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Sample records for controlling geopressured geothermal

  1. Geopressured geothermal bibliography (Geopressure Thesaurus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, T.R.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1981-08-01

    This thesaurus of terminology associated with the geopressured geothermal energy field has been developed as a part of the Geopressured Geothermal Information System data base. A thesaurus is a compilation of terms displaying synonymous, hierarchical, and other relationships between terms. These terms, which are called descriptors, constitute the special language of the information retrieval system, the system vocabulary. The Thesaurus' role in the Geopressured Geothermal Information System is to provide a controlled vocabulary of sufficient specificity for subject indexing and retrieval of documents in the geopressured geothermal energy field. The thesauri most closely related to the Geopressure Thesaurus in coverage are the DOE Energy Information Data Base Subject Thesaurus and the Geothermal Thesaurus being developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The Geopressure Thesaurus differs from these thesauri in two respects: (1) specificity of the vocabulary or subject scope and (2) display format.

  2. Geopressured geothermal bibliography (Geopressure Thesaurus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, T.R.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1981-08-01

    This thesaurus of terminology associated with the geopressured geothermal energy field has been developed as a part of the Geopressured Geothermal Information System data base. A thesaurus is a compilation of terms displaying synonymous, hierarchical, and other relationships between terms. These terms, which are called descriptors, constitute the special language of the information retrieval system, the system vocabulary. The Thesaurus' role in the Geopressured Geothermal Information System is to provide a controlled vocabulary of sufficient specificity for subject indexing and retrieval of documents in the geopressured geothermal energy field. The thesauri most closely related to the Geopressure Thesaurus in coverage are the DOE Energy Information Data Base Subject Thesaurus and the Geothermal Thesaurus being developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The Geopressure Thesaurus differs from these thesauri in two respects: (1) specificity of the vocabulary or subject scope and (2) display format.

  3. Completion techniques for geothermal-geopressured wells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, W.E.

    1974-01-01

    The following are covered: oil well completions, water well completions, sand control techniques, geopressured oil and gas wells, and geopressured water well completion. The conclusions for a geothermal-geopressured water well completion and needed research are included. (MHR)

  4. Geopressured geothermal bibliography. Volume III. (Geopressure thesaurus). Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehrnoori, K.; Carter, F.; Schneider, R.; Street, S.; McGill, K.

    1985-05-01

    This thesaurus of terminology associated with the geopressured geothermal energy field has been developed as a part of the Geopressured Geothermal Information System data base. The subject scope includes: (1) geopressure resource assessment; (2) geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of geopressured systems; (3) geopressure exploration and exploration technology; (4) geopressured reservoir engineering and drilling technology; (5) economic aspects; (6) environmental aspects; (7) legal, institutional, and sociological aspects; (8) electrical and nonelectrical utilization; and (9) other energy sources, especially methane and other fossil fuel reserves, associated with geopressured reservoirs.

  5. Geothermal energy geopressure subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The proposed action will consist of drilling one geopressured-geothermal resource fluid well for intermittent production testing over the first year of the test. During the next two years, long-term testing of 40,000 BPD will be flowed. A number of scenarios may be implemented, but it is felt that the total fluid production will approximate 50 million barrels. The test well will be drilled with a 22 cm (8.75 in.) borehole to a total depth of approximately 5185 m (17,000 ft). Up to four disposal wells will provide disposal of the fluid from the designated 40,000 BPD test rate. The following are included in this assessment: the existing environment; probable environmental impacts-direct and indirect; probable cumulative and long-term environmental impacts; accidents; coordination with federal, state, regional, and local agencies; and alternative actions. (MHR)

  6. Geopressured geothermal bibliography. Volume II (geopressure thesaurus). Second Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehrnoori, K.; Carter, F.; Schneider, R.; Street, S.; McGill, K.

    1983-05-01

    This thesaurus of terminology associated with the geopressured geothermal energy field has been developed as a part of the Geopressured Geothermal Information System data base. It is a compilation of terms displaying synomymous, hierarchical, and other relationships between terms. These terms, which are called descriptors, constitute the special language of the information retrieval system - the system vocabulary. The function of this thesaurus is to provide a standardized vocabulary for the information storage and retrieval system to facilitate both the indexing and subject-searching processes. In indexing, a thesaurus is used to translate the natural language of the document to be indexed into the standardized system vocabulary and to place the document at the appropriate level of generality or specificity in relation to the other documents in the data base. In subject retrieval, the thesaurus is used to match the natural language used in search requests with the system vocabulary and to find the most appropriate term to represent a concept.

  7. Geopressured geothermal bibliography. Volume 1 (citation extracts)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, T.R.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1981-08-01

    This bibliography was compiled by the Center for Energy Studies at The University of Texas at Austin to serve as a tool for researchers in the field of geopressured geothermal energy resources. The bibliography represents citations of papers on geopressured geothermal energy resources over the past eighteen years. Topics covered in the bibliography range from the technical aspects of geopressured geothermal reservoirs to social, environmental, and legal aspects of tapping those reservoirs for their energy resources. The bibliography currently contains more than 750 entries. For quick reference to a given topic, the citations are indexed into five divisions: author, category, conference title, descriptor, and sponsor. These indexes are arranged alphabetically and cross-referenced by page number.

  8. Analysis of ecological effects of geopressured-geothermal resource development. Geopressured-geothermal technical paper No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    The activities involved in geopressured-geothermal resource production are identified and their ecological impacts are discussed. The analysis separates those activites that are unique to geopressured-geothermal development from those that also occur in oil and gas and other resource developments. Of the unique activities, those with the greatest potential for serious ecological effect are: (1) accidental brine discharge as a result of a blowout during well drilling; (2) subsidence; (3) fault activation and enhanced seismicity; and (4) subsurface contamination of water, hydrocarbon, and mineral reservoirs. Available methods to predict and control these effects are discussed.

  9. Equipment for testing geothermal-geopressured reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, J.A.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    The surface facilities for testing geothermal-geopressured wells are identical to those for testing a commercial hydrocarbon well with minor modifications. These modifications are necessary to accommodate a high-temperature liquid that tends to be corrosive and to deposit scale when pressure is reduced. Using these modifications, Pleasant Bayou No. 2 was tested with a minimum of trouble.

  10. Factors controlling reservoir quality in tertiary sandstones and their significance to geopressured geothermal production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loucks, R.G.; Richmann, D.L.; Milliken, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    Variable intensity of diagenesis is the factor primarily responsible for contrasting regional reservoir quality of Tertiary sandstones from the upper and lower Texas coast. Detailed comparison of Frio sandstone from the Chocolate Bayou/Danbury Dome area, Brazoria County, and Vicksburg sandstones from the McAllen Ranch Field area, Hidalgo County, reveals that extent of diagenetic modification is most strongly influenced by (1) detrital mineralogy and (2) regional geothermal gradients. The regional reservoir quality of Frio sandstones from Brazoria County is far better than that characterizing Vicksburg sandstones from Hidalgo County, especially at depths suitable for geopressured geothermal energy production. However, in predicting reservoir quality on a site-specific basis, locally variable factors such as relative proportions for porosity types, pore geometry as related to permeability, and local depositional environment must also be considered. Even in an area of regionally favorable reservoir quality, such local factors can significantly affect reservoir quality and, hence, the geothermal production potential of a specific sandstone unit.

  11. Geopressured-geothermal energy development: government incentives and institutional structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, D.O.; Prestwood, D.C.L.; Roberts, K.; Vanston, J.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The following subjects are included: a geothermal resource overview, the evolution of the current Texas geopressured-geothermal institutional structure, project evaluation with uncertainty and the structure of incentives, the natural gas industry, the electric utility industry, potential governmental participants in resource development, industrial users of thermal energy, current government incentives bearing on geopressured-geothermal development, six profiles for utilization of the geopressured-geothermal resources in the mid-term, and probable impacts of new government incentives on mid-term resource utilization profiles. (MHR)

  12. Industrial utilization of geopressured geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underhill, Gary K; Carlson, Ronald A.; Clendinning, William A.; Erdos, Jozsef; Gault, John; Hall, James W.; Jones, Robert L.; Michael, Herbert K.; Powell, Paul H.; Riemann, Carl F.; Rios-Castellon, Lorenzo; Shepherd, Burchard P.; Wilson, John S.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of the industrial utilization of geopressured geothermal energy is currently limited by the limited knowledge of the resource's distribution. However, the resource assessment activity in the Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, has identified a number of fairway or potential resource zones. These zones are located in Kenedy County; in and about Corpus Christi and Nueces Bays in Nueces, San Patricio, and Aransas Counties; in the coastal zones of Matagorda County; and in a crescent-shaped zone parallel to the coastline in Brazoria and Galveston Counties. The Kenedy and Matagorda County zones are situated in rural areas with little or no industrial activity. The Corpus Christi and Brazoria-Galveston zones are in and adjacent to highly industrialized and urbanized districts. The rural zones will require the establishment of new industries for geothermal fluid utilization while the industrial-urban zones will require either new industry, expansion to existing industry, or modification to existing plant and process. Proposed industries for geothermal fluid utilization can be considered with respect to fitting the industry to the available fluids; this has been the usual approach. An alternate approach is to fit the abailable fluids to the proposed industry. In order to follow the alternate approach requires consideration of ways to upgrade the quality of existing geothermal fluids or geothermal-derived or -energized fluids.

  13. Parcperdue Geopressure -- Geothermal Project: Appendix E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweezy, L.R.

    1981-10-05

    The mechanical and transport properties and characteristics of rock samples obtained from DOW-DOE L.R. SWEEZY NO. 1 TEST WELL at the Parcperdue Geopressure/Geothermal Site have been investigated in the laboratory. Elastic moduli, compressibility, uniaxial compaction coefficient, strength, creep parameters, permeability, acoustic velocities (all at reservoir conditions) and changes in these quantities induced by simulated reservoir production have been obtained from tests on several sandstone and shale samples from different depths. Most important results are that the compaction coefficients are approximately an order of magnitude lower than those generally accepted for the reservoir sand in the Gulf Coast area and that the creep behavior is significant. Geologic characterization includes lithological description, SEM micrographs and mercury intrusion tests to obtain pore distributions. Petrographic analysis shows that approximately half of the total sand interval has excellent reservoir potential and that most of the effective porosity in the Cib Jeff Sand is formed by secondary porosity development.

  14. Water Resource Assessment of Geothermal Resources and Water Use in Geopressured Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harto, C. B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Troppe, W. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This technical report from Argonne National Laboratory presents an assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation and an analysis of fresh water use in low-temperature geopressured geothermal power generation systems.

  15. Geopressured geothermal bibliography. Volume I. Citation extracts. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehrnoori, K.; Carter, F.; Schneider, R.; Street, S.; McGill, K.

    1983-05-01

    This annoted bibliography contains 1131 citations. It represents reports, papers, and articles appearing over the past eighteen years covering topics from the scientific and technical aspects of geopressured geothermal reservoirs to the social, environmental, and legal considerations of exploiting those reservoirs for their energy resources. Six indexes include: author, conference title, descriptor, journal title, report number, and sponsor. (MHR)

  16. Evaluation of land ownership, lease status, and surface features in five geopressured geothermal prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackenbracht, W.N.

    1981-05-01

    This study was accomplished for the purpose of gathering information pertaining to land and lease ownership, surface features and use and relevant environmental factors in the Lake Theriot (West and East), Kaplan, Bayou Hebert and Freshwater Bayou geopressured geothermal prospects in Louisiana, and the Blessing geopressured geothermal prospect in Texas. This information and recommendations predicated upon it will then be used to augment engineering and geological data utilized to select geopressured geothermal test well sites within the prospects. The five geopressured geothermal prospects are briefly described and recommendations given.

  17. United States Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program. Annual report, 1 November 1980-31 October 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorfman, M.H.; Morton, R.A.; Dunlap, H.F.; Frederick, D.O.; Gray, K.E.; Peters, E.J.; Sepehrnoori, K.; Thompson, T.W.

    1982-07-01

    The following are included: objectives, overview, coordination assistance, compaction measurements on Texas Gulf Coast Sandstones and Shales; US Gulf Coast Geopressured-Geothermal Aquifer simulation, Preliminary Review of Subsidence Insurance Issues, Geopressured-Geothermal Information System, and Study of Log Derived Water Resistivity Values in Geopressured Geothermal Formations. (MHR)

  18. The use of supercritical fluid processes for detoxification of pollutants using geopressured-geothermal fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper proposes the development of an engineered interface between a geopressured-geothermal resource and a supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) process which destroys hazardous organic wastes. The objectives of this study are to show economic advantages in linking the geopressured-geothermal resource with an SCWO process: to destroy hazardous organic waste; to produce power with the combined energy content of the geopressured-geothermal resource and the SCWO process; to use the available energy of the combined system to operate other synergistic processes. The interface will produce a standardized working medium from the hot geopressured-geothermal brine exiting a well, providing hydraulic and thermal energy for operation of the SCWO process. The Department of Energy (DOE) Geopressured-Geothermal Program has been researching the technical and production characteristics of the geopressured-geothermal resource. Three DOE well operations are presently a part of this program. The focus of this study is the development of concepts using a SCWO process to detoxify pollutants at a DOE geopressured-geothermal well site. The existence of large geopressured-geothermal regions throughout the world extends the applicability of the proposed system to many other potential locations in the US and foreign countries. 13 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Completion Techniques for Geothermal-Geopressured Wells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, W.E.; Dorfman, M.H.; Podio, A.L.

    1974-01-01

    Geological studies have established that geothermal-geopressured formations can be found at depths of 10,000 to 18,000 feet in the Gulf Coast area of Texas and Louisiana. Bottom hole pressures are in the range of 9,000 to 15,000 psig and temperatures 250-350 F. Test wells to tap these reservoirs can be drilled routinely, utilizing available equipment and methods. Electric logs, surveys, cores and production tests can be used to assess these resources and to evaluate their economic viability as primary sources of energy. But it will be necessary to complete the wells in such fashion that production of the high-pressured fluid can be obtained to deliver heat, mechanical energy and methane gas in economic quantities. This will require carefully considered completion techniques, involving pipe sizes and accessory equipment suitable for high volumes of fluid. Completion operations may include formation stimulation treatments and/or sand control measures to obtain optimum rates of flow with minimum sand influx. It appears that gravel-packed completions will be more feasible at this time than chemical consolidation treatments to control sand production because of high temperatures, thick producing intervals, and high-velocity flow rates. Flow rates up to 100 barrels per day per foot of perforations should be possible from consolidated formations without sand control treatments.

  20. Environmental analysis of geopressured-geothermal prospect areas, Brazoria and Kenedy Counties, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, W.A.; McGraw, M.; Gustavson, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary environmental data, including current land use, substrate lithology, soils, natural hazards, water resources, biological assemblages, meteorological data, and regulatory considerations have been collected and analyzed for approximately 150 km/sup 2/ of land: (1) near Chocolate Bayou, Brazoria County, Texas, where a geopressured-geothermal test well was drilled in 1978, and (2) near the rural community of Armstrong, Kenedy County, Texas, where future geopressured-geothermal test well development may occur. The study was designed to establish an environmental data base and to determine, within spatial constraints set by subsurface reservoir conditions, environmentally suitable sites for geopressured-geothermal wells.

  1. Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Geopressured-Geothermal Brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1989-12-01

    This white paper presents a unique plan for an Oil Industry-DOE cost sharing research project for Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (TEOR) of medium and heavy oil using geopressured-geothermal brine. This technology would provide an environmentally clean method of recovery as opposed to the burning of crude oil or natural gas used widely by the industry, but presently under scrutiny by federal and state air quality agencies, as well as provide an alternative to the very expensive operational and mechanical problems associated with heating water on the surface for injection. An example test reservoir is a shallow, small structural reservoir about 1-l/2 miles long by 1/2 mile wide. It is presently producing heavy oil (18.6 API gravity) from 5 wells, and is marginally economic. One of three nearby geopressured-geothermal wells could be re-entered and recompleted to supply about 400 F brine from 13-16,000 feet. This brine can be used to heat and drive the heavy oil. It is anticipated that about one million barrels of oil may be recovered by this project. Over 3 million barrels are estimated to be in place; only 2.7% of the oil in place has been produced. The suggested teaming arrangement includes: (1) EG&G Idaho, Inc., which presently provides technical and management support to DOE in the Gulf EG&G would supply coordination, management and Coast Geopressured-Geothermal Program. technical support to DOE for the Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery Project. (2) A small business which would supply the field, geologic and well data, production wells, and production operation. They would cost-share the project and provide revenue from increased production (5% of increased production) to help offset DOE costs. Though DOE would cost-share brine supply and injection system, they would not assume well ownership. The small business would supply engineering and operations for brine supply, injection system, and collection of field producing and injection data. Phase 1--Geologic, reservoir

  2. Reservoir Engineering Studies of Geopressured Geothermal Energy Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kun Sang [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea)

    1998-04-30

    Transient pressure analysis techniques were used to evaluate the performance of the Gladys McCall geopressured-geothermal reservoir which has been monitored and tested under U.S. Department of Energy geopressured -geothermal research program. Analysis of transient pressure data furnished a reservoir description such as the formation parameters, pore volume and shape of the reservoir, and average reservoir pressure. Results of pressure tests suggest that the Gladys McCall reservoir probably has a long narrow shape with the well located off-center. During both production and shut-in periods, pressure buildup tests indicated some degree of external pressure support. Aquifer recharging was believed to be the main source. An aquifer influx model was derived from a conceptual model of water leakage through a partially sealing fault into the reservoir under steady-state conditions. Moreover, a match of the pressure history required that the conductivity of the fault be a function of the pressure difference between the supporting aquifer and the reservoir. Results of analyses provided a quantitative evaluation of the reservoir and a better understanding of the reservoir energy drive mechanism. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  3. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 4: Bibliography (annotated only for all major reports)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    This bibliography contains US Department of Energy sponsored Geopressured-Geothermal reports published after 1984. Reports published prior to 1984 are documented in the Geopressured Geothermal bibliography Volumes 1, 2, and 3 that the Center for Energy Studies at the University of Texas at Austin compiled in May 1985. It represents reports, papers and articles covering topics from the scientific and technical aspects of geopressured geothermal reservoirs to the social, environmental, and legal considerations of exploiting those reservoirs for their energy resources.

  4. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells: Detailed completions prognosis for geopressured-geothermal well of opportunity, prospect #1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Clovis A.

    1980-04-03

    This prospective well of opportunity was originally drilled and completed as a gas producer by Wrightsman Investment Company in early 1973. The original and present producing interval was from 15,216 to 15,238 feet. IMC Exploration Company, Inc. acquired the property from Wrightsman and is the present owner operator. The well is presently shut in s a non-economic producer and IMC proposed to perform plug and abandonment operations in April, 1980. This well has a good geopressured-geothermal water sand behind the 5-1/2 inch casing that has 94 feet of net sand thickness. Pursuant to DOE/NVO authorization of March 11,1980, Eaton negotiated an option agreement with IMC whereby IMC would delay their abandonment operations for a period of 90 days to permit DOE to evaluate the well for geopressure-geothermal testing. The IMC-Eaton option agreements provide that IMG will delay plugging the well until June 15, 1980. If Eaton exercises its option to acquire the well, IMC will sell the well bore, and an adjacent salt water disposal well, to Eaton for the sole consideration of Eaton assuming the obligation to plug and abandon the wells in accordance with lease and regulatory requirements. If Eaton does not exercise its option, then Eaton will pay IMC $95,000 cash and IMC will proceed with plugging and abandonment at the termination of the option period.

  5. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 3: Applied and direct uses, resource feasibility, economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in the mid 1970`s as one response to America`s need to develop alternate energy resources in view of the increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy. This program continued for 17 years and approximately two hundred million dollars were expended for various types of research and well testing to thoroughly investigate this alternative energy source. This volume describes the following studies: Geopressured-geothermal hybrid cycle power plant: design, testing, and operation summary; Feasibility of hydraulic energy recovery from geopressured-geothermal resources: economic analysis of the Pelton turbine; Brine production as an exploration tool for water drive gas reservoirs; Study of supercritical Rankine cycles; Application of the geopressured-geothermal resource to pyrolytic conversion or decomposition/detoxification processes; Conclusions on wet air oxidation, pyrolytic conversion, decomposition/detoxification process; Co-location of medium to heavy oil reservoirs with geopressured-geothermal resources and the feasibility of oil recovery using geopressured-geothermal fluids; Economic analysis; Application of geopressured-geothermal resources to direct uses; Industrial consortium for the utilization of the geopressured-geothermal resource; Power generation; Industrial desalination, gas use and sales, pollutant removal, thermal EOR, sulfur frasching, oil and natural gas pipelining, coal desulfurization and preparation, lumber and concrete products kilning; Agriculture and aquaculture applications; Paper and cane sugar industries; Chemical processing; Environmental considerations for geopressured-geothermal development. 27 figs., 25 tabs.

  6. Statistical modeling of geopressured geothermal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Esmail; Hughes, Richard; White, Christopher D.

    2017-06-01

    Identifying attractive candidate reservoirs for producing geothermal energy requires predictive models. In this work, inspectional analysis and statistical modeling are used to create simple predictive models for a line drive design. Inspectional analysis on the partial differential equations governing this design yields a minimum number of fifteen dimensionless groups required to describe the physics of the system. These dimensionless groups are explained and confirmed using models with similar dimensionless groups but different dimensional parameters. This study models dimensionless production temperature and thermal recovery factor as the responses of a numerical model. These responses are obtained by a Box-Behnken experimental design. An uncertainty plot is used to segment the dimensionless time and develop a model for each segment. The important dimensionless numbers for each segment of the dimensionless time are identified using the Boosting method. These selected numbers are used in the regression models. The developed models are reduced to have a minimum number of predictors and interactions. The reduced final models are then presented and assessed using testing runs. Finally, applications of these models are offered. The presented workflow is generic and can be used to translate the output of a numerical simulator into simple predictive models in other research areas involving numerical simulation.

  7. Geopressured-geothermal resource development on public free school lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    The study's findings and recommendations are based upon analysis of the following: financial and economic feasibility of geopressured-geothermal resource development; possible ecological, social, and economic impacts of resource development on PFSL; and legal issues associated with resource development. The results of the analysis are summarized and are discussed in detail in a series of four technical papers which accompany this volume. Existing rules of the General Land Office (GLO), the School Land Board (SLB), and the Railroad Commission of Texas (RRC) were reviewed in light of the above analysis and were discussed with the agencies. The study's recommendations resulted from this analytical and review process; they are discussed. The preliminary draft rules and regulations to govern resource development on PFSL are presented in Appendix A; the accompanying forms and model lease are found in Appendix B.

  8. Factors controlling reservoir quality in tertiary sandstones and their significance to geopressured geothermal production. Annual report, May 1, 1979-May 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loucks, R.G.; Richmann, D.L.; Milliken, K.L.

    1980-07-01

    Differing extents of diagenetic modification is the factor primarily responsible for contrasting regional reservoir quality of Tertiary sandstones from the Upper and Lower Texas Gulf Coast. Detailed comparison of Frio sandstones from the Chocolate Bayou/Danbury Dome area, Brazoria County, and Vicksburg sandstones from the McAllen Ranch Field area, Hidalgo County, reveals that extent of diagenetic modification is most strongly influenced by (1) detrital mineralogy and (2) regional geothermal gradients. Vicksburg sandstones from the McAllen Ranch Field area are less stable, chemically and mechanically, than Frio sandstones from the Chocolate Bayou/Danbury dome area. Vicksburg sandstones are mineralogically immature and contain greater proportions of feldspars and rock fragments than do Frio sandstones. Thr reactive detrital assemblage of Vicksubrg sandstones is highly susceptible to diagenetic modification. Susceptibility is enhanced by higher than normal geothermal gradients in the McAllen Ranch Field area. Thus, consolidation of Vicksburg sandstones began at shallower depth of burial and precipitation of authigenic phases (especially calcite) was more pervasive than in Frio sandstones. Moreover, the late-stage episode of ferroan calcite precipitation that occluded most secondary porosity in Vicksburg sandstones did not occur significantly in Frio sandstones. Therefore, regional reservoir quality of Frio sandstones from Brazoria County is far better than that characterizing Vicksburg sandstones from Hidalgo County, especially at depths suitable for geopressured geothermal energy production.

  9. Comparison of estimated and background subsidence rates in Texas-Louisiana geopressured geothermal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, L.M.; Clayton, M.; Everingham, J.; Harding, R.C.; Massa, A.

    1982-06-01

    A comparison of background and potential geopressured geothermal development-related subsidence rates is given. Estimated potential geopressured-related rates at six prospects are presented. The effect of subsidence on the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast is examined including the various associated ground movements and the possible effects of these ground movements on surficial processes. The relationships between ecosystems and subsidence, including the capability of geologic and biologic systems to adapt to subsidence, are analyzed. The actual potential for environmental impact caused by potential geopressured-related subsidence at each of four prospects is addressed. (MHR)

  10. Pleasant Bayou geopressured/geothermal testing project, Brazoria County, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortego, P.K.

    1985-07-01

    Phase II-B production testing of the Pleasant Bayou No. 2 well began September 22, 1982. The test plan was designed to evaluate the capabilities of the geopressured-geothermal reservoir during an extended flow period. Tests were conducted to determine reservoir areal extent; aquifer fluid properties; fluid property change with production; information on reservoir production drive mechanism; long-term scale and corrosion control methods; and disposal well operations. Operatinal aspects of geopressured-geothermal production were also evaluated. The test was discontinued prematurely in May 1983 because of a production tubing failure. Most of the production tubing was recovered from the well and cause of the failure was determined. Plans for recompletion of the well were prepared. However, the well was not recompleted because of funding constraints and/or program rescheduling. In March 1984, the Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) directed that the site be placed in a standby-secured condition. In August 1984, the site was secured. Routine site maintenance and security was provided during the secured period.

  11. Recoverable Resource Estimate of Identified Onshore Geopressured Geothermal Energy in Texas and Louisiana (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, A.; Augustine, C.

    2012-04-01

    Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are characterized by high temperatures and high pressures with correspondingly large quantities of dissolved methane. Due to these characteristics, the reservoirs provide two sources of energy: chemical energy from the recovered methane, and thermal energy from the recovered fluid at temperatures high enough to operate a binary power plant for electricity production. Formations with the greatest potential for recoverable energy are located in the gulf coastal region of Texas and Louisiana where significantly overpressured and hot formations are abundant. This study estimates the total recoverable onshore geopressured geothermal resource for identified sites in Texas and Louisiana. In this study a geopressured geothermal resource is defined as a brine reservoir with fluid temperature greater than 212 degrees F and a pressure gradient greater than 0.7 psi/ft.

  12. Problem definition study of subsidence caused by geopressured geothermal resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The environmental and socio-economic settings of four environmentally representative Gulf Coast geopressured geothermal fairways were inventoried. Subsidence predictions were prepared using feasible development scenarios for the four representative subsidence sites. Based on the results of the subsidence estimates, an assessment of the associated potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts was prepared. An inventory of mitigation measures was also compiled. Results of the subsidence estimates and impact assessments are presented, as well as conclusions as to what are the major uncertainties, problems, and issues concerning the future study of geopressured geothermal subsidence.

  13. Geopressured geothermal resource of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast: a technology characterization and environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usibelli, A.; Deibler, P.; Sathaye, J.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast geopressured geothermal resource: (1) the technological requirements for well drilling, completion, and energy conversion, and, (2) the environmental impacts of resource exploitation are examined. The information comes from the literature on geopressured geothermal research and from interviews and discussions with experts. The technology characterization section emphasizes those areas in which uncertainty exists and in which further research and development is needed. The environmental assessment section discusses all anticipated environmental impacts and focuses on the two largest potential problems: (a) subsidence and (b) brine disposal.

  14. Geopressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, Charles A.

    1970-01-30

    Geopressures play a dominant role in the oil and gas industry. These pore-fluid pressures have been the source of such well problems as blowouts, stuck pipe, no drilling progress, lost circulation, saltwater flows, etc. At one time, offshore drilling did not appear profitable because of high drilling costs. Deep target objectives were rarely attained. The concept of impenetrable rocks was accepted as fact in the Gulf Coast.

  15. Technical support for geopressured-geothermal well activities in Louisiana. Final report, 1 November 1983-31 October 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-01

    This report describes environmental monitoring of microseismic activity, land-surface subsidence, and surface and ground-water quality at three designed geopressured-geothermal test well sites in Louisiana. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual sections. (ACR)

  16. Technical support for geopressured-geothermal well activities in Louisiana. Annual report, 1 November 1982-31 October 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-31

    This annual report describes environmental monitoring of microseismic activity, land-surface elevations, and surface and ground-water quality at three designed geopressured-geothermal test well sites in Louisiana.

  17. Assessment of the geothermal/geopressure potential of the Gulf Coastal Plan of Alabama. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.V.; Wang, G.C.; Mancini, E.A.; Benson, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Geothermal and geopressure as well as geologic and geophysical data were studied to evaluate the potential for future development of geothermal resources underlying the Alabama Coastal Plain. Wire-line log data compiled and interpreted from more than 1300 oil and gas test wells included maximum recorded temperatures, mud weights, rock resistivities as related to geopressure, formation tops, fault locations, and depths to basement rock. The Alabama Coastal Plain area is underlain by a conduction dominated, deep sedimentary basin where geothermal gradients are low to moderate (1.0 to 1.8/sup 0/F/100 feet). In some areas of southwest Alabama, abnormally high temperatures are found in association with geopressured zones within the Haynesville Formation of Jurassic age; however, rocks of poor reservoir quality dominate this formation, with the exception of a 200-square-mile area centered in southernmost Clarke County where a porous and permeable sand unit is encased within massive salt deposits of the lower Haynesville. The results of a petrograhic study of the Smackover Formation, which underlies the Haynesville, indicate that this carbonate rock unit has sufficient porosity in some areas to be considered a potential geothermal reservoir. Future development of geothermal resources in south Alabama will be restricted to low or moderate temperature, non-electric applications, which constitute a significant potential energy source for applications in space heating and cooling and certain agricultural and industrial processes.

  18. Assessment of the geothermal/geopressure potential of the Gulf Coastal Plan of Alabama. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.V.; Wang, G.C.; Mancini, E.A.; Benson, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Geothermal and geopressure as well as geologic and geophysical data were studied to evaluate the potential for future development of geothermal resources underlying the Alabama Coastal Plain. Wire-line log data compiled and interpreted from more than 1300 oil and gas test wells included maximum recorded temperatures, mud weights, rock resistivities as related to geopressure, formation tops, fault locations, and depths to basement rock. The Alabama Coastal Plain area is underlain by a conduction dominated, deep sedimentary basin where geothermal gradients are low to moderate (1.0 to 1.8/sup 0/F/100 feet). In some areas of southwest Alabama, abnormally high temperatures are found in association with geopressured zones within the Haynesville Formation of Jurassic age; however, rocks of poor reservoir quality dominate this formation, with the exception of a 200-square-mile area centered in southernmost Clarke County where a porous and permeable sand unit is encased within massive salt deposits of the lower Haynesville. The results of a petrograhic study of the Smackover Formation, which underlies the Haynesville, indicate that this carbonate rock unit has sufficient porosity in some areas to be considered a potential geothermal reservoir. Future development of geothermal resources in south Alabama will be restricted to low or moderate temperature, non-electric applications, which constitute a significant potential energy source for applications in space heating and cooling and certain agricultural and industrial processes.

  19. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells: Detailed completion prognosis for geopressured-geothermal well of opportunity, prospect #2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-03-01

    A geopressured-geothermal test of Martin Exploration Company's Crown Zellerbach Well No. 2 will be conducted in the Tuscaloosa Trend. The Crown Zellerbach Well No. 1 will be converted to a saltwater disposal well for disposal of produced brine. The well is located in the Satsuma Area, Livingston parish, Louisiana. Eaton proposes to test the Tuscaloosa by perforating the 7 inch casing from 16,718 feet to 16,754 feet. The reservoir pressure at an intermediate formation depth of 16,736 feet is anticipated to be 12,010 psi and the temperature is anticipated to be 297 F. Calculated water salinity is 16,000 ppm. The well is expected to produce a maximum of 16,000 barrels of water a day with a gas content of 51 SCF/bbl. Eaton will re-enter the test well, clean out to 17,000 feet, run production casing and complete the well. The disposal well will be re-entered and completed in the 9-5/8 inch casing for disposal of produced brine. Testing will be conducted similar to previous Eaton annular flow WOO tests. An optional test from 16,462 feet to 16,490 feet may be performed after the original test and will require a workover with a rig on location to perform the plugback. The surface production equipment utilized on previous tests will be utilized on this test. The equipment has worked satisfactorily and all parties involved in the testing are familiar with its operation. Weatherly Engineering will operate the test equipment. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) and Mr. Don Clark will handle sampling, testing and reservoir engineering evaluation, respectively. wireline work required will be awarded on basis of bid evaluation. At the conclusion of the test period, the D.O.E. owned test equipment will be removed from the test site, the test and disposal wells plugged and abandoned and the sites restored to the satisfaction of all parties.

  20. Environmental overview of geopressured-geothermal development: Texas Gulf Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavson, T.C.; Kreitler, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    In the summary of the recommended environmental program are: site specific studies, general studies, cost estimates for the program, socioeconomic and demographic research, potential environmental concerns, environmental research, effects of geopressure exploitation, and research plans. The socioeconomic and cultural considerations are impacts on communities. Waste disposal, geologic framework, ground subsidence, and monitoring techniques are discussed. (MHR)

  1. The feasibility of applying geopressured-geothermal resources to direct uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunis, B.C.; Negus-de Wys, J.; Plum, M.M. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Lienau, P.J. (Oregon Inst. of Tech., Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center); Spencer, F.J. (International Management Services (United States)); Nitschke, G.F. (Nitschke (George F.) (United States))

    1991-09-01

    This study concludes that direct use technologies, especially desalinated water production, can contribute significantly to the value added process and the overall economic viability in developing a geopressured resource. Although agriculture and aquaculture applications are marginal projects when they are the only use of a geopressured well, the small margin of profitability can contribute to improving the overall economics of the direct use development. The added complexity from a technical and management aspect may add to the overall risk and unpredictability of the project. Six combination of direct uses received economic evaluation that resulted in 15% discounted payback periods ranging from 4 to over 10 years. Many other combinations are possible depending on the resource and market variables. Selection of appropriate technologies and sizes of applications will be established by the developer that engages in geopressured resource utilization. Currently, many areas of the country where geopressured resources are located also have surplus electrical capacity and generation, thus power utilities have been selling power for less than 2 cents per kWH, well below a reasonable breakeven value for geopressured produced electricity. However, when the energy demand of the integrated geopressured facility is large enough to install power generation equipment, operating expenses can be reduced by not paying the 10 to 12 cents per kWH utility rate. The study includes an analysis of a geothermal turbine unit installed with a desalination and an agriculture/aquaculture facility, taking advantage of the cascading energy values. Results suggest that this scenario becomes profitable only where the market price for electricity exceeds five cents per kWH.

  2. Proceedings of second geopressured geothermal energy conference, Austin, Texas, February 23--25, 1976. Volume V. Legal, institutional, and environmental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanston, J.H.; Elmer, D.B.; Gustavson, T.C.; Kreitler, C.W.; Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Rogers, K.E.; Williamson, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    Three separate abstracts were prepared for Volume V of the Proceedings of the Conference. Sections are entitled: Legal Issues in the Development of Geopressured--Geothermal Resources of Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast; The Development of Geothermal Energy in the Gulf Coast; Socio-economic, Demographic, and Political Considerations; and Geothermal Resources of the Texas Gulf Coast--Environmental Concerns arising from the Production and Disposal of Geothermal waters. (MCW)

  3. Industrial Consortium for the Utilization of the Geopressured-Geothermal Resource. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negus-deWys, J. (ed.)

    1990-03-01

    The Geopressured-Geothermal Program, now in its fifteenth year, is entering the transition period to commercial use. The industry cost-shared proposals to the consortium, represented in the presentations included in these proceedings, attest to the interest developing in the industrial community in utilizing the geopressured-geothermal resource. Sixty-five participants attended these sessions, two-thirds of whom represented industry. The areas represented by cost-shared proposals include (1) thermal enhanced oil recovery, (2) direct process use of thermal energy, e.g., aquaculture and agriculture, (3) conversion of thermal energy to electricity, (4) environment related technologies, e.g., use of supercritical processes, and (5) operational proposals, e.g., a field manual for scale inhibitors. It is hoped that from this array of potential use projects, some will persist and be successful in proving the viability of using the geopressured-geothermal resource. Such industrial use of an alternative and relatively clean energy resource will benefit our nation and its people.

  4. Industrial Consortium for the Utilization of the Geopressured-Geothermal Resource. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negus-deWys, J. (ed.)

    1990-03-01

    The Geopressured-Geothermal Program, now in its fifteenth year, is entering the transition period to commercial use. The industry cost-shared proposals to the consortium, represented in the presentations included in these proceedings, attest to the interest developing in the industrial community in utilizing the geopressured-geothermal resource. Sixty-five participants attended these sessions, two-thirds of whom represented industry. The areas represented by cost-shared proposals include (1) thermal enhanced oil recovery, (2) direct process use of thermal energy, e.g., aquaculture and agriculture, (3) conversion of thermal energy to electricity, (4) environment related technologies, e.g., use of supercritical processes, and (5) operational proposals, e.g., a field manual for scale inhibitors. It is hoped that from this array of potential use projects, some will persist and be successful in proving the viability of using the geopressured-geothermal resource. Such industrial use of an alternative and relatively clean energy resource will benefit our nation and its people.

  5. Environmental Assessment: Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram. Gulf Coast Well Testing Activity, Frio Formation, Texas and Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared to provide the environmental input into the Division of Geothermal Energy's decisions to expand the geothermal well testing activities to include sites in the Frio Formation of Texas and Louisiana. It is proposed that drilling rigs be leased before they are removed from sites in the formation where drilling for gas or oil exploration has been unsuccessful and that the rigs be used to complete the drilling into the geopressured zone for resource exploration. This EA addresses, on a regional basis, the expected activities, affected environment, and the possible impacts in a broad sense as they apply to the Gulf Coast well testing activity of the Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram of the Department of Energy. Along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast (Plate 1 and Overlay, Atlas) water at high temperatures and high pressures is trapped within Gulf basin sediments. The water is confined within or below essentially impermeable shale sequences and carries most or all of the overburden pressure. Such zones are referred to as geopressured strata. These fluids and sediments are heated to abnormally high temperatures (up to 260 C) and may provide potential reservoirs for economical production of geothermal energy. The obvious need in resource development is to assess the resource. Ongoing studies to define large-sand-volume reservoirs will ultimately define optimum sites for drilling special large diameter wells to perform large volume flow production tests. in the interim, existing well tests need to be made to help define and assess the resource.

  6. Potential environmental impacts arising from geopressured-geothermal energy development Texas--Louisiana Gulf Coast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavson, T.C. (Univ. of Texas, Austin); McGraw, M.M.; Tandy, M.; Parker, F.; Wohlschlag, D.E.; Meriwether, J.

    1977-11-16

    Geopressured-geotheermal resources of the Gulf Coast of Texas and Louisiana are currently being evaluated as thermal-hydraulic energy sources to drive turbines to generate electrical power. Gulf Coast geothermal fluids are brines with salinities generally in excess of 40,000 ppM and tempertures up to 283/sup 0/C (520/sup 0/F). The proportions of dissolved ions in geothermal fluids is markedly different than that of sea water, and the fluids are expected to be saturated with methane. As much as 54,000 m/sup 3/ (310,000 bbls) of fluids per day at a temperature of 049/sup 0/C (300/sup 0/F) will be required to feed one 25 megawatt power plant. The energy resource, the ecological resources of the Gulf Coast, and the potential effects of the development of geothermal energy on ecological resources are described.

  7. Investigation and Evaluation of Geopressured-Geothermal Wells; Detailed Completion Prognosis for Geopressured-Geothermal Well of Opportunity Prospect No.6; Beulah Simon No. 2 Well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-04-06

    This well of opportunity (WOO) geopressured-geothermal prospect has been drilled to 15,265 feet by Southport Exploration, Inc. (Southport) as the Beulah Simon No. 2 Well. The well is located in Section 26, T11S, R2E, Vermilion Parish, Louisiana, approximately four miles northeast of the town of Kaplan. The wellsite is shown on the enclosed section of USGS topographic sheet, ''Lafayette, La.'', and is accessible by State Highway 13 from Interstate Highway 10. The well was drilled approximately one mile east of the Southport et al. Beulah Simon No. 1 Well in the Cossinade Field. The Beulah Simon No. 1 Well is producing natural gas from a zone which is separate and distinct from the target reservoir in the No. 2 Well.

  8. Microseismic monitoring of Chocolate Bayou, Texas: The Pleasant Bayou no. 2 geopressured/geothermal energy test well program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, F. J.; Kimball, B.; Davis, R. A.

    The Brazoria seismic network, instrumentation, design, and specifications are described. The data analysis procedures are presented. Seismicity is described in relation to the Pleasant Bayou production history. Seismicity originating near the chemical plant east of the geopressured/geothermal well is discussed.

  9. Microseismic monitoring of Chocolate Bayou, Texas: the Pleasant Bayou No. 2 geopressured/geothermal energy test well program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauk, F.J.; Kimball, B.; Davis, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Brazoria seismic network, instrumentation, design, and specifications are described. The data analysis procedures are presented. Seismicity is described in relation to the Pleasant Bayou production history. Seismicity originating near the chemical plant east of the geopressured/geothermal well is discussed. (MHR)

  10. The feasibility of recovering medium to heavy oil using geopressured- geothermal fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negus-de Wys, J.; Kimmell, C.E.; Hart, G.F.; Plum, M.M.

    1991-09-01

    The feasibility, economics and environmental concerns of producing more domestic oil using thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) are reviewed and the unique nature of geopressured-geothermal (GPGT) fluids for thermal recovery are outlined. Current methods of TEOR are briefly discussed and it is noted that these methods are presently under scrutiny by both federal and state air quality agencies; and moreover, they often involve costly operational and mechanical problems associated with heating water on the surface for injection into the target reservoir. The characteristics of the GPGT resources as seen through previous Department of Energy (DOE) studies from sites in Louisiana and Texas are discussed. These studies indicate sufficient quantities of GPGT fluids can be produced to sustain a TEOR project. The Alworth Field in the south Texas Mirando Trend is proposed as a TEOR pilot site. The target reservoirs for injection of the GPGT fluids are the Jackson and Yegua sandstones of the upper Eocene Epoch. The reservoirs contain an estimated 4 MMbbls of heavy oil in place (OIP) (18.6{degree}API) of which it is estimated that at least 1 MMbbls could be recovered by TEOR. The problems associated with using the GPGT fluids for TEOR include those normally associated with hot water flooding but in addition the reaction of the brine from the geopressured-geothermal reservoir with the target reservoir is uncertain. Under the elevated temperatures associated with GPGT TEOR, actual increased porosity and permeability are possible. 120 refs., 40 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. Depletion and recovery behavior of the Gladys McCall geopressured geothermal reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riney, T.D. (S-CUBED, La Jolla, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Many sedimentary basins throughout the world contain sealed fault blocks in which the pore fluids are at higher pressures and temperatures than normal as a consequence of their depositional environment. The U.S. Department of Energy has drilled, completed, and tested four deep research wells in selected geopressured geothermal prospects in the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast region to evaluate the recoverability of the thermal, hydraulic, and chemical (methane) energy in this potential energy resource. The wells are expensive and the specific energy of the fluids is relatively small, but the total recoverable energy from a single well can be extremely large. Long-term testing of the Gladys McCall No. 1 research well, located in Cameron Parish, Louisiana, U.S.A., has defined an impressively large geopressured geothermal reservoir. In this paper an integrated analysis of the test data is presented, and a numerical model is constructed that matches the available data for the 6.5-year test history of the well.

  12. Louisiana Gulf Coast seismicity induced by geopressured-geothermal well development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, D.

    1985-01-01

    Continuous microseismic monitoring networks have been established around three US Department of Energy geopressured-geothermal design wells in southwestern Louisiana since summer 1980 to assess the effects well development may have on subsidence and growth fault activation. The results obtained from this monitoring have shown several unusual characteristics associated with Gulf Coast seismic activity. The observed activity is classified into two dominant types, one with identifiable body phases and the other with only surface wave signatures. The latter type comprises over 99% of the reported 1000+ microseismic event locations. The problem with the slow-moving surface-wave signature events is that rainfall and weather-associated frontal passages seem closely related to these periods of seismic activity at all three wells. After relatively short periods and low levels of flow testing at the Parcperdue and Sweet Lake prospects, seismic monitoring has shown little credible correlation to inferred growth fault locations during periods of flow testing. Longer periods and higher volumes of flow testing at the Rockefeller Refuge prospect should provide a truer indication of induced seismicity attributable to geopressured-geothermal development. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Geologic, geophysical, and geochemical aspects of site-specific studies of the geopressured-geothermal energy resource of southern Louisiana. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilger, R.H. Jr. (ed.)

    1985-01-01

    The report consists of four sections dealing with progress in evaluating geologic, geochemical, and geophysical aspects of geopressured-geothermal energy resources in Louisiana. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual sections. (ACR)

  14. Depositional setting, structural style, and sandstone distribution in three geopressured geothermal areas, Texas Gulf Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winker, C.D.; Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.; Garcia, D.D.

    1981-10-01

    Three areas in the Texas Gulf Coast region with different depositional settings, structural styles, and sandstone distribution were studied with well log and seismic data to evaluate some of the controls on subsurface conditions in geopressured aquifers. Structural and stratigraphic interpretations were made primarily on the basis of well log correlations. Seismic data confirm the log interpretations but also are useful in structure mapping at depths below well control.

  15. Preliminary environmental analysis of a geopressured-geothermal test well in Brazoria County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, W.A.; McGraw, M.; Gustavson, T.C.; Meriwether, J.

    1977-11-16

    Preliminary environmental data, including current land use, substrate lithology, soils, natural hazards, water resources, biological assemblages, meteorological data, and regulatory considerations have been collected and analyzed for approximately 150 km/sup 2/ of land near Chocolate Bayou, Brazoria County, Texas, in which a geopressured-geothermal test well is to be drilled in the fall of 1977. The study was designed to establish an environmental data base and to determine, within spatial constraints set by subsurface reservoir conditions, environmentally suitable sites for the proposed well. Preliminary analyses of data revealed the eed for focusing on the following areas: potential for subsidence and fault activation, susceptibility of test well and support facilities to fresh- and salt-water flooding, possible effects of produced saline waters on biological assemblages and groundwaer resources, distribution of expansive soils, and effect of drilling and associated support activities on known archeological-cultural resources.

  16. Laboratory determination of mechanical properties of rocks from the Parcperdue geopressured/geothermal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, K.P.; Borschel, T.F.; Holland, M.T.; Schatz, J.F.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    The deformational behavior and fluid flow characteristics of rock samples obtained from DOW/DOE L.R. Sweezy No. 1 Test Well at the Parcperdue Geopressured/Geothermal Site have been investigated in the laboratory. Elastic moduli, compressibility, uniaxial compaction coefficient, strength, creep parameters, permeability, acoustic velocites (all at reservoir conditions) and changes in these quantities induced by simulated reservoir production have been obtained from tests on several sandstone and shale samples from different depths. Tests consisting of several hydrostatic and triaxial loading phases and pore pressure reduction were designed to provide measurements to be used for calculating several of the above mentioned parameters in a single test. Pore volume changes were measured during some phases of the tests.

  17. Environmental impact assessment Geopressure Subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-07-01

    This environmental impact assessment (EIA) addresses the expected programmatic activities of the Geopressure Subprogram of the Division of Geothermal Energy. The goal of the Geopressure Subprogram is to stimulate development of geopressured resources as an economic, reliable, operationally safe, and environmentally acceptable energy source. The subprogram includes activities in the areas of engineering research and development; resource exploration, assessment, and development; resource utilization including pilot and demonstration facilities; and environmental research and control technology development. It should be recognized that most of the subprogram activities extend over several years and are in their early stages of implementation at this time. The zones of potential geopressure development are in the region located along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coasts extending up to 200 miles (300 km) inland. Geopressured zones are sedimentary basins where water is trapped at high pressures within or below thick, nearly impermeable shale sequences. The confined water supports most or all of the weight of the overburden. This inhibits sediment compaction and causes formation pore pressure to exceed hydrostatic pressure. in sedimentary basins that are underlain by thin oceanic crust, upward thermal conduction from the mantle heats geopressured fluids and sediments to abnormally high temperatures, often in excess of 260 C (500 F).

  18. Technical support for geopressured-geothermal well activities in Louisiana. Final report, September 27, 1978-December 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrighton, F.M.; Bebout, D.; Carver, D.R.; Groat, C.C.; Johnson, A.E. Jr.

    1981-08-31

    The data analysis is based on the Brazoria Texas well and the balance of the modeling work is theoretical. Progress in the regional assessment of the geopressured-geothermal resource in Louisiana is reported. Environmental monitoring effort established monitoring systems and baseline environmental measurements. Efforts to improve the technoeconomic model, improve the estimates of methane in solution, and to evaluate newly identified sites are described. (MHR)

  19. Consolidation of geologic studies of geopressured geothermal resources in Texas. 1982 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.; Kaiser, W.R.; Finley, R.J.

