed by the Validation Phase, which began in 2005 and is nearing completion in 2011. The focus of the Validation Phase has been on small-scale field tests throughout the seven partnerships in various formation types such as saline, oil-bearing, and coal seams. The Validation Phase has characterized suitable CO2 storage reservoirs and identified the need for comprehensive legal and regulatory frameworks to enable commercial-scale CCS deployment. Finally, the Development Phase will consist of a series of large-scale, one-million-ton, injection tests throughout the United States and Canada. The objective of these large-scale tests is to identify the regulatory path or challenges in permitting CCS projects, to demonstrate the technology can inject CO2 safely, and to verify its permanence in geologic formations in preparation for the commercialization of geologic

  4. Initiating Heavy-atom Based Phasing by Multi-Dimensional Molecular Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Gourdon, Pontus Emanuel; Liu, Xiangyu

    2014-01-01

    in the determination of a membrane protein structure, the CopA Cu+-ATPase, when other methods had failed to resolve the heavy atom substructure. MRPM is particularly suited for proteins undergoing large conformational changes where multiple search models should be generated, and it enables the identification of weak...... but correct molecular replacement solutions with maximum contrast to prime experimental phasing efforts....

  5. Effect of initial nickel particle size on stability of nickel catalysts for aqueous phase reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasterecht, Van Tomas; Swart, Marten; Jong, De Krijn P.; Bitter, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    The deactivation behavior by crystallite growth of nickel nanoparticles on various supports (carbon nanofibers, zirconia, SiC, α-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3) was investigated in the aqueous phase reforming of ethylene glycol. Supported Ni catalysts of ∼10 wt% were prepared by impregnation of carbon nanofibers

  6. Effect of initial nickel particle size on stability of nickel catalysts for aqueous phase reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Haasterecht, Tomas; Swart, Marten; De Jong, Krijn P.; Bitter, Johannes Hendrik

    The deactivation behavior by crystallite growth of nickel nanoparticles on various supports (carbon nanofibers, zirconia, SiC, α-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3) was investigated in the aqueous phase reforming of ethylene glycol. Supported Ni catalysts of ∼10 wt% were prepared by impregnation of carbon nanofibers

  7. Initial phases of design-based research into the educational potentials of NAO-robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Gunver; Bertel, Lykke Brogaard

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our initial research, using the humanoid robot NAO in primary and secondary schools. How does a programmable humanoid enrich teaching and how do we prepare the teachers? Ten school classes are using the robot for creative programming. So far we have experienced that the......In this paper, we describe our initial research, using the humanoid robot NAO in primary and secondary schools. How does a programmable humanoid enrich teaching and how do we prepare the teachers? Ten school classes are using the robot for creative programming. So far we have experienced...

  8. Controlled Topological Transitions in Thin-Film Phase Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Hennessy, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. In this paper the evolution of a binary mixture in a thin-film geometry with a wall at the top and bottom is considered. By bringing the mixture into its miscibility gap so that no spinodal decomposition occurs in the bulk, a slight energetic bias of the walls toward each one of the constituents ensures the nucleation of thin boundary layers that grow until the constituents have moved into one of the two layers. These layers are separated by an interfacial region where the composition changes rapidly. Conditions that ensure the separation into two layers with a thin interfacial region are investigated based on a phase-field model. Using matched asymptotic expansions a corresponding sharp-interface problem for the location of the interface is established. It is then argued that this newly created two-layer system is not at its energetic minimum but destabilizes into a controlled self-replicating pattern of trapezoidal vertical stripes by minimizing the interfacial energy between the phases while conserving their area. A quantitative analysis of this mechanism is carried out via a thin-film model for the free interfaces, which is derived asymptotically from the sharp-interface model.

  9. Using the focal phase to control attosecond processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Dominik; Krüger, Michael; Maisenbacher, Lothar; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Hommelhoff, Peter; Sayler, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    The spatial evolution of the electric field of focused broadband light is crucial for many emerging attosecond technologies. Here the effects of the input beam parameters on the evolution of few-cycle laser pulses in the focus are discussed. Specifically, we detail how the frequency-dependent input beam geometry, chirp and chromatic aberration can affect the spatial dependence of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP), central frequency and pulse duration in the focus. These effects are confirmed by a direct, three-dimensional measurement of the CEP-evolution in the focus of a typical few-cycle pulse laser using electron rescattering at metal nanotips in combination with a CEP-metre. Moreover, we demonstrate a simple measurement technique to estimate the focal CEP evolution by input-beam parameters. These parameters can be used in novel ways in order to control attosecond dynamics and tailor highly nonlinear light–matter interactions.

  10. Protein C activation during the initial phase of experimental acute pancreatitis in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, L H; Bladbjerg, E-M; Osman, M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disturbances of coagulation and fibrinolysis are well-known systemic effects of acute necrotising pancreatitis (ANP). The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the initial events in the haemostatic activation during ANP in an animal model with relevance to the human situa...

  11. Soutien organisationnel de la phase 2 de l'Initiative Think tank ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Project Leader. Ufo Uzodike. Institution. African Heritage Institution LTD/GTE. Institution Country. Nigeria. Related content. New initiative to further global sustainable development goals in health. IDRC and the Graduate Institute in Geneva are partnering to lay the groundwork for a program of support that would enable ...

  12. Integrated corridor management initiative : demonstration phase evaluation, Dallas benefit-cost analysis test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report presents the test plan for conducting the Benefit-Cost Analysis (BCA) for the United States : Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) evaluation of the Dallas U.S. 75 Integrated Corridor : Management (ICM) Initiative Demonstration. The IC...

  13. Establishing a Research Agenda for Foundation Phase Initial Teacher Education: A Systematic Review (1994-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxen, Jean; Botha, Liz Johanson

    2016-01-01

    Poor literacy and numeracy levels in schools have raised questions in South Africa, as they have internationally, on the quality and appropriateness of initial teacher education for preparing teachers for the complexities faced in schools generally and for the mediation of literacy and numeracy in the early years in particular. This paper profiles…

  14. Plasma dynamic synthesis of iron oxides in a discharge plasma jet with possibility to control final phase composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanenkov, I.; Sivkov, A.; Ivashutenko, A.; Gukov, M.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetite Fe3O4 and epsilon iron oxide ɛ-Fe2O3, having excellent frequency characteristics and high electrical resistivity, are considered as the most promising phases among all iron oxides for high-frequency equipment in order to increase the working frequency of the data transmission. Despite the large number of existing methods for synthesizing these materials, many of them do not provide both of these phases. In opposite to these methods, the plasma dynamic synthesis can provide the synthesis of necessary phases in a one-step process. The process is implemented in an electrodischarge iron-containing plasma jet, which interacts with gaseous precursor (oxygen). The use of plasma jet allows obtaining nanoscale powdered products. This work shows the results of the experiment series, where the influence of initial energy parameters on the final phase composition was studied. It is found that the plasma dynamic synthesis allows obtaining both magnetite Fe3O4 and epsilon phase ɛ-Fe2O3 during one short-term process (less than 1 ms). It is also established that the final phase composition strongly depends on the initial parameters of the system. The increased energy parameters lead to the formation of the product with predominant content of epsilon phase, while lower parameters allow synthesizing magnetite phase. Thus, by changing energy parameters, it is possible to control the final composition in the considered system.

  15. Initiating Heavy-atom Based Phasing by Multi-Dimensional Molecular Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Gourdon, Pontus; Liu, Xiangyu; Lykkegaard Karlsen, Jesper; Nissen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    To obtain an electron-density map from a macromolecular crystal the phase problem needs to be solved, which often involves the use of heavy-atom derivative crystals and concomitant heavy-atom substructure determination. This is typically performed by dual-space methods, direct methods or Patterson-based approaches, which however may fail when only poorly diffracting derivative crystals are available. This is often the case for, for example, membrane proteins. Here, an approach for heavy-atom ...

  16. UV irradiation-initiated MMA polymerization to prepare microcapsules containing phase change paraffin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Sude; Song, Guolin; Li, Wei; Fan, Pengfei; Tang, Guoyi [Institute of Advanced Materials, Graduated School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Microencapsulated phase change material (MEPCM), paraffin, with polymethylmethacrylate shell was prepared by introducing UV irradiation to an O/W emulsion polymerization for approximately 30 min under constant stirring. The results of differential scanning calorimetry analyses indicate that the latent heat and the content of paraffin of microcapsules are 101 J g{sup -1} and 61.2 wt%, respectively. The phase transition temperature of MEPCM ranges from 24 to 33 C. The MEPCM was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thermal gravimetric analysis results show that the MEPCM is degraded into two distinguishable steps. Accelerated thermal cycling tests also indicate that the MEPCM displays a good thermal reliability. Gypsum boards composed of as-prepared MEPCM show a good temperature-regulated property. Based on all these results, it can be concluded that the microencapsulated paraffin as MEPCMs have good potential for thermal energy storage purposes such as phase change material slurries, solar space heating applications, textiles and building materials. (author)

  17. Line-frequency phase-controlled rectifiers with adaptive digital controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Vladimir Đ.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the influence of PI controller linear gain scheduling on the dynamic characteristics of the line-frequency phase-controlled rectifier. The examined device has digital control electronics of the DRI 07B type, based on the Intel 80C196 microcontroller. The realized adaptive PI controllers utilize wide variations of the current gain (Kp, decreasing linearly in proportion to the increase in the rectifier output current in the area of the discontinuous currents. Reaching the threshold of the rectifier's discontinuous current, the current gain of the PI voltage controller remains constant. Beside the improvement of the thyristor rectifier's static stability during operation with small output currents, implementation of the adaptive PI control also led to improvement of the voltage controller response in the case of load disturbance in the range of 13-90 % of the nominal rectifier output current. Transfer functions were analyzed for specific parts of the phase-controlled rectifier DRI 110-100 having nominal output parameters of 116 V and 100 A. The values of the relative damping and root-locus characteristics were analyzed in detail.

  18. Soutien organisationnel de la phase 2 de l'Initiative Think tank ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce financement contribuera à renforcer le rôle de l'Initiative prospective agricole et rurale (IPAR-Sénégal) en tant qu'organisme crédible de recherche sur les politiques publiques au Sénégal, en améliorant sa capacité à fournir des recherches de qualité supérieure, influentes et utiles en matière de politiques. À propos de ...

  19. Liquid phase sintered SiC. Processing and transformation controlled microstructure tailoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Izhevskyi

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure development and phase formation processes during sintering of silicon carbide based materials with AlN-Y2O3, AlN-Yb2O3, and AlN-La2O3 sintering additives were investigated. Densification of the materials occurred by liquid-phase sintering mechanism. Proportion of alpha- and beta-SiC powders in the initial mixtures was a variable parameter, while the molar ratio of AlN/RE2O3, and the total amount of additives (10 vol. % were kept constant. Shrinkage behavior during sintering in interrelation with the starting composition of the material and the sintering atmosphere was investigated by high temperature dilatometry. Kinetics of b-SiC to a-SiC phase transformation during post-sintering heat treatment at temperatures 1900-1950 °C was studied, the degree of phase transformation being determined by quantitative x-ray analysis using internal standard technique. Evolution of microstructure resulting from beta-SiC to alpha-SiC transformation was followed up by scanning electron microscopy on polished and chemically etched samples. Transformation-controlled grain growth mechanism similar to the one observed for silicon nitride based ceramics was established. Possibility of in-situ platelet reinforced dense SiC-based ceramics fabrication with improved mechanical properties by means of sintering was shown.

  20. Phase change thermal control materials, method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method for metabolic cooling and insulation of a user in a cold environment. In its preferred embodiment the apparatus is a highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The apparatus can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The apparatus may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the apparatus also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  1. 78 FR 61743 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations: Initial Implementation of Export Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... reforming the export control system. The final rule implements the initial ECR changes by adding a structure... aircraft, gas turbine engines, and related items. The final rule was published in conjunction with a... Controlled section, ``Military gas turbine engines and related articles that are enumerated in USML Category...

  2. 77 FR 61756 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational...

  3. 77 FR 19018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 61 (Thursday, March 29, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 19018] [FR Doc No: 2012-7545] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The...

  4. 78 FR 1212 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Natural History...

  5. 77 FR 30015 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Characterizing...

  6. 78 FR 37542 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns NIOSH...

  7. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of Cancellation: A notice was published in the...

  8. 78 FR 17410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial review The meeting announced below concerns Epi-Centers for...

  9. 76 FR 28790 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict...

  10. 78 FR 75923 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Clinical...

  11. 78 FR 732 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Identification...

  12. 76 FR 52330 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict...

  13. 77 FR 4048 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Evaluation of...

  14. 77 FR 5257 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Detecting...

  15. 77 FR 14806 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology...

  16. 76 FR 18766 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiologic...

  17. 77 FR 36544 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Coordinating...

  18. 77 FR 7164 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict...

  19. 77 FR 28393 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Research to...

  20. 78 FR 25743 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict...

  1. 77 FR 25180 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Conducting...

  2. 78 FR 9926 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Medicaid...

  3. 78 FR 35035 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review The meeting announced below concerns Centers for...

  4. 76 FR 24031 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Strategies to...

  5. 77 FR 12844 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Detecting...

  6. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Monitoring...

  7. 78 FR 60879 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns National Center...

  8. 77 FR 48986 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict...

  9. 77 FR 27460 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Conducting...

  10. 76 FR 39879 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Human...

  11. 76 FR 28438 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns ``Affordable...

  12. 78 FR 19269 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of Cancellation: This document corrects a...

  13. 77 FR 44618 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns the World Trade...

  14. 77 FR 22326 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Extension of the...

  15. 78 FR 62636 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Cooperative...

  16. 78 FR 60878 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Health Promotion...

  17. 76 FR 45575 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Human...

  18. 76 FR 71568 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns National HIV...

  19. 77 FR 25181 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Research...

  20. 78 FR 17412 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Strengthening...

  1. 78 FR 78964 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns The Cooperative...

  2. 77 FR 28392 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Alcohol-related...

  3. 77 FR 25485 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Research Grants...

  4. 78 FR 78966 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology...

  5. 77 FR 21778 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Development and...

  6. 77 FR 39497 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Special Interest...

  7. 78 FR 17411 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Monitoring and...

  8. 76 FR 56461 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Emerging...

  9. 78 FR 19489 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Evaluating the...

  10. 77 FR 39498 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Special Interest...

  11. 77 FR 20822 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Detecting...

  12. 76 FR 33305 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Program to...

  13. 77 FR 4047 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology...

  14. 76 FR 33304 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Strategies to...

  15. 76 FR 18555 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Virologic...

  16. 78 FR 15015 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology...

  17. 76 FR 49771 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Special Interest...

  18. 78 FR 56236 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns NIOSH Member...

  19. 78 FR 36785 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Centers for...

  20. 78 FR 60877 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational...

  1. 77 FR 31018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 101 (Thursday, May 24, 2012)] [Notices] [Pages 31018-31019] [FR Doc No: 2012-12675] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial...

  2. 76 FR 29756 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Centers for...

  3. 76 FR 78263 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational...

  4. 78 FR 13677 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Monitoring...

  5. 78 FR 60875 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational...

  6. 76 FR 67458 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Emerging..., Georgia 30337, Telephone: (770) 997-1100. Contact Person For More Information: Amy Yang, Ph.D., Scientific...

  7. 77 FR 291 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns National HIV...., February 29, 2012 (Closed). Contact Person For More Information: Amy Yang, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer...

  8. 78 FR 9926 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Cooperative...: Nina Turner, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CDC, 1095 Willowdale Road, Mailstop G800, Morgantown...

  9. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program A Reference Plan for Control Room Modernization: Planning and Analysis Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; Ronald Boring; Lew Hanes; Kenneth Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is collaborating with a U.S. nuclear utility to bring about a systematic fleet-wide control room modernization. To facilitate this upgrade, a new distributed control system (DCS) is being introduced into the control rooms of these plants. The DCS will upgrade the legacy plant process computer and emergency response facility information system. In addition, the DCS will replace an existing analog turbine control system with a display-based system. With technology upgrades comes the opportunity to improve the overall human-system interaction between the operators and the control room. To optimize operator performance, the LWRS Control Room Modernization research team followed a human-centered approach published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-0711, Rev. 3, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (O’Hara et al., 2012), prescribes four phases for human factors engineering. This report provides examples of the first phase, Planning and Analysis. The three elements of Planning and Analysis in NUREG-0711 that are most crucial to initiating control room upgrades are: • Operating Experience Review: Identifies opportunities for improvement in the existing system and provides lessons learned from implemented systems. • Function Analysis and Allocation: Identifies which functions at the plant may be optimally handled by the DCS vs. the operators. • Task Analysis: Identifies how tasks might be optimized for the operators. Each of these elements is covered in a separate chapter. Examples are drawn from workshops with reactor operators that were conducted at the LWRS Human System Simulation Laboratory HSSL and at the respective plants. The findings in this report represent generalized accounts of more detailed proprietary reports produced for the utility for each plant. The goal of this LWRS report is to disseminate the technique and provide examples sufficient to

  10. Phase Angle Control of Three Level Inverter Based D-STATCOM Using Neuro-Fuzzy Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COTELI, R.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Distribution Static Compensator (D-STATCOM is a shunt compensation device used to improve electric power quality in distribution systems. It is well-known that D-STATCOM is a nonlinear, semi-defined and time-varying system. Therefore, control of D-STATCOM by the conventional control techniques is very difficult task. In this paper, the control of D-STATCOM is carried out by the neuro-fuzzy controller (NFC which has non-linear and robust structure. For this aim, an experimental setup based on three-level H-bridge inverter is constructed. Phase angle control method is used for control of D-STATCOM's output reactive power. Control algorithm for this experimental setup is prepared in MATLAB/Simulink and downloaded to DS1103 controller card. A Mamdani type NFC is designed for control of D-STATCOM's reactive current. Output of NFC is integrated to increase tracking performance of controller in steady state. The performance of D-STATCOM is experimentally evaluated by changing reference reactive current as on-line. The experimental results show that the proposed controller gives very satisfactory performance under different loading conditions.

  11. Initiating heavy-atom-based phasing by multi-dimensional molecular replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Gourdon, Pontus; Liu, Xiangyu; Karlsen, Jesper Lykkegaard; Nissen, Poul

    2016-03-01

    To obtain an electron-density map from a macromolecular crystal the phase problem needs to be solved, which often involves the use of heavy-atom derivative crystals and concomitant heavy-atom substructure determination. This is typically performed by dual-space methods, direct methods or Patterson-based approaches, which however may fail when only poorly diffracting derivative crystals are available. This is often the case for, for example, membrane proteins. Here, an approach for heavy-atom site identification based on a molecular-replacement parameter matrix (MRPM) is presented. It involves an n-dimensional search to test a wide spectrum of molecular-replacement parameters, such as different data sets and search models with different conformations. Results are scored by the ability to identify heavy-atom positions from anomalous difference Fourier maps. The strategy was successfully applied in the determination of a membrane-protein structure, the copper-transporting P-type ATPase CopA, when other methods had failed to determine the heavy-atom substructure. MRPM is well suited to proteins undergoing large conformational changes where multiple search models should be considered, and it enables the identification of weak but correct molecular-replacement solutions with maximum contrast to prime experimental phasing efforts.

  12. Influence of initial treatment modality on long-term control of chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sujeong; Baek, Seunghee; Shin, Bomi; Yoon, Sun-young; Park, So Young; Lee, Taehoon; Lee, Yoon Su; Bae, Yun-Jeong; Kwon, Hyouk Soo; Cho, You Sook; Moon, Hee-Bom; Kim, Tae-Bum

    2013-01-01

    Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is a common cutaneous disorder but the influence of initial treatment modality on long-term control is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical features, and the influence of initial treatment modality on long-term control. 641 CIU patients were enrolled from the allergy clinic in a tertiary referral hospital. Disease duration, aggravating factors and treatment modality at each visit were evaluated. Times required to reach a controlled state were analyzed according to initial treatment modality, using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, the Cox proportional-hazards model, and propensity scores. Female to male ratio was 1.7: 1; mean age at onset was 40.5 years. The most common aggravating factors were food (33.5%), stress (31.5%) and fatigue (21.6%). Most patients (82.2%) used H1-antihistamines alone as initial treatment while 17% used a combination treatment with oral corticosteroids. There was no significant difference in the time taken to reach a controlled state between patients treated with single vs multiple H1-antihistamines or between those who received H1-antihistamine monotherapy vs. a combination therapy with oral corticosteroids. The time required to control CIU is not reduced by use of multiple H1-antihistamines or oral corticosteroids in the initial treatment.

  13. Influence of initial treatment modality on long-term control of chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeong Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU is a common cutaneous disorder but the influence of initial treatment modality on long-term control is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical features, and the influence of initial treatment modality on long-term control. METHODS AND RESULTS: 641 CIU patients were enrolled from the allergy clinic in a tertiary referral hospital. Disease duration, aggravating factors and treatment modality at each visit were evaluated. Times required to reach a controlled state were analyzed according to initial treatment modality, using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, the Cox proportional-hazards model, and propensity scores. Female to male ratio was 1.7: 1; mean age at onset was 40.5 years. The most common aggravating factors were food (33.5%, stress (31.5% and fatigue (21.6%. Most patients (82.2% used H1-antihistamines alone as initial treatment while 17% used a combination treatment with oral corticosteroids. There was no significant difference in the time taken to reach a controlled state between patients treated with single vs multiple H1-antihistamines or between those who received H1-antihistamine monotherapy vs. a combination therapy with oral corticosteroids. CONCLUSION: The time required to control CIU is not reduced by use of multiple H1-antihistamines or oral corticosteroids in the initial treatment.

  14. Method of using an electric field controlled emulsion phase contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Timothy C.

    1993-01-01

    A system for contacting liquid phases comprising a column for transporting a liquid phase contacting system, the column having upper and lower regions. The upper region has a nozzle for introducing a dispersed phase and means for applying thereto a vertically oriented high intensity pulsed electric field. This electric field allows improved flow rates while shattering the dispersed phase into many micro-droplets upon exiting the nozzle to form a dispersion within a continuous phase. The lower region employs means for applying to the dispersed phase a horizontally oriented high intensity pulsed electric field so that the dispersed phase undergoes continuous coalescence and redispersion while being urged from side to side as it progresses through the system, increasing greatly the mass transfer opportunity.

  15. Inheritance of the Elastic Field of Martensite Nucleation Center by the Control Wave Process Initiating Deformations of Planes {110}c of Cubic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashchenko, M. P.; Chashchina, V. G.

    2017-11-01

    The possibility of inheritance of the elastic field in the zone of appearance of the initial excited state by the wave process controlling growth of the martensite crystal is shown. The case when the wave vectors of the control waves belong to plane {110}c of the original cubic phase is analyzed. Implementability of such inheritance is demonstrated with the use of elastic moduli for single-crystal bcc titanium, which advances the predictive capacity of the dynamic theory.

  16. FPGA-based phase control of acousto-optic modulator Fourier synthesis system through gradient descent phase-locking algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Kenneth J; Jones, Andrew M; Gopinath, Juliet T

    2015-06-20

    We present a new application of the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm to fast active phase control in a Fourier synthesis system. Pulses (4.9 ns) with an 80 MHz repetition rate are generated by feedback from a single phase-sensitive metric. Phase control is applied via fast current modulation of a tapered amplifier using an SPGD algorithm realized on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The waveforms are maintained by constant active feedback from the FPGA. We also discuss the extension of this technique to many more semiconductor laser emitters in a diode laser array.

  17. Indium Growth and Island Height Control on Si Submonolayer Phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jizhou [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    lithography (EUVL) have a wave length of 13.4 nm so it can curve on the surface of an sample to make structure as small as the order of 10 nm. however, lithograph usually causes permanent damages to the surface and in many cases the QDs are damaged during the lithograph and therefore result in high percentage of defects. Quantum size effect has attracted more and more interests in surface science due to many of its effects. One of its effects is the height preference in film growing and the resulting possibility of uniformly sized self-assemble nanostructure. The experiment of Pb islands on In 4x1 phase shows that both the height and the width can be controlled by proper growth conditions, which expands the growth dimensions from 1 to 2. This discover leads us to study the In/Pb interface. In Ch.3, we found that the Pb islands growing on In 4x1-Si(111) surface which have uniform height due to QSE and uniform width due to the constriction of In 4x1 lattice have unexpected stability. These islands are stable in even RT, unlike usual nanostructures on Pb/Si surface which are stable only at low temperature. Since similar structures are usually grown at low temperature, this discovery makes the grown structures closer to technological applications. It also shows the unusual of In/Pb interface. Then we studied the In islands grown on Pb-α-√3x√3-Si(111) phase in Ch.4. These islands have fcc structure in the first few layers, and then convert to bct structure. The In fcc islands have sharp height preference due to QSE like Pb islands. However, the preferred height is different (7 layer for Pb on Si 7x7 and 4 layer for Pb on In 4x1), due to the difference of interface. The In islands structure prefers to be bct than fcc with coverage increase. It is quantitatively supported by first-principle calculation. Unexpectedly, the In islands grown on various of In interfaces didn't show QSE effects and phase transition from fcc and bct structures as on the Pb-α interface (Ch.6). In

  18. Supplier Outreach and Process Control (SOPC) and Supplier Rating Initiative (SRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Harrel

    2003-01-01

    The viewgraph presentation presents an overview of NASA's Supplier Outreach and Process Control (SOPC) and Supplier Risk Initiatives. The discussion of the SOPC examines its importance, current groups who are involved, provides a mission statement, and describes outreach activities and how suppliers are selected. The discussion of the Supplier Risk Initiative examines the variety of ways that integrity, availability, and assurance factor in to supplier risk and describes a new supplier rating program.

  19. Optimal control for systems governed by parabolic equations without initial conditions with controls in the coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Bokalo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider an optimal control problem for systems described by a Fourier problem for parabolic equations. We prove the existence of solutions, and obtain necessary conditions of the optimal control in the case of final observation when the control functions occur in the coefficients.

  20. Applying Diagnostics to Enhance Cable System Reliability (Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative, Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, Rick [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Hampton, Nigel [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Perkel, Josh [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Hernandez, JC [Univ. de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); Elledge, Stacy [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); del Valle, Yamille [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Grimaldo, Jose [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Deku, Kodzo [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering

    2016-02-01

    The Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative (CDFI) played a significant and powerful role in clarifying the concerns and understanding the benefits of performing diagnostic tests on underground power cable systems. This project focused on the medium and high voltage cable systems used in utility transmission and distribution (T&D) systems. While many of the analysis techniques and interpretations are applicable to diagnostics and cable systems outside of T&D, areas such as generating stations (nuclear, coal, wind, etc.) and other industrial environments were not the focus. Many large utilities in North America now deploy diagnostics or have changed their diagnostic testing approach as a result of this project. Previous to the CDFI, different diagnostic technology providers individually promoted their approach as the “the best” or “the only” means of detecting cable system defects.

