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Sample records for controlling fungal infection

  1. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleyman, Geehan; Alangaden, George J

    2016-12-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients and in the immunocompromised population. This article reviews the current epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections in adult patients, with an emphasis on invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis. Recently published recommendations and guidelines for the control and prevention of these nosocomial fungal infections are summarized in this article. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fungal Infections KidsHealth / For Kids / Fungal Infections What's in this ...

  3. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Med 1998;24:206-16. Alangaden GJ. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention. Infectious Disease Clinics ... 25:201-25. Zilberberg MD, Shorr AF. Fungal infections in the ICU. Infect Dis ... D. Nosocomial aspergillosis and building construction. Med Mycol 2009;47 ...

  4. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles to control fungal infections in indoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyá, Cecilia; Bellotti, Natalia

    2017-06-01

    Fungi grow especially in dark and moist areas, deteriorating the indoor environment and causing infections that particularly affect immunosuppressed individuals. Antimicrobial coatings have as principal objective to prevent biofilm formation and infections by incorporation of bioactive additives. In this sense, metallic nanoparticles, such as silver, have proven to be active against different microorganisms specially bacteria. Biosynthesized method is a promising environmentally friendly option to obtain nanoparticles. The aim of this research was assess the employment of plants extracts of Aloysia triphylla (cedrón), Laurelia sempervirens (laurel) and Ruta chalepensis (ruda) to obtain silver nanoparticles to be used as an antimicrobial additive to a waterborne coating formulation. The products obtained were assessed against fungal isolates from biodeteriorated indoor coatings. The fungi were identified by conventional and molecular techniques as Chaetomium globosum and Alternaria alternate. The results revealed that the coating with silver nanoparticles obtained with L. sempervirens extract at 60 °C with a size of 9.8 nm was the most efficient against fungal biofilm development.

  5. Freshwater Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  6. Fungal toenail infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 12% of people.Infection can cause discomfo...

  7. Fungal toenail infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 5% of people.Infection can cause discomfor...

  8. Fungal Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... touching the infected area. Diagnosis Skin scrapings or cultures Doctors may suspect a fungal infection when they ...

  9. Fungal toenail infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3-5% of people.Infection can cause discomfort in...

  10. Superficial Fungal Infections in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Ülgen Altay

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Dermatophytes, yeasts and some moulds settle on the skin and mucosal surfaces in immunocompetent individuals as commensals. Patients with diabetes mellitus, HIV-positive patients, organ transplant recipients and the patients with malignancies are predisposed to develop superficial fungal infections. We aimed to determine the prevalence, clinical and mycological features of superficial fungal infections in patients with hematologic malignancies in this case-control study.Material and Method: Eighty patients with hematologic malignancies (49 men, 31 women and 50 healthy individuals (22 men, 28 women randomly selected at our clinical department as controls were included to this study between 2003 and 2004. The mean age was 52±1.85 years in patients and 41.56±2.04 years in controls. All patients were inspected for superficial fungal infections. Skin scrapings and mucosal swabs were obtained from the toe web, inguinal region, any suspicious lesion and oral mucosa. Nail samples were also collected. All samples were examined by direct microscopy and cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA. The yeasts were established in germ-tube production. Results: Fifty-six (70% of 80 patients with hematologic malignancies had fungal colonization, whereas 21 (42% of 50 controls had. For both groups, oral mucosa was the predominant area that fungus was mostly isolated from. A rising number of non-dermatophyte moulds (26% was observed. Candida albicans was the predominant agent isolated from the culture.Conclusion: The prevalence of superficial fungal infection was higher in patients with hematologic malignancies (being immunosuppressed than in the normal population. Candida albicans was the predominant isolated agent that was found in our study. We observed oral mucosa candidal infection mostly. The rising number of non-dermatophyte moulds is attributed to long-term use of antibiotics, cytotoxic chemotherapies and antifungals.

  11. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  12. [Clinically documented fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakeya, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2008-12-01

    Proven fungal infections are diagnosed by histological/microbiological evidence of fungi at the site of infection and positive blood culture (fungemia). However, invasive diagnosing examinations are not always applied for all of immunocompromised patients. Clinically documented invasive fungal infections are diagnosed by typical radiological findings such as halo sign on chest CT plus positive serological/molecular evidence of fungi. Serological tests of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen and beta-glucan for aspergillosis and cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan antigen for cryptococcosis are useful. Hence, none of reliable serological tests for zygomycosis are available so far. In this article, risk factors, sign and symptoms, and diagnostic methods for clinically documented cases of invasive aspergillosis, pulmonary cryptococcosis, and zygomycosis with diabates, are reviewed.