    1983-03-01

    Detailed structural mapping at several horizons in selected study areas within the Frio growth-fault trend demonstrates a pronounced variability in structural style. At Sarita in South Texas, shale mobilization produced one or more shale ridges, one of which localized a low-angle growth fault trapping a wedge of deltaic sediments. At Corpus Christi, shale mobilization produced a series of large growth faults, shale-cored domed anticlines, and shale-withdrawal basins, which become progressively younger basinward. At Blessing, major growth faults trapped sands of the Greta/Carancahua barrier system with little progradation. At Pleasant Bayou, a major early growth-fault pattern was overprinted by later salt tectonics - the intrusion of Danbury Dome and the development of a salt-withdrawal basin. At Port Arthur, low-displacement, long-lived faults formed on a sand-poor shelf margin contemporaneously with broad salt uplifts and basins. Variability in styles is related to the nature and extent of Frio sedimentation and shelf-margin progradation and to the presence or absence of salt. Structural styles that are conducive to the development of large geothermal reservoirs include blocks between widely spaced growth faults having dip reversal, salt-withdrawal basins, and shale-withdrawal basins. These styles are widespread on the Texas Gulf Coast. However, actually finding a large reservoir depends on demonstrating the existence of sufficient sandstone with adequate quality to support geopressured geothermal energy production.

  20. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells: Detailed completion prognosis for geopressured-geothermal well of opportunity, prospect #7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godchaux, Frank A.

    1981-06-01

    This book is a detailed prognosis covering the acquisition, completion, drilling, testing and abandonment of the Frank A. Godchaux, III, Well No. 1 under the Wells of Opportunity Program. The well is located approximately 12 miles southeast of the city of Abbeville, Louisiana. Eaton Operating Company proposes to test a section of the Planulina sand at a depth ranging from 15,584 to 15,692 feet. The reservoir pressure is estimated to be 14,480 psi and the temperature of the formation water is expected to be 298 F. The water salinity is calculated to be 75,000 ppm. The well is expected to produce 20,000 barrels of water per day with a gas content of 44 standard cubic feet pre barrel. The well was acquired from C and K Petroleu, Inc. on March 20, 1981. C and K abandoned the well at a total depth of 16,000 feet. The well has a 7-5/8 inches liner set at 13,387 feet. Eaton proposes to set 5-1/2 inch casing at 16,000 feet and produce the well through the casing using a 2-3/8 inch tubing string for wireline protection and for pressure control. A 4,600 foot saltwater disposal well will be drilled on the site and testing will be conducted similar to previous Eaton tests. The total estimated cost to perform the work is $2,959,000. An optional test from 14,905 to 15,006 feet may be performed after the original test and will require a workover with a rig on location to perform the plugback. The surface production equipment utilized on previous Eaton WOO tests will be utilized on this test. This equipment has worked satisfactorily and all parties involved in the testing are familiar with its operation. The Institute of Gas Technology and Mr. Don Clark will handle the sampling and testing and reservoir evaluation, respectively, as on the previous Eaton tests.

  1. Environmental analysis of geopressured-geothermal prospect areas, De Witt and Colorado counties, Texas. Final report, March 1 - August 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavson, T.C.; Reeder, F.S.; Badger, E.A.

    1980-02-01

    Information collected and analyzed for a preliminary environmental analysis of geopressured geothermal prospect areas in Colorado and DeWitt Counties, Texas is presented. Specific environmental concerns for each geopressured geothermal prospect area are identified and discussed. Approximately 218 km/sup 2/(85 mi/sup 2/) were studied in the vicinity of each prospect area to: (1) conduct an environmental analysis to identify more and less suited areas for geopressured test wells; and (2) provide an environmental data base for future development of geopressured geothermal energy resources. A series of maps and tables are included to illustrate environmental characteristics including: geology, water resources, soils, current land use, vegetation, wildlife, and meteorological characteristics, and additional relevant information on cultural resources, power- and pipelines, and regulatory agencies. A series of transparent overlays at the scale of the original mapping has also been produced for the purposes of identifying and ranking areas of potential conflict between geopressured geothermal development and environmental characteristics. The methodology for ranking suitability of areas within the two prospect areas is discussed in the appendix. (MHR)

  2. Computer simulation of production from geothermal-geopressured aquifers. Final report, October 1, 1978-January 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, M.G.; Poonawala, N.A.

    1983-07-01

    This is the final report on research conducted to improve the technical and scientific understanding of geopressured and geothermal resources. The effort utilized a computer to interpret the results of well tests and compile data on gas solubility in brine and the viscosity of brine. A detailed computer reservoir study of a geopressured test well that had been abandoned as a dry hole but became a commercial producer of hydrocarbons is presented. A number of special topical reports pertaining to test activities performed on Department of Energy test wells (MG-T/DOE Amoco Fee No. 1 Well, Leroy Sweezy No. 1 Well, and Pleasant Bayou No. 2 Well) are appended to the report. A referenced article written under this study that appeared in the Journal of Petroleum Technology is also reproduced.

  3. Methods for collection and analysis of geopressured geothermal and oil field waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lico, Michael S.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Carothers, William W.; Wright, Victoria A.

    1982-01-01

    Present methods are described for the collection, preservation, and chemical analysis of waters produced from geopressured geothermal and petroleum wells. Detailed procedures for collection include precautions and equipment necessary to ensure that the sample is representative of the water produced. Procedures for sample preservation include filtration, acidification, dilution for silica, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) extraction of aluminum, addition of potassium permanganate to preserve mercury, and precipitation of carbonate species as strontium carbonate for stable carbon isotopes and total dissolved carbonate analysis. Characteristics determined at the well site are sulfide, pH, ammonia, and conductivity. Laboratory procedures are given for the analysis of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, iron, manganese, zinc, lead, aluminum, .and mercury by atomic absorption and flame emission spectroscopy. Chloride is determined by silver nitrate titration and fluoride by ion-specific electrode. Bromide and iodide concentrations are determined by the hypochlorite oxidation method. Sulfate is analyzed by titration using barium chloride with thorin indicator after pretreatment with alumina. Boron and silica are determined colorimetrically by the carmine and molybdate-blue methods, respectively. Aliphatic acid anions (C2 through C5) are determined by gas chromatography after separation and concentration in a chloroform-butanol mixture.

  4. G. M. Koelemay well No. 1, Jefferson County, Texas. Volume I. Completion and testing: testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The acquisition, completion, and testing of a geopressured-geothermal well are described. The following are covered: geology; petrophysics; re-entry and completion operations - test well; drilling and completion operations - disposal well; test objectives; surface testing facilities; pre-test operations; test sequence; test results and analysis; and return of wells and location to operator. (MHR)

  5. United States Gulf Coast geopressured geothermal program. Special projects research and coordination assistance. Final report, 1 December 1978-30 October 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorfman, M.H.; Morton, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    Work for the period, December 1, 1978 through October 31, 1980, is documented. The following activities are covered: project technical coordination assistance and liaison; technical assistance for review and evaluation of proposals and contract results; technical assistance for geopressured-geothermal test wells; technical assistance, coordination, and planning of surface utilization program; legal research; and special projects. (MHR)

  6. Inventory and case studies of Louisiana, non-electric industrial applications of geopressured geothermal resources. Quarterly progress report, March 1-May 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnadelbach, T.W. Jr.

    1977-06-01

    An inventory is provided of geopressured geothermal resources in Louisiana. The Louisiana industries; classified as Food and Kindred Products were cataloged and inventoried to determine potential and specific uses of the known energy resources. The possibility of relocating industries to the available resources is explored. Individual case studies are presented for near term industrial conversion for resource application. (MHR)

  7. Industry participation in DOE-sponsored geopressured geothermal resource development. Final report, 1 September 1977-30 April 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffer, H.F.

    1979-01-01

    A series of DOE/Industry forums were carried out to keep industry advised of the DOE program to develop the geopressured geothermal resources of the Gulf Coast. A total of eighteen meetings were held with registered attendance of 621 representing a good cross section of industry, state, and federal agencies. An Overview Group and four working subgroups - site selection, drilling and testing, environmental/laboratory research, and legal institutional were established to subdivide the DOE programs into areas of interest and expertise. During the contract period three overview, four site selection, three drilling and testing, five environmental/laboratory research and three legal/institutional meetings have been conducted. Interest in and attendance at the meetings continue to grow reflecting increased industry contact with the DOE Geopressured Geothermal Resource Development Program. Two other studies were carried out for DOE under this contract; a Salt Water Disposal Study and an Industry Survey to evaluate the DOE Resource Development Program. The Salt Water Disposal Study reviewed subsurface salt water disposal experience on the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast. This preliminary study concluded that subsurface brine disposal should be possible in the areas of interest with adequate evaluation of the geology of each area and a well designed and constructed surface and subsurface facility. The industry survey indicated general satisfaction with the technical design of the resource evaluation program but felt the program should be moving faster.

  8. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells. Wells of Opportunity Program final contract report, 1980-1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The geopressured-geothermal candidates for the Wells of Opportunity program were located by the screening of published information on oil industry activity and through direct contact with the oil and gas operators. This process resulted in the recommendation to the DOE of 33 candidate wells for the program. Seven of the 33 recommended wells were accepted for testing. Of these seven wells, six were actually tested. The first well, the No. 1 Kennedy, was acquired but not tested. The seventh well, the No. 1 Godchaux, was abandoned due to mechanical problems during re-entry. The well search activities, which culminated in the acceptance by the DOE of 7 recommended wells, were substantial. A total of 90,270 well reports were reviewed, leading to 1990 wells selected for thorough geological analysis. All of the reservoirs tested in this program have been restricted by one or more faults or permeability barriers. A comprehensive discussion of test results is presented.

  9. Operations research and systems analysis of geopressured/geothermal resources in Louisiana. Final report for initiation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, B. Jr.

    1978-02-01

    The development activities for a plan for Louisiana's participation in a Gulf Coast regional research and systems analysis activity. In developing preliminary planning scenarios heavy emphasis was placed on data describing the resource base. The scenarios are produced using a computer-oriented planning program that is code-named GEODEV. Examples of development scenarios for four fairways in Louisiana are included in an appendix. Progress in identification of decision makers, a state-wide advisory group, coordination of activities with Texas, and regional operations research activity. Also included in appendices are: communications to identify Decision Makers, Report to Governor and Legislature on Status of GP/GT Energy in Louisiana, and a paper presented jointly by Louisiana and Texas Project Team at Third Geopressured Geothermal Energy Conference, University of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, Louisiana. (MHR)

  10. Operations research and systems analysis of geopressured-geothermal energy in Louisiana. Final report for the period June 1, 1978-August 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.E. Jr.

    1980-11-01

    The primary purpose was to provide a projection of the probable future contribution of the geopressured-geothermal energy resource in Louisiana to the overall energy requirements of the nation. A number of associated objectives were emphasized: namely, development of the tools and methodology for performing economic analyses, application of these tools to specific prospects about which adequate resource assessments have been made, identification of the impediments to resource development, and socio-economic analysis of the impact of development of the resource on these specific prospects. An overview of the geopressured-geothermal resource activities in Louisiana is provided first, followed by a detailed discussion and review of the achievements of this project. Finally the major conclusions and findings of this project with respect to commercial viability, impediments, and social and economic impact are presented, and recommendations are made for future systems analysis work.

  11. Sandstone consolidation analysis to delineate areas of high-quality reservoirs suitable for production of geopressured geothermal energy along the Texas Gulf Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loucks, R.G.; Dodge, M.M.; Galloway, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of reservoir quality of lower Tertiary sandstones along the Texas Gulf Coast delineates areas most favorable for geopressured geothermal exploration. Reservoir quality is determined by whole core, acoustic log, and petrographic analyses. The Wilcox Group has good reservoir potential for geopressured geothermal energy in the Middle Texas Gulf Coast and possibly in adjacent areas, but other Wilcox areas are marginal. The Vicksburg Formation in the Lower Texas Gulf Coast is not prospective. Reservoir quality in the Frio Formation increases from very poor in lowermost Texas, to marginal into the Middle Texas Gulf Coast and to good through the Upper Texas Gulf Coast. The Frio Formation in the Upper Texas Gulf Coast has the best deep-reservoir quality of any unit along the Texas Gulf Coast. (MHR)

  12. Environmental impact of geopressure - geothermal cogeneration facility on wetland resources and socioeconomic characteristics in Louisiana Gulf Coast region. Final report, October 10, 1983-September 31, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smalley, A.M.; Saleh, F.M.S.; Fontenot, M.

    1984-08-01

    Baseline data relevant to air quality are presented. The following are also included: geology and resource assessment, design well prospects in southwestern Louisiana, water quality monitoring, chemical analysis subsidence, microseismicity, geopressure-geothermal subsidence modeling, models of compaction and subsidence, sampling handling and preparation, brine chemistry, wetland resources, socioeconomic characteristics, impacts on wetlands, salinity, toxic metals, non-metal toxicants, temperature, subsidence, and socioeconomic impacts. (MHR)

  13. Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram, GCO-DOE, Pleasant Bayou No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1978-03-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared to assess the environmental implications of the Department of Energy's proposal to drill, complete, and test one geopressure well located in Brazoria County on a 2 hectares (five acre) test site 64 km (40 mi) south of Houston, Abstract 107, Perry and Austin Survey, Brazoria County, TX. The test well is herein referred to as GCO-DOE Pleasant Bayou No. 1. A maximum of four disposal wells will be located within .8 km (1/2 mi) of the proposed well. The DOE and the University of Texas Center for Energy Studies propose to operate the test facility for three years to evaluate the geopressure potential of the subsurface. Tests to be conducted include flow rates, fluid composition, temperature, gas content, geologic characteristics, and the land subsidence potential for subsequent production.

  14. Wilcox sandstone reservoirs in the deep subsurface along the Texas Gulf Coast: their potential for production of geopressured geothermal energy. Report of Investigations No. 117

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debout, D.G.; Weise, B.R.; Gregory, A.R.; Edwards, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    Regional studies of the lower Eocene Wilcox Group in Texas were conducted to assess the potential for producing heat energy and solution methane from geopressured fluids in the deep-subsurface growth-faulted zone. However, in addition to assembling the necessary data for the geopressured geothermal project, this study has provided regional information of significance to exploration for other resources such as lignite, uranium, oil, and gas. Because the focus of this study was on the geopressured section, emphasis was placed on correlating and mapping those sandstones and shales occurring deeper than about 10,000 ft. The Wilcox and Midway Groups comprise the oldest thick sandstone/shale sequence of the Tertiary of the Gulf Coast. The Wilcox crops out in a band 10 to 20 mi wide located 100 to 200 mi inland from the present-day coastline. The Wilcox sandstones and shales in the outcrop and updip shallow subsurface were deposited primarily in fluvial environments; downdip in the deep subsurface, on the other hand, the Wilcox sediments were deposited in large deltaic systems, some of which were reworked into barrier-bar and strandplain systems. Growth faults developed within the deltaic systems, where they prograded basinward beyond the older, stable Lower Cretaceous shelf margin onto the less stable basinal muds. Continued displacement along these faults during burial resulted in: (1) entrapment of pore fluids within isolated sandstone and shale sequences, and (2) buildup of pore pressure greater than hydrostatic pressure and development of geopressure.

  15. Feasibility study: Application of the geopressured-geothermal resource to pyrolytic conversion or decomposition/detoxification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Propp, W.A.; Grey, A.E.; Negus-de Wys, J.; Plum, M.M.; Haefner, D.R.

    1991-09-01

    This study presents a preliminary evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of selected conceptual processes for pyrolytic conversion of organic feedstocks or the decomposition/detoxification of hazardous wastes by coupling the process to the geopressured-geothermal resource. The report presents a detailed discussion of the resource and of each process selected for evaluation including the technical evaluation of each. A separate section presents the economic methodology used and the evaluation of the technically viable process. A final section presents conclusions and recommendations. Three separate processes were selected for evaluation. These are pyrolytic conversion of biomass to petroleum like fluids, wet air oxidation (WAO) at subcritical conditions for destruction of hazardous waste, and supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) also for the destruction of hazardous waste. The scientific feasibility of all three processes has been previously established by various bench-scale and pilot-scale studies. For a variety of reasons detailed in the report the SCWO process is the only one deemed to be technically feasible, although the effects of the high solids content of the geothermal brine need further study. This technology shows tremendous promise for contributing to solving the nation's energy and hazardous waste problems. However, the current economic analysis suggests that it is uneconomical at this time. 50 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Legal problems inherent in the development of geopressured and geothermal resources in Louisiana. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrell, T.A.; Pike, R.W.; Wilkins, B.; Hill, T.M.

    1978-03-01

    The legal framework within which the geopressured resource will have to be developed in Louisiana is discussed generally. Those problems which may be created by its development within that framework are identified. Where possible, solutions are offered to those problems or at least techniques or devices are indicated which might be considered in their resolution. Finally, a compendium is assembled of those statutory or regulatory provisions which may regulate or affect the resource to the end that it might serve as a handbook for the evaluation of the legal and institutional problems which will face a prospective developer, when and if the resource development is undertaken in Louisiana. (MHR)

  17. Industry participation in DOE-sponsored geopressured geothermal research development. Final report, May 1, 1979-April 30, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffer, H.F.

    1982-07-01

    Nine DOE/Industry Forum meetings where the progress of DOE's resource development program was outlined and discussed were planned, organized, conducted, and reported. These nine forum meetings included three meetings of the Drilling and Testing group, two Site Selection meetings, one meeting each of the Legal and Environmental groups and two Overview meetings where the entire DOE program was discussed. Summaries of each of these meetings are included and the progress of DOE's geopressured geothermal resource evaluation program from its early beginnings to demonstration of the tremendous size and widespread availability of this supplementary energy resource are shown. Attendees at the meetings represented a broad cross section of state and federal agencies and potential users and developers of this large energy source. Attendance at meetings averages 50 to 80 with the most interest shown at meetings where reservoir testing results were discussed. In addition to the forums 16 newsletters were prepared and distributed to all participants. These were instituted to keep industry apprised of the latest developments in this DOE resource evaluation program. Three additional studies were carried out for DOE under this contract: a reservoir continuity study, a survey of gas stripping operations, and the development of a lease agreement for design well prospects.

  18. Environmental Assessment: Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram. Gulf Coast Well Drilling and Testing Activity (Frio, Wilcox, and Tuscaloosa Formations, Texas and Louisiana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a program to evaluate the feasibility of developing the geothermal-geopressured energy resources of the Louisiana-Texas Gulf Coast. As part of this effort, DOE is contracting for the drilling of design wells to define the nature and extent of the geopressure resource. At each of several sites, one deep well (4000-6400 m) will be drilled and flow tested. One or more shallow wells will also be drilled to dispose of geopressured brines. Each site will require about 2 ha (5 acres) of land. Construction and initial flow testing will take approximately one year. If initial flow testing is successful, a continuous one-year duration flow test will take place at a rate of up to 6400 m{sup 3} (40,000 bbl) per day. Extensive tests will be conducted on the physical and chemical composition of the fluids, on their temperature and flow rate, on fluid disposal techniques, and on the reliability and performance of equipment. Each project will require a maximum of three years to complete drilling, testing, and site restoration.

  19. Geopressured-geothermal test of the EDNA Delcambre No. 1 well, Tigre Lagoon Field, Vermilion Parish, Louisiana: Analysis of water and dissolved natural gas: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hankind, B.E.; Karkalits, O.C.

    1978-09-01

    The presence of large volumes of hot water (250-425 F) containing dissolved natural gas in the Gulf of Mexico coastal areas at depths of 5,000 to 25,000 feet (the geopressured zone) has been known for several years. Because natural gas and oil from conventional production methods were relatively inexpensive prior to 1973, and because foreign oil was readily available, no economic incentive existed for developing this resource. With the oil embargo and the resulting rapid escalation in prices of oil and gas since 1973, a new urgency exists for examining the economic potential of the geopressured-geothermal resource. The main objective of the research reported here was to determine the volume of gas dissolved in the geopressured water, as well as the qualitative and quantitative composition of the water and the dissolved gas. A further objective was to use an existing shut-in gas well so that drilling time and the attendant costs could be avoided.

  20. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 2-A: Resource description, program history, wells tested, university and company based research, site restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in the mid 1970`s as one response to America`s need to develop alternate energy resources in view of the increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy. This program continued for 17 years and approximately two hundred million dollars were expended for various types of research and well testing to thoroughly investigate this alternative energy source. This volume describes the following studies: Geopressured-geothermal resource description; Resource origin and sediment type; Gulf Coast resource extent; Resource estimates; Project history; Authorizing legislation; Program objectives; Perceived constraints; Program activities and structure; Well testing; Program management; Program cost summary; Funding history; Resource characterization; Wells of opportunity; Edna Delcambre No. 1 well; Edna Delcambre well recompletion; Fairfax Foster Sutter No. 2 well; Beulah Simon No. 2 well; P.E. Girouard No. 1 well; Prairie Canal No. 1 well; Crown Zellerbach No. 2 well; Alice C. Plantation No. 2 well; Tenneco Fee N No. 1 well; Pauline Kraft No. 1 well; Saldana well No. 2; G.M. Koelemay well No. 1; Willis Hulin No. 1 well; Investigations of other wells of opportunity; Clovis A. Kennedy No. 1 well; Watkins-Miller No. 1 well; Lucien J. Richard et al No. 1 well; and the C and K-Frank A. Godchaux, III, well No. 1.

  1. Investigation and evaluation of geopressured-geothermal wells. Fairfax Foster Sutter No. 2 well, St. Mary Parish, Louisiana. Volume I. Completion and testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willits, M.H.; McCoy, R.L.; Dobson, R.J.; Hartsock, J.H.

    1979-12-01

    The Fairfax Foster Sutter No. 2 well, located in the East Franklin area of St. Mary Parish, Louisiana, is the first successful test of a geopressured-geothermal aquifer under the Well-of-Opportunity program. The section tested was the MA-6 sand of lower Miocene age which has produced large quantities of gas from the adjacent but structurally separated Garden City field. In the subject well the observed temperature was 270{sup 0}F (132{sup 0}C) and the measured gradient was 0.77 psi/ft. The gross sand thickness was 270 feet, the net sand thickness 190 feet, and the tested interval 58 net feet. The temperatures and pressures encountered approached the limits of the surface-recording bottomhole pressure gauge and particularly the single-conductor cables on which the gauges were run. The objectives of the tests were all accomplished, and data were obtained which will contribute to the overall assessment of the geopressured-geothermal resource of the Upper Gulf of Mexico basin. In general, the gas solubility (22.8 scf/bbl) was as expected for the temperature, pressure, and salinity of the brine. The produced water was more saline than expected (160,000 mg/l). The high concentrations of dissolved solids, coupled with the evolution of CO{sub 2} from these waters during production, created a scaling problem in the tubular goods and surface equipment that will have to be addressed in future tests.

  2. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 2-B: Resource description, program history, wells tested, university and company based research, site restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in the mid 1970`s as one response to America`s need to develop alternate energy resources in view of the increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy. This program continued for 17 years and approximately two hundred million dollars were expended for various types of research and well testing to thoroughly investigate this alternative energy source. This volume describes the following studies: Design well program; LaFourche Crossing; MG-T/DOE Amoco Fee No. 1 (Sweet Lake); Environmental monitoring at Sweet Lake; Air quality; Water quality; Microseismic monitoring; Subsidence; Dow/DOE L.R. Sweezy No. 1 well; Reservoir testing; Environmental monitoring at Parcperdue; Air monitoring; Water runoff; Groundwater; Microseismic events; Subsidence; Environmental consideration at site; Gladys McCall No. 1 well; Test results of Gladys McCall; Hydrocarbons in production gas and brine; Environmental monitoring at the Gladys McCall site; Pleasant Bayou No. 2 well; Pleasant Bayou hybrid power system; Environmental monitoring at Pleasant Bayou; and Plug abandonment and well site restoration of three geopressured-geothermal test sites. 197 figs., 64 tabs.

  3. Investigation and evaluation of geopressured-geothermal wells. Notes on Gruy Federal's Well-of-Opportunity program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    Obtaining test data from geopressured aquifers along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast by arranging to assume operation of wells already drilled and found nonproductive of conventional oil or gas accumulations before such wells were abandoned by the operators is described. The geopressured aquifers were tested after performing whatever additional operations were required. The monitoring and screening of all wells which might qualify is described. The major activities and important milestones are summarized. (MHR)

  4. Legal issues in the development of geopressured-geothermal resources of Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmer, D.B.; Rogers, K.; Vanston, J.H.; Elmer, D.B.; Gustavson, T.C.; Kreitler, C.W.; Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Rogers, K.E.; Williamson, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    The legal issues are discussed in two areas: legal scholarship and legal support. Scholorship is distinguished from support by concentration on abstract analyses of issue that include resource definition, ownership, taxation, and multistate reservoirs. Support is based entirely on those legal tasks called up by the technical work schedule in the areas of Resource Assessment, Advanced Research and Technology, Institutional and Environmental, and Resonance Utilization. The legal section will, in the future, make recommendations and implement procedures designed to assist in the rapid and orderly development of the resource. The PERT (Program Evaluation Review Techniques) chart for sequencing of legal scholarship and support tasks is included. An oral presentation on geothermal resources in Texas, a resource model for the resource utilization section, and some excerpts from legislation pertaining to geothermal energy are provided in an Appendix. (MCW)

  5. Parcperdue geopressure-geothermal project. Study a geopressured reservoir by drilling and producing a well in a limited geopressured water sand. Final technical report, September 28, 1979-December 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.R.; Stanley, J.G. (eds.)

    1984-01-15

    The behavior of geopressured reservoirs was investigated by drilling and producing a well in small, well defined, geopressured reservoir; and performing detailed pressure transient analysis together with geological, geophysical, chemical, and physical studies. The Dow-DOE L. R. Sweezy No. 1 well was drilled to a depth of 13,600 feet in Parcperdue field, just south of Lafayette, Louisiana, and began production in April, 1982. The production zone was a poorly consolidated sandstone which constantly produced sand into the well stream, causing damage to equipment and causing other problems. The amount of sand production was kept manageable by limiting the flow rate to below 10,000 barrels per day. Reservoir properties of size, thickness, depth, temperature, pressure, salinity, porosity, and permeability were close to predicted values. The reservoir brine was undersaturated with respect to gas, containing approximately 20 standard cubic feet of gas per barrel of brine. Shale dewatering either did not occur or was insignificant as a drive mechanism. Production terminated when the gravel-pack completion failed and the production well totally sanded in, February, 1983. Total production up to the sanding incident was 1.94 million barrels brine and 31.5 million standard cubic feet gas.

  6. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells. Saldana well No. 2, Zapata County, Texas. Volume I. Completion and testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-07

    The Saldana Well No. 2, approximately 35 miles Southeast of the city of Laredo, Texas, was the sixth successful test of a geopressured-geothermal aquifer under the DOE Wells of Opportunity Program. The well was tested through the annulus between 7-inch casing and 2-3/8 inch tubing. The interval tested was from 9745 to 9820 feet. The geological section was the 1st Hinnant Sand, an upper member of the Wilcox Group. Produced water was injected into the Saldana Well No. 1, which was also acquired from Riddle Oil Company and converted to a disposal well. A Miocene salt water sand was perforated from 3005 to 3100 feet for disposal. One pressure drawdown flow test and one pressure buildup test were conducted during a 10-day period. A total of 9328 barrels of water was produced. The highest sustained flow rate was 1950 BWPD.

  7. Preliminary environmental assessment of selected geopressured - geothermal prospect areas: Louisiana Gulf coast region. Volume I. Comparison of prospect areas on the basis of potential environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newchurch, E.J.; Bachman, A.L.; Bryan, C.F.; Harrison, D.P.; Muller, R.A.; Newman, J.P. Jr.; Smith, C.G. Jr.; Bailey, J.I. Jr.; Kelly, G.G.; Reibert, K.C.

    1978-10-15

    The results of a preliminary environmental assessment of the following geopressured-geothermal prospect areas in the Louisiana Gulf coast region are presented: South Johnson's Bayou, Sweet Lake, Rockefeller Refuge, Southeast Pecan Island, Atchafalaya Bay, and Lafourche Crossing. These prospect areas have been compared to determine their relative environmental acceptability for the test program. Trade-offs among the prospects in terms of potential impacts are highlighted. This assessment was made on the basis of the nature and extent of the proposed testing activities in view of the environmental characteristics of each prospect area: land use, geology and geohydrology, air quality, water resources and quality, ecological systems, and natural hazards. The comparison of prospect areas includes consideration of worst case situations. However, we believe that the test program activities, because they are so small in scale, will not result in major adverse impacts.

  8. Subsurface and seismic investigation of the geopressured-geothermal potential of the Abbeville area of south Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhon, M.P.; Dungan, J.R.

    1979-09-01

    The structure investigated is a basin roughly bounded by the Abbeville Dome on the west, the Erath Dome on the southeast and the Grosse Isle Dome on the northeast and whose center is located at approximately Section 31 T14S R4E. The geopressured sands investigated are below approximately 12,800 feet (3901 M) in the center of the basin and consist of two groups of rather thin, discontinuous, marly sands. These two groups, rather arbitrarily defined, are termed the upper and lower geopressured sands and the following map types and analyses have been derived from subsurface data of each: structure, temperature, pressure, salinity and net sand maps; and porosity, permeability and methane content analyses.

  9. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells. Final report P. R. Girouard Well No. 1, Lafayette Parish, Louisiana. Volume I. Completion and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The P.R. Girouard No. 1 Well, located approximately 10 miles southeast of Lafayette, Louisiana, was the fourth successful test of a geopressured-geothermal aquifer under the Wells of Opportunity program. The well was tested through 3-1/2 inch tubing set on a packer at 14,570 feet without major problems. The geological section tested was the Oligocene Marginulina Texana No. 1 sand of upper Frio age. The interval tested was from 14,744 to 14,819 feet. Produced water was piped down a disposal well perforated from 2870 to 3000 feet in a Miocene saltwater sand. Four flow tests were conducted for sustained production rates of approximately 4000 BWPD to approximately 15,000 BWPD. The highest achieved, during a fifth short test, was 18,460 BWPD. The test equipment was capable of handling higher rates. The gas-to-water ratio was relatively uniform at approximately 40 SCF/bbl. The heating value of the gas is 970 Btu/SCF. The reservoir tests show that is is doubtful that this well would sustain production rates over 10,000 BWPD for any lengthy period from the sand zone in which it was completed. This limited flow capacity is due to the well's poor location in the reservoir and is not a result of any production deficiencies of the Marginulina Texana sand.

  10. Corrosion studies: geopressured aquifer gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, A.N. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA); Weekes, M.C.; Schoepflin, F.; Sharer, J.C.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    Analytical data, obtained on brine from three geopressured wells in Louisiana and one in Texas are presented. The chloride ion concentration of each brine is plotted against the total dissolved solids. Sulfate and bicarbonate ion concentrations are plotted against total dissolved solids. Experience with geothermal power plants, alternatives for corrosion prevention, and monitoring and test techniques are discussed. (MHR)

  11. Geopressured-Geothermal Drilling and Testing Plan, Volume II, Testing Plan; Dow Chemical Co. - Dept. of Energy Dow-DOE Sweezy No. 1 Well, Vermilion Parish, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-02-01

    The Dow/D.O.E. L. R. Sweezy No. 1 geopressured geothermal production well was completed in August of 1981. The well was perforated and gravel packed in approximately 50 feet of sand from 13,344 feet to 13,395 feet. Permeabilities of 6 to 914 millidarcies were measured with porosity of 25 to 36%. Static surface pressure after well clean-up was 5000 psi. At 1000 B/D flow rate the drawdown was 50 psi. The water produced in clean-up contained 100,000 ppm TDS. This report details the plan for testing this well with the goal of obtaining sufficient data to define the total production curve of the small, 939 acre, reservoir. A production time of six to nine months is anticipated. The salt water disposal well is expected to be completed and surface equipment installed such that production testing will begin by April 1, 1982. The program should be finished and reports written by February 28, 1983. The brine will be produced from the No.1 well, passed through a separator where the gas is removed, then reinjected into the No.2 (SWD) well under separator pressure. Flow rates of up to 25,000 B/D are expected. The tests are divided into a two-week short-term test and six to nine-month long-term tests with periodic downhole measurement of drawdown and buildup rates. Data obtained in the testing will be relayed by phoneline computer hookup to Otis Engineering in Dallas, Texas, where the reservoir calculations and modeling will be done. At the point where sufficient data has been obtained to reach the objectives of the program, production will be ended, the wells plugged and abandoned, and a final report will be issued.

  12. T-F and S/DOE Gladys McCall No. 1 well, Cameron Parish, Louisiana. Geopressured-geothermal well report, Volume II. Well workover and production testing, February 1982-October 1985. Final report. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The T-F and S/DOE Gladys McCall No. 1 well was the fourth in a series of wells in the DOE Design Wells Program that were drilled into deep, large geopressured-geothermal brine aquifers in order to provide basic data with which to determine the technological and economic viability of producing energy from these unconventional resources. This brine production well was spudded on May 27, 1981 and drilling operations were completed on November 2, 1981 after using 160 days of rig time. The well was drilled to a total depth of 16,510 feet. The target sands lie at a depth of 14,412 to 15,860 feet in the Fleming Formation of the lower Miocene. This report covers well production testing operations and necessary well workover operations during the February 1982 to October 1985 period. The primary goals of the well testing program were: (1) to determine reservoir size, shape, volume, drive mechanisms, and other reservoir parameters, (2) to determine and demonstrate the technological and economic viability of producing energy from a geopressured-geothermal brine aquifer through long-term production testing, and (3) to determine problem areas associated with such long-term production, and to develop solutions therefor.

  13. Geopressured energy availability. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Near- and long-term prospects that geopressured/geothermal energy sources could become a viable alternative fuel for electric power generation were investigated. Technical questions of producibility and power generation were included, as well as economic and environmental considerations. The investigators relied heavily on the existing body of information, particularly in geotechnical areas. Statistical methods were used where possible to establish probable production values. Potentially productive geopressured sediments have been identified in twenty specific on-shore fairways in Louisiana and Texas. A total of 232 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of dissolved methane and 367 x 10/sup 15/ Btu (367 quads) of thermal energy may be contained in the water within the sandstone in these formations. Reasonable predictions of the significant reservoir parameters indicate that a maximum of 7.6 TCF methane and 12.6 quads of thermal energy may be producible from these potential reservoirs.

  14. Survey of potential geopressured resource areas in California. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, S.K.; Robertson-Tait, A.; Kraemer, M.; Buening, N.

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents the initial results of a survey of the occurrence and characteristics of geopressured fluid resources in California using the publicly- available database involving more than 150,000 oil and gas wells drilled in the State. Of the 975 documented on-shore oil and gas pools studied, about 42% were identified as potentially geopressured. Geothermal gradients in California oil and gas fields lie within the normal range of 1 F to 2 F per 100 feet. Except for the Los Angeles Basin, there was no evidence of higher temperatures or temperature gradients in geopressured pools.

  15. Geopressured habitat: A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negus-de Wys, Jane

    1992-09-01

    A literature review of the geopressured-geothermal habitat is summarized. Findings are presented and discussed with respect to the principal topics: Casual agents are both geological and geochemical; they include disequilibrium compaction of sediments, clay diagenesis, aquathermal pressuring, hydrocarbon generation, and lateral tectonic compression. The overall physical and chemical characteristics of the habitats are dictated by varying combinations of sedimentation rates, alteration mineralogy, permeability, porosity and pressure, temperature, fluid content and chemistry, and hydrodynamic flow. Habitat pressure seals are considered in terms of their formation processes, geologic characteristics, and physical behavior, including pressure release and reservoir pressure recharge on a geologic time scale. World-wide occurrence of geopressured-geothermal habitats is noted. The main thrust of this topic concerns the U.S.A. and Canada; in addition, reference is made to occurrences in China and indications from deep-sea vents, as well as the contribution of paleo-overpressure to habitat initiation and maintenance. Identification and assessment of the habitat is addressed in relation to use of hydrogeologic, geophysical, geochemical, and geothermic techniques, as well as well-logging and drill-stem-test data. Conclusions concerning the adequacy of the current state of knowledge and its applicability to resource exploration and development are set forth, together with recommendations for the thrust of future work.

  16. Pollution Control Guidance for Geothermal Energy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Robert P.

    1978-06-01

    This report summarizes the EPA regulatory approach toward geothermal energy development. The state of knowledge is described with respect to the constituents of geothermal effluents and emissions, including water, air, solid wastes, and noise. Pollutant effects are discussed. Pollution control technologies that may be applicable are described along with preliminary cost estimates for their application. Finally discharge and emission limitations are suggested that may serve as interim guidance for pollution control during early geothermal development.

  17. Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram: DOE Lafourche Crossing No. 1, Terrebonne Parish and Lafourche Parish, Louisiana: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    The proposed action will consist of drilling one geothermal fluid well for intermittent production testing of 284 days over a three year period. Two disposal wells will initially be drilled to provide disposal of lower volume fluids produced during initial testing. Two additional disposal wells will be drilled, logged, completed, tested, and operated prior to commencement of high volume fluid production. Construction of the proposed action will change the land-use of 2 ha (5 ac) for the test well and each of the injection wells from agriculture or wetlands to resource exploration. Lands will be cleared and erosion and runoff will result. During operation of the well test, the only expected impacts are from venting of gases or flaring of gases and noise. After the tests are completed, the area will be restored as much as possible to its natural condition by revegetation programs using nature species. All sources of pollutants will be collected and disposed in environmentally acceptable ways. Accidents may result from this proposed action.

  18. Attitudinal survey of citizens in a potential Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal test-well locality. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopreato, S.C.; Blissett, M.

    1977-05-01

    The results of a mail survey used to tap the opinions of the public at large in the study area are described. Attention in that section is focused on awareness of the resource, favorability toward the impending development, concerns about the development, attitudes regarding how the development should take place, levels of community satisfaction, and perceived future problems due to community growth. An analysis is given of the 33 interviews conducted with local representatives of the financial and commercial sectors, government, industry, agriculture, and environmental groups. The main foci here are perceived problems and benefits associated with geothermal development and the local capacity for coping with strains on community services resulting from any population growth which may be generated by resource development. A comparison and synthesis of the results from the general survey and the sector interviews is included. In conclusion, policy recommendations are made for means through which to consolidate goals and to achieve resource development objectives with minimal antagonism of and problems for local citizens and community sectors.

  19. Attitudinal survey of citizens in a potential Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal test-well locality. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopreato, S.C.; Blissett, M.

    1977-05-01

    The results of a mail survey used to tap the opinions of the public at large in the study area are described. Attention in that section is focused on awareness of the resource, favorability toward the impending development, concerns about the development, attitudes regarding how the development should take place, levels of community satisfaction, and perceived future problems due to community growth. An analysis is given of the 33 interviews conducted with local representatives of the financial and commercial sectors, government, industry, agriculture, and environmental groups. The main foci here are perceived problems and benefits associated with geothermal development and the local capacity for coping with strains on community services resulting from any population growth which may be generated by resource development. A comparison and synthesis of the results from the general survey and the sector interviews is included. In conclusion, policy recommendations are made for means through which to consolidate goals and to achieve resource development objectives with minimal antagonism of and problems for local citizens and community sectors.

  20. Subsurface and seismic investigation of the geopressured-geothermal potential of south Louisiana. Part I: the Abbeville area, September 1, 1978-October 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paine, W.R.; Kinsland, G.L.; Duhon, M.P.; Dungan, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The structure investigated is a basin roughly bounded by the Abbeville Dome on the West, the Erath Dome on the Southeast and the Grosse Isle Dome on the Northeast and whose center is located at approximately Section 31 T14S R4E. The geopressured sands investigated are below approximately 12,800 feet (3901 M) in the center of the basin and consist of two groups of rather thin, discontinuous, marly sands. These two groups, rather arbitrarily defined, are termed the upper and lower geopressured sands and the following map types and analyses have been derived from subsurface data of each: structure, temperature, pressure, salinity and net sand maps; and porosity, permeability and methane content analyses. The Reservoir analysis was accomplished by the use of wire line surveys (electric logs) and computer analyses based on standard relationships found in Schlumberger manuals. Seismic analysis proved to be an invaluable tool in establishing the structure of the area.

  1. Microseismic monitoring of Chocolate Bayou, Texas. The Pleasant Bayou No. 2 geopressured/geothermal energy test-well program. 1982 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauk, F.J.; Davis, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    To investigate the seismic risks associated with geopressured fluid production from the Pleasant Bayou No. 2 design well a seismic monitoring program was conducted in the vicinity of the Brazoria County design wells since 1979. The monitoring program was designed first to establish the nature of the local ambient seismicity prior to production, and second to provide continued surveillance of the area during the well tests to determine if production altered ambient seismic conditions significantly. The operation, data analyses, results and conclusions of the Brazoria seismic network during the operational period from 1 January through 31 December 1982 are described.

  2. 咸阳地压地热流体补给的环境同位素证据%Environmental isotope evidences of recharge of geopressured geothermal waters in Xianyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷; 胡伟伟; 马致远; 豆惠萍

    2012-01-01

    By systematically illustrating the recharge source, direction and period of geopressured geothermal waters in Xianyang by studying environmental isotope, the result shows that the main recharge source originates from mospheric water pre-Holocene Epoch, which is from the west and northwest of study area. Its updating ablility is poor except partial deep fault slightly recharge from modern mospheric water.%通过对咸阳地压地热流体的环境同位素研究,系统论证了咸阳地压地热流体的补给来源、补给方向及补给年代。研究表明:咸阳地压地热流体的补给来源主要为全新世前古大气降水,其补给方向主要来自研究区西部及西北部,除局部深大断裂附近有少量现代降水补给外,其可更新能力较差。

  3. Microseismic monitoring of Chocolate Bayou Texas: the Pleasant Bayou No. 2 geopressured/geothermal energy test-well program. 1981 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauk, F.J.

    1982-01-01

    To investigate normal ambient seismicity as well as potentially enhanced seismic activity induced by brine production, a seismic monitoring program has been conducted in the vicinity of the Chocolate Bayou geopressured test well (the Pleasant Bayou No. 2) since September 1978. The Pleasant Bayou No. 2 well has been completed and perforated at depths of 14,467-14,707 feet (4464.4-4482.7m). The brines produced from the Pleasant Bayou No. 2 well are reinjected at a depth of 6226-6538 feet (1897.7-1992.8m) in the Pleasant Bayou No. 1 well. The seismic monitoring network and results obtained from January through November 1981 are described.

  4. Microseismicity associated with development of Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal energy wells: two studies, Pleasant Bayou No. 2 and Dow L.R. Sweezy No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauk, F.J.; Sorrells, G.G.; Kimball, B.C.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    Continuous microseismic monitoring of the regions around the Pleasant Bayou No. 2 well in Brazoria County, Texas and the Dow L.R. Sweezy No. 1 well (Bayour Parcperdue) in Vermilion Parish, Louisiana has been conducted by Teledyne Geotech since September, 1978 and August, 1980 at the two sites respectively. The two principal objectives of these research programs are (1) to assess normal ambient regional seismicity characteristics prior to high-volume brine production, and (2) to evaluate the seismological impact of high-volume brine production and disposal from these geopressured wells. Because neither of these wells has undergone sustained major brine production, the principal results of the microseismic monitoring relate to the first objective.

  5. Continuity and internal properties of Gulf Coast sandstones and their implications for geopressured fluid production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.; Tyler, N.

    1983-01-01

    The intrinsic properties of the genetic sandstone units that typify many geopressured geothermal aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Gulf Coast region were systematically investigated classified, and differentiated. The following topics are coverd: structural and stratigraphic limits of sandstone reservoirs, characteristics and dimensions of Gulf Coast sandstones; fault-compartment areas; comparison of production and geologic estimates of aquifer fluid volume; geologic setting and reservoir characteristics, Wells of Opportunity; internal properties of sandstones; and implications for geopressured fluid production. (MHR)

  6. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope exchange of geopressured thermal water in the central Guanzhong basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Juan; MA Zhi-yuan; WANG Zhao-wei; LI Wei-liang; SU Yan

    2009-01-01

    Geothermal water of Xi'an and Xianyang in the central Guanzhong basin is typically geopressured thermal water in China. δ18O and δD data of geopressured thermal water in Xi'an and Xianyang, combined with data from the perimeter of the basin, are analyzed to study features of hydrogen and oxygen shifts. The results show that 18O exchange of geothermal water at the pc-rimeter of the basin and in the non-geopressured thermal water in the center of the basin is not evident, while in most of the geo-pressured thermal water in the central basin, in cities such as Xi'an and Xianyang, significant oxygen exchange had taken place as well as hydrogen exchange, suggesting that isotope exchanges would slowly move the geothermal water system towards equilib-rium. Thermal water reservoirs in the central basin have passed through significant water-rock reactions. Moreover, the geothermal reservoir of Xianyang city is relatively much more enclosed than that of Xi'an city. It has been observed that the more enclosed the geological environment of geothermal water is, the more obvious the oxygen shifts are. With the increasing of the depth, residence time, total amounts of thssolute solids and temperatures of geothermal waters, the oxygen exchange accelerates.

  7. Wilcox sandstone reservoirs in the deep subsurface along the Texas Gulf Coast - their potential for production of geopressured geothermal energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debout, D.G.; Weise, B.R.; Gregory, A.R.; Edwards, M.B.

    1979-10-01

    The following subjects are included: regional setting, stratigraphic sections, Lower Wilcox sandstone distribution, formation pressure, formation temperature used to delineate geothermal fairways, Zapata Fairway, Duval Fairway, Live Oak Fairway, De Witt Fairway, Colorado Fairway, and Harris Fairway. Depositional and structural style, formation pressures and temperatures, porosity and permeability, formation water salinity, and Cuero Prospect are covered for De Witt Fairway. Depositional and structural style, formation and fluid properties, and Eagle Lake Prospect are covered for Colorado Fairway. (MHR)

  8. Assessment of subsurface salt water disposal experience on the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast for applications to disposal of salt water from geopressured geothermal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, C.K.; Boardman, C.R.

    1978-08-04

    A representative cross section of the literature on the disposal of geothermal brine was perused and some of the general information and concepts is summarized. The following sections are included: disposal statistics--Texas Railroad Commission; disposal statistics--Louisiana Office of Conservation; policies for administering salt water disposal operations; salt water disposal experience of Gulf Coast operators; and Federal Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program's brine disposal operations. The literature cited is listed in the appended list of references. Additional literature is listed in the bibliography. (MHR)

  9. Plan for the long term environmental assessment of geopressured resource development in the Louisiana Gulf Coast Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newchurch, E.J.; Bryan, C.F.; Harrison, D.P.; Muller, R.A.; Wilcox, R.E.; Bachman, A.L.; Newman, J.P.; Cunningham, K.J.; Hilding, R.K.; Rehage, J.A.

    1978-07-15

    Results of research to develop a plan for the long-term environmental assessment of geopressured/geothermal resource development in the Louisiana Gulf Coast region are reported. An overall view of the environmental issues facing decision-makers in the area of geopressured resource development is presented, along with a plan for monitoring potential environmental impacts. Separate assessments and plans are presented for geological effects, air and water quality, ecosystem quality, and socioeconomic and cultural considerations. (JGB)

  10. Controlled source electromagnetic methods in geothermal exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, S.H.

    1983-04-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to sketch the problems inherent in application of controlled source electromagnetic methods (CSEM) to geothermal exploration. Measurements have been made in both the time and frequency domains with time domain measurements currently enjoying an advantage over frequency domain measurements for shallow applications. Application of CSEM methods is impeded by natural field, electrification, geological, cultural, and topographic noise. Lateral resolution of parameters of adjacent steeply dipping bodies and vertical resolution of parameters of adjacent beds in a flatly dipping sequence are concerns with any CSEM method. Current channeling into a localized good conductor form a surrounding, overlying, or underlying conductor poses problems for the interpreter. In selecting a transmitter-receiver configuration for CSEM in a particular application, a compromise is usually achieved between such factors as domain of data acquisition, rejection of noise, resolution, current channeling, and depth of exploration. Not surprisingly there is only marginal agreement on the optimum selection of each of these variables. However, one of the more promising techniques for application in geothermal exploration is the controlled source audiomagnetotelluric method (CSAMT).

  11. Energy analysis of geothermal-electric systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herendeen, R.A.; Plant, R.

    1979-12-01

    Standard energy analysis was applied to 4 types of geothermal-electric technologies: liquid dominated, hot dry rock, geopressure, and vapor dominated. It was found that all are net energy producers. Expected uncertainties are not large enough to threaten this conclusion. Vapor dominated, the only technology in current commercial use to produce electricity in the US, has the highest energy ratio (13 +- 4). These results for energy ratio are equal to or less than some from other workers. In the case of liquid dominated, environmental control technology has a considerable energy requirement.

  12. Fluid sampling and chemical modeling of geopressured brines containing methane. Final report, March 1980-February 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudak, B.; Galbraith, R.; Hansen, L.; Sverjensky, D.; Weres, O.

    1982-07-01

    The development of a flowthrough sampler capable of obtaining fluid samples from geopressured wells at temperatures up to 400/sup 0/F and pressures up to 20,000 psi is described. The sampler has been designed, fabricated from MP35N alloy, laboratory tested, and used to obtain fluid samples from a geothermal well at The Geysers, California. However, it has not yet been used in a geopressured well. The design features, test results, and operation of this device are described. Alternative sampler designs are also discussed. Another activity was to review the chemistry and geochemistry of geopressured brines and reservoirs, and to evaluate the utility of available computer codes for modeling the chemistry of geopressured brines. The thermodynamic data bases for such codes are usually the limiting factor in their application to geopressured systems, but it was concluded that existing codes can be updated with reasonable effort and can usefully explain and predict the chemical characteristics of geopressured systems, given suitable input data.