  1. Research on Control System of Three - phase Brushless DC Motor for Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Jin, Hai; Guo, Jie; Su, Jie; Wang, Miao

    2017-12-01

    In order to study the three-phase brushless motor control system of electric vehicle, Freescale9S12XS128 chip is used as the control core, and the power MOSFET is used as the inverter device. The software is compiled by Codewarrior software. The speed control link adopts open-loop control, and the control chip collects the external sensor signal voltage Change control PWM signal output control three-phase brushless DC motor speed. The whole system consists of Hall position detection module, current detection module, power drive module and voltage detection module. The basic functions of three-phase brushless DC motor drive control are realized.

  2. Pigeons use distinct stop phases to control pecking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Leslie M; Reid, Thomas; Troje, Nikolaus F

    2017-02-01

    Pecking at small targets requires accurate spatial coordination of the head. Planning of the peck has been proposed to occur in two distinct stop phases, but although this idea has now been around for a long time, the specific functional roles of these stop phases remain unsolved. Here, we investigated the characteristics of the two stop phases using high-speed motion capture and examined their functions with two experiments. In experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that the second stop phase is used to pre-program the final approach to a target and analyzed head movements while pigeons (Columba livia) pecked at targets of different size. Our results show that the duration of both stop phases significantly increased as stimulus size decreased. We also found significant positive correlations between stimulus size and the distances of the beaks to the stimulus during both stop phases. In experiment 2, we used a two-alternative forced choice task with different levels of difficulty to test the hypothesis that the first stop phase is used to decide between targets. The results indicate that the characteristics of the stop phases do not change with an increasing difficulty between the two choices. Therefore, we conclude that the first stop phase is not exclusively used to decide upon a target to peck at, but also contributes to the function of the second stop phase, which is improving pecking accuracy and planning the final approach to the target. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Terrace Geochemistry at the Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site - WM2017-17232 Initial Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautsky, Mark [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Ranalli, Tony [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dander, David [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, David [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-08

    The objective of this investigation was to identify and differentiate potential non- mill-related water inputs to a shallow terrace groundwater system through the use of aqueous chemical and isotopic tracers at a former uranium- and vanadium-ore processing facility. Terrace groundwater in the vicinity of the Shiprock, New Mexico, site is hypothesized to be largely anthropogenic because natural rates of recharge in the terrace are likely insufficient to sustain a continuous water table in the terrace alluvial system, as observed in several analogue terrace locations east of the site and in response to post-mill dewatering efforts across the site. The terrace is composed of alluvial sand and gravel and weathered and unweathered Mancos Shale. Terrace groundwater exists and flows in the alluvium and to a much less extent in the Mancos Shale. Historical data established that in both the terrace and floodplain below the terrace, mill-derived uranium and sulfate is found primarily in the alluvium and the upper portion of the weathered Mancos Shale. Groundwater extraction is being conducted in the vicinity of former mill operations and in washes and seeps to dewater the formation and remove contamination, thus eliminating these exposure pathways and minimizing movement to the floodplain. However, past and present contribution of non-mill anthropogenic water sources may be hindering the dewatering effort, resulting in reduced remedy effectiveness. Groundwater source signatures can be determined based on chemical and isotopic ratios and are used to help identify and delineate both mill and non-mill water contributions. Aqueous chemical and isotopic tracers, such as 234U/238U activity ratios and uranium concentrations, δ34S sulfate and sulfate concentrations, tritium concentrations, and δ2Hwater and δ18O water are being used in this Phase I study. The aqueous chemical and isotopic analysis has identified areas on the terrace where groundwater is derived from mill

  4. Structural Changes of PVDF Membranes by Phase Separation Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Semin; Kim, Sung Soo [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) and nonsolvent induced phase separation (NIPS) were simultaneously induced for the preparation of flat PVDF membranes. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) was used as a solvent and dibutyl-phthlate (DBP) was used as a diluent for PVDF. When PVDF was melt blended with NMP and DBP, crystallization temperature was lowered for TIPS and unstable region was expanded for NIPS. Ratio of solvent to diluent changed the phase separation mechanism to obtain the various membrane structures. Contact mode of dope solution with nonsolvent determined the dominant phase separation behavior. Since heat transfer rate was greater than mass transfer rate, surface structure was formed by NIPS and inner structure was by TIPS. Quenching temperature of dope solution also affected the phase separation mechanism and phase separation rate to result in the variation of structure.

  5. The initial phase of a Longleaf Pine-Wiregrass Savanna restoration: species establishment and community responses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenbach, Todd, A; Foster, Bryan, L.; Imm, Donald, W.

    2010-09-01

    AbstractAbstract The significant loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem in the southeastern United States has serious implications for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. In response to this loss, we have initiated a long-term and landscape-scale restoration experiment at the 80,125 ha (310 mi2) Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. Aristida beyrichiana (wiregrass), an important and dominant grass (i.e., a “matrix” species) of the longleaf pine savanna understory, and 31 other herbaceous “non-matrix” species were planted at six locations throughout SRS in 2002 and 2003. Of the 36,056 transplanted seedlings, 75% were still alive in June 2004, while mean 1–2 year survival across all planted species was 48%. Lespedeza hirta (hairy lespedeza) exhibited the greatest overall survival per 3 ×3 m cell at 95%, whereas Schizachyrium spp. (little bluestem) exhibited the greatest mean cover among individual species at 5.9%. Wiregrass survival and cover were significantly reduced when planted with non-matrix species. Aggregate cover of all planted species in restored cells averaged 25.9% in 2006. High rates of survival and growth of the planted species resulted in greater species richness (SR), diversity, and vegetative cover in restored cells. Results suggest that the loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem may be ameliorated through restoration efforts and illustrate the positive impact of restoration plantings on biodiversity and vegetative cover.

  6. Energy Economic Data Base (EEDB) program: phase I. Final report and initial update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Volume I describes the EEDB and presents some pertinent update material. The initial appendices make up Volume II in which descriptions of the Standard Hypothetical Middletown Sites for nuclear power plants and coal-fired power plants are presented. Additional data in appendices in Volume II include information on NUS Corporation fuel-cycle work; inflation-free fixed charge rates; capital cost update procedure; and Combustion Engineering, Inc. LMFBR NPGS Target nuclear steam supply system. This Volume, III, contains additional appendices entitled: Practical Target Economics for the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Nuclear Power Generating Station; Air-Quality Impact Analysis for Determination of the Acceptability of Qualified High- and Low-sulfur Coal-Fired Facility Designs for the Hypothetical Middletown Site; Synthetic Power Plant Fuels by the Solvent Refined Coal Process; Inflation-Free Fuel Cycle Costs for Throwaway and Recycle Cases; Inflated (6%) Fuel Cycle costs for Throwaway and Recycle Cases. Inflated (7%) Fuel Costs for Throwaway and Recycle Cases; Inflated (8%) Fuel Cycle Costs for Throwaway and Recycle Cases; Fuel Costing Methodology; and Bred-Fuel Scenarios.

  7. Analysis and MPPT control of a wind-driven three-phase induction generator feeding single-phase utility grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Arthishri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a three-phase diode bridge rectifier and a single-phase voltage source inverter topology has been proposed for feeding single-phase utility grid employing a three-phase induction generator fed from wind energy. A self-excited induction generator configuration has been chosen for wide speed operation of wind turbine system, which gives the scope for extracting maximum power available in the wind. In addition to maximum power point tracking (MPPT, the generator can be loaded to its rated capacity for feeding single-phase utility grid using a three-phase induction machine, whereas it is not possible with existing configurations because of the absence of power converters. For the proposed system, MPPT algorithm has been devised by continuously monitoring the grid current and a proportional resonant controller has been employed for grid synchronisation of voltage source inverter with single-phase grid. A MATLAB/Simulink model of the proposed system has been developed to ascertain its successful working by predetermining the overall performance characteristics. The present proposal has also been tested with sag, swell and distortion in the grid voltage. The control strategy has been implemented using field programmable gate array (FPGA controller with modularised programming approach. The efficacy of the system has been demonstrated with the results obtained from an experimental set-up in the laboratory.

  8. Araçatuba Formation: palustrine deposits from the initial sedimentation phase of the Bauru Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Fernandes

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bauru Basin (Upper Cretaceous accumulated an essentially sandy continental sedimentary sequence. In a first desertic phase the basaltic substratum was covered by a widespread and homogeneous aeolian sand unit with minor loess intercalations. The substratum relief favored the formation of an endorheic drainage system under semi-arid climate, a process that started the development of the Araçatuba Paleoswamp. The palustrine deposits (Araçatuba Formation comprise siltstone and tipically greenish gray narrow tabular strata of sandstone cemented by carbonate. Moulds and gypsite and dolomite pseudomorphs were identified. The moulds seem to be genetically associated with desiccation cracks, root marks and climbing ripple lamination levels, that, on the whole, indicate calm shallow saline waters undergoing phases of subaerial exposition. At the boundaries of the study area, sand units may exhibit sigmoidal features and convolute bedding structure, which is characteristic of marginal deltaic deposits. The Araçatuba Formation is enclosed in and later overlaid by the aeolian deposits of the Vale do Rio do Peixe Formation.A Bacia Bauru (Cretáceo Superior, acumulou uma seqüência sedimentar continental essencialmente arenosa. Numa fase inicial desértica, o seu substrato basáltico foi soterrado por extensa e monótona cobertura de areias eólicas com intercalações subordinadas de depósitos de loesse. O relevo original do substrato favoreceu a formação de uma drenagem regional endorrêica, sob clima semi-árido, propiciando assim condições de formação do Paleopantanal Araçatuba. Os depósitos paludiais (Formação Araçatuba constituem estratos tabulares de siltitos e arenitos de cor cinza claro esverdeado típica, eventualmente cimentados por carbonato de cálcio. Moldes e pseudomorfos de cristais de gipsita e dolomita foram identificados na unidade. Aparentemente, estão associados com gretas de ressecação, marcas de raízes e

  9. Hanford tank initiative vehicle/based waste retrieval demonstration report phase II, track 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglin, E.J.

    1997-07-31

    Using the versatile TracPUMpTm, Environmental Specialties Group, LLC (ES) performed a successful Phase 11 demonstration of a Vehicle- Based Waste Retrieval System (VWRS) for removal of waste material and residual liquid found in the Hanford Underground Storage Tanks (ousts). The purpose of this demonstration was to address issues pertaining to the use of a VWRS in OUSTS. The demonstration also revealed the waste removal capabilities of the TracPumpTm and the most effective techniques and equipment to safely and effectively remove waste simulants. ES successfully addressed the following primary issues: I . Dislodge and convey the waste forms present in the Hanford OUSTS; 2. Access the UST through tank openings as small as twenty-four inches in diameter; 3. Traverse a variety of terrains including slopes, sludges, rocks and hard, slippery surfaces without becoming mired; 4. Dislodge and convey waste within the confinement of the Decontamination Containment Capture Vessel (DCCV) and with minimal personnel exposure; 5. Decontaminate equipment to acceptable limits during retrieval from the UST; 6. Perform any required maintenance within the confinement of the DCCV; and 7. Maintain contaminate levels ``as low as reasonably achievable`` (ALARA) within the DCCV due to its crevice and comer-free design. The following materials were used to simulate the physical characteristics of wastes found in Hanford`s OUSTS: (1) Hardpan: a clay-type material that has high shear strength; (2) Saltcake: a fertilizer-based material that has high compressive strength; and (3) Wet Sludge.- a sticky, peanut- butter- like material with low shear strength. Four test beds were constructed of plywood and filled with a different simulant to a depth of eight to ten inches. Three of the test beds were of homogenous simulant material, while the fourth bed consisted of a mixture of all three simulant types.

  10. Field-oriented control of five-phase induction motor with open-end stator winding

    OpenAIRE

    Listwan Jacek; Pieńkowski Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The mathematical model of the five-phase squirrel-cage induction motor and the system of the dual five-phase voltage source inverter have been presented. The control methods and control systems of the field-oriented control of the five-phase induction motor with an open-end stator winding are described. The structures of the direct fieldoriented control system (DFOC) and the Indirect Field-oriented control system (IFOC) with PI controllers in outer and inner control loops are analyzed. A meth...

  11. Swine plasma and whole egg in ration for weaner pigs in performance in initial phase and residual effect until finishing phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Thomaz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Were used 64 weaned pigs, distributed in eight treatments: ration with skim milk (SM, three rations with crescent levels of swine plasma (SP, three rations with whole egg (WE and a ration with high inclusion of soybean meal (SB. Daily weight gain (DWG, daily feed intake (DFI and feed conversion (FC were evaluated. The animals that consumed ration SB have the mean of DWG higher that other treatments, and inferior FC, from 35 to 48 days of age. The crescent levels of SP promoted linear reduction in DWG, from 21 to 35, and from 35 to 48 days of age, in DFI from 48 to 138 days of age and linear increased in FC from 21 to 35 of age. Considering the weaned phase until finishing, initial rations can be formulated with SP and WE substituted partially the CP of skim milk in 25 and 45%, respectively.

  12. Shoulder kinetics during start-up and propulsion with a manual wheelchair within the initial phase of uninstructed training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybois, Samuel; Siegel, Alice; Bascou, Joseph; Eydieux, Nicolas; Vaslin, Philippe; Pillet, Hélène; Fodé, Pascale; Sauret, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    Wheelchair locomotion is constraining for the upper limbs and involves a set of motor tasks that need to be learnt by a novice user. To understand this integration process, we investigated the evolution of shoulder kinetics during start-up and propulsion within the initial phase of low-intensity uninstructed training. Seventeen novice able-bodied subjects performed a 120-min uninstructed practice distributed over 4 weeks. During the initial and final sessions, upper limbs kinematics and hand-rim kinetics were continuously collected. Inverse kinematics and dynamics coupled to a three-dimensional linked-segment model were used to compute shoulder net moments. Participants increased the speed of the wheelchair with practice. In average, an increase of shoulder net moments and mechanical work during the push phase was observed. Conversely, during the recovery phase, participants slightly increased shoulder power but maintained a similar level of shoulder loading. However, individual evolutions allowed the definition of two groups defined as: "increasers", who increased shoulder loading and mechanical work versus "decreasers", who managed to limit shoulder loading while improving the wheelchair speed. These findings underline that individual adaptation strategies are essential to take into account when designing a rehabilitation protocol for wheelchair users. Implications for Rehabilitation The learning process of manual wheelchair locomotion is essential for the assimilation of motor tasks leading individuals to select their propulsion technique. Novice users display different learning strategies: some people increase shoulder loading very early but others spontaneously manage to increase the wheelchair speed while maintaining a constant level of shoulder loading. Wheelchair rehabilitation programs should be individualized to take into account the subject-specific learning strategy.

  13. Synthesis of dynamic phase profile by the correlation technique for spatial control of optical beams in multiplexing and switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaychuk, Svitlana A.; Gnatovskyy, Vladimir O.; Sidorenko, Andrey V.; Pryadko, Igor I.; Negriyko, Anatoliy M.

    2015-11-01

    New approach for the correlation technique, which is based on multiple periodic structures to create a controllable angular spectrum, is proposed and investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The transformation of an initial laser beam occurs due to the actions of consecutive phase periodic structures, which may differ by their parameters. Then, after the Fourier transformation of a complex diffraction field, the output diffraction orders will be changed both by their intensities and by their spatial position. The controllable change of output angular spectrum is carried out by a simple control of the parameters of the periodic structures. We investigate several simple examples of such management.

  14. Vector control of three-phase AC machines system development in the practice

    CERN Document Server

    Quang, Nguyen Phung

    2008-01-01

    Covers the area of vector control of 3-phase AC machines, in particular induction motors with squirrel-cage rotor, permanent excited synchronous motors and doubly-fed induction machines. This title summarizes the basic structure of a field-oriented controlled 3-phase AC drive and grid voltage orientated controlled wind power plant.

  15. Resonant Frequency Control For the PIP-II Injector Test RFQ: Control Framework and Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelen, A. L. [Colorado State U.; Biedron, S. G.; Milton, S. V.; Bowring, D.; Chase, B. E.; Edelen, J. P.; Nicklaus, D.; Steimel, J.

    2016-12-16

    For the PIP-II Injector Test (PI-Test) at Fermilab, a four-vane radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) is designed to accelerate a 30-keV, 1-mA to 10-mA, H- beam to 2.1 MeV under both pulsed and continuous wave (CW) RF operation. The available headroom of the RF amplifiers limits the maximum allowable detuning to 3 kHz, and the detuning is controlled entirely via thermal regulation. Fine control over the detuning, minimal manual intervention, and fast trip recovery is desired. In addition, having active control over both the walls and vanes provides a wider tuning range. For this, we intend to use model predictive control (MPC). To facilitate these objectives, we developed a dedicated control framework that handles higher-level system decisions as well as executes control calculations. It is written in Python in a modular fashion for easy adjustments, readability, and portability. Here we describe the framework and present the first control results for the PI-Test RFQ under pulsed and CW operation.

  16. On TCP-based Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Server Overload Control

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Charles; Schulzrinne, Henning

    2010-01-01

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) server overload management has attracted interest since SIP is being widely deployed in the Next Generation Networks (NGN) as a core signaling protocol. Yet all existing SIP overload control work is focused on SIP-over-UDP, despite the fact that TCP is increasingly seen as the more viable choice of SIP transport. This paper answers the following questions: is the existing TCP flow control capable of handling the SIP overload problem? If not, why and how c...

  17. Autonomous Satellite Command and Control Through the World Wide Web. Phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, Brian; Twiggs, Robert

    1998-01-01

    The Automated Space System Experimental Testbed (ASSET) system is a simple yet comprehensive real-world operations network being developed. Phase 3 of the ASSET Project was January-December 1997 and is the subject of this report. This phase permitted SSDL and its project partners to expand the ASSET system in a variety of ways. These added capabilities included the advancement of ground station capabilities, the adaptation of spacecraft on-board software, and the expansion of capabilities of the ASSET management algorithms. Specific goals of Phase 3 were: (1) Extend Web-based goal-level commanding for both the payload PI and the spacecraft engineer. (2) Support prioritized handling of multiple (PIs) Principle Investigators as well as associated payload experimenters. (3) Expand the number and types of experiments supported by the ASSET system and its associated spacecraft. (4) Implement more advanced resource management, modeling and fault management capabilities that integrate the space and ground segments of the space system hardware. (5) Implement a beacon monitoring test. (6) Implement an experimental blackboard controller for space system management. (7) Further define typical ground station developments required for Internet-based remote control and for full system automation of the PI-to-spacecraft link. Each of those goals are examined. Significant sections of this report were also published as a conference paper. Several publications produced in support of this grant are included as attachments. Titles include: 1) Experimental Initiatives in Space System Operations; 2) The ASSET Client Interface: Balancing High Level Specification with Low Level Control; 3) Specifying Spacecraft Operations At The Product/Service Level; 4) The Design of a Highly Configurable, Reusable Operating System for Testbed Satellites; 5) Automated Health Operations For The Sapphire Spacecraft; 6) Engineering Data Summaries for Space Missions; and 7) Experiments In Automated Health

  18. Controlling the growth of multiple ordered heteromolecular phases by utilizing intermolecular repulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneke, Caroline; Felter, Janina; Schwarz, Daniel; Stefan Tautz, F.; Kumpf, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Metal/organic interfaces and their structural, electronic, spintronic and thermodynamic properties have been investigated intensively, aiming to improve and develop future electronic devices. In this context, heteromolecular phases add new design opportunities simply by combining different molecules. However, controlling the desired phases in such complex systems is a challenging task. Here, we report an effective way of steering the growth of a bimolecular system composed of adsorbate species with opposite intermolecular interactions--repulsive and attractive, respectively. The repulsive species forms a two-dimensional lattice gas, the density of which controls which crystalline phases are stable. Critical gas phase densities determine the constant-area phase diagram that describes our experimental observations, including eutectic regions with three coexisting phases. We anticipate the general validity of this type of phase diagram for binary systems containing two-dimensional gas phases, and also show that the density of the gas phase allows engineering of the interface structure.

  19. Advanced Control Design for Wind Turbines; Part I: Control Design, Implementation, and Initial Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A. D.; Fingersh, L. J.

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to give wind turbine engineers information and examples of the design, testing through simulation, field implementation, and field testing of advanced wind turbine controls.

  20. The Distributed Hydrologic Model Intercomparison Project Phase 2 (DMIP 2): Overview and Initial NWS Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. B.; Koren, V.; Reed, S. M.; Zhang, Z.; Moreda, F.; Cui, Z.; Lei, F.; Cong, S.; Seo, D.

    2006-05-01

    The National Weather Service of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/NWS) recognizes the need for a continued series of science experiments to guide its research into advanced hydrologic models for river and water resources forecasting. This need is accentuated by NOAA/NWS' recent advance into a broader spectrum of water resources forecasting, to complement its more traditional river and flash flood forecasting mission. To this end, the NOAA/NWS welcomes input and contributions from the national and international hydrologic research community in order to better fulfill its mandate to provide valuable products and services. In February of 2006, the Hydrology Laboratory (HL) of the NOAA /NWS Office of Hydrologic Development launched the second phase of the Distributed Hydrologic Model Intercomparison Project (DMIP 2). DMIP 2 follows the success of DMIP 1, which was completed in 2002. DMIP 1 provided a venue for researchers to compare their models with others and with NWS operational models, given a common set of forcings and verification data. The project attracted participants from 12 institutions based in Denmark, China, Canada, New Zealand, and the U.S. The experiments in DMIP 1 focused on the comparison of lumped and distributed models in hydrologically-simple regions. Models were forced with data used for NWS operational river forecasting. DMIP 1 results were mixed: in some basins, distributed models performed better than the NWS lumped model; in other cases the opposite was true. The DMIP 1 results were formally presented in a special issue of the Journal of Hydrology (Vol. 298, 2004). The scope of DMIP 2 is broader than that in DMIP 1 and is designed around two themes: 1) continued investigation of science questions pertinent to the DMIP 1 test sites, and 2) distributed and lumped model tests in hydrologically complex basins in the Sierra-Nevada mountains in the western U.S. DMIP 2 will benefit from data available from the Oklahoma

  1. 78 FR 20319 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... Health Interventions in Haiti to Support Post-earthquake Reconstruction, Cholera and HIV/AIDS, FOA GH13... Haiti to Support Post-earthquake Reconstruction, Cholera and HIV/AIDS, FOA GH13- 006, initial review... and Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Africa, FOA GH13-002; Detecting Etiologies of Emerging...

  2. PHOSPHATE BINDER THERAPY AND SERUM PHOSPHATE CONTROL FOLLOWING INITIATION OF HAEMODIALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Farrand

    2012-06-01

    Serum P can be difficult to control following initiation of HD. Patients with elevated serum P were younger, and most had higher P binder use than the reference group. Overall, binder use was lower than in other studies of HD patients. Dietary education and higher doses of the most effective P binders may be needed to improve P management.

  3. The IAEA Coordinated Research Program on HTGR Uncertainty Analysis: Phase I Status and Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strydom, Gerhard; Bostelmann, Friederike; Ivanov, Kostadin

    2014-10-01

    required confidence level. In order to address uncertainty propagation in analysis and methods in the HTGR community the IAEA initiated a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the HTGR Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM) that officially started in 2013. Although this project focuses specifically on the peculiarities of HTGR designs and its simulation requirements, many lessons can be learned from the LWR community and the significant progress already made towards a consistent methodology uncertainty analysis. In the case of LWRs the NRC has already in 1988 amended 10 CFR 50.46 to allow best-estimate (plus uncertainties) calculations of emergency core cooling system performance. The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) also established an Expert Group on "Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling" which finally led to the definition of the "Benchmark for Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM) for Design, Operation and Safety Analysis of LWRs". The CRP on HTGR UAM will follow as far as possible the on-going OECD Light Water Reactor UAM benchmark activity.

  4. Healthy Canada by Design CLASP: Lessons learned from the first phase of an intersectoral, cross-provincial, built environment initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miro, Alice; Kishchuk, Natalie A; Perrotta, Kim; Swinkels, Helena M

    2014-09-12

    The Healthy Canada by Design (HCBD) CLASP (Coalitions Linking Action and Science for Prevention) Initiative promotes the building of communities that support health by 1) facilitating the integration of health evidence into built environment decision-making; 2) developing new, cross-sector collaboration models and tools; and 3) fostering a national community of practice. A coalition of public health professionals, researchers, professional planners and non-governmental organization (NGO) staff from across Canada developed, implemented and participated in the Initiative. In the first phase, HCBD interventions took place for the most part in large urban and suburban settings in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia. National knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) activities were delivered both locally and nationally. Project participants developed tools or processes for collaboration between the health and the community planning sectors. These were designed to increase the capacity of the health sector to influence decisions about land use and transportation planning. Tool or process development was accompanied by pilot testing, evaluation, and dissemination of findings and lessons learned. On a parallel track, NGOs involved with HCBD led national KTE interventions. The first phase of HCBD demonstrated the potential for public health organizations to influence the built environment determinants of cancer and chronic diseases. Public health authorities forged relationships with several organizations with a stake in built environment decisions, including municipal and regional planning departments, provincial governments, federal government agencies, researchers, community groups and NGOs. The Initiative accomplished the following: 1) created new relationships across sectors and across health authorities; 2) improved the knowledge and skills for influencing land use planning processes among public health professionals; 3) increased awareness of health evidence and intent

  5. A simple output voltage control scheme for single phase wavelet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -phase pulse-width-modulated (PWM) dc-ac inverter. ... function, derived using wavelet theory, can be used to generate the switching signal as well as to model the inverter output which is not possible with other modulation techniques.

  6. Field-oriented control of five-phase induction motor with open-end stator winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listwan Jacek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of the five-phase squirrel-cage induction motor and the system of the dual five-phase voltage source inverter have been presented. The control methods and control systems of the field-oriented control of the five-phase induction motor with an open-end stator winding are described. The structures of the direct fieldoriented control system (DFOC and the Indirect Field-oriented control system (IFOC with PI controllers in outer and inner control loops are analyzed. A method of space vector modulation used to control the system of the dual five-phase voltage source inverter has been discussed. The results of simulation studies of the field-oriented control methods are presented. Comparative analysis of the simulation results was carried out.