  13. Superficial fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan P

    2012-04-01

    Tinea capitis, tinea corporis, and pityriasis versicolor are common superficial fungal infections in the pediatric population. • Tinea capitis is the most common dermatophyte infection worldwide. In North America, the cause is almost exclusively T tonsurans. Diagnosis of tinea capitis usually can be made by clinical features alone, especially when occipital or postauricular lymphadenopathy is present. Skin scrapings prepared with potassium hydroxide for microscopic examination, or a cotton swab for fungal culture, usually are diagnostic. • Treatment of tinea capitis requires systemic antifungal therapy. Terbinafine and griseofulvin are both effective against T tonsurans and are FDA-approved for this indication in children. • Adjunctive topical therapy for the patient and household contacts decreases transmission of this infection. • Topical antifungal therapy usually is effective for tinea corporis and pityriasis versicolor. However, recurrences of pityriasis versicolor are common.

  14. Current management of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,

  15. Methods of Controlling Invasive Fungal Infections Using CD8+ T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappanaicken R. Kumaresan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections (IFIs cause high rates of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Pattern-recognition receptors present on the surfaces of innate immune cells recognize fungal pathogens and activate the first line of defense against fungal infection. The second line of defense is the adaptive immune system which involves mainly CD4+ T cells, while CD8+ T cells also play a role. CD8+ T cell-based vaccines designed to prevent IFIs are currently being investigated in clinical trials, their use could play an especially important role in acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients. So far, none of the vaccines used to treat IFI have been approved by the FDA. Here, we review current and future antifungal immunotherapy strategies involving CD8+ T cells. We highlight recent advances in the use of T cells engineered using a Sleeping Beauty vector to treat IFIs. Recent clinical trials using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T-cell therapy to treat patients with leukemia have shown very promising results. We hypothesized that CAR T cells could also be used to control IFI. Therefore, we designed a CAR that targets β-glucan, a sugar molecule found in most of the fungal cell walls, using the extracellular domain of Dectin-1, which binds to β-glucan. Mice treated with D-CAR+ T cells displayed reductions in hyphal growth of Aspergillus compared to the untreated group. Patients suffering from IFIs due to primary immunodeficiency, secondary immunodeficiency (e.g., HIV, or hematopoietic transplant patients may benefit from bioengineered CAR T cell therapy.

  16. Serious fungal infections in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, K; Farooqi, J; Mirza, S; Denning, D; Zafar, A

    2017-06-01

    The true burden of fungal infection in Pakistan is unknown. High-risk populations for fungal infections [tuberculosis (TB), diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, asthma, cancer, transplant and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection] are numerous. Here, we estimate the burden of fungal infections to highlight their public health significance. Whole and at-risk population estimates were obtained from the WHO (TB), BREATHE study (COPD), UNAIDS (HIV), GLOBOCAN (cancer) and Heartfile (diabetes). Published data from Pakistan reporting fungal infections rates in general and specific populations were reviewed and used when applicable. Estimates were made for the whole population or specific populations at risk, as previously described in the LIFE methodology. Of the 184,500,000 people in Pakistan, an estimated 3,280,549 (1.78%) are affected by a serious fungal infection, omitting all cutaneous infection, oral candidiasis and allergic fungal sinusitis, which we could not estimate. Compared with other countries, the rates of candidaemia (21/100,000) and mucormycosis (14/100,000) are estimated to be very high, and are based on data from India. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis rates are estimated to be high (39/100,000) because of the high TB burden. Invasive aspergillosis was estimated to be around 5.9/100,000. Fungal keratitis is also problematic in Pakistan, with an estimated rate of 44/100,000. Pakistan probably has a high rate of certain life- or sight-threatening fungal infections.