  13. Geothermal energy program summary: Volume 1: Overview Fiscal Year 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    Geothermal energy is a here-and-now technology for use with dry steam resources and high-quality hydrothermal liquids. These resources are supplying about 6 percent of all electricity used in California. However, the competitiveness of power generation using lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma still depends on the technology improvements sought by the DOE Geothermal Energy R and D Program. The successful outcome of the R and D initiatives will serve to benefit the U.S. public in a number of ways. First, if a substantial portion of our geothermal resources can be used economically, they will add a very large source of secure, indigenous energy to the nation's energy supply. In addition, geothermal plants can be brought on line quickly in case of a national energy emergency. Geothermal energy is also a highly reliable resource, with very high plant availability. For example, new dry steam plants at The Geysers are operable over 99 percent of the time, and the small flash plant in Hawaii, only the second in the United States, has an availability factor of 98 percent. Geothermal plants also offer a viable baseload alternative to fossil and nuclear plants -- they are on line 24 hours a day, unaffected by diurnal or seasonal variations. The hydrothermal power plants with modern emission control technology have proved to have minimal environmental impact. The results to date with geopressured and hot dry rock resources suggest that they, too, can be operated so as to reduce environmental effects to well within the limits of acceptability. Preliminary studies on magma are also encouraging. In summary, the character and potential of geothermal energy, together with the accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal R and D Program, ensure that this huge energy resource will play a major role in future U.S. energy markets.

  14. Preliminary Cost Estimates of Pollution Control Technologies for Geothermal Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, R.; Houser, G.; Richard, G.; Cotter, J.; Weller, P.; Pulaski, E.

    1979-10-01

    This is the first report from the EPA estimating the cost of technology for mitigating pollution that might arise from geothermal power systems. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has taken an initial step towards the establishment of regulatory standards for the geothermal industry by preparing a document entitled Pollution Control Guidance for Geothermal Energy Development. This report supports that document by providing pollution control cost information. The objective of this report is to provide preliminary cost estimates for air and water pollution treatment and disposal technologies applicable for geothermal energy conversion systems. Cost estimates include both annualized capital investment and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs for various levels of environmental requirements. [DJE-2005

  15. Continuity and internal properties of Gulf Coast sandstones and their implications for geopressured energy development. Annual report, November 1, 1980-October 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.; Tyler, N.

    1982-06-01

    Systematic investigation, classification, and differentiation of the intrinsic properties of genetic sandstone units that typify many geopressured geothermal aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Gulf Coast region are provided. The following are included: structural and stratigraphic limits of sandstone reservoirs; characteristics and dimensions of Gulf Coast Sandstones; fault compartment areas; comparison of production and geologic estimates of aquifer volume; geologic setting and reservoir characteristics, wells of opportunity; internal properties of sandstones and implications for geopressured energy development. (MHR)

  16. Geochemistry of hydropressured brines in South Louisiana: potential for reaction with injected geopressured waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanor, J.S.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    Hydropressured, saline-water sands are being considered as possible sites for the disposal of geopressured-geothermal waste waters in South Louisiana. Probable injection horizons would most likely contain native brines of 120 to 140 g/l TDS. These brines show wide ranges in concentration of dissolved Ca, Sr, Ba, Fe, SO/sub 4/, and HCO/sub 3/, even within a restricted range of salinities. The probability is high that mineral precipitation will occur if untreated geopressured wastes are mixed with these waters. Clay migration and additional plugging of the injection well is possible if the injected wastes are significantly less saline than the native fluids. Costs of site-specific geochemical evaluation and chemical pre-treatment are thus factors which must be considered in the economic evaluation of deep well disposal of geopressured wastes in South Louisiana.

  17. Silica recovery and control in Hawaiian geothermal fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.M.

    1992-06-01

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate methods of controlling silica in waste geothermal brines produced at the HGP-A Generator Facility. Laboratory testing has shown that the rate of polymerization of silica in the geothermal fluids is highly pH dependent. At brine pH values in excess of 8.5 the suspension of silica polymers flocculated and rapidly precipitated a gelatinous silica mass. Optimum flocculation and precipitation rates were achieved at pH values in the range of 10.5 to 11.5. The addition of transition metal salts to the geothermal fluids similarly increased the rate of polymerization as well as the degree of precipitation of the silica polymer from suspension. A series of experiments performed on the recovered silica solids demonstrated that methanol extraction of the water in the gels followed by critical point drying yielded surface areas in excess of 300 M{sup 2}/g and that treatment of the dried solids with 2 N HCl removed most of the adsorbed impurities in the recovered product. A series of experiments tested the response of the waste brines to mixing with steam condensate and non-condensable gases.The results demonstrated that the addition of condensate and NCG greatly increased the stability of the silica in the geothermal brines. They also indicated that the process could reduce the potential for plugging of reinjection wells receiving waste geothermal fluids from commercial geothermal facilities in Hawaii. Conceptual designs were proposed to apply the gas re-combination approach to the disposal of geothermal waste fluids having a range of chemical compositions. Finally, these designs were applied to the geothermal fluid compositions found at Cerro Prieto, Ahuachapan, and Salton Sea.

  18. Silica recovery and control in Hawaiian geothermal fluids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.M.

    1992-06-01

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate methods of controlling silica in waste geothermal brines produced at the HGP-A Generator Facility. Laboratory testing has shown that the rate of polymerization of silica in the geothermal fluids is highly pH dependent. At brine pH values in excess of 8.5 the suspension of silica polymers flocculated and rapidly precipitated a gelatinous silica mass. Optimum flocculation and precipitation rates were achieved at pH values in the range of 10.5 to 11.5. The addition of transition metal salts to the geothermal fluids similarly increased the rate of polymerization as well as the degree of precipitation of the silica polymer from suspension. A series of experiments performed on the recovered silica solids demonstrated that methanol extraction of the water in the gels followed by critical point drying yielded surface areas in excess of 300 M{sup 2}/g and that treatment of the dried solids with 2 N HCl removed most of the adsorbed impurities in the recovered product. A series of experiments tested the response of the waste brines to mixing with steam condensate and non-condensable gases.The results demonstrated that the addition of condensate and NCG greatly increased the stability of the silica in the geothermal brines. They also indicated that the process could reduce the potential for plugging of reinjection wells receiving waste geothermal fluids from commercial geothermal facilities in Hawaii. Conceptual designs were proposed to apply the gas re-combination approach to the disposal of geothermal waste fluids having a range of chemical compositions. Finally, these designs were applied to the geothermal fluid compositions found at Cerro Prieto, Ahuachapan, and Salton Sea.

  19. Fuzzy Logic Controller based on geothermal recirculating aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa M. Farghally

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common uses of geothermal heat is in recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS where the water temperature is accurately controlled for optimum growing conditions for sustainable and intensive rearing of marine and freshwater fish. This paper presents a design for RAS rearing tank and brazed heat exchanger to be used with geothermal energy as a source of heating water. The heat losses from the RAS tank are calculated using Geo Heat Center Software. Then a plate type heat exchanger is designed using the epsilon – NTU analysis method. For optimal growth and abundance of production, a Fuzzy Logic control (FLC system is applied to control the water temperature (29 °C. A FLC system has several advantages over conventional techniques; relatively simple, fast, adaptive, and its response is better and faster at all atmospheric conditions. Finally, the total system is built in MATLAB/SIMULINK to study the overall performance of control unit.

  20. Geothermal Energy Program Summary Document, FY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal energy is derived from the internal heat of the earth. Much of it is recoverable with current or near current technology. Geothermal energy can be used for electric power production, residential and commercial space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, and agricultural applications. Three principal types of geothermal resources are exploitable through the year 2000. In order of technology readiness, these resources are: hydrothermal; geopressured (including dissolved natural gas); and hot dry rock. In hydrothermal systems, natural water circulation moves heat from deep internal sources toward the earth's surface. Geothermal fluids (water and steam) tapped by drilling can be used to generate electricity or provide direct heat. Geopressured resources, located primarily in sedimentary basins along the Gulf Coast of Texas and of Louisiana, consist of water and dissolved methane at high pressure and at moderately high temperature. In addition to recoverable methane, geopressured resources provide thermal energy and mechanical energy derived from high fluid pressures, although methane offers the greatest immediate value. Commercial development of geopressured energy may begin in the mid-1980s. Economic feasibility depends on the amount of methane that a given well can produce, a highly uncertain factor at present.

  1. Geothermal energy program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained within the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost-effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy - the heat of the Earth - is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40 percent of the total U.S. energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma (the four types of geothermal energy), still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program.

  2. Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

  3. Geothermal well log interpretation midterm report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1979-02-01

    Reservoir types are defined according to fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, and salinity and fluid chemistry. Improvements are needed in lithology and porosity definition, fracture detection, and thermal evaluation for more accurate interpretation. Further efforts are directed toward improving diagnostic techniques for relating rock characteristics and log response, developing petrophysical models for geothermal systems, and developing thermal evaluation techniques. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated only on hydrothermal geothermal reservoirs. Other geothermal reservoirs (hot dry rock, geopressured, etc.) are not considered.

  4. Structural control on geothermal circulation in the Tocomar geothermal volcanic area (Puna plateau, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Guido

    2016-04-01

    The reconstruction of the stratigraphical-structural framework and the hydrogeology of geothermal areas is fundamental for understanding the relationships between cap rocks, reservoir and circulation of geothermal fluids and for planning the exploitation of the field. The Tocomar geothermal volcanic area (Puna plateau, Central Andes, NW Argentina) has a high geothermal potential. It is crossed by the active NW-SE trans-Andean tectonic lineament known as the Calama-Olacapato-Toro (COT) fault system, which favours a high secondary permeability testified by the presence of numerous thermal springs. This study presents new stratigraphic, structural, volcanological, geochemical and hydrogeological data on the geothermal field. Our data suggest that the main geothermal reservoir is located within or below the Pre-Palaeozoic-Ordovician basement units, characterised by unevenly distributed secondary permeability. The reservoir is recharged by infiltration in the ridges above 4500 m a.s.l., where basement rocks are in outcrop. Below 4500 m a.s.l., the reservoir is covered by the low permeable Miocene-Quaternary units that allow a poor circulation of shallow groundwater. Geothermal fluids upwell in areas with more intense fracturing, especially where main regional structures, particularly NW-SE COT-parallel lineaments, intersect with secondary structures, such as at the Tocomar field.

  5. Emission control of gas effluents from geothermal power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axtmann, R C

    1975-01-01

    Geothermal steam at the world's five largest power plants contains from 0.15 to 30% noncondensable gases including CO(2), H(2)S, H(2), CH(4), N(2), H(3)BO(3), and NH(3). At four of the plants the gases are first separated from the steam and then discharged to the environment; at the fifth, the noncondensables exhaust directly to the atmosphere along with spent steam. Some CO(2) and sulfur emission rates rival those from fossil-fueled plants on a per megawatt-day basis. The ammonia and boron effluents can interfere with animal and plant life. The effects of sulfur (which emerges as H(2)S but may oxidize to SO(2)) on either ambient air quality or longterm human health are largely unknown. Most geothermal turbines are equipped with direct contact condensers which complicate emission control because they provide two or more pathways for the effluents to reach the environment. Use of direct contact condensers could permit efficient emission control if coupled to processes that produce saleable quantities of purified carbon dioxide and elemental sulfur.

  6. Environmental research needs for geothermal resources development. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carstea, D.

    1977-04-01

    A detailed analysis was conducted to determine the adequacy of the total research efforts regarding the potential environmental impacts related to the exploration, drilling, production, and transmission stages of vapor-dominated, liquid-dominated, geopressured, and hot-dry-rock geothermal resources. The following environmental considerations were selected and analyzed in detail: air emissions (hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, mercury, boron, radon, etc.); liquid emissions (brine, and toxic chemicals); land subsidence; seismic activity; and noise. Following the definition of the problem and the assessment of the past and ongoing research efforts, environmental research needs were then recommended based on: (1) the severity of the environmental problems as perceived by literature and contacts with the research community; (2) probability of occurrence; (3) and the research dependency for a solution to that particular problem. The recommended research needs consisted of: (1) an evaluation of the past and ongoing research efforts to ascertain gaps in knowledge for a particular pollutant, process, or control technology; (2) baseline studies of air, soil, water, and ecology around the existing geothermal facilities and in the locations scheduled for future geothermal development; (3) need for the development of appropriate models for predicting concentration and dispersion of pollutants; (4) development of predictive models for potential health and environmental effects associated with geothermal operations; and (5) development of appropriate control technology to destroy, remove or reduce harmful emissions in order to prevent the occurrence of environmental and health hazards and to comply with existing standards and criteria.

  7. Fault controlled geochemical properties in Lahendong geothermal reservoir Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehme, Maren; Deon, Fiorenza; Haase, Christoph; Wiegand, Bettina; Kamah, Yustin; Sauter, Martin; Regenspurg, Simona

    2016-03-01

    Rock and fluid geochemical data from Lahendong, Indonesia, were analyzed to evaluate the influence of fault zones on reservoir properties. It was found that these properties depend on fault-permeability controlled fluid flow. Results from measurements of spring and well water as well as rocks and their hydraulic properties were combined with hydrochemical numerical modeling. The models show that the geothermal field consists of two geochemically distinct reservoir sections. One section is characterized by acidic water, considerable gas discharge and high geothermal-power productivity—all related to increased fault zone permeability. The other section is characterized by neutral water and lower productivity. Increased fluid flow in the highly fractured and permeable areas enhances chemical reaction rates. This results in strong alteration of their surrounding rocks. Numerical models of reactions between water and rock at Lahendong indicate the main alteration products are clay minerals. A geochemical conceptual model illustrates the relation between geochemistry and permeability and their distribution within the area. Our conceptual model illustrates the relation between geochemistry and fault-zone permeability within the Lahendong area. Further mapping of fault-related permeability would support sustainable energy exploitation by avoiding low-productive wells or the production of highly corroding waters, both there and elsewhere in the world.

  8. A new classification scheme for deep geothermal systems based on geologic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, I.

    2012-04-01

    A key element in the characterization, assessment and development of geothermal energy systems is the resource classification. Throughout the past 30 years many classifications and definitions were published mainly based on temperature and thermodynamic properties. In the past classification systems, temperature has been the essential measure of the quality of the resource and geothermal systems have been divided into three different temperature (or enthalpy) classes: low-temperature, moderate-temperature and high-temperature. There are, however, no uniform temperature ranges for these classes. It is still a key requirement of a geothermal classification that resource assessment provides logical and consistent frameworks simplified enough to communicate important aspects of geothermal energy potential to both non-experts and general public. One possible solution may be to avoid classifying geothermal resources by temperature and simply state the range of temperatures at the individual site. Due to technological development, in particular in EGS (Enhanced Geothermal Systems or Engineered Geothermal Systems; both terms are considered synonymously in this thesis) technology, currently there are more geothermal systems potentially economic than 30 years ago. An alternative possibility is to classify geothermal energy systems by their geologic setting. Understanding and characterizing the geologic controls on geothermal systems has been an ongoing focus on different scales from plate tectonics to local tectonics/structural geology. In fact, the geologic setting has a fundamental influence on the potential temperature, on the fluid composition, the reservoir characteristics and whether the system is a predominantly convective or conductive system. The key element in this new classification for geothermal systems is the recognition that a geothermal system is part of a geological system. The structural geological and plate tectonic setting has a fundamental influence on

  9. Structural controls on a geothermal system in the Tarutung Basin, north central Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukman, Mochamad; Moeck, Inga

    2013-09-01

    The Sumatra Fault System provides a unique geologic setting to evaluate the influence of structural controls on geothermal activity. Whereas most of the geothermal systems in Indonesia are controlled by volcanic activity, geothermal systems at the Sumatra Fault System might be controlled by faults and fractures. Exploration strategies for these geothermal systems need to be verified because the typical pattern of heat source and alteration clays are missing so that conventional exploration with magnetotelluric surveys might not provide sufficient data to delineate favorable settings for drilling. We present field geological, structural and geomorphological evidence combined with mapping of geothermal manifestations to allow constraints between fault dynamics and geothermal activity in the Tarutung Basin in north central Sumatra. Our results indicate that the fault pattern in the Tarutung Basin is generated by a compressional stress direction acting at a high angle to the right-lateral Sumatra Fault System. NW-SE striking normal faults possibly related to negative flower structures and NNW-SSE to NNE-SSW oriented dilative Riedel shears are preferential fluid pathways whereas ENE-WSW striking faults act as barriers in this system. The dominant of geothermal manifestations at the eastern part of the basin indicates local extension due to clockwise block rotation in the Sumatra Fault System. Our results support the effort to integrate detailed field geological surveys to refined exploration strategies even in tropical areas where outcrops are limited.

  10. Geothermal Progress Monitor 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-12-01

    Some of the more interesting articles in this GPM are: DOE supporting research on problems at The Geysers; Long-term flow test of Hot Dry Rock system (at Fenton Hill, NM) to begin in Fiscal Year 1992; Significant milestones reached in prediction of behavior of injected fluids; Geopressured power generation experiment yields good results. A number of industry-oriented events and successes are reported, and in that regard it is noteworthy that this report comes near the end of the most active decade of geothermal power development in the U.S. There is a table of all operating U.S. geothermal power projects. The bibliography of research reports at the end of this GPM is useful. (DJE 2005)

  11. Geothermal resources of California sedimentary basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.F.; Grubb, F.V.; Galanis, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Department of Energy (DOE) Strategic Plan for geothermal energy calls for expanding the geothermal resource base of the United States to 40,000 MW of electric power generating potential. This will require advances in technologies for exploiting unconventional geothermal resources, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal. An investigation of thermal conditions in California sedimentary basins through new temperature and heat flow measurements reveals significant geothermal potential in some areas. In many of the basins, the combined cooling effects of recent tectonic and sedimentary processes result in relatively low (geothermal gradients. For example, temperatures in the upper 3 km of San Joaquin, Sacramento and Ventura basins are typically less than 125??C and do not reach 200??c by 5 km. By contrast, in the Cuyama, Santa Maria and western Los Angeles basins, heat flow exceeds 80 mW/m2 and temperatures near or above 200??C occur at 4 to 5 km depth, which represents thermal conditions equivalent to or hotter than those encountered at the Soultz EGS geothermal site in Europe. Although the extractable geothermal energy contained in these basins is not large relative to the major California producing geothermal fields at The Geysers or Salton Sea, the collocation in the Los Angeles basin of a substantial petroleum extraction infrastructure and a major metropolitan area may make it attractive for eventual geothermal development as EGS technology matures.

  12. Final report for the geothermal well site restoration and plug and abandonment of wells: DOE Pleasant Bayou test site, Brazoria County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, Ben N.; Seigel, Ben H.

    1994-03-13

    For a variety of reasons, thousands of oil and gas wells have been abandoned in the Gulf Coast Region of the United States. Many of these wells penetrated geopressured zones whose resource potential for power generation was undervalued or ignored. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geopressured-Geothermal Research Program was chartered to improve geothermal technology to the point where electricity could be commercially produced from a substantial number of geopressured resource sites. This research program focused on relatively narrow technical issues that are unique to geopressured resources such as the ability to predict reservoir production capacity based on preliminary flow tests. Three well sites were selected for the research program. These are the Willis Hulin and Gladys McCall sites in Louisiana, and the Pleasant Bayou site in Texas. The final phase of this research project consists of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and site restoration.

  13. Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, D.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this 'big picture' three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology's market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

  14. Geothermal resources of the northern gulf of Mexico basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P.H.

    1970-01-01

    Published geothermal gradient maps for the northern Gulf of Mexico basin indicate little or no potential for the development of geothermal resources. Results of deep drilling, from 4000 to 7000 meters or more, during the past decade however, define very sharp increases in geothermal gradient which are associated with the occurrence of abnormally high interstitial fluid pressure (geopressure). Bounded by regional growth faults along the landward margin of the Gulf Basin, the geopressured zone extends some 1300 km from the Rio Grande (at the boundary between the United States and Mexico) to the mouth of the Mississippi river. Gulfward, it extends to an unknown distance across the Continental Shelf. Within geopressured deposits, geothermal gradients range upwards to 100 ??C/km, being greatest within and immediately below the depth interval in which the maximum pressure gradient change occurs. The 120 ??C isogeotherm ranges from about 2500 to 5000 m below sea level, and conforms in a general way with depth of occurrence of the top of the geopressured zone. Measured geostatic ratios range upward to 0.97; the maximum observed temperature is 273 ??C, at a depth of 5859 m. Dehydration of montmorillonite, which comprises 60 to 80 percent of clay deposited in the northern Gulf Basin during the Neogene, occurs at depths where temperature exceeds about 80 ??C, and is generally complete at depths where temperature exceeds 120 ??C. This process converts intracrystalline and bound water to free pore water, the volume produced being roughly equivalent to half the volume of montmorillonite so altered. Produced water is fresh, and has low viscosity and density. Sand-bed aquifers of deltaic, longshore, or marine origin form excellent avenues for drainage of geopressured deposits by wells, each of which may yield 10,000 m3 or more of superheated water per day from reservoirs having pressures up to 1000 bars at depths greater than 5000 m. ?? 1971.

  15. Evaluating geothermal and hydrogeologic controls on regional groundwater temperature distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erick R.; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-01-01

    A one-dimensional (1-D) analytic solution is developed for heat transport through an aquifer system where the vertical temperature profile in the aquifer is nearly uniform. The general anisotropic form of the viscous heat generation term is developed for use in groundwater flow simulations. The 1-D solution is extended to more complex geometries by solving the equation for piece-wise linear or uniform properties and boundary conditions. A moderately complex example, the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), is analyzed to demonstrate the use of the analytic solution for identifying important physical processes. For example, it is shown that viscous heating is variably important and that heat conduction to the land surface is a primary control on the distribution of aquifer and spring temperatures. Use of published values for all aquifer and thermal properties results in a reasonable match between simulated and measured groundwater temperatures over most of the 300 km length of the ESRP, except for geothermal heat flow into the base of the aquifer within 20 km of the Yellowstone hotspot. Previous basal heat flow measurements (∼110 mW/m2) made beneath the ESRP aquifer were collected at distances of >50 km from the Yellowstone Plateau, but a higher basal heat flow of 150 mW/m2 is required to match groundwater temperatures near the Plateau. The ESRP example demonstrates how the new tool can be used during preliminary analysis of a groundwater system, allowing efficient identification of the important physical processes that must be represented during more-complex 2-D and 3-D simulations of combined groundwater and heat flow.

  16. Novel Coupled Thermochronometric and Geochemical Investigation of Blind Geothermal Resources in Fault-Controlled Dilational Corners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockli, Daniel [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-02-17

    Geothermal plays in extensional and transtensional tectonic environments have long been a major target in the exploration of geothermal resources and the Dixie Valley area has served as a classic natural laboratory for this type of geothermal plays. In recent years, the interactions between normal faults and strike-slip faults, acting either as strain relay zones have attracted significant interest in geothermal exploration as they commonly result in fault-controlled dilational corners with enhanced fracture permeability and thus have the potential to host blind geothermal prospects. Structural ambiguity, complications in fault linkage, etc. often make the selection for geothermal exploration drilling targets complicated and risky. Though simplistic, the three main ingredients of a viable utility-grade geothermal resource are heat, fluids, and permeability. Our new geological mapping and fault kinematic analysis derived a structural model suggest a two-stage structural evolution with (a) middle Miocene N -S trending normal faults (faults cutting across the modern range), - and tiling Olio-Miocene volcanic and sedimentary sequences (similar in style to East Range and S Stillwater Range). NE-trending range-front normal faulting initiated during the Pliocene and are both truncating N-S trending normal faults and reactivating some former normal faults in a right-lateral fashion. Thus the two main fundamental differences to previous structural models are (1) N-S trending faults are pre-existing middle Miocene normal faults and (2) these faults are reactivated in a right-later fashion (NOT left-lateral) and kinematically linked to the younger NE-trending range-bounding normal faults (Pliocene in age). More importantly, this study provides the first constraints on transient fluid flow through the novel application of apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) and 4He/3He thermochronometry in the geothermally active Dixie Valley area in Nevada.

  17. An Environmental Assessment of Proposed Geothermal Well Testing in the Tigre Lagoon Oil Field, Vermilion Parish, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-03-01

    This report is an environmental assessment of the proposed testing of two geopressured, geothermal aquifers in central coastal Louisiana. On the basis of an analysis of the environmental setting, subsurface characteristics, and the proposed action, potential environmental impacts are determined and evaluated together with potential conflicts with federal, state, and local programs. Oil and gas wells in coastal Louisiana have penetrated a potentially productive geothermal zone of abnormally high-pressured aquifers that also yield large volumes of natural gas. To evaluate the extent to which the geothermal-geopressured water can be used as an alternative energy source and to what extent withdrawal of geopressured water can enhance gas production, it is necessary that flow rates, composition and temperature of fluids and gases, recharge characteristics, pressures, compressibilities, and other hydrodynamic and boundary conditions of the reservoir be determined by means of production tests. Tests are further necessary to evaluate and seek solutions to technological problems.

  18. Sweet lake geopressured-geothermal project, Magma Gulf-Technadril/DOE Amoco Fee. Annual report, December 1, 1979-February 27, 1981. Volume I. Drilling and completion test well and disposal well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, R.W. (ed.)

    1982-06-01

    The Sweet lake site is located approximately 15 miles southeast of Lake Charles in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. A geological study showed that the major structure in this area is a graben. The dip of the beds is northwesterly into the basin. A well drilled into the deep basin would find the target sand below 18,000', at high pressures and temperatures. However, since there is no well control in the basin, the specific site was chosen on the 15,000' contour of the target sand in the eastern, more narrow part of the garben. Those key control wells are present within one mile of the test well. The information acquired by drilling the test well confirmed the earlier geologic study. The target sand was reached at 15,065', had a porosity of over 20% and a permeability to water of 300 md. The original reservoir pressure was 12,060 psi and the bottom hole temperature 299{sup 0}F. There are approximately 250 net feet of sand available for the perforation. The disposal well was drilled to a total depth of 7440'.

  19. Hydrocarbons associated with brines from geopressured wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-15

    The purpose of this research is to determine the concentration of the cryocondensates in fluids of the various USDOE Geopressured wells as a function of production volume. The wells are visited each month that they are operating and samples are to be taken cryogenically during each visit. A gas scrubbing system will continuously samples the gas streams of the wells in the intervals between visit. Collectors, exchanged daily by site personnel, are retrieved on each visit.

  20. Technical and cost analysis of rock-melting systems for producing geothermal wells. [GEOWELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altseimer, J.H.

    1976-11-01

    The drilling of wells makes up a large fraction of the costs of geothermal energy-extraction plants, and billions of dollars for wells will be needed before geothermal energy is nationally significant. Technical and economic systems studies are summarized regarding the application of the Subterrene concept, i.e., excavating and penetrating rocks or soils by melting, to the production of deep wells such as may be used for dry hot rock or geopressurized geothermal energy-extraction systems. Technically, it was found that Subterrene features are compatible with those of current rotary drilling practices. In fact, some special features could lead to improved well production techniques. These include the buildup of a glass lining along the borehole wall which provides structural resistance to collapse; close control of hole geometry; the existence of a barrier between the drilling fluids and the formations being penetrated; nonrotation; potentially better bit life; and faster rates of penetration in deep, hard rock. A typical optimum-cost well would be rotary-drilled in the upper regions and then rock-melted to total depth. Indicated cost savings are significant: a 30 percent or 3.9 million dollar (1975 $) reduction from rotary-drilled well costs are estimated for a 10-km depth well with a bottom hole temperature of 673 K. Even for relatively cool normal geothermal gradient conditions, the savings for the 1..pi..-km well are estimated as 23 percent of 2.1 million dollars.

  1. Third geopressured-geothermal energy conference. Vol 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meriwether, J.

    1977-01-01

    Nineteen papers are included covering: opening addresses, geological studies, and engineering studies. One paper had been abstracted previously and separate abstracts were prepared for eighteen papers. (MHR)

  2. Geopressured-geothermal well report. Volume I. Drilling and completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Gladys McCall site activities are covered through the completion of the test well and salt water disposal well. The test well was drilled to a total depth of 16,510 feet, then plugged back to 15,831 feet. Three 4'' diameter diamond cores were taken for analysis. An existing well on site, the Getty-Butts Gladys McCall No. 1, was reentered and completed to a depth of 3514 feet as a salt water disposal well. The geologic interpretation of the Gladys McCall site indicated target sands for testing at 15,080 feet through 15, 831 feet. Reservoir fluid temperature at this depth is estimated to be approximately 313/sup 0/F and pressure is estimated to be +-12,800 psi. The preliminary reservoir volume estimate is 3.6 billion barrels of brine. The design wells program includes environmental monitoring of the Gladys McCall site by Louisiana State University. Field stations are set up to monitor surface and ground water quality, subsidence, land loss and shoreline erosion, and seismicity. As of December 31, 1981 the study shows no significant impact on the environment by site operations.

  3. Review of Geopressured-Geothermal and Co-Production Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-16

    This report is the minutes of the DOE/GRI/Industry meeting. They include a transcript of the questions and answers following each presentation and copies of slides and/or summaries prepared by each of the speakers.

  4. Third geopressured-geothermal energy conference.Vol 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meriwether, J.

    1977-11-16

    Twenty papers were included covering the Edna Delcambre Test Well, legal studies, environmental studies, economic studies, and resource utilization. Separate abstracts were prepared for each paper. (MHR)

  5. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This contract called for the acquisition and testing of Wells of Opportunity. Wells of Opportunity are located by screening published information on oil industry activity and through personal contacts with oil operators. This process resulted in recommendation of 21 candidate wells to the DOE for the WOO program. Of the 21 wells recommended, 7 were accepted. Six of these 7 were acquired for testing. Three wells have been tested, and the fourth and fifth will be tested early in 1981. Preliminary test results are briefly described and are shown in a table. The actual testing schedule and the originally proposed schedule matched very closely. Cumulative costs through November 1980 were approximately $6.5 million and compare to an estimate of $8.5 million for the same period. A graphical comparison of actual versus estimated costs is given.

  6. Parcperdue Geopressure -- Geothermal Project: Appendices (C--M)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweezy, L.R.

    1981-10-05

    Twelve flow tests were made on the L. R. Sweezy No. 1 well. Short-term tests, Flow Test No.1 through Flow Test No.4 were designed to estimate formation properties and were conducted for drawdown periods measured in hours. Intermediate-term tests, Flow Test No.5 through Flow Test No.8, were for a few days and were designed to test for reservoir boundaries. Long-term tests, Flow Test No.9 through Flow Test No.12, were designed for drawdown periods of about 60 days in order to examine the depletion behavior of the reservoir.

  7. Structural Controls of the Geothermal System at Gerlach, Washoe County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelwood, Lyndsay A.

    Detailed geologic mapping, spring and two-meter temperature data, and gravity and magnetic data constrain the structural controls of the high-temperature (>175°C) geothermal system at Gerlach. The system lies along the termination of a major normal fault at the southern end of the Granite Range in the southern Black Rock Desert, a known favorable setting for geothermal activity. Mapping of Quaternary deposits documents Holocene movement on the north-northeast-striking, east-dipping Gerlach fault. Dominant orientations of geothermal veins in exposed fossil geothermal systems parallel this active, terminating range-front fault, suggesting that it does provide a major control on the current geothermal system. Locally, there are two areas of geothermal upwelling with separate sets of structural controls. The two areas are expressed by outflow as two sets of springs, Great Boiling Springs and Mud Springs, as well as by separate altered bedrock fossil systems above the springs. The areas are topographically distinct (neither could represent outflow from the other), are separated by relatively lower shallow temperature measurements, and are associated with different orientations of the gravity gradient. Prominent northwest-striking fractures provide areas of enhanced permeability and parallel the secondary set of veins in the altered bedrock uphill of Great Boiling Springs. These northwest-striking veins are not observed in the area above Mud Springs, but there is an east-northeast-striking set that is not present above Great Boiling Springs. The presence of east-northeast-striking structures is supported in the gravity data. These structures could represent an ever broader-scale structural connection between the southern termination of the Gerlach fault and the northern termination of the Fox Range fault to the south.

  8. Assessment of geothermal resources of the United States, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muffler, L.J.P. (ed.)

    1979-01-01

    The geothermal resource assessment presented is a refinement and updating of USGS Circular 726. Nonproprietary information available in June 1978 is used to assess geothermal energy in the ground and, when possible, to evaluate the fraction that might be recovered at the surface. Five categories of geothermal energy are discussed: conduction-dominated regimes, igneous-related geothermal systems, high-temperature (> 150/sup 0/C) and intermediate-temperature (90 to 150/sup 0/C) hydrothermal convection systems, low-temperature (< 90/sup 0/C) geothermal waters, and geopressured-geothermal energy (both thermal energy and energy from dissolved methane). Assessment data are presented on three colored maps prepared in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Separate abstracts were prepared for papers on these five categories.

  9. Environmental assessment of proposed geothermal well testing in the Tigre Lagoon Oil Field, Vermilion Parish, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-01

    An environmental assessment is made of the proposed testing of two geopressured, geothermal aquifers in central coastal Louisiana. On the basis of an analysis of the environmental setting, subsurface characteristics, and the proposed action, potential environmental impacts are determined and evaluated together with potential conflicts with federal, state, and local programs. (LBS )

  10. Structural control on geothermal circulation in the Cerro Tuzgle-Tocomar geothermal volcanic area (Puna plateau, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Guido; Pinton, Annamaria; Cianfarra, Paola; Baez, Walter; Chiodi, Agostina; Viramonte, José; Norini, Gianluca; Groppelli, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    The reconstruction of the stratigraphical-structural framework and the hydrogeology of geothermal areas is fundamental for understanding the relationships between cap rocks, reservoir and circulation of geothermal fluids and for planning the exploitation of the field. The Cerro Tuzgle-Tocomar geothermal volcanic area (Puna plateau, Central Andes, NW Argentina) has a high geothermal potential. It is crossed by the active NW-SE trans-Andean tectonic lineament known as the Calama-Olacapato-Toro (COT) fault system, which favours a high secondary permeability testified by the presence of numerous springs. This study presents new stratigraphic and hydrogeological data on the geothermal field, together with the analysis from remote sensed image analysis of morphostructural evidences associated with the structural framework and active tectonics. Our data suggest that the main geothermal reservoir is located within or below the Pre-Palaeozoic-Ordovician basement units, characterised by unevenly distributed secondary permeability. The reservoir is recharged by infiltration in the ridges above 4500 m a.s.l., where basement rocks are in outcrop. Below 4500 m a.s.l., the reservoir is covered by the low permeable Miocene-Quaternary units that allow a poor circulation of shallow groundwater. Geothermal fluids upwell in areas with more intense fracturing, especially where main regional structures, particularly NW-SE COT-parallel lineaments, intersect with secondary structures, such as at the Tocomar field. Away from the main tectonic features, such as at the Cerro Tuzgle field, the less developed network of faults and fractures allows only a moderate upwelling of geothermal fluids and a mixing between hot and shallow cold waters. The integration of field-based and remote-sensing analyses at the Cerro Tuzgle-Tocomar area proved to be effective in approaching the prospection of remote geothermal fields, and in defining the conceptual model for geothermal circulation.

  11. Hydrocarbons associated with brines from geopressured wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-15

    Efforts to determine the concentration of the cryocondensates in fluids of the various USDOE Geopressured wells a function of production volume. The wells are visited monthly as they are operating and samples are reported taken cryogenically during each visit. A gas scrubbing system continuously sample the gas streams of the wells in the intergas scrubbing system continuously sample the gas streams of the wells in the intervals between visit. Results obtained are to correlated the production of the collected compounds with reservoir and well production characteristics.

  12. Pilot unit testing of scale inhibitors at geopressured energy well sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouche, R.J.; Matson, M.L.; Matson, J.V.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    The skid-mounted pilot unit is a smaller version of the main surface equipment used at geothermal geopressured well sites. It will be used to monitor the effectiveness of scale and corrosion inhibitors for the preventing of scaling and corrosion in the main surface equipment. The pilot unit will model the main surface equipment with respect to pressure, flow velocities, and scale inhibitor injection. The pilot unit will also operate under other conditions for optimization determination. Scaling tendencies will be monitored by specially shaped mild steel coupons placed at critical locations throughout the pilot unit. The coupons will be checked at regular intervals, and analysis will include visual, weight and EDAX-SEM analysis. Various scale inhibitors will be tested over a large range of dosage levels in order to screen inhibitors and their effectiveness for water with particular quality parameters.

  13. ­­Fault scaling and permeability controls in geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, D. L.; Hinz, N.

    2014-12-01

    Geologic structures play a crucial role in focusing geothermal fluid circulation in the upper crust. In a variety of geothermal provinces worldwide, studies have shown that young or active faults, and especially locations where faults intersect and interact, generate the accentuated fracture permeability required for geothermal circulation. Fault intersection and interaction areas are characterized by concentrated stresses, which leads to the generation of secondary faults and fractures and heightened permeability. In the Great Basin, USA, fault terminations, fault step-overs (or relay ramps) and accommodation zones are among the most common structural settings for geothermal circulation. Fault scaling relationships provide a first-order indication of the ideal extent and geometry of these features as well as the location(s) and extent of concentrated stresses (and therefore a high potential for permeability generation) within these structures. The most favorable locations for fracture permeability, those with optimal stress concentrations, are on the order of ~1-2 km wide for typical 10-20 km fault lengths in the Great Basin. Examination of known, production geothermal systems within each of these structural settings indicates that although thermal anomalies are commonly 5-10 km wide, the production reservoir and corresponding well fields are confined to smaller areas. We suggest that the limited aerial extent of these production zones is controlled by the extent of concentrated stresses and the most accentuated fracture permeability associated the specific fault intersection or interaction areas. Though is it well established that specific structural geometries like fault terminations, step-overs and accommodation zones are promising 'plays' for geothermal exploration, our analysis further constrains the scale and extent of the most favorable occurrences of these structures, as well as the most prospective permeability zones within them.

  14. The National Energy Strategy - The role of geothermal technology development: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal industry. Topics in this year's conference included Hydrothermal Energy Conversion Technology, Hydrothermal Reservoir Technology, Hydrothermal Hard Rock Penetration Technology, Hot Dry Rock Technology, Geopressured-Geothermal Technology and Magma Energy Technology. Each individual paper has been cataloged separately.

  15. Geoelectrical Characterization of the Punta Banda System: A Possible Structural Control for the Geothermal Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Galvan, C.; Flores-Marquez, E.; Prol-Ledesma, R.; Working Group, I.

    2007-05-01

    The lack of sufficient drinking water in México has become a very serious problem, especially in the northern desert regions of the country. In order to give a real solution to this phenomenon the IMPULSA research program has been created to develope novel technologies based on desalination of sea and brackish water using renewable sources of energy to face the problem. The Punta Banda geothermal anomaly is located towards the northern part of Baja California Peninsula (Mexico). High water temperatures in some wells along the coast depicted a geothermal anomaly. An audiomagnetotelluric survey was carried out in the area as a preliminary study, both to understand the process generating these anomalous temperatures and to assess its potential exploitation to supply hot water to desalination plants. Among the electromagnetic methods, the audiomagnetotellurics (AMT) method is appropriated for deep groundwater and geothermal studies. The survey consisted of 27 AMT stations covering a 5 km profile along the Agua Blanca Fault. The employed array allowed us to characterize the geoelectrical properties of the main structures up to 500 m depth. Two main geoelectrical zones were identified: 1) a shallow low resistivity media located at the central portion of the profile, coinciding with the Maneadero valley and 2) two high resitivity structures bordering the conductive zone possibly related to NS faulting, already identified by previous geophysical studies. These results suggest that the main geothermal anomalies are controlled by the dominant structural regime in the zone.

  16. Regional and local networks of horizontal control, Cerro Prieto geothermal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal area in the Mexicali Valley 30 km southeast of Mexicali, Baja California, is probably deforming due to (1) the extraction of large volumes of steam and hot water, and (2) active tectonism. Two networks of precise horizontal control were established in Mexicali Valley by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1977 - 1978 to measure both types of movement as they occur. These networks consisted of (1) a regional trilateration net brought into the mountain ranges west of the geothermal area from survey stations on an existing U.S. Geological Survey crustal-strain network north of the international border, and (2) a local net tied to stations in the regional net and encompassing the area of present and planned geothermal production. Survey lines in this net were selected to span areas of probable ground-surface movements in and around the geothermal area. Electronic distance measuring (EDM) instruments, operating with a modulated laser beam, were used to measure the distances between stations in both networks. The regional net was run using a highly precise long-range EDM instrument, helicopters for transportation of men and equipment to inaccessible stations on mountain peaks, and a fixed wing airplane flying along the line of sight. Precision of measurements with this complex long-range system approached 0-2 ppm of line length. The local net was measured with a medium-range EDM instrument requiring minimal ancillary equipment. Precision of measurements with this less complex system approached 3 ppm for the shorter line lengths. The detection and analysis of ground-surface movements resulting from tectonic strains or induced by geothermal fluid withdrawal is dependent on subsequent resurveys of these networks. ?? 1979.

  17. Review and evaluation of literature on testing of chemical additives for scale control in geothermal fluids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, C.H.; Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    A selected group of reported tests of chemical additives in actual geothermal fluids are reviewed and evaluated to summarize the status of chemical scale-control testing and identify information and testing needs. The task distinguishes between scale control in the cooling system of a flash plant and elsewhere in the utilization system due to the essentially different operating environments involved. Additives for non-cooling geothermal fluids are discussed by scale type: silica, carbonate, and sulfide.

  18. Structural Controls of Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Field, Malhuer County, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J. H.; Faulds, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Detailed mapping (1:24,000) of the Neal Hot Springs area (90 km2) in eastern Oregon is part of a larger study of geothermal systems in the Basin and Range, which focuses on the structural controls of geothermal activity. The study area lies within the intersection of two regional grabens, the middle-late Miocene, N-striking, Oregon-Idaho graben and younger late Miocene to Holocene, NW-striking, western Snake River Plain graben. The geothermal field is marked by Neal Hot Springs, which effuse from opaline sinter mounds just north of Bully Creek. Wells producing geothermal fluids, with temperatures at 138°C, intersect a major, W-dipping, NNW-striking, high-angle normal fault at depths of 850-915 m. Displacement along this structure dies southward, with likely horse-tailing, which commonly produces high fracture density and a zone of high permeability conducive for channeling hydrothermal fluids. Mapping reveals that the geothermal resource lies within a local, left step-over. 'Hard-linkage' between strands of the left-stepping normal fault, revealed through a study of well chips and well logs, occurs through two concealed structures. Both are W-striking faults, with one that runs parallel to Cottonwood Creek and one 0.5 km N of the creek. Injection wells intersect these two transverse structures within the step-over. Stepping and displacement continue to the NW of the known geothermal field, along W-dipping, N-striking faults that cut lower to middle Miocene Hog Creek Formation, consisting of silicic and mafic volcanic rocks. These N-striking faults were likely initiated during initial Oregon-Idaho graben subsidence (15.3-15.1 Ma), with continued development through late Miocene. Bully Creek Formation deposits, middle to upper Miocene lacustrine and pyroclastic rocks, concomitantly filled the sub half-grabens, and they dip gently to moderately eastward. Younger, western Snake River Plain deposits, upper Miocene to Pliocene fluvial, lacustrine, and pyroclastic rocks

  19. Tectonic and Structural Controls of Geothermal Activity in the Great Basin Region, Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulds, J. E.; Hinz, N.; Kreemer, C. W.

    2012-12-01

    We are conducting a thorough inventory of structural settings of geothermal systems (>400 total) in the extensional to transtensional Great Basin region of the western USA. Most of the geothermal systems in this region are not related to upper crustal magmatism and thus regional tectonic and local structural controls are the most critical factors controlling the locations of the geothermal activity. A system of NW-striking dextral faults known as the Walker Lane accommodates ~20% of the North American-Pacific plate motion in the western Great Basin and is intimately linked to N- to NNE-striking normal fault systems throughout the region. Overall, geothermal systems are concentrated in areas with the highest strain rates within or proximal to the eastern and western margins of the Great Basin, with the high temperature systems clustering in transtensional areas of highest strain rate in the northwestern Great Basin. Enhanced extension in the northwestern Great Basin probably results from the northwestward termination of the Walker Lane and the concomitant transfer of dextral shear into west-northwest directed extension, thus producing a broad transtensional region. The capacity of geothermal power plants also correlates with strain rates, with the largest (hundreds of megawatts) along the Walker Lane or San Andreas fault system, where strain rates range from 10-100 nanostrain/yr to 1,000 nanostrain/yr, respectively. Lesser systems (tens of megawatts) reside in the Basin and Range (outside the Walker Lane), where local strain rates are typically geothermal fields catalogued, step-overs or relay ramps in normal fault zones serve as the most favorable setting, hosting ~32% of the systems. Such areas have multiple, overlapping fault strands, increased fracture density, and thus enhanced permeability. Other common settings include a) intersections between normal faults and strike-slip or oblique-slip faults (27%), where multiple minor faults connect major structures and

  20. Geothermal and Hydrocarbon Regimes, Northern Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Paul H.

    1975-01-01

    Geothermal heat flow in the Gulf basin is primarily a function of its hydrology. Water expelled from sediments with deepening burial and increasing overburden load escapes upward and toward the basin margin. Where it moves freely in the hydropressure zone, the basin is relatively cool; but where rapid sedimentation and contemporaneous faulting have retarded water loss from compacting sediments, the interstitial fluid pressure reflects a part of the overburden load, and the formation waters are superheated and geopressured. The geopressured zone is common below depths of about 3 km (9,600 ft) in the basin, beneath an area of 375,000 km{sup 2} (150,000 mi{sup 2}), and extends downward perhaps 15 km (50,000 ft) to the base of Cenozoic deposits. The upper boundary of the geopressured zone is the most important physical interface in the basin. Across it the head of formation water increases downward from a few hundred to several thousand feet above sea level; the geothermal gradient increases downward from 20° to 40° C/km to 100°C/km or more; the salinity of formation water decreases downward, commonly by 50,000 mg/l or more; and the porosity of shale and sand increases downward by 10 to 25 percent. Petroleum matures in geopressured clay at 140° to 220°F. Montmorillonite is dehydrated at 180° to 250°F; fresh water released may equal half the volume of the mineral altered. Molecular solubility in fresh water of the hydrocarbons in Gulf basin crude, under geopressured zone conditions, could account for petroleum resources of the basin. Exsolution of petroleum hydrocarbons near the geopressured zone boundary could account for observed occurrences. This geopressured zone is a natural pressure vessel from which superheated water of moderate salinity could be produced through wells, each yielding millions of gallons a day at pressures of several thousand pounds per square inch, and temperatures above 300°F. with considerable amounts of methane gas in solution. (63

  1. Geothermal and Hydrocarbon Regimes, Northern Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Paul H.

    1975-01-01

    Geothermal heat flow in the Gulf basin is primarily a function of its hydrology. Water expelled from sediments with deepening burial and increasing overburden load escapes upward and toward the basin margin. Where it moves freely in the hydropressure zone, the basin is relatively cool; but where rapid sedimentation and contemporaneous faulting have retarded water loss from compacting sediments, the interstitial fluid pressure reflects a part of the overburden load, and the formation waters are superheated and geopressured. The geopressured zone is common below depths of about 3 km (9,600 ft) in the basin, beneath an area of 375,000 km{sup 2} (150,000 mi{sup 2}), and extends downward perhaps 15 km (50,000 ft) to the base of Cenozoic deposits. The upper boundary of the geopressured zone is the most important physical interface in the basin. Across it the head of formation water increases downward from a few hundred to several thousand feet above sea level; the geothermal gradient increases downward from 20° to 40° C/km to 100°C/km or more; the salinity of formation water decreases downward, commonly by 50,000 mg/l or more; and the porosity of shale and sand increases downward by 10 to 25 percent. Petroleum matures in geopressured clay at 140° to 220°F. Montmorillonite is dehydrated at 180° to 250°F; fresh water released may equal half the volume of the mineral altered. Molecular solubility in fresh water of the hydrocarbons in Gulf basin crude, under geopressured zone conditions, could account for petroleum resources of the basin. Exsolution of petroleum hydrocarbons near the geopressured zone boundary could account for observed occurrences. This geopressured zone is a natural pressure vessel from which superheated water of moderate salinity could be produced through wells, each yielding millions of gallons a day at pressures of several thousand pounds per square inch, and temperatures above 300°F. with considerable amounts of methane gas in solution. (63

  2. Structurally Controlled Geothermal Systems in the Central Cascades Arc-Backarc Regime, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wannamaker, Philip E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Energy and Geoscience Inst. (EGI)

    2016-07-31

    The goal of this project has been to analyze available magnetotelluric (MT) geophysical surveys, structural geology based on mapping and LiDAR, and fluid geochemical data, to identify high-temperature fluid upwellings, critically stressed rock volumes, and other evidence of structurally-controlled geothermal resources. Data were to be integrated to create conceptual models of volcanic-hosted geothermal resources along the Central Cascades arc segment, especially in the vicinity of Mt. Jefferson to Three Sisters. LiDAR data sets available at Oregon State University (OSU) allowed detailed structural geology modeling through forest canopy. Copious spring and well fluid chemistries, including isotopes, were modeled using Geo-T and TOUGHREACT software.

  3. Regional and Local Controls on the Distribution of Geothermal Systems in the Great Basin, Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolbaugh, M. F.; Blewitt, G.; Faulds, J. E.; Kreemer, C. W.