  7. Comparative analysis of the molecular mechanisms controlling the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication in yeast and in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Elena; Hasan, Md Mehedi; Alberghina, Lilia; Vanoni, Marco

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotes DNA replication takes place in the S phase of the cell cycle. It initiates from hundreds to thousands of replication origins in a coordinated manner, in order to efficiently duplicate the genome. The sequence of events leading to the onset of DNA replication is conventionally divided in two interdependent processes: licensing-a process during which replication origins acquire replication competence but are kept inactive- and firing-a process during which licensed origins are activated but not re-licensed. In this review we investigate the evolutionary conservation of the molecular machinery orchestrating DNA replication initiation both in yeast and in mammalian cells, highlighting a remarkable conservation of the general architecture of this central biological mechanism. Many steps are conserved down to molecular details and are performed by orthologous proteins with high sequence conservation, while differences in molecular structure of the performing proteins and their interactions are apparent in other steps. Tight regulation of initiation of DNA replication is achieved through protein phosphorylation, exerted mostly by Cyclin-dependent kinases in order to ensure that each chromosome is fully replicated once, and only once, during each cycle, and to avoid the formation of aberrant DNA structures and incorrect chromosomal duplication, that in mammalian cells are a prerequisite for genome instability and tumorigenesis. We then consider a molecular mathematical model of DNA replication, recently proposed by our group in a collaborative project, as a frame of reference to discuss similarities and differences observed in the regulatory program controlling DNA replication initiation in yeast and in mammalian cells and discuss whether they may be dependent upon different functional constraints. We conclude that a systems biology approach, integrating molecular analysis with modeling and computational investigations, is the best choice to investigate the

  8. Conventional CD11chigh Dendritic Cells Are Important for T Cell Priming during the Initial Phase of Plasmodium yoelii Infection, but Are Dispensable at Later Time Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Ueffing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are highly specialized antigen-presenting cells that orchestrate adaptive immune responses to pathogens. During malaria infection pro- and anti-inflammatory T cell responses have to be tightly balanced to ensure parasite clearance without induction of severe immune pathologies. However, the precise role of CD11chigh DCs in this process is still discussed controversially. Here, we demonstrate that long-term depletion of conventional CD11chigh DCs in Plasmodium yoelii (P. yoelii-infected diphtheria toxin (DT-treated RosaiDTR/CD11c-cre mice interferes with the activation of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells as well as CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells at early time points during infection. Moreover, systemic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α were decreased in P. yoelii-infected mice deficient for CD11chigh DCs compared to infected RosaiDTR controls. To further elucidate the importance of CD11chigh DCs during the later phase of infection, we treated RosaiDTR/CD11c-cre and control mice with DT only from day 4 of P. yoelii infection onward. Strikingly, this approach had no impact on the activation and IFN-γ production of CD4+ and CD8+ effector T cells. These results indicate that CD11chigh DCs play a crucial role in eliciting effector T cell responses during the initial phase, but are dispensable during ongoing infection with P. yoelii.

  9. [The delay of pharyngeal phase initiation vs the course of the deglutition act in patients after partial or total tongue excision due to oral cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halczy-Kowalik, Ludmiła; Wysocki, Rościsław; Posio, Violetta

    2006-01-01

    The coordination of the respiratory and alimentary function is indispensable to transport the food from the oral cavity to the stomach without aspiration risk. Disturbances during pharyngeal phase of swallowing, registered after oral tumour excision, are caused by diminishing of the tongue shape, decreasing of gustatory sensitivity and oral stereognosis. The aim of the work is to estimate the influence the oral tissue excision to the pharyngeal phase of deglution. videoradiological examination of deglutition by W.J. Dodds - for 95 patients after oral tumour excision, with swallowing disturbances. Duration of oral and pharyngeal activities, degree of realization these activities and aspiration risk were valued. Abnormal mobility of tongue, lack of palato-pharyngeal and glosso-pharyngeal closure, abnormal formation of bolus accompanied to delayed initiation of pharyngeal phase. The delay of pharyngeal phase initiation was the most important for beginning and ending of the larynx closure, oesophagus opening, pharynx emptying. This delay wasn't statistically significant for duration these activities. The retention in oral cavity and in lower throat, additional deglutitions, inter-deglutition and postdeglutition leakage correlated with delay of the pharyngeal phase initiation. 1. The delay of pharyngeal phase initation after oral tumour excision is caused by oral swallowing disturbances. 2. The delay of pharyngeal phase initiation after oral tumor excision is dependent on the range of surgery and reconstruction. 3. The delay of pharyngeal phase initiation after oral tumour excision is important for beginning and ending of the pharyngeal phase activities, it isn't important for their duration. 4. The deficit of oral sensory stimuli causes desynchronization of the pharyngeal phase activities and diminishes the swallowing efficiency. 5. Improvement of the swallowing efficiency after partial or total tongue excision is possible by oral phase elongation, by monitoring of the

  10. [Emotional stress as a clinical model to study the pathogenesis of the initial phase of the general adaptation syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikhovskaya, I A; Dvoenosov, V G; Zhdanov, R I; Koubatiev, A A; Mayskiy, I A; Markelova, M M; Meshkov, M V; Oparina, O N; Salakhov, I M; Yakovlev, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    General adaptation syndrome (GAS), the basis of the development of which is stress phenomenon, is an essential component of the pathogenesis of many diseases and syndromes. However, the patho genesis of GAS hitherto is considered exclusively from the endocrinological viewpoint. This relates primarily to the initial phase of the GAS, a clinical model for the study of which may be psycho-emotional stress (PES), which we studied using three groups of volunteers. The first one consists of 25 students who were waiting for unaccustomed physical activity (17 men) and play debut on the stage (8 women). The second group consists of 48 children (2-14 years) who expected for "planned" surgery. The third group of volunteers is made up of 80 students (41 women and 39 men) during the first exam. The concentration of cortisol, endotoxin (ET), the activity of antiendotoxin immunity (AEI) and the haemostatic system parameters were determined in the blood serum of volunteers in various combinations. We found laboratory evidence for PES at 92% of students of the first group, 58% of children of the second one and in 21% of students of the third group of volunteers (mostly women). The concentration of ET increased at 13 (52%) volunteers of the first group with a significant increase of average indicators in the whole group (from 0.84 ± 0.06 to 1.19 ± 0.04 EU/ml). At children of the second group, the average concentration of ET increased even more significantly (from 0.42 ± 0.02 to 1.63 ± 0.11 EU/ml), which was accompanied by the activation of the hemostasis system. A degree of the activation was directly dependent on the level of ET in the general circulation and on an activity of AEI. Examination stress in the third group of volunteers is accompanied by activation of plasma hemostasis (increased initial thrombosis rate and reduced the time it starts, lag-period) in 26% of female students and 15% of male students. We suggest that it is possible to use the PES as a clinical model

  11. Design of a Fractional Order Phase Shaper for Iso-Damped Control of a PHWR Under Step-Back Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Suman; Das, Saptarshi; Ghosh, Ratna; Goswami, Bhaswati; Balasubramanian, R.; Chandra, A. K.; Das, Shantanu; Gupta, Amitava

    2010-06-01

    Phase shaping using fractional order (FO) phase shapers has been proposed by many contemporary researchers as a means of producing systems with iso-damped closed loop response due to a stepped variation in input. Such systems, with the closed loop damping remaining invariant to gain changes can be used to produce dead-beat step response with only rise time varying with gain. This technique is used to achieve an active step-back in a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) where it is desired to change the reactor power to a pre-determined value within a short interval keeping the power undershoot as low as possible. This paper puts forward an approach as an alternative for the present day practice of a passive step-back mechanism where the control rods are allowed to drop during a step-back action by gravity, with release of electromagnetic clutches. The reactor under a step-back condition is identified as a system using practical test data and a suitable Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative (PID) controller is designed for it. Then the combined plant is augmented with a phase shaper to achieve a dead-beat response in terms of power drop. The fact that the identified static gain of the system depends on the initial power level at which a step-back is initiated, makes this application particularly suited for using a FO phase shaper. In this paper, a model of a nuclear reactor is developed for a control rod drop scenario involving rapid power reduction in a 500 MWe Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactor using AutoRegressive Exogenous (ARX) algorithm. The system identification and reduced order modeling are developed from practical test data. For closed loop active control of the identified reactor model, the fractional order phase shaper along with a PID controller is shown to perform better than the present Reactor Regulating System (RRS) due to its iso-damped nature.

  12. Role for non-proteolytic control of M-phase-promoting factor activity at M-phase exit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo D'Angiolella

    Full Text Available M-phase Promoting Factor (MPF; the cyclin B-cdk 1 complex is activated at M-phase onset by removal of inhibitory phosphorylation of cdk1 at thr-14 and tyr-15. At M-phase exit, MPF is destroyed by ubiquitin-dependent cyclin proteolysis. Thus, control of MPF activity via inhibitory phosphorylation is believed to be particularly crucial in regulating transition into, rather than out of, M-phase. Using the in vitro cell cycle system derived form Xenopus eggs, here we show, however, that inhibitory phosphorylation of cdk1 contributes to control MPF activity during M-phase exit. By sampling extracts at very short intervals during both meiotic and mitotic exit, we found that cyclin B1-associated cdk1 underwent transient inhibitory phosphorylation at tyr-15 and that cyclin B1-cdk1 activity fell more rapidly than the cyclin B1 content. Inhibitory phosphorylation of MPF correlated with phosphorylation changes of cdc25C, the MPF phosphatase, and physical interaction of cdk1 with wee1, the MPF kinase, during M-phase exit. MPF down-regulation required Ca(++/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA activities at meiosis and mitosis exit, respectively. Treatment of M-phase extracts with a mutant cyclin B1-cdk1AF complex, refractory to inhibition by phosphorylation, impaired binding of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C to its co-activator Cdc20 and altered M-phase exit. Thus, timely M-phase exit requires a tight coupling of proteolysis-dependent and proteolysis-independent mechanisms of MPF inactivation.

  13. Secreted single‐stranded DNA is involved in the initial phase of biofilm formation by Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zweig, Maria; Schork, Sabine; Koerdt, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    plays an important role in biofilm formation. Many clinical isolates contain a gonococcal genetic island that encodes a type IV secretion system (T4SS). The T4SS of N. gonorrhoeae strain MS11 secretes ssDNA directly into the medium. Biofilm formation, studied in continuous flow‐chamber systems......Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an obligate human pathogen that colonizes the genital tract and causes gonorrhoea. Neisseria gonorrhoeae can form biofilms during natural cervical infections, on glass and in continuous flow‐chamber systems. These biofilms contain large amounts of extracellular DNA, which...... by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), was strongly reduced, especially in the initial phases of biofilm formation, in the presence of Exonuclease I, which specifically degrades ssDNA or in a ΔtraB strain that does not secrete ssDNA. To specifically detect ssDNA in biofilms using CLSM, a novel method...

  14. Receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control messages and adolescent smoking initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emory, Kristen T; Messer, Karen; Vera, Lisa; Ojeda, Norma; Elder, John P; Usita, Paula; Pierce, John P

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco industry cigarette advertising is associated with increased adolescent smoking, while counter tobacco advertising is associated with reduced smoking. As these campaigns compete for influence, there is a need to understand their inter-relationship on youth smoking. Methods This study reports data from a national population of families (n=1036) with an oldest child aged 10–13 years, identified by random digit dialling. Parent and child dyads completed baseline questionnaires in 2003. Adolescents were resurveyed in 2007–2008 (response rate 74%). Adjusted logistic regression explores associations between receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. Results In 2007–2008, 57.9% of adolescents reported a favourite tobacco control advertisement and 43.3% reported being receptive to cigarette advertisements. Thirty per cent reported receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertisements. Among those receptive to cigarette advertising, having a favourite anti-smoking advertisement had a borderline significant association with a 30% lower smoking rate. Anti-industry tobacco control messages were three times more likely to be favourites of those who were receptive to cigarette advertising than other tobacco control advertising. Conclusions Receptivity to tobacco control advertising appeared to ameliorate the promotion of initiation from cigarette advertising. Anti-industry advertising appears to be the most effective counter for tobacco control and should be considered for wider use. A larger longitudinal study is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24503771

  15. Controllable optical phase shift over one radian from a single isolated atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jechow, A; Norton, B G; Händel, S; Blūms, V; Streed, E W; Kielpinski, D

    2013-03-15

    Fundamental optics such as lenses and prisms work by applying phase shifts of several radians to incoming light, and rapid control of such phase shifts is crucial to telecommunications. However, large, controllable optical phase shifts have remained elusive for isolated quantum systems. We have used a single trapped atomic ion to induce and measure a large optical phase shift of 1.3±0.1 radians in light scattered by the atom. Spatial interferometry between the scattered light and unscattered illumination light enables us to isolate the phase shift in the scattered component. The phase shift achieves the maximum value allowed by atomic theory over the accessible range of laser frequencies, pointing out new opportunities in microscopy and nanophotonics. Single-atom phase shifts of this magnitude open up new quantum information protocols, in particular long-range quantum phase-shift-keying cryptography.

  16. Electronically controlled optical beam-steering by an active phased array of metallic nanoantennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRose, C T; Kekatpure, R D; Trotter, D C; Starbuck, A; Wendt, J R; Yaacobi, A; Watts, M R; Chettiar, U; Engheta, N; Davids, P S

    2013-02-25

    An optical phased array of nanoantenna fabricated in a CMOS compatible silicon photonics process is presented. The optical phased array is fed by low loss silicon waveguides with integrated ohmic thermo-optic phase shifters capable of 2π phase shift with ∼ 15 mW of applied electrical power. By controlling the electrical power to the individual integrated phase shifters fixed wavelength steering of the beam emitted normal to the surface of the wafer of 8° is demonstrated for 1 × 8 phased arrays with periods of both 6 and 9 μm.

  17. APE: the Active Phasing Experiment to test new control system and phasing technology for a European Extremely Large Optical Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonte, F.; Yaitskova, N.; Derie, F.; Constanza, A.; Brast, R.; Buzzoni, B.; Delabre, B.; Dierickx, P.; Dupuy, C.; Esteves, R.; Frank, C.; Guisard, S.; Karban, R.; Koenig, E.; Kolb, J.; Nylund, M.; Noethe, L.; Surdej, I.; Courteville, A.; Wilhelm, R.; Montoya, L.; Reyes, M.; Esposito, S.; Pinna, E.; Dohlen, K.; Ferrari, M.; Langlois, M.

    2005-08-01

    The future European Extremely Large Telescope will be composed of one or two giant segmented mirrors (up to 100 m of diameter) and of several large monolithic mirrors (up to 8 m in diameter). To limit the aberrations due to misalignments and defective surface quality it is necessary to have a proper active optics system. This active optics system must include a phasing system to limit the degradation of the PSF due to misphasing of the segmented mirrors. We will present the lastest design and development of the Active Phasing Experiment that will be tested in laboratory and on-sky connected to a VLT at Paranal in Chile. It includes an active segmented mirror, a static piston plate to simulate a secondary segmented mirror and of four phasing wavefront sensors to measure the piston, tip and tilt of the segments and the aberrations of the VLT. The four phasing sensors are the Diffraction Image Phase Sensing Instrument developed by Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, the Pyramid Phasing Sensor developed by Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, the Shack-Hartmann Phasing Sensor developed by the European Southern Observatory and the Zernike Unit for Segment phasing developed by Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille. A reference measurement of the segmented mirror is made by an internal metrology developed by Fogale Nanotech. The control system of Active Phasing Experiment will perform the phasing of the segments, the guiding of the VLT and the active optics of the VLT. These activities are included in the Framework Programme 6 of the European Union.

  18. Unraveling the Initial Microstructure Effects on Mechanical Properties and Work-Hardening Capacity of Dual-Phase Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzadeh, Hamed; Alibeyki, Mohammad; Najafi, Mostafa

    2017-10-01

    Ferritic-martensitic, dual-phase (DP) microstructures with different size, morphology, and distribution of martensite were produced by altering the initial microstructures using heat treatment and thermomechanical processing routes. It was revealed that the strength, ductility, and work-hardening rate of DP steels strongly depend on the volume fraction and the morphology of the martensite phase. In this regard, the fine-grained DP microstructure showed a high work-hardening ability toward an excellent combination of strength and ductility. Such a microstructure can be readily obtained by intercritical annealing of an ultrafine grained (UFG) microstructure, where the latter can be produced by cold-rolling followed by tempering of a martensite starting microstructure. Conclusively, the enhancement of mechanical properties of DP steels through microstructural refinement was found to be more beneficial compared with increasing the volume fraction of martensite. Finally, it was also demonstrated that the work-hardening rate analysis based on the instantaneous (incremental) work-hardening exponents might be an advantageous approach for characterizing DP steels along with the conventional approaches.

  19. Design and Evaluation of Swing Phase Controllers for Single-axis Knee

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solomon Seid; S. Sujatha; Sujatha Chandramohan

    2016-01-01

    .... In this work, a hydraulic damper and a magnetorheological (MR) damper are designed as controllers with an objective of evaluating their performance in controlling swing-phase damping in an above-knee prosthesis...

  20. Fuzzy logic based controller for five-phase induction motor drive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.M.S. El-Barbary

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents fuzzy logic based controller for five-phase induction motor drives. The controller is based on indirect rotor field oriented control technique. The complete control scheme including the fuzzy logic is experimentally implemented using a digital signal processing board for a laboratory five-phase induction motor, Simulation is carried out by using the Matlab/Simulink package. The performance of the proposed system is investigated at different operating conditions. The proposed controller is a suitable to high performance five-phase induction motor drives. Simulation and experimental results validate the proposed approaches.

  1. Initial experiments on the end-point control of a flexible one-link robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Schmitz, E.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with initial experiments regarding a specific unsolved control problem which appeared to be central to advances in the art of robotics. This problem involves the control of a flexible member (one link of a robot system). The position of the end-effector, called the end point or tip, is controlled by measuring that position and using the measurement as a basis for applying control torque to the other end of the flexible member, as for instance, the robot's elbow joint. A description is presented of the features of the first experimental arm which has been made, and an outline is provided of the general strategy for controlling it using its tip sensor and shoulder torquer.

  2. Fractional order phase shaper design with Bode's integral for iso-damped control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Suman; Das, Saptarshi; Ghosh, Ratna; Goswami, Bhaswati; Balasubramanian, R; Chandra, A K; Das, Shantanu; Gupta, Amitava

    2010-04-01

    The phase curve of an open loop system is flat in nature if the derivative of its phase with respect to frequency is zero. With a flat-phase curve, the corresponding closed loop system exhibits an iso-damped property i.e. maintains constant overshoot with the change of gain. This implies enhanced parametric robustness e.g. to variation in system gain. In the recent past, fractional order (FO) phase shapers have been proposed by contemporary researchers to achieve enhanced parametric robustness. In this paper, a simple methodology is proposed to design an appropriate FO phase shaper to achieve phase flattening in a control loop, comprising a plant controlled by a classical Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller. The methodology is demonstrated with MATLAB simulation of representative plants and accompanying PID controllers. Copyright 2009 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phase change material for temperature control and material storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling, Jr., Francis C. (Inventor); Blackwood, James M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A phase change material comprising a mixture of water and deuterium oxide is described, wherein the mole fraction of deuterium oxide is selected so that the mixture has a selected phase change temperature within a range between 0.degree. C. and 4.degree. C. The mixture is placed in a container and used for passive storage and transport of biomaterials and other temperature sensitive materials. Gels, nucleating agents, freezing point depression materials and colorants may be added to enhance the characteristics of the mixture.

  4. Spectral phase distribution retrieval through coherent control of harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalazarou, E; Kovacev, M; Tzallas, P; Benis, E P; Kalpouzos, C; Tsakiris, G D; Charalambidis, D

    2006-04-28

    The temporal intensity distribution of the third harmonic of a Ti:sapphire laser generated in Xe gas is fully reconstructed from its spectral phase and amplitude distributions. The spectral phases are retrieved by cross correlating the fundamental laser frequency field with that of the third harmonic, in a three laser versus one harmonic photon coupling scheme. The third harmonic spectral amplitude distribution is extracted from its field autocorrelation. The measured pulse duration is found to be in agreement with that expected from lowest order perturbation theory both for unstretched and chirped pulses.

  5. Phase separation of binary mixtures in thin films: Effects of an initial concentration gradient across the film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Prabhat K.; Binder, Kurt; Puri, Sanjay

    2012-04-01

    We study the kinetics of phase separation of a binary (A,B) mixture confined in a thin film of thickness D by numerical simulations of the corresponding Cahn-Hilliard-Cook (CHC) model. The initial state consisted of 50% A:50% B with a concentration gradient across the film, i.e., the average order parameter profile is Ψav(z,t=0)=(2z/D-1)Ψg,0⩽z⩽D, for various choices of Ψg and D. The equilibrium state (for time t→∞) consists of coexisting A-rich and B-rich domains separated by interfaces oriented perpendicular to the surfaces. However, for sufficiently large Ψg, a (metastable) layered state is formed with a single interface parallel to the surfaces. This phenomenon is explained in terms of a competition between domain growth in the bulk and surface-directed spinodal decomposition (SDSD) that is caused by the gradient. Thus, gradients in the initial state can stabilize thin-film morphologies which are not stable in full equilibrium. This offers interesting possibilities as a method for preparing novel materials.

  6. AN INITIATIVE FOR CONSTRUCTION OF NEW-GENERATION LUNAR GLOBAL CONTROL NETWORK USING MULTI-MISSION DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Di

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A lunar global control network provides geodetic datum and control points for mapping of the lunar surface. The widely used Unified Lunar Control Network 2005 (ULCN2005 was built based on a combined photogrammetric solution of Clementine images acquired in 1994 and earlier photographic data. In this research, we propose an initiative for construction of a new-generation lunar global control network using multi-mission data newly acquired in the 21st century, which have much better resolution and precision than the old data acquired in the last century. The new control network will be based on a combined photogrammetric solution of an extended global image and laser altimetry network. The five lunar laser ranging retro-reflectors, which can be identified in LROC NAC images and have cm level 3D position accuracy, will be used as absolute control points in the least squares photogrammetric adjustment. Recently, a new radio total phase ranging method has been developed and used for high-precision positioning of Chang’e-3 lander; this shall offer a new absolute control point. Systematic methods and key techniques will be developed or enhanced, including rigorous and generic geometric modeling of orbital images, multi-scale feature extraction and matching among heterogeneous multi-mission remote sensing data, optimal selection of images at areas of multiple image coverages, and large-scale adjustment computation, etc. Based on the high-resolution new datasets and developed new techniques, the new generation of global control network is expected to have much higher accuracy and point density than the ULCN2005.

  7. An Initiative for Construction of New-Generation Lunar Global Control Network Using Multi-Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, K.; Liu, B.; Peng, M.; Xin, X.; Jia, M.; Zuo, W.; Ping, J.; Wu, B.; Oberst, J.

    2017-07-01

    A lunar global control network provides geodetic datum and control points for mapping of the lunar surface. The widely used Unified Lunar Control Network 2005 (ULCN2005) was built based on a combined photogrammetric solution of Clementine images acquired in 1994 and earlier photographic data. In this research, we propose an initiative for construction of a new-generation lunar global control network using multi-mission data newly acquired in the 21st century, which have much better resolution and precision than the old data acquired in the last century. The new control network will be based on a combined photogrammetric solution of an extended global image and laser altimetry network. The five lunar laser ranging retro-reflectors, which can be identified in LROC NAC images and have cm level 3D position accuracy, will be used as absolute control points in the least squares photogrammetric adjustment. Recently, a new radio total phase ranging method has been developed and used for high-precision positioning of Chang'e-3 lander; this shall offer a new absolute control point. Systematic methods and key techniques will be developed or enhanced, including rigorous and generic geometric modeling of orbital images, multi-scale feature extraction and matching among heterogeneous multi-mission remote sensing data, optimal selection of images at areas of multiple image coverages, and large-scale adjustment computation, etc. Based on the high-resolution new datasets and developed new techniques, the new generation of global control network is expected to have much higher accuracy and point density than the ULCN2005.

  8. Methods to control phase inversions and enhance mass transfer in liquid-liquid dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouris, Constantinos; Dong, Junhang

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the effects of applied electric fields on liquid-liquid dispersions. In general, the present invention is directed to the control of phase inversions in liquid-liquid dispersions. Because of polarization and deformation effects, coalescence of aqueous drops is facilitated by the application of electric fields. As a result, with an increase in the applied voltage, the ambivalence region is narrowed and shifted toward higher volume fractions of the dispersed phase. This permits the invention to be used to ensure that the aqueous phase remains continuous, even at a high volume fraction of the organic phase. Additionally, the volume fraction of the organic phase may be increased without causing phase inversion, and may be used to correct a phase inversion which has already occurred. Finally, the invention may be used to enhance mass transfer rates from one phase to another through the use of phase inversions.