  17. Immune response to fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, R D

    1989-01-01

    In general, fungi are saprophytes that are well adapted to grow in nature supported by diverse nutritional substrates. For fungi, in contrast to many other microorganisms that infect humans, parasitism is an accidental phenomenon rather than an obligatory requirement for survival. Thus, with progressive improvement in our capabilities to prolong survival of patients with global defects in host defense mechanisms, clinical experience suggests that human tissues may support growth of numerous species of saprophytic fungi that share the capacity to grow at 37 degrees C. Normally, however, a broad array of natural and acquired host defense mechanisms make the occurrence of progressive, systemic, life-threatening mycoses extremely rare events. When one or another of these host defense mechanisms is compromised, one of a variety of significant fungal infections may then progress. Mycoses may be broadly categorized into those controlled largely by natural cellular defenses vs. acquired cell-mediated immunity. Notwithstanding data that permit such general classification of host factors controlling one or another invasive mycosis, the diverse structural and antigenic properties of individual fungi create unique patterns of infections in individual, characteristic host settings. Thus, while some broad generalizations are possible, definition of predisposing factors for specific individual mycoses (and, ultimately, prospects for corrective immunotherapy) requires careful characterization of diverse features of fungal forms mediating divergent immune responses.

  18. Fungal Burn Wound Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Aspergillus), Blasto- T he use of effective topical chemotherapeutic agents to myces (Candida), and Zygomycetes (Mucor, Rhizopus ).6 reduce...below the infected burn wound . If the infection was controlled by these measures and the patient’s condition permit- ted, the involved area was...species, 18%; Mucor species and Rhizopus species, acetate in the morning and silver sulfadiazine in the evening. Prophy- 9.1%; and Microspora species and

  19. Serious fungal infections in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, J; Denning, D W; Paz-Y-Miño, A; Solís, M B; Arias, L M

    2017-06-01

    There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE. Ecuador has a variety of climates from the cold of the Andes through temperate to humid hot weather at the coast and in the Amazon basin. Ecuador has a population of 15,223,680 people and an average life expectancy of 76 years. The median estimate of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) population at risk for fungal disease (Ecuador is affected by serious fungal infection.

  20. Imaging fungal infections in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, Alfred O.; Sathekge, Mike M; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.

    Fungal infections in children rarely occur, but continue to have a high morbidity and mortality despite the development of newer antifungal agents. It is essential for these infections to be diagnosed at the earliest possible stage so appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. The addition of

  1. [Fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkoudakis, Emmanouil; Realdi, Giuseppe; Dore, Maria Pina

    2005-06-01

    In immunocompetent subjects fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract are uncommon. Candida esophagitis remains the single most common fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts or in H. pylori- infected patients who receive antibiotic therapy. Enteric fungal infections are uncommon even in HIV-infected patients. Antifungal agents such as amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and the various formulations of itraconazole are effective for most cases.

  2. Microbiology of systemic fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of systemic fungal infections in the past two decades has been overwhelming. Earlier, it was pathogenic dimorphic fungi, which were known to cause systemic infections. However, starting from the 1960s, opportunistic fungi started causing more number of infections, especially in the immunocompromised host. More recently, newer and less common fungal agents are being increasingly associated with infection in immunosuppressed hosts. Amongst dimorphic fungi, infections due to Histoplasma capsulatum and Penicillium marneffei are increasingly reported in patients with AIDS in India. H. capsulatum is found country wide, but P. marneffei remains restricted to Manipur state. Although both varieties of C. neoformans , C. neoformans var. neoformans (serotypes A & D, and C. neoformans var. gattii (serotypes B & C are reported in India, most of the cases reported are of serotype A. Increased incidence of cryptococcosis is reported from all centers with the emergence of AIDS. Systemic infection due to species under Candida , Aspergillus and zygomycetes is widely prevalent in nosocomial setting, and outbreaks due to unusual fungi are reported occasionally from tertiary care centers. This global change in systemic fungal infections has emphasized the need to develop good diagnostic mycology laboratories in this country and to recognize this increasingly large group of potential fungal pathogens.

  3. Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in organ transplant patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because they ...

  4. Hidden killers: human fungal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, G.D.; Denning, D.W.; Gow, N.A.; Levitz, S.M.; Netea, M.G.; White, T.C.

    2012-01-01

    Although fungal infections contribute substantially to human morbidity and mortality, the impact of these diseases on human health is not widely appreciated. Moreover, despite the urgent need for efficient diagnostic tests and safe and effective new drugs and vaccines, research into the

  5. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Girmenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests for the detection of fungal infections are easy to perform. The main obstacle to a correct diagnosis is the correlation between the laboratory findings and the clinical diagnosis. Among pediatric patients, the most common fungal pathogen is Candida. The detection of fungal colonization may be performed through the use of chromogenic culture media, which allows also the identification of Candida subspecies, from which pathogenicity depends. In neonatology, thistest often drives the decision to begin a empiric therapy; in this regard, a close cooperation between microbiologists and clinicians is highly recommended. Blood culture, if positive, is a strong confirmation of fungal infection; however, its low sensitivity results in a high percentage of false negatives, thus decreasing its reliability. Molecular diagnostics is still under evaluation, whereas the detection of some fungal antigens, such as β-D-glucan, galactomannan, mannoprotein, and cryptococcal antigen in the serum is used for adults, but still under evaluations for pediatric patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.862