    2005-12-01

    In the Great Basin (GB) of the western United States, geothermal systems with reservoir temperatures in excess of 150 C can be classified into two main categories (magmatic and amagmatic) according to the presence or absence of shallow magmatic heat sources. Magmatic systems are restricted to the margins of the GB where they are closely associated with Quaternary silicic volcanic rocks, whereas amagmatic systems occur over a large portion of the Great Basin interior and are not spatially associated with young silicic volcanism. A tabulation of temperature gradients for known geothermal systems in the world confirms research by others indicating that both magmatic and amagmatic systems occur within areas of high temperature gradients and high heat flow. However, high heat flow alone is not sufficient to explain the abundance of high-temperature geothermal activity in the GB interior. While the distribution of favorable host rocks likely plays a role, active crustal tectonics appears instrumental in explaining patterns of geothermal activity. At a detailed scale, Quaternary faults control the location of most geothermal systems in the GB. However, hundreds of Quaternary faults are distributed throughout the GB, and most do not host high-temperature geothermal resources. Spatial statistical analysis demonstrates that high-temperature geothermal systems (more than 150 C) are preferentially associated with NE-striking Quaternary faults, which in turn are oriented roughly perpendicular to the current direction of crustal extension in the western GB. Maps of active crustal extension rates in the GB, derived from Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity measurements and estimated slip rates on Quaternary faults, correlate well with the distribution of high-temperature geothermal systems and help explain why some faults with lower slip rates or unfavorable orientations don't host geothermal activity. Many geothermal systems in the GB occur in a broad transitional region

  4. STRUCTURAL CONTROLS OF THE EMERSON PASS GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM, NORTHWESTERN NEVADA: CHARACTERIZATION OF A "BLIND" SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Ryan B [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, University of Nevada, Reno; Faulds, James E [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, University of Nevada, Reno

    2013-10-27

    , which accommodates motion such that the Mesozoic Nightingale sequence is juxtaposed with late Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The NW dextral fault, the NNE-down to east fault, and several NNE-down to the west faults intersect roughly at the thermal anomaly in Emerson Pass. This suggests that fault intersections locally control upwelling of geothermal fluids within the step-over. Based on this assumption, it is proposed that the area near Buckbrush Springs be investigated further for geothermal potential. At this location, a NNE-down to the west normal fault, with >1 km of offset, intersects a NW-striking down to the south fault at a small left step in the NNE fault. Further studies will include collection of available kinematic indicators near the shallow thermal anomaly in Emerson Pass, geothermometry on Buckbrush Spring, and possibly drilling of temperature gradient wells in Emerson Pass and at Buckbrush Spring.

  5. Identification of High Angle Structures Controlling the Geothermal System at Rye Patch, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehni, W. J.

    2001-12-01

    The successful completion of a recent well in the Rye Patch Geothermal field, located in Pershing County, Nevada, supports the geologic and geophysical interpretation that high angle structures control this geothermal system. Although lower angle structures are present, hot water migrates up from deeper sources along high angle faults more efficiently than structures with a shallower dip. Earlier attempts to develop the resource focused on structures that dipped at an angle between 60 and 70 degrees from horizontal. Recently acquired geophysical data indicated that numerous high angle structures were present in the area, with dips between 80 and 90 degrees. Original drilling targets focused on the subsurface projection of a surface structure, mapped as the Rye Patch fault, with an erroneously low angle. These early attempts at drilling were discouraging and might have been more successful if additional geology and geophysics were used to evaluate the geothermal system and map the Rye Patch fault more accurately. The successful completion of the most recent well can be attributed to the incorporation of the geology of previous wells with additional geology and geophysics. Temperature gradient holes were used to confirm that the Rye Patch fault provided the primary plumbing for this geothermal system, and 3D seismic data indicated that most of the structures had dips between 80 and 90 degrees. Geothermometry at Rye Patch indicates that the resource has a relatively high quartz equilibrium temperature and it is speculated that the higher the angle of the structural control, the higher the resource temperature. The dip of Basin and Range normal faults varies considerably and the interpretation of these structures for geothermal, fossil geothermal mineral prospects, and or oil and gas prospects is important. At Rye Patch, the high angle structure feeds geothermal fluids into cavernous limestone beds, dipping to the west usually between 40 and 60 degrees, which is a

  6. Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-04-23

    This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. It is intended for geothermal experts in either the private or public sector who are less familiar with how the electricity system operates beyond the geothermal plant. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this "big picture" three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology’s market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

  7. The Reduction of Distress Using Therapeutic Geothermal Water Procedures in a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolita Rapolienė

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is an element of each human’s life and an indicator of its quality. Thermal mineral waters have been used empirically for the treatment of different diseases for centuries. Aim of the Study. To investigate the effects of highly mineralised geothermal water balneotherapy on distress and health risk. Methodology. A randomized controlled clinical trial was performed with 130 seafarers: 65 underwent 2 weeks of balneotherapy with 108 g/L full-mineralisation bath treatment; the others were in control group. The effect of distress was measured using the General Symptoms Distress Scale. Factorial and logistic regression analyses were used for statistical analysis. Results. A significant positive effect on distress (P<0.001 was established after 2 weeks of treatment: the number of stress symptoms declined by 60%, while the intensity of stress symptoms reduced by 41%, and the control improved by 32%. Health risks caused by distress were reduced, and resources increased, whereas the probability of general health risk decreased by 18% (P=0.01. Conclusion. Balneotherapy with highly mineralised geothermal water reduces distress, by reducing the health risk posed by distress by 26%, increasing the health resources by 11%, and reducing probability of general health risk by 18%. Balneotherapy is an effective preventive tool and can take a significant place in integrative medicine.

  8. The Reduction of Distress Using Therapeutic Geothermal Water Procedures in a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapolienė, Lolita; Razbadauskas, Artūras; Jurgelėnas, Antanas

    2015-01-01

    Stress is an element of each human's life and an indicator of its quality. Thermal mineral waters have been used empirically for the treatment of different diseases for centuries. Aim of the Study. To investigate the effects of highly mineralised geothermal water balneotherapy on distress and health risk. Methodology. A randomized controlled clinical trial was performed with 130 seafarers: 65 underwent 2 weeks of balneotherapy with 108 g/L full-mineralisation bath treatment; the others were in control group. The effect of distress was measured using the General Symptoms Distress Scale. Factorial and logistic regression analyses were used for statistical analysis. Results. A significant positive effect on distress (P < 0.001) was established after 2 weeks of treatment: the number of stress symptoms declined by 60%, while the intensity of stress symptoms reduced by 41%, and the control improved by 32%. Health risks caused by distress were reduced, and resources increased, whereas the probability of general health risk decreased by 18% (P = 0.01). Conclusion. Balneotherapy with highly mineralised geothermal water reduces distress, by reducing the health risk posed by distress by 26%, increasing the health resources by 11%, and reducing probability of general health risk by 18%. Balneotherapy is an effective preventive tool and can take a significant place in integrative medicine. PMID:25866680

  9. Geothermal Program Review VII: proceedings. DOE Research and Development for the Geothermal Marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Technology Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an indepth review of its entire geothermal R and D program. The 2--3 day conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R and D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal industry. This year's conference, Program Review 7, was held in San Francisco on March 21--23, 1989. As indicated by its title, ''DOE Research and Development for the Geothermal Marketplace'', Program Review 7 emphasized developing technologies, concepts, and innovations having potential for commercial application in the foreseeable future. Program Review 7 was comprised of eight sessions including an opening session and a special presentation on the ''Role of Geothermal Energy in Minimizing Global Environmental Problems.'' The five technical sessions covered GTD-sponsored R and D in the areas of hydrothermal (two sessions), hot dry rock, geopressured, and magma. Presentations were made by the relevant field researchers, and sessions were chaired by the appropriate DOE Operations Office Geothermal Program Manager. The technical papers and commentary of invited speakers contained in these Proceedings have been compiled in the order in which they were presented at Program Review 7.

  10. Field based geothermal exploration: Structural controls in the Tarutung Basin/North Central Sumatra (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukman, M.; Moeck, I.

    2012-04-01

    The Tarutung Basin is one of several basins along the prominent Sumatra Fault System (SFS) which represents a dextral strike slip fault zone segmented into individual fault strands. The basins are located at right-stepping transfer. The Tarutung Basin hosts geothermal manifestations such as hot springs and travertines indicating a geothermal system with some decent potential in the subsurface. As part of geothermal exploration, field geology is investigated focusing on how the structural setting controls the thermal manifestation distribution. A complex fault pattern is now newly mapped and evidences sinistral faults striking E-W (Silangkitang), normal faults striking SE-NW at the eastern strand of Tarutung Basin (Sitompul) and normal faults striking NW-SE at the western strand of the basin (Sitaka). These structures form an angle greater than 450 with respect to the current maximum principal stress which is oriented in N-S. Secondary sinistral shear fractures identified as antithetic Riedel shears can be correlated with hot spring locations at Silangkitang, forming an angle of 500 with respect to the current maximum stress. A large angle of normal fault and antithetic Riedel shear trend with respect to the current maximum stress direction indicates that the structures have been rotated. Unidentified dextral strike slip faults might exist at the eastern strand of Tarutung Basin to accommodate the clockwise rotation between the eastern boundary of the basin and the NW-SE striking normal fault of Panabungan. Normal faults striking parallel with the SFS East of the basin are interpreted as dilatational jogs caused by the clockwise rotated block movement with respect to the NW-SE fault trend sinistral shear along ENE-WSW faults. Silicified pryroclastics in association with large discharge at hot springs at these NW-SE striking normal faults support this hypothesis. As proposed by Nivinkovich (1976) and Nishimura (1986) Sumatra has rotated 20° clockwise since the last

  11. Environmental assessment of the projected uses for geopressured waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.S.; Manning, J.A.; Meriwether, J.

    1977-11-16

    An assessment of possible environmental effects of the use of geopressured water of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast has been made. The uses considered include generation of electric power, production of low pressure steam for process heat and the direct use of the hot water for space heating. Based upon the projected uses, the direct and indirect emissions are estimated and the impact of these emissions upon the environment are discussed. The possible impacts of the production of large volumes of geopressured fluids are also considered in terms of possibility of subsidence and earthquakes. A summary of available analyses of Gulf Coast deep waters is listed as a guide for estimating expected emissions. Primary environmental problems are identified as waste brine disposal, accidental releases of brines, and subsidence. Minor problems such as cooling tower blowdown streams, noncondensable gas emissions, wind drift from exhaust plumes, noise levels, and construction activities are considered.

  12. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091762 Guo Wancheng(Xining Jiulong Engineering Investigation Ltd.,Xining 810700,China);Shi Xingmei Development and Utilization of Guide Basin’s Geothermal Resources of Qinghai Province(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,35(3),2008,p.79-80,92,2 illus.,2 tables,2 refs.)Key words:geothermal resources,QinghaiThis paper introduced the background of geothermal conditions and the many years of geothermal exploration data in Guide Basin.Then,the authors discussed the geothermal resources feature of Guide basin and raised some opinions on the reasonable development and utilization of geothermal resources.

  13. Humboldt's spa: microbial diversity is controlled by temperature in geothermal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Christine E; Brady, Allyson L; Sharp, Glen H; Grasby, Stephen E; Stott, Matthew B; Dunfield, Peter F

    2014-06-01

    Over 200 years ago Alexander von Humboldt (1808) observed that plant and animal diversity peaks at tropical latitudes and decreases toward the poles, a trend he attributed to more favorable temperatures in the tropics. Studies to date suggest that this temperature-diversity gradient is weak or nonexistent for Bacteria and Archaea. To test the impacts of temperature as well as pH on bacterial and archaeal diversity, we performed pyrotag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes retrieved from 165 soil, sediment and biomat samples of 36 geothermal areas in Canada and New Zealand, covering a temperature range of 7.5-99 °C and a pH range of 1.8-9.0. This represents the widest ranges of temperature and pH yet examined in a single microbial diversity study. Species richness and diversity indices were strongly correlated to temperature, with R(2) values up to 0.62 for neutral-alkaline springs. The distributions were unimodal, with peak diversity at 24 °C and decreasing diversity at higher and lower temperature extremes. There was also a significant pH effect on diversity; however, in contrast to previous studies of soil microbial diversity, pH explained less of the variability (13-20%) than temperature in the geothermal samples. No correlation was observed between diversity values and latitude from the equator, and we therefore infer a direct temperature effect in our data set. These results demonstrate that temperature exerts a strong control on microbial diversity when considered over most of the temperature range within which life is possible.

  14. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) R&D Program: US Geothermal Resources Review and Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entingh, Dan; McLarty, Lynn

    2000-11-30

    The purpose of this report is to lay the groundwork for an emerging process to assess U.S. geothermal resources that might be suitable for development as Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). Interviews of leading geothermists indicate that doing that will be intertwined with updating assessments of U.S. higher-quality hydrothermal resources and reviewing methods for discovering ''hidden'' hydrothermal and EGS resources. The report reviews the history and status of assessment of high-temperature geothermal resources in the United States. Hydrothermal, Enhanced, and Hot Dry Rock resources are addressed. Geopressured geothermal resources are not. There are three main uses of geothermal resource assessments: (1) They inform industry and other interest parties of reasonable estimates of the amounts and likely locations of known and prospective geothermal resources. This provides a basis for private-sector decisions whether or not to enter the geothermal energy business at all, and for where to look for useful resources. (2) They inform government agencies (Federal, State, local) of the same kinds of information. This can inform strategic decisions, such as whether to continue to invest in creating and stimulating a geothermal industry--e.g., through research or financial incentives. And it informs certain agencies, e.g., Department of Interior, about what kinds of tactical operations might be required to support such activities as exploration and leasing. (3) They help the experts who are performing the assessment(s) to clarify their procedures and data, and in turn, provide the other two kinds of users with a more accurate interpretation of what the resulting estimates mean. The process of conducting this assessment brings a spotlight to bear on what has been accomplished in the domain of detecting and understanding reservoirs, in the period since the last major assessment was conducted.

  15. Recovery act. Characterizing structural controls of EGS-candidate and conventional geothermal reservoirs in the Great Basin. Developing successful exploration strategies in extended terranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulds, James [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-06-25

    We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the structural controls of geothermal systems within the Great Basin and adjacent regions. Our main objectives were to: 1) Produce a catalogue of favorable structural environments and models for geothermal systems. 2) Improve site-specific targeting of geothermal resources through detailed studies of representative sites, which included innovative techniques of slip tendency analysis of faults and 3D modeling. 3) Compare and contrast the structural controls and models in different tectonic settings. 4) Synthesize data and develop methodologies for enhancement of exploration strategies for conventional and EGS systems, reduction in the risk of drilling non-productive wells, and selecting the best EGS sites.

  16. Geothermal Program Review X: proceedings. Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- the Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R&D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R&D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year`s conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, ``Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,`` focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R&D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  17. Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, B.C.; Harman, G.; Pitsenbarger, J. [eds.

    1996-02-01

    Geothermal Energy Technology (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production.

  18. Geothermal energy

    OpenAIRE

    Manzella A.

    2015-01-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with p...

  19. Geothermal GIS coverage of the Great Basin, USA: Defining regional controls and favorable exploration terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolbaugh, M.F.; Sawatzky, D.L.; Oppliger, G.L.; Minor, T.B.; Raines, G.L.; Shevenell, L.; Blewitt, G.; Louie, J.N.

    2003-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) of geothermal resources, built last year for the state of Nevada, is being expanded to cover the Great Basin, USA. Data from that GIS is being made available to industry, other researchers, and the public via a web site at the Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy, Reno, Nevada. That web site features a search engine, supports ArcExplorer?? for on-line map construction, and provides downloadable data layers in several formats. Though data collection continues, preliminary analysis has begun. Contour maps of geothermal temperatures, constructed using geothermometer temperatures calculated from a Great Basin geochemical database compiled by the Geo-Heat Center, reveal distinctive trends and patterns. As expected, magmatic-type and extensional-type geothermal systems have profoundly different associations, with magmatic-type systems following major tectonic boundaries, and extensional-type systems associating with regionally high heat flow, thin crust, active faulting, and high extensional strain rates. As described by earlier researchers, including Rowen and Wetlaufer (1981) and Koenig and McNitt (1983), high-temperature (> 100??C) geothermal systems appear to follow regional northeast trends, most conspicuously including the Humboldt structural zone in Nevada, the "Black Rock-Alvord Desert" trend in Oregon and Nevada, and the "Newcastle-Roosevelt" trend in Utah and Nevada. Weights-of-evidence analyses confirm a preference of high-temperature geothermal systems for young northeast-trending faults, but the distribution of geothermal systems correlates even better with high rates of crustal extension, as measured from global positioning system (GPS) stations in Nevada. A predictive map of geothermal potential based only on areas of high extensional strain rates and high heat flux does an excellent job of regionally predicting the location of most known geothermal systems in Nevada, and may prove useful in identifying blind

  20. Idaho Geothermal Commercialization Program. Idaho geothermal handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, G.D.; Esposito, L.; Montgomery, M.

    1980-03-01

    The following topics are covered: geothermal resources in Idaho, market assessment, community needs assessment, geothermal leasing procedures for private lands, Idaho state geothermal leasing procedures - state lands, federal geothermal leasing procedures - federal lands, environmental and regulatory processes, local government regulations, geothermal exploration, geothermal drilling, government funding, private funding, state and federal government assistance programs, and geothermal legislation. (MHR)

  1. Geothermal Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufe, Charles Glenn

    1983-01-01

    Major activities, programs, and conferences in geothermal energy during 1982 are highlighted. These include first comprehensive national assessment of U.S. low-temperature geothermal resources (conducted by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Energy), map production by U.S. Geological Survey, geothermal plant production, and others. (JN)

  2. State-of-the-art hydrogen sulfide control for geothermal energy systems: 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, F.B.; Hill, J.H.; Phelps, P.L. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    Existing state-of-the-art technologies for removal of hydrogen sulfide are discussed along with a comparative assessment of their efficiencies, reliabilities and costs. Other related topics include the characteristics of vapor-dominated and liquid-dominated resources, energy conversion systems, and the sources of hydrogen sulfide emissions. It is indicated that upstream control technologies are preferred over downsteam technologies primarily because upstream removal of hydrogen sulfide inherently controls all downstream emissions including steam-stacking. Two upstream processes for vapor-dominated resources appear promising; the copper sulfate (EIC) process, and the steam converter (Coury) process combined with an off-gas abatement system such as a Stretford unit. For liquid-dominated systems that produce steam, the process where the non-condensible gases are scrubbed with spent geothermal fluid appears to be promising. An efficient downstream technology is the Stretford process for non-condensible gas removal. In this case, partitioning in the surface condenser will determine the overall abatement efficiency. Recommendations for future environmental control technology programs are included.

  3. Gulf Coast Programmatic Environmental Assessment Geothermal Well Testing: The Frio Formation of Texas and Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    In accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR Part 711, environmental assessments are being prepared for significant activities and individual projects of the Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). This environmental assessment of geopressure well testing addresses, on a regional basis, the expected activities, affected environments, and possible impacts in a broad sense. The specific part of the program addressed by this environmental assessment is geothermal well testing by the take-over of one or more unsuccessful oil wells before the drilling rig is removed and completion of drilling into the geopressured zone. Along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast (Plate 1 and Overlay) water at high temperatures and high pressures is trapped within Gulf basin sediments. The water is confined within or below essentially impermeable shale sequences and carries most or all of the overburden pressure. Such zones are referred to as geopressured strata. These fluids and sediments are heated to abnormally high temperatures (up to 260 C) and may provide potential reservoirs for economical production of geothermal energy. The obvious need in resource development is to assess the resource. Ongoing studies to define large-sand-volume reservoirs will ultimately define optimum sites for drilling special large diameter wells to perform large volume flow production tests. In the interim, existing well tests need to be made to help define and assess the resource. The project addressed by this environmental assessment is the performance of a geothermal well test in high potential geothermal areas. Well tests involve four major actions each of which may or may not be required for each of the well tests. The four major actions are: site preparation, drilling a salt-water disposal well, actual flow testing, and abandonment of the well.

  4. 断裂构造对地热田形成的控制作用%Control of Faults on the Geothermal Field Formed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亚娟; 刘立军; 张少才; 牛树银; 夏帅; 王敏; 王雨豪

    2016-01-01

    Niutuo geothermal field is located in Central Beijing, Tianjin and Bao hinterland of economic development,as has rich geothermal reserves,including wide distribution area and low-temperature geothermal resources.Our studies suggest that broken projections in Niutuo is relatively complete.Faults are well developed in geothermal field through the analysis of geothermal fields to spread morphology and thermal energy storage feature, including the geothermal field distribution.Then we discuss the analysis under the mantle plume control the heat source formation,upward migration and the formation of geothermal fields.%河北牛驼镇地热田位于环京、津、保经济发展的腹地,拥有地热储量丰富、分布面积广的中—低温地热资源。研究认为:牛驼镇断凸是一个相对完整的、断裂构造比较发育的地热田。通过分析地热田展布形态、热储特征、地温场分布特征,进而探讨了地幔热柱控制下其热源的形成、向上运移,及其地热田的形成。

  5. Geothermal energy and the utility market -- the opportunities and challenges for expanding geothermal energy in a competitive supply market: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year's conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,'' focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  6. Geothermal Energy Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, Gary

    2015-07-28

    The Cleary University Geothermal Energy Retrofit project involved: 1. A thermal conductivity test; 2. Assessment of alternative horizontal and vertical ground heat exchanger options; 3. System design; 4. Asphalt was stripped from adjacent parking areas and a vertical geothermal ground heat exchanger system installed; 5. the ground heat exchanger was connected to building; 6. a system including 18 heat pumps, control systems, a manifold and pumps, piping for fluid transfer and ductwork for conditioned air were installed throughout the building.

  7. Assessment of Geothermal Resources of the United States--1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.E.; Williams, D.L. [eds.

    1975-01-01

    This is the first of two significant assessments of the geological energy potential of the U.S. The second one is U.S.G.S. Circular 790. Systems analyzed include: Hydrothermal convection systems (with estimates of potential for many specific sites in the West), Igneous related systems (related to current or recent volcanism), Estimates of the conductive transport of heat in most areas of CONUS, Recovery of heat from molten igneous systems (magma), and Geopressured geothermal energy in the Gulf Coast area. The significance of this report is that it began to give policy makers a first handle on the quantities and qualities of geothermal energy in the ground in much of the U.S. Economics (costs and revenues) are not considered. (DJE - 2005)

  8. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122531 Hu Lingzhi ( Institute of Geological Engineering Design & Research of Beijing,Miyun 101500,China );Wang Jiankang Discussion on the Feasibility of Geothermal Resources Development and Utilization in Miyun District,Beijing ( City Geology,ISSN1007-1903,CN11-5519 / P,6 ( 3 ), 2011,p.34-35,59 ,) Key words:geothermal resources,Beijing Geothermal,as a new type of clean energy with the integrated trinity of " heat energy-mineral resource-water resource ",

  9. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141588 Guo Shiyan(Green Energy Geothermai Development Co.,SINOPEC,Xianyang 712000,China);Li Xiaojun Reservoir Stratum Characteristics and Geothermal Resources Potential of Rongcheng Uplift Geothermal Field in Baoding,Hebei Province(Chinese Journal of Geology,ISSN0563-5020,CN11-1937/P,48(3),2013,p.922-931,2 illus.,4 tables,10 refs.)Key words:geothermal fields,Hebei Province

  10. Review of geothermal energy resources in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam Zaigham, Nayyer [Department of Geology, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Alam Nayyar, Zeeshan [Department of Applied Physics, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Hisamuddin, Noushaba [422 Wycliffe, Irvine, CA 92602 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its energy resources, remains energy deficient and has to rely heavily on imports of hydrocarbon products to satisfy hardly its needs. Moreover, a very large part of the rural areas does not have the electrification facilities because they are either too remote and/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. Pakistan has wide spectrum of high potential renewable energy sources, conventional and as well non-conventional. Many of them have not been adequately explored, exploited and developed. Geothermal energy is one of them. Pakistan can be benefited by harnessing the geothermal option of energy generation as substitute energy in areas where sources exist. Most of the high enthalpy geothermal resources of the world are within the seismic belts associated with zones of crustal weakness like the seismo-tectonic belt that passes through Pakistan having inherited a long geological history of geotectonic events. The present study of the geotectonic framework suggests that Pakistan should not be lacking in commercially exploitable sources of geothermal energy. This view is further strengthened by (a) the fairly extensive development of alteration zones and fumeroles in many regions of Pakistan, (b) the presence of a fairly large number of hot springs in different parts of the country, and (c) the indications of Quaternary volcanism associated with the Chagai arc extending into Iran and Afghanistan border areas. These manifestations of geothermal energy are found within three geotectonic or geothermal environments, i.e., (1) geo-pressurized systems related to basin subsidence, (2) seismo-tectonic or suture-related systems, and (3) systems related to Neogene-Quaternary volcanism. A few localities, scattered sporadically all over the country, have been studied to evaluate only some of the basic characteristic parameters of the geothermal prospects. The present review study the geothermal activities of varying intensity and

  11. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150342Guan Yu(Geo-Environment Monitoring Station of Anhui Province,Hefei230001,China);Chen Xun On Shallow Geothermal Energy Investigation in Urban Planning Zone of Bengbu in Anhui Province(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674-3636,CN32-1796/P,38(1),2014,p.88-93,2illus.,4tables,6refs.)Key words:geothermal energy,Anhui Province The authors conducted studies on shallow geothermal energy in urban planning zone in Bengbu of Anhui Province,depicted the geological settings of shallow geothermal energy,analyzed the natural features,heat exchange

  12. Geothermal Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leffel, C.S., Jr.; Eisenberg, R.A.

    1977-06-01

    This handbook is intended to assist the physicist, chemist, engineer, and geologist engaged in discovering and developing geothermal energy resources. This first section contains a glossary of the approximately 500 most frequently occurring geological, physical, and engineering terms, chosen from the geothermal literature. Sections 2 through 8 are fact sheets that discuss such subjects as geothermal gradients, rock classification, and geological time scales. Section 9 contains conversion tables for the physical quantities of interest for energy research in general and for geothermal research in particular.

  13. Structural Controls of the Emerson Pass Geothermal System, Washoe County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Ryan B [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, University of Nevada, Reno; Faulds, James E [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, University of Nevada, Reno

    2012-09-30

    We have conducted a detailed geologic study to better characterize a blind geothermal system in Emerson Pass on the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe Reservation, western Nevada. A thermal anomaly was discovered in Emerson Pass by use of 2 m temperature surveys deployed within a structurally favorable setting and proximal to surface features indicative of geothermal activity. The anomaly lies at the western edge of a broad left step at the northeast end of Pyramid Lake between the north- to north-northeast-striking, west-dipping, Fox and Lake Range normal faults. The 2-m temperature surveys have defined a N-S elongate thermal anomaly that has a maximum recorded temperature of ~60°C and resides on a north- to north-northeaststriking fault. Travertine mounds, chalcedonic silica veins, and silica cemented Pleistocene lacustrine gravels in Emerson Pass indicate a robust geothermal system active at the surface in the recent past. Structural complexity and spatial heterogeneities of the strain and stress field have developed in the step-over region, but kinematic data suggest a WNW-trending (~280° azimuth) extension direction. The geothermal system is likely hosted in Emerson Pass as a result of enhanced permeability generated by the intersection of two oppositely dipping, southward terminating north- to north-northwest-striking (Fox Range fault) and northnortheast- striking faults.

  14. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131088 Fan Difu (Geological Survey of Jiangsu Province , Nanjing 210018 , China ); Xu Xueqiu Origin Study of Geothermal Field in Xiaoyangkou of Rudong County in Jiangsu (Journal of Geology , ISSN1674-3636 , CN32-1796/P , 36 (2), 2012 , p.192-197 , 3illus. , 9refs.) Key words : geothermal fields , Jiangsu Province

  15. Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, B.C.; Pichiarella, L.S. [eds.; Kane, L.S.; Henline, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past two months.

  16. Treatment methods for geothermal brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, S.L.; Mathur, A.K.; Garrison, W.

    1979-04-01

    A survey is made of commercially available methods currently in use as well as those which might be used to prevent scaling and corrosion in geothermal brines. More emphasis is placed on scaling. Treatments are classified as inhibitors, alterants and coagulants; they are applied to control scaling and corrosion in fresh and waste geothermal brines. Recommendations for research in brine treatment are described.

  17. HEMS technique for heat-harm control and geo-thermal utilization in deep mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pingye Guo; Guolong Zhu; Manchao He

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing exploitation scope and intensity, the shallow resources would be exhausted in the future;and the deep mining will become an essential choice. In deep tunnel engineering, the heat-harm becomes one of the main barriers. Investigations on high temperature coal mine have been done in Northern China, with the constructing of three models of high temperature mines suffering heat-harm, at the Jiahe mine, Sanhejian mine and Zhangshuanglou mine. The domestic and abroad cooling technologies of the mine respectively are also summarized after comparatively analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Finally, we find that the high temperature exchange machinery system (HEMS) technology that use mine discharge as the cold source, is excellent to heat-harm control in deep mines. Taking the Jiahe coal mine as an example, we systematically introduce this technology by disposing three main workstations. HEMS technology with its operations and functions in different exploitation levels are accomplished, including the extraction of refrigerating output, the transportation of chilled water by closed circulation line, the decompression of circulation lines and equipment by pressure transformation machine, and the heat exchange and cooling of workplace by heat exchange between wind stream and the chilled water. The exchanged heat source from the workplace is taken to ground heating by the circulating water which acts as a carrier. It shows that the HEMS-technology benefit in environment protection and emission reduction. Results of this project illustrate that it is efficient in heat-harm control with the temperature decrease of the workplace down to 26–29 ?C, and being 4–6 ?C lower than the original, and the relative humidity 5%–15%lower than before. It greatly improves the working environment of underground workplace suffering heat-harm of high tem-perature and high humidity. In addition, by the extracting of deep geothermal energy, ground

  18. Design, Development and Testing of a Drillable Straddle Packer for Lost Circulation Control in Geothermal Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabaldon, J.; Glowka, D.A.; Gronewald, P.; Knudsen, S.D.; Raymond, D.W.; Staller, G.E.; Westmoreland, J.J.; Whitlow, G.L.; Wise, J.L.; Wright, E.K.

    1999-04-01

    Lost Circulation is a widespread problem encountered when drilling geothermal wells, and often represents a substantial portion of the cost of drilling a well. The U.S. Department of Energy sponsors research and development work at Sandia National Laboratories in an effort to reduce these lost circulation expenditures. Sandia has developed a down hole tool that improves the effectiveness and reduces th cost of lost circulation cement treatment while drilling geothermal wells. This tool, the Drillable Straddle Packer, is a low-cost disposable device that is used to isolate the loss zone and emplace the cement treatment directly into the region of concern. This report documents the design and development of the Drillabe Straddle Packer, the laboratory and field test results, and the design package that is available to transfer this technology to industry users.

  19. The geothermal partnership: Industry, utilities, and government meeting the challenges of the 90's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal community. This year's conference, Program Review IX, was held in San Francisco on March 19--21, 1991. The theme of this review was The Geothermal Partnership -- Industry, Utilities, and Government Meeting the Challenges of the 90's.'' The importance of this partnership has increased markedly as demands for improved technology must be balanced with available research resources. By working cooperatively, the geothermal community, including industry, utilities, DOE, and other state and federal agencies, can more effectively address common research needs. The challenge currently facing the geothermal partnership is to strengthen the bonds that ultimately will enhance opportunities for future development of geothermal resources. Program Review IX consisted of eight sessions including an opening session. The seven technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy and the progress associated with the Long Valley Exploratory Well. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  20. Site-Specific Analysis of Geothermal Development-Data Files of Prospective Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, F.; Cohen, A.; Pfundstein, R.; Pond, S.

    1977-10-01

    This document presents site-specific data and sample development schedules for the first plant on line at 30 hydrothermal and 7 geopressured prospective sites (prospects) that are believed to be suited for supporting the geothermal generation of electricity. This report includes many prospects from an earlier METREK report on geothermal development scenarios. The list has been augmented with other sites chosen as development prospects by the division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). The DGE additions include a general area called ''Cascade Range''. METREK has chosen the following specific Cascade Range Sites in place of that general area: Baker Hot Springs, Mount Hood, Lassen and Glass Mountain/ Diablo. All the prospects have been selected on the basis of current knowledge of hydrothermal and geopressured resources. The selection is intended for program planning purposes. Neither METREK nor the Federal government warrants that any of these sites will necessarily be developed, nor does their selection necessarily imply any commitment on the part of the Federal government to their development. [DJE-2005

  1. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101802 Fang Bin (China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Yang Yunjun Characteristics and Resource Evaluation of the Jiwa Geothermal Field in Central Qiangtang,Northern Tibet,China (Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-

  2. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112453 Li Qing (First Design and Research Institute,Ministry of Mechanical Industry, Bengbu 233000, China); Li Yixiang Application of Shallow Geothermal Energy Resources in the Hefei Area(Geology

  3. Geothermal Websites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya

    2005-03-01

    The Internet has become such an important part of our every day life. It can be used to correspond with people across the world, a lot faster than to send a letter in the mail. The Internet has a wealth of information that is available to anybody just by searching for it. Sometimes you get more information than you ever wanted to know and sometimes you can’t find any information. This paper will only cover a small portion of the websites and their links that have geothermal information concerning reservoir engineering, enhanced geothermal systems, hot dry rock and other aspects of geothermal. Some of the websites below are located in the US others international, such as, geothermal associations, and websites where you can access publications. Most of the websites listed below also have links to other websites for even more information.

  4. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151782 Ding Zhaoqin(Institute of Geophysical Exploration of Jilin Province,Changchun130012,China);Xu Zhihe The Possibility of Structure and Occurrence Geothermal Resources in Dunhua-Mishan Fault Zone(Huinan Section)(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,33(2),2014,p.98-102,5illus.,1table,4refs.)Key words:geothermal resources,fracture

  5. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  6. Geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, A.

    2017-07-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  7. Geothermal Energy R&D Program Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-07-01

    Geothermal budget actual amounts are shown for FY 1989 -1992, broken down by about 15 categories. Here, the main Program categories are: Exploration Technology, Drilling Technology, Reservoir Technology, Conversion Technology (power plants and materials), Industry-Coupled Drilling, Drilling Applications, Reservoir Engineering Applications, Direct Heat, Geopressured Wells Operation, and Hot Dry Rock Research. Here the title--Industry-Coupled Drilling--covered case studies of the Coso, CA, and Dixie Valley, NV, fields, and the Long Valley Exploratory Well (which had started as a magma energy exploration project, but reported here as a hydrothermal prospect evaluation well). (DJE 2005)

  8. Geothermal resource utilization: paper and cane sugar industries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornburg, C.D.; Morin, O.J.

    1975-03-01

    This study was made as a specific contribution to an overall report by the United States in the area of industrial utilization of geothermal resources. This is part of an overall study in non-electrical uses of geothermal resources for a sub-committee of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. This study was restricted to the geopressured zone along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast. Also, it was limited to utilizing the thermal energy of this ''geoenergy'' resource for process use in the Pulp and Paper Industry and Cane Sugar Industry. For the selected industries and resource area, this report sets forth energy requirements; identifies specific plant and sites; includes diagrams of main processes used; describes process and equipment modifications required; describes energy recovery systems; sets forth waste disposal schemes and problems; and establishes the economics involved. The scope of work included considerable data collection, analysis and documentation. Detailed technical work was done concerning existing processes and modifications to effectively utilize geothermal energy. A brief survey was made of other industries to determine which of these has a high potential for utilizing geothermal energy.

  9. Control of hydrogen sulfide emission from geothermal power plants. Volume I. Summary of results. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, F.C.; Harvey, W.W.; Warren, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    A program of laboratory and pilot plant tests, detailed process and project engineering work, and process engineering and economic evaluation studies has been carried out in support of the design of a test facility for demonstration of the copper sulfate process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from geothermal steam at turbine upstream conditions. A demonstration plant has been designed which is capable of removing 99% of the H/sub 2/S, 90% of the NH/sub 3/, and significant amounts of H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ and particulates from 100,000 lb/hr of geothermal steam of The Geysers composition. Criteria for the mechanical and process design of the scrubber have been confirmed in field tests of fifty hours duration on an eight-inch diameter scrubber at PG and E's Unit No. 7, The Geysers. The background of the problem and the technical approach to its solution, the scope and results of the first-phase laboratory testing, the scope and results of the experimental and analytical studies carried out in the second phase, and a description of the configuration of the demonstration plant and the test plan for its operation are summarized. (MHR)

  10. Geothermal handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management offered over 400,000 hectares (one million acres) for geothermal exploration and development in 1975, and figure is expected to double this year. The Energy Research and Development Administration hopes for 10-15,000 megawatts of geothermal energy by 1985, which would require, leasing over 16.3 million hectares (37 million acres) of land, at least half of which is federal land. Since there is an 8 to 8-1/2 year time laf between initial exploration and full field development, there would have to be a ten-fold increase in the amount of federal land leased within the next three years. Seventy percent of geothermal potential, 22.3 million hectares (55 million acres), is on federal lands in the west. The implication for the Service are enormous and the problems immediate. Geothermal resource are so widespread they are found to some extent in most biomes and ecosystems in the western United States. In most cases exploitation and production of geothermal resources can be made compatible with fish and wildlife management without damage, if probable impacts are clearly understood and provided for before damage has unwittingly been allowed to occur. Planning for site suitability and concern with specific operating techniques are crucial factors. There will be opportunities for enhancement: during exploration and testing many shallow groundwater bodies may be penetrated which might be developed for wildlife use. Construction equipment and materials needed for enhancement projects will be available in areas heretofore considered remote projects will be available in areas heretofore considered remote by land managers. A comprehensive knowledge of geothermal development is necessary to avoid dangers and seize opportunities. This handbook is intended to serve as a working tool in the field. It anticipated where geothermal resource development will occur in the western United States in the near future. A set of environmental assessment procedures are

  11. Preliminary development scenarios for geopressured - geothermal energy resources in Louisiana and Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinn, C.D. (Univ. of Texas, Austin); Wilkins, B. Jr.; Waguespack, M.O.; Meriwether, J.

    1977-11-16

    A set of preliminary planning scenarios are presented, issues involved in refining and integrating these scenarios are illustrated and the need for a systems approach in resource evaluation and planning is emphasized. (MHR)

  12. Environmental assessment: geothermal energy geopressure subprogram. DOE Sweet Lake No. 1, Cameron Parish, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    The following are described: the proposed action; existing environment; probable impacts, direct and indirect; probable cumulative and long-term environmental impacts; accidents; coordination with federal, state, and local agencies; and alternatives. (MHR)

  13. Design and operation of a geopressurized-geothermal hybrid cycle power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, R.G.; Hattar, M.M.

    1991-02-01

    This is an appendix to Volume 1 of the report by the same name. Items included are: process flow diagram; piping and instrumentation diagram; new equipment specifications; main single line diagram; shutdown start-up procedures; data sheets for tests; plant outages; detailed process equations; computer program and sample output; chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy results; and management report data sheets January 5, 1990 -- May 29, 1990.

  14. Design and operation of a geopressured-geothermal hybrid cycle power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, R.G.; Hattar, M.M.

    1991-02-01

    The following appendices are included: process flow diagram, piping and instrumentation diagram, new equipment specifications, main single line diagram, shutdown and start-up procedures, data sheets for tests, plant outages, detailed process equations, computer program and sample output, chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy results, and management report data sheets for January 5, 1990 to May 29, 1990. (MHR)

  15. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  16. Geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, A.

    2015-08-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  17. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111059 Gao Jinghong(Engineering Group Co.Ltd.of the Second Institute of China Railway,Chengdu 610031,China);Tong Tiegang A Magnetotelluric Study of Geothermal Resources in Kaifeng Depression,Henan Province(Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1000-8918,CN11-1906/P,34(4),2010,p.440-443,6 illus.,12 refs.)Key words:geothermal resources,telluric electromagnetic sounding,Henan Province Kaifeng Depression,located in the southeast corner of the Jiyuan-Kaifeng Depression,is enriched with deep-seated groundwater sources.The rich geothermal water rock(thermal reservoir)commonly has lower resistivity than the in-situ rock,and the reduction degree of its resistivity is related to the extent of water content,water temperature and mineralization.Based on geo-electrical anomaly,the authors inferred the distribution of the thermal reservoirs.A study of the magnetotelluric sounding method(MT)shows that the resistivity values of the basement are lowest in most surveying points north of F1 fault,implying the existence of the relationship with the geothermal water in the strata.According to the distribution of geo-electrical anomalies in the survey area,the authors locate the relatively enriched area of geothermal water in the basement of this area,thus providing an important basis

  18. Geothermal Small Business Workbook [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2003-05-01

    --the geothermal entrepreneur, small company, or project developer--step-by-step through the process needed to structure a business and financing plan for a small geothermal project; and Help you develop a financing plan that can be adapted and taken to potential financing sources. The Workbook will not: Substitute for financial advice; Overcome the high exploration, development, and financing costs associated with smaller geothermal projects; Remedy the lack of financing for the exploration stage of a geothermal project; or Solve financing problems that are not related to the economic soundness of your project or are caused by things outside of your control.

  19. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111836 Gao Jian(Sichuan Institute of Geological Survey for Nuclear Industry,Chengdu 610061,China);Shi Yuzhen Feasibility Study of Exploitation of Geothermal Resource in the Lugu Lake Region,Yanyuan,Sichuan Province(Acta Geologica Sichuan,ISSN1006-0995,CN51-1273/P,30(3),2010,p.291-294,1 illus.,1 table,1 ref.,with English abstract)Key words:geothermal water,Sichuan Province20111837 He Jianhua(Geological Brigade 102,Bureau of Geolog

  20. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140332 Jiang Lin(School of Earth and Space Sciences,Peking University,Beijing100871,China);Ji Jianqing Geologic Analysis on the Prospects of the Enhanced Geothermal System(EGS)in the Bohaiwan Basin(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,49(1),2013,p.167-178,5illus.,4tables,41refs.)Key words:geothermal systems,Bohaiwan Basin Great amounts of thermal energy is stored ubiquitously in rocks with high tempera-

  1. Processes controlling water and hydrocarbon composition in seeps from the Salton Sea geothermal system, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensen, Henrik; Karlsen, Dag A.; Sturz, Anne; Backer-Owe, Kristian; Banks, David A.; Planke, Sverre

    2007-01-01

    Water-, mud-, gas-, and petroleum-bearing seeps are part of the Salton Sea geothermal system (SSGS) in Southern California. Seeps in the Davis-Schrimpf seep field (˜14,000 m2) show considerable variations in water temperature, pH, density, and solute content. Water-rich springs have low densities (98 vol%). Halogen geochemistry of the waters indicates that mixing of deep and shallow waters occurs and that near-surface dissolution of halite may overprint the original fluid compositions. Carbon isotopic analyses suggest that hydrocarbon seep gases have a thermogenic origin. This hypothesis is supported by the presence of petroleum in a water-dominated spring, composed of 53% saturated compounds, 35% aromatics, and 12% polar compounds. The abundance of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and immature biomarkers suggests a hydrothermal formation of the petroleum, making the SSGS a relevant analogue to less accessible hydrothermal seep systems, e.g., the Guaymas Basin in the Gulf of California.

  2. The aggressiveness of the geothermal steam controlled; La agresividad del vapor geotermico controlada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, Sergio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    The first two units of Cerro Prieto have generated electric energy since 1973; in 1988 completed 15 years of continuous operation, without corrosion problems in the turbines in spite of the utilization of geothermal steam. The experience and the good results obtained during the first years of operation of these two units of 37.5 MW each, were of great help for the Cerro Prieto extension, having as of this date an installed capacity of 620 MW. [Espanol] Las dos primeras unidades de Cerro Prieto han generado energia electrica desde 1973; cumplieron 15 anos de operacion continua en 1988, sin problemas de corrosion en las turbinas a pesar del uso de vapor geotermico. La experiencia y los buenos resultados obtenidos durante los primeros anos de operacion de estas dos unidades de 37.5 MW cada una fueron de gran apoyo para la aplicacion de Cerro Prieto, teniendose a la fecha 620 MW de capacidad instalada.

  3. Sixth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P. (eds.)

    1980-12-18

    INTRODUCTION TO THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIXTH GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR ENGINEERING WORKSHOP, STANFORD GEOTHERMAL PROGRAM Henry J. Ramey, Jr., and Paul Kruger Co-Principal Investigators Ian G. Donaldson Program Manager Stanford Geothermal Program The Sixth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering convened at Stanford University on December 16, 1980. As with previous Workshops the attendance was around 100 with a significant participation from countries other than the United States (18 attendees from 6 countries). In addition, there were a number of papers from foreign contributors not able to attend. Because of the success of all the earlier workshops there was only one format change, a new scheduling of Tuesday to Thursday rather than the earlier Wednesday through Friday. This change was in general considered for the better and will be retained for the Seventh Workshop. Papers were presented on two and a half of the three days, the panel session, this year on the numerical modeling intercomparison study sponsored by the Department of Energy, being held on the second afternoon. This panel discussion is described in a separate Stanford Geothermal Program Report (SGP-TR42). This year there was a shift in subject of the papers. There was a reduction in the number of papers offered on pressure transients and well testing and an introduction of several new subjects. After overviews by Bob Gray of the Department of Energy and Jack Howard of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, we had papers on field development, geopressured systems, production engineering, well testing, modeling, reservoir physics, reservoir chemistry, and risk analysis. A total of 51 papers were contributed and are printed in these Proceedings. It was, however, necessary to restrict the presentations and not all papers printed were presented. Although the content of the Workshop has changed over the years, the format to date has proved to be satisfactory. The objectives of the Workshop, the bringing together of

  4. Biogeophysical interactions control the formation of iron oxide microbial biofilms in acidic geothermal outflow channels of Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, J.; Berstein, H. C.; Jay, Z.; Kozubal, M. A.; Jennings, R. D.; Inskeep, W. P.

    2012-12-01

    during the initial stages of Fe (III)-oxide mat formation (water interface where oxygen microelectrode measurements reveal steep gradients in oxygen consumption (i.e., niche partitioning). A mature microbial mat is typically formed after ~2-4 months and reaches a pseudo-steady state depth of ~7-10 mm. Flow rates had a significant affect on Fe(III)-oxide deposition and community structure. These results suggest that dynamic biological, geochemical, and physical processes control the formation and cycling of Fe(III)-oxide microbial mats in acidic geothermal springs.

  5. Study of the structural control of fluid flow within the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, J.E.; Manon, M.A.; Lippmann, M.J.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1977-10-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Comision Federal de Electricidad of Mexico are conducting a joint investigation of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, located approximately 35 km south of Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico, in the Sea of Cortez-Salton Trough. Recent analyses of various geophysical/electrical logs, temperature logs, production and geochemical data and the subsequently developed preliminary model of the structure of the geothermal system and the distribution of geothermal fluids are presented. Techniques routinely applied to petroleum exploration were successfully used in the development of a preliminary model of this water-dominated system. The study indicates the upwelling of geothermal fluids along an east bounding fault from a deep, as yet unexplored source. The fluids dissipate into various sand horizons at various depths. The resulting stratigraphic and fluid flow model is of importance in planning additional developments of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field.

  6. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151090 Bian Huiying(School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering,Chang’an University,Xi’an 10054,China);Wang Shuangming Hydrodynamic Conditions of Geothermal Water in Gushi Depression of Guanzhong Basin(Coal Geology&Exploration;,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,42(3),2014,p.50-54,60,9illus.,11refs.,

  7. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140958 Mei Huicheng(No.915GeologicalBrigade,Jiangxi Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources,Nanchang 330002,China);Li Zhongshe Geological Features and Causes of the Huihuang Geotherm in Xiushui,Jiangxi Province(Journal of Geological Hazards and

  8. Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-15

    kaolinization . Deposition of silica can easily be observed in the Geysers field, where fractures of one-inch width, completely filled and sealed...by silica and calcite, are common features. Kaolinization , associated with other more complicated hydrothermal rock alteration, is also...techniques. Surface corrosion may be extremely severe in geothermal fluids containing free hydrochloric, sulphuric or hydrofluoric acid

  9. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070403 Deng Xiaoying (Zhengzhou Geo-Engineering Exploration Institute, Zhengzhou 450053, China); Yang Guoping Features and Origin of Geothermal Fluid in the New District of Hebi, Henan Provionce (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN1000-3665, CN11-2202/P, 32(2), 2005, p.111-114, 4 illus., 1 table, 7 refs.) Key words: thermal waters, Henan Province

  10. Geothermal tomorrow 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Contributors from the Geothermal Technologies Program and the geothermal community highlight the current status and activities of the Program and the development of the global resource of geothermal energy.

  11. Impact of state and federal law on development of geothermal resources in Texas. Project L/R-9, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.

    1974-10-31

    The significant geothermal resource in Texas consists of enormous reservoirs of hot, geopressed water, which formed along the Gulf Coast when water-laden sediments were deposited between surrounding impermeable features, so that the water which would otherwise have been forced out of the sediments was unable to escape. These deposits exist under tremendous pressure created by the weight of the overburden. A geopressure source absorbs heat indirectly, because the geopressured deposits create an insulating barrier that traps and absorbs the thermal energy of the underlying magma. The water from a geopressure source will not be as hot as water from a dry steam or wet steam source, but the quantity available is enormous, and the water pressure itself would be an additional energy source along with the thermal energy. The water may be fresh, or nearly so, and it will contain significant amounts of recoverable methane gas in solution. It may be possible to utilize the water pressure, thermal energy, and the methane gas to generate electricity in small power plants at the recovery site, and the water that has been passed through the turbines and heat exchangers may be a valuable by-product in itself, depending on its quality and regional demands for agriculture and industry. One of the impediments to the development of this resource, given the very sizable commitments of capital entailed, is the uncertain legal status of geothermal resources. This report attempts to locate geothermal resources within the general framework of Texas property law and to determine whether these resources can be developed under the law as it now exists. (MCW)

  12. Federal Geothermal Program Plan for Fiscal Year 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-03-01

    This is an internal DOE Geothermal Program planning and control document. Many of these reports were issued only in draft form. This is a report of the Interagency Geothermal Coordinating Committee (IGCC). (DJE 2005)

  13. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  14. Geothermal Program Review VI: proceedings. Beyond goals and objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Program Review VI was comprised of six sessions, including an opening session, four technical sessions that addressed each of the major DOE research areas, and a session on special issues. The technical sessions were on Hydrothermal, Hot Dry Rock, Geopressured and Magma resources. Presenters in the technical sessions discussed their R and D activities within the context of specific GTD Programmatic Objectives for that technology, their progress toward achieving those objectives, and the value of those achievements to industry. The ''Special Issues'' presentations addressed several topics such as the interactions between government and industry on geothermal energy R and D; the origin and basis for the programmatic objectives analytical computer model; and international marketing opportunities for US geothermal equipment and services. The unique aspect of Program Review VI was that it was held in conjunction with the National Geothermal Association's Industry Round Table on Federal R and D. The Round Table provided a forum for open and lively discussions between industry and government researchers and gave industry an opportunity to convey their needs and perspectives on DOE's research programs. These discussions also provided valuable information to DOE regarding industry's priorities and directions.