  9. A Saturated Output Feedback Controller for the Three Phase Voltage Sourced Reversible Boost Type Rectifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escobar, Gerardo; Ortega, Romeo; Schaft, Arjan J. van der

    1998-01-01

    In this article, we present a saturating controller to regulate the output voltage load in a three phase Boost type rectifier. The controller only needs the output voltage signal to be implemented. Moreover, by forcing the inductance currents to track desired suitable sinusoidal signals in phase

  10. Thyroid function in children with growth hormone (GH deficiency during the initial phase of GH replacement therapy - clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smyczynska Joanna

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normal thyroid hormone secretion or appropriate L-thyroxine (L-T4 substitution is necessary for the optimal effect of the growth hormone (GH administration on growth rate. The decrease of free thyroxine (FT4 levels at recombinant human GH (rhGH therapy onset has been reported in several studies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of rhGH administration on thyrotropin (TSH and FT4 serum concentrations in children with GH deficiency (GHD during the 1st year of therapy, as well as to assess potential indications to thyroid hormone supplementation in them. Patients and methods The analysis involved data of 75 children (59 boys, 16 girls with disorders of GH secretion (GHD, neurosecretory dysfunction - NSD and partial GH inactivity (inactGH, who were treated with rhGH for - at least - one year. In all the children, body height and height velocity (HV were assessed before and after 1 year of therapy, while TSH, FT4, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 before treatment and after 3-6 months and 1 year of treatment. In the patients, who revealed hypothyroidism (HypoT, an appropriate L-T4 substitution was introduced immediately. The incidence of HypoT, occurring during the initial phase of rhGH therapy, was assessed, as well as its influence on the therapy effectiveness. Results Before rhGH substitution, there were no significant differences in either auxological indices or TSH and FT4 secretion, or IGF-I concentration and its bioavailability among the groups of patients. During the initial 3-6 months of rhGH administration, a significant decrease of FT4 serum concentration, together with a significant increase of IGF-I SDS and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio was observed in all the studied groups. In 17 children, HypoT was diagnosed and L-T4 substitution was administered. Despite similar IGF-I secretion increase, the improvement of HV presented significantly lower in children with HypoT than in those who remained euthyroid all the time

  11. Automatic initialization and quality control of large-scale cardiac MRI segmentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albà, Xènia; Lekadir, Karim; Pereañez, Marco; Medrano-Gracia, Pau; Young, Alistair A; Frangi, Alejandro F

    2017-10-16

    Continuous advances in imaging technologies enable ever more comprehensive phenotyping of human anatomy and physiology. Concomitant reduction of imaging costs has resulted in widespread use of imaging in large clinical trials and population imaging studies. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), in particular, offers one-stop-shop multidimensional biomarkers of cardiovascular physiology and pathology. A wide range of analysis methods offer sophisticated cardiac image assessment and quantification for clinical and research studies. However, most methods have only been evaluated on relatively small databases often not accessible for open and fair benchmarking. Consequently, published performance indices are not directly comparable across studies and their translation and scalability to large clinical trials or population imaging cohorts is uncertain. Most existing techniques still rely on considerable manual intervention for the initialization and quality control of the segmentation process, becoming prohibitive when dealing with thousands of images. The contributions of this paper are three-fold. First, we propose a fully automatic method for initializing cardiac MRI segmentation, by using image features and random forests regression to predict an initial position of the heart and key anatomical landmarks in an MRI volume. In processing a full imaging database, the technique predicts the optimal corrective displacements and positions in relation to the initial rough intersections of the long and short axis images. Second, we introduce for the first time a quality control measure capable of identifying incorrect cardiac segmentations with no visual assessment. The method uses statistical, pattern and fractal descriptors in a random forest classifier to detect failures to be corrected or removed from subsequent statistical analysis. Finally, we validate these new techniques within a full pipeline for cardiac segmentation applicable to large-scale cardiac MRI databases. The

  12. FPGA Based Control Method for Three Phase BLDC Motor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suneeta Suneeta; R Srinivasan; Ram Sagar

    2016-01-01

    .... Speed Control of BLDC motor using PIC microcontrollers requires more hardware, and with the availability of FPGA versatile features motivated to develop a cost effective and reliable control with variable speed range...

  13. experimental validation of a dual loop control of two phases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kraa O, Ghodbane H, Saadi R, Ayad M.Y, Becherif M, Bahri M and Aboubou A

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... boost topology used usually for FC applications [11] and IBC two phases converter. 3. MODELING OF THE FC AND IBC SYSTEM. The studied system here is considered as a power train system for electric vehicle application. (Fuel cell vehicle). It constituted by a FC (energy source) connected with a load ...

  14. Controlling two-phase flow in microfluidic systems using electrowetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, H.

    2011-01-01

    Electrowetting (EW)-based digital microfluidic systems (DMF) and droplet-based two-phase flow microfluidic systems (TPF) with closed channels are the most widely used microfluidic platforms. In general, these two approaches have been considered independently. However, integrating the two

  15. Testing for Sphericity in Phase I Control Chart Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windfeldt, Gitte Bjørg; Bisgaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    When using (x) over bar -R charts it is a crucial assumption that the observations within samples are independent and have common variance. However, this assumption is almost never checked. We propose to use the samples gathered during the phase I study and the test for distributional sphericity...

  16. A simple output voltage control scheme for single phase wavelet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Wavelet based techniques have been extensively used in various power engineering applications. Recently, wavelet has also been proposed to generate switching signal for single-phase pulse-width-modulated (PWM) dc-ac inverter. The main advantage of the wavelet modulated (WM) scheme is that a single synthesis ...

  17. Design and control of single-phase dynamic voltage restorer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit Meena

    ventionally, DVR consists of an energy storage device, which supplies the required power over the limited duration of the sags. Large magnitude and long duration of sags lead to heavy financial investment in energy storage unit. To overcome this limitation, a single-phase back-to-back converter-based DVR is implemented ...

  18. Phase Transformation Volume Change Control of Strain and Instability Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H. W.

    2011-12-01

    Phase transformations that are accompanied by significant change in volume self-organize the transformation process under stress to enhance strain and/or decrease stress. When the kinetics of the reaction are reasonably rapid, this occurs by nucleation and growth of phase(s) on grain boundaries of appropriate orientation to facilitate strain. When the kinetics of reaction are sluggish (ratio of nucleation rate to growth rate >> 1) and the reaction is polymorphic and exothermic, under specific conditions this process can lead to shearing instability in which the volume change of reaction drives runaway nucleation at stress concentrations leading to macroscopic faulting. Under these conditions, the detailed processes and microstructures produced depend on the sign of volume change but the failure is very similar whether volume change is positive or negative. The microstructures confirm that the mesoscale physics of this process (self-organization of primary features and nucleation/propagation of a fault) is the same as for brittle shear fracture, despite the large difference in the fundamental microscopic physics (formation of nanocrystalline microlenses instead of tensile cracks, and fault propagation by grain-boundary sliding rather than frictional sliding). When volume change is negative and the kinetics of reaction are less sluggish (ratio of nucleation rate to growth rate of order 1), nucleation of the new (denser) phase occurs preferentially on grain boundaries normal to maximum compression and new crystals nucleated on any orientation of grain boundary grow parallel to maximum compression. The result is stylolite-like volume loss normal to maximum compression. Observations of polyphase metamorphic rocks suggest that similar creep can occur during prograde metamorphism by nucleation of more-dense phases and less-dense phases on different populations of phase-boundary orientations such that the overall pattern achieves a macroscopic strain by volume transfer

  19. Initial investigation using statistical process control for quality control of accelerator beam steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Able Charles M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study seeks to increase clinical operational efficiency and accelerator beam consistency by retrospectively investigating the application of statistical process control (SPC to linear accelerator beam steering parameters to determine the utility of such a methodology in detecting changes prior to equipment failure (interlocks actuated. Methods Steering coil currents (SCC for the transverse and radial planes are set such that a reproducibly useful photon or electron beam is available. SCC are sampled and stored in the control console computer each day during the morning warm-up. The transverse and radial - positioning and angle SCC for photon beam energies were evaluated using average and range (Xbar-R process control charts (PCC. The weekly average and range values (subgroup n = 5 for each steering coil were used to develop the PCC. SCC from September 2009 (annual calibration until two weeks following a beam steering failure in June 2010 were evaluated. PCC limits were calculated using the first twenty subgroups. Appropriate action limits were developed using conventional SPC guidelines. Results PCC high-alarm action limit was set at 6 standard deviations from the mean. A value exceeding this limit would require beam scanning and evaluation by the physicist and engineer. Two low alarms were used to indicate negative trends. Alarms received following establishment of limits (week 20 are indicative of a non-random cause for deviation (Xbar chart and/or an uncontrolled process (R chart. Transverse angle SCC for 6 MV and 15 MV indicated a high-alarm 90 and 108 days prior to equipment failure respectively. A downward trend in this parameter continued, with high-alarm, until failure. Transverse position and radial angle SCC for 6 and 15 MV indicated low-alarms starting as early as 124 and 116 days prior to failure, respectively. Conclusion Radiotherapy clinical efficiency and accelerator beam consistency may be improved by

  20. Initial investigation using statistical process control for quality control of accelerator beam steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Able, Charles M; Hampton, Carnell J; Baydush, Alan H; Munley, Michael T

    2011-12-28

    This study seeks to increase clinical operational efficiency and accelerator beam consistency by retrospectively investigating the application of statistical process control (SPC) to linear accelerator beam steering parameters to determine the utility of such a methodology in detecting changes prior to equipment failure (interlocks actuated). Steering coil currents (SCC) for the transverse and radial planes are set such that a reproducibly useful photon or electron beam is available. SCC are sampled and stored in the control console computer each day during the morning warm-up. The transverse and radial - positioning and angle SCC for photon beam energies were evaluated using average and range (Xbar-R) process control charts (PCC). The weekly average and range values (subgroup n = 5) for each steering coil were used to develop the PCC. SCC from September 2009 (annual calibration) until two weeks following a beam steering failure in June 2010 were evaluated. PCC limits were calculated using the first twenty subgroups. Appropriate action limits were developed using conventional SPC guidelines. PCC high-alarm action limit was set at 6 standard deviations from the mean. A value exceeding this limit would require beam scanning and evaluation by the physicist and engineer. Two low alarms were used to indicate negative trends. Alarms received following establishment of limits (week 20) are indicative of a non-random cause for deviation (Xbar chart) and/or an uncontrolled process (R chart). Transverse angle SCC for 6 MV and 15 MV indicated a high-alarm 90 and 108 days prior to equipment failure respectively. A downward trend in this parameter continued, with high-alarm, until failure. Transverse position and radial angle SCC for 6 and 15 MV indicated low-alarms starting as early as 124 and 116 days prior to failure, respectively. Radiotherapy clinical efficiency and accelerator beam consistency may be improved by instituting SPC methods to monitor the beam steering process

  1. The nucleoid occlusion factor Noc controls DNA replication initiation in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ting; Wang, Xindan; Lim, Hoong Chuin; Bernhardt, Thomas G; Rudner, David Z

    2017-07-01

    Successive division events in the spherically shaped bacterium Staphylococcus aureus are oriented in three alternating perpendicular planes. The mechanisms that underlie this relatively unique pattern of division and coordinate it with chromosome segregation remain largely unknown. Thus far, the only known spatial regulator of division in this organism is the nucleoid occlusion protein Noc that inhibits assembly of the cytokinetic ring over the chromosome. However, Noc is not essential in S. aureus, indicating that additional regulators are likely to exist. To search for these factors, we screened for mutants that are synthetic lethal with Noc inactivation. Our characterization of these mutants led to the discovery that S. aureus Noc also controls the initiation of DNA replication. We show that cells lacking Noc over-initiate and mutations in the initiator gene dnaA suppress this defect. Importantly, these dnaA mutations also partially suppress the division problems associated with Δnoc. Reciprocally, we show that over-expression of DnaA enhances the over-initiation and cell division phenotypes of the Δnoc mutant. Thus, a single factor both blocks cell division over chromosomes and helps to ensure that new rounds of DNA replication are not initiated prematurely. This degree of economy in coordinating key cell biological processes has not been observed in rod-shaped bacteria and may reflect the challenges posed by the reduced cell volume and complicated division pattern of this spherical pathogen.

  2. Enhanced Phase-Shifted Current Control for Harmonic Cancellation in Three-Phase Multiple Adjustable Speed Drive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz

    2017-01-01

    on the loading condition of each drive unit as well as the number of drives in parallel. In order to enhance the harmonic cancellation by means of the phase-shifted current control, the currents drawn by the rectifiers should be maintained almost at the same level. Thus, this paper firstly analyzes the impact...

  3. Phase and Pupil Amplitude Recovery for JWST Space-Optics Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, B. H.; Zielinski, T. P.; Smith, J. S.; Bolcar, M. R.; Aronstein, D. L.; Fienup, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the phase and pupil amplitude recovery for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam). It includes views of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the NIRCam, examples of Phase Retrieval Data, Ghost Irradiance, Pupil Amplitude Estimation, Amplitude Retrieval, Initial Plate Scale Estimation using the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs lambda, Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs. number of Images, Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs Rotation (clocking), and Typical Phase Retrieval Results Also included is information about the phase retrieval approach, Non-Linear Optimization (NLO) Optimized Diversity Functions, and Least Square Error vs. Starting Pupil Amplitude.

  4. Controlling the Dc-link Midpoint Potential in a Six-phase Motor-drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Flemming Buus; Blaabjerg, Frede; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally electrical motors have three phases, but multiphase motors have shown to improve motor performance and efficiency. This paper concentrates about the control algorithm for a six-phase induction motor with third harmonic current injection. The problem is that typically a seventh...... inverter branch and filter inductances is needed for stabilizing the midpoint potential of the series connected dc-capacitor link. A new control strategy that pre-calculates the allowed voltage ripple and controls the motor voltage accordingly (using two standard three phase inverter modules) is suggested....... With this new control strategy the seventh branch and an inductance can be saved. It also opens the possibility to use two standard three-phase inverters to supply the six-phase motor. An experimental setup is build and the theory is verified in the test case. The proposed control strategy works satisfactory...

  5. Photosynthetic control of Arabidopsis leaf cytoplasmic translation initiation by protein phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Boex-Fontvieille

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation is the carbon source for plant anabolism, including amino acid production and protein synthesis. The biosynthesis of leaf proteins is known for decades to correlate with photosynthetic activity but the mechanisms controlling this effect are not documented. The cornerstone of the regulation of protein synthesis is believed to be translation initiation, which involves multiple phosphorylation events in Eukaryotes. We took advantage of phosphoproteomic methods applied to Arabidopsis thaliana rosettes harvested under controlled photosynthetic gas-exchange conditions to characterize the phosphorylation pattern of ribosomal proteins (RPs and eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs. The analyses detected 14 and 11 new RP and eIF phosphorylation sites, respectively, revealed significant CO2-dependent and/or light/dark phosphorylation patterns and showed concerted changes in 13 eIF phosphorylation sites and 9 ribosomal phosphorylation sites. In addition to the well-recognized role of the ribosomal small subunit protein RPS6, our data indicate the involvement of eIF3, eIF4A, eIF4B, eIF4G and eIF5 phosphorylation in controlling translation initiation when photosynthesis varies. The response of protein biosynthesis to the photosynthetic input thus appears to be the result of a complex regulation network involving both stimulating (e.g. RPS6, eIF4B phosphorylation and inhibiting (e.g. eIF4G phosphorylation molecular events.

  6. Initial evaluation of Nabilone in the control of radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priestman, T.J.; Priestman, S.G. (Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham (UK))

    1984-07-01

    Nabilone is a cannabinoid anti-emetic which has been extensively evaluated in control of chemotherapy-induced vomiting. A pilot study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of Nabilone in controlling radiotherapy-induced vomiting resistant to a conventional anti-emetic (metoclopramide). Thirty patents receiving wide-field upper abdominal irradiation were prospectively monitored. Fourteen developed no significant nausea or vomiting and in 10 symptoms were controlled by metoclopramide. All six patients who failed to respond to this agent responded to Nabilone. Toxicity with both drugs was minimal. Although patient numbers were small, this initial assessment suggests that Nabilone may be a useful agent in the control of resistant radiation-induced sickness.

  7. Direct Method for Resolution of Optimal Control Problem with Free Initial Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louadj Kahina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of control analyzes the proprieties of commanded systems. Problems of optimal control (OC have been intensively investigated in the world literature for over forty years. During this period, series of fundamental results have been obtained, among which should be noted the maximum principle (Pontryagin et al., 1962 and dynamic programming (Bellman, 1963. For many of the problems of the optimal control theory (OCT, adequate solutions are found (Bryson and Yu-chi, 1969, Lee and Markus, 1967, Gabasov and Kirillova, 1977, 1978, 1980. Results of the theory were taken up in various fields of science, engineering, and economics. The present paper aims at extending the constructive methods of Balashevich et al., (2000 that were developed for the problems of optimal control with the bounded initial state is not fixed are considered.

  8. Amorphous intergranular phases control the properties of rodent tooth enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Lyle M.; Cohen, Michael J.; MacRenaris, Keith W.; Pasteris, Jill D.; Seda, Takele; Joester, Derk

    2015-02-01

    Dental enamel, a hierarchical material composed primarily of hydroxylapatite nanowires, is susceptible to degradation by plaque biofilm-derived acids. The solubility of enamel strongly depends on the presence of Mg2+, F-, and CO32-. However, determining the distribution of these minor ions is challenging. We show—using atom probe tomography, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and correlative techniques—that in unpigmented rodent enamel, Mg2+ is predominantly present at grain boundaries as an intergranular phase of Mg-substituted amorphous calcium phosphate (Mg-ACP). In the pigmented enamel, a mixture of ferrihydrite and amorphous iron-calcium phosphate replaces the more soluble Mg-ACP, rendering it both harder and more resistant to acid attack. These results demonstrate the presence of enduring amorphous phases with a dramatic influence on the physical and chemical properties of the mature mineralized tissue.

  9. Linear optics controlled-phase gate made simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Nikolai; Schmid, Christian; Weber, Ulrich; Ursin, Rupert; Weinfurter, Harald

    2005-11-18

    Linear optics quantum logic gates are the best tool to generate multiphoton entanglement. Simplifying a recent approach, we were able to implement the conditional phase gate with only one second-order interference at a polarization dependent beam splitter, thereby significantly increasing its stability. The improved quality of the gate is evaluated by analyzing its entangling capability and by performing full process tomography. The achieved results ensure that this device is well suited for implementation in various multiphoton quantum information protocols.

  10. Controllable Liquid Artificial Dielectric S-Band Phase Shifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-01

    tiructing suslyinsion dielectrics with desl •ped partlele dilstribt1ons to achievc fast res~prma tinx, a.nd largo stable phase shift. 2.4. L 3 TEIMIILMATrIu...T it * -i 3.-’, For;a rectangular waveiguide operatlin in the TEIo mode the maxim •ma power handling capability can be expressed by: P = 6.3x 10-4 ab

  11. Controlling defects and secondary phases of CZTS by surfactant potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiou; Tse, Kinfai; Xiao, Xudong; Zhu, Junyi

    2017-09-01

    C u2ZnSn S4 (CZTS) is a promising photovoltaic absorber material with earth-abundant and nontoxic elements. However, the detrimental native defects and secondary phases of CZTS will largely reduce the energy-conversion efficiencies. To understand the origin of these problems during the growth of CZTS, we investigated the kinetic processes on CZTS (1 ¯1 ¯2 ¯ ) surface, using first-principles calculations. A surface Zn atom was found to occupy the Cu site near the surface easily due to a low reaction barrier, which may lead to a high Z nCu concentration and a Zn-rich secondary phase. These n -type defects may create deep electron traps near the interface and become detrimental to device performance. To reduce the population of Z nCu and the Zn-rich secondary phase, we propose to use K as a surfactant to alter surface kinetic processes. Improvements on crystal quality and device performance based on this surfactant are consistent with early experimental observations.

  12. A predictive control algorithm for an active three-phase power filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Vlasenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with grid connection circuits for active filters, structures of active power filter control systems, and methods based on full capacity components determination. The existing structures of active power filter control and control algorithm adjustment for valve commutation loss reduction are analyzed. A predictive control algorithm for an active three-phase power filter is introduced.

  13. Model Based Control of Single-Phase Marine Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    strategy and design for this particular class of marine cooling systems. The project has been carried out under the Danish Industrial PhD programme and has been financed by Maersk Maritime Technology together with the Danish Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation. The main contributions...... these systems. Traditionally, control for this type of cooling system has been limited to open-loop control of pumps combined with a couple of local PID controllers for bypass valves to keep critical temperatures within design limits. This research considers improvements in a retrofit framework to the control...

  14. Indirect control of a single-phase active power filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai CULEA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The control of shunt active power filters using PWM inverters consists in generating a reference by separating, using different methods, the harmonics to be eliminated. The methods used are time-consuming and need dedicated control and signal processing equipments. To avoid these setbacks a new method is proposed in the paper. The active power filter is a current PWM rectifier with voltage output and with a capacitor on the DC side. The PWM rectifier is controlled so that the sum of its current and the load’s current is a sinusoid. The control block as well as simulation results are presented.

  15. Micro-dose hCG as luteal phase support without exogenous progesterone administration: mathematical modelling of the hCG concentration in circulation and initial clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, C Yding; Fischer, R; Giorgione, V; Kelsey, Thomas W

    2016-10-01

    For the last two decades, exogenous progesterone administration has been used as luteal phase support (LPS) in connection with controlled ovarian stimulation combined with use of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger for the final maturation of follicles. The introduction of the GnRHa trigger to induce ovulation showed that exogenous progesterone administration without hCG supplementation was insufficient to obtain satisfactory pregnancy rates. This has prompted development of alternative strategies for LPS. Augmenting the local endogenous production of progesterone by the multiple corpora lutea has been one focus with emphasis on one hand to avoid development of ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome and, on the other hand, to provide adequate levels of progesterone to sustain implantation. The present study evaluates the use of micro-dose hCG for LPS support and examines the potential advances and disadvantages. Based on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of hCG, the mathematical modelling of the concentration profiles of hCG during the luteal phase has been evaluated in connection with several different approaches for hCG administration as LPS. It is suggested that the currently employed LPS provided in connection with the GnRHa trigger (i.e. 1.500 IU) is too strong, and that daily micro-dose hCG administration is likely to provide an optimised LPS with the current available drugs. Initial clinical results with the micro-dose hCG approach are presented.

  16. An Observer-Based Finite Control Set Model Predictive Control for Three-Phase Power Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite control set model predictive control (FCS-MPC for three-phase power converters uses a discrete mathematical model of the power converter to predict the future current value for all possible switching states. The circuit parameters and measured input currents are necessary components. For this reason, parameter error and time delay of current signals may degrade the performance of the control system. In the previous studies of the FCS-MPC, few articles study these aspects in detail and almost no method is proposed to avoid these negative influences. This paper, first, investigates the negative impacts of inductance inaccuracy and AC-side current distortion due to the time delay caused by filter on FCS-MPC system. Then, it proposes an observer-based FCS-MPC approach with which the inductance error can be corrected, the current signal’s time delay caused by filter can be compensated, and therefore the performance of FCS-MPC will be improved. At last, as an example, it illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach with experimental testing results for a power converter.

  17. A space vector control stradegy for improvement of control speed and reduction of sensitivity of phase jump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes a full space vector control stradegy. The synchronisation used to improveboth the control speed of reactive power and reduce the sensitivity to large phase jumps in the grid caused by switching arge loads. The control stradegy is tested with a 5-level 10kvar laboratory model....

  18. Objective measures of sleep and dim light melatonin onset in adolescents and young adults with delayed sleep phase disorder compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxvig, Ingvild W; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Pallesen, Ståle; Vedaa, Oystein; Nordhus, Inger H; Sørensen, Eli; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2013-08-01

    Delayed sleep phase disorder is characterized by a delay in the timing of the major sleep period relative to conventional norms. The sleep period itself has traditionally been described as normal. Nevertheless, it is possible that sleep regulatory mechanism disturbances associated with the disorder may affect sleep duration and/or architecture. Polysomnographic data that may shed light on the issue are scarce. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine polysomnographic measures of sleep in adolescents and young adults with delayed sleep phase disorder, and to compare findings to that of healthy controls. A second aim was to estimate dim light melatonin onset as a marker of circadian rhythm and to investigate the phase angle relationship (time interval) between dim light melatonin onset and the sleep period. Data from 54 adolescents and young adults were analysed, 35 diagnosed with delayed sleep phase disorder and 19 healthy controls. Results show delayed timing of sleep in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder, but once sleep was initiated no group differences in sleep parameters were observed. Dim light melatonin onset was delayed in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder, but no difference in phase angle was observed between the groups. In conclusion, both sleep and dim light melatonin onset were delayed in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder. The sleep period appeared to occur at the same circadian phase in both groups, and once sleep was initiated no differences in sleep parameters were observed. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  19. Chemopreventive Action by Ethanol-extracted Brazilian Green Propolis on Post-initiation Phase of Inflammation-associated Rat Colon Tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Kenichiro; Fujioka, Masaki; Sokuza, Yui; Ohnishi, Mariko; Gi, Min; Takeshita, Masanori; Kumada, Kenji; Kakehashi, Anna; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Propolis has since long been utilized in numerous folk medicines with a variety of medicinal properties. In this study, the effects of ethanol-extracted (EEP) and water-extracted (WEP) Brazilian green propolis on the post-initiation phase of inflammation-associated rat colon tumorigenesis were directly compared. Male F344 rats at 6 weeks of age were subcutaneously injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at 40 mg/kg body weight twice during the first week, followed by 1% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for one week. After a 1-week no-treatment period, animals were administered either basal Oriental MF powdered diet, or 1% EEP or 1% WEP in the basal diet until week 32. Post-initiation treatment with EEP significantly reduced the multiplicity of colorectal carcinomas compared to the control (0.40±0.13/rat vs. 2.29±0.84/rat, respectively, p<0.05), and EEP also reduced the tumor volume. Immunohistochemically, expression of inflammation-associated proteins inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrotic factor alpha, nuclear factor kappa B and glutathione peroxidase-2 were significantly diminished in colorectal tumors from EEP-treated rats. Suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress, which had been triggered by DMH and promoted by DSS, was a primary mechanism by which EEP suppressed carcinogenesis. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  20. Receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control messages and adolescent smoking initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emory, Kristen T; Messer, Karen; Vera, Lisa; Ojeda, Norma; Elder, John P; Usita, Paula; Pierce, John P

    2015-05-01

    Tobacco industry cigarette advertising is associated with increased adolescent smoking, while counter tobacco advertising is associated with reduced smoking. As these campaigns compete for influence, there is a need to understand their inter-relationship on youth smoking. This study reports data from a national population of families (n=1036) with an oldest child aged 10-13 years, identified by random digit dialling. Parent and child dyads completed baseline questionnaires in 2003. Adolescents were resurveyed in 2007-2008 (response rate 74%). Adjusted logistic regression explores associations between receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. In 2007-2008, 57.9% of adolescents reported a favourite tobacco control advertisement and 43.3% reported being receptive to cigarette advertisements. Thirty per cent reported receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertisements. Among those receptive to cigarette advertising, having a favourite anti-smoking advertisement had a borderline significant association with a 30% lower smoking rate. Anti-industry tobacco control messages were three times more likely to be favourites of those who were receptive to cigarette advertising than other tobacco control advertising. Receptivity to tobacco control advertising appeared to ameliorate the promotion of initiation from cigarette advertising. Anti-industry advertising appears to be the most effective counter for tobacco control and should be considered for wider use. A larger longitudinal study is needed to confirm these findings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Fault tolerant vector control of five-phase permanent magnet motors

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi Arashloo, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Equipped with appropriate control strategies, permanent magnet (PM) machines are becoming one of the most flexible types of actuators for many industrial applications. Among different types of PM machines, five-phase BLDC machines are very interesting in fault tolerant applications of PM drives. Torque improvement in five-phase BLDC machines can be accomplished by optimizing their mechanical structure or by enhancing their controlling methods. New current controllers are proposed in this t...