  6. Serious fungal infections in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Duarte, E; Denning, D W

    2017-06-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Chile are unknown. Here, we have estimated the burden of serious fungal diseases from data obtained from clinical reports, WHO reports, Chilean census, OECD reports and comprehensive literature search available on PubMed and SciELO, among other scientific resources. Due the lack of official data about fungal diseases, frequencies were calculated based on the specific populations at risk. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 3108/100,000. Using a low international average rate of 5/100,000, we estimate 878 candidaemia cases and 132 patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis. Due to the low incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Chile, limited numbers of patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis are likely: a total of 1212, 25% following TB. Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 296 patients following leukaemia therapy, transplantation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 1.7/100,000. In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS) were estimated to be around 97.9/100,000 and 127/100,000 respectively, in 675,772 adult asthmatics and 1700 CF patients. Given a 38,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population, with around 2189 new cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) annually, cryptococcal meningitis and Pneumocystis pneumonia are estimated at 0.12/100,000 and 4.3/100,000, respectively. In total, 325,000 (1.9%) people in Chile develop serious fungal infections annually. Respiratory fungal disease predominates in Chile; a national action plan for fungal disease is urgently needed, including epidemiological studies to validate the estimates.

  7. Systems biology of fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eHorn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections.A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviours in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions.We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modelling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy.

  8. Serious fungal infections in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, S M; Denning, D W

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Egypt, currently unknown, based on the size of the populations at risk and available epidemiological data. Data were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and published reports with clearcut denominators. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. The population of Egypt in 2011 was ∼82,500,000; 31% children, and 8% women >60 years of age. Amongst about 21.8 million women aged 15-50 years, recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (≥4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 1.3 million (3,169/100,000 females). Using a low international average rate of 5/100,000, we estimate 4,127 cases of candidaemia, and 619 patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis. Amongst the survivors of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Egypt in 2012, 319 new cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) are likely, a prevalence of 1,005 post-TB and a total prevalence estimate of 3,015 CPA patients in all. Asthma is common in Egypt, affecting 9.4% of adults, 5.35 million, and so ABPA and SAFS were estimated in around 162/100,000 and 214/100,000 respectively. Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 495 patients following leukaemia therapy, there are an estimated 37 cases in renal and liver transplant recipients, and an estimated 132 patients develop IA in the context of lung cancer. Amongst 641,000 COPD admissions to hospital each year, 8,337 patients develop IA. The total HIV-infected population is small, with an estimated 6,500 patients, 2,500 not on antiretroviral therapy. Amongst HIV-infected patients, 38 (0.6%) cases of cryptococcal meningitis and 125 (1.9%) cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia are estimated each year. Fungal keratitis is common, with 28-55% (mean 40%) of corneal infections being fungal, an estimated total of 11,550 cases. The present study indicates

  9. HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Gets Fungal Infections? People living with HIV/AIDS Organ Transplant Patients Cancer Patients Hospitalized Patients Stem Cell Transplant Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal Meningitis ...

  10. Fungal infections of the orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipasha Mukherjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the orbit can lead to grave complications. Although the primary site of inoculation of the infective organism is frequently the sinuses, the patients can initially present to the ophthalmologist with ocular signs and symptoms. Due to its varied and nonspecific clinical features, especially in the early stages, patients are frequently misdiagnosed and even treated with steroids which worsen the situation leading to dire consequences. Ophthalmologists should be familiar with the clinical spectrum of disease and the variable presentation of this infection, as early diagnosis and rapid institution of appropriate therapy are crucial elements in the management of this invasive sino-orbital infection. In this review, relevant clinical, microbiological, and imaging findings are discussed along with the current consensus on local and systemic management. We review the recent literature and provide a comprehensive analysis. In the immunocompromised, as well as in healthy patients, a high index of suspicion must be maintained as delay in diagnosis of fungal pathology may lead to disfiguring morbidity or even mortality. Obtaining adequate diagnostic material for pathological and microbiological examination is critical. Newer methods of therapy, particularly oral voriconazole and topical amphotericin B, may be beneficial in selected patients.