  15. Conventional vs. unconventional enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzebisashvili, K.; Breede, K.; Liu, X.; Falcone, G. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE

    2013-08-01

    Enhanced (or Engineered) Geothermal Systems (EGS) have evolved from the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept, implemented for the first time at Fenton Hill in 1977, and subsequently through the Stimulated Geothermal System, the Deep Heat Mining and finally the Deep Earth Geothermal. All of these systems usually imply petro-thermal processes. The term EGS has evolved to include conduction dominated, low permeability resources in sedimentary and basement formations, as well as geopressured, magma, and low-grade, unproductive hydrothermal resources. Co-produced hot water from hydrocarbon wells has also been included by some in the definition of EGS, which constitutes a considerable divergence from the original concept. Four decades on from the first EGS implementation, this paper highlights the lessons learned from 'conventional' systems and contrasts the 'unconventional' solutions that have been proposed. Examples of unconventional EGS include single-well solutions, downhole heat exchangers, engineered well profiles and using circulation fluids other than water. Perhaps some of the ideas proposed in the past, which would be considered unconventional, have remained dormant or never made it to a commercial stage for field implementation, but they may yet open doors to the future generations of EGS. (orig.)

  16. Conventional vs. unconventional enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzebisashvili, K.; Breede, K.; Liu, X.; Falcone, G. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE

    2013-08-01

    Enhanced (or Engineered) Geothermal Systems (EGS) have evolved from the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept, implemented for the first time at Fenton Hill in 1977, and subsequently through the Stimulated Geothermal System, the Deep Heat Mining and finally the Deep Earth Geothermal. All of these systems usually imply petro-thermal processes. The term EGS has evolved to include conduction dominated, low permeability resources in sedimentary and basement formations, as well as geopressured, magma, and low-grade, unproductive hydrothermal resources. Co-produced hot water from hydrocarbon wells has also been included by some in the definition of EGS, which constitutes a considerable divergence from the original concept. Four decades on from the first EGS implementation, this paper highlights the lessons learned from 'conventional' systems and contrasts the 'unconventional' solutions that have been proposed. Examples of unconventional EGS include single-well solutions, downhole heat exchangers, engineered well profiles and using circulation fluids other than water. Perhaps some of the ideas proposed in the past, which would be considered unconventional, have remained dormant or never made it to a commercial stage for field implementation, but they may yet open doors to the future generations of EGS. (orig.)

  17. Geothermal power development in Hawaii. Volume I. Review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    The history of geothermal exploration in Hawaii is reviewed briefly. The nature and occurrences of geothermal resources are presented island by island. An overview of geothermal markets is presented. Other topies covered are: potential markets of the identified geothermal areas, well drilling technology, hydrothermal fluid transport, overland and submarine electrical transmission, community aspects of geothermal development, legal and policy issues associated with mineral and land ownership, logistics and infrastructure, legislation and permitting, land use controls, Regulation 8, Public Utilities Commission, political climate and environment, state plans, county plans, geothermal development risks, and business planning guidelines.

  18. A study of hydrocarbons associated with brines from DOE geopressured wells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeley, D.F.

    1993-07-01

    Accomplishments are summarized on the following tasks: distribution coefficients and solubilities, DOE design well sampling, analysis of well samples, review of theoretical models of geopressured reservoir hydrocarbons, monitor for aliphatic hydrocarbons, development of a ph meter probe, DOE design well scrubber analysis, removal and disposition of gas scrubber equipment at Pleasant Bayou Well, and disposition of archived brines.

  19. A study of hydrocarbons associated with brines from DOE geopressured wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeley, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Accomplishments are summarized on the following tasks: distribution coefficients and solubilities, DOE design well sampling, analysis of well samples, review of theoretical models of geopressured reservoir hydrocarbons, monitor for aliphatic hydrocarbons, development of a ph meter probe, DOE design well scrubber analysis, removal and disposition of gas scrubber equipment at Pleasant Bayou Well, and disposition of archived brines.

  20. Geologic, geochemical, and geographic controls on NORM in produced water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R.

    1995-08-01

    Water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal wells contains natural radioactivity that ranges from several hundred to several thousand Picocuries per liter (pCi/L). This natural radioactivity in produced fluids and the scale that forms in producing and processing equipment can lead to increased concerns for worker safety and additional costs for handling and disposing of water and scale. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil and gas operations are mainly caused by concentrations of radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra) and radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra), daughter products of uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) and thorium-232 ({sup 232}Th), respectively, in barite scale. We examined (1) the geographic distribution of high NORM levels in oil-producing and gas-processing equipment, (2) geologic controls on uranium (U), thorium (Th), and radium (Ra) in sedimentary basins and reservoirs, (3) mineralogy of NORM scale, (4) chemical variability and potential to form barite scale in Texas formation waters, (5) Ra activity in Texas formation waters, and (6) geochemical controls on Ra isotopes in formation water and barite scale to explore natural controls on radioactivity. Our approach combined extensive compilations of published data, collection and analyses of new water samples and scale material, and geochemical modeling of scale Precipitation and Ra incorporation in barite.

  1. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110367 Cheng Jian(College of Energy Resources,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Wang Duoyi Research on the Wenchuan Earthquake "Endpoint Effect":On the Geothermal Anomaly in Longquanyi,Chengdu,Sichuan Province,China(Journal of Chengdu University of Technology,ISSN1671-9727,CN51-1634/N,37(2),2010,p.155-159,4 illus.,15 refs.)Key words:seismic effects,thermal

  2. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102475 Chen Shiliang(No.4 Geological Party of Fujian Province,Ningde 352100,China)A Brief Analysis on Geothermy in the Nantai Isle of Fuzhou Municipality,Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,28(4),2009,p.310-314,1 illus.,1 table,3 refs.)Key words:geothermal exploration,Fujian ProvinceBased on the geochemistry and geophysical

  3. New evidence for geothermal controls upon recent basal melting of mid-latitude glaciers on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Frances; Gallagher, Colman; Arnold, Neil; Balme, Matthew; Conway, Susan; Lewis, Stephen; Hagerman, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Diagnostic evidence for past melting of putative debris-covered glaciers (DCGs) in Mars' mid-latitudes [e.g. 1-2] is extremely rare. As such, it is widely believed that these DCGs have been perennially frozen to their beds in cold-based thermal regimes [e.g. 3] since their formation 40 Ma to 1 Ga [4-8]. Here, we present a geomorphic map and propose a landsystem model that challenges this paradigm. We identify a sinuous ridge emerging from the terminus of a DCG in the broad rift zone NE of the Tharsis volcanic province. We interpret this ridge as an esker formed by deposition of sediment within a subglacial meltwater conduit. This is only the second esker-like ridge to be identified in association with a mid-latitude DCG. Recent work [9] identified a complex of esker-like ridges on the foreland of an extant DCG in Phlegra Montes, for which high-resolution analysis is ongoing [10]. Significantly, both candidate eskers are located within graben. Graben are topographic troughs formed by crustal extension and are commonly associated with elevated geothermal heat flux [e.g. 11]. A paucity of meltwater morphologies associated with DCGs elsewhere in Mars' mid-latitudes implies that atmospheric warming alone was insufficient for widespread basal melting. We argue that, during deglaciation, atmospheric warming supplemented enhanced geothermal heat flux within graben such that the basal temperature threshold for basal melting of DCGs was surpassed in these locations [9]. This has implications for the search for recent life on Mars, as it helps constrain the likely regions of recent meltwater production within protected subglacial environments. As eskers are exposed relicts of subglacial drainage systems, they are accessible to landed missions without the high-risk requirement to drill through remnant decametre-thick debris-mantled ice. FEGB is funded by STFC grant ST/N50421X/1 [1] Head, J.W. et al. (2010), Earth Planet. Sc. Lett. 294, 306-320. [2] Levy, J.S. et al. (2014), J

  4. Technology assessment of geothermal energy resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-04-15

    Geothermal state-of-the-art is described including geothermal resources, technology, and institutional, legal, and environmental considerations. The way geothermal energy may evolve in the United States is described; a series of plausible scenarios and the factors and policies which control the rate of growth of the resource are presented. The potential primary and higher order impacts of geothermal energy are explored, including effects on the economy and society, cities and dwellings, environmental, and on institutions affected by it. Numerical and methodological detail is included in appendices. (MHR)

  5. IN SITU GEOTHERMAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY: AN APPROACH FOR BUILDING CLEANER AND GREENER ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Faruque Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is abundant everywhere in the world. It certainly would be a great benefit for human being once it is produced by a sophisticated technology. Consequently, it would be the biggest console for earth considering environmental sustainability. Unfortunately, the current status of commercial production of geothermal energy primarily from hydrothermal, geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma are limited to a few countries due to technological difficulties and production cost. This paper describes a simple technology where an in situ geothermal plant assisted by a heat pump would act as a high-temperature production (>150°C to provide excellent capacity of energy generation. The issue related to costs is interestingly cheaper on production, comparing to other technologies, such as solar, hydro, wind, and traditional geothermal technology as described in this article. Therefore, it is suggested that heat pump assisted in situ geothermal energy sources has a great potentiality to be a prime energy source in near future. Since the technology has a number of positive characteristics (simple, safe, and provides continuous baseload, load following, or peaking capacity and benign environmental attributes (zero emissions of CO2, SOx, and NOx, it certainly would be an interesting technology in both developed, and developing countries as an attractive option to produce clean energy to confirm a better environment.

  6. Geopressure and Trap Integrity Predictions from 3-D Seismic Data: Case Study of the Greater Ughelli Depobelt, Niger Delta Pressions de pores et prévisions de l’intégrité des couvertures à partir de données sismiques 3D : le cas du grand sous-bassin d’Ughelli, Delta du Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opara A.I.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The deep drilling campaign in the Niger Delta has demonstrated the need for a detailed geopressure and trap integrity (drilling margin analysis as an integral and required step in prospect appraisal. Pre-drill pore pressure prediction from 3-D seismic data was carried out in the Greater Ughelli depobelt, Niger Delta basin to predict subsurface pressure regimes and further applied in the determination of hydrocarbon column height, reservoir continuity, fault seal and trap integrity. Results revealed that geopressured sedimentary formations are common within the more prolific deeper hydrocarbon reserves in the Niger Delta basin. The depth to top of mild geopressure (0.60 psi/ft ranges from about 10 000 ftss to over 30 000 ftss. The distribution of geopressures shows a well defined trend with depth to top of geopressures increasing towards the central part of the basin. This variation in the depth of top of geopressures in the area is believed to be related to faulting and shale diapirism, with top of geopressures becoming shallow with shale diapirism and deep with sedimentation. Post-depositional faulting is believed to have controlled the configuration of the geopressure surface and has played later roles in modifying the present day depth to top of geopressures. In general, geopressure in this area is often associated with simple rollover structures bounded by growth faults, especially at the hanging walls, while hydrostatic pressures were observed in areas with k-faults and collapsed crested structures. Les campagnes de forages profonds dans le delta du Niger ont démontré la nécessité d’une analyse détaillée des surpressions et de l’intégrité des structures pour évaluer correctement les prospects. La prédiction des pressions interstitielles a pu être réalisée ici avant forage à partir de données sismiques 3-D du grand sous-bassin d’Ughelli, dans le delta du Niger. Ce travail a permis de prévoir les régimes de pression du

  7. Optimizing Sustainable Geothermal Heat Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Iti; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal heat, though renewable, can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal. As such, the sustainability of a geothermal resource is typically viewed as preserving the energy of the reservoir by weighing heat extraction against renewability. But heat that is extracted from a geothermal reservoir is used to provide a service to society and an economic gain to the provider of that service. For heat extraction used for market commodities, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir temperature renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into economic profit. We present a model for managing geothermal resources that combines simulations of geothermal reservoir performance with natural resource economics in order to develop optimal heat mining strategies. Similar optimal control approaches have been developed for managing other renewable resources, like fisheries and forests. We used the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) model to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are integrated into the optimization model to determine the extraction path over time that maximizes the net present profit given the performance of the geothermal resource. Results suggest that the discount rate that is used to calculate the net present value of economic gain is a major determinant of the optimal extraction path, particularly for shallower and cooler reservoirs, where the regeneration of energy due to the natural geothermal heat flux is a smaller percentage of the amount of energy that is extracted from the reservoir.

  8. Near-surface groundwater responses to injection of geothermal wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.C.

    1984-06-01

    This report assesses the feasibility of injection as an alternative for geothermal wastewater disposal and analyzes hydrologic controls governing the upward migration of injected fluids. Injection experiences at several geothermal developments are presented including the following: Raft River Valley, Salton Sea, East Mesa, Otake, Hatchobaru, and Ahuachapan geothermal fields.

  9. FY97 Geothermal R&D Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-09-01

    This is the Sandia National Laboratories Geothermal program plan. This is a DOE Geothermal Program planning and control document. Many of these reports were issued only in draft form. This one is of special interest for historical work because it contains what seems to be a complete list of Sandia geothermal program publications (citations / references) from about 1975 to late 1996. (DJE 2005)

  10. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J. (comps.)

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  11. Deep permeable fault-controlled helium transport and limited mantle flux in two extensional geothermal systems in the Great Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amlan; Person, Mark; Hofstra, Albert; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Cohen, Denis; Sabin, Andrew; Unruh, Jeff; Zyvoloski, George; Gable, Carl W.; Crossey, Laura; Karlstrom, Karl

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the relative importance of deeply circulating meteoric water and direct mantle fluid inputs on near-surface 3He/4He anomalies reported at the Coso and Beowawe geothermal fields of the western United States. The depth of meteoric fluid circulation is a critical factor that controls the temperature, extent of fluid-rock isotope exchange, and mixing with deeply sourced fluids containing mantle volatiles. The influence of mantle fluid flux on the reported helium anomalies appears to be negligible in both systems. This study illustrates the importance of deeply penetrating permeable fault zones (10-12 to 10-15 m2) in focusing groundwater and mantle volatiles with high 3He/4He ratios to shallow crustal levels. These continental geothermal systems are driven by free convection.

  12. Geothermal program overview: Fiscal years 1993--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The DOE Geothermal Energy Program is involved in three main areas of research: finding and tapping the resource; power generation; and direct use of geothermal energy. This publication summarizes research accomplishments for FY 1993 and 1994 for the following: geophysical and geochemical technologies; slimhole drilling for exploration; resource assessment; lost circulation control; rock penetration mechanics; instrumentation; Geothermal Drilling Organization; reservoir analysis; brine injection; hot dry rock; The Geysers; Geothermal Technology Organization; heat cycle research; advanced heat rejection; materials development; and advanced brine chemistry.

  13. Geothermal Money Book [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2004-02-01

    Small business lending is big business and growing. Loans under $1 million totaled $460 billion in June 2001, up $23 billion from 2000. The number of loans under $100,000 continued to grow at a rapid rate, growing by 10.1%. The dollar value of loans under $100,000 increased 4.4%; those of $100,000-$250,000 by 4.1%; and those between $250,000 and $1 million by 6.4%. But getting a loan can be difficult if a business owner does not know how to find small business-friendly lenders, how to best approach them, and the specific criteria they use to evaluate a loan application. This is where the Geothermal Money Book comes in. Once a business and financing plan and financial proposal are written, the Geothermal Money Book takes the next step, helping small geothermal businesses locate and obtain financing. The Geothermal Money Book will: Explain the specific criteria potential financing sources use to evaluate a proposal for debt financing; Describe the Small Business Administration's (SBA) programs to promote lending to small businesses; List specific small-business friendly lenders for small geothermal businesses, including those which participate in SBA programs; Identify federal and state incentives which are relevant to direct use and small-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; and Provide an extensive state directory of financing sources and state financial incentives for the 19 states involved in the GeoPowering the West (GPW). GPW is a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored activity to dramatically increase the use of geothermal energy in the western United States by promoting environmentally compatible heat and power, along with industrial growth and economic development. The Geothermal Money Book will not: Substitute for financial advice; Overcome the high exploration, development, and financing costs associated with smaller geothermal projects; Remedy the lack of financing for the exploration stage of a geothermal project; or Solve

  14. Geothermal and heavy-oil resources in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seni, S.J.; Walter, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    In a five-county area of South Texas, geopressured-geothermal reservoirs in the Paleocene-Eocene Wilcox Group lie below medium- to heavy-oil reservoirs in the Eocene Jackson Group. This fortuitous association suggests the use of geothermal fluids for thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR). Geothermal fairways are formed where thick deltaic sandstones are compartmentalized by growth faults. Wilcox geothermal reservoirs in South Texas are present at depths of 11,000 to 15,000 ft (3,350 to 4,570 m) in laterally continuous sandstones 100 to 200 ft (30 to 60 m) thick. Permeability is generally low (typically 1 md), porosity ranges from 12 to 24 percent, and temperature exceeds 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C). Reservoirs containing medium (20{degrees} to 25{degrees} API gravity) to heavy (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) oil are concentrated along the Texas Coastal Plain in the Jackson-Yegua Barrier/Strandplain (Mirando Trend), Cap Rock, and Piercement Salt Dome plays and in the East Texas Basin in Woodbine Fluvial/Deltaic Strandplain and Paluxy Fault Line plays. Injection of hot, moderately fresh to saline brines will improve oil recovery by lowering viscosity and decreasing residual oil saturation. Smectite clay matrix could swell and clog pore throats if injected waters have low salinity. The high temperature of injected fluids will collapse some of the interlayer clays, thus increasing porosity and permeability. Reservoir heterogeneity resulting from facies variation and diagenesis must be considered when siting production and injection wells within the heavy-oil reservoir. The ability of abandoned gas wells to produce sufficient volumes of hot water over the long term will also affect the economics of TEOR.

  15. Integrated physicochemical model for the injection of waste geopressured fluids into a saline aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J.H. (Systems, Science and Software, La Jolla, CA); Garg, S.K.; Pritchett, J.W.; Weare, J.H.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    A time-dependent model of the combined physicochemical processes which are expected to be important to the successful reinjection of waste geopressured fluids into a saline aquifer is described. Models are developed for a number of chemical processes (i.e., 1. brine-mineral reactions including solution and precipitation of minerals, 2. brine-clay interactions such as selective absorption of ion species) which may occur when a spent geopressured brine is reinjected into an aquifer containing a fluid of different chemical composition. The chemical models have been incorporated into a one-dimensional thermohydraulic simulator. The combined physicochemical transport model (i.e., simulator) is applied to investigate the reinjection characteristics of a typical Gulf Coast reinjection aquifer system.

  16. Guidebook to Geothermal Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.

    2011-03-01

    This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

  17. EPRI geothermal energy R and D 5-year program plan (1975 to 1979)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, D.F.

    1974-10-17

    The recommended EPRI Geothermal Research and Development 5-Year Program Plan has been defined to complement and provide focus for federally sponsored geothermal energy R and D efforts. The scope of the program includes: verification of hydrothermal reservoir capability and low salinity brine heat transfer characteristics at a potential demonstration site followed by design, development and construction of a low salinity hydrothermal demonstration plant in conjunction with an electric utility or utility consortium. Development of a comprehensive set of Guidelines Manuals for use by utility management and engineers spanning the full range of geothermal resource utilization from exploration through plant startup, including not only technical, but environmental, institutional and regulatory factors. A subprogram to define the potential and requirements for Geothermal Systems. A supporting research and technology subprogram oriented toward minimizing the risk associated with utilization of low and high salinity hydrothermal sources. An Advanced Research and Technology subprogram to assess the potential of geopressure resources in conjunction with the Federal government and limited R and D on advanced concepts for utilization of hydrothermal fluids. (MHR)

  18. WELCST: engineering cost model of geothermal wells. Description and user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entingh, D.J.; Lopez, A.

    1979-02-01

    WELCST, a FORTRAN code for estimating the effects of R and D project results upon the future cost of geothermal wells is described. The code simulates the drilling and completion of a well at 27 specific US geothermal prospects, given assumptions about well design and casing plan, formation drillability, and selected engineering and cost characteristics of today's drilling technology. The user may change many of the assumptions about engineering and cost characteristics to allow WELCST to simulate impacts of specific R and D projects on the estimated cost of wells at the prospects. An important capability of WELCST is that it simulates rates and costs of major drilling mishaps, based on drilling incident data from the Imperial Valley and Geysers geothermal fields. WELCST is capable of estimating geothermal well costs at liquid-dominated (hydrothermal) sites, vapor-dominated sites, geopressured sites, and Hot Dry Rock sites. The model can contribute to many system-optimization studies, and could be easily adapted to estimate well costs outside of the United States.

  19. Direct utilization of geothermal energy in the Peoples Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, J. W.

    1980-12-01

    A brief review of the direct utilization of geothermal energy in three regions of the Peoples' Republic of China is presented, stressing a development outline for the next five to ten years. The geothermal resource of the Tianjin-Beijing area is mainly to be developed for space heating, whereas along the coastal area of Fujian and Guangdong, it will be developed for agriculture, and industrial and residential use. Electric power generation will be the main concern in the southwest at Tengchong. Most theoretical research will be done on geologic structure interpretation, corrosion of pump shafts and buried pipelines, and heat flow, with some interest in the study of geopressure and hot dry rock systems. Specific examples from the Tianjin area include a wool factory; a wool rug weaving shop; heating of a hotel; public bathing; and well drilling for apartment heating, fish breeding, and greenhouses. Direct use of geothermal energy in the Beijing area includes cotton dyeing, humidifying, medical purposes, and animal husbandry. Experimental geothermal electric power plants are summarized in table form.

  20. Geothermal energy in Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The nature of goethermal resources in Nevada and resource applications are discussed. The social and economic advantages of utilizing geothermal energy are outlined. Federal and State programs established to foster the development of geothermal energy are discussed. The names, addresses, and phone numbers of various organizations actively involved in research, regulation, and the development of geothermal energy are included. (MHR)

  1. Geothermal Energy Development in the Eastern United States. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    This document represents the final report from the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) of The Johns Hopkins University on its efforts on behalf of the Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) of the Department of Energy (DOE). For the past four years, the Laboratory has been fostering development of geothermal energy in the Eastern United States. While the definition of ''Eastern'' has changed somewhat from time to time, basically it means the area of the continental United States east of the Rocky Mountains, plus Puerto Rico but excluding the geopressured regions of Texas and Louisiana. During these years, the Laboratory developed a background in geology, hydrology, and reservoir analysis to aid it in establishing the marketability of geothermal energy in the east. Contrary to the situation in the western states, the geothermal resource in the east was clearly understood to be inferior in accessible temperature. On the other hand, there were known to be copious quantities of water in various aquifers to carry the heat energy to the surface. More important still, the east possesses a relatively dense population and numerous commercial and industrial enterprises, so that thermal energy, almost wherever found, would have a market. Thus, very early on it was clear that the primary use for geothermal energy in the east would be for process heat and space conditioning--heating and cool electrical production was out of the question. The task then shifted to finding users colocated with resources. This task met with modest success on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. A great deal of economic and demographic analysis pinpointed the prospective beneficiaries, and an intensive ''outreach'' campaign was mounted to persuade the potential users to invest in geothermal energy. The major handicaps were: (1) The lack of demonstrated hydrothermal resources with known temperatures and expected longevity; and (2) The lack of a &apos

  2. Hawaii geothermal project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamins, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii's Geothermal Project is investigating the occurrence of geothermal resources in the archipelago, initially on the Island of Hawaii. The state's interest in geothermal development is keen, since it is almost totally dependent on imported oil for energy. Geothermal development in Hawaii may require greater participation by the public sector than has been true in California. The initial exploration has been financed by the national, state, and county governments. Maximization of net benefits may call for multiple use of geothermal resources; the extraction of by-products and the application of treated effluents to agricultural and aquacultural uses.

  3. Geothermal exploration technology. Annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following programs: electrical and electromagnetic computer modeling techniques; minicomputer for in-field processing of magnetotelluric data; superconducting thin-film gradiometer and magnetometers for geophysical applications; magnetotellurics with SQUID magnetometers; controlled-source electromagnetic system; geothermal seismic field system development; Klamath Basin geothermal resource and exploration technique evaluation; Mt. Hood geothermal resource evaluation; East Mesa seismic study; seismological studies at Cerro Prieto; self-potential studies at Cerro Prieto; resistivity studies at Cerro Prieto; magnetotelluric survey at Cerro Prieto; and precision gravity studies at Cerro Prieto. (MHR)

  4. Environmental considerations and economic implications in the development of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, Frank N.

    1975-01-01

    "Any time that man has activity, there will be an impact on the environment. We can talk about minimizing the effects of this activity, but the real answer to working out environmental problems is environmental management. Nevertheless, the cookbook-type regulations severely restrict development of environmental-management options. A better solution would be to have a number of ways to predict as accurately as possible the environmental or ecosystem response to man's activities, so that rational judgments can be made by society as to the best operational criteria.… Certainly if geopressured geothermal-resource development becomes a reality, the options chosen for environmental management may not be pleasing to everyone, but, hopefully, decisions will be made to benefit the most people, not only for a short time but for the generations to follow."

  5. Reference book on geothermal direct use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Lund, J.W.; Rafferty, K.; Culver, G.

    1994-08-01

    This report presents the direct uses of geothermal energy in the United States. Topics discussed include: low-temperature geothermal energy resources; energy reserves; geothermal heat pumps; geothermal energy for residential buildings; and geothermal energy for industrial usage.

  6. Discussion on technology for development and utilization of geothermal resources in oilifelds%油田地热资源开发利用技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘均荣; 于伟强; 李荣强

    2013-01-01

    There are plenty of geothermal resources in oil & gas sedimentary basins. In the context of short energy supply and vigorous development of new energy, development of geothermal resources in oil&gas ifelds is being paid more and more attention. Based on the analysis of geothermal resources in oil&gas ifelds, the possible mode of co-production of oil/gas and geothermal resources was discussed in this paper. Considering the existing low-and medium-temperature power generation technology, the feasibility of using low-and medium-temperature geothermal resources in oil&gas ifelds to power was analyzed. With the characteristics of geopressured geothermal resources, the potential of using geopressured geothermal water lfooding in heavy oil reservoir to enhance oil recovery was also investigated. It was concluded that sustainable development of oil&gas ifelds and efifcient utilization of new energy could be realized through the“win-win”cooperation between oil/gas production and geothermal exploitation based on existing infrastructure, technology, geothermal experience and reservoir information in oil&gas ifelds.%油气沉积盆地拥有丰富的地热资源,在能源供需紧张、大力发展新能源的背景下,油田地热资源开发日益受到重视。在对油田地热资源分析的基础上,讨论了油气与地热联产的几种可能模式;结合现有的中低温发电技术,分析了利用油田中低温地热资源发电的可行性;最后,针对地压型地热资源的特点,对地压型地热水驱提高稠油油藏采收率进行了探讨。研究认为,利用油气田现有的基础设施、生产技术、开发经验和储层数据,通过油气生产与地热开采的“双赢”合作,可实现油气田的可持续发展和新能源的高效利用。

  7. Reno Industrial Park geothermal district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.

    1997-04-01

    Ten miles south of Reno, on U.S. 395 near the junction of the road to historic Virginia City, is Steamboat Hot Springs, a popular stop for travelers since the mid-1800s. Legend has it that Mark Twain named the geothermal area because it looked and sounded like a chugging Mississippi River paddle-wheeler. It is said when he first saw the steam rising from the ground he exclaimed, {open_quotes}Behold! A Steamboat in the desert.{close_quotes} Over the years, the area has been used for its relaxing and curative qualities by Indians, settlers, and geothermal experts. Since the mid-1980s five geothermal power plants have been built at Steamboat Springs and in December 1996 it was announced that the proposed largest geothermal district heating system in the U.S. would supply an industrial park in the area. The active geothermal area is located within the north-south trending graben like trough between the Carson and Virginia Ranges at the southern end of Truckee Meadows. Hot springs and other geothermal features occur over an area of about one square mile. The mid-basin location is controlled by faulting more or less parallel to the major mountain-front faults. It is believed that the heat source for the system is a cooling magmatic body at depth. The Steamboat geothermal area consists of a deep, high-temperature (215{degrees}C to 240{degrees} C) geothermal system, a shallower, moderate-temperature (160{degrees}C to 18{degrees} C) system, and a number of shallow low-temperature (30{degrees}C to 80{degrees}C) subsystems. The higher temperature systems are used for electric-power generation. It is proposed that the exit fluids from the electric power plants be used for the geothermal district heating system.

  8. Geothermal energy exploitation in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The essential factors, human and technical, which control the operation of geothermal systems, particularly those which allow prediction of behavior during and after exploitation, are sketched. The strategy and co-ordination involved in using New Zealand's geothermal resources for power production are considered. The broader aspects of the technical matters involved in the design of the parasitic plant reservoir system are described. (MHR)

  9. Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2006-04-06

    The ?Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing? project substantially added to the understanding of geothermal resources, technology, and small business development by both the general public as well as those in the geothermal community.

  10. Sixth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P. (eds.)

    1980-12-18

    INTRODUCTION TO THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIXTH GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR ENGINEERING WORKSHOP, STANFORD GEOTHERMAL PROGRAM Henry J. Ramey, Jr., and Paul Kruger Co-Principal Investigators Ian G. Donaldson Program Manager Stanford Geothermal Program The Sixth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering convened at Stanford University on December 16, 1980. As with previous Workshops the attendance was around 100 with a significant participation from countries other than the United States (18 attendees from 6 countries). In addition, there were a number of papers from foreign contributors not able to attend. Because of the success of all the earlier workshops there was only one format change, a new scheduling of Tuesday to Thursday rather than the earlier Wednesday through Friday. This change was in general considered for the better and will be retained for the Seventh Workshop. Papers were presented on two and a half of the three days, the panel session, this year on the numerical modeling intercomparison study sponsored by the Department of Energy, being held on the second afternoon. This panel discussion is described in a separate Stanford Geothermal Program Report (SGP-TR42). This year there was a shift in subject of the papers. There was a reduction in the number of papers offered on pressure transients and well testing and an introduction of several new subjects. After overviews by Bob Gray of the Department of Energy and Jack Howard of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, we had papers on field development, geopressured systems, production engineering, well testing, modeling, reservoir physics, reservoir chemistry, and risk analysis. A total of 51 papers were contributed and are printed in these Proceedings. It was, however, necessary to restrict the presentations and not all papers printed were presented. Although the content of the Workshop has changed over the years, the format to date has proved to be satisfactory. The objectives of the Workshop, the bringing together of

  11. GEOTHERMAL GREENHOUSING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Karaman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Use of renewable energy resources should be brought forward to reduce heating costs of greenhouses and to minimize the use of ever-depleting fossil fuels. Geothermal energy not only provides the heat required throughout plant growth, but also allow a year-long production. Geothermal resources with several other benefits therefore play significant role in agricultural activities. With regard to geothermal potential and implementation, Turkey has the 7th place in the world and the 1st place in Europe. Majority of country geothermal resources is used in greenhouse heating. The size of geothermal greenhouses increased 5 folds during the last decade and reached to 2500 decare. In this study, current status of geothermal greenhousing of Turkey was presented; problems and possible solutions were discussed.

  12. The geothermal power organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholl, K.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Geothermal Power Organization is an industry-led advisory group organized to advance the state-of-the-art in geothermal energy conversion technologies. Its goal is to generate electricity from geothermal fluids in the most cost-effective, safe, and environmentally benign manner possible. The group achieves this goal by determining the Member`s interest in potential solutions to technological problems, advising the research and development community of the needs of the geothermal energy conversion industry, and communicating research and development results among its Members. With the creation and adoption of a new charter, the Geothermal Power Organization will now assist the industry in pursuing cost-shared research and development projects with the DOE`s Office of Geothermal Technologies.

  13. Geothermal Today - 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-05-01

    U.S. Department of Energy 1999 Geothermal Energy Program Highlights The Hot Facts Getting into Hot Water Turning Waste water into Clean Energy Producing Even Cleaner Power Drilling Faster and Cheaper Program in Review 1999: The Year in Review JanuaryCal Energy announced sale of Coso geothermal power plants at China Lake, California, to Caithness Energy, for $277 million. U.S. Export-Import Bank completed a $50 million refinancing of the Leyte Geothermal Optimization Project in the Philippines. F

  14. Geothermal Today - 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-08-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Energy Program Highlights Partnering with Industry A New Power Source for Nevada Drilling Research Finding Geothermal Resources Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plants The Heat Beneath Your Feet R&D 100 Award Program in Review Milestones January 2000 The U.S. Department of Energy GeoPowering the West initiative was launched. February 2000 Grants totaling $4.8 million were awarded in six western states, primarily for development of reservoir exploration, character

  15. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  16. In search of the state-of-the art in estimating geopressures; Buscando o estado-da-arte nas estimativas de geopressoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Luiz Alberto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E e P Engenharia de Producao. Gerencia de Perfuracoes e Operacoes Especiais], e-mail: luizrocha@petrobras.com.br; Azevedo, Cecilia Toledo de [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC/Rio), RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: ctazevedo@gmail.com

    2006-06-15

    Problems related to geopressures are well known in the oil industry. They range from minor well instability problems to major blowouts that result in the drilling unit total loss. Such events led many operators to invest large amounts of money to develop methods capable of improving geopressure estimates. The objective of this study is to describe the efforts endeavored by PETROBRAS in order to enhance such estimates. This paper has been subdivided into basic concepts and historical cases. Basic concepts have as a goal to provide the reader with a knowledge on geopressure theory and historical cases present some relevant examples that include: zones with high pressures and high temperatures; geopressure prediction and real time monitoring work; regions under the influence of more than one mechanism that creates abnormal pressures; problems related to the collapse gradient in directional wells drilled in great water depths; area where high overpressure are found in the Gulf of Mexico. (author)

  17. Geothermal project summaries. Geothermal energy research, development and demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-01

    Summaries of all Division of Geothermal Energy supported projects for which contracts have been executed are compiled. Each summary includes pertinent statistical data for that project and an abstract summarizing the project plans and accomplishments. The projects summarized fall into six categories: engineering research and development, resource exploration and assessment, hydrothermal technology applications, advanced technology applications, utilization experiments, and environmental control and institutional studies. (MHR)

  18. Investigation and evaluation of geopressured-geothermal wells. Final report, Tenneco Fee N No. 1 Well Terrebonne Paris, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, R.J.; Hartsock, J.H.; McCoy, R.L.; Rodgers, J.A.

    1980-09-01

    The reservoir conditions that led to the choice of this well as the fifth well of opportunity are described as well as the attempts to complete the well for high-volume brine production. Individual opinions concerning underlying and conributing causes for the liner failure which aborted the completion attempt are included. (MHR)

  19. Industry participation in DOE-sponsored geopressured geothermal resource development. Interim report, September 12, 1977-April 13, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffer, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    An industry forum for detailed discussions of the DOE resource evaluation program was instituted. An Overview Group was established along with four working subgroups - Site Selection, Drilling and Testing, Environmental/Laboratory Research, Legal/Institutional - at the initial forum meeting. All forum meetings are open to the public and are announced in the Federal Register. To date, 12 meetings have been conducted including two overview, two site selection, three drilling and testing, three environmental/laboratory research and two legal/institutional meetings. The meetings have been well attended. Representatives of 15 of the 19 largest US oil companies as well as 12 other major industrial firms have participated. In addition, 25 small businesses, 12 DOE contractors, 8 state agencies and 6 federal government agencies have been represented. Discussions have been open and spirited resulting in a useful interchange of ideas. The enthusiastic cooperation of the participants has demonstrated the ability of the government and industry to work harmoniously on programs aimed at solving the energy crisis.

  20. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells: Pauline Kraft Well No. 1, Nueces County, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The Pauline Kraft Well No. 1 was originally drilled to a depth of 13,001 feet and abandoned as a dry hole. The well was re-entered in an effort to obtain a source of GEO/sup 2/ energy for a proposed gasohol manufacturing plant. The well was tested through a 5-inch by 2-3/8 inch annulus. The geological section tested was the Frio-Anderson sand of Mid-Oligocene age. The interval tested was from 12,750 to 12,860 feet. A saltwater disposal well was drilled on the site and completed in a Micocene sand section. The disposal interval was perforated from 4710 to 4770 feet and from 4500 to 4542 feet. The test well failed to produce water at substantial rates. Initial production was 34 BWPD. A large acid stimulation treatment increased productivity to 132 BWPD, which was still far from an acceptable rate. During the acid treatment, a failure of the 5-inch production casing occurred. The poor production rates are attributed to a reservoir with very low permeability and possible formation damage. The casing failure is related to increased tensile strain resulting from cooling of the casing by acid and from the high surface injection pressure. The location of the casing failure is now known at this time, but it is not at the surface. Failure as a result of a defect in a crossover joint at 723 feet is suspected.

  1. Reservoir engineering and computer model analyses of flow tests on the Miogypsinoides sandstone: Sweet Lake geothermal-geopressured prospect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, T.L.; Kenner, C.B.; Clark, J.D.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    Engineering analysis and interpretation of two flow tests on the fifth sand of MG-T/DOE Amoco Fee No. 1 well have been completed. The gas-water ratio of the fifth sand was reported to be about 10.7 scf/bbl, which is very undersaturated. Testing of a single zone is inconclusive as to the commercial viability of the well. Testing of other zones for both productive capacity and solution gas-water ratio is continuing at this time.

  2. Preliminary environmental assessment of selected geopressured - geothermal prospect areas: Louisiana Gulf Coast Region. Volume II. Environmental baseline data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newchurch, E.J.; Bachman, A.L.; Bryan, C.F.; Harrison, D.P.; Muller, R.A.; Newman, J.P. Jr.; Smith, C.G. Jr.; Bailey, J.I. Jr.; Kelly, G.G.; Reibert, K.C.

    1978-10-15

    A separate section is presented for each of the six prospect areas studied. Each section includes a compilation and discussion of environmental baseline data derived from existing sources. The data are arranged as follows: geology and geohydrology, air quality, water resources and flood hazards, ecological systems, and land use. When data specific to the prospect were not available, regional data are reported. (MHR)

  3. Geothermal Financing Workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battocletti, E.C.

    1998-02-01

    This report was prepared to help small firm search for financing for geothermal energy projects. There are various financial and economics formulas. Costs of some small overseas geothermal power projects are shown. There is much discussion of possible sources of financing, especially for overseas projects. (DJE-2005)

  4. Geothermal energy for greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacky Friedman

    2009-01-01

    Geothermal energy is heat (thermal) derived from the earth (geo). The heat flows along a geothermal gradient from the center of the earth to the surface. Most of the heat arrives at the surface of the earth at temperatures too low for much use. However, plate tectonics ensure that some of the heat is concentrated at temperatures and depths favorable for its commercial...

  5. Geothermal energy: a brief assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunis, B.C.; Blackett, R.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1982-07-01

    This document includes discussions about geothermal energy, its applications, and how it is found and developed. It identifies known geothermal resources located in Western's power marketing area, and covers the use of geothermal energy for both electric power generation and direct applications. Economic, institutional, environmental, and other factors are discussed, and the benefits of the geothermal energy resource are described.

  6. Idaho Geothermal Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Gay Davis; Esposito, Louis; Montgomery, Martin

    1979-07-01

    Idaho's energy problems have increased at alarming rates due to their dependency on imports of gas and oil. The large hydroelectric base developed in Idaho has for years kept the electric rates relatively low and supplied them with energy on a consumer demand basis. However, this resource cannot be 4expected to meet their growing demands in the years to come. Energy alternatives, in whatever form, are extremely important to the future welfare of the State of Idaho. This handbook addresses the implications, uses, requirements and regulations governing one of Idaho's most abundant resources, geothermal energy. The intent of the Idaho Geothermal Handbook is to familiarize the lay person with the basis of geothermal energy in Idaho. The potential for geothermal development in the State of Idaho is tremendous. The authors hope this handbook will both increase your knowledge of geothermal energy and speed you on your way to utilizing this renewable resource.

  7. Geothermal Loan Guaranty Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-11-17

    Presently the US imports a large proportion of its petroleum requirements. This dependence on foreign petroleum has had a major impact on our economy. As a result, the Federal government is sponsoring programs to offset this foreign reliance by conservation of oil and gas, conversion of petroleum using facilities to coal and nuclear energy and the development of alternate sources of energy. One of the most acceptable alternate resources is geothermal. It offers an environmentally sound energy resource, can be developed at reasonable cost in comparison to other forms of energy and has a long term production capacity. On September 3, 1974, the Geothermal Energy Research Development and Demonstration Act was enacted to further the research, development and demonstration of geothermal energy technologies. This Act also established the Geothermal Loan Guaranty Program to assist in the financing of geothermal resource development, both electrical and non-electrical. The highlights of that Guaranty Program are detailed in this report.

  8. Geothermal Loan Guaranty Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-11-17

    Presently the US imports a large proportion of its petroleum requirements. This dependence on foreign petroleum has had a major impact on our economy. As a result, the Federal government is sponsoring programs to offset this foreign reliance by conservation of oil and gas, conversion of petroleum using facilities to coal and nuclear energy and the development of alternate sources of energy. One of the most acceptable alternate resources is geothermal. It offers an environmentally sound energy resource, can be developed at reasonable cost in comparison to other forms of energy and has a long term production capacity. On September 3, 1974, the Geothermal Energy Research Development and Demonstration Act was enacted to further the research, development and demonstration of geothermal energy technologies. This Act also established the Geothermal Loan Guaranty Program to assist in the financing of geothermal resource development, both electrical and non-electrical. The highlights of that Guaranty Program are detailed in this report.

  9. Corrosion engineering in the utilization of the Raft River geothermal resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.

    1976-08-01

    The economic impact of corrosion and the particular problems of corrosion in the utilization of geothermal energy resources are noted. Corrosion is defined and the parameters that control corrosion in geothermal systems are discussed. A general background of corrosion is presented in the context of the various forms of corrosion, in relation to the Raft River geothermal system. A basic reference for mechanical design engineers involved in the design of geothermal energy recovery systems is provided.

  10. Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. C. Maurer

    2000-05-01

    Approximately 50% of the cost of a new geothermal power plant is in the wells that must be drilled. Compared to the majority of oil and gas wells, geothermal wells are more difficult and costly to drill for several reasons. First, most U.S. geothermal resources consist of hot, hard crystalline rock formations which drill much slower than the relatively soft sedimentary formations associated with most oil and gas production. Second, high downhole temperatures can greatly shorten equipment life or preclude the use of some technologies altogether. Third, producing viable levels of electricity from geothermal fields requires the use of large diameter bores and a high degree of fluid communication, both of which increase drilling and completion costs. Optimizing fluid communication often requires creation of a directional well to intersect the best and largest number of fracture capable of producing hot geothermal fluids. Moineau motor stators made with elastomers cannot operate at geothermal temperatures, so they are limited to the upper portion of the hole. To overcome these limitations, Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) has developed a turbodrill that does not use elastomers and therefore can operate at geothermal temperatures. This new turbodrill uses a special gear assembly to reduce the output speed, thus allowing a larger range of bit types, especially tri-cone roller bits, which are the bits of choice for drilling hard crystalline formations. The Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) represents a significant improvement for drilling geothermal wells and has the potential to significantly reduce drilling costs while increasing production, thereby making geothermal energy less expensive and better able to compete with fossil fuels. The final field test of the AGT will prepare the tool for successful commercialization.

  11. Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. C. Maurer

    2000-05-01

    Approximately 50% of the cost of a new geothermal power plant is in the wells that must be drilled. Compared to the majority of oil and gas wells, geothermal wells are more difficult and costly to drill for several reasons. First, most U.S. geothermal resources consist of hot, hard crystalline rock formations which drill much slower than the relatively soft sedimentary formations associated with most oil and gas production. Second, high downhole temperatures can greatly shorten equipment life or preclude the use of some technologies altogether. Third, producing viable levels of electricity from geothermal fields requires the use of large diameter bores and a high degree of fluid communication, both of which increase drilling and completion costs. Optimizing fluid communication often requires creation of a directional well to intersect the best and largest number of fracture capable of producing hot geothermal fluids. Moineau motor stators made with elastomers cannot operate at geothermal temperatures, so they are limited to the upper portion of the hole. To overcome these limitations, Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) has developed a turbodrill that does not use elastomers and therefore can operate at geothermal temperatures. This new turbodrill uses a special gear assembly to reduce the output speed, thus allowing a larger range of bit types, especially tri-cone roller bits, which are the bits of choice for drilling hard crystalline formations. The Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) represents a significant improvement for drilling geothermal wells and has the potential to significantly reduce drilling costs while increasing production, thereby making geothermal energy less expensive and better able to compete with fossil fuels. The final field test of the AGT will prepare the tool for successful commercialization.

  12. Structural controls on fluid circulation at the Caviahue-Copahue Volcanic Complex (CCVC) geothermal area (Chile-Argentina), revealed by soil CO2 and temperature, self-potential, and helium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulleau, Emilie; Bravo, Francisco; Pinti, Daniele L.; Barde-Cabusson, Stéphanie; Pizarro, Marcela; Tardani, Daniele; Muñoz, Carlos; Sanchez, Juan; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; de la Cal, Federico; Esteban, Carlos; Morata, Diego

    2017-07-01

    Natural geothermal systems are limited areas characterized by anomalously high heat flow caused by recent tectonic or magmatic activity. The heat source at depth is the result of the emplacement of magma bodies, controlled by the regional volcano-tectonic setting. In contrast, at a local scale a well-developed fault-fracture network favors the development of hydrothermal cells, and promotes the vertical advection of fluids and heat. The Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ), straddling Chile and Argentina, has an important, yet unexplored and undeveloped geothermal potential. Studies on the lithological and tectonic controls of the hydrothermal circulation are therefore important for a correct assessment of the geothermal potential of the region. Here, new and dense self-potential (SP), soil CO2 and temperature (T) measurements, and helium isotope data measured in fumaroles and thermal springs from the geothermal area located in the north-eastern flank of the Copahue volcanic edifice, within the Caviahue Caldera (the Caviahue-Copahue Volcanic Complex - CCVC) are presented. Our results allowed to the constraint of the structural origin of the active thermal areas and the understanding of the evolution of the geothermal system. NE-striking faults in the area, characterized by a combination of SP, CO2, and T maxima and high 3He/4He ratios (up to 8.16 ± 0.21Ra, whereas atmospheric Ra is 1.382 × 10- 6), promote the formation of vertical permeability preferential pathways for fluid circulation. WNW-striking faults represent low-permeability pathways for hydrothermal fluid ascent, but promote infiltration of meteoric water at shallow depths, which dilute the hydrothermal input. The region is scattered with SP, CO2, and T minima, representing self-sealed zones characterized by impermeable altered rocks at depth, which create local barriers for fluid ascent. The NE-striking faults seem to be associated with the upflowing zones of the geothermal system, where the boiling process

  13. CENOZOIC VOLCANISM AND GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN NORTHEAST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper is concentrated on Cenozoic volcanism and geothermal resources in Northeast China. There are a lot of Cenozoic volcanoes, a large area of volcanic rocks, a large number of active faults and rich geothermal resources in Northeast China. The time and space characteristics of Cenozoic volcanism and the space distribution characters of hot springs and high geothermal flux regions in Northeast China are described and discussed on the basis of geological, geothermal, drilling and volcanological data. It is revealed that the hot springs and high geothermal flux regions are re lated to the Cenozoic volcanism, rifting and faulting in Northeast China. It is especially emphasized that the hot springs and high geothermal anomaly areas are controlled by active deep faults. It is proposed that the Cenozoic volcanism re gions, rift basins, active fault belts, activated plate suture zones and large earthquake occurrence points are the best areas for prospecting geothermal resources. The geothermal resources in younger volcanic zones are richer than those in older volcanic belts. The hot springs and active or activated faults might be a very good clue for looking for geothermal resources.

  14. Gas chemistry and thermometry of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehring, N.L. (US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA); D' Amore, F.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal gases at Cerro Prieto are derived from high temperature reactions within the reservoir or are introduced with recharge water. Gases collected from geothermal wells should, therefore, reflect reservoir conditions. Interpretation of gas compositions of wells indicates reservoir temperatures, controls of oxygen and sulfur fugacities, and recharge source and direction.

  15. Elastic-acoustic modeling of geopressures in the migration and retention evaluation of petroleum systems fluids; Modelagem acustico-elastica de geopressoes na avaliacao da retencao e migracao de fluidos de sistemas petroliferos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Marco A.S.; Rodrigues, Fernando; Coelho, Dimas [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The success of a exploratory prospect is closely related to geological risk estimation. 3 D seismic and structural modeling improve reservoir risk and trap geometry estimation; and geothermal models, the evaluation risk of hydrocarbon generation. The objective of this paper is to present geo pressure modeling as a powerful tool for estimating migration and hydrocarbon retention. The method is based on the integration of seismic velocities, sonic logs, pressure data and geomechanical relations in order to build a geo pressure model. After applying this method we were able to predict geo static, fracture, pore pressure and effective stress, which integrated with seismic interpretation consolidate a predictive model of geo pressure potential in the studied area. We show the efficiency of geo pressure modeling in brazilian passive margins, using data from shallow to deep waters in San tos and Sprague/Ageless. From a exploratory point of view, these studies shown the importance of the interface between hydrostatic and geopressured regimes for evaluating migration and retention of fluids in a petroleum system. It was also possible to establish a relation between overburden and rheological properties. (author)

  16. Navy Geothermal Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    Domestic geothermal resources with the potential for decreasing fossil fuel use and energy cost exist at a significant number of Navy facilities. The Geothermal Plan is part of the Navy Energy R and D Program that will evaluate Navy sites and provide a technical, economic, and environmental base for subsequent resource use. One purpose of the program will be to provide for the transition of R and D funded exploratory efforts into the resource development phase. Individual Navy geothermal site projects are described as well as the organizational structure and Navy decision network. 2 figs.