  2. Control of Wave Packet Revivals Using Geometric Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, S.; Lakshmibala, S.; Balakrishnan, V.

    2000-10-01

    Wave packets in a system governed by a Hamiltonian with a generic nonlinear spectrum typically exhibit both full and fractional revivals. It is shown that, by varying the parameters in the Hamiltonian cyclically with a period T and thus inducing suitable geometric phases in the states, fractional revivals can be eliminated at the relevant times T, 2 T,... . Further, with the introduction of this time step T, the occurrence of near full revivals can be mapped onto that of Poincaré recurrences in an irrational rotation map of the circle. The distinctive recurrence statistics of the latter can thus serve as a clear signature of the dynamics of wave packet revivals.

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance Control Strategies: A Coordinated Research Initiative Experience in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Lisette; Asenjo, Gabriela; Vergara, Constanza; Cornejo, Javiera

    2017-05-01

    The objective was to gather information on the status of antimicrobial surveillance in the Asia Pacific region and suggest control strategies. Twenty-one economies of the Asia Pacific region participated in this initiative. A survey was conducted on antimicrobial use and surveillance throughout the region. A workshop was carried out to create awareness about the issue and discuss the implementation of control strategies. Based on the survey results and workshop conclusions, it can be established that there is better understanding of the implications of antimicrobial resistance in the human medicine area. Only few economies take actions to control antimicrobial resistance on a veterinary/agricultural level. To confront antimicrobial resistance, it is critical to raise awareness; cooperation between all countries is needed to apply international standards, to be able to have harmonized public policies. Countries must align and improve their systems for surveillance and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in human, animals, and the environment.

  4. Thermodynamically controlled crystallization of glucose pentaacetates from amorphous phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlodarczyk, P., E-mail: patrykw@imn.gliwice.pl; Hawelek, L.; Hudecki, A.; Kolano-Burian, A. [Institute of Non-Ferrous Metals, ul. Sowinskiego 5, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Wlodarczyk, A. [Department of Animal Histology and Embryology, University of Silesia, ul. Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2016-08-15

    The α and β glucose pentaacetates are known sugar derivatives, which can be potentially used as stabilizers of amorphous phase of active ingredients of drugs (API). In the present work, crystallization behavior of equimolar mixture of α and β form in comparison to both pure anomers is revealed. It was shown that despite the same molecular interactions and similar molecular dynamics, crystallization from amorphous phase is significantly suppressed in equimolar mixture. Time dependent X-ray diffraction studies confirmed higher stability of the quenched amorphous equimolar mixture. Its tendency to crystallization is about 10 times lower than for pure anomers. Calorimetric studies revealed that the α and β anomers don’t form solid solutions and have eutectic point for x{sub α} = 0.625. Suppressed crystallization tendency in the mixture is probably caused by the altered thermodynamics of the system. The factors such as difference of free energy between crystalline and amorphous state or altered configurational entropy are probably responsible for the inhibitory effect.

  5. Stimulus presentation at specific neuronal oscillatory phases experimentally controlled with tACS: implementation and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Ten Oever

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years it has become increasingly clear that both the power and phase of oscillatory brain activity can influence the processing and perception of sensory stimuli. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS can phase-align and amplify endogenous brain oscillations and has often been used to control and thereby study oscillatory power. Causal investigation of oscillatory phase is more difficult, as it requires precise real-time temporal control over both oscillatory phase and sensory stimulation. Here, we present hardware and software solutions allowing temporally precise presentation of sensory stimuli during tACS at desired tACS phases, enabling causal investigations of oscillatory phase. We developed freely available and easy to use software, which can be coupled with standard commercially available hardware to allow flexible and multi-modal stimulus presentation (visual, auditory, magnetic stimuli, etc. at pre-determined tACS-phases, opening up a range of new research opportunities. We validate that stimulus presentation at tACS phase in our setup is accurate to the sub-millisecond level with high inter-trial consistency. Conventional methods investigating the role of oscillatory phase such as magneto-/electroencephalography can only provide correlational evidence. Using brain stimulation with the described methodology enables investigations of the causal role of oscillatory phase. This setup turns oscillatory phase into an independent variable, allowing innovative and systematic studies of its functional impact on perception and cognition.

  6. Fuzzy Logic Controlled Solar Module for Driving Three- Phase Induction Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiqah Zainal, Nurul; Sooi Tat, Chan; Ajisman

    2016-02-01

    Renewable energy produced by solar module gives advantages for generated three- phase induction motor in remote area. But, solar module's ou tput is uncertain and complex. Fuzzy logic controller is one of controllers that can handle non-linear system and maximum power of solar module. Fuzzy logic controller used for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique to control Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) for switching power electronics circuit. DC-DC boost converter used to boost up photovoltaic voltage to desired output and supply voltage source inverter which controlled by three-phase PWM generated by microcontroller. IGBT switched Voltage source inverter (VSI) produced alternating current (AC) voltage from direct current (DC) source to control speed of three-phase induction motor from boost converter output. Results showed that, the output power of solar module is optimized and controlled by using fuzzy logic controller. Besides that, the three-phase induction motor can be drive and control using VSI switching by the PWM signal generated by the fuzzy logic controller. This concluded that the non-linear system can be controlled and used in driving three-phase induction motor.

  7. Melt Fragmentation Characteristics of Metal Fuel with Melt Injection Mass during Initiating Phase of SFR Severe Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Hyo; Lee, Min Ho; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Jerng, Dong Wook [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The PGSFR has adopted the metal fuel for its inherent safety under severe accident conditions. However, this fuel type is not demonstrated clearly yet under the such severe accident conditions. Additional experiments for examining these issues should be performed to support its licensing activities. Under initiating phase of hypothetic core disruptive accident (HCDA) conditions, the molten metal could be better dispersed and fragmented into the coolant channel than in the case of using oxide fuel. This safety strategy provides negative reactivity driven by a good dispersion of melt. If the coolant channel does not sufficient coolability, the severe recriticality would occur within the core region. Thus, it is important to examine the extent of melt fragmentation. The fragmentation behaviors of melt are closely related to a formation of debris shape. Once the debris shape is formed through the fragmentation process, its coolability is determined by the porosity or thermal conductivity of the melt. There were very limited studies for transient irradiation experiments of the metal fuel. These studies were performed by Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) M series tests in U.S. The TREAT M series tests provided basic information of metal fuel performance under transient conditions. The effect of melt injection mass was evaluated in terms of the fragmentation behaviors of melt. These behaviors seemed to be similar between single-pin and multi-pins failure condition. However, the more melt was agglomerated in case of multi-pins failure.

  8. Heterogeneous MAC Initiator and Pore Structures in a Lipid Bilayer by Phase-Plate Cryo-electron Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Sharp

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pore formation in membranes is important for mammalian immune defense against invading bacteria. Induced by complement activation, the membrane attack complex (MAC forms through sequential binding and membrane insertion of C5b6, C7, C8, and C9. Using cryo-electron tomography with a Volta phase plate and subtomogram averaging, we imaged C5b-7, C5b-8, and C5b-9 complexes and determined the C5b-9 pore structure in lipid bilayers. The in situ C5b-9 pore structure at 2.3-nm resolution reveals a 10- to 11.5-nm cone-shaped pore starting with C5b678 and multiple copies of C9 that is poorly closed, yielding a seam between C9 and C6 substituting for the shorter β strands in C6 and C7. However, large variations of composite pore complexes are apparent in subtomograms. Oligomerized initiator complexes C5b-7 and C5b-8 show stages of membrane binding, deformation, and perforation that yield ∼3.5-nm-wide pores. These data indicate a dynamic process of pore formation that likely adapts to biological membranes under attack.

  9. Dawn Auroral Breakup at Saturn Initiated by Auroral Arcs: UVIS/Cassini Beginning of Grand Finale Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radioti, A.; Grodent, D.; Yao, Z. H.; Gérard, J.-C.; Badman, S. V.; Pryor, W.; Bonfond, B.

    2017-12-01

    We present Cassini auroral observations obtained on 11 November 2016 with the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph at the beginning of the F-ring orbits and the Grand Finale phase of the mission. The spacecraft made a close approach to Saturn's southern pole and offered a remarkable view of the dayside and nightside aurora. With this sequence we identify, for the first time, the presence of dusk/midnight arcs, which are azimuthally spread from high to low latitudes, suggesting that their source region extends from the outer to middle/inner magnetosphere. The observed arcs could be auroral manifestations of plasma flows propagating toward the planet from the magnetotail, similar to terrestrial "auroral streamers." During the sequence the dawn auroral region brightens and expands poleward. We suggest that the dawn auroral breakup results from a combination of plasma instability and global-scale magnetic field reconfiguration, which is initiated by plasma flows propagating toward the planet. Alternatively, the dawn auroral enhancement could be triggered by tail magnetic reconnection.

  10. Stress compensation for arbitrary curvature control in vanadium dioxide phase transition actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Kaichen, E-mail: dkc12@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: wuj@berkeley.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Department of Precision Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lou, Shuai; Choe, Hwan Sung; Yao, Jie; Wu, Junqiao, E-mail: dkc12@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: wuj@berkeley.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Liu, Kai [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); You, Zheng [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Department of Precision Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-07-11

    Due to its thermally driven structural phase transition, vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) has emerged as a promising material for micro/nano-actuators with superior volumetric work density, actuation amplitude, and repetition frequency. However, the high initial curvature of VO{sub 2} actuators severely obstructs the actuation performance and application. Here, we introduce a “seesaw” method of fabricating tri-layer cantilevers to compensate for the residual stress and realize nearly arbitrary curvature control of VO{sub 2} actuators. By simply adjusting the thicknesses of the individual layers, cantilevers with positive, zero, or negative curvatures can be engineered. The actuation amplitude can be decoupled from the curvature and controlled independently as well. Based on the experimentally measured residual stresses, we demonstrate sub-micron thick VO{sub 2} actuators with nearly zero final curvature and a high actuation amplitude simultaneously. This “seesaw” method can be further extended to the curvature engineering of other microelectromechanical system multi-layer structures where large stress-mismatch between layers are inevitable.

  11. Modulation Techniques for Multi-Phase Converters and Control Strategies for Multi-Phase Electric Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Mengoni, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The ever-increasing spread of automation in industry puts the electrical engineer in a central role as a promoter of technological development in a sector such as the use of electricity, which is the basis of all the machinery and productive processes. Moreover the spread of drives for motor control and static converters with structures ever more complex, places the electrical engineer to face new challenges whose solution has as critical elements in the implementation of digital control tech...

  12. Generalized Analytical Program of Thyristor Phase Control Circuit with Series and Parallel Resonance Load

    OpenAIRE

    Nakanishi, Sen-ichiro; Ishida, Hideaki; Himei, Toyoji

    1981-01-01

    The systematic analytical method is reqUired for the ac phase control circuit by means of an inverse parallel thyristor pair which has a series and parallel L-C resonant load, because the phase control action causes abnormal and interesting phenomena, such as an extreme increase of voltage and current, an unique increase and decrease of contained higher harmonics, and a wide variation of power factor, etc. In this paper, the program for the analysis of the thyristor phase control circuit with...

  13. Neural Prescribed Performance Control for Uncertain Marine Surface Vessels without Accurate Initial Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Si

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems concerned with the trajectory tracking control with prescribed performance for marine surface vessels without velocity measurements in uncertain dynamical environments, in the presence of parametric uncertainties, unknown disturbances, and unknown dead-zone. First, only the ship position and heading measurements are available and a high-gain observer is used to estimate the unmeasurable velocities. Second, by utilizing the prescribed performance control, the prescribed tracking control performance can be ensured, while the requirement for the initial error is removed via the preprocessing. At last, based on neural network approximation in combination with backstepping and Lyapunov synthesis, a robust adaptive neural control scheme is developed to handle the uncertainties and input dead-zone characteristics. Under the designed adaptive controller for marine surface vessels, all the signals in the closed-loop system are semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB, and the prescribed transient and steady tracking control performance is guaranteed. Simulation studies are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Phase 2 Placebo-Controlled Trial of Two Vaccines to Prevent Ebola in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Stephen B; Bolay, Fatorma; Kieh, Mark; Grandits, Greg; Badio, Moses; Ballou, Ripley; Eckes, Risa; Feinberg, Mark; Follmann, Dean; Grund, Birgit; Gupta, Swati; Hensley, Lisa; Higgs, Elizabeth; Janosko, Krisztina; Johnson, Melvin; Kateh, Francis; Logue, James; Marchand, Jonathan; Monath, Thomas; Nason, Martha; Nyenswah, Tolbert; Roman, François; Stavale, Eric; Wolfson, Julian; Neaton, James D; Lane, H Clifford

    2017-10-12

    The safety and efficacy of vaccines to prevent Ebola virus disease (EVD) were unknown when the incidence of EVD was peaking in Liberia. We initiated a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial of the chimpanzee adenovirus 3 vaccine (ChAd3-EBO-Z) and the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccine (rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP) in Liberia. A phase 2 subtrial was embedded to evaluate safety and immunogenicity. Because the incidence of EVD declined in Liberia, the phase 2 component was expanded and the phase 3 component was eliminated. A total of 1500 adults underwent randomization and were followed for 12 months. The median age of the participants was 30 years; 36.6% of the participants were women. During the week after the administration of vaccine or placebo, adverse events occurred significantly more often with the active vaccines than with placebo; these events included injection-site reactions (in 28.5% of the patients in the ChAd3-EBO-Z group and 30.9% of those in the rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP group, as compared with 6.8% of those in the placebo group), headache (in 25.1% and 31.9%, vs. 16.9%), muscle pain (in 22.3% and 26.9%, vs. 13.3%), feverishness (in 23.9% and 30.5%, vs. 9.0%), and fatigue (in 14.0% and 15.4%, vs. 8.8%) (P<0.001 for all comparisons); these differences were not seen at 1 month. Serious adverse events within 12 months after injection were seen in 40 participants (8.0%) in the ChAd3-EBO-Z group, in 47 (9.4%) in the rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP group, and in 59 (11.8%) in the placebo group. By 1 month, an antibody response developed in 70.8% of the participants in the ChAd3-EBO-Z group and in 83.7% of those in the rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP group, as compared with 2.8% of those in the placebo group (P<0.001 for both comparisons). At 12 months, antibody responses in participants in the ChAd3-EBO-Z group (63.5%) and in those in the rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP group (79.5%) remained significantly greater than in those in the placebo group (6.8%, P<0.001 for both comparisons). A

  15. Initial test results from the RedFlow 5 kW, 10 kWh zinc-bromide module, phase 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Rose, David Martin

    2012-02-01

    In this paper the performance results of the RedFlow zinc-bromide module (ZBM) Gen 2.0 are reported for Phase 1 of testing, which includes initial characterization of the module. This included physical measurement, efficiency as a function of charge and discharge rates, efficiency as a function of maximum charge capacity, duration of maximum power supplied, and limited cycling with skipped strip cycles. The goal of this first phase of testing was to verify manufacturer specifications of the zinc-bromide flow battery. Initial characterization tests have shown that the ZBM meets the manufacturer's specifications. Further testing, including testing as a function of temperature and life cycle testing, will be carried out during Phase 2 of the testing, and these results will be issued in the final report, after Phase 2 testing has concluded.

  16. A method of testing attitude control systems during the development phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besonis, A.; Dougherty, H.; Levinthal, J.; Meadows, P.

    1981-01-01

    A technique, utilized on the Space Telescope Program, and used for testing satellite attitude pointing and control systems during the engineering and development phases is presented. The technique verifies the hardware models used in design phase computer simulations, verifies the interface between the flight hardware and flight software, and uncovers hardware/software switching or mode logic problems. The testing is accomplished in two phases: a dynamic hardware simulator phase using hardware electronic simulators and an electronic vehicle motion simulator; and a second real hardware phase utilizing engineering model gyros and reaction wheels on an airbearing table. Both phases use an engineering model of the flight computer, flight algorithms and software, and a breadboard data management and computer hardware interface for timing simulations. The purpose of each test and the test phases are described, and examples of closed loop test results for both attitude hold and maneuvering models are given.

  17. Effect of Partition of Photo-Initiator Components and Addition of Iodonium Salt on the Photopolymerization of Phase-Separated Dental Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedin, Farhana; Ye, Qiang; Song, Linyong; Ge, Xueping; Camarda, Kyle; Spencer, Paulette

    2016-04-01

    The polymerization kinetics of physically separated hydrophobic- and hydrophilic-rich phases of a model dental adhesive have been investigated. The two phases were prepared from neat resin containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA) in the ratio of 45:55 (wt./wt.). Neat resins containing various combinations of popular photo-initiating compounds, e.g., camphoquinone (CQ), ethyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (EDMAB), 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate (DPIHP), were prepared. To obtain the two phases, 33 wt.% of deuterium oxide (D2O) was added to the neat resins. This amount of D2O exceeded the miscibility limit for the resins. The concentration of each component of the photo-initiating system in the two phases was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). When combined with CQ, DMAEMA is less efficient as a co-initiator compared to EDMAB. The addition of DPIHP as the third component into either CQ/EDMAB or CQ/DMAEMA photo-initiating systems led to comparable performance in both the hydrophobic- and hydrophilic-rich phases. The addition of the iodonium salt significantly improved the photopolymerization of the hydrophilic-rich phase; the latter exhibited extremely poor polymerization when the iodonium salt was not included in the formulation. The partition concentration of EDMAB in the hydrophilic-rich phase was significantly lower than that of DMAEMA or DPIHP. This study indicates the need for a combination of hydrophobic/hydrophilic photosensitizer and addition of iodonium salt to improve polymerization within the hydrophilic-rich phase of the dental adhesive.

  18. Controlled/living radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate using γ-radiation as an initiation source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Zhu, Jian; Zhu, Xiulin; Cheng, Zhenping

    2006-04-01

    A controlled/living radical polymerization, initiated by γ-radiation and followed by a post-polymerization process, of methyl methacrylate (MMA) was carried out in the presence of 2-cyanoprop-2-yl 1-dithionaphthalate. The polymerization showed first-order kinetics. The molecular weights of the corresponding polymers increased linearly with conversion. The molecular weight distributions ( M/M) of the polymers decreased with the conversion (minimal M/M value: 1.09). The polymers were characterized by 1H NMR and gel-permeation chromatograph. Chain-extension reaction was also successfully carried out to obtain higher molecular weight PMMA with narrow molecular weight distribution.

  19. Initial contamination control considerations for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Eve M.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA's Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), a 6 m to 8 m diameter device, is described. The NGST will be radiatively cooled to 30 K to 60 K in order to carry out extremely deep exposures at near infrared wavelengths, for 5 years to 10 years lifetime. Initial contamination control design options include strict materials selection and baking out of both hardware down to the component level, minimizing or eliminating the exposure to the optical telescope assembly to sunlight or earth albedo during deployment and early in-orbit operations.

  20. Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assali, S.; Lähnemann, J.; Vu, TTT; Jöns, K.D.; Gagliano, L; Verheijen, M. A.; Akopian, N.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Haverkort, J. E.M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the

  1. Controlling a Four-Quadrant Brushless Three-Phase dc Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    Control circuit commutates windings of brushless, three-phase, permanent-magnet motor operating from power supply. With single analog command voltage, controller makes motor accelerate, drive steadily, or brake regeneratively, in clockwise or counterclockwise direction. Controller well suited for use with energy-storage flywheels, actuators for aircraft-control surfaces, cranes, industrial robots, and other electromechanical systems requiring bidirectional control or sudden stopping and reversal.

  2. A controller design method for 3 phase 4 wire grid connected VSI ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 40; Issue 5. A controller design method for 3 phase 4 wire grid connected VSI with LCL filter. Anirban Ghoshal Vinod ... Asymptotic frequency response plot and gain bandwidth requirements of the system have been used for current control and voltage controller design. A simplified lower ...

  3. Effect of tight control management on Crohn's disease (CALM): a multicentre, randomised, controlled phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombel, Jean-Frederic; Panaccione, Remo; Bossuyt, Peter; Lukas, Milan; Baert, Filip; Vaňásek, Tomas; Danalioglu, Ahmet; Novacek, Gottfried; Armuzzi, Alessandro; Hébuterne, Xavier; Travis, Simon; Danese, Silvio; Reinisch, Walter; Sandborn, William J; Rutgeerts, Paul; Hommes, Daniel; Schreiber, Stefan; Neimark, Ezequiel; Huang, Bidan; Zhou, Qian; Mendez, Paloma; Petersson, Joel; Wallace, Kori; Robinson, Anne M; Thakkar, Roopal B; D'Haens, Geert

    2018-12-23

    Biomarkers of intestinal inflammation, such as faecal calprotectin and C-reactive protein, have been recommended for monitoring patients with Crohn's disease, but whether their use in treatment decisions improves outcomes is unknown. We aimed to compare endoscopic and clinical outcomes in patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease who were managed with a tight control algorithm, using clinical symptoms and biomarkers, versus patients managed with a clinical management algorithm. CALM was an open-label, randomised, controlled phase 3 study, done in 22 countries at 74 hospitals and outpatient centres, which evaluated adult patients (aged 18-75 years) with active endoscopic Crohn's disease (Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity [CDEIS] >6; sum of CDEIS subscores of >6 in one or more segments with ulcers), a Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) of 150-450 depending on dose of prednisone at baseline, and no previous use of immunomodulators or biologics. Patients were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to tight control or clinical management groups, stratified by smoking status (yes or no), weight (2 years) after 8 weeks of prednisone induction therapy, or earlier if they had active disease. In both groups, treatment was escalated in a stepwise manner, from no treatment, to adalimumab induction followed by adalimumab every other week, adalimumab every week, and lastly to both weekly adalimumab and daily azathioprine. This escalation was based on meeting treatment failure criteria, which differed between groups (tight control group before and after random assignment: faecal calprotectin ≥250 μg/g, C-reactive protein ≥5mg/L, CDAI ≥150, or prednisone use in the previous week; clinical management group before random assignment: CDAI decrease of 200; clinical management group after random assignment: CDAI decrease of management group, 0·9 years [SD 1·7]; tight control group, 1·0 year [2·3]) were randomly assigned to monitoring groups (n=122 per group

  4. Combinational logic for generating gate drive signals for phase control rectifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolland, C. R.; Trimble, D. W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Control signals for phase-delay rectifiers, which require a variable firing angle that ranges from 0 deg to 180 deg, are derived from line-to-line 3-phase signals and both positive and negative firing angle control signals which are generated by comparing current command and actual current. Line-to-line phases are transformed into line-to-neutral phases and integrated to produce 90 deg phase delayed signals that are inverted to produce three cosine signals, such that for each its maximum occurs at the intersection of positive half cycles of the other two phases which are inputs to other inverters. At the same time, both positive and negative (inverted) phase sync signals are generated for each phase by comparing each with the next and producing a square wave when it is greater. Ramp, sync and firing angle controls signals are than used in combinational logic to generate the gate firing control signals SCR gate drives which fire SCR devices in a bridge circuit.

  5. Modified Euler integration based control of a five-phase induction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    speed mode of operation, for a number of transients, and the results are reported in the paper. A detailed modelling of a five-phase induction machine and it vector control principle is reported in (Jones et al, 2002, Xu et al,. 2002). The developed model of a five-phase induction motor indicates that an ANN-MRAS technique ...

  6. The Miocene Tepoztlan Formation (Central Mexico) - Key to a Better Understanding of the Initial Phase of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, N.; Hinderer, M.; Hornung, J.; Torres-Alvarado, I.; Boehnel, H.

    2007-12-01

    In Miocene times, a major volcano-tectonic change took place in West and Central Mexico due to a reorganization of the tectonic plates in the western Pacific region. Since the mid-Miocene, the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) began to form. Until present, few data exist on its initial phase since older volcanic products of the TMVB are widely covered by young volcanic rocks. Furthermore, it is hard to infer the volcano-tectonic history of a region from mostly reworked and redeposited rocks. The studied lower to mid-Miocene volcaniclastic deposits (Tepoztlan Formation) of the southern edge of the TMVB are covered by Quaternary volcanic rocks. Based on sedimentological, petrographical, palaeomagnetic, and geochemical studies we aim to establish a stratigraphic framework and a palaeoenvironmental interpretation of the Tepoztlan Formation, contributing to the decipherment of the origin of the TMVB. The 800 m thick Tepoztlan Formation consists of pyroclastic rocks (flow, surge and fall deposits), lahar deposits (debris-flow and hyperconcentrated-flow deposits), fluvial and lacustrine sediments and occasional lava flows. The clastic material is of volcanic origin exclusively, documenting the environmental response and long-term posteruptive sedimentation effects after initial explosive and effusive eruptions. Based on K/Ar analyses, the Tepoztlan Formation is preliminary dated between 21.8 ± 0.2 Ma and 19.0 ± 1.2 Ma. Palaeomagnetic data show several pole reversals within the studied sequence, allowing a more precise subdivision of the depositional period and thus a better correlation of the sections. Principally, the volcanic rocks of the Tepoztlan Formation show andesitic to dacitic composition; basaltic andesite and rhyolite samples are also present. REE patterns are homogenous with enrichment in LREE and no remarkable element anomaly is present, probably indicating a single magmatic origin. This hypothesis is supported by the relatively short period of deposition

  7. Control of Tumor Initiation by NKG2D Naturally Expressed on Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Cai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells may co-opt the NKG2D lymphocyte receptor to complement the presence of its ligands for autonomous stimulation of oncogenic signaling. Previous studies raise the possibility that cancer cell NKG2D may induce high malignancy traits, but its full oncogenic impact is unknown. Using epithelial ovarian cancer as model setting, we show here that ex vivo NKG2D+ cancer cells have stem-like capacities, and provide formal in vivo evidence linking NKG2D stimulation with the development and maintenance of these functional states. NKG2D+ ovarian cancer cell populations harbor substantially greater capacities for self-renewing in vitro sphere formation and in vivo tumor initiation in immunodeficient (NOD scid gamma mice than NKG2D− controls. Sphere formation and tumor initiation are impaired by NKG2D silencing or ligand blockade using antibodies or a newly designed pan ligand-masking NKG2D multimer. In further support of pathophysiological significance, a prospective study of 47 high-grade serous ovarian cancer cases revealed that the odds of disease recurrence were significantly greater and median progression-free survival rates higher among patients with above and below median NKG2D+ cancer cell frequencies, respectively. Collectively, our results define cancer cell NKG2D as an important regulator of tumor initiation in ovarian cancer and presumably other malignancies and thus challenge current efforts in immunotherapy aimed at enhancing NKG2D function.