  11. Exploring polyamine metabolism of Alternaria alternata to target new substances to control the fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiarte, N; Crespo-Sempere, A; Marín, S; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J

    2017-08-01

    Polyamines are essential for all living organisms as they are involved in several vital cell functions. The biosynthetic pathway of polyamines and its regulation is well established and, in this sense, the ornithine descarboxylase (ODC) enzyme acts as one of the controlling factors of the entire pathway. In this work we assessed the inhibition of the ODC with D, l-α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) on Alternaria alternata and we observed that fungal growth and mycotoxin production were reduced. This inhibition was not completely restored by the addition of exogenous putrescine. Actually, increasing concentrations of putrescine on the growth media negatively affected mycotoxin production, which was corroborated by the downregulation of pksJ and altR, both genes involved in mycotoxin biosynthesis. We also studied the polyamine metabolism of A. alternata with the goal of finding new targets that compromise its growth and its mycotoxin production capacity. In this sense, we tested two different polyamine analogs, AMXT-2455 and AMXT-3016, and we observed that they partially controlled A. alternata's viability in vitro and in vivo using tomato plants. Finding strategies to design new fungicide substances is becoming a matter of interest as resistance problems are emerging. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Fungal Infections From Human and Animal Contact

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    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections in humans resulting from human or animal contact are relatively uncommon, but they include a significant proportion of dermatophyte infections. Some of the most commonly encountered diseases of the integument are dermatomycoses. Human or animal contact may be the source of all types of tinea infections, occasional candidal infections, and some other types of superficial or deep fungal infections. This narrative review focuses on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of anthropophilic dermatophyte infections primarily found in North America. Other human-acquired and zoonotic fungal infections also are discussed in brief.

  13. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed.

  14. Fungal infection knowledge gap in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EPHA USER33

    receiving immunosuppressive therapy, and patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (1). Fungi also play a role in allergic fungal disease such as allergic broncho- pulmonary Aspergilosis (ABPA) and chronic or deep tissue infections. The laboratory diagnosis of fungal infection starts with a simple potassium hydroxide.

  15. Fungal infection in organ transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Wen, Hai; Liao, Wanqing

    2003-09-01

    To review the characteristics and evolution of the fungal spectrum, and the risk factors causing fungal infection, and to make progress in diagnosing fungal infection after organ transplantation. An English-language literature search (MEDLINE 1990 - 2000) and bibliographic review of textbooks and review articles. Twenty-three articles were selected from the literature that specifically addressed the stated purpose. Fungal infections in organ transplant patients were generally divided into two types: (1) disseminated primary or reactivation infection with one of the geographically restricted systemic mycoses; (2) opportunistic infection by fungal species that rarely cause invasive infection in normal hosts. The risk factors of fungal infection after a transplant can be evaluated and predicted according to the organ recipient's conditions before, during and after the transplant. Progress in early diagnostic methods during the past 10 years has mainly revolved around two aspects, culture and non-culture. It is important to undertake a systemic evaluation on the condition of the organ recipient before, during and after a transplant; should any risk factor for fungal infection be suspected, diagnosis should be made as early as possible by employing mycological techniques including culture and non-culture methods.

  16. Prevalence and early detection of oral fungal infection: a cross-sectional controlled study in a group of Swedish end-stage renal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorman, Royne; Neovius, Martin; Hylander, Britta

    2009-01-01

    Early detection and treatment of local oral fungal infection (OFI) minimize the risk of overgrowth and more serious complications such as invasive infections. Generalized fungal infection increases both morbidity and mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. This study reports the prevalence of ongoing OFI in patients with ESRD and presents correlations with dental microbial plaque formation and mouth dryness. It also describes how oral fungal growth correlates with oral lesions associated with fungal infection. From March 2007 to October 2008, 93 ESRD patients and 45 age- and gender-matched controls were consecutively asked to participate in the study. In total, 34 patients were treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 59 with haemodialysis (HD). OFI was diagnosed by taking two smear layers from the buccal mucosa. The samples from each side of the mouth were stained with the periodic acid Schiff (PAS) method. The associations between histological findings, age, gender, type of dialysis treatment, tobacco habits, self-experienced mouth dryness, taste disturbances, dental plaque and gingivitis were investigated. The presence of erythematous oral stomatitis, membranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis was noted to clarify how the presence of fungal hyphae correlate with oral lesions associated with OFI. OFI was found in 32% of the ESRD patients and 11% of the controls (p=0.007). An extensive OFI, defined as frequent fungal hyphae formations in oral mucosal smear layers, was found in 3% of the PD and 17% of the HD patients. Oral lesions, defined as clinical signs associated with OFI such as erythematous oral stomatitis, membranous candidiasis or angular cheilitis, were found in 37% of the patients with OFI, while 5% of the patients without findings of fungal infection presented oral lesions associated with OFI (p=0.0002). Furthermore, patients with self-reported mouth dryness were three times more likely (p=0.02) to be diagnosed with OFI. ESRD patients