  17. Aromatic hydrocarbons associated with brines from geopressured wells. Annual report, fiscal 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeley, D.F.; Meriwether, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Samples of cryocondensates - materials condensed at - 78.5/sup 0/C were taken on a regular basis from the gas stream for the USDOE geopressured wells. Most of the data has been taken from the Gladys McCall well as it has flowed on a regular and almost continous basis. The cryocondensates, not the ''condensate'' from gas wells, are almost exclusively aromatic hydrocarbons, primarily benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the xylenes, but contain over 95 compounds, characterized using gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopy. The solubility in water and brine of benezene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene, some of the components of the cryocondensate, as well as distribution coefficients between water or brine and a standard oil have been measured. 25 refs.

  18. 基建矿井热害防治综合措施%Geothermal Disaster Comprehensive Prevention and Control Measures in Construction Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明光; 王伟; 周明磊

    2012-01-01

    针对基建矿井热害治理技术研究较少、 热害治理复杂的现状, 基于基建矿井掘进工作面作业环境温度高, 降温负荷大, 供风沿途冷量损失较大, 低湿空气与掘进工作面的热湿交换不充分,基建降温设备利用率低的矿井热害特点, 设计了非机械制冷和机械制冷方式相结合的基建矿井降温综合治理措施。 非机械制冷方式包括增加风量, 选择合理的通风方式, 双巷掘进, 采用双层隔热风筒通风, 控制热源和加强管理等。 当非机械降温方式无法满足降温需求时, 采取机械降温方式, 以赵楼基建矿井为例进行分析, 发现机械降温系统运行效果较好, 井下掘进工作面温度符合 《煤矿安全规程》 要求。%According to less study on the geothermal disaster control technology of the construction mine and the geothermal control com- plicated status, based on the mine geothermal disaster features of high environment temperature of the mine roadway heading face, high loading of temperature reducing; high cooling lost of the ventilation supply along the routing, thermal and moisture change insufficient be- tween the low moisture air and the roadway heading face and the low utilization rate of the temperature cooling equipment in the construc- tion mine, a comprehensive control measures combined with the non-mechanical refrigeration and mechanical refrigeration were designed for the temperature cooling of the construction mine. The non-mechanical refrigeration method would include a ventilation volume in- creased, a rational ventilation mode selected, double roadways heading, ventilation with double insolated air ducts, thermal sources con- trol, management enhanced and others. When the non-mechanical cooling method could not meet the requirements of the temperature cooling, the mechanical temperature cooling method would be applied. An analysis was conducted on Zhaolou construction mine as exam- ple. The analysis

  19. Hydrocarbons associated with brines from geopressured wells. Second Quarterly technical progress report, 1 April 1991--30 June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-15

    The purpose of this research is to determine the concentration of the cryocondensates in fluids of the various USDOE Geopressured wells as a function of production volume. The wells are visited each month that they are operating and samples are to be taken cryogenically during each visit. A gas scrubbing system will continuously samples the gas streams of the wells in the intervals between visit. Collectors, exchanged daily by site personnel, are retrieved on each visit.

  20. Geothermal activity near Clearlake, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K. L.; Potter, R. M.

    Geothermal activity in the region of high heat flow near the city of Clearlake includes hot springs, fumeroles, vents, and areas of hydrothermal alteration. Onshore, the location is controlled by Quaternary longitudinal NNW-trending faults of the San Andreas systems, and the transverse Burns Valley fault. Offshore, an additional control is arcuate graben-forming faults. The city is bracketed by three hydrothermal 'hot spots,' which are Sulphur Bank hot spring, resurgences in Burns Valley, and the Oak Cove hot spot. All three are associated with sharp 'spikes' in the isotherms and locally enhanced heat flow.

  1. Geothermal Orientation Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-07-01

    This is a useful overview of the Department of Energy's outlook on geothermal energy development in the U.S. as of late 1983. For example, Exhibit 4 shows how electric utility planners' estimates of likely amounts of geothermal power on line for 1990 and 2000 first increased and then declined over time as they were surveyed in 1977 through 1983 (date are from the EPRI Survey). Additions to direct heat uses in 1979 through 1981 are in Exhibit 7. A Table (not numbered) at the back of the report "Historical Development of Geothermal Power ..." shows world installed geothermal capacity by nation at decadal intervals from 1950 to 1980, and the first year of power production for each country. (DJE 2005)

  2. Geothermal Power Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montagud, Maria E. Mondejar; Chamorro, C.R.

    2016-01-01

    Although geothermal energy has been widely deployed for direct use in locations with especial geologic manifestations, its potential for power generation has been traditionally underestimated. Recent technology developments in drilling techniques and power conversion technologies from low...

  3. NGDC Geothermal Data Bases

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geothermics is the study of heat generated in Earth's interior and its manifestation at the surface. The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) has a variety of...

  4. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  5. Heat flow patterns of the North American continent: A discussion of the DNAG Geothermal Map of North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell, David D.; Steele, John L.; Carter, Larry C.

    1990-01-01

    The large and small-scale geothermal features of the North American continent and surrounding ocean areas illustrated on the new 1:5,000,000 DNAG Geothermal Map of North America are summarized. Sources for the data included on the map are given. The types of data included are heat flow sites coded by value, contours of heat flow with a color fill, areas of major groundwater effects on regional heat flow, the top-of-geopressure in the Gulf Coast region, temperature on the Dakota aquifer in the midcontinent, location of major hot springs and geothermal systems, and major center of Quaternary and Holocene volcanism. The large scale heat flow pattern that is well known for the conterminous United States and Canada of normal heat flow east of the Cordillera and generally high heat flow west of the front of the Cordillera dominates the continental portion of the map. However, details of the heat flow variations are also seen and are discussed briefly in this and the accompanying papers.

  6. Geothermal Field Developments in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirakawa, Seiichi

    1983-12-15

    The present situation of the geothermal field developments in Japan is such that eight geothermal power stations are being operated, while there are sill many geothermal areas to be explored. Up to this day, the target of geothermal exploration has mainly been the areas by surface geological survey and the existing geothermal reservoirs are located not deeper than 1,500m depth. Recent geothermal energy development shows a trend from the study on vapor dominated of liquid dominated hydrothermal resources in shallow zones to that on hydrothermal resources in deeper zones. Exploration wells of 3,000m depth class have been drilled in Japan.

  7. Geothermal Power Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Перемитин, Д. В.; Воробьёва, Виктория Владимировна

    2015-01-01

    Our world is changing and it becomes more and more real to replace traditional sources of energy by new ones. Alternative sources of energy have a lot of pluses and minuses. Alternative energy seems to be really ef183 fective and geothermal energy as a type of alternative energy looks effective too. This paper deals with geothermal energy, its advantages and disadvantages, prospects of using this kind of energy.

  8. Renewable Energy Essentials: Geothermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Geothermal energy is energy available as heat contained in or discharged from the earth's crust that can be used for generating electricity and providing direct heat for numerous applications such as: space and district heating; water heating; aquaculture; horticulture; and industrial processes. In addition, the use of energy extracted from the constant temperatures of the earth at shallow depth by means of ground source heat pumps (GSHP) is also generally referred to as geothermal energy.

  9. Overview of geothermal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.

    1978-05-01

    The technology of geothermal resource development includes the technologies associated with finding the resource, defining it well enough to invest in its development, plumbing it to move the heat from the earth to where it will be used, using it, and finally disposing of it. The base of earth sciences experience needed to adequately project limited data so as to discover and define a geothermal resource is growing rapidly as new resources are developed and elucidated. Technologies for moving the fluid are improving as new challenges are faced, e.g., the development of downhole pumps in order to increase flow rates from costly wells. Although a wide variety of applications of geothermal resources exist, still to be evaluated commercially are the use of binary cycles in electric power production and the possibility of using geothermal energy in the production of heavy water and in sugar milling and refining. Disposal of spent geothermal fluid underground (in contrast to surface disposal) is receiving increasing favor, both because of its greater acceptability from an environmental point of view and because of its beneficial effects on minimizing subsidence and recovering additional heat stored in rock framework of a geothermal reservoir.

  10. Amine Solvent Regeneration for CO2 Capture Using Geothermal Energy with Advanced Stripper Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Wagener D.H.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Absorption/stripping using alkanolamine solvents for removing CO2 from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants requires a substantial amount of energy. Typical designs anticipate the use of steam extraction between the Intermediate Pressure (IP and Low Pressure (LP turbines to provide heat for the reboiler. Geothermal energy in the form of hot brine offers an alternative to this large parasitic load on the power generation cycle. We investigate the requirements (number and spacing of extraction/injection well pairs to provide heat at 150°C for a pilot scale (60 MWe and a full scale (900 MWe capture process for thirty years. The calculations are based on properties of a geopressured/geothermal aquifer near the Texas Gulf Coast. In the vicinity of a large coal-fired power plant in South Texas, this aquifer lies between 3 050 and 3 350 m (10 000 and 11 000 ft below the surface. We present a novel design of the stripper/regenerator process based on heat exchange with the brine, discharging the brine at 100°C. The results indicate that the overall process is feasible and that costs are of similar magnitude to standard designs.

  11. The National Geothermal Collaborative, EERE-Geothermal Program, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody Erikson

    2006-05-26

    Summary of the work conducted by the National Geothermal Collaborative (a consensus organization) to identify impediments to geothermal development and catalyze events and dialogues among stakeholders to over those impediments.

  12. Retrospective examination of geothermal environmental assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, J.W.; Eddlemon, G.K.; Reed, A.W.

    1984-03-01

    Since 1976, the Department of Energy (DOE) has supported a variety of programs and projects dealing with the exploration, development, and utilization of geothermal energy. This report presents an overview of the environmental impacts associated with these efforts. Impacts that were predicted in the environmental analyses prepared for the programs and projects are reviewed and summarized, along with measures that were recommended to mitigate these impacts. Also, for those projects that have gone forward, actual impacts and implemented mitigation measures are reported, based on telephone interviews with DOE and project personnel. An accident involving spills of geothermal fluids was the major environmental concern associated with geothermal development. Other important considerations included noise from drilling and production, emissions of H/sub 2/S and cooling tower drift, disposal of solid waste (e.g., from H/sub 2/S control), and the cumulative effects of geothermal development on land use and ecosystems. Mitigation measures were frequently recommended and implemented in conjunction with noise reduction; drift elimination; reduction of fugitive dust, erosion, and sedimentation; blowout prevention; and retention of wastes and spills. Monitoring to resolve uncertainties was often implemented to detect induced seismicity and subsidence, noise, drift deposition, concentrations of air and water pollutants, and effects on groundwater. The document contains an appendix, based on these findings, which outlines major environmental concerns, mitigation measures, and monitoring requirements associated with geothermal energy. Sources of information on various potential impacts are also listed.

  13. Geothermal handbook. Geothermal project, 1976. [Ecological effects of geothermal resources development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    The geothermal program of Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Dept. of Interior, aims to develop ecologically sound practices for the exploration, development, and management of geothermal resources and the identification of the biological consequences of such development so as to minimize adverse effects on fish and wildlife resources. This handbook provides information about the ecological effects of geothermal resource development. Chapters are included on US geothermal resources; geothermal land leasing; procedures for assessing the effects on fish and game; environmental impact of exploratory and field development operations; and wildlife habitat improvement methods for geothermal development.

  14. Geothermal project summaries. Geothermal energy research, development, and demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-04-01

    The Division of Geothermal Energy ''Geothermal Project Summaries'' provides pertinent information on each active ERDA Geothermal project, includes a listing of all contractors and a compilation of completed projects. New project summaries and necessary revisions to current project data will be prepared on a quarterly basis.

  15. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Adam Szybinski

    2006-01-01

    The Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area is located near the eastern edge of the Sonoma Range and is positioned within the structurally complex Winnemucca fold and thrust belt of north-central Nevada. A series of approximately north-northeast-striking faults related to the Basin and Range tectonics are superimposed on the earlier structures within the project area, and are responsible for the final overall geometry and distribution of the pre-existing structural features on the property. Two of these faults, the Pumpernickel Valley fault and Edna Mountain fault, are range-bounding and display numerous characteristics typical of strike-slip fault systems. These characteristics, when combined with geophysical data from Shore (2005), indicate the presence of a pull-apart basin, formed within the releasing bend of the Pumpernickel Valley – Edna Mountain fault system. A substantial body of evidence exists, in the form of available geothermal, geological and geophysical information, to suggest that the property and the pull-apart basin host a structurally controlled, extensive geothermal field. The most evident manifestations of the geothermal activity in the valley are two areas with hot springs, seepages, and wet ground/vegetation anomalies near the Pumpernickel Valley fault, which indicate that the fault focuses the fluid up-flow. There has not been any geothermal production from the Pumpernickel Valley area, but it was the focus of a limited exploration effort by Magma Power Company. In 1974, the company drilled one exploration/temperature gradient borehole east of the Pumpernickel Valley fault and recorded a thermal gradient of 160oC/km. The 1982 temperature data from five unrelated mineral exploration holes to the north of the Magma well indicated geothermal gradients in a range from 66 to 249oC/km for wells west of the fault, and ~283oC/km in a well next to the fault. In 2005, Nevada Geothermal Power Company drilled four geothermal gradient wells, PVTG-1

  16. Optimal Management of Geothermal Heat Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, I. H.; Bielicki, J. M.; Buscheck, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geothermal energy technologies use the constant heat flux from the subsurface in order to produce heat or electricity for societal use. As such, a geothermal energy system is not inherently variable, like systems based on wind and solar resources, and an operator can conceivably control the rate at which heat is extracted and used directly, or converted into a commodity that is used. Although geothermal heat is a renewable resource, this heat can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal (Rybach, 2003). For heat extraction used for commodities that are sold on the market, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into profit, on a net present value basis. We present a model that couples natural resource economic approaches for managing renewable resources with simulations of geothermal reservoir performance in order to develop an optimal heat mining strategy that balances economic gain with the performance and renewability of the reservoir. Similar optimal control approaches have been extensively studied for renewable natural resource management of fisheries and forests (Bonfil, 2005; Gordon, 1954; Weitzman, 2003). Those models determine an optimal path of extraction of fish or timber, by balancing the regeneration of stocks of fish or timber that are not harvested with the profit from the sale of the fish or timber that is harvested. Our model balances the regeneration of reservoir temperature with the net proceeds from extracting heat and converting it to electricity that is sold to consumers. We used the Non-isothermal Unconfined-confined Flow and Transport (NUFT) model (Hao, Sun, & Nitao, 2011) to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are incorporated into the natural resource economics model to determine production strategies that

  17. Accelerating Geothermal Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    Geothermal research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is advancing geothermal technologies to increase renewable power production. Continuous and not dependent on weather, the geothermal resource has the potential to jump to more than 500 gigawatts in electricity production, which is equivalent to roughly half of the current U.S. capacity. Enhanced geothermal systems have a broad regional distribution in the United States, allowing the potential for development in many locations across the country.

  18. Geothermal drill pipe corrosion test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, B.C.; Copass, K.S.

    1980-12-01

    Plans are presented for conducting a field test of drill pipe corrosion, comparing air and nitrogen as drilling fluids. This test will provide data for evaluating the potential of reducing geothermal well drilling costs by extending drill pipe life and reducing corrosion control costs. The 10-day test will take place during fall 1980 at the Baca Location in Sandoval County, New Mexico.

  19. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (5)GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082442 Han Zaisheng(China Geological Servey,Beijing 100011,China);Ran Weiyan Exploration and Evaluation of Shal- low Geothermal Energy(Geology in China, ISSN1000—3657,CN11—1167/P,34(6), 2007,p.1115—1121,6 refs.,with English abstract) Key words:geothermal exploration, geothermal resources

  20. Canadian geothermal code for public reporting: reporting of exploration results, geothermal resources and geothermal reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deibert, Lee [Meridian Environmental Consulting Ltd. (Canada); Hjartarson, Arnar [Mannvit Engineering (Canada); McDonald, Ian; Toohey, Brian [Nexen Inc. (Canada); McIlveen, John [Jacob Securities, (Canada); Thompson, Alison [Magma Energy Corp. (Canada); Yang, Daniel [Borealis Geopower Inc. (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In December 2008, the Canadian geothermal code committee sponsored by the Canadian Geothermal Energy Association (CanGEA) was created with the intention of developing a code for public reporting of geothermal resources and reserves. The code was based on key elements of the Australian code which was developed in 2008 by the Australian Geothermal Energy Association in collaboration with the Australian Geothermal Energy Group. The Canadian Code was developed with the purpose of being applicable to both Canadian and international geothermal plays and to offer a reporting basis which satisfies investors, shareholders and capital markets. The Canadian Geothermal Reporting Code for Public Reporting is provided herein, it is intended for all Canadian companies and their competitors. Since reporting of geothermal results is a recent activity, this Code will require further input during its implementation.

  1. Geothermal resources in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saibi, Hakim [Laboratory of Geothermics, Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    The geothermal resources in Algeria are of low-enthalpy type. Most of these geothermal resources are located in the northeastern of the country. There are more than 240 thermal springs in Algeria. Three geothermal zones have been delineated according to some geological and thermal considerations: (1) The Tlemcenian dolomites in the northwestern part of Algeria, (2) carbonate formations in the northeastern part of Algeria and (3) the sandstone Albian reservoir in the Sahara (south of Algeria). The northeastern part of Algeria is geothermally very interesting. Two conceptual geothermal models are presented, concerning the northern and southern part of Algeria. Application of gas geothermometry to northeastern Algerian gases suggests that the reservoir temperature is around 198 C. The quartz geothermometer when applied to thermal springs gave reservoir temperature estimates of about 120 C. The thermal waters are currently used in balneology and in a few experimental direct uses (greenhouses and space heating). The total heat discharge from the main springs and existing wells is approximately 642 MW. The total installed capacity from producing wells and thermal springs is around 900 MW. (author)

  2. Development of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes the geothermal development promotion survey project. NEDO is taking the lead in investigation and development to reduce risks for private business entities and promote their development. The program is being moved forward by dividing the surveys into three ranks of A, B and C from prospects of geothermal resource availability and the state of data accumulation. The survey A lacks number of data, but covers areas as wide as 100 to 300 km{sup 2}, and studies possible existence of high-temperature geothermal energy. The survey B covers areas of 50 to 70 km{sup 2}, investigates availability of geothermal resources, and assesses environmental impacts. The survey C covers areas of 5 to 10 km{sup 2}, and includes production well drilling and long-term discharge tests, other than those carried out by the surveys A and B. Results derived in each fiscal year are evaluated and judged to establish development plans for the subsequent fiscal year. This paper summarizes development results on 38 areas from among 45 areas surveyed since fiscal 1980. Development promotion surveys were carried out over seven areas in fiscal 1994. Development is in progress not only on utilization of high-temperature steam, but also on binary cycle geothermal power generation utilizing hot waters of 80 to 150{degree}C. Fiscal 1994 has carried out discussions for spread and practical use of the systems (particularly on economic effects), and development of small-to-medium scale binary systems. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Applied geology as key in modern geothermal exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, I. S.

    2012-12-01

    The renewed interest in geothermal energy resources arises from two major reasons: I) The recent development in Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) technologies produces tangible pilot projects of future heat and power generation from low-enthalpy resources extending the worldwide geothermal potential, and (II) the political-social request for renewable energy to reduce climate gas emission. This new interest is tied with the question for economic risks and potential of individual geothermal resource types involving feasibility studies and utilization concepts to economically develop geothermal systems. From this perspective it is important to note that a geothermal system is part of a geologic system where geologic factors such as facies, faults, fractures, stress field, diagenesis, rock mechanics, fluid chemistry and geochemistry control key parameters as high porosity and high permeability domains, fluid flow, lateral and vertical temperature gradient, and overall reservoir behavior during injection and production. A site specific appropriate field development should therefore be based on a profound understanding of the geologic controls of a geothermal system involving a suite of modern exploration techniques. Applied geology is the key in this modern concept of geothermal exploration where geology is not only descriptive but also quantitative including 3D geological modeling and parametrisation. From different parts of the world various geothermal systems in both high and low enthalpy environments are described examined with individual exploration strategies. The first example from Western U.S.A. shows how structural geology, 3D geological modeling and surface geochemistry are combined to evidence permeability anisotropy controlled by faults. Another example from Indonesia demonstrates how secondary faults control the subsurface geochemistry and fluid flow in a geothermal system at the Sumatra mega shear zone. More examples from EGS resources in Alberta

  4. Geothermal Frontier: Penetrate a boundary between hydrothermal convection and heat conduction zones to create 'Beyond Brittle Geothermal Reservoir'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, N.; Asanuma, H.; Sakaguchi, K.; Okamoto, A.; Hirano, N.; Watanabe, N.; Kizaki, A.

    2013-12-01

    EGS has been highlightened as a most promising method of geothermal development recently because of applicability to sites which have been considered to be unsuitable for geothermal development. Meanwhile, some critical problems have been experimentally identified, such as low recovery of injected water, difficulties to establish universal design/development methodology, and occurrence of large induced seismicity. Future geothermal target is supercritical and superheated geothermal fluids in and around ductile rock bodies under high temperatures. Ductile regime which is estimated beyond brittle zone is target region for future geothermal development due to high enthalpy fluids and relatively weak water-rock interaction. It is very difficult to determine exact depth of Brittle-Ductile boundary due to strong dependence of temperature (geotherm) and strain rate, however, ductile zone is considered to be developed above 400C and below 3 km in geothermal fields in Tohoku District. Hydrothermal experiments associated with additional advanced technology will be conducting to understand ';Beyond brittle World' and to develop deeper and hotter geothermal reservoir. We propose a new concept of the engineered geothermal development where reservoirs are created in ductile basement, expecting the following advantages: (a)simpler design and control the reservoir, (b)nearly full recovery of injected water, (c)sustainable production, (d)cost reduction by development of relatively shallower ductile zone in compression tectonic zones, (e)large quantity of energy extraction from widely distributed ductile zones, (f)establishment of universal and conceptual design/development methodology, and (g) suppression of felt earthquakes from/around the reservoirs. In ductile regime, Mesh-like fracture cloud has great potential for heat extraction between injection and production wells in spite of single and simple mega-fracture. Based on field observation and high performance hydrothermal

  5. Geothermal reservoir engineering research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, H. J., Jr.; Kruger, P.; Brigham, W. E.; London, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    The Stanford University research program on the study of stimulation and reservoir engineering of geothermal resources commenced as an interdisciplinary program in September, 1972. The broad objectives of this program have been: (1) the development of experimental and computational data to evaluate the optimum performance of fracture-stimulated geothermal reservoirs; (2) the development of a geothermal reservoir model to evaluate important thermophysical, hydrodynamic, and chemical parameters based on fluid-energy-volume balances as part of standard reservoir engineering practice; and (3) the construction of a laboratory model of an explosion-produced chimney to obtain experimental data on the processes of in-place boiling, moving flash fronts, and two-phase flow in porous and fractured hydrothermal reservoirs.

  6. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  7. Geothermal Energy; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H.; Hicks, S.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal article, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past two months. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements.

  8. Human Resources in Geothermal Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    1995-01-01

    Some 80 countries are potentially interested in geothermal energy development, and about 50 have quantifiable geothermal utilization at present. Electricity is produced from geothermal in 21 countries (total 38 TWh/a) and direct application is recorded in 35 countries (34 TWh/a). Geothermal electricity production is equally common in industrialized and developing countries, but plays a more important role in the developing countries. Apart from China, direct use is mainly in the industrialized countries and Central and East Europe. There is a surplus of trained geothermal manpower in many industrialized countries. Most of the developing countries as well as Central and East Europe countries still lack trained manpower. The Philippines (PNOC) have demonstrated how a nation can build up a strong geothermal workforce in an exemplary way. Data from Iceland shows how the geothermal manpower needs of a country gradually change from the exploration and field development to monitoring and operations.

  9. Multidisciplinary research of geothermal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    -Ing. Ulvi Arslan, Univ., ., Dr. _., Prof.; Heiko Huber, Dipl.-Ing.

    2010-05-01

    KEYWORDS Geothermal sciences, geothermics, research, theory and application, numerical calculation, geothermal modeling, Technical University Darmstadt, Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) INTRODUCTION In times of global warming renewable, green energies are getting more and more important. The development of application of geothermal energy as a part of renewable energies in Germany is a multidisciplinary process of fast growing research and improvements. Geothermal energy is the energy, which is stored below earth's surface. The word geothermal derives from the Greek words geo (earth) and thermos (heat), so geothermal is a synonym to earth heat. Geothermal energy is one of the auspicious renewable energies. In average the temperature increases 3°C every 100 m of depth, which is termed as geothermal gradient. Therefore 99 percent of our planet is hotter than 1.000°C, while 99 percent of that last percent is even hotter than 100°C. Already in a depth of about 1 kilometer temperatures of 35 - 40°C can be achieved. While other renewable energies arise less or more from the sun, geothermal energy sources its heat from the earth's interior, which is caused mostly by radioactive decay of persistent isotopes. This means a possibility of a base-loadable form of energy supply. Especially efficient is the use of deep geothermal energy of high-enthalpie reservoirs, which means a high energy potential in low depths. In Germany no high-enthalpie reservoirs are given. To use the given low-enthalpie potential and to generate geothermal power efficiently inventions and improvements need to be performed. An important part of geothermal progresses is performed by universities with multidisciplinary research of geothermal modeling. Especially in deep geothermal systems numerical calculations are essential for a correct dimensioning of the geothermal system. Therefore German universities and state aided organizations are developing numerical programs for a detailed use of

  10. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, J.; Freeman, J.

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the U.S. DOE's Geothermal Technology Program's (GTP's) involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  11. Characterization of deep ground geothermal field in Jiahe Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yi; Guo Dongming; He Manchao; Jiang Yaodong; Yang Qing

    2011-01-01

    Research into the characteristics of geothermal fields is important for the control of heat damage in mines.Based on measured geothermal data of boreholes from -200 m to -1200 m in a Jiahe Coal Mine,we demonstrate non-linear but increasing relations of both geo-temperatures and geothermal gradients with increases depth.Numerically,we fitted the relationship between geo-temperatures and depth,a first-order exponential decay curve,formulated as:T(h) - -4.975 + 23.08 × exp(-h/1736.1 ).

  12. Geothermal energy and the environment - The global experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualetti, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The paper discusses the impact of environmental problems on the world's geothermal generating stations. The significant impacts include conflicts in land use, air pollution, subsidence, water pollution, induced seismicity, blowouts, and noise. Development of geothermal resources has been slowed down in some countries: in U.S., the emission of hydrogen sulfide produced a problem; in Japan, land use in national parks and waste-water disposal resulted in difficulties; and in El Salvador, waste-water disposal presented a difficulty. Geothermal development faces many regulations and difficulties, particularly in U.S., a country which could stimulate a global acceleration in this field with appropriately relaxed controls.

  13. Petrophysical core characterization at supercritical geothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerow, Juliane; Raab, Siegfried

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing scientific interest in the exploitation of supercritical geothermal reservoirs to increase the efficiency of geothermal power plants. The utilisation of geothermal energy requires in any case the detailed knowledge of the reservoir. In reservoir engineering, the characterisation of the geothermal system by electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a common geophysical exploration and monitoring strategy. For a realistic interpretation of the field measurements it is necessary to know both, the physical properties of the rock and those of the interacting fluid at defined temperature and pressure conditions. While there have been made great effort in determine the physical and chemical properties of water above its critical point (Tcritical = 374.21° C and pcritical = 221.2 bar), the influence of fluid-rock interactions on petrophysical properties in supercritical aqueous systems is nearly unknown. At supercritical conditions the viscosity of the fluid is low, which enhances the mass transfer and diffusion-controlled chemical reactions. This may have considerable effects on the porosity and hydraulic properties of a rock. To investigate high-enthalpy fluid-rock systems, in the framework of the EU-funded project IMAGE we have built a new percolation set-up, which allows for the measurement of electrical resistivity and permeability of rock samples at controlled supercritical conditions of aqueous fluids (pore pressure = 400 bar and a temperature = 400° C). First results will be presented.

  14. Modern geothermal power: GeoPP with geothermal steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The first part of the review presents information on the scale and specific features of geothermal energy development in various countries. The classification of geothermal power plant (GeoPP) process flow diagrams by a phase state of the primary heat source (a geothermal fluid), thermodynamic cycle, and applicable turbines is proposed. Features of geothermal plants using methods of flashing and steam separation in the process loop and a flowsheet and thermodynamic process of a geothermal fluid heat-to-power conversion in a GeoPP of the most widespread type using a double-flash separation are considered. It is shown that, for combined cycle power units, the specific power-to-consumption geothermal fluid ratio is 20-25% higher than that for traditional single-loop GeoPP. Information about basic chemical components and their concentration range for geothermal fluids of various formations around the world is presented. Three historic stages of improving geothermal energy technologies are determined, such as development of high-temperature geothermal resources (dry, superheated steam) and application of a two-phase wet-steam geothermal fluid in GeoPP power units with one or two expansion pressures and development of binary cycle GeoPPs. A current trend of more active use of binary power plants in GeoPP technological processes is noted. Design features of GeoPP's steam turbines and steam separating devices, determined by the use of low-potential geothermal saturated steam as a working medium, which is characterized by corrosion aggressiveness and a tendency to form deposits, are considered. Most promising Russian geothermal energy projects are determined. A list of today's most advanced geothermal turbine performance technologies is presented. By an example of a 25 MW steam turbine design, made by JSC Kaluga Turbine Works, advantages of the internal moisture separation with a special turbine-separator stage are shown.

  15. Parabolic troughs to increase the geothermal wells flow enthalpy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, Alvaro; Almanza, Rafael [Engineering Institute, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Building 12, Cuidad Universitaria, Mexico D.F., A.P. 70-472, C.P. 04510 (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    This work investigates the feasibility of using parabolic trough solar field to increase the enthalpy from geothermal wells' flow in order to increase the steam tons; in addition, it is possible to prevent silica deposition in the geothermal process. The high levels of irradiance in Northwestern Mexico make it possible to integrate a solar-geothermal hybrid system that uses two energy resources to provide steam for the geothermal cycle, like the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. The plant consists of a geothermal well, a parabolic trough solar field in series, flash separator, steam turbine and condenser. Well '408' of Cerro Prieto IV has enthalpy of 1566kJ/kg and its quality must be increased by 10 points, which requires a {delta}h of 194.4kJ/kg. Under these considerations the parabolic troughs area required will be 9250m{sup 2}, with a flow of 92.4tons per hour (25.67kg/s). The solar field orientation is a N-S parabolic trough concentrator. The silica content in the Cerro Prieto geothermal brine causes problems for scaling at the power facility, so scale controls must be considered. (author)

  16. Geothermal energy. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    Brief descriptions of geothermal projects funded through the Department of Energy during FY 1978 are presented. Each summary gives the project title, contractor name, contract number, funding level, dates, location, and name of the principal investigator, together with project highlights, which provide informaion such as objectives, strategies, and a brief project description. (MHR)

  17. Geothermal Grows Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William C.; Kraemer, Steven; Ormond, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Self-declared energy and carbon reduction goals on the part of progressive colleges and universities have driven ground source geothermal space heating and cooling systems into rapid evolution, as part of long-term climate action planning efforts. The period of single-building or single-well solutions is quickly being eclipsed by highly engineered…

  18. Geothermal Systems for School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinse, David H.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an award-winning school heating and cooling system in which two energy-efficient technologies, variable-flow pumping and geothermal heat pumps, were combined. The basic system schematic and annual energy use and cost savings statistics are provided. (GR)

  19. Geothermal industry assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    An assessment of the geothermal industry is presented, focusing on industry structure, corporate activities and strategies, and detailed analysis of the technological, economic, financial, and institutional issues important to government policy formulation. The study is based principally on confidential interviews with executives of 75 companies active in the field. (MHR)

  20. Geothermal investigations in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Ravnik

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the methodology and the results of geothermal investigations, based on seventy-two boreholes in the territory of the Republic of Slovenia.The data of fundamental geothermal quantities: formation temperature, thermal conductivity, and radiogenic heat production of rocks as well as surface heat flow density are stored in a computerized data base. Their synthesis is given in the map of formation temperatures at 1000 m depth and in the map of surface heat flow density. In both maps the thermal difference between the Pannonian basin in theeastern and the Dinarides in the western part of Slovenia is clearly expressed.However, in the boundary area between these two tectonic units, for a distance of about 100 km in SW-NE direction, elevated horizontal gradients of formation temperature as well as heat flow density are evident. A small positive thermal anomaly in the Ljubljana depression is conspicuous.The low-temperature geothermal resources in Slovenia such as thermalsprings and thermal water from boreholes, are estimated to have a flow rate of 1120 kg/s, corresponding to the ideal total heat production of 144 MWt. In the geothermally promising areas amounting to 3200 km2 the rate of accessible resource base (ARB down to the depth of 3 km has been assessed to about 8.5 x lO 20» J.

  1. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  2. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  3. Effect of microporosity on the permeability of geothermal systems, case study of Los Humeros geothermal fie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Gerardo; Cid, Hector; Ortega, Dante

    2017-04-01

    Los Humeros is the largest silicic caldera complex of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB), with an active geothermal field, which is currently producing around 65 MW. It is located in the northern part of the eastern TMVB. Its evolution includes voluminous caldera-forming eruption producing two large caldera structures (Los Humeros and Los Potreros calderas) with alternated episodes of effusive and explosive activity until the Holocene. The geothermal reservoir is located at a depth of about 1,500 m comprising a thick succession of porphyritic andesitic lava flows, and perhaps which overlay in a highly discordant contact a meta-sedimentary basement sequence dominated by altered limestone and skarn rocks. A NW/N-S structural system seems to be the main control of geothermal field distribution within the central part of the youngest caldera. Permeability in the geothermal reservoir has been associated with that system observed on the surficial geology, but also to some hidden secondary faulting and associated fracturing. Primary porosity has been considered negligible due to the low macroporosity observed in the volcanic rocks. However, a detailed analysis of the microporosity determined by X-ray microtomography new developed techniques, allow us to determine precise values of microporosity that were using for numerical simulation to obtain values of effective porosity, which reveals an interesting alternative solution to the permeability of the subsurface of Los Humeros geothermal field that should be taking into account to the final permeability of the system.

  4. Hydrocarbons associated with brines from geopressured wells. Third quarterly technical progress report, 1 July 1991--30 September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-15

    Efforts to determine the concentration of the cryocondensates in fluids of the various USDOE Geopressured wells a function of production volume. The wells are visited monthly as they are operating and samples are reported taken cryogenically during each visit. A gas scrubbing system continuously sample the gas streams of the wells in the intergas scrubbing system continuously sample the gas streams of the wells in the intervals between visit. Results obtained are to correlated the production of the collected compounds with reservoir and well production characteristics.

  5. Geothermal energy in Nevada: development and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The nature of geothermal resources in Nevada and resource applications are discussed. The social and economic advantages of using geothermal energy are outlined. Federal and state programs established to foster the development of geothermal energy are discussed. (MHR)

  6. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa county

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Maricopa county is the area of Arizona receiving top priority since it contains over half of the state's population. The county is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic region in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Several approaches were taken to match potential users to geothermal resources. One approach involved matching some of the largest facilities in the county to nearby geothermal resources. Other approaches involved identifying industrial processes whose heat requirements are less than the average assessed geothermal reservoir temperature of 110/sup 0/C (230/sup 0/F). Since many of the industries are located on or near geothermal resources, geothermal energy potentially could be adapted to many industrial processes.

  7. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa county

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Maricopa county is the area of Arizona receiving top priority since it contains over half of the state's population. The county is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic region in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Several approaches were taken to match potential users to geothermal resources. One approach involved matching some of the largest facilities in the county to nearby geothermal resources. Other approaches involved identifying industrial processes whose heat requirements are less than the average assessed geothermal reservoir temperature of 110/sup 0/C (230/sup 0/F). Since many of the industries are located on or near geothermal resources, geothermal energy potentially could be adapted to many industrial processes.

  8. Water Desalination Using Geothermal Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Noreddine Ghaffour; , Hacene Mahmoudi; Mattheus Goosen

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only...

  9. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  10. Geothermal emissions data base, Wairakei geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, S.R. (comp.)

    1978-04-01

    A database subset on the gaseous emissions from the Wairakei geothermal field is presented. Properties and states of the reservoir fluid such as flow rates, wellhead pressure, and enthalpy are included in the file along with the well name and constituent measurement. This subset is the result of an initial screening of the data covering 1965 to 1971, and new additions will be appended periodically to the file. The data is accessed by a database management system as are all other subsets in the file. Thereby, one may search the database for specific data requirements and print selective output. For example, one may wish to locate reservoir conditions for cases only when the level of the constituent exceeded a designated value. Data output is available in the form of numerical compilations such as the attached, or graphical displays disposed to paper, film or magnetic tape.

  11. Methods for geothermal reservoir detection emphasizing submerged environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, C.W.; Wilde, P.

    1976-05-21

    This report has been prepared for the California State Lands Commission to aid them in evaluating exploration programs for geothermal reservoirs, particularly in submerged land environments. Three charts show: (1) a logical progression of specific geologic, geochemical, and geophysical exploration techniques for detecting geothermal reservoirs in various geologic environments with emphasis on submerged lands, (2) various exploration techniques which can be used to develop specific information in geothermal areas, and (3) if various techniques will apply to geothermal exploration according to a detailed geologic classification. A narrative in semi-outline form supplements these charts, providing for each technique; a brief description, advantages, disadvantages, special geologic considerations, and specific references. The specific geologic situation will control the exploration criterion to be used for reservoir detection. General guidelines are established which may be of use in evaluating such a program, but the optimum approach will vary with each situation.

  12. Geothermal energy, an environmental and safety mini-overview survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    A survey is presented in order to determine the technology status, gaps, and needs for research and development programs in the environment and safety areas of this resource. The information gathered from a survey of geothermal energy development undertaken to provide background for an environment and safety overview program is summarized. A technology assessment for resource development is presented. The three specific environmental problems identified as most potentially limiting to geothermal development; hydrogen sulfide control, brine disposal, and subsidence, are discussed. Current laws, regulations, and standards applying to geothermal systems are summarized. The elements of the environment, health, and safety program considered to be intrinsically related to the development of geothermal energy systems are discussed. Interagency interfaces are touched on briefly. (MHR)

  13. Scaling control in superficial installations at the Las Tres Virgenes, geothermal field, BCS; Control de incrustacion en instalaciones superficiales del campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapia Salazar, Ruth [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)]. E-mail: ruth.tapia@cfe.gob.mx

    2007-01-15

    Silica scaling is one of the most important problems in the Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field. It affects not only the superficial installations, like brine injection pipelines, but also the injection wells where it reduces injection capacity. Separated brine passes from production wells to injection wells by means of steel pipelines 10 and 14 inches in diameter. The pipelines are affected by silica scaling that occurs when the two-phase fluid is discharged at atmospheric pressure and the separated brine is cooled and concentrated and then over saturated with amorphous silica. Even when the pipelines were cleaned periodically, it was necessary to implement a technique for prevent scaling. Two methods considered appropriate to the specific field conditions were studied, and finally the technique of modifying the brine pH was adopted. After over a year of using this technique in the general injection system, no mechanical cleaning of the pipelines has been necessary-and once cleaning was needed at least every third day. This represents an important improvement in the steam supply system. [Spanish] Uno de los problemas mas importantes en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes es la incrustacion por silice, la cual afecta no solo a instalaciones superficiales como lineas de inyeccion de salmuera, sino tambien a los pozos inyectores al reducir su capacidad de aceptacion. El agua producida por los pozos productores se conduce hasta los pozos inyectores por medio de tuberias de acero al carbon de 10 y 14 pulgadas de diametro, que se ven afectadas por la incrustacion de silice. La incrustacion ocurre debido a que cuando el fluido en dos fases es descargado a presion atmosferica, la salmuera separada, enfriada y concentrada, esta usualmente sobresaturada con respecto a la solubilidad de la silice amorfa. Aunque las tuberias se limpiaban mecanicamente, fue necesario seleccionar una tecnica para prevenir la incrustacion, para lo cual se estudiaron dos de los metodos que

  14. Geothermal heating systems for greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, J.F.; Johnson, W.C.

    1980-08-12

    Ways to utilize low-temperature geothermally heated water for a flow-through system are presented. The geothermal energy used for this system is the waste heat discharged from space heating 500,000 square feet of floor space at Oregon Institute of Technology with geothermal water pumped directly from the campus wells. The information collected and analyzed is from data developed from operating a greenhouse on the Oregon Institute of Technology campus from December 1979 to April 1980. Methods for calculating heating requirements of greenhouses using geothermal energy were developed from the analyses of the data obtained. (MHR)

  15. Direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

  16. Water Desalination Using Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreddine Ghaffour

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only in the presence of cheap geothermal reservoirs or in decentralized applications focusing on small-scale water supplies in coastal regions, provided that society is able and willing to pay for desalting.

  17. Geothermal energy: an important resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dowling, Carolyn B; Neumann, Klaus; Florea, Lee J

    2016-01-01

    .... Contributions include studies on the feasibility of integrating geological modeling with system design, extraction of low-temperature geothermal energy in underground coal mines, ground-source heat...

  18. Water Desalination using geothermal energy

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, M.

    2010-08-03

    The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only in the presence of cheap geothermal reservoirs or in decentralized applications focusing on small-scale water supplies in coastal regions, provided that society is able and willing to pay for desalting. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  19. Airborne and land-based controlled-source electromagnetic surveying in challenging electromagnetic environments – application to geothermal exploration in a volcanic island

    OpenAIRE

    Darnet, Mathieu; Coppo, Nicolas; Reninger, Pierre,; Wawrzyniak, Pierre; Girard, Jean-François; Bourgeois, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Exploring for underground resources using land-based electromagnetic methods can be very challenging due to the presence of strong human-generated and " geological " noise. In such context, some passive EM techniques like the Magneto-Telluric method may not be applicable at all and a dedicated toolbox of EM techniques capable of dealing with these issues is required. We focus here on the challenges encountered while exploring for geothermal resources in volcanic island...

  20. Use of Geothermal Energy for Aquaculture Purposes - Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.C.; Smith, K.C.

    1981-09-01

    This project, financed by the Pacific Northwest Regional Commission (PNRC), was designed to provide information to evaluate the best methods to use for intensive aquaculture of freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, using geothermal energy. The freshwater prawn is a tropical organism and is native to southeast Asia. Earlier projects at Oregon Institute of Technology have shown the feasibility of culturing this aquatic animal in geothermal water. This phase of the project was designed to investigate intensive culture of this animal as well as the advantages of growing rainbow trout, ornamental tropical fin fish, and mosquito fish, Gambusia affnis, for vector control using geothermal energy. The research data collected on the prawns was obtained from the stocking and sampling of two 0.2- ha (half-acre) ponds constructed as a part of the project. The ponds are equipped with recording monitors for temperature and flow. The geothermal energy used is the geothermal effluent from the Oregon Institute of Technology heating system. This water is of potable quality and ranges in temperature from 50 to 70oC. The geothermal water used in the ponds is controlled at 27oC, ± 2oC, by using thermostats and solenoid valves. A small building next to the ponds contains facilities for hatching larvae prawns and tanks for growing post-larvae prawns. The hatchery facility makes the project self-sustaining. The hatchery was obtained as part of an earlier PNRC project.

  1. NATIONAL GEOTHERMAL DATA SYSTEM (NGDS) GEOTHERMAL DATA DOMAIN: ASSESSMENT OF GEOTHERMAL COMMUNITY DATA NEEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Arlene [United States Department of Energy; Blackwell, David [Southern Methodist University; Chickering, Cathy [Southern Methodist University; Boyd, Toni [Oregon Institute of Technology; Horne, Roland [Stanford University; MacKenzie, Matthew [Uberity Technology Corporation; Moore, Joseph [University of Utah; Nickull, Duane [Uberity Technology Corporation; Richard, Stephen [Arizona Geological survey; Shevenell, Lisa A. [University of Nevada, Reno

    2013-01-01

    To satisfy the critical need for geothermal data to ad- vance geothermal energy as a viable renewable ener- gy contender, the U.S. Department of Energy is in- vesting in the development of the National Geother- mal Data System (NGDS). This paper outlines efforts among geothermal data providers nationwide to sup- ply cutting edge geo-informatics. NGDS geothermal data acquisition, delivery, and methodology are dis- cussed. In particular, this paper addresses the various types of data required to effectively assess geother- mal energy potential and why simple links to existing data are insufficient. To create a platform for ready access by all geothermal stakeholders, the NGDS in- cludes a work plan that addresses data assets and re- sources of interest to users, a survey of data provid- ers, data content models, and how data will be ex- changed and promoted, as well as lessons learned within the geothermal community.

  2. Regional maps of subsurface geopressure gradients of the onshore and offshore Gulf of Mexico basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lauri A.; Kinney, Scott A.; Dubiel, Russell F.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey created a comprehensive geopressure-gradient model of the regional pressure system spanning the onshore and offshore Gulf of Mexico basin, USA. This model was used to generate ten maps that included (1) five contour maps characterizing the depth to the surface defined by the first occurrence of isopressure gradients ranging from 0.60 psi/ft to 1.00 psi/ft, in 0.10-psi/ft increments; and (2) five supporting maps illustrating the spatial density of the data used to construct the contour maps. These contour maps of isopressure-gradients at various increments enable the identification and quantification of the occurrence, magnitude, location, and depth of the subsurface pressure system, which allows for the broad characterization of regions exhibiting overpressured, underpressured, and normally pressured strata. Identification of overpressured regions is critical for exploration and evaluation of potential undiscovered hydrocarbon accumulations based on petroleum-generation pressure signatures and pressure-retention properties of reservoir seals. Characterization of normally pressured regions is essential for field development decisions such as determining the dominant production drive mechanisms, evaluating well placement and drainage patterns, and deciding on well stimulation methods such as hydraulic fracturing. Identification of underpressured regions is essential for evaluating the feasibility of geological sequestration and long-term containment of fluids such as supercritical carbon dioxide for alternative disposal methods of greenhouse gases. This study is the first, quantitative investigation of the regional pressure systems of one of the most important petroleum provinces in the United States. Although this methodology was developed for pressure studies in the Gulf of Mexico basin, it is applicable to any basin worldwide.

  3. Geothermal Well Stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D. A.; Morris, C. W.; Sinclair, A. R.; Hanold, R. J.; Vetter, O. J.

    1981-03-01

    The stimulation of geothermal wells presents some new and challenging problems. Formation temperatures in the 300-600 F range can be expected. The behavior of stimulation fluids, frac proppants, and equipment at these temperatures in a hostile brine environment must be carefully evaluated before performance expectations can be determined. In order to avoid possible damage to the producing horizon of the formation, high temperature chemical compatibility between the in situ materials and the stimulation materials must be verified. Perhaps most significant of all, in geothermal wells the required techniques must be capable of bringing about the production of very large amounts of fluid. This necessity for high flow rates represents a significant departure from conventional petroleum well stimulation and demands the creation of very high near-wellbore permeability and/or fractures with very high flow conductivity.

  4. Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Doug [Baker-Hughes Oilfield Operation Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Leggett, Jim [Baker-Hughes Oilfield Operation Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-07-29

    The Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager project has a goal to develop a wireline ultrasonic imager that is capable of operating in temperatures up to 300°C (572°F) and depths up to 10 km (32,808 ft). This will address one of the critical needs in any EGS development of understanding the hydraulic flow paths in the reservoir. The ultrasonic imaging is well known in the oil and gas industry as one of the best methods for fracture evaluation; providing both high resolution and complete azimuthal coverage of the borehole. This enables fracture detection and characterization, both natural and induced, providing information as to their location, dip direction and dip magnitude. All of these factors are critical to fully understand the fracture system to enable the optimization of the thermal drainage through injectors and producers in a geothermal resource.

  5. Federal Interagency Geothermal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Arlene [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Prencipe, Loretta [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Todaro, Richard M. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Cuyler, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eide, Elizabeth [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This collaborative document describes the roles and responsibilities of key Federal agencies in the development of geothermal technologies including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), including the U.S. Forest Service; the U.S. Department of Interior (DOI), including the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM); the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); and the Department of Defense (DOD).

  6. Earthquake and Geothermal Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kapoor, Surya Prakash

    2013-01-01

    The origin of earthquake has long been recognized as resulting from strike-slip instability of plate tectonics along the fault lines. Several events of earthquake around the globe have happened which cannot be explained by this theory. In this work we investigated the earthquake data along with other observed facts like heat flow profiles etc... of the Indian subcontinent. In our studies we found a high-quality correlation between the earthquake events, seismic prone zones, heat flow regions and the geothermal hot springs. As a consequence, we proposed a hypothesis which can adequately explain all the earthquake events around the globe as well as the overall geo-dynamics. It is basically the geothermal power, which makes the plates to stand still, strike and slip over. The plates are merely a working solid while the driving force is the geothermal energy. The violent flow and enormous pressure of this power shake the earth along the plate boundaries and also triggers the intra-plate seismicity. In the light o...