  8. Phase diagram for one-way traffic flow with local control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykov, A. A.; Malyshev, V. A.; Melikian, M. V.

    2017-11-01

    We consider one-way road deterministic traffic model with N particles. The simplest local control protocol, which reminds physical interaction is considered. We obtain complete phase diagram uniformly in N and study in detail its stable and unstable domains.

  9. Speed-sensorless control strategy for multi-phase induction generator in wind energy conversion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumnić Boris P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources, especially wind energy conversion systems (WECS, exhibit constant growth. Increase in power and installed capacity led to advances in WECS topologies. Multi-phase approach presents a new development direction, with several key advantages over three-phase systems. Paired with a sensorless control strategy, multi-phase machines are expected to take primacy over standard solutions. This paper presents speed sensorless vector control of an asymmetrical six-phase induction generator based on a model reference adaptive system (MRAS. Suggested topology and developed control algorithm show that sensorless control can yield appropriate dynamic characteristics for the use in WECS with increase in reliability and robustness. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 042004: Smart Electricity Distribution Grids Based on Distribution Management System and Distributed Generation

  10. Study on High Current PWM Unipolar Four Phases Driver for Stepper Motor Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Morar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study on high – current PWM, unipolar stepper motor controller/driver, are remarkable for simplicity, high – reliability, multifunctional facilities for four phases hybrid stepper motor.

  11. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-clay based hydrogels controlled by the initiating conditions: evolution of structure and gel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachota, Beata; Matějka, Libor; Zhigunov, Alexander; Konefał, Rafał; Spěváček, Jiří; Dybal, Jiří; Puffr, Rudolf

    2015-12-28

    The formation of the hydrogel poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-clay (LAPONITE®) by redox polymerization was investigated, and the main factors governing the gel build-up were determined. The significant effect of the redox initiating system ammonium peroxodisulfate (APS) and tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) on gel formation and structure was established, making it possible to control the structure of the gel. Moreover, the pre-reaction stage involving the quality of the clay exfoliation in an aqueous suspension and the interaction of reaction components with the clay play a role in controlling the polymerization and gel structure. The molecular and phase structure evolution during polymerization was followed in situ by the following independent techniques: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), chemorheology, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV/Vis). The combination of these methods enabled us to describe in detail particular progress stages during the gel formation and determine the correlation of the corresponding processes on a time and conversion scale. The mechanism of gel formation was refined based on these experimental results.

  12. A joint Nordic interdisciplinary education programme in infection control: a successful, but short-lived initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jette; Sorknes, Nina K; Povlsen, Lene

    2014-11-01

    Prevention of healthcare-associated infections and a restrictive antibiotics policy in the Nordic countries have contributed to a low prevalence of multi-drug resistant microorganisms, compared to many other countries. This requires professional competences acquired through education in infection control, both in hospitals and in primary health care. This paper describes a joint Nordic Interdisciplinary Education Programme in infection control, established at the Nordic School of Public Health NHV (NHV) in 2007. The education programme was considered highly relevant and successful by students and their employers. The paper describes the background and contents of the programme, which may serve as inspiration in the development of future educational initiatives in other countries. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  13. Initial results on fault diagnosis of DSN antenna control assemblies using pattern recognition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, P.; Mellstrom, J.

    1990-01-01

    Initial results obtained from an investigation using pattern recognition techniques for identifying fault modes in the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70 m antenna control loops are described. The overall background to the problem is described, the motivation and potential benefits of this approach are outlined. In particular, an experiment is described in which fault modes were introduced into a state-space simulation of the antenna control loops. By training a multilayer feed-forward neural network on the simulated sensor output, classification rates of over 95 percent were achieved with a false alarm rate of zero on unseen tests data. It concludes that although the neural classifier has certain practical limitations at present, it also has considerable potential for problems of this nature.

  14. Single-cell control of initial spatial structure in biofilm development using laser trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Jaime B; Rodesney, Christopher A; Kaushik, Karishma S; Le, Henry H; Hurwitz, Daniel A; Irie, Yasuhiko; Gordon, Vernita D

    2014-04-22

    Biofilms are sessile communities of microbes that are spatially structured by an embedding matrix. Biofilm infections are notoriously intractable. This arises, in part, from changes in the bacterial phenotype that result from spatial structure. Understanding these interactions requires methods to control the spatial structure of biofilms. We present a method for growing biofilms from initiating cells whose positions are controlled with single-cell precision using laser trapping. The native growth, motility, and surface adhesion of positioned microbes are preserved, as we show for model organisms Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. We demonstrate that laser-trapping and placing bacteria on surfaces can reveal the effects of spatial structure on bacterial growth in early biofilm development.

  15. ACOSS FIVE (Active Control of Space Structures). Phase 1A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Again, in this case the specimen had been perturbed by a four-second chirp and then allowed to settle. Once a filter design has been established , the...The control design MKUCTUKAL MOOC L PtRFOHMANCl MÜDtL DISTURBANCE MODEL I ’ II Q|S£) XM=) STATE SPACE MODEL KEDUCED MODELS (HAC... establishing robustness with respect to two "point- design " perturbations. Based on the above results, and in the context of the analysis defined by the

  16. Phase Resolved Angular Velocity Control of Cross Flow Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Benjamin; Brunton, Steven; Polagye, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Cross flow turbines have a number of operational advantages for the conversion of kinetic energy in marine or fluvial currents, but they are often less efficient than axial flow devices. Here a control scheme is presented in which the angular velocity of a cross flow turbine with two straight blades is prescribed as a function of azimuthal blade position, altering the time-varying effective angle of attack. Flume experiments conducted with a scale model turbine show approximately an 80% increase in turbine efficiency versus optimal constant angular velocity and constant resistive torque control schemes. Torque, drag, and lateral forces on one- and two-bladed turbines are analyzed and interpreted with bubble flow visualization to develop a simple model that describes the hydrodynamics responsible for the observed increase in mean efficiency. Challenges associated with implementing this control scheme on commercial-scale devices are discussed. If solutions are found, the performance increase presented here may impact the future development of cross flow turbines.

  17. Swelling-controlled polymer phase and fluorescence properties of polyfluorene nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changfeng; McNeill, Jason

    2008-06-03

    Highly fluorescent nanoparticles of the conjugated polymer poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) with distinct phases were prepared, and their photophysical properties were studied by steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. An aqueous suspension of PFO nanoparticles prepared by a reprecipitation method was observed to exhibit spectroscopic characteristics consistent with the glassy phase of the polymer. We demonstrate that controlled addition of organic solvent leads to partial transformation of the disordered polymer chains into the planarized conformation (beta-phase), with the fractions of each component phase dependent on the amount of solvent added. Fluorescence spectroscopy of the PFO nanoparticles containing beta-phase indicates efficient energy transfer from the glassy-phase regions of the nanoparticles to the beta-phase regions. Salient features of the nanoparticles containing beta-phase include narrow, red-shifted fluorescence and increased fluorescence quantum yield as compared to the glassy-phase nanoparticles. Fluorescence lifetime measurements indicate that the increased quantum yield of the beta-phase PFO originates from a decrease in the nonradiative decay rate, with little change in the radiative rate. This decrease is likely due to exciton trapping by the beta-phase, which leads to a reduction in the energy transfer efficiency to quencher species present within the nanoparticle.

  18. Comparison between amniotomy, oxytocin or both for augmentation of labor in prolonged latent phase: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachum, Zohar; Garmi, Gali; Kadan, Yfat; Zafran, Noah; Shalev, Eliezer; Salim, Raed

    2010-11-07

    A prolonged latent phase is independently associated with an increased incidence of subsequent labor abnormalities. We aimed to compare between oxytocin augmentation, amniotomy and a combination of both on the duration of labor among women with a prolonged latent phase. Women with a singleton fetus in cephalic presentation who have a prolonged latent phase, were randomly allocated to amniotomy (group 1), oxytocin (group 2) or both (group 3). A group of women who progressed spontaneously without intervention composed the control group (group 4). The primary outcome was the duration of time from initiation of augmentation until delivery. A total of 213 women were consented and randomized to group 1 (70 women), group 2 (72 women) and group 3 (71 women). Group 4 was composed from additional 70 women. A mean reduction of 120 minutes in labor duration was observed among group 3 compared to group 1 (p = 0.08) and 180 minutes compared to group 2 and 4 (p = 0.001). Women in group 3 had a shorter length of time from augmentation until the beginning of the active phase and a shorter first stage of labor than group 1 (p = 0.03), group 2 (p = 0.001) and group 4 (p = 0.001). Satisfaction was greater among group 3 and 4. Mode of delivery and neonatal outcome were comparable between the groups. Labor augmentation by combined amniotomy and oxytocin among women with a prolonged latent phase at term seems superior compared to either of them alone.

  19. Full Order Observer Based Control of Single-Phase Inverter Both in Standalone and Gridtie Modes

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran, Nagulapati

    2016-01-01

    In 3-phase systems, the reliability of 3-phase Inverter is not good. In such situations Paralleled Inverter Systems are used. Parallel Inverter operation has a major topic in uninterruptible power system (UPS) applications where the design is focused on the standalone operation, and output stage is typically an inductor-capacitor filter. Most of the standalone inverter systems use a LC filter and proportional-integral (PI) controller in their control loops. When connecting the paralleled inve...

  20. Initiation of home mechanical ventilation at home: a randomised controlled trial of efficacy, feasibility and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, A; Kerstjens, H A M; Prins, S C L; Vermeulen, K M; Wijkstra, P J

    2014-09-01

    Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) in the Netherlands is normally initiated in hospital, but this is expensive and often a burden for the patient. In this randomised controlled study we investigated whether initiation of HMV at home in patients with chronic respiratory failure is non-inferior to an in hospital based setting. Seventy-seven patients were included, of which 38 patients started HMV at home. All patients were diagnosed with chronic respiratory failure due to a neuromuscular or thoracic cage disease. Primary outcome was the arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) while quality of life and costs were secondary outcomes. Telemonitoring was used in the home group to provide therapeutic information, for example; transcutaneous carbon dioxide, oxygen saturation and ventilator information, to the caregivers. Follow-up was six months. PaCO2, improved by 0.72 (SE ± 0.16) kPa in the hospital group and by 0.91 (±0.20) in the home group, both improvements being significant and the latter clearly not inferior. There were also significant improvements in quality of life in both groups, again not being inferior with home treatment. This study is the first to show that initiation of HMV at home in a selective group of patients with chronic respiratory failure is as effective for gas exchange and quality of life as hospital initiation. In addition we found that it is safe, technically feasible and that more than € 3000 per patient can be saved compared to our standard care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quality control of lightweight aggregate concrete based on initial and final water absorption tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghfouri, M.; Shafigh, P.; Ibrahim, Z. Binti; Alimohammadi, V.

    2017-06-01

    Water absorption test is used to evaluate overall performance of concrete in terms of durability. The water absorption of lightweight concrete might be considerably higher than the conventional concrete due to higher rate of pores in concrete and lightweight aggregate. Oil palm shell is a bio-solid waste in palm oil industry, which could be used as lightweight aggregate in the concrete mixture. The present study aims to measure the initial and final water absorption and compressive strength of oil palm shell lightweight concrete in order to evaluation of quality control and durability performance. Total normal coarse aggregates were substituted with coarse oil palm shell in a high strength concrete mixture. The quality of concrete was then evaluated based on the compressive strength and water absorption rates. The results showed that fully substitution of normal coarse aggregates with oil palm shell significantly reduced the compressive strength. However, this concrete with the 28-day compressive strength of 40 MPa still can be used as structural concrete. The initial and final water absorption test results also showed that this concrete is not considered as a good concrete in terms of durability. Therefore, it is recommended that both compressive strength and waster absorption tests must be performed for quality control of oil palm shell concretes.

  2. Cytokinins Are Initial Targets of Light in the Control of Bud Outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Hanaé; Girault, Tiffanie; Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Brouard, Nathalie; Pěnčík, Aleš; Novák, Ondřej; Vian, Alain; Sakr, Soulaiman; Lothier, Jérémy; Le Gourrierec, José; Leduc, Nathalie

    2016-09-01

    Bud outgrowth is controlled by environmental and endogenous factors. Through the use of the photosynthesis inhibitor norflurazon and of masking experiments, evidence is given here that light acts mainly as a morphogenic signal in the triggering of bud outgrowth and that initial steps in the light signaling pathway involve cytokinins (CKs). Indeed, in rose (Rosa hybrida), inhibition of bud outgrowth by darkness is suppressed solely by the application of CKs. In contrast, application of sugars has a limited effect. Exposure of plants to white light (WL) induces a rapid (after 3-6 h of WL exposure) up-regulation of CK synthesis (RhIPT3 and RhIPT5), of CK activation (RhLOG8), and of CK putative transporter RhPUP5 genes and to the repression of the CK degradation RhCKX1 gene in the node. This leads to the accumulation of CKs in the node within 6 h and in the bud at 24 h and to the triggering of bud outgrowth. Molecular analysis of genes involved in major mechanisms of bud outgrowth (strigolactone signaling [RwMAX2], metabolism and transport of auxin [RhPIN1, RhYUC1, and RhTAR1], regulation of sugar sink strength [RhVI, RhSUSY, RhSUC2, and RhSWEET10], and cell division and expansion [RhEXP and RhPCNA]) reveal that, when supplied in darkness, CKs up-regulate their expression as rapidly and as intensely as WL Additionally, up-regulation of CKs by WL promotes xylem flux toward the bud, as evidenced by Methylene Blue accumulation in the bud after CK treatment in the dark. Altogether, these results suggest that CKs are initial components of the light signaling pathway that controls the initiation of bud outgrowth. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of a relative phase of waves constituting the initial perturbation and the wave interference on the dynamics of strong-shock-driven Richtmyer-Meshkov flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, Arun; Stellingwerf, Robert F.; Abarzhi, Snezhana I.

    2017-07-01

    While it is a common wisdom that initial conditions influence the evolution of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI), the research in this area is focused primarily on the effects of the wavelength and amplitude of the interface perturbation. The information has hitherto largely ignored the influences on RMI dynamics of the relative phase of waves constituting a multiwave initial perturbation and the interference of the perturbation waves. In this work we systematically study the influence of the relative phase and the interference of waves constituting a multiwave initial perturbation on a strong-shock-driven Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable interface separating ideal fluids with contrast densities. We apply group theory analysis and smoothed particle hydrodynamics numerical simulations. For verification and validation of the simulations, qualitative and quantitative comparisons are performed with rigorous zeroth-order, linear, and nonlinear theories as well as with gas dynamics experiments achieving good agreement. For a sample case of a two-wave (two-mode) initial perturbation we select the first-wave amplitude enabling the maximum initial growth rate of the RMI and we vary the second-wave amplitude from 1% to 100% of the first-wave amplitude. We also vary the relative phase of the first and second waves and consider the in-phase, the antiphase and the random-phase cases. We find that the relative phase and the interference of waves are important factors of RMI dynamics influencing qualitatively and quantitatively the symmetry, morphology, and growth rate of the Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable interface, as well as the order and disorder in strong-shock-driven RMI.

  4. Assessment of myeloperoxidase activity at different force levels in gingival crevicular fluid during initial phase of orthodontic tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honey Gurbaxani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orthodontic movements promote remodeling of the alveolar bone, which is mediated by inflammatory reactions such as characterized by vascular changes and infiltration of leukocytes. Changes in the periodontium occur, depending on the magnitude, duration, and direction of applied force. These changes are often seen in the saliva and gingival fluids through the various substances secreted in them. Aim: The present study aimed to assess myeloperoxidase (MPO activity at different force levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF during the initial phase of orthodontic tooth movement by varying the effective force levels to 50, 75, 100, and 150 g. Materials and Methods: A total of thirty participants between the age groups of 18–25 years requiring upper first premolar extractions were included in the study. They were divided into three groups (I, II, and III of ten individuals each, again subdivided into two Subgroups A and B depending on the amount of force applied to the canine. Subgroup A of all the three groups used 150 g, whereas Subgroup B used 50, 75, and 100 g of force, respectively. GCF was collected at 2 h, 7 days, and 14 days of force application. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test and ANOVA test were used to provide the descriptive statistics of mean optical density to detect the presence of MPO in GCF. Results and Conclusion: There was a highly significant increase in the MPO levels in the GCF at 14th day after force application which can be correlated to the onset of inflammatory reactions in the periodontium.

  5. Obinutuzumab plus fludarabine/cyclophosphamide or bendamustine in the initial therapy of CLL patients: the phase 1b GALTON trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer R; O'Brien, Susan; Kingsley, C Daniel; Eradat, Herbert; Pagel, John M; Lymp, James; Hirata, Jamie; Kipps, Thomas J

    2015-04-30

    Obinutuzumab is a type 2, glycoengineered, anti-CD20 antibody recently approved with chlorambucil for the initial therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In this nonrandomized, parallel-cohort, phase 1b, multicenter study, we explored the safety and preliminary efficacy of obinutuzumab-bendamustine (G-B) or obinutuzumab fludarabine cyclophosphamide (G-FC) for the therapy of previously untreated fit patients with CLL. Patients received up to 6 cycles of G-B (n = 20) or G-FC (n = 21). The primary end point was safety, with infusion-related reactions (88%, grade 3-4 20%) being the most common adverse event and grade 3-4 neutropenia in 55% on G-B and 48% on G-FC. Mean cycles completed were 5.7 for G-B and 5.1 for G-FC, with 2 and 7 early discontinuations, respectively. The objective response rate (ORR) for G-B was 90% (18/20) with 20% complete response (CR) and 25% CR with incomplete marrow recovery (CRi). The ORR for G-FC was 62% (13/21), with 10% CR and 14% CRi, including 4 patients not evaluable. With a median follow-up of 23.5 months in the G-B cohort and 20.7 months in the G-FC cohort, no patient has relapsed or died. We conclude that obinutuzumab with either B or FC shows manageable toxicity and has promising activity. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01300247. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  6. An Easy Approach to Control β-Phase Formation in PFO Films for Optimized Emission Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a novel approach to control β-phase content generated in poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene (PFO films. A very small amount of paraffin oil was used as the additive to the PFO solution in toluene. The β-phase fraction in the spin-coated PFO films can be modified from 0% to 20% simply by changing the volume percentage of paraffin oil in the mixed solution. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE study confirmed low β-phase fraction promise better OLEDs device, while high β-phase fraction benefits ASE performance.

  7. Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assali, S.; Laehnemann, J.; Vu, Thi Thu Trang

    2017-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the zinc...... of both types of charge carriers at the opposite interfaces of the WZ/ZB/WZ structure. This confinement leads to a novel type of transition across a ZB flat plate barrier. Here, we show digital tuning of the visible emission of WZ/ZB/WZ CPQWs in a GaP nanowire by changing the thickness of the ZB barrier...

  8. Application of the statistical process control method for prospective patient safety monitoring during the learning phase: robotic kidney transplantation with regional hypothermia (IDEAL phase 2a-b).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Akshay; Ghani, Khurshid R; Ahlawat, Rajesh; Modi, Pranjal; Abaza, Ronney; Jeong, Wooju; Sammon, Jesse D; Diaz, Mireya; Kher, Vijay; Menon, Mani; Bhandari, Mahendra

    2014-08-01

    Traditional evaluation of the learning curve (LC) of an operation has been retrospective. Furthermore, LC analysis does not permit patient safety monitoring. To prospectively monitor patient safety during the learning phase of robotic kidney transplantation (RKT) and determine when it could be considered learned using the techniques of statistical process control (SPC). From January through May 2013, 41 patients with end-stage renal disease underwent RKT with regional hypothermia at one of two tertiary referral centers adopting RKT. Transplant recipients were classified into three groups based on the robotic training and kidney transplant experience of the surgeons: group 1, robot trained with limited kidney transplant experience (n=7); group 2, robot trained and kidney transplant experienced (n=20); and group 3, kidney transplant experienced with limited robot training (n=14). We employed prospective monitoring using SPC techniques, including cumulative summation (CUSUM) and Shewhart control charts, to perform LC analysis and patient safety monitoring, respectively. Outcomes assessed included post-transplant graft function and measures of surgical process (anastomotic and ischemic times). CUSUM and Shewhart control charts are time trend analytic techniques that allow comparative assessment of outcomes following a new intervention (RKT) relative to those achieved with established techniques (open kidney transplant; target value) in a prospective fashion. CUSUM analysis revealed an initial learning phase for group 3, whereas groups 1 and 2 had no to minimal learning time. The learning phase for group 3 varied depending on the parameter assessed. Shewhart control charts demonstrated no compromise in functional outcomes for groups 1 and 2. Graft function was compromised in one patient in group 3 (pchart analytic techniques. These methods allow determination of the duration of mentorship and identification of adverse events in a timely manner. A new operation can be

  9. A Novel Model Predictive Control for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangeneh Bighash, Esmaeil; Sadeghzadeh, Seyed Mohammad; Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil

    2017-01-01

    Single-phase grid-connected inverters with LCL filter are widely used to connect photovoltaic systems to the utility grid. Among the existing control schemes, predictive control methods are faster and more accurate but also more complicated to implement. Recently, the Model Predictive Control (MPC...... vectors. Simulation results show that the proposed approach lead to a lower THD in the injected current combined with fast dynamics. The proposed predictive control has been simulated and implemented on a 1 kW single-phase HERIC (highly efficient and reliable inverter concept) inverter with an LCL filter...

  10. Coherent Phase Control of Internal Conversion in Pyrazine

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Robert J; Seideman, Tamar; Singha, Sima; Sukharev, Maxim; Zhao, Youbo

    2014-01-01

    Shaped ultrafast laser pulses were used to study and control the ionization dynamics of electronically excited pyrazine in a pump and probe experiment. For pump pulses created without feedback from the product signal, the ion growth curve (the parent ion signal as a function of pump/probe delay) was described quantitatively by the classical rate equations for internal conversion of the $S_2$ and $S_1$ states. Very different, non-classical behavior was observed when a genetic algorithm (GA) was used to minimize the ion signal at some pre-determined target time, T. Two qualitatively different control mechanisms were identified for early (T$1.5$ ps) target times. In the former case, the ion signal was largely suppressed for $t1.5$ ps the ion growth curve followed the classical rate equations for $t

  11. Initial state-specific photodissociation dynamics of pyrrole via 1 π σ ∗/ S 0 conical intersection initiated with optimally controlled UV-laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandipati, K. R.; Kanakati, Arun Kumar; Singh, H.; Lan, Z.; Mahapatra, S.

    2017-09-01

    Optimal initiation of quantum dynamics of N-H photodissociation of pyrrole on the S0-1πσ∗(1A2) coupled electronic states by UV-laser pulses in an effort to guide the subsequent dynamics to dissociation limits is studied theoretically. Specifically, the task of designing optimal laser pulses that act on initial vibrational states of the system for an effective UV-photodissociation is considered by employing optimal control theory. The associated control mechanism(s) for the initial state dependent photodissociation dynamics of pyrrole in the presence of control pulses is examined and discussed in detail. The initial conditions determine implicitly the variation in the dissociation probabilities for the two channels, upon interaction with the field. The optimal pulse corresponds to the objective fixed as maximization of overall reactive flux subject to constraints of reasonable fluence and quantum dynamics. The simple optimal pulses obtained by the use of genetic algorithm based optimization are worth an experimental implementation given the experimental relevance of πσ∗-photochemistry in recent times.

  12. Photonic generation of frequency-sextupled microwave signal without filter or precise phase control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiwang; Teng, Yichao; Zhang, Baofu; Zhang, Pin; Li, Jianhua; Lu, Lin

    2017-08-01

    A photonic approach for frequency-sextupled microwave signal generation without filter or precise phase control is demonstrated by computer simulations and experiments. Without any filter, a frequency-sextupled microwave signal is generated by adjusting bias voltages of the cascade modulators. This structure largely reduces the dependence of particular phase relation that is built between the different modulated signals. The approach is verified by simulations and experiments, and stable 18- and 24-GHz frequency-sextupled signals are generated by 3 and 4 GHz local signals without filter or precise phase control.

  13. Phase control during reconstruction of holographically recorded flow fields using real-time holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, A. W.; Goad, W. K.

    1981-01-01

    A technique of phase control during reconstruction of holographic interferograms is demonstrated in which the recorded scene beam with disturbance present is made to interfere with the real-time scene beam after the disturbance is removed. The reference phase is adjusted during reconstruction by manipulating either the scene or reference beams. Comparisons are made between the present technique and the two-reference-beam and two-plate techniques, more commonly used for phase control during reconstruction of holographic interferograms for flow visualization.

  14. Piezoelectric Actuated Phase Shifter Based on External Laser Interferometer: Design, Control and Experimental Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng-Zhi; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Sui, Yong-Xin; Zhang, De-Fu; Wang, Dong-Fang; Dong, Li-Jian; Ni, Ming-Yang

    2017-04-11

    To improve the phase-shifting accuracy, this paper presents a novel integrated framework for design, control and experimental validation of the piezoelectric actuated phase shifter with a trade-off between accuracy and cost. The piezoelectric actuators with built-in sensors are adopted to drive the double parallel four-bar linkage flexure hinge-based mechanisms. Three mechanisms form the tripod structure of the assembled phase shifter. Then, a semi-closed loop controller with inner feedback and outer feedforward loops via the external laser interferometer is developed for accurate positioning of the phase shifter. Finally, experiments related with travel range, step response, linearity and repeatability are carried out. The linearity error is 0.21% and the repeatability error of 10 μ m displacement is 3 nm. The results clearly demonstrate the good performance of the developed phase shifter and the feasibility of the proposed integrated framework.

  15. Phased-array antenna control by a monolithic photonic integrated circuit, COMPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravitz, S.H.; Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.; Meyer, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    Phased-array antenna systems are well known for rapid beam steering and their ability to bring high power to the target. Such systems are also quite complex and heavy, which have limited their usefulness. The issues of weight, size, power use, and complexity have been addressed through a system named COMPASS (Coherent Optical Monolithic Phased Array Steering System). All phased-array antenna systems need: (1) small size; (2) low power use; (3) high-speed beam steering; and (4) digitally-controlled phase shifting. COMPASS meets these basic requirements, and provides some very desirable additional features. These are: (1) phase control separate from the transmit/receive module; (2) simple expansion to large arrays; (3) fiber optic interconnect for reduced sensitivity to EMI; (4) an intrinsically radiation-hard GaAs chip; and (5) optical power provided by a commercially available continuous wave (CW) laser. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Two-phase strategy of neural control for planar reaching movements: II--relation to spatiotemporal characteristics of movement trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Miya K; Shimansky, Yury P

    2013-09-01

    In the companion paper utilizing a quantitative model of optimal motor coordination (Part I, Rand and Shimansky, in Exp Brain Res 225:55-73, 2013), we examined coordination between X and Y movement directions (XYC) during reaching movements performed under three prescribed speeds, two movement amplitudes, and two target sizes. The obtained results indicated that the central nervous system (CNS) utilizes a two-phase strategy, where the initial and the final phases correspond to lower and higher precision of information processing, respectively, for controlling goal-directed reach-type movements to optimize the total cost of task performance including the cost of neural computations. The present study investigates how two different well-known concepts used for describing movement performance relate to the concepts of optimal XYC and two-phase control strategy. First, it is examined to what extent XYC is equivalent to movement trajectory straightness. The data analysis results show that the variability, the movement trajectory's deviation from the straight line, increases with an increase in prescribed movement speed. In contrast, the dependence of XYC strength on movement speed is opposite (in total agreement with an assumption of task performance optimality), suggesting that XYC is a feature of much higher level of generality than trajectory straightness. Second, it is tested how well the ballistic and the corrective components described in the traditional concept of two-component model of movement performance match with the initial and the final phase of the two-phase control strategy, respectively. In fast reaching movements, the percentage of trials with secondary corrective submovement was smaller under larger-target shorter-distance conditions. In slower reaching movements, meaningful parsing was impossible due to massive fluctuations in the kinematic profile throughout the movement. Thus, the parsing points determined by the conventional submovement analysis

  17. Widely Tunable Terahertz Phase Modulation with Gate-Controlled Graphene Metasurfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqi Miao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As the basis of a diverse set of photonic applications, such as hologram imaging, polarization, and wave front manipulation, the local phase control of electromagnetic waves is fundamental in photonic research. However, currently available bulky, passive, range-limited phase modulators pose an obstacle in photonic applications. Here, we propose a new mechanism to achieve a wide phase modulation range, with graphene used as a tunable loss to drive an underdamped to overdamped resonator transition. Based on this mechanism, we present widely tunable phase modulation in the terahertz regime, realized in gate-tuned ultrathin reflective graphene metasurfaces. A one-port resonator model, supported by full-wave simulations, explains the underlying physics of the discovered extreme phase modulation and indicates general strategies for designing tunable photonic devices. As an example, we demonstrate a gate-tunable terahertz (THz polarization modulator with a graphene metasurface. Our findings establish the possibility for photonic applications based on active phase manipulation.

  18. Dead Zone Oscillator Control for Communication-Free Synchronization of Paralleled, Three-Phase, Current-Controlled Inverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    A TRIDENT SCHOLAR PROJECT REPORT NO. 448 Dead - Zone Oscillator Control for Communication-Free Synchronization of Paralleled, Three-Phase...U.S.N.A. --- Trident Scholar project report; no. 448 (2016) Dead - Zone Oscillator Control for Communication-Free Synchronization Of Paralleled...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 05-11-2016 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dead - Zone Oscillator Control

  19. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project, UAS Control and Non-Payload Communication System Phase-1 Flight Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, James H.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS project, has partnered with Rockwell Collins to develop a concept Control and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) system prototype radio, operating on recently allocated UAS frequency spectrum bands. This prototype radio is being used to validate initial proposed performance requirements for UAS control communications. This presentation will give an overview of the current status of the prototype radio development, and results from phase 1 flight tests conducted during 2013.

  20. High-fidelity phase and amplitude control of phase-only computer generated holograms using conjugate gradient minimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, D.; Harte, T. L.; Chardonnet, V.; De Groot, C.; Denny, S. J.; Le Goc, G.; Anderson, M.; Ireland, P.; Cassettari, D.; Bruce, G. D.

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate simultaneous control of both the phase and amplitude of light using a conjugate gradient minimisation-based hologram calculation technique and a single phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM). A cost function which incorporates the inner product of the light field with a chosen target field within a defined measure region is efficiently minimised to create high fidelity patterns in the Fourier plane of the SLM. A fidelity of $F=0.999997$ is achieved for a pattern resembling an $LG^{0}_{1}$ mode with a calculated light-usage efficiency of $41.5\\%$. Possible applications of our method in optical trapping and ultracold atoms are presented and we show uncorrected experimental realisation of our patterns with $F = 0.97$ and $7.8\\%$ light efficiency.

  1. High-fidelity phase and amplitude control of phase-only computer generated holograms using conjugate gradient minimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, D; Harte, T L; Chardonnet, V; De Groot, C; Denny, S J; Le Goc, G; Anderson, M; Ireland, P; Cassettari, D; Bruce, G D

    2017-05-15

    We demonstrate simultaneous control of both the phase and amplitude of light using a conjugate gradient minimisation-based hologram calculation technique and a single phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM). A cost function, which incorporates the inner product of the light field with a chosen target field within a defined measure region, is efficiently minimised to create high fidelity patterns in the Fourier plane of the SLM. A fidelity of F = 0.999997 is achieved for a pattern resembling an LG10 mode with a calculated light-usage efficiency of 41.5%. Possible applications of our method in optical trapping and ultracold atoms are presented and we show uncorrected experimental realisation of our patterns with F = 0.97 and 7.8% light efficiency.

  2. Scalar Control for Six Phase Matrix Converter Fed Double Star Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENDIABDELLAH, A.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two different control strategies applied to a direct AC-AC six phase matrix converter are investigated in the present paper. The first strategy is derived from the Venturini method and the second approach is practically an extension of the scalar strategy control. Both strategies were originally applied to the three phase matrix converter. The current investigation deals with a comparative performance study of a double star induction motor fed from a six-phase matrix converter using the two above modified control strategies. After a theoretical introduction of the six-phase matrix converter, a detailed description of the strategies implementation is presented followed by a discussion of results obtained simulation results.

  3. Flexible voltage support control for three-phase distributed generation inverters under grid fault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camacho, Antonio; Castilla, Miguel; Miret, Jaume

    2013-01-01

    Operators describe the behavior of the energy source, regulating voltage limits and reactive power injection to remain connected and support the grid under fault. On the basis that different kinds of voltage sags require different voltage support strategies, a flexible control scheme for three phase grid...... connected inverters is proposed. In three phase balanced voltage sags, the inverter should inject reactive power in order to raise the voltage in all phases. In one or two phase faults, the main concern of the distributed generation inverter is to equalize voltages by reducing the negative symmetric...... of this work is the introduction of a control algorithm for reference current generation that provides flexible voltage support under grid faults. Two different voltage sags have been experimentally tested to illustrate the behavior of the proposed voltage support control scheme....

  4. Open Fault Detection and Tolerant Control for a Five Phase Inverter Driving System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Koo Baek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a fault detection and the improved fault-tolerant control for an open fault in the five-phase inverter driving system. The five-phase induction machine has a merit of fault-tolerant control due to its increased number of phases. This paper analyzes an open fault pattern of one switch and proposes an effective fault detection method based upon this analysis. The proposed fault detection method using the analyzed patterns is applied in the power inverter. In addition, when the open fault occurs in the one switch of the induction machine driving system, the proposed fault-tolerant control method is used to operate the induction machine using the remaining healthy phases, after performing the fault detection method. Simulation and experiment results are provided to validate the proposed technique.

  5. Accelerated Phase of Chediak-Higashi Syndrome at Initial Presentation: A Case Report of an Uncommon Occurrence in a Rare Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Pooja; Yadav, Yogesh Kumar; Bhasker, Nilam; Kushwaha, Rashmi

    2015-12-01

    Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is an uncommon and fatal congenital disorder. The characteristic features of CHS are partial oculocutaneous albinism, increased vulnerability to infections, presence of abnormal large granules in leukocytes and an accelerated lymphohistiocytic phase. Accelerated phase at initial presentation is rarely seen as it is usually preceded by repeated episodes of infections. Hence this interesting case of a four-month-old Indian child born to consanguineous parents in accelerated phase at initial presentation is described. The boy presented with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and cleft lip. Clinical diagnosis was leukemia or a lysosomal storage disorder. Cytopaenias, lymphohistiocytic infiltration in bone marrow, and the characteristic large granules in leucocytes helped in the diagnosis, emphasizing the importance of bone marrow in diagnosis of unusual presentation of this rare disorder.

  6. Nutritional Control of DNA Replication Initiation through the Proteolysis and Regulated Translation of DnaA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Leslie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria can arrest their own growth and proliferation upon nutrient depletion and under various stressful conditions to ensure their survival. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for suppressing growth and arresting the cell cycle under such conditions remain incompletely understood. Here, we identify post-transcriptional mechanisms that help enforce a cell-cycle arrest in Caulobacter crescentus following nutrient limitation and during entry into stationary phase by limiting the accumulation of DnaA, the conserved replication initiator protein. DnaA is rapidly degraded by the Lon protease following nutrient limitation. However, the rate of DnaA degradation is not significantly altered by changes in nutrient availability. Instead, we demonstrate that decreased nutrient availability downregulates dnaA translation by a mechanism involving the 5' untranslated leader region of the dnaA transcript; Lon-dependent proteolysis of DnaA then outpaces synthesis, leading to the elimination of DnaA and the arrest of DNA replication. Our results demonstrate how regulated translation and constitutive degradation provide cells a means of precisely and rapidly modulating the concentration of key regulatory proteins in response to environmental inputs.

  7. Initial results of local grid control using wind farms with grid support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca D.; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2005-09-01

    This report describes initial results with simulation of local grid control using wind farms with grid support. The focus is on simulation of the behaviour of the wind farms when they are isolated from the main grid and establish a local grid together with a few other grid components. The isolated subsystems used in the work presented in this report do not intend to simulate a specific subsystem, but they are extremely simplified single bus bar systems using only a few more components than the wind farm. This approach has been applied to make it easier to understand the dynamics of the subsystem. The main observation is that the fast dynamics of the wind turbines seem to be able to contribute significantly to the grid control, which can be useful where the wind farm is isolated with a subsystem from the main grid with surplus of generation. Thus, the fast down regulation of the wind farm using automatic frequency control can keep the subsystem in operation and thereby improve the reliability of the grid. (LN)

  8. Controllers and Pilots Play a Key Role in Runway Safety Initiatives Through Real-Time Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madson, Mike; Bender, Kim

    2004-01-01

    A new and innovative way to evaluate runway safety initiatives for airports is through the use of interactive real-time simulation. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) operates an integrated suite of simulators that can give both pilots and tower controllers the ability to simultaneously "try out" ideas in the safety of virtual reality. In February of 2003, the FAA conducted a demonstration in the NASA facilities for Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) of a concept to reduce runway crossings and enhance the efficiency of the airport. Currently DFW experiences about 1,700 runway crossings per day, which contribute to arrival and departure delays and the potential for runway incursions. The proposed concept included the addition of new perimeter taxiways on the East and West sides of the airport. Through use of NASA's unique simulation capabilities, DFW controllers and commercial pilots provided expert feedback on the safety and operational implications by directly experiencing the proposed changes. Overall, the data collected from the participants and the simulators demonstrated that the concept would improve operations at DFW, if implemented. Improvements were observed in many areas including departure rates, taxi duration, runway crossings, and controller and pilot communications.

  9. 75 FR 7284 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the...

  10. 75 FR 5089 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the...

  11. 75 FR 7150 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the...

  12. 75 FR 34458 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of the aforementioned...

  13. 75 FR 7281 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the...

  14. 75 FR 34459 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of the aforementioned...

  15. GP-initiated preconception counselling in a randomised controlled trial does not induce anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven A Knuistingh

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preconception counselling (PCC can reduce adverse pregnancy outcome by addressing risk factors prior to pregnancy. This study explores whether anxiety is induced in women either by the offer of PCC or by participation with GP-initiated PCC. Methods Randomised trial of usual care versus GP-initiated PCC for women aged 18–40, in 54 GP practices in the Netherlands. Women completed the six-item Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI before PCC (STAI-1 and after (STAI-2. After pregnancy women completed a STAI focusing on the first trimester of pregnancy (STAI-3. Results The mean STAI-1-score (n = 466 was 36.4 (95% CI 35.4 – 37.3. Following PCC there was an average decrease of 3.6 points in anxiety-levels (95% CI, 2.4 – 4.8. Mean scores of the STAI-3 were 38.5 (95% CI 37.7 – 39.3 in the control group (n = 1090 and 38.7 (95% CI 37.9 – 39.5 in the intervention group (n = 1186. Conclusion PCC from one's own GP reduced anxiety after participation, without leading to an increase in anxiety among the intervention group during pregnancy. We therefore conclude that GPs can offer PCC to the general population without fear of causing anxiety. Trial Registration: ISRCTN53942912

  16. Ultrafast Control of the electronic phase of a manganite viamode-selective vibrational excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rini, Matteo; Tobey, Ra' anan I.; Dean, Nicky; Tokura, Yoshinori; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Cavalleri, Andrea

    2007-05-01

    Controlling a phase of matter by coherently manipulatingspecific vibrational modes has long been an attractive (yet elusive) goalfor ultrafast science. Solids with strongly correlated electrons, inwhich even subtle crystallographic distortions can result in colossalchanges of the electronic and magnetic properties, could be directedbetween competing phases by such selective vibrational excitation. Inthis way, the dynamics of the electronic ground state of the systembecome accessible, and new insight into the underlying physics might begained. Here we report the ultrafast switching of the electronic phase ofa magnetoresistive manganite via direct excitation of a phonon mode at 71meV (17 THz). A prompt, five-order-of-magnitude drop in resistivity isobserved, associated with a non-equilibrium transition from the stableinsulating phase to a metastable metallic phase. In contrast withlight-induced, and current-driven phase transitions, the vibrationallydriven bandgap collapse observed here is not related to hot-carrierinjection and is uniquely attributed to a large-amplitude Mn-Odistortion. This corresponds to a perturbation of theperovskite-structure tolerance factor, which in turn controls theelectronic bandwidth via inter-site orbital overlap. Phase control bycoherent manipulation of selected metal--oxygen phonons should findextensive application in other complex solids--notably in copper oxidesuperconductors, in which the role of Cu-O vibrations on the electronicproperties is currently controversial.

  17. Three-Phase Grid-Connected of Photovoltaic Generator Using Nonlinear Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yahya, A.; El Fadil, H.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a nonlinear control methodology for three phase grid connected of PV generator. It consists of a PV arrays; a voltage source inverter, a grid filter and an electric grid. The controller objectives are threefold: i) ensuring the Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in the side o...

  18. Coherent phase control of excitation of atoms by bichromatic laser radiation in an electric field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astapenko, VA

    A new method for coherent phase control of excitation of atoms in a discrete spectrum under the action of bichromatic laser radiation with the frequency ratio 1 : 2 is analysed. An important feature of this control method is the presence of a electrostatic field, which removes the parity selection

  19. Lyapunov-Based Control Scheme for Single-Phase Grid-Connected PV Central Inverters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meza, C.; Biel, D.; Jeltsema, D.; Scherpen, J. M. A.

    A Lyapunov-based control scheme for single-phase single-stage grid-connected photovoltaic central inverters is presented. Besides rendering the closed-loop system globally stable, the designed controller is able to deal with the system uncertainty that depends on the solar irradiance. A laboratory

  20. Silica-gel structural characterization during the initial phases of gelation and drying; Caracterizacao estrutural de geis de silica durante as etapas iniciais de gelacao e secagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Max Passos

    1996-12-31

    For centuries, glasses and ceramics have been made via melting or solid state reactions at temperatures above 100 deg C. The sol-gel process offers new approaches to the synthesis of glasses and ceramics, combining control of composition and structure at the molecular level with the ability to shape materials in bulk, powder, fiber and thin-film forms. The growth of sol-gel technology research is due to the many unique features of that class of materials. Major applications include optical elements and integrated optical devices, ceramic filters, membranes, supercondutors, magnetic, catalytic and manostructured materials to antioxidant, anticorrosion coatings and composite and biomedical materials. In this work a variety of techniques like spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, light scattering nuclear magnetic resonance, X ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption have been employed to investigate the initial phase of the sol-gel transition of gamma ray irradiated tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) solutions and non-irradiated TMOS solution and to get information about the structure of the silica gels obtained under different gelation conditions. Typically the tetramethoxysilane solutions were prepared using a molar ratio of TMOS to demineralized water of 1 to 16. Some experiments were made under catalysed conditions. The mixing was carried out at room temperature. The turbidity and light scattering experiments on the polycondensation of tetramethoxysilane show that exists no drastic difference in the gelling time of a gamma ray irradiated and a non-irradiated TMOS+H{sub 2}O (1+16 M) solution. In the absence of a catalyst, the gelling time for both reactions occurs in about 3.30 h. When HNO{sub 3} (o.03 M) was used, the gelling time observed was 3 days. Raman and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy show no drastic difference during the initial phase at the sol-gel transition under ambient temperature/pressure and under gamma radiation. The gels

  1. Low-level feedback control for the phase regulation of CLIC Drive Beam Klystrons

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)752526

    2015-01-01

    The requirement of luminosity loss below 1% raises tight tolerances for the phase and power stability of the CLIC drive beam (DB) klystrons and consequently for the high voltage pulse ripple of the modulators. A low-level RF (LLRF) feedback system needs to be developed and combined with the modulator in order to guarantee the phase and amplitude tolerances. To this aim, three feedback control strategies were investigated, i) Proportional Integral (PI) controller, ii) Linear Quadratic Integral Regulator (LQI) and iii) Model Predictive Controller (MPC). The klystron, as well as the incident phase noise were modelled and used for the design and evaluation of the controllers. First simulation results are presented along with future steps and directions.

  2. Duffing revisited: Phase-shift control and internal resonance in self-sustained oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Arroyo, Sebastián I

    2014-01-01

    We address two aspects of the dynamics of the forced Duffing oscillator which are relevant to the technology of micromechanical devices and, at the same time, disclose new effects of nonlinearities on oscillating systems. First, we study the stability of periodic motion when the phase shift between the external force and the oscillation is controlled -contrary to the standard case, where the control parameter is the frequency of the force. Phase-shift control is the operational configuration under which self-sustained oscillators -and, in particular, micromechanical oscillators- provide a frequency reference useful for time keeping. We show that, contrary to the standard forced Duffing oscillator, under phase-shift control oscillations are stable over the whole resonance curve. Second, we analyze a model for the internal resonance between the main Duffing oscillation mode and a higher-harmonic mode of a vibrating solid bar clamped at its two ends. We focus on the stabilization of the oscillation frequency whe...

  3. Four quadrant control circuit for a brushless three-phase dc motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, Frank J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A control circuit is provided for a brushless three-phase dc motor which affords four quadrant control from a single command. The control circuit probes acceleration of the motor in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions and braking and generation in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions. In addition to turning on individual transistors of the transistor pairs connected to the phase windings of the motor for 120 deg periods while the other transistor of that pair is off, the control circuit also provides, in a future mode of operation, turning the two transistors of each pair on and off alternately at a phase modulation frequency during such a 120 deg period. A feedback signal is derived which is proportional to the motor current and which has a polarity consistent with the command signal, such that negative feedback results.

  4. Temperature feedback control for long-term carrier-envelope phase locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zenghu [Manhattan, KS; Yun, Chenxia [Manhattan, KS; Chen, Shouyuan [Manhattan, KS; Wang, He [Manhattan, KS; Chini, Michael [Manhattan, KS

    2012-07-24

    A feedback control module for stabilizing a carrier-envelope phase of an output of a laser oscillator system comprises a first photodetector, a second photodetector, a phase stabilizer, an optical modulator, and a thermal control element. The first photodetector may generate a first feedback signal corresponding to a first portion of a laser beam from an oscillator. The second photodetector may generate a second feedback signal corresponding to a second portion of the laser beam filtered by a low-pass filter. The phase stabilizer may divide the frequency of the first feedback signal by a factor and generate an error signal corresponding to the difference between the frequency-divided first feedback signal and the second feedback signal. The optical modulator may modulate the laser beam within the oscillator corresponding to the error signal. The thermal control unit may change the temperature of the oscillator corresponding to a signal operable to control the optical modulator.

  5. Phase noise analysis of voltage controlled oscillator used in cesium atomic clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Menghui; Tang, Liang; Qiao, Donghai

    2017-03-01

    Coherent population trapping (CPT) cesium frequency standard plays a significant role in precision guidance of missile and global positioning system (GPS). Low noise 4.596 GHz voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) is an indispensable part of microwave signal source in cesium frequency standard. Low-phase noise is also the most important and difficult performance indicator of VCO. Starting from phase noise analysis method proposed by Leeson, the formulas about the relationship between phase noise of output signal of oscillator feedback model and phase fluctuation spectrum of amplifier, phase noise of oscillator are derived in this paper. Finally, the asymptote model of microwave oscillator is proposed based on the formula derivation. The experiment shows that when the reverse bias voltage of variode is 1.8 V, the designed oscillation frequency of VCO is 4.596 GHz, the power is -1 dBm and the DC power consumption is 19.6 mW. The tendency of phase noise simulation curve and actual test curve conform to asymptote model. The phase noise in 1 and 10 kHz is, respectively, -60.86 and -86.58 dBc/Hz. The significance of the paper lies in determining the main factors influencing oscillator phase noise and providing guiding direction for the design of low-phase noise VCO.

  6. The Effects of Initial Self-Control Exertion and Subsequent Glucose Consumption on Search Accuracy by Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller, Holly C.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous reports have suggested that canine self-control is sensitive to fatigue and that an initial act of behavioral inhibition (sit-stay 10 min relative to a control condition (cage 10 min can deplete self-control, increase risk-taking, and reduce subsequent persistence on a puzzle task. Glucose, but not a calorie-free placebo drink has been shown to replenish this depletion. The current study sought to complement and extend these findings by examining whether initial exertion of self-control would also affect canine working memory as measured by search accuracy on a subsequently administered invisible displacement rotation task. The results evidenced that initial self-control exertion (relative to the control condition resulted in poorer search accuracy. The consumption of glucose did not have a replenishing effect. If anything, glucose was associated with poorer search accuracy.

  7. Chest pain control with kinesiology taping after lobectomy for lung cancer: initial results of a randomized placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatori, Andrea; Grande, Annamaria; Castiglioni, Massimo; Gasperini, Laura; Faini, Agnese; Spampatti, Sebastiano; Nardecchia, Elisa; Terzaghi, Lorena; Dominioni, Lorenzo; Rotolo, Nicola

    2016-08-01

    Kinesiology taping (KT) is a rehabilitative technique performed by the cutaneous application of a special elastic tape. We tested the safety and efficacy of KT in reducing postoperative chest pain after lung lobectomy. One-hundred and seventeen consecutive patients, both genders, age 18-85, undergoing lobectomy for lung cancer between January 2013 and July 2015 were initially considered. Lobectomies were performed by the same surgical team, with thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) access. Exclusion criteria (n = 25 patients) were: previous KT exposure, recent trauma, pre-existing chest pain, lack of informed consent, >24-h postoperative intensive care unit treatment. After surgery, the 92 eligible patients were randomized to KT experimental group (n = 46) or placebo control group (n = 46). Standard postoperative analgesia was administered in both groups (paracetamol/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, epidural analgesia including opioids), with supplemental analgesia boluses at patient request. On postoperative day 1 in addition, in experimental group patients a specialized physiotherapist applied KT, with standardized tape length, tension and shape, over three defined skin areas: at the chest access site pain trigger point; over the ipsilateral deltoid/trapezius; lower anterior chest. In control group, usual dressing tape mimicking KT was applied over the same areas, as placebo. Thoracic pain severity score [visual analogue scale (VAS) ranging 0-10] was self-assessed by all patients on postoperative days 1, 2, 5, 8, 9 and 30. The KT group and the control group had similar demographics, lung cancer clinico-pathological features and thoracotomy/VATS ratio. Postoperatively, the two groups also resulted similar in supplemental analgesia, complication rate, mean duration of chest drainage and length of stay. There were no adverse events with KT application. After tape application, KT patients reported overall less thoracic pain than the

  8. A Ru-isocyanate initiator for fast, living, precisely controlled ring-opening metathesis polymerization at ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfette, Sebastien; Marleau-Gillette, Joshua; Conrad, Jay C; McDonald, Robert; Fogg, Deryn E

    2012-12-28

    The new complex Ru(NCO)(2)(IMes)(py)(2)(=CHPh) is the first ruthenium metathesis initiator capable of fast, controlled living polymerization of functionalized norbornenes at room temperature, irrespective of monomer bulk.

  9. Yaw controller design of stratospheric airship based on phase plane method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Jinggang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, stratospheric airships prefer to employ a vectored tail rotor or differential main propellers for the yaw control, rather than the control surfaces like common low-altitude airship. The load capacity of vectored mechanism and propellers are always limited by the weight and strength, which bring challenges for the attitude controller. In this paper, the yaw channel of airship dynamics is firstly rewritten as a simplified two-order dynamics equation and the dynamic characteristics is analyzed with a phase plane method. Analysis shows that when ignoring damping, the yaw control channel is available to the minimum principle of Pontryagin for optimal control, which can obtain a Bang–Bang controller. But under this controller, the control output could be bouncing around the theoretical switch curve due to the presence of disturbance and damping, which makes adverse effects for the servo structure. Considering the structure requirements of actuators, a phase plane method controller is employed, with a dead zone surrounded by several phase switch curve. Thus, the controller outputs are limited to finite values. Finally, through the numerical simulation and actual flight experiment, the method is proved to be effective.

  10. Design and Evaluation of Swing Phase Controllers for Single-axis Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Seid

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A prosthetic swing-phase control mechanism simulates the action of thigh musculature to aid in increased gait function. In this work, a hydraulic damper and a magnetorheological (MR damper are designed as controllers with an objective of evaluating their performance in controlling swing-phase damping in an above-knee prosthesis. Parametric models are utilized to represent dynamic properties of the dampers. Based on the models, control parameters that govern damping force and displacement of the dampers are identified. Parameters of the dampers are determined through optimization that minimizes the error between the prosthesis knee angle trajectories and a desired knee angle trajectory for normal level ground walking from experimental data. Experimental data of thigh and hip motions are introduced as inputs into a dynamic system to determine sets of control parameters. Furthermore, input thigh motion is also deviated to evaluate robustness of the controllers in real application. Comparison of the desired knee angle trajectory with those of the knee angle trajectories obtained from control parameters is done with respect to maximum achievable knee flexion angle, duration of swing phase, shank velocity at the end of swing phase and mean angle difference. Evaluation results of the dampers show a better competence of MR damper over hydraulic damper.