  7. UWC geothermal resource exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    A program was developed to explore the strength of the geothermal and hot dry rock (HDR) resource at the Montezuma Hot Springs at the United World College (UWC). The purpose of the UWC {number_sign}1 well is to obtain hydrologic, geologic, and temperature information for ongoing geothermal evaluation of the Montezuma Hot Springs area. If sufficient fluids are encountered, the hole will be cased with a 4 1/2 inch production casing and re-permitted as a geothermal low-temperature well. If no fluid is encountered, the well will be abandoned per Oil Conservation Division regulation. The objectives of the exploration are to evaluate the resource potential to provide space heating for the entire campus of the United World College, determine the effect of a well on the Hot Springs outflow, accurately measure the UWC heating loads versus time, evaluate the potential to support local thermal industry development, assess the feasibility of HDR development, and create an educational program from the collection of data derived from the research effort.

  8. Stanford Geothermal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Horn

    1999-06-30

    Reliable measurement of steam-water relative permeability functions is of great importance for geothermal reservoir performance simulation. Despite their importance, these functions are poorly known due to the lack of fundamental understanding of steam-water flows, and the difficulty of making direct measurements. The Stanford Geothermal Program has used an X-ray CT (Computer Tomography) scanner to obtain accurate saturation profiles by direct measurement. During the last five years, the authors have carried out experiments with nitrogen-water flow and with steam-water flow, and examined the effects of heat transfer and phase change by comparing these sets of results. In porous rocks, it was found that the steam-water relative permeabilities follow Corey type relationships similar to those in nitrogen-water flow, but that the irreducible gas phase saturation is smaller for steam than for nitrogen. The irreducible saturations represent substantial fractions of the recoverable energy in place yet are hard to determine in the field. Understanding the typical magnitude of irreducible saturations will lead to a much clearer forecast of geothermal field performance. In fracture flow, indirect measurements suggested that the relative permeabilities follow a linear (or ''X-curve'') behavior - but there is still considerable uncertainty in the knowledge of this behavior.

  9. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  10. Stanford Geothermal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Horn

    1999-06-30

    Reliable measurement of steam-water relative permeability functions is of great importance for geothermal reservoir performance simulation. Despite their importance, these functions are poorly known due to the lack of fundamental understanding of steam-water flows, and the difficulty of making direct measurements. The Stanford Geothermal Program has used an X-ray CT (Computer Tomography) scanner to obtain accurate saturation profiles by direct measurement. During the last five years, the authors have carried out experiments with nitrogen-water flow and with steam-water flow, and examined the effects of heat transfer and phase change by comparing these sets of results. In porous rocks, it was found that the steam-water relative permeabilities follow Corey type relationships similar to those in nitrogen-water flow, but that the irreducible gas phase saturation is smaller for steam than for nitrogen. The irreducible saturations represent substantial fractions of the recoverable energy in place yet are hard to determine in the field. Understanding the typical magnitude of irreducible saturations will lead to a much clearer forecast of geothermal field performance. In fracture flow, indirect measurements suggested that the relative permeabilities follow a linear (or ''X-curve'') behavior - but there is still considerable uncertainty in the knowledge of this behavior.

  11. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  12. Geothermal drilling in Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez A., Bernardo

    1982-08-10

    The number of characteristics of the different wells that have been drilled in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field to date enable one to summarize the basic factors in the applied technology, draw some conclusions, improve systems and procedures, and define some problems that have not yet been satisfactorily solved, although the existing solution is the best now available. For all practical purposes, the 100 wells drilled in the three areas or blocks into which the Cerro Prieto field has been divided have been completed. Both exploratory and production wells have been drilled; problems of partial or total lack of control have made it necessary to abandon some of these wells, since they were unsafe to keep in production or even to be used for observation and/or study. The wells and their type, the type of constructed wells and the accumulative meters that have been drilled for such wells are summarized.

  13. Goechemical and Hydrogeochemical Properties of Cappadocia Geothermal Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furkan Sener, Mehmet; Sener, Mehmet; Uysal, Tonguc

    2016-04-01

    In order to determine the geothermal resource potential of Niǧde, Nevşehir and Aksaray provinces in Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (CAVP), geothermal fluids, surface water, and alteration rock samples from the Cappadocia volcanic zone in Turkey were investigated for their geochemical and stable isotopic characteristics in light of published geological and tectonic studies. Accordingly, the Cappadocia Geothermal Province (CGP) has two different geothermal systems located along tectonic zones including five active and two potential geothermal fields, which are located between Tuzgölü Fault Zone and Keçiboyduran-Melendiz Fault and north of Keçiboyduran-Melendiz Fault. Based on water chemistry and isotope compositions, samples from the first area are characterized by Ca-Mg-HCO3 ve Ca-HCO3 type mineral poor waters and Ca-Na-SO4 and Ca-Mg-SO4 type for the cold waters and the hot waters, respectively, whereas hot waters from the second area are Na-Cl-HCO3 and Ca-Na-HCO3 type mineral poor waters. According to δ18O and δ2H isotope studies, the geothermal waters are fed from meteoric waters. Results of silica geothermometer indicate that the reservoir temperature of Dertalan, Melendiz Mount, Keçiboyduran Mount, Hasan Mount (Keçikalesi), Ziga, Acıgöl, and Derinkuyu geothermal waters are 150-173 oC, 88-117 oC, 91-120 oC, 94-122 oC, 131-156 oC, 157-179 oC; 152-174 oC and 102-130 oC, respectively. The REE composition of geothermal fluids, surface water, and mineral precipitates indicate that temperature has a strong effect on REE fractionation of the sampled fluids. Eu- and Ce- anomalies (Eu/Eu*, Ce/Ce*) are visible in several samples, which are related to the inheritance from the host reservoir rocks and redox-controlled fractionation of these elements during water-rock interactions. REE and Yttrium geochemistry results of altered rock samples and water samples, which were taken from same locations exhibited quite similar features in each system. Hence, it was

  14. Investigation of geothermal resources in Korea (Geothermal Resources Maps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jeong Ung; Lee, Seung Gu; Yum, Byoung Woo; Kim, Hyoung Chan [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The Korean Peninsula forms a part of the stable foreland of Far East Asia and is a part of Sino-Korean Craton, where, hence, is not associated with high potential geothermal resources. Nevertheless, there are several geothermal springs, of which water temperature ranges from 23 to 76 deg. C. This study was aimed to draw various geothermal base maps in the Korean Peninsula, such as thermal conductivity map, heat flow map, geothermal gradient map, depth contour map of 25 deg. C and various geochemical figures of geothermal waters. In this study, the thermal springs was surveyed for well inventory, the determination of thermal conductivities of rocks, and chemical analyses of geothermal waters. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope values ({delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O) of geothermal waters were also calculated, which would be useful to evaluate the origin of water. Map of geothermal gradient distribution illustrates geothermally anomalous areas - such as Deoksan, Dogo, Onyang and Yusong areas in ChungNam district, Jungwon area in Chungbuk district, Pocheon area in Gyeonggi district, Gosung area in Gwangwon district, Deokgu, Baekam, and Pohang areas in Gyeongbuk district and Busan, Mageumsan and Bugok area in Gyeongnam district. Heat flow map also shows similar features to geothermal anomalies. Most of thermal waters form the Korean Peninsula are alkaline and belongs to Na-HCO{sub 3} type. Their contents are characterized of low total dissolved solids and high contents of fluoride and sodium, of which results are same as those of the researches which was conducted before. (author). 21 refs., tabs., figs.

  15. Silica extraction from geothermal water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcier, William L; Bruton, Carol J

    2014-09-23

    A method of producing silica from geothermal fluid containing low concentration of the silica of less than 275 ppm includes the steps of treating the geothermal fluid containing the silica by reverse osmosis treatment thereby producing a concentrated fluid containing the silica, seasoning the concentrated fluid thereby producing a slurry having precipitated colloids containing the silica, and separating the silica from the slurry.

  16. Geothermal Energy: Prospects and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, William W.

    1973-01-01

    An examination of geothermal energy as a means of increasing the United States power resources with minimal pollution problems. Developed and planned geothermal-electric power installations around the world, capacities, installation dates, etc., are reviewed. Environmental impact, problems, etc. are discussed. (LK)

  17. Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy…

  18. Geothermal engineering fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the engineering required to bring geothermal resources into use. The book covers specifically engineering aspects that are unique to geothermal engineering, such as measurements in wells and their interpretation, transport of near-boiling water through long pipelines, turbines driven by fluids other than steam, and project economics. The explanations are reinforced by drawing comparisons with other energy industries.

  19. Compilation of geothermal information: exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The Database for Geothermal Energy Exploration and Evaluation is a printout of selected references to publications covering the development of geothermal resources from the identification of an area to the production of elecric power. This annotated bibliography contains four sections: references, author index, author affiliation index, and descriptor index.

  20. Middlesex Community College Geothermal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Jessie [Middlesex Community College, Bedford, MA (United States); Spaziani, Gina [Middlesex Community College, Bedford, MA (United States)

    2013-03-29

    The purpose of the project was to install a geothermal system in the trustees house on the Bedford campus of Middlesex Community College. In partnership with the environmental science faculty, learning activities for environmental science courses were developed to explain geothermal energy and more specifically the newly installed system to Middlesex students. A real-time monitoring system highlights the energy use and generation.

  1. Geothermal Energy: Prospects and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, William W.

    1973-01-01

    An examination of geothermal energy as a means of increasing the United States power resources with minimal pollution problems. Developed and planned geothermal-electric power installations around the world, capacities, installation dates, etc., are reviewed. Environmental impact, problems, etc. are discussed. (LK)

  2. The Future of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubik, Michelle [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of enhanced, or engineered, geothermal systems was carried out by an 18-member panel assembled by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to evaluate the potential of geothermal energy becoming a major energy source for the United States.

  3. Multipurpose Use of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.; Lund, John W. (eds.)

    1974-10-09

    The conference was organized to review the non-electric, multipurpose uses of geothermal energy in Hungary, Iceland, New Zealand, United States and the USSR. The international viewpoint was presented to provide an interchange of information from countries where non-electric use of geothermal energy has reached practical importance.

  4. World Geothermal Congress WGC-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses materials and results of the World Geothermal Congress that was held in Melbourne (Australia) from April 19 to April 25, 2015. Information on the extent and technological features of utilization of geothermal resources for heat supply and power production, as well as in other economic areas, is given. A stable growth in the capacity and number of geothermal power systems that is determined by ecological cleanliness, economic efficiency, and the highest (among renewable energy sources) indicators of installed capacity utilization is shown. It was noted that combined schemes of geothermal power plants (GPPs), such as turbine units of different type (binary units, units with one or two separation pressures, etc.), have become more frequently used to increase the efficiency of utilization of geothermal heat carrier. Actual data determining room heating systems with the total worldwide capacity of nearly 50000 MW thermal (MWt) as the most currently significant segment of consumption of geothermal waters are given. In addition, geothermal resources are also utilized in soil pumps, balneological and sports basins, greenhouse complexes, and other manufactures. It was noted that geological studies were carried out in more than 40 countries, with the development of methods of simulation of tanks for the existing and new geothermal fields. Trends of development and the role of geothermal power engineering in the energy supply of many countries are shown. It was shown that prospects for the development of geothermal power generation are significantly associated with utilization of low-temperature geothermal sources in binary power generating units, as well as with the increase in installed capacity of operating geothermal power plants (GPPs) without drilling additional wells, i.e., by using waste geothermal heat carrier in binary-cycle or combined-cycle power plants. The article provides data on a pilot binary power unit at Pauzhetka GPP and on a

  5. Geothermal resource evaluation of the Yuma area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poluianov, E.W.; Mancini, F.P.

    1985-11-29

    This report presents an evaluation of the geothermal potential of the Yuma, Arizona area. A description of the study area and the Salton Trough area is followed by a geothermal analysis of the area, a discussion of the economics of geothermal exploration and exploitation, and recommendations for further testing. It was concluded economic considerations do not favor geothermal development at this time. (ACR)

  6. Environmental Assessment Lakeview Geothermal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treis, Tania [Southern Oregon Economic Development Department, Medford, OR (United States)

    2012-04-30

    The Town of Lakeview is proposing to construct and operate a geothermal direct use district heating system in Lakeview, Oregon. The proposed project would be in Lake County, Oregon, within the Lakeview Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA). The proposed project includes the following elements: Drilling, testing, and completion of a new production well and geothermal water injection well; construction and operation of a geothermal production fluid pipeline from the well pad to various Town buildings (i.e., local schools, hospital, and Lake County Industrial Park) and back to a geothermal water injection well. This EA describes the proposed project, the alternatives considered, and presents the environmental analysis pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act. The project would not result in adverse effects to the environment with the implementation of environmental protection measures.

  7. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Cross

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the GTP’s involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including GHPs.† The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  8. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes activities of the Geo-Heat Center (GHC) at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 1995. It describes contacts with parties during this period related to assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, resources and equipment. Research is also being conducted on geothermal energy cost evaluation, low-temperature geothermal resource assessment, use of silica waste from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field as construction materials and geothermal heat pumps. Outreach activities include the publication of a quarterly bulletin on direct heat applications and dissemination of information on low-temperature geothermal resources and utilization.

  9. Environmental Assessment -- Hydrothermal Geothermal Subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    This environmental impact assessment addresses the design, construction, and operation of an electric generating plant (3 to 4 MWe) and research station (Hawaii Geothermal Research Station (HGRS)) in the Puna district on the Island of Hawaii. The facility will include control and support buildings, parking lots, cooling towers, settling and seepage ponds, the generating plant, and a visitors center. Research activities at the facility will evaluate the ability of a successfully flow-tested well (42-day flow test) to provide steam for power generation over an extended period of time (two years). In future expansion, research activities may include direct heat applications such as aquaculture and the effects of geothermal fluids on various plant components and specially designed equipment on test modules. Construction-related impacts would be relatively minor. Construction of the facility will require the distance of about 1.7 ha (4.1 acres). No further disturbance is anticipated, unless it becomes necessary to replace the seepage pond with an injection well, because the production well is in service and adjacent roads and transmission lines are adequate. Disruption of competing land uses will be minimal, and loss of wildlife habitat will be acceptable. Noise should not significantly affect wildlife and local residents; the most noise activities (well drilling and flow testing) have been completed. Water use during construction will not be large, and impacts on competing uses are unlikely. Socio-economic impacts will be small because the project will not employ a large number of local residents and few construction workers will need to find local housing.

  10. Geothermal materials development at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1997-06-01

    As part of the DOE/OGT response to recommendations and priorities established by industrial review of their overall R and D program, the Geothermal Materials Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is focusing on topics that can reduce O and M costs and increase competitiveness in foreign and domestic markets. Corrosion and scale control, well completion materials, and lost circulation control have high priorities. The first two topics are included in FY 1997 BNL activities, but work on lost circulation materials is constrained by budgetary limitations. The R and D, most of which is performed as cost-shared efforts with US geothermal firms, is rapidly moving into field testing phases. FY 1996 and 1997 accomplishments in the development of lightweight CO{sub 2}-resistant cements for well completions; corrosion resistant, thermally conductive polymer matrix composites for heat exchange applications; and metallic, polymer and ceramic-based corrosion protective coatings are given in this paper. In addition, plans for work that commenced in March 1997 on thermally conductive cementitious grouting materials for use with geothermal heat pumps (GHP), are discussed.

  11. Geothermal materials development at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukacka, L.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    As part of the DOE/OGT response to recommendations and priorities established by industrial review of their overall R&D program, the Geothermal Materials Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is focusing on topics that can reduce O&M costs and increase competitiveness in foreign and domestic markets. Corrosion and scale control, well completion materials, and lost circulation control have high priorities. The first two topics are included in FY 1997 BNL activities, but work on lost circulation materials is constrained by budgetary limitations. The R&D, most of which is performed as cost-shared efforts with U.S. geothermal firms, is rapidly moving into field testing phases. FY 1996 and 1997 accomplishments in the development of lightweight CO{sub 2}-resistant cements for well completions; corrosion resistant, thermally conductive polymer matrix composites for heat exchange applications; and metallic, polymer and ceramic-based corrosion protective coatings are given in this paper. In addition, plans for work that commenced in March 1997 on thermally conductive cementitious grouting materials for use with geothermal heat pumps (GHP), are discussed.

  12. Geothermal Information Dissemination and Outreach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clutter, Ted J. [Geothermal Resources Council (United States)

    2005-02-18

    Project Purpose. To enhance technological and topical information transfer in support of industry and government efforts to increase geothermal energy use in the United States (power production, direct use, and geothermal groundsource heat pumps). Project Work. GRC 2003 Annual Meeting. The GRC convened the meeting on Oct. 12-15, 2003, at Morelia's Centro de Convenciones y ExpoCentro in Mexico under the theme, International Collaboration for Geothermal Energy in the Americas. The event was also sponsored by the Comision Federal de Electricidad. ~600 participants from more than 20 countries attended the event. The GRC convened a Development of Geothermal Projects Workshop and Geothermal Exploration Techniques Workshop. GRC Field Trips included Los Azufres and Paricutin Volcano on Oct. 11. The Geothermal Energy Association (Washington, DC) staged its Geothermal Energy Trade Show. The Annual Meeting Opening Session was convened on Oct. 13, and included the governor of Michoacan, the Mexico Assistant Secretary of Energy, CFE Geothermal Division Director, DOE Geothermal Program Manager, and private sector representatives. The 2003 Annual Meeting attracted 160 papers for oral and poster presentations. GRC 2004. Under the theme, Geothermal - The Reliable Renewable, the GRC 2004 Annual Meeting convened on Aug. 29-Sept. 1, 2004, at the Hyatt Grand Champions Resort at Indian Wells, CA. Estimated total attendance (including Trade Show personnel, guests and accompanying persons) was ~700. The event included a workshop, Geothermal Production Well Pump Installation, Operation and Maintenance. Field trips went to Coso/Mammoth and Imperial Valley/Salton Sea geothermal fields. The event Opening Session featured speakers from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the private sector. The Geothermal Energy Association staged its Geothermal Energy Trade Show. The Geothermal Education Office staged its Geothermal Energy Workshop. Several local radio and

  13. Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program. Quarterly progress report, October 1980-December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, J.R. (ed.)

    1981-03-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development.

  14. Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program. Quarterly progress report, January 1981-March 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, J.R. (ed.)

    1981-06-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods as they apply to advanced drilling systems.

  15. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  16. Geothermal reservoir management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, C.R.; Golabi, K.

    1978-02-01

    The optimal management of a hot water geothermal reservoir was considered. The physical system investigated includes a three-dimensional aquifer from which hot water is pumped and circulated through a heat exchanger. Heat removed from the geothermal fluid is transferred to a building complex or other facility for space heating. After passing through the heat exchanger, the (now cooled) geothermal fluid is reinjected into the aquifer. This cools the reservoir at a rate predicted by an expression relating pumping rate, time, and production hole temperature. The economic model proposed in the study maximizes discounted value of energy transferred across the heat exchanger minus the discounted cost of wells, equipment, and pumping energy. The real value of energy is assumed to increase at r percent per year. A major decision variable is the production or pumping rate (which is constant over the project life). Other decision variables in this optimization are production timing, reinjection temperature, and the economic life of the reservoir at the selected pumping rate. Results show that waiting time to production and production life increases as r increases and decreases as the discount rate increases. Production rate decreases as r increases and increases as the discount rate increases. The optimal injection temperature is very close to the temperature of the steam produced on the other side of the heat exchanger, and is virtually independent of r and the discount rate. Sensitivity of the decision variables to geohydrological parameters was also investigated. Initial aquifer temperature and permeability have a major influence on these variables, although aquifer porosity is of less importance. A penalty was considered for production delay after the lease is granted.

  17. Geothermal map of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prol-Ledesma, R.M.; Juavez, M.G.

    1986-07-01

    Silica temperatures were calculated for 326 water samples from hot and warm springs located throughout Mexico as an attempt to estimate heat flow. Available heat flow data (Smith, 1974; Smith et al., 1979) for northern Mexico were related to silica temperature data to obtain the appropriate constants for the regional conditions according to Swanberg and Morgan's equation (1979, 1980). The constants obtained are similar to those obtained for the United States, therefore heat flow can be estimated on the basis of silica temperature data. By contouring calculated temperatures a map is obtained where geothermal provinces are shown. 4 figs., 1 tab., 15 refs.

  18. Geothermal Heat Pump Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya L.; Lienau, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal heat pump systems are a promising new energy technology that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to customers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school, and commercial building applications. Information was developed on the status of electric utility marketing programs, barriers to market penetration, incentive programs, and benefits.

  19. Geothermal heat pump performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya L.; Lienau, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal heat pump systems are a promising new energy technology that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to customers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school, and commercial building applications. Information was developed on the status of electric utility marketing programs, barriers to market penetration, incentive programs, and benefits.

  20. Preliminary experience in the monitoring of geothermal probes by borehole logging; Erste Erfahrungen bei der bohrlochgeophysikalischen Ueberpruefung von Erdwaermesonden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Karsten [Bohrlochmessung-Storkow GmbH, Storkow (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Authorities as well as waterworks experts have long been calling for a control strategy to ensure that groundwater protection is considered in geothermal projects. So far, control options for geothermal probes were lacking, which raised doubts about the efficiency of sealing. Waterworks experts also were unable to understand why new groundwater wells or groundwater measuring fonts are subject to careful control via geophysical borehole logs while geothermal probes with a depth of 100 m and more can be installed nearby without adequate monitoring. The contribution presents a preliminary approach for monitoring and testing of shallow geothermal probes. (orig.)

  1. Three-Dimensional Geologic Characterization of Geothermal Systems: Astor Pass, Nevada, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siler, Drew L [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, University of Nevada, Reno; Mayhew, Brett [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, University of Nevada, Reno; Faulds, James E [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, University of Nevada, Reno

    2012-09-30

    Geothermal systems in the Great Basin, USA, are controlled by a variety of fault intersection and fault interaction areas. Understanding the specific geometry of the structures most conducive to geothermal circulation is crucial in order to both mitigate the costs of geothermal exploration (especially drilling) and to identify blind geothermal systems (no surface expression). Astor Pass, Nevada, one such blind geothermal system, lies near the boundary between two distinct structural domains, the Walker Lane and the Basin and Range, and exhibits characteristics of each setting. Both northwest-striking, left-stepping dextral faults of the Walker Lane and kinematically linked northerly striking normal faults associated with the Basin and Range are present at Astor Pass. Previous studies identified a blind geothermal system controlled by the intersection of northwest-striking dextral and north-northwest-striking normal faults. Wells drilled into the southwestern quadrant of the fault intersection yielded 94°C fluids, with geothermometers suggesting significantly higher maximum temperatures. Additional data, including reprocessed 2D seismic data and petrologic analysis of well cuttings, were integrated with existing and reinterpreted geologic maps and cross-sections to aid construction of a 3D geologic model. This comprehensive 3D integration of multiple data sets allows characterization of the structural setting of the Astor Pass blind geothermal system at a level of detail beyond what independent data interpretation can provide. Our analysis indicates that the blind geothermal system is controlled by two north- to northwest-plunging fault intersections.

  2. Enhanced recovery of unconventional gas. Volume II. The program. [Tight gas basins; Devonian shale; coal seams; geopressured aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuuskraa, V.A.; Brashear, J.P.; Doscher, T.M.; Elkins, L.E.

    1978-10-01

    This study was conducted to assist public decision-makers in selecting among many choices to obtain new gas supplies by addressing 2 questions: 1) how severe is the need for additional future supplies of natural gas, and what is the economic potential of providing part of future supply through enhanced recovery from unconventional natural gas resources. The study also serves to assist the DOE in designing a cost-effective R and D program to stimulate industry to recover this unconventional gas and to produce it sooner. Tight gas basins, Devonian shale, methane from coal seams, and methane from geopressured aquifers are considered. It is concluded that unconventional sources, already providing about 1 Tcf per year, could provide from 3 to 4 Tcf in 1985 and from 6 to 8 Tcf in 1990 (at $1.75 and $3.00 per Mcf, respectively). However, even with these additions to supply, gas supply is projected to remain below 1977 usage levels. (DLC)

  3. Geothermal Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.

    1998-01-03

    Man has utilized the natural heat of the earth for centuries. Worldwide direct use of geothermal currently amounts to about 7,000 MWt, as compared to 1,500 MWe, now being used for the generation of electricity. Since the early 1970s, dwindling domestic reservoirs of oil and gas, continued price escalation of oil on the world market and environmental concerns associated with coal and nuclear energy have created a growing interest in the use of geothermal energy in the United States. The Department of Energy goals for hydrothermal resources utilization in the United States, expressed in barrels of oil equivalent, is 50 to 90 million bbl/yr by 1985 and 350 to 900 million bbl/yr by the year 2000. This relatively clean and highly versatile resource is now being used in a multitude of diverse applications (e.g., space heating and cooling, vegetable dehydration, agriculture, aquaculture, light manufacturing), and other applications requiring a reliable and economic source of heat.

  4. Geothermal Resources in Spain; Recurssos geothermicos en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia de la Noceda Marquez, C.

    2009-07-01

    A general view on the geothermal resources is presented and the basic concepts of geothermal fields and their classification, the different possibilities of geothermal energy utilization as well as a general panoramic of geothermal energy in Spain. (Author) 6 refs.

  5. CEMENT SLURRIES FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS CEMENTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available During a well cementing special place belongs to the cement slurry design. To ensure the best quality of cementing, a thorough understanding of well parameters is essential, as well as behaviour of cement slurry (especially at high temperatures and application of proven cementing techniques. Many cement jobs fail because of bad job planning. Well cementing without regarding what should be accomplished, can lead to well problems (channels in the cement, unwanted water, gas or fluid production, pipe corrosion and expensive well repairs. Cementing temperature conditions are important because bot-tomhole circulating temperatures affect slurry thickening time, arheology, set time and compressive strength development. Knowing the actual temperature which cement encounters during placement allows the selection of proper cementing materials for a specific application. Slurry design is affected by well depth, bottom hole circulating temperature and static temperature, type or drilling fluid, slurry density, pumping time, quality of mix water, fluid loss control, flow regime, settling and free water, quality of cement, dry or liquid additives, strength development, and quality of the lab cement testing and equipment. Most Portland cements and Class J cement have shown suitable performances in geot-hermal wells. Cement system designs for geothermal wells differ from those for conventional high temperature oil and gas wells in the exclusive use of silica flour instead of silica sand, and the avoidance of fly ash as an extender. In this paper, Portland cement behaviour at high temperatures is described. Cement slurry and set cement properties are also described. Published in literature, the composition of cement slurries which were tested in geothermal conditions and which obtained required compressive strength and water permeability are listed. As a case of our practice geothermal wells Velika Ciglena-1 and Velika Ciglena-la are described.

  6. LLL Geothermal Industrial Support Program in chemistry and materials for FY76T and FY77

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quong, R.

    1976-07-29

    A proposed program is outlined covering the following areas: scale characterization and control, brine and effluent characterization, suspended solids characterization and control, effluent condition for reinjection, corrosion surveillance and Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility support, and materials testing and evaluation. (MHR)

  7. Geothermal Energy Production With Innovative Methods Of Geothermal Heat Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, Allen [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Darlow, Rick [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Sanchez, Angel [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Pierce, Michael [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Sellers, Blake [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States)

    2014-12-19

    The ThermalDrive™ Power System (“TDPS”) offers one of the most exciting technological advances in the geothermal power generation industry in the last 30 years. Using innovations in subsurface heat recovery methods, revolutionary advances in downhole pumping technology and a distributed approach to surface power production, GeoTek Energy, LLC’s TDPS offers an opportunity to change the geothermal power industry dynamics.

  8. Italian Experience and Problems in Deep Geothermal Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cigni, U.; Del Gaudio, P.; Fabbri, F.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal exploration at depth is being conducted in the Larderello area of Italy, in order to ascertain whether it is possible to extract geothermal fluids from the layers which underlie the reservoir now being exploited. The main operating problems are caused by the high thermality and the chemical corrosiveness of the fluids encountered; and by the practical problems involved in drilling without circulation to the surface in mainly hard but anhomogeneous fractured formations. The technology employed for deep geothermal well drilling plays an important role in this research. In deep geothermal well drilling it is essential that the equipment and the materials employed are suitable for use in areas which are characterized by high thermality and chemical corrosiveness. The results of the experiences gained in Italy concerning the materials and tools employed in deep geothermal exploration are presented. The various problems involved are described in detail and particular mention is made of drift control, fishing operations, cementation of the deep casing, control of the circulation fluid, and choice of the tubular materials.

  9. Characterizations of geothermal springs along the Moxi deep fault in the western Sichuan plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jihong; Xu, Mo; An, Chengjiao; Wu, Mingliang; Zhang, Yunhui; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Guoping

    2017-02-01

    Abundant geothermal springs occur along the Moxi fault located in western Sichuan Province (the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau), highlighted by geothermal water outflow with an unusually high temperature of 218 °C at 21.5 MPa from a 2010-m borehole in Laoyulin, Kangding. Earthquake activity occurs relatively more frequently in the region and is considered to be related to the strong hydrothermal activity. Geothermal waters hosted by a deep fault may provide evidence regarding the deep underground; their aqueous chemistry and isotopic information can indicate the mechanism of thermal springs. Cyclical variations of geothermal water outflows are thought to work under the effect of solid earth tides and can contribute to understanding conditions and processes in underground geo-environments. This paper studies the origin and variations of the geothermal spring group controlled by the Moxi fault and discusses conditions in the deep ground. Flow variation monitoring of a series of parameters was performed to study the geothermal responses to solid tides. Geothermal reservoir temperatures are evaluated with Na-K-Mg data. The abundant sulfite content, dissolved oxygen (DO) and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) data are discussed to study the oxidation-reduction states. Strontium isotopes are used to trace the water source. The results demonstrate that geothermal water could flow quickly through the Moxi fault the depth of the geothermal reservoir influences the thermal reservoir temperature, where supercritical hot water is mixed with circulating groundwater and can reach 380 °C. To the southward along the fault, the circulation of geothermal waters becomes shallower, and the waters may have reacted with metamorphic rock to some extent. Our results provide a conceptual deep heat source model for geothermal flow and the reservoir characteristics of the Moxi fault and indicate that the faulting may well connect the deep heat source to shallower depths. The

  10. Geothermal energy abstract sets. Special report No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C. (comp.)

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography contains annotated citations in the following areas: (1) case histories; (2) drilling; (3) reservoir engineering; (4) injection; (5) geothermal well logging; (6) environmental considerations in geothermal development; (7) geothermal well production; (8) geothermal materials; (9) electric power production; (10) direct utilization of geothermal energy; (11) economics of geothermal energy; and (12) legal, regulatory and institutional aspects. (ACR)

  11. Geothermal Program Review IV: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The research and development program of DOE's Geothermal Technology Division is reviewed in separate presentations according to program area. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  12. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  13. Modeling vapor dominated geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marconcini, R.; McEdwards, D.; Neri, G.; Ruffilli, C.; Schroeder, R.; Weres, O.; Witherspoon, P.

    1977-09-12

    The unresolved questions with regard to vapor-dominated reservoir production and longevity are reviewed. The simulation of reservoir behavior and the LBL computer program are discussed. The geology of Serrazzano geothermal field and its reservoir simulation are described. (MHR)

  14. Engineered Geothermal System Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, Susan

    2014-06-19

    In June 2009, AltaRock Energy began field work on a project supported by the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “Use of Multiple Stimulations to Improve Economics of Engineered Geothermal Systems in Shallow High Temperature Intrusives.” The goal of the project was to develop an Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) in the portion of The Geysers geothermal field operated by the Northern California Power Agency (NCPA). The project encountered several problems while deepening Well E-7 which culminated in the suspension of field activities in September 2009. Some of the problems encountered are particular to The Geysers area, while others might be encountered in any geothermal field, and they might be avoided in future operations.

  15. Geothermal Permeability Enhancement - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Beall; Mark Walters

    2009-06-30

    The overall objective is to apply known permeability enhancement techniques to reduce the number of wells needed and demonstrate the applicability of the techniques to other undeveloped or under-developed fields. The Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) concept presented in this project enhances energy extraction from reduced permeability zones in the super-heated, vapor-dominated Aidlin Field of the The Geysers geothermal reservoir. Numerous geothermal reservoirs worldwide, over a wide temperature range, contain zones of low permeability which limit the development potential and the efficient recovery of heat from these reservoirs. Low permeability results from poorly connected fractures or the lack of fractures. The Enhanced Geothermal System concept presented here expands these technologies by applying and evaluating them in a systematic, integrated program.

  16. Solar-geothermal hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, Alvaro; Almanza, Rafael [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, Edificio 12, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    The Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Plant is located in the northwest of Mexico, lat. 32{sup o}39', long. 115{sup o}21' in the northern hemisphere. A solar-geothermal hybrid system is proposed in order to increase the steam flow during the present geothermal cycle, adding a solar field of parabolic trough concentrators. Energy is supplied to the geothermal flow from wells in order to increase the steam generation rate. This configuration will increase the capacity factor of the system by generating additional steam during the peak demand hours. The parabolic trough solar field is evaluated in North-South and East-West orientation collector alignments. A proposal to obtain an increase of 10% in steam flow is evaluated, as the increase in flow is limited by the content of dissolved salts, so as to avoid a liquid phase with high salt concentrations. The size of the parabolic troughs field was obtained. (author)

  17. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Fruit drying with geothermal energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-14

    Largest problem was lack of proper recording and controlling instrumentation. Agricultural products tested were green papaya powder, banana slices, and pineapple slices. Results show that a temperature of 120 F is a good drying temperature. Papaya should be mature green and not overly ripe; banana ripeness is also important; and pineapple slice thickness should be very uniform for even drying. Geothermal drying is feasible. Figs, tabs.

  18. Geothermal power generation in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Gerald W.; McCluer, H. K.

    1993-03-01

    Geothermal energy is an indigenous environmentally benign heat source with the potential for 5000-10,000 GWe of power generation in the United States. Approximately 2535 MWe of installed capacity is currently operating in the U.S. with contracted power costs down to 4.6 cents/kWh. This paper summarizes: 1) types of geothermal resources; 2) power conversion systems used for geothermal power generation; 3) environmental aspects; 4) geothermal resource locations, potential, and current power plant development; 5) hurdles, bottlenecks, and risks of geothermal power production; 6) lessons learned; and 7) ongoing and future geothermal research programs.

  19. The Oregon Geothermal Planning Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-02

    Oregon's geothermal resources represent a large portion of the nation's total geothermal potential. The State's resources are substantial in size, widespread in location, and presently in various stages of discovery and utilization. The exploration for, and development of, geothermal is presently dependent upon a mixture of engineering, economic, environmental, and legal factors. In response to the State's significant geothermal energy potential, and the emerging impediments and incentives for its development, the State of Oregon has begun a planning program intended to accelerate the environmentally prudent utilization of geothermal, while conserving the resource's long-term productivity. The program, which is based upon preliminary work performed by the Oregon Institute of Technology's Geo-Heat Center, will be managed by the Oregon Department of Energy, with the assistance of the Departments of Economic Development, Geology and Mineral Industries, and Water Resources. Funding support for the program is being provided by the US Department of Energy. The first six-month phase of the program, beginning in July 1980, will include the following five primary tasks: (1) coordination of state and local agency projects and information, in order to keep geothermal personnel abreast of the rapidly expanding resource literature, resource discoveries, technological advances, and each agency's projects. (2) Analysis of resource commercialization impediments and recommendations of incentives for accelerating resource utilization. (3) Compilation and dissemination of Oregon geothermal information, in order to create public and potential user awareness, and to publicize technical assistance programs and financial incentives. (4) Resource planning assistance for local governments in order to create local expertise and action; including a statewide workshop for local officials, and the formulation of two specific community resource development

  20. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Maricopa County Geothermal Development Plan evaluated the market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. The study identified six potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 100{sup 0}C (212{sup 0}F) and in addition, four suspected intermediate temperature areas (90{sup 0} to 150{sup 0}C, 194{sup 0} to 300{sup 0}F). Geothermal resources are found to occur in and near the Phoenix metropolitan area where average population growth rates of two to three percent per year are expected over the next 40 years. Rapid growth in the manufacturing, trade and service sectors of the regional economy provides opportunities for the direct utilization of geothermal energy. A regional energy use analysis is included containing energy use and price projections. Water supplies are found to be adequate to support this growth, though agricultural water use is expected to diminish. The study also contains a detailed section matching geothermal resources to potential users. Two comparative analyses providing economic details for space heating projects are incorporated.

  1. Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanloz, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); Stone, H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); et al.

    2013-12-31

    DOE, through the Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, requested this study, identifying a focus on: i) assessment of technologies and approaches for subsurface imaging and characterization so as to be able to validate EGS opportunities, and ii) assessment of approaches toward creating sites for EGS, including science and engineering to enhance permeability and increase the recovery factor. Two days of briefings provided in-depth discussion of a wide range of themes and challenges in EGS, and represented perspectives from industry, government laboratories and university researchers. JASON also contacted colleagues from universities, government labs and industry in further conversations to learn the state of the field and potential technologies relevant to EGS.

  2. Geothermal innovative technologies catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkeremath, D. (ed.)

    1988-09-01

    The technology items in this report were selected on the basis of technological readiness and applicability to current technology transfer thrusts. The items include technologies that are considered to be within 2 to 3 years of being transferred. While the catalog does not profess to be entirely complete, it does represent an initial attempt at archiving innovative geothermal technologies with ample room for additions as they occur. The catalog itself is divided into five major functional areas: Exploration; Drilling, Well Completion, and Reservoir Production; Materials and Brine Chemistry; Direct Use; and Economics. Within these major divisions are sub-categories identifying specific types of technological advances: Hardware; Software; Data Base; Process/Procedure; Test Facility; and Handbook.

  3. Geothermal systems: Principles and case histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybach, L.; Muffler, L. J. P.

    The classification of geothermal systems is considered along with the geophysical and geochemical signatures of geothermal systems, aspects of conductive heat transfer and regional heat flow, and geothermal anomalies and their plate tectonic framework. An investigation of convective heat and mass transfer in hydrothermal systems is conducted, taking into account the mathematical modelling of hydrothermal systems, aspects of idealized convective heat and mass transport, plausible models of geothermal reservoirs, and preproduction models of hydrothermal systems. Attention is given to the prospecting for geothermal resources, the application of water geochemistry to geothermal exploration and reservoir engineering, heat extraction from geothermal reservoirs, questions of geothermal resource assessment, and environmental aspects of geothermal energy development. A description is presented of a number of case histories, taking into account the low enthalpy geothermal resource of the Pannonian Basin in Hungary, the Krafla geothermal field in Northeast Iceland, the geothermal system of the Jemez Mountains in New Mexico, and extraction-reinjection at the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador.

  4. Issue Paper Potential Water Availability Problems Associated with Geothermal Energy Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-02-19

    The report is the first to study and discuss the effect of water supply problems of geothermal development. Geothermal energy resources have the potential of making a significant contribution to the U.S. energy supply situation, especially at the regional and local levels where the resources are located. A significant issue of concern is the availability and cost of water for use in a geothermal power operation primarily because geothermal power plants require large quantities of water for cooling, sludge handling and the operation of environmental control systems. On a per unit basis, geothermal power plants, because of their inherent high heat rejection rates, have cooling requirements several times greater than the conventional fossil fuel plants and therefore the supply of water is a critical factor in the planning, designing, and siting of geothermal power plants. However, no studies have been specifically performed to identify the water requirements of geothermal power plants, the underlying causes of water availability problems, and available techniques to alleviate some of these problems. There is no cost data included in the report. The report includes some descriptions of known geothermal areas. [DJE-2005

  5. Mapping deeply-buried geothermal faults using microtremor array analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peifen; Ling, Suqun; Li, Chuanjin; Du, Jianguo; Zhang, Dengming; Xu, Xueqiu; Dai, Kangming; Zhang, Zuohong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the spatial autocorrelation microtremor array analysis is utilized to map deeply-buried subtle faults that have primary controls on geothermal reservoirs. We identified a low-velocity anomaly which is approximately 50 m wide at about 550-1400 m deep. A well drilled based on this anomaly later successfully produced hot water and further proved that the low-velocity anomaly was caused by a highly fractured zone at depths from 700 to 1500 m. Our results clearly demonstrate that the microtremor survey method can be effectively utilized to map deeply-buried faults and structures for geothermal energy exploration. The most effective way to increase the drilling success rate and, hence reduce the geothermal exploration risk, seems to be the development of new exploration methods and the integration of various geophysical technologies.

  6. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Experimental lumber drying kiln. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaman, D.; Irwin, B.

    1989-10-01

    Goals were to demonstrate feasibility of using the geothermal waste effluent from the HGP-A well as a heat source for a kiln operation to dry hardwoods, develop drying schedules, and develop automatic systems to monitor/control the geothermally heated lumber dry kiln systems. The feasibility was demonstrated. Lumber was dried in periods of 2 to 6 weeks in the kiln, compared to 18 months air drying and 6--8 weeks using a dehumidified chamber. Larger, plate-type heat exchangers between the primary fluid and water circulation systems may enable the kiln to reach the planned temperatures (180--185 F). However, the King Koa partnership cannot any longer pursue the concept of geothermal lumber kilns.

  7. Hydrothermal Geothermal Subprogram, Hawaii Geothermal Research Station, Hawaii County, Hawaii: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This environmental impact assessment addresses the design, construction, and operation of an electric generating plant (3 to 4 MWe) and research station (Hawaii Geothermal Research Station (HGRS)) in the Puna district on the Island of Hawaii. The facility will include control and support buildings, parking lots, cooling towers, settling and seepage ponds, the generating plant, and a visitors center. Research activities at the facility will evaluate the ability of a successfully flow-tested well (42-day flow test) to provide steam for power generation over an extended period of time (two years). In future expansion, research activities may include direct heat applications such as aquaculture and the effects of geothermal fluids on various plant components and specially designed equipment on test modules. 54 refs., 7 figs., 22 tabs.

  8. Geothermal Energy: Evaluation of a Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockemuehl, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    This article suggests the use of geothermal energy for producing electricity, using as an example the development at Wairakei, New Zealand. Other geothermal areas are identified, and economic and environmental co sts of additional development are explored. (Author/AV)

  9. Outstanding issues for new geothermal resource assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.F.; Reed, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A critical question for the future energy policy of the United States is the extent to which geothermal resources can contribute to an ever-increasing demand for electricity. Electric power production from geothermal sources exceeds that from wind and solar combined, yet the installed capacity falls far short of the geothermal resource base characterized in past assessments, even though the estimated size of the resource in six assessments completed in the past 35 years varies by thousands of Megawatts-electrical (MWe). The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) is working closely with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Research Program and other geothermal organizations on a three-year effort to produce an updated assessment of available geothermal resources. The new assessment will introduce significant changes in the models for geothermal energy recovery factors, estimates of reservoir permeability, limits to temperatures and depths for electric power production, and include the potential impact of evolving Enhanced (or Engineered) Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology.

  10. Geothermal Energy: Evaluation of a Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockemuehl, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    This article suggests the use of geothermal energy for producing electricity, using as an example the development at Wairakei, New Zealand. Other geothermal areas are identified, and economic and environmental co sts of additional development are explored. (Author/AV)

  11. Imperial County geothermal development annual meeting: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    All phases of current geothermal development in Imperial County are discussed and future plans for development are reviewed. Topics covered include: Heber status update, Heber binary project, direct geothermal use for high-fructose corn sweetener production, update on county planning activities, Brawley and Salton Sea facility status, status of Imperial County projects, status of South Brawley Prospect 1983, Niland geothermal energy program, recent and pending changes in federal procedures/organizations, plant indicators of geothermal fluid on East Mesa, state lands activities in Imperial County, environmental interests in Imperial County, offshore exploration, strategic metals in geothermal fluids rebuilding of East Mesa Power Plant, direct use geothermal potential for Calipatria industrial Park, the Audubon Society case, status report of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, East Brawley Prospect, and precision gravity survey at Heber and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields. (MHR)

  12. Choosing a Geothermal as an HVAC System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensenbigler, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the process of selecting and installing geothermal water source heat pumps for new residence halls at Johnson Bible College in Knoxville, Tennessee, including choosing the type of geothermal design, contractors, and interior equipment, and cost and payback. (EV)

  13. Industrial low temperature utilization of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.

    1976-05-01

    This brief presentation on industrial utilization of low temperature geothermal resources first considers an overview of what has been achieved in using geothermal resources in this way and, second, considers potential, future industrial applications.

  14. Choosing a Geothermal as an HVAC System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensenbigler, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the process of selecting and installing geothermal water source heat pumps for new residence halls at Johnson Bible College in Knoxville, Tennessee, including choosing the type of geothermal design, contractors, and interior equipment, and cost and payback. (EV)

  15. Pagosa Springs geothermal project. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-19

    This booklet discusses some ideas and methods for using Colorado geothermal energy. A project installed in Pagosa Springs, which consists of a pipeline laid down 8th street with service to residences retrofitted to geothermal space heating, is described. (ACR)

  16. An Evaluation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelacic, Allan [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Fortuna, Raymond [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); LaSala, Raymond [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Nathwani, Jay [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Nix, Gerald [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Visser, Charles [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Green, Bruce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Renner, Joel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Blankenship, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kennedy, Mack [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bruton, Carol [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2008-04-01

    This 2008 document presents the results of an eight-month study by the Department of Energy (DOE) and its support staff at the national laboratories concerning the technological requirements to commercialize a new geothermal technology, Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS).

  17. Modern geothermal power: Binary cycle geothermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    In the second part of the review of modern geothermal power plant technologies and equipment, a role, a usage scale, and features of application of binary cycle plants in the geothermal economy are considered. Data on the use of low-boiling fluids, their impact on thermal parameters and performance of geothermal binary power units are presented. A retrospective of the use of various low-boiling fluids in industrial binary power units in the world since 1965 is shown. It is noted that the current generating capacity of binary power units running on hydrocarbons is equal to approximately 82.7% of the total installed capacity of all the binary power units in the world. At the same time over the past 5 years, the total installed capacity of geothermal binary power units in 25 countries increased by more than 50%, reaching nearly 1800 MW (hereinafter electric power is indicated), by 2015. A vast majority of the existing binary power plants recovers heat of geothermal fluid in the range of 100-200°C. Binary cycle power plants have an average unit capacity of 6.3 MW, 30.4 MW at single-flash power plants, 37.4 MW at double-flash plants, and 45.4 MW at power plants working on superheated steam. The largest binary cycle geothermal power plants (GeoPP) with an installed capacity of over 60 MW are in operation in the United States and the Philippines. In most cases, binary plants are involved in the production process together with a steam cycle. Requirements to the fluid ensuring safety, reliability, and efficiency of binary power plants using heat of geothermal fluid are determined, and differences and features of their technological processes are shown. Application of binary cycle plants in the technological process of combined GeoPPs makes it possible to recover geothermal fluid more efficiently. Features and advantages of binary cycle plants using multiple fluids, including a Kalina Cycle, are analyzed. Technical characteristics of binary cycle plants produced by various

  18. Consolidation of geologic studies of geopressured-geothermal resources in Texas: Barrier-bar tidal-channel reservoir facies architecture, Jackson Group, Prado Field, South Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seni, S.J.; Choh, S.J.

    1993-09-01

    Sandstone reservoirs in the Jackson barrier/strandplain play are characterized by low recovery efficiencies and thus contain a large hydrocarbon resource target potentially amenable to advanced recovery techniques. Prado field, Jim Hogg County, South Texas, has produced over 23 million bbl of oil and over 32 million mcf gas from combination structural-stratigraphic traps in the Eocene lower Jackson Group. Hydrocarbon entrapment at Prado field is a result of anticlinal nosing by differential compaction and updip pinch-out of barrier bar sandstone. Relative base-level lowering resulted in forced regression that established lower Jackson shoreline sandstones in a relatively distal location in central Jim Hogg County. Reservoir sand bodies at Prado field comprise complex assemblages of barrier-bar, tidal-inlet fill, back-barrier bar, and shoreface environments. Subsequent progradation built the barrier-bar system seaward 1 to 2 mi. With the barrier-bar system, favorable targets for hydrocarbon reexploration are concentrated in tidal-inlet facies because they possess the greatest degree of depositional heterogeneity.

  19. Sweet Lake geopressured-geothermal project, Magma Gulf-Technadril/DOE Amoco fee. Volume III. Final report. Annual report, February 1982-March 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, C.O. Jr.; O' Brien, F.D.; Rodgers, R.W. (eds.)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of the testing of Sand 3 (15,245 to 15,280 feet in depth) which occurred from November 1983 to March 1984 and evaluates these new data in comparison to results from the testing of Sand 5 (15,385 to 15,415 feet in depth) which occurred from June 1981 to February 1982. It also describes the reworking of the production and salt water disposal wells preparatory to the Sand 3 testing as well as the plug and abandon procedures requested to terminate the project. The volume contains two parts: Part 1 includes the text and accompanying plates, figures and tables; Part 2 consists of the appendixes including auxiliary reports and tabulations.

  20. Sweet Lake Geopressured-geothermal Project, Magma Gulf-Technadril/DOE Amoco Fee. Volume II. Surface installations reservoir testing. Annual report, February 28, 1981-February 10, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, K.S. (ed.)

    1984-01-01

    The Magma Gulf-Technadril/Department of Energy Amoco Fee No. 1 (production) and salt water disposal wells were drilled in the period from August, 1980 to February 1981. Surface facilities were designed and constructed during March-June 1981. Flow testing began in June 1981 and continued until February, 1982. The Miogypsinoides interval contains seven discrete sands in the test well. These sands have been numbered 1 to 7, beginning at the top of the sequence. Data from wireline logs and core samples suggested that the first zone to be perforated should be Sand 5. Because of its high porosity and permeability, Sand 5 was thought to contain almost 50% of the total hydraulic capacity of the well. Flow testing of Sand 5 was performed in three stages, each of which is fully described in this report. Phase I was designed as an initial clean-up flow and a reservoir confirmation test. Phase II consisted of the reservoir limit determination test and lasted 17 days. Boundaries were confirmed which suggest that the Sweet Lake reservoir is fairly narrow, with boundaries on three sides, but is open in one direction with no closure for at least 4-1/4 miles. These boundaries approximate the shape of the graben in which the test well was drilled, but may or may not be directly related to the major faults forming the graben. Phase III testing was planned to be a long-term test at commercial design rates. Although Sand 5 alone would not support such rates, long-term production was demonstrated. Additional research not supported by DOE funding was also performed during the period covered by this report. This research, consisting of mud logging, micropaleontology, organic geochemistry, core analysis, and rock mechanics, is summarized in this report.

  1. Dramatic incidents during drilling at Wairakei Geothermal Field, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, Richard S. [11 Fiesta Grove, Raumati Beach, Paraparaumu (New Zealand); Hunt, Trevor M. [GNS Science, Wairakei Research Centre, Private Bag 2000, Taupo (New Zealand); King, Tom R. [Tom King Ltd, Taupo (New Zealand); Thompson, Geoffrey E.K. [Geophysics Division, DSIR, Wairakei (New Zealand)

    2009-03-15

    The paper describes three blowouts associated with Wairakei wells that had been drilled during the late 1950s to early 1960s, near areas of surface thermal manifestations. Also discussed are the 1960s drilling practices in this geothermal field, the remedial actions undertaken to regain well control, and the lessons learned from these unexpected incidents. (author)

  2. Geothermal Energy Development annual report 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This report is an exerpt from Earth Sciences Division Annual Report 1979 (LBL-10686). Progress in thirty-four research projects is reported including the following area: geothermal exploration technology, geothermal energy conversion technology, reservoir engineering, and geothermal environmental research. Separate entries were prepared for each project. (MHR)

  3. Strategic plan for the geothermal energy program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Geothermal energy (natural heat in the Earth`s crust) represents a truly enormous amount of energy. The heat content of domestic geothermal resources is estimated to be 70,000,000 quads, equivalent to a 750,000-year supply of energy for the entire Nation at current rates of consumption. World geothermal resources (exclusive of resources under the oceans) may be as much as 20 times larger than those of the US. While industry has focused on hydrothermal resources (those containing hot water and/or steam), the long-term future of geothermal energy lies in developing technology to enable use of the full range of geothermal resources. In the foreseeable future, heat may be extracted directly from very hot rocks or from molten rocks, if suitable technology can be developed. The US Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies (OGT) endorses a vision of the future in which geothermal energy will be the preferred alternative to polluting energy sources. The mission of the Program is to work in partnership with US industry to establish geothermal energy as a sustainable, environmentally sound, economically competitive contributor to the US and world energy supply. In executing its mission and achieving its long-term vision for geothermal energy, the Program has identified five strategic goals: electric power generation; direct use applications and geothermal heat pumps; international geothermal development; science and technology; and future geothermal resources. This report discusses the objectives of these five goals.

  4. Advanced seismic imaging for geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, John [UNR; Pullammanappallil, Satish [Optim; Honjas, Bill [Optim

    2016-08-01

    J. N. Louie, Pullammanappallil, S., and Honjas, W., 2011, Advanced seismic imaging for geothermal development: Proceedings of the New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 2011, Nov. 21-23, Auckland, paper 32, 7 pp. Preprint available at http://crack.seismo.unr.edu/geothermal/Louie-NZGW11.pdf

  5. Research status of geothermal resources in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lincheng; Li, Guang

    2017-08-01

    As the representative of the new green energy, geothermal resources are characterized by large reserve, wide distribution, cleanness and environmental protection, good stability, high utilization factor and other advantages. According to the characteristics of exploitation and utilization, they can be divided into high-temperature, medium-temperature and low-temperature geothermal resources. The abundant and widely distributed geothermal resources in China have a broad prospect for development. The medium and low temperature geothermal resources are broadly distributed in the continental crustal uplift and subsidence areas inside the plate, represented by the geothermal belt on the southeast coast, while the high temperature geothermal resources concentrate on Southern Tibet-Western Sichuan-Western Yunnan Geothermal Belt and Taiwan Geothermal Belt. Currently, the geothermal resources in China are mainly used for bathing, recuperation, heating and power generation. It is a country that directly makes maximum use of geothermal energy in the world. However, China’s geothermal power generation, including installed generating capacity and power generation capacity, are far behind those of Western European countries and the USA. Studies on exploitation and development of geothermal resources are still weak.

  6. Greenhouse Gases from Geothermal Power Production

    OpenAIRE

    Fridriksson, Thráinn; Mateos, Almudena; Audinet, Pierre; Orucu, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    Geothermal is a renewable source energy that can be used directly for heating or for power production. Geothermal utilization, particularly power production, may result in some greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG emissions from geothermal power production is generally small in comparison to traditional base load thermal energy power generation facilities. This is mainly due to the fact tha...

  7. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    A state-by-state review of major geothermal-development activities during 1982 is presented. It also inlcudes a summary of recent drilling and exploration efforts and the results of the 1982 leasing program. Two complementary sections feature an update of geothermal direct-use applications and a site-by-site summary of US geothermal electric-power development.

  8. Modification of the water-level control system at the Unit 12 of Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field; Modificacion del sistema de control de nivel de agua en la Unidad 12 del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello Hinojosa, Raul; Aburto Huerta, S. Ramon; Mendoza Covarrubias, Hector M [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: raul.tello@cfe.gob.mx

    2007-01-15

    Unit 12 of the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field is a binary cycle unit of 1.45 MW, installed at the pad of production well Az-22. There are two separators on this pad. One separates the mix extracted from well Az-22 and the other from adjacent wells. The separated brine from both separators is gathered in a horizontal tank and sent to Unit 12. The steam is sent to Unit 7, which generates 50 MW. Once some interference occurred affecting the power generation of Unit 7 when Unit 12 was off line. This was caused by the original flow arrangement and water-level control system. To avoid interference, a water-level control system was designed and installed in the separators. The system operates independently of Unit 12, with tanks in each separator connected by a pipe. Regulation of the water level is accomplished by three motor valves and a level sensor. To ensure permanent feeding of electrical power to the valves, an automatic system was installed from transmission lines of 23 and 115 kV. In case both lines fail, there is an uninterrupted power supply (UPS) unit. At the beginning of 2005, Unit 12 was again online with a modified water-level control system that has operated satisfactorily since then. Its short periods offline have not affected Unit 7. [Spanish] La Unidad 12 del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., es una unidad de ciclo binario de 1.45 MW, instalada en la plataforma del pozo productor Az-22. En esta plataforma hay dos separadores, uno de los cuales separa la mezcla extraida del pozo Az-22 y el otro la de varios pozos aledanos. El agua separada de ambos se concentra en un tanque horizontal y de este pasa a la Unidad 12, mientras que el vapor se envia a la Unidad 7, de 50 MW. Por el tipo de arreglo original de flujo y control de nivel de agua en los equipos, ocurrian interferencias que provocaban que cuando la Unidad 12 se disparaba se afectara la generacion en la Unidad 7. Para evitar esta interferencia se diseno e instalo un sistema de control de

  9. Geothermal energy utilisation in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grepmeier, K. [Zentrum fuer rationelle Energieanwendung und Umwelt GmbH (ZREU), Regensburg (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The following article highlights some of the outcomes derived from a survey which has been conducted by an international consortium under the auspices of the German consultancy Zentrum fuer rationelle Energieanwendung und Umwelt GmbH (ZREU) in the frame of a cooperative action entitled 'Promotion of Geothermal Energy Utilisation in Turkey'. The project which has been carried out under the umbrella of the European Union's Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development also featured a European business forum and technical site visit about 'Geothermal Energy Opportunities in Turkey' and a site visit tour to successful European geothermal utilisation schemes aiming to foster exchange of experience and to initiate business contacts between Turkish and European market actors. Special consideration has been given to investigate the potential of geothermal electricity generation with future-oriented binary cycle processes (e.g. based on Kalina technology) specifically suitable to exploit Turkey's low temperature geothermal reservoirs. Following up the activities ZREU has entered into a co-operation scheme with e.terras AG and leading technology providers to develop high efficient European turn-key solutions for promising goethermal markets worldwide. (orig.)

  10. State policies for geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacarto, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    The most prominent geothermal resources in the USA occur in fifteen Gulf and Western states including Alaska and Hawaii. In each state, authority and guidelines have been established for administration of geothermal leasing and for regulation of development. Important matters addressed by these policies include resource definition, leasing provisions, development regulations, water appropriation, and environmental standards. Some other policies that need attention include taxation, securities regulations, and utility regulations. It is concluded that conditions needed for the geothermal industry to pursue large-scale development are consumer (utility) confidence in the resource; equitable tax treatment; prompt exploration of extensive land areas; long and secure tenure for productive properties; prompt facility siting and development; and competitive access to various consumers. With these conditions, the industry should be competitive with other energy sectors and win its share of investment capital. This publication reviews for the states various technical, economic, and institutional aspects of geothermal development. The report summarizes research results from numerous specialists and outlines present state and Federal policies. The report concludes generally that if public policies are made favorable to their development, geothermal resources offer an important energy resource that could supply all new electric capacity for the fifteen states for the next two decades. This energy--100,000 MW--could be generated at prices competitive with electricity from fossil and nuclear power plants. An extensive bibliography is included. (MCW)

  11. 7{sup th} international geothermal conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Jochen; Brian, Marcus; Dittmann, Elena (eds.)

    2011-05-10

    Within the 7th International Geothermal Conference from 10th to 12th May, 2011 in Freiburg (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures and posters were presented: (1) Global Geothermal Energy - Status and Challenges (L. Rybach); (2) The development of deep geothermal energy in Switzerland - Facts and perspectives (R. Wyss); (3) The importance of geothermal energy in the energy mix of the future (W. Muench); (4) Living with induced seismicity: Lessons from Basel and a roadmap ahead (S. Wiemer); (5) The seismic event in Landau, August 2009: Expert Group and research projects as follow-up (C. Boennemann); (6) Microseismicity (S. Baisch); (7) EU Research project GEISER for investigation of induced seismicity (T. Kohl); (8) Seismic hazard related to geothermal projects - expert view (H. Rueter); (9) Geological investigation (U. Schanz); (10) Drill design (W. Mueller-Ruhe); (11) Reducing costs for pumping geothermal water (H. Schroeder); (12) Optimisation of cycle processes - Best exergy point for ORC (S. Schuller); (13) High-potential working fluids for next-generation binary ORC (A.L. Laursen); (14) Geothermal energy - An essential part of future electricity production (C. Lohse); (15) Revision of the renewable Enrgy Sources Act (EEG) in 2011 (C. Viertl); (16) Amendment to the Renewable Energy Sources Act - Further development for the deep geothermal industry (E, Knapek); (17) Geothermal energy as an opportunity for energy supplies (J. Uhde); (18) Project financing - Democracy as a success factor (F. Fritsch); (19) Fund financing of geothermal projects (C. Deneke); (20) Geothermal Energy - requirements and perspectives from a utility point of view (M. Voss); (21) Hurdles for financing geothermal projects in Germany (M. Wiendieck); (22) Licenses for exploration of geothermal energy in Baden-Wuerttemberg (A. Brasse); (23) New reflections on the exploration strategy concerning the malm of the melasse basin (K. Dorsch); (24) Situation of the mining law in

  12. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of steam turbine materials for geothermal power plants in simulated geothermal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Haofeng [Shinshu Univ. (Japan). Graduate School; Niu Libin; Oishi, Shuji [Shinshu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Takaku, Hiroshi [Shinshu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Naigai Chemical Products Co. (Japan); Shiokawa, Kunio; Yamashita, Mitsuo; Sakai, Yoshihiro [Fuji Electric Advanced Technology Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2007-08-15

    In order to evaluate the influence of chloride, sulfate and carbon dioxide in water on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of geothermal steam turbine materials, measurements of the anodic polarization and the pitting corrosion potential were conducted in simulated geothermal waters. The corrosion resistance of all materials tested was lowered by an increasing carbon dioxide content in the simulated geothermal waters. Higher chloride concentrations in the waters induced lower corrosion resistance and also lower pitting corrosion potentials for materials with higher chromium contents, suggesting the corrosion behavior was mainly controlled by the chromium content of the materials. The corrosion resistance of 9CrMoV and 13Cr steels was also influenced by the concentration of sulfate in the water. The improved heat-treated 16Cr-4Ni material for turbine blades showed excellent corrosion resistance. In the presence of sulfate, the corrosion reactions are mitigated due to a decreasing concentration of chloride (due to the presence of sulfate) in corrosion pits. (orig.)

  13. East Mesa geothermal pump test facility (EMPTF). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, R.G.; Roberts, G.K.

    1984-11-28

    The design, fabrication and installation of a geothermal pump test facility (EMPFT) at the DOE geothermal site at East Mesa, California which is capable of testing 70 to 750 horsepower downwell pumps in a controlled geothermal environment were completed. The facility consists of a skid-mounted brine control module, a 160 foot below test well section, a hydraulic turbine for power recovery, a gantry-mounted hoist for pump handling and a 3-phase, 480 VAC, 1200 amp power supply to handle pump electric requirements. Geothermal brine is supplied to the EMPTF from one of the facility wells at East Mesa. The EMPTF is designed with a great amount of flexibility. The 20-inch diameter test well can accommodate a wide variety of pumps. The controls are interactive and can be adjusted to obtain a full complement of pump operation data, or set to maintain constant conditions to allow long-term testing with a minimum of operator support. The hydraulic turbine allows the EMPTF user to recover approximately 46% of the input pump power to help defray the operating cost of the unit. The hoist is provided for material handling and pump servicing and reduces the equipment that the user must supply for pump installation, inspection and removal.

  14. East Mesa geothermal pump test facility (EMPTF). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, R.G.; Roberts, G.K.

    1984-11-28

    Barber-Nichols has completed the design, fabrication and installation of a geothermal pump test facility at the DOE geothermal site at East Mesa, California which is capable of testing 70 to 750 horsepower downwell pumps in a controlled geothermal environment. The facility consists of a skid-mounted brine control module, a 160 foot below ground test well section, a hydraulic turbine for power recovery, a gantry-mounted hoist for pump handling and a 3-phase, 480 VAC, 1200 amp power supply to handle pump electric requirements. Geothermal brine is supplied to the EMPTF from one of the facility wells at East Mesa. The EMPTF is designed with a great amount of flexibility to attract the largest number of potential users. The 20-inch diameter test well can accommodate a wide variety of pumps. The controls are interactive and can be adjusted to obtain a full complement of pump operation data, or set to maintain constant conditions to allow long-term testing with a minimum of operator support. The hydraulic turbine allows the EMPTF user to recover approximately 46% of the input pump power to help defray the operating cost of the unit. The hoist is provided for material handling and pump servicing and reduces the equipment that the user must supply for pump installation, inspection and removal.

  15. Direct utilization of geothermal energy for space and water heating at Marlin, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, M.F.; Green, T.F.; Keeney, R.C.; Ellis, P.F. II; Davis, R.J.; Wallace, R.C.; Blood, F.B.

    1983-05-01

    The Torbett-Hutchings-Smith Memorial Hospital geothermal heating project, which is one of nineteen direct-use geothermal projects funded principally by DOE, is documented. The five-year project encompassed a broad range of technical, institutional, and economic activities including: resource and environmental assessments; well drilling and completion; system design, construction, and monitoring; economic analyses; public awareness programs; materials testing; and environmental monitoring. Some of the project conclusions are that: (1) the 155/sup 0/F Central Texas geothermal resource can support additional geothermal development; (2) private-sector economic incentives currently exist, especially for profit-making organizations, to develop and use this geothermal resource; (3) potential uses for this geothermal resource include water and space heating, poultry dressing, natural cheese making, fruit and vegetable dehydrating, soft-drink bottling, synthetic-rubber manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing; (4) high maintenance costs arising from the geofluid's scaling and corrosion tendencies can be avoided through proper analysis and design; (5) a production system which uses a variable-frequency drive system to control production rate is an attractive means of conserving parasitic pumping power, controlling production rate to match heating demand, conserving the geothermal resource, and minimizing environmental impacts.

  16. Geothermal hydrogen - a vision? Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zittel, W.; Weindorf, W.; Wurster, R.; Bussmann, W.

    2001-07-01

    With the progresses in geothermal electricity production by means of the hot-dry-rock (HDR) method electricity might be produced at cost of between 0.07 - 0.09 ECU/kWh, depending on systems sizes of between 5 - 20 MW{sub e}. The electricity can be used to produce hydrogen from electrolysis and water. This method of electricity production offers high availability with operating hour of between 7,600 - 8,000 hours per year. The 40 GWh electricity production per year from one 5 MW{sub e} geothermal plant are sufficient to produce enough hydrogen for the operation of an average fueling station with about 400 refuelings per day at cost of about 20 - 30 percent higher than today's gasoline (including taxes). In this contribution some details of the analysis are presented as well as a general discussion of geothermal hydrogen production as a future energy vector. (orig.)

  17. Geothermal progress monitor report No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    Geothermal Progress Monitor Report No. 6 presents a state-by-state summary of the status of geothermal leasing, exploration, and development in major physiographic regions where geothermal resource potential has been identified. Recent state-specific activities are reported at the end of each state status report, while recent activities of a more general nature are summarized briefly in Part II of the report. A list of recent publications of potential interest to the geothermal community and a directory of contributors to the geothermal progress monitoring system are also included.

  18. Geothermal Energy in China: Status and Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Ke; Yang Deming

    2000-01-01

    The application of geothermal energy in China has a long history. From the 70's last century, the research and development of geothermal in the world has been greatly advanced, and the Chinese geologists have finished the fundmental work for geothermal prospecting. The application technology is much behind in china. With the fast growing of national economy, the public, as well as the government recognizes the importance of clean and renewable energy, large scale development of geothermal energy is on the gate in China. This paper gives an outline of the geothermal potentials in china, and points out the problems and technical needs in the research and development in the near future.

  19. Geothermal Progress Monitor: Report No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This issue of the Geothermal Progress Monitor, the 14th since its inception in 1980, highlights the anticipated rapid growth in the use of geothermal heat pumps and documents the continued growth in the use of geothermal energy for power generation, both in this country and abroad. In countries with a relatively large demand for new generation capacity, geothermal, if available, is being called on as a preferable alternative to the use of domestic or imported oil. On the other hand, in this country where current demand for new capacity is less, geothermal energy is commonly being put to use in small power generation units operating on the hot water resource.

  20. "Assistance to States on Geothermal Energy"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda Sikkema; Jennifer DeCesaro

    2006-07-10

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, related to geothermal energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on geothermal energy—Contract Number DE-FG03-01SF22367—with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of geothermal energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of responses to information requests on geothermal energy and publications. The publications addressed: geothermal leasing, geothermal policy, constitutional and statutory authority for the development of geothermal district energy systems, and state regulation of geothermal district energy systems. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about geothermal energy for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to geothermal energy in the states. Coordination with the National Geothermal Collaborative: NCSL worked and coordinated with the National Geothermal Collaborative (NGC) to ensure that state legislatures were represented in all aspects of the NGC's efforts. NCSL participated in NGC steering committee conference calls, attended and participated in NGC business meetings and reviewed publications for the NGC. Additionally, NCSL and WSUEP staff drafted a series of eight issue briefs published by the

  1. Protecting geothermal operations with rupture disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, D.W.

    1983-02-01

    Potential rupture disk applications in geothermal operations are reviewed. Several wells manifolded together, to form the geothermal feed, cause erratic pressure. Rupture disks are used for relief. Flash tanks are equipped with rupture disks. Brine separators, heat exchanger shells, and turbine casings are protected by rupture disks. An analysis of geothermal steam will determine the rupture disk metal. Reverse Buckling disks are recommended over tension loaded disks for dealing with geothermal pressure cycling. Erratic temperature suggests that metals which retain tensile strength with temperature be used (Inconel is mentioned). In summary, geothermal projects represent an excellent rupture disk market.

  2. Potential of geothermal systems in Picardy

    OpenAIRE

    Dourlat, Estelle

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal systems are not only about electrical plants or urban heating networks, but also concerned with geothermal energy assisted with a heat pump. In the former region of Picardy (North of France), 97% of the territory is suitable for very low temperature geothermal power. The French Agency for the Environment and Energy Management and the Picardy Region decided in 2016 to finance a facilitator to encourage geothermal use. To carry out this aim, it is important to consider the geothermal...

  3. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    Previously conducted preliminary investigations within the deep Delaware and Val Verde sub-basins of the Permian Basin complex documented bottom hole temperatures from oil and gas wells that reach the 120-180C temperature range, and occasionally beyond. With large abundances of subsurface brine water, and known porosity and permeability, the deep carbonate strata of the region possess a good potential for future geothermal power development. This work was designed as a 3-year project to investigate a new, undeveloped geographic region for establishing geothermal energy production focused on electric power generation. Identifying optimum geologic and geographic sites for converting depleted deep gas wells and fields within a carbonate environment into geothermal energy extraction wells was part of the project goals. The importance of this work was to affect the three factors limiting the expansion of geothermal development: distribution, field size and accompanying resource availability, and cost. Historically, power production from geothermal energy has been relegated to shallow heat plumes near active volcanic or geyser activity, or in areas where volcanic rocks still retain heat from their formation. Thus geothermal development is spatially variable and site specific. Additionally, existing geothermal fields are only a few 10’s of square km in size, controlled by the extent of the heat plume and the availability of water for heat movement. This plume radiates heat both vertically as well as laterally into the enclosing country rock. Heat withdrawal at too rapid a rate eventually results in a decrease in electrical power generation as the thermal energy is “mined”. The depletion rate of subsurface heat directly controls the lifetime of geothermal energy production. Finally, the cost of developing deep (greater than 4 km) reservoirs of geothermal energy is perceived as being too costly to justify corporate investment. Thus further development opportunities

  4. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    Previously conducted preliminary investigations within the deep Delaware and Val Verde sub-basins of the Permian Basin complex documented bottom hole temperatures from oil and gas wells that reach the 120-180C temperature range, and occasionally beyond. With large abundances of subsurface brine water, and known porosity and permeability, the deep carbonate strata of the region possess a good potential for future geothermal power development. This work was designed as a 3-year project to investigate a new, undeveloped geographic region for establishing geothermal energy production focused on electric power generation. Identifying optimum geologic and geographic sites for converting depleted deep gas wells and fields within a carbonate environment into geothermal energy extraction wells was part of the project goals. The importance of this work was to affect the three factors limiting the expansion of geothermal development: distribution, field size and accompanying resource availability, and cost. Historically, power production from geothermal energy has been relegated to shallow heat plumes near active volcanic or geyser activity, or in areas where volcanic rocks still retain heat from their formation. Thus geothermal development is spatially variable and site specific. Additionally, existing geothermal fields are only a few 10’s of square km in size, controlled by the extent of the heat plume and the availability of water for heat movement. This plume radiates heat both vertically as well as laterally into the enclosing country rock. Heat withdrawal at too rapid a rate eventually results in a decrease in electrical power generation as the thermal energy is “mined”. The depletion rate of subsurface heat directly controls the lifetime of geothermal energy production. Finally, the cost of developing deep (greater than 4 km) reservoirs of geothermal energy is perceived as being too costly to justify corporate investment. Thus further development opportunities

  5. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  6. SCE 1983 geothermal program update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, G.K.

    1983-09-01

    The activities of Southern California Edison in its geothermal program are discussed. These activities include the operation of the Brawley and Salton Sea pilot plants and on-site associated research, the resurrection of the Heber double flash plant, geothermal power purchase arrangements with third parties, and economic analysis of modular, wellsite plant versus central station units. With continued technical progress to reduce the cost of hydrothermal power production and recognition of the long-term benefits of this base load renewable energy resource, it is expected that commercial development will continue.

  7. Extracting geothermal heat from mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ednie, H.

    2007-03-15

    In response to environmental concerns, research is underway to find alternative methods of generating energy, including the use of low-temperature geothermal heat from mines. Geothermal energy is the energy produced internally by radiogenic heat production and long-term cooling of the planet. Various applications can be used from this energy, including direct use for heating and electricity generation. The Earth/Mine Energy Resource Group (EMERG) at McGill University has worked on the development of alternative energies from both active and abandoned surface and underground mines. Geothermal heat from mines was once regarded as a benign energy source, particularly when compared to nuclear, oil, and coal. However, there is high potential for ground heat to be used as a sustainable solution to some energy requirements. EMERG's objective is to integrate alternate energy during the life of the mine, as well as after mine closure. Geothermal heat from mines will enable local communities to use this inexpensive source of energy for district heating of buildings, for drying food products, or for mining applications, such as heating deep oil sands deposits. Active or abandoned mines are ideal locations for geothermal systems. The first 100 metres underground is well suited for supply and storage of thermal energy. Due to the steady temperatures deep underground, geothermal sources are excellent fuels for heating and cooling systems. This article presented an example of a geothermal heat pump system used in Springhill Nova Scotia where Rock Can Am Ltd. is using floodwater from abandoned mines to heat and cool the company's facility at the site. The system produces annual savings of 600,000 kWh or $45,000 compared to conventional systems, proving that geothermal energy from abandoned or existing mines is a viable alternative energy source. Further efforts could result in it becoming a more effective and attractive option for the reclamation of abandoned mines

  8. Condensation Processes in Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, D. I.; Moore, J. N.

    2005-12-01

    We model condensation processes in geothermal systems to understand how this process changes fluid chemistry. We assume two processes operate in geothermal systems: 1) condensation of a vapor phase derived by boiling an aqueous geothermal fluid into a cool near surface water and 2) condensation of a magmatic vapor by a deep circulating meteoric thermal fluid. It is assumed that the condensation process has two stages. Initially the condensing fluid is under saturated in gaseous species. Condensation of the vapor phase continues until the pressure on the fluid equals the sum of the partial pressures of water and the dissolved gaseous species. At that time bubbles flux through the condensing fluid. In time the fluid and fluxing gas phase come to equilibrium. Calculation shows that during the second stage of the condensation process the liquid phase becomes enriched in more soluble gaseous species like CO2 and H2S, and depleted in less soluble species like CH4 and N2. Stage 2 condensation processes can therefore be monitored by ratios of more and less condensable species like CO2/N2. Condensation of vapor released by boiling geothermal fluids results in liquids with high concentrations of H2S and CO2 like is seen in geothermal system steam-heated waters. Condensation of a magmatic vapor into circulating meteoric water has been proposed, but not well demonstrated. We compare to our models the Cerro Prieto, Mexico gas analysis data set collected over twelve years time by USGS personnel. It was assumed for modeling that the Cerro Prieto geothermal fluids are circulating meteoritic fluids with N2/Ar ratios about 40 to which is added a magmatic vapor with N2/Ar ratio = 400. The Cerro Prieto analyses show a strong correlation between N2/Ar and CO2/N2 as predicted by calculation. Two dimensional image plots of well N2/Ar + CO2/N2 show a bull's-eye pattern on the geothermal field. Image plots of analyses collected over a year or less time show N2/Ar and CO2/N2 hot spots

  9. Mexican geothermal development and the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, J.M.E.V. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1998-10-01

    Geothermics in Mexico started in 1954, by drilling the first geothermal well in Pathe, State of Hidalgo, which reached a depth of 237 meters. In 1959 electrical generation from geothermal origin began, with an installed capacity of 3.5 MW. From 1959 to 1994 Mexico increased its installed capacity to 753 MW, by developing three geothermal fields: Cerro Prieto, Los Azufres, and Los Humeros. Currently, 177 wells produce steam at a rate of 36 tons per hour (t/h) each. Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE, Federal Commission of Electricity) has planned to increase the geothermal-electric installed capacity through construction and installation of several projects. Repowering of operating units and development of new geothermal zones will also allow Mexican geothermal growth.

  10. The Socorro Geothermal System: A Low Temperature Geothermal Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, M. A.; Owens, L. B.

    2009-12-01

    The State of New Mexico is endowed with relatively high background heat flow and permeable, fractured crystalline and sedimentary rocks. This combination has given rise to numerous low temperature geothermal systems throughout the state. In many instances, hot springs associated with these systems are located within gaps in regional confining units (a.k.a. hydrologic windows) caused either by fault block rotation or the emplacement of volcanic dikes. The Socorro Geothermal Area (SGA) is a prime example of this type of a forced convection geothermal system. The Socorro geothermal area (SGA) lies 2 miles to the west of the NM Tech Campus near the base of the Socorro Mountain Block and will be assessed for production by drilling a 1500ft test well in September 2009. Published shallow temperature gradient measurements in fractured, permeable (3000 Darcy) granites indicate peak heat flow values as high as 490 mW/m^2 but decreases to 25 mW/m^2 about 10 km to the west within the La Jencia Basin near the foothills of the Magdalena Mountains. Silica and Cation based geothermometers suggest that deep geothermal reservoir reaches temperatures of 80 to 112 deg. C. Carbon14 age dating of shallow groundwater within the discharge area are about 20,000 years old. Hydrothermal models we constructed indicates that Mountain front recharge penetrates to depths of 4.5 km below the La Jencia Basin sedimentary pile into fractured, crystalline rocks. Discharge occurs through a hydrologic window to the east within a breached playa deposit at the western edge of the Socorro Basin. The hydrologic window was caused by fault block rotation. Warm springs which produce several hundred gpm of 32 deg. C water at the surface several miles to the south of the proposed drilling area also attest to the presence of a significant hydrothermal system. This low temperature resource could potentially heat the Campus of NM Tech.

  11. Geothermal GW cogeneration system GEOCOGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grob, Gustav R.

    2010-09-15

    GEOCOGEN is the GW zero pollution, no risk solution to replace nuclear and fossil fuelled power plants. It can be built near the energy consumption centers, is invisible and produces electricity and heat at a fraction of the cost of any other the energy mix options. It is a break through deep well geothermal energy technology lasting forever driving also millions of electric vehicles.

  12. Experiments Demonstrate Geothermal Heating Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    When engineers design heat-pump-based geothermal heating systems for homes and other buildings, they can use coil loops buried around the perimeter of the structure to gather low-grade heat from the earth. As an alternative approach, they can drill well casings and store the summer's heat deep in the earth, then bring it back in the winter to warm…

  13. Optimal Extraction of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golabi, Kamal; Scherer, Charles, R.

    1977-06-01

    This study is concerned with the optimal extraction of energy from a hot water geothermal field. In view of the relative "commercial" availability of the many energy sources alternative to geothermal, it is possible that a socially "best" extraction policy may not include producing geothermal energy as fast as the current technology will permit. Rather, a truly "optimal" policy will depend on, among other things, the costs and value of geothermal energy in the future and the analogous values of other energy sources. Hence, a general approach to this problem would make the policy contingent on pertinent information on alternative sources. A good example of this approach is given in Manne's (1976) Energy Technology Assessment Model, where he points out that "Each energy source has its own cost parameters and introduction date, but is interdependent with other components of the energy sector." (Manne (1976), p. 379). But by their large dimensions, such relativity macro-analyses tend to preclude a close look at the specific technology of a process is important in developing meaningful resource management models, we substitute for a macro model the increasing value over time of the energy extracted. In this contact we seek an extraction rate (and an economic life) that maximizes the net discounted value of the energy extracted. [DJE-2005

  14. Remote sensing application on geothermal exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffar, Eddy Z.

    2013-09-01

    Geothermal energy is produced when water coming down from the surface of the earth and met with magma or hot rocks, which the heat comes from the very high levels of magma rises from the earth. This process produced a heated fluid supplied to a power generator system to finally use as energy. Geothermal field usually associated with volcanic area with a component from igneous rocks and a complex geological structures. The fracture and fault structure are important geological structures associated with geothermal. Furthermore, their geothermal manifestations also need to be evaluated associated their geological structures. The appearance of a geothermal surface manifestation is close to the structure of the fracture and the caldera volcanic areas. The relationship between the fault and geothermal manifestations can be seen in the form of a pattern of alignment between the manifestations of geothermal locations with other locations on the fault system. The use of remote sensing using electromagnetic radiation sensors to record images of the Earth's environment that can be interpreted to be a useful information. In this study, remote sensing was applied to determine the geological structure and mapping of the distribution of rocks and alteration rocks. It was found that remote sensing obtained a better localize areas of geothermal prospects, which in turn could cut the chain of geothermal exploration to reduce a cost of geothermal exploration.

  15. Proceedings of NEDO International Geothermal Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-11

    This is a proceedings of the NEDO International Geothermal Symposium held in Sendai in 1997. The worldwide geothermal energy power generation capacity exceeds 7000 MW. Geothermal energy is widely used also for heating, snow melting, greenhouse cultivation as well as electric power generation. Geothermal energy generates far less CO2 causing the global warming than fossil fuels. The geothermal energy is clean and renewable. Considering the environmental issue and energy supply/demand of the world, we have to exert further efforts for the geothermal development. In this conference, discussions were made on each country`s experiences of the geothermal development, and future prediction and strategies for geothermal utilization in the Asia/Pacific region, in particular. Further, in the technical session, conducted were the IEA study and technical presentation/discussion for technical cooperation. The proceedings includes research reports of more than 30, which are clarified into three fields: impacts of the geothermal development on the environment, technical development of the hot dry rock power generation system, and development of technology for collecting deep-seated geothermal resource

  16. Microbiological Monitoring in Geothermal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Linder, R.; Vetter, A.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2010-12-01

    In the scope of the research projects “AquiScreen” and “MiProTherm” we investigated geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. On one side an enhanced process understanding of engineered geothermal systems is mandatory to optimize plant reliability and economy, on the other side this study provides insights into the microbiology of terrestrial thermal systems. Geothermal systems located in the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin were analyzed by sampling of fluids and solid phases. The investigated sites were characterized by different temperatures, salinities and potential microbial substrates. The microbial population was monitored by the use of genetic fingerprinting techniques and PCR-cloning based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes. DNA-sequences of fingerprints and cloned PCR-products were compared to public databases and correlated with metabolic classes to provide information about the biogeochemical processes. In all investigated geothermal plants, covering a temperature range from 5° to 120°C, microorganisms were found. Phylogenetic gene analyses indicate a broad diversity of microorganisms adapted to the specific conditions in the engineered system. Beside characterized bacteria like Thermus scotoductus, Siderooxidans lithoautotrophicus and the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus a high number of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected. As it is known that - in addition to abiotic factors - microbes like sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the processes of corrosion and scaling in plant components, we identified SRB by specific analyses of DSR genes. The SRB detected are closely related to thermotolerant and thermophilic species of Desulfotomaculum, Thermodesulfovibrio, Desulfohalobium and Thermodesulfobacterium, respectively. Overall, the detection of microbes known to be involved in biocorrosion and the

  17. Application effectiveness of the microtremor survey method in the exploration of geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Baoqing; Xu, Peifen; Ling, Suqun; Du, Jianguo; Xu, Xueqiu; Pang, Zhonghe

    2017-10-01

    Geophysical techniques are critical tools of geothermal resource surveys. In recent years, the microtremor survey method, which has two branch techniques (the microtremor sounding technique and the two-dimensional (2D) microtremor profiling technique), has become a common method for geothermal resource exploration. The results of microtremor surveys provide important deep information for probing structures of geothermal storing basins and researching the heat-controlling structures, as well as providing the basis for drilling positions of geothermal wells. In this paper, the southern Jiangsu geothermal resources area is taken as a study example. By comparing the results of microtremor surveys and drilling conclusions, and analyzing microtremor survey effectiveness, and geological and technical factors such as observation radius and sampling frequency, we study the applicability of the microtremor survey method and the optimal way of working with this method to achieve better detection results. A comparative study of survey results and geothermal drilling results shows that the microtremor sounding technique effectively distinguishes sub-layers and determines the depth of geothermal reservoirs in the area with excellent layer conditions. The error of depth is generally no more than 8% compared with the results of drilling. It detects deeper by adjusting the size of the probing radius. The 2D microtremor profiling technique probes exactly the buried structures which display as low velocity anomalies in the apparent velocity profile of the S-wave. The anomaly is the critical symbol of the 2D microtremor profiling technique to distinguish and explain the buried geothermal structures. 2D microtremor profiling results provide an important basis for locating exactly the geothermal well and reducing the risk of drilling dry wells.

  18. Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Annual progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnado, S.G. (ed.)

    1980-11-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing research and development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

  19. Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnado, S.G.

    1980-07-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing research and development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are reported. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

  20. Fluid flow model of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field based on well log interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwe, R.; Howard, J.H.

    1982-08-10

    The subsurface geology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field was analyzed using geophysical and lithologic logs. The distribution of permeable and relatively impermeable units and the location of faults are shown in a geologic model of the system. By incorporating well completion data and downhole temperature profiles into the geologic model, it was possible to determine the direction of geothermal fluid flow and the role of subsurface geologic features that control this movement.

  1. Geothermal exploration and development in Nevada through 1973

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garside, L.J.

    1974-01-01

    A brief description is given of Nevada's geothermal resources, and exploration activity for geothermal power through 1973. The use, geology, exploration, and regulation of the State's geothermal energy resources are discussed.

  2. DOE Webinar - Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofits (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, E. R.

    2010-12-14

    This presentation was given December 14, 2010, as part of DOE's Webinar series. The presentation discusses geothermal heat pump retrofits, technology options, and an overview of geothermal energy and geothermal heat pumps.

  3. National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) Geothermal Data: Community Requirements and Information Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Arlene [United States Department of Energy; Blackwell, David [Southern Methodist University; Chickering, Cathy [Southern Methodist University; Boyd, Toni [Oregon Institute of Technology; Horne, Roland [Stanford University; MacKenzie, Matthew [Uberity Technology Corporation; Moore, Joseph [University of Utah; Nickull, Duane [Uberity Technology Corporation; Richard, Stephen [Arizona Geological survey; Shevenell, Lisa A. [University of Nevada, Reno

    2013-10-01

    To satisfy the critical need for geothermal data to advance geothermal energy as a viable renewable energy contender, the U.S. Department of Energy is investing in the development of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). This paper outlines efforts among geothermal data providers nationwide to supply cutting edge geo-informatics. NGDS geothermal data acquisition, delivery, and methodology are discussed. In particular, this paper addresses the various types of data required to effectively assess geothermal energy potential and why simple links to existing data are insufficient. To create a platform for ready access by all geothermal stakeholders, the NGDS includes a work plan that addresses data assets and resources of interest to users, a survey of data providers, data content models, and how data will be exchanged and promoted, as well as lessons learned within the geothermal community.

  4. Monitoring of Acoustic Emissions Within Geothermal Areas in Iceland: A new Tool for Geothermal Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsdóttir, B.; Gudmundsson, O.

    2007-12-01

    With increased emphasis on geothermal development new exploration methods are needed in order to improve general understanding of geothermal reservoirs, characterize their extent and assess the potential for sustainable power production. Monitoring of acoustic emissions within geothermal areas may provide a new tool to evaluate the spatial extent of geothermal fields and model rock-fluid interactions. Three-dimensional seismic data have been used to assess the spatial and temporal distribution of noise within several high-temperature geothermal fields in Iceland. Seismic noise in the 4-6 Hz range within the Svartsengi field can be attributed to steam hydraulics and pressure oscillations within the geothermal reservoirs. Seismic noise surveys compliment electrical resistivity soundings and TEM-surveys by providing information pertinent to the current geothermal activity and extent of steam fields within the uppermost crust of the geothermal reservoir. Information related to acoustic emissions can thus help define targets for future wells.

  5. Geothermal Technologies Program - Geothermal Energy: Putting Creative Ideas to Work (Green Jobs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-01

    Rapid expansion of U.S. geothermal capacity is opening new job opportunities across the nation. With more than 3,000 megawatts (MW) already installed, the United States leads the world in existing geothermal capacity.

  6. Site-specific analysis of geothermal development-data files of prospective sites. Vol. III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, F.; Cohen, A.; Pfundstein, R.; Pond, S.

    1978-02-01

    Development scenarios for 37 hydrothermal and geopressured prospects in the United States were analyzed. This third of three volumes presents site-specific data and sample development schedules for the first plant on line at each of the 37 prospects.

  7. Geothermal resources: Frio Formation, Middle Texas Gulf Coast. Geological circular 75-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebout, D.G.; Agagu, O.K.; Dorfman, M.H.

    1975-01-01

    Regional sand distribution of the Frio Formation is determined; depositional environments are identified; and the geopressured zone and its relationship to sand/shale distribution, growth faults, and fluid temperatures in the Middle Texas Gulf Coast are delineated. (MHR)

  8. Advancements in 3D Structural Analysis of Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siler, Drew L [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, University of Nevada, Reno; Faulds, James E [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, University of Nevada, Reno; Mayhew, Brett [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, University of Nevada, Reno; McNamara, David [Department of Geothermal Science, GNS Science, NZ

    2013-06-23

    Robust geothermal activity in the Great Basin, USA is a product of both anomalously high regional heat flow and active fault-controlled extension. Elevated permeability associated with some fault systems provides pathways for circulation of geothermal fluids. Constraining the local-scale 3D geometry of these structures and their roles as fluid flow conduits is crucial in order to mitigate both the costs and risks of geothermal exploration and to identify blind (no surface expression) geothermal resources. Ongoing studies have indicated that much of the robust geothermal activity in the Great Basin is associated with high density faulting at structurally complex fault intersection/interaction areas, such as accommodation/transfer zones between discrete fault systems, step-overs or relay ramps in fault systems, intersection zones between faults with different strikes or different senses of slip, and horse-tailing fault terminations. These conceptualized models are crucial for locating and characterizing geothermal systems in a regional context. At the local scale, however, pinpointing drilling targets and characterizing resource potential within known or probable geothermal areas requires precise 3D characterization of the system. Employing a variety of surface and subsurface data sets, we have conducted detailed 3D geologic analyses of two Great Basin geothermal systems. Using EarthVision (Dynamic Graphics Inc., Alameda, CA) we constructed 3D geologic models of both the actively producing Brady’s geothermal system and a ‘greenfield’ geothermal prospect at Astor Pass, NV. These 3D models allow spatial comparison of disparate data sets in 3D and are the basis for quantitative structural analyses that can aid geothermal resource assessment and be used to pinpoint discrete drilling targets. The relatively abundant data set at Brady’s, ~80 km NE of Reno, NV, includes 24 wells with lithologies interpreted from careful analysis of cuttings and core, a 1

  9. Proceedings of a Topical Meeting On Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-02-12

    These proceedings describe the workshop of the Topical Meeting on Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects. The projects covered include binary power plants, rotary separator, screw expander power plants, modular wellhead power plants, inflow turbines, and the EPRI hybrid power system. Active projects versus geothermal power projects were described. In addition, a simple approach to estimating effects of fluid deliverability on geothermal power cost is described starting on page 119. (DJE-2005)

  10. Geothermal Energy Technology: a current-awareness bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L.B. (ed.)

    1983-01-15

    This bulletin announces on a semimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technology required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use either directly or for production of electric power. The subject content encompasses: resource status and assessment, geology and hydrology of geothermal systems, geothermal exploration, legal and institutional aspects, economic and final aspects, environmental aspects and waste disposal, by-products, geothermal power plants, geothermal engineering, direct energy utilization, and geothermal data and theory.

  11. Innovative exploration technologies in the Jemez Geothermal Project, New Mexico, USA; Innovative Explorationstechniken im Jemez Geothermal Projekt, New Mexico, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Michael [TBAPower Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Tenzer, Helmut; Sperber, Axel; Bussmann, Werner [uutGP GmbH, Geeste (Germany)

    2012-10-16

    First geothermal explorations were carried out in the year 1989 in the sovereign Indian Reservation situated nearly 70 km northwest of Albuquerque. (New Mexico, United States of America). In 1991, an exploration drilling at a depth of 80 meter supplied artesian 52 Celsius hot water with xx L/s. Different feasibility studies on the geothermal utilization and on different utilization concepts were established. The economic situation of the region has to be improved by means of a coupled geothermal utilization. The region was explored by means of magnetotellurics (up to depth of 8 kilometre) and reflection seismics (up to a depth of 2.2 kilometre). A graben structure between the Indian Spring fault in the west and the Vallecitos fault in the east are indicative of a geothermal convection zone. Subsequently, an innovative seismic data analysis by means of Elastic Wave Reverse-Time Migration and Wavefield-Separation Imaging Condition was performed. The previous model could be improved considerably. A preliminary drilling program up to a depth of 2,000 meter with Casing design and planning of the borepath occurred. Under socio-economic aspects, up to nine members of the tribe enjoyed an education or further training to engineers under the control of TBA Power Inc. (Salt Laky City, Utah, United State of America).

  12. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapier, Pascal M.

    1982-01-01

    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carry-over through the turbine causes corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  13. Geothermal demonstration: Zunil food dehydration facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, O. (Consultecnia, Guatemala City (Guatemala)); Altseimer, J.; Thayer, G.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Cooper, L. (Energy Associates International, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Caicedo, A. (Unidad de Desarrollo Geotermico, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion)

    1991-08-01

    A food dehydration facility was constructed near the town of Zunil, Guatemala, to demonstrate the use of geothermal energy for industrial applications. The facility, with some modifications to the design, was found to work quite satisfactorily. Tests using five different products were completed during the time geothermal energy was used in the plant. During the time the plant was not able to use geothermal energy, a temporary diesel-fueled boiler provided the energy to test dehydration on seven other crops available in this area. The system demonstrates that geothermal heat can be used successfully for dehydrating food products. Many other industrial applications of geothermal energy could be considered for Zunil since a considerable amount of moderate-temperature heat will become available when the planned geothermal electrical facility is constructed there. 6 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. The National Geothermal Energy Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The continuous demand for energy and the concern for shortages of conventional energy resources have spurred the nation to consider alternate energy resources, such as geothermal. Although significant growth in the one natural steam field located in the United States has occurred, a major effort is now needed if geothermal energy, in its several forms, is to contribute to the nation's energy supplies. From the early informal efforts of an Interagency Panel for Geothermal Energy Research, a 5-year Federal program has evolved whose objective is the rapid development of a commercial industry for the utilization of geothermal resources for electric power production and other products. The Federal program seeks to evaluate the realistic potential of geothermal energy, to support the necessary research and technology needed to demonstrate the economic and environmental feasibility of the several types of geothermal resources, and to address the legal and institutional problems concerned in the stimulation and regulation of this new industry.

  15. Geothermal demonstration: Zunil food dehydration facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, O. (Consultecnia, Guatemala City (Guatemala)); Altseimer, J.; Thayer, G.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Cooper, L. (Energy Associates International, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Caicedo, A. (Unidad de Desarrollo Geotermico, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion)

    1991-08-01

    A food dehydration facility was constructed near the town of Zunil, Guatemala, to demonstrate the use of geothermal energy for industrial applications. The facility, with some modifications to the design, was found to work quite satisfactorily. Tests using five different products were completed during the time geothermal energy was used in the plant. During the time the plant was not able to use geothermal energy, a temporary diesel-fueled boiler provided the energy to test dehydration on seven other crops available in this area. The system demonstrates that geothermal heat can be used successfully for dehydrating food products. Many other industrial applications of geothermal energy could be considered for Zunil since a considerable amount of moderate-temperature heat will become available when the planned geothermal electrical facility is constructed there. 6 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Non-electrical uses of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber E.; Fanelli, M.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive review covers the recognition of natural hot fluids in ancient times and their use for therapeutic baths; the first production of electricity from geothermal steam at Larderello, Italy, in 1904; the widespread geographical occurrence of geothermal fluids; exploration techniques; the extraction of geothermal fluids and their uses in spas, agriculture, aquaculture, domestic heating, and industrial applications; geothermal greenhouse heating world-wide; geothermal heating of animal and poultry houses, in culture of alligators and crocodiles (in Atagawa, Japan), and in fish culture; piping arrangements for district heating, and a tabulation of district heating installations world-wide; downhole exchanger systems used in Klamath Falls, Oregon, for domestic heating; industrial heating applications; and methods of disposal of geothermal fluids. Maps, diagrams, graphs, photographs, tables, and 48 references are included.

  17. Geothermal policy development program: expediting the local geothermal permitting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    For a number of years, concerns have been raised about the length of time and the complexity involved in obtaining required permits in order to develop the geothermal resource at the Geysers. Perhaps the most important factor is jurisdiction. At the Geysers, all three levels of government - local, state, and federal - exercise significant authority over various aspects of geothermal development. In addition, several agencies within each governmental level play an active role in the permitting process. The present study is concerned primarily with the local permitting process, and the ways in which this process could be expedited. This report begins by looking at the local role in the overall permitting process, and then reviews the findings and conclusions that have been reached in other studies of the problem. This is followed by a case study evaluation of recent permitting experience in the four Geysers-Calistoga KGRA counties, and the report concludes by outlining several approaches to expediting the local permitting process.

  18. Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Lund

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010 [1] which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005. This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MWt, almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr, about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology, 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating, 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO2 being release to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity.

  19. 1978 annual report, INEL geothermal environmental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Sullivan, J.F.; Stanley, N.E.

    1979-04-01

    The objective of the Raft River Geothermal Environmental Program, in its fifth year, is to characterize the beneficial and detrimental impacts resulting from the development of moderate-temperature geothermal resources in the valley. This report summarizes the monitoring and research efforts conducted as part of this program in 1978. The results of these monitoring programs will be used to determine the mitigation efforts required to reduce long-term impacts resulting from geothermal development.

  20. Origins of acid fluids in geothermal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, Alfred

    1991-01-01

    Acid fluids in geothermal reservoirs are rare. Their occurrence in geothermal systems associated with recent volcanism (Tatun, Sumikawa, Miravalles) probably indicates that the geothermal reservoir fluid was derived from volcanic fluid incompletely neutralized by reaction with feldspars and micas. Superheated steam containing HCl (Larderello, The Geysers) forms acid where it condenses or mixes with liquid at moderate temperatures (325??C). Cryptoacidity occurs at Los Humeros where HCl acidity is formed and neutralized without reaching the surface.