  11. Response to flumazenil in the late luteal phase and follicular phase of the menstrual cycle in healthy control females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Emily C; Baker, Glen B; Poag, Christina; Bellavance, Francois; Khudabux, Janisse; Le Mellédo, Jean-Michel

    2004-03-01

    Animal studies of short-term progesterone administration and withdrawal model the natural increase and abrupt decrease in progesterone levels which occur in the late luteal phase (LP) of the human menstrual cycle (MC). Previously, studies in animals have shown that abrupt cessation of chronic or short-term progesterone administration results in pharmacological changes at the GABAA receptor, resulting in altered sensitivity to GABAA receptor neuromodulators such as benzodiazepines and flumazenil, a GABAA receptor antagonist. This study's goal was to compare the response to flumazenil in the follicular phase (FP) and late LP in female healthy controls (HCs). We postulated that HC females would exhibit a greater psychological and somatic response to flumazenil in the late LP, a period of progesterone withdrawal, compared to the FP. Twelve healthy females, without history of psychiatric disorder, were randomized to receive two injections of a 2 mg bolus injection of flumazenil (one in the late LP and one in the FP) and two injections of placebo (one in the late LP and one in the FP). Following injection, subjects were asked to rate the occurrence and intensity of panic symptoms on the panic symptom scale (PSS). A main treatment effect was detected for the PSS score response after flumazenil injection (P=0.008). However, there was no significant treatment-by-phase interaction observed (P=0.449). These findings indicate that MC phase did not affect the response to flumazenil in HC females. This result is contrary to our hypothesis of altered sensitivity to flumazenil in the late LP.

  12. Modified Direct Torque Control of Three-Phase Induction Motor Drives with Low Ripple in Flux and Torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay KUMAR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an algorithm for direct flux and torque controlled three phase induction motor drive systems. This method is based on control of slip speed and decoupled between amplitude and angle of reference stator flux for determining required stator voltage vector. In this proposes model, integrator unit is not required to generate the reference stator flux angle for calculating required stator voltage vector, hence it eliminates the initial values problems in real time. Within the given sampling time, flux as well as torque errors are controlled by stator voltage vector which is evaluated from reference stator flux. The direct torque control is achieved by reference stator flux angle which is generates from instantaneous slip speed angular frequency and stator flux angular frequency. The amplitude of the reference stator flux is kept constant at rated value. This technique gives better performance in three-phase induction motor than conventional technique. Simulation results for 3hp induction motor drive, for both proposed and conventional techniques, are presented and compared. From the results it is found that the stator current, flux linkage and torque ripples are decreased with proposed technique.

  13. Fuzzy Logic Based Speed Control System for ThreePhase Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan A. Badran

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Three-phase induction motors have been used in a wide range of industry applications. Using modern technology, the speed of induction motor can be easily controlled by variable frequency drives (VFDs. These drives use high speed power transistors with various switching techniques, mainly PWM schemes. For several decades, conventional control systems were applied to electric drives to control the speed of induction motor. Although conventional controllers showed good results, but they still need tuning to obtain optimum results. The recent proposed control systems use fuzzy logic controller (FLC to enhance the performance of induction motor drives. In this paper, a fuzzy logic based speed control system is presented. The proposed controller has been designed with MATLAB/SIMULINK software, and it was tested for various operating conditions including load disturbance and sudden change of reference speed. The results showed better performance of the proposed controller compared with the conventional PI controller.

  14. Design and Control of Parallel Three Phase Voltage Source Inverters in Low Voltage AC Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Hassane Margoum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and hierarchical control of three phase parallel Voltage Source Inverters are developed in this paper. The control scheme is based on synchronous reference frame and consists of primary and secondary control levels. The primary control consists of the droop control and the virtual output impedance loops. This control level is designed to share the active and reactive power correctly between the connected VSIs in order to avoid the undesired circulating current and overload of the connected VSIs. The secondary control is designed to clear the magnitude and the frequency deviations caused by the primary control. The control structure is validated through dynamics simulations.The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the control structure.

  15. Aerosol synthesis of phase-controlled iron-graphene nanohybrids through FeOOH nanorod intermediates

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, X. S.; Qiu, Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Jiang, G. M.; Chen, Y. T.; Xu, X. H.; Hurt, R. H.

    2016-01-01

    Iron-based nanoparticles form the basis for a host of sustainable alternative technologies based on this earth-abundant, low-toxicity element that can adopt a variety of oxidation states, crystal phases, and functions. Control of size, shape, and phase stability is a challenge for many nano-iron-based technologies, especially those involving Fe0 that is susceptible to oxidation under ambient conditions. This article presents a continuous method for hybridizing Fe-based nanoparticles with carb...

  16. EFFICIENCY OF APPLICATION OF PHASE CONTROL OF ELECTROTRANSMISSION OF HIGH NATURAL POWER CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postolaty V.M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of power systems, containing a transmission line of high natural power. There are calculated modes of transmission lines and flowing through them power flows at the phase control. There are studied at specific examples of energy systems dependencies of values of fluxes of power along lines of 220,400,500 kV from the angular shift of vectors of voltages which are imposed by phase rotation devices.

  17. PID Controller Design for UPS Three-Phase Inverters Considering Magnetic Coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Zhang; Minying Li; Yong Kang

    2014-01-01

    In three-phase inverters used in uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs), three-limb inductors and three-limb transformers are commonly used in consideration of cost and size. However, magnetic coupling exists between the three phases of the inverter, which can result in complex models. When instantaneous feedback control strategies are introduced to achieve high quality output waveforms, the transient analysis of the closed-loop inverters becomes difficult. In this paper, the phenomenon of m...

  18. In-step Two-phase Flow (TPF) Thermal Control Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Two-Phase Flow Thermal Control Experiment is part of the NASA/OAST In-Space Technology Experiments (In-STEP) Program. The experiment is configured for the Hitchhiker Shuttle payload system and consists of a capillary pumped loop, heatpipe radiator, and two-phase flow heat exchanger. The flight experiment design approach, test plan, payload design, and test components are described in outline and graphic form.

  19. Swelling-Controlled Polymer Phase and Fluorescence Properties of Polyfluorene Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Changfeng; McNeill, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Highly fluorescent nanoparticles of the conjugated polymer poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) with distinct phases were prepared, and their photophysical properties were studied by steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. An aqueous suspension of PFO nanoparticles prepared by a reprecipitation method was observed to exhibit spectroscopic characteristics consistent with the glassy phase of the polymer. We demonstrate that controlled addition of organic solvent leads to partial tr...

  20. Indiana Humanities Council Request for the Indianapolis Energy Conversion Inst. For Phase I of the Indianapolis Energy Conservation Res Initiative also called the smartDESKTOP Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, John B.

    2007-12-06

    The smartDESKTOP Initiative at the Indiana Humanities Council received critical support in building and delivering a digital desktop for Indiana educators through the Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02-06ER64282. During the project period September 2006 through October of 2007, the number of Indiana educators with accounts on the smartDESKTOP more than tripled from under 2,000 to more than 7,000 accounts. An external review of the project conducted for the purposes of understanding the impact of the service in Indiana schools revealed that the majority of respondents felt that using the smartDESKTOP did reduce the time they spent managing paper. The same study revealed the challenges of implementing a digital desktop meant to help teachers leverage technology to improve their teaching and ultimately student learning. The most significant outcome of this project is that the Indiana Department of Education expressed interest in assuming responsibility for sustaining this project. The transition of the smartDESKTOP to the Indiana Department of Education was effective on November 1, 2007.

  1. Polarisation Control of DFB Fibre Laser Using UV-Induced Birefringent Phase-Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Jacob Lundgreen; Lauridsen, Vibeke Claudia; Berendt, Martin Ole

    1998-01-01

    The polarisation properties of a distributed feedback (DFB) fibre laser are investigated experimentally. A birefringent phase-shift is induced by side illumination of the centre part of the lasing structure with ultraviolet (UV) light and it is experimentally shown that the birefringence of the p......The polarisation properties of a distributed feedback (DFB) fibre laser are investigated experimentally. A birefringent phase-shift is induced by side illumination of the centre part of the lasing structure with ultraviolet (UV) light and it is experimentally shown that the birefringence...... of the phase-shift is the dominating effect controlling the polarisation properties of the laser....

  2. Transmission phase control by stacked metal-dielectric hole array with two-dimensional geometric design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takayuki; Miyazaki, Hideki T; Miura, Atsushi; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Fujikawa, Hisayoshi; Sato, Kazuo; Ikeda, Naoki; Tsuya, Daiju; Ochiai, Masayuki; Sugimoto, Yoshimasa; Ozaki, Masanori; Hangyo, Masanori; Asakawa, Kiyoshi

    2012-07-02

    Transmission phase control is experimentally demonstrated using stacked metal-dielectric hole arrays with a two-dimensional geometric design. The transmission phase varies drastically with small frequency shifts due to structural resonances. Laterally propagating surface plasmon polaritons excited by the periodic hole array roughly determine the resonance frequency, whereas localized resonances in each hole determine the dispersion. The transmission phase at various frequencies is directly evaluated using interferometric microscopy, and the formation of an inclined wavefront is demonstrated using a beam steering element in which the hole shapes gradually change in-plane from square to circular.

  3. Coordinated single-phase control scheme for voltage unbalance reduction in low voltage network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullaguram, Deepak; Mishra, Sukumar; Senroy, Nilanjan

    2017-08-13

    Low voltage (LV) distribution systems are typically unbalanced in nature due to unbalanced loading and unsymmetrical line configuration. This situation is further aggravated by single-phase power injections. A coordinated control scheme is proposed for single-phase sources, to reduce voltage unbalance. A consensus-based coordination is achieved using a multi-agent system, where each agent estimates the averaged global voltage and current magnitudes of individual phases in the LV network. These estimated values are used to modify the reference power of individual single-phase sources, to ensure system-wide balanced voltages and proper power sharing among sources connected to the same phase. Further, the high X / R ratio of the filter, used in the inverter of the single-phase source, enables control of reactive power, to minimize voltage unbalance locally. The proposed scheme is validated by simulating a LV distribution network with multiple single-phase sources subjected to various perturbations.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy management: flexibility, risk and optimization'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Design of A Novel Feed-Forward Control Strategy for A Non-Minimum Phase System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kajal; Pradhan, Raseswari

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a new feed-forward control strategy for a plant with non-minimum phase dynamics. A Feed-Forward controller is very essential for controlling plants with time-varying reference signals. However, designing this type of controller is a non-trivial problem in case the plant dynamics is non-minimum-phase. This is because, this controller design involves the concept of inversion of the plant model and inverse of a non-minimum-phase plant model is unstable or non-causal. For this problem, usually an approximate inversion of a plant model is applied. An approach with corrected-approximate-inverse (CAI) method is available for feed forward controller design. After analyzing the results and discussion of this CAI technique, it is seen that although it seems to be working perfectly for small duration of time but its performance is unsatisfactory in case of large span of time. Therefore, in this paper, a new feed-forward control strategy has been designed to erase the above said problem. This method has adopted a simple version of an internal plant-model structure in its time domain. The fixed-structure feed forward controller that is constructed using this method is usually a linear amalgamation of a reference trajectory and its time-derivatives with suitable weighting factors. This control strategy has been verified with appropriate simulation results applied to a studied plant and results are compared with that of the CAI technique.

  5. HIV / AIDS control programme: lessons from the VHAI-EC joint initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, S

    1996-01-01

    The Voluntary Health Association of India (VHAI), with financial support and technical advice from the European Commission, developed the HIV/AIDS Control Programme. The program began in January 1995. Its overall goal was to strengthen the capacities of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in initiating and developing HIV/AIDS interventions at the grass-roots level. Program strategies include capacity building within NGOs for effective HIV/AIDS efforts, primary prevention of HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) transmission through information and education and promotion of safer sex, promotion of condom use, improvement of STD control in primary health care, and advocacy and social mobilization in support of persons affected by HIV/AIDS. VHAI first invited project proposals from NGOS in Manipur, Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Kerala, and Andhra Pradesh. Then it held a workshop for interested NGOs on policy and funding criteria. 24 NGOs were selected in the first round from all the above states, except Andhra Pradesh. The intended audiences included youth, women, migrant workers, intravenous drug users, commercial sex workers, tribals, and students. The selected projects consisted of awareness generation, needle exchange, blood safety, condom promotion, and counseling. Training programs addressed project management, counseling, and training of health personnel (medical practitioners, health workers, peer educators, and paramedical workers). State-specific communication strategies involved traditional and folk media, a condom key chain, workshops for journalists, and meetings with members of the Legislative Assembly. VHAI is developing a comprehensive communication package for lobbying and advocacy activities. The May-June 1996 mid-term evaluation found that the program helped state VHAs to work more closely with member NGOS and non-member groups and that NGOs did become familiar with HIV/STD prevention and control. NGOS had inadequate experience in project management

  6. SPEED CONTROL FOR THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR USING ADALINE NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Codreş

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The speed control of the three phase induction motor is still a challenging problem. Although the results obtained by means of the conventional control are very good, many researches in this area are ongoing. The authors propose a different control approach based on artificial intelligence. The control signals for speed, torque and flux regulation are computed using three ADALINE (Adaptive Linear Neuron neural networks. The numerical simulations are made in Simulink and the obtained results are compared with the conventional drive approach (cascaded PI controller

  7. Controlling plasmonic orbital angular momentum by combining geometric and dynamic phases

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Qilong; Liu, Hongchao; Huang, Xuguang; Zhang, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Tunable orbit angular momentum (OAM) of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is theoretically studied with appropriately designed metasurfaces. By controlling both the orientation angle and spatial position of nano aperture array on an ultrathin gold film, the field distributions of the surface waves can be engineered to contain both spin dependent and independent OAM components. Simultaneous control over the geometric phase and optical path difference induced phase (dynamic phase) provides extra degrees of freedom for manipulating OAM of SPPs. We show that arbitrary combination of OAM numbers can be realized for the SPPs excited by incident light of different circular polarizations. The results provides powerful control over the OAM of SPPs, which will have potential applications on optical trapping, imaging, communications and quantum information processing.

  8. Methods of Phase and Power Control in Magnetron Transmitters for Superconducting Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazadevich, G. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Johnson, R. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Neubauer, M. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Lebedev, V. [Fermilab; Schappert, W. [Fermilab; Yakovlev, V. [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    Various methods of phase and power control in magnetron RF sources of superconducting accelerators intended for ADS-class projects were recently developed and studied with conventional 2.45 GHz, 1 kW, CW magnetrons operating in pulsed and CW regimes. Magnetron transmitters excited by a resonant (injection-locking) phasemodulated signal can provide phase and power control with the rates required for precise stabilization of phase and amplitude of the accelerating field in Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities of the intensity-frontier accelerators. An innovative technique that can significantly increase the magnetron transmitter efficiency at the widerange power control required for superconducting accelerators was developed and verified with the 2.45 GHz magnetrons operating in CW and pulsed regimes. High efficiency magnetron transmitters of this type can significantly reduce the capital and operation costs of the ADSclass accelerator projects.

  9. Control of Three-to-Five-Phase Matrix Converter Using Carrier-Based PWM Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said M Allam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - This paper proposes a simple Carrier-Based PWM (CBPWM technique to control the three- to five-phase Direct Matrix Converter (3×5 DMC. The proposed technique uses the indirect modulation approach to control the 3×5 DMC such as a three-phase bidirectional rectifier followed by five-phase voltage source inverter (VSI. Based on this approach, it is possible to synthesize the desired five-phase output voltages with sinusoidal three-phase input currents and unity input power factor. A CBPWM method is suggested for each stage independently including both linear and overmodulation operating modes. By the proposed technique, in both operating modes, the maximum possible overall Voltage Transfer Ratio (VTR are achieved. Moreover, this technique allows the input power factor to be controlled by controlling the input current displacement angle. The feasibility of the proposed technique has been verified by a series of simulation and experimental results based on Matlab/Simulink and dSPACE-DS1104 platform. The results show that, a sinusoidal output and input waveforms can be achieved with a maximum possible VTR in the linear region. However, in the overmodulation region, a maximum possible VTR is achieved at the cost of some distortion of output and input waveforms. Therefore, this technique can be used for the application where a higher VTR is essential.

  10. Optimal Control of Partially Miscible Two-Phase Flow with Applications to Subsurface CO2 Sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Simon, Moritz

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by applications in subsurface CO2 sequestration, we investigate constrained optimal control problems with partially miscible two-phase flow in porous media. The objective is, e.g., to maximize the amount of trapped CO2 in an underground reservoir after a fixed period of CO2 injection, where the time-dependent injection rates in multiple wells are used as control parameters. We describe the governing two-phase two-component Darcy flow PDE system and formulate the optimal control problem. For the discretization we use a variant of the BOX method, a locally conservative control-volume FE method. The timestep-wise Lagrangian of the control problem is implemented as a functional in the PDE toolbox Sundance, which is part of the HPC software Trilinos. The resulting MPI parallelized Sundance state and adjoint solvers are linked to the interior point optimization package IPOPT. Finally, we present some numerical results in a heterogeneous model reservoir.

  11. Relative position control design of receiver UAV in flying-boom aerial refueling phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Shuai; Yuan, Suozhong

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes the design of the relative position-keeping control of the receiver unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with the time-varying mass in the refueling phase utilizing an inner-outer loop structure. Firstly, the model of the receiver in the refueling phase is established. And then tank model is set up to analyze the influence of fuel transfer on the receiver. Subsequently, double power reaching law based sliding mode controller is designed to control receiver translational motion relative to tanker aircraft in the outer loop while active disturbance rejection control technique is applied to the inner loop to stabilize the receiver. In addition, the closed-loop stabilities of the subsystems are established, respectively. Finally, an aerial refueling model under various refueling strategies is utilized. Simulations and comparative analysis demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controllers. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Digital Phase Locked Loop Induction Motor Speed Controller: Design and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna BEN HAMED

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Phase locked loop (PLL is a technique which has contributed significantly toward the technology advancement in communication and motor servo control systems. Inventions in PLL schemes combining with novel integrated circuit have made PLL devices important system components. The development of better modular PLL integrated circuit is continuing. As a result, it is expected that it will contribute to improvement in performance and reliability for communication and servo control systems. In this paper, the study of the speed control of induction motor (IM drives using digital phase locked loop (DPLL is discussed. A novel scalar law which compensates the slip frequency loop calculation is proposed. The overall investigated system is tested using a 1Kw IM. Different speed trajectories are considered covering the realistic operating range. The PLL IM drives controller is implemented all around the most popular integrated circuits 4046 PLL. Experimental results are presented to show the performance of the investigated control system.

  13. Controlling the oscillation phase through precisely timed closed-loop optogenetic stimulation: a computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Annette; Palmigiano, Agostina; Neef, Andreas; El Hady, Ahmed; Wolf, Fred; Battaglia, Demian

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic oscillatory coherence is believed to play a central role in flexible communication between brain circuits. To test this communication-through-coherence hypothesis, experimental protocols that allow a reliable control of phase-relations between neuronal populations are needed. In this modeling study, we explore the potential of closed-loop optogenetic stimulation for the control of functional interactions mediated by oscillatory coherence. The theory of non-linear oscillators predicts that the efficacy of local stimulation will depend not only on the stimulation intensity but also on its timing relative to the ongoing oscillation in the target area. Induced phase-shifts are expected to be stronger when the stimulation is applied within specific narrow phase intervals. Conversely, stimulations with the same or even stronger intensity are less effective when timed randomly. Stimulation should thus be properly phased with respect to ongoing oscillations (in order to optimally perturb them) and the timing of the stimulation onset must be determined by a real-time phase analysis of simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs). Here, we introduce an electrophysiologically calibrated model of Channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2)-induced photocurrents, based on fits holding over two decades of light intensity. Through simulations of a neural population which undergoes coherent gamma oscillations—either spontaneously or as an effect of continuous optogenetic driving—we show that precisely-timed photostimulation pulses can be used to shift the phase of oscillation, even at transduction rates smaller than 25%. We consider then a canonic circuit with two inter-connected neural populations oscillating with gamma frequency in a phase-locked manner. We demonstrate that photostimulation pulses applied locally to a single population can induce, if precisely phased, a lasting reorganization of the phase-locking pattern and hence modify functional interactions between the

  14. Controlling the oscillation phase through precisely timed closed-loop optogenetic stimulation: a computational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette eWitt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic oscillatory coherence is believed to play a central role in flexible communication between brain circuits. To test this communication-through-coherence hypothesis, experimental protocols that allow a reliable control of phase-relations between neuronal populations are needed. In this modeling study, we explore the potential of closed-loop optogenetic stimulation for the control of functional interactions mediated by oscillatory coherence. The theory of nonlinear oscillators predicts that the efficacy of local stimulation will depend not only on the stimulation intensity but also on its timing relative to the ongoing oscillation in the target area. Induced phase-shifts are expected to be stronger when the stimulation is applied within specific narrow phase intervals. Conversely, stimulations with the same or even stronger intensity are less effective when timed randomly. Stimulation should thus be properly phased with respect to ongoing oscillations (in order to optimally perturb them and the timing of the stimulation onset must be determined by a real-time phase analysis of simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs.Here, we introduce an electrophysiologically calibrated model of Channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2-induced photocurrents, based on fits holding over two decades of light intensity. Through simulations of a neural population which undergoes coherent gamma oscillations —either spontaneously or as an effect of continuous optogenetic driving—, we show that precisely-timed photostimulation pulses can be used to shift phase, even at transduction rates smaller than 25%. We consider then a canonic circuit with two inter-connected neural populations oscillating with gamma frequency in a phase-locked manner. We demonstrate that photostimulation pulses applied locally to a single population can induce, if precisely phased, a lasting reorganization of the phase-locking pattern and hence modify functional interactions between the two

  15. High-performance digital triggering system for phase-controlled rectifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The larger power supplies used to power accelerator magnets are most commonly polyphase rectifiers using phase control. While this method is capable of handling impressive amounts of power, it suffers from one serious disadvantage, namely that of subharmonic ripple. Since the stability of the stored beam depends to a considerable extent on the regulation of the current in the bending magnets, subharmonic ripple, especially that of low frequency, can have a detrimental effect. At the NSLS, we have constructed a 12-pulse, phase control system using digital signal processing techniques that essentially eliminates subharmonic ripple.

  16. Impulsive Control of the Rotor-Stator Rub Based on Phase Characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiong Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An impulsive control method is proposed to eliminate the rotor-stator rubbing based on the phase characteristic. The relation between the vibration energy and the phase difference suggests the starting point for controlling the rotor-stator rubbing by implementing impulse. When the contact between the rotor and the stator occurs, the impulse is implemented in x-direction and y-direction several times to avoid the rotor-stator rubbing. The practical feasibility of this approach is investigated by numerical simulations.

  17. The convergence analysis of P-type iterative learning control with initial state error for some fractional system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianghu; Li, Yanfang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the convergence of iterative learning control with initial state error for some fractional equation is studied. According to the Laplace transform and the M-L function, the concept of mild solutions is showed. The sufficient conditions of convergence for the open and closed P-type iterative learning control are obtained. Some examples are given to illustrate our main results.

  18. Impact of Infection Prevention and Control Initiatives on Acute Respiratory Infections in a Pediatric Long-Term Care Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Meghan T; Jackson, Olivia; Cohen, Bevin; Hutcheon, Gordon; Saiman, Lisa; Larson, Elaine; Neu, Natalie

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the collective impact of several infection prevention and control initiatives aimed at reducing acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in a pediatric long-term care facility. ARIs did not decrease overall, though the proportion of infections associated with outbreaks and average number of cases per outbreak decreased. Influenza rates decreased significantly. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:859-862.

  19. Initial Drug Dissolution from Amorphous Solid Dispersions Controlled by Polymer Dissolution and Drug-Polymer Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuejie; Wang, Shujing; Wang, Shan; Liu, Chengyu; Su, Ching; Hageman, Michael; Hussain, Munir; Haskell, Roy; Stefanski, Kevin; Qian, Feng

    2016-10-01

    To identify the key formulation factors controlling the initial drug and polymer dissolution rates from an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD). Ketoconazole (KTZ) ASDs using PVP, PVP-VA, HMPC, or HPMC-AS as polymeric matrix were prepared. For each drug-polymer system, two types of formulations with the same composition were prepared: 1. Spray dried dispersion (SDD) that is homogenous at molecular level, 2. Physical blend of SDD (80% drug loading) and pure polymer (SDD-PB) that is homogenous only at powder level. Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (χ) between KTZ and the four polymers were obtained by Flory-Huggins model fitting. Solution (13)C NMR and FT-IR were conducted to investigate the specific drug-polymer interaction in the solution and solid state, respectively. Intrinsic dissolution of both the drug and the polymer from ASDs were studied using a Higuchi style intrinsic dissolution apparatus. PXRD and confocal Raman microscopy were used to confirm the absence of drug crystallinity on the tablet surface before and after dissolution study. In solid state, KTZ is completely miscible with PVP, PVP-VA, or HPMC-AS, demonstrated by the negative χ values of -0.36, -0.46, -1.68, respectively; while is poorly miscible with HPMC shown by a positive χ value of 0.23. According to solution (13)C NMR and FT-IR studies, KTZ interacts with HPMC-AS strongly through H-bonding and dipole induced interaction; with PVPs and PVP-VA moderately through dipole-induced interactions; and with HPMC weakly without detectable attractive interaction. Furthermore, the "apparent" strength of drug-polymer interaction, measured by the extent of peak shift on NMR or FT-IR spectra, increases with the increasing number of interacting drug-polymer pairs. For ASDs with the presence of considerable drug-polymer interactions, such as KTZ/PVPs, KTZ/PVP-VA, or KTZ /HPMC-AS systems, drug released at the same rate as the polymer when intimate drug-polymer mixing was ensured (i.e., the SDD systems

  20. Design and real time implementation of fuzzy switched controller for single phase active power filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afghoul, Hamza; Krim, Fateh; Chikouche, Djamel; Beddar, Antar

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a novel fuzzy switched controller (FSC) integrated in direct current control (DCC) algorithm for single phase active power filter (SPAPF). The controller under study consists of conventional PI controller, fractional order PI controller (FO-PI) and fuzzy decision maker (FDM) that switches between them using reduced fuzzy logic control. The proposed controller offers short response time with low damping and deals efficiently with the external disturbances while preserving the robustness properties. To fulfill the requirements of power quality, unity power factor and harmonics limitations in active power filtering an experimental test bench has been built using dSPACE 1104 to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed controller. The obtained results present high performance in steady and transient states. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.