  17. Active use of the metapleural glands by ants in controlling fungal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K; Rehner, Stephen A; Wcislo, William T

    2006-01-01

    Insect societies face constant challenges from disease agents. Ants deploy diverse antimicrobial compounds against pathogens and the key sources are metapleural glands (MGs). Are MG products passively secreted and used indiscriminately or are they selectively used when ants are challenged by pathogens? In 26 species from five subfamilies, ants use foreleg movements to precisely groom the MG opening. In the absence of experimental infection, MG grooming rates are low and workers groom themselv...

  18. Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... includes places like chicken coops and caves. Wear gloves when handling materials such as soil, moss, or ... MMWR: Recommendations and Reports 2000;49:1-128. Top of Page Related Links Fungal Meningitis National Center ...

  19. Burden of fungal infections in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiane, Aida S; Ndiaye, Daouda; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Senegal has a high rate of tuberculosis and a low HIV seropositivity rate and aspergilloma, life-threatening fungal infections, dermatophytosis and mycetoma have been reported in this study. All published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Senegal were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in each to estimate national incidence or prevalence. The results show that tinea capitis is common being found in 25% of children, ~1.5 million. About 191,000 Senegalese women get recurrent vaginal thrush, ≥4 times annually. We estimate 685 incident cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) following TB and prevalence of 2160 cases. Asthma prevalence in adults varies from 3.2% to 8.2% (mean 5%); 9976 adults have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and 13,168 have severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS). Of the 59,000 estimated HIV-positive patients, 366 develop cryptococcal meningitis; 1149 develop Pneumocystis pneumonia and 1946 develop oesophageal candidiasis, in which oral candidiasis (53%) and dermatophytosis (16%) are common. Since 2008-2010, 113 cases of mycetoma were diagnosed. In conclusion, we estimate that 1,743,507 (12.5%) people in Senegal suffer from a fungal infection, excluding oral candidiasis, fungal keratitis, invasive candidiasis or aspergillosis. Diagnostic and treatment deficiencies should be rectified to allow epidemiological studies. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Fungal nail infections: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    1) Fungal nail infection, or onychomycosis, mainly affects toenails. Infections are generally asymptomatic. Spontaneous regressions, but also complications, appear to be rare. Discomfort and cosmetic complaint are occasionally reported; 2) After a review of the literature based on the standard Prescrire procedure, we examined the diagnosis and management of fungal nail infections; 3) Clinical signs of fungal nail infections are non-specific. Alternative diagnoses include psoriasis and nail microtrauma. Nail hyperkeratosis and leukonychia are useful diagnostic pointers. Matrix involvement has important implications in the choice of treatment; 4) Detection of fungal structures by direct examination of a nail sample is strongly suggestive of fungal nail infection. In contrast, cases of negative direct examination with positive culture must be interpreted with caution, as contamination is frequent; 5) Antifungal lacquers (5% amorolfine and 8% ciclopirox) applied to the nails cure about 30% of fungal infections and sometimes cause mild irritation. There is no firm evidence that these solutions are any more effective than other topical antifungals applied daily to the affected nail. Trimming, filing or grinding the nail, in addition to these drug treatments, is likely to be beneficial, but these measures have not been evaluated; 6) Chemical nail destruction with a combination of urea and bifonazole, followed by treatment with an antifungal ointment, can be used when the nail is markedly thickened. Non-comparative trials have shown cure rates close to 70% at three months when the matrix is not involved, and 40% with matrix involvement. Drug application is inconvenient and local reactions are frequent. Surgical nail avulsion carries a risk of local infection and permanent nail dystrophy; 7) Oral terbinafine is effective in more than 50% of cases but its cutaneous, hepatic and haematological adverse effects are severe in about 1 in 2000 patients and can be life

  1. Sinonasal Fungal Infections and Complications: A Pictorial Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Gavito-Higuera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the nose and paranasal sinuses can be categorized into invasive and non-invasive forms. The clinical presentation and course of the disease is primarily determined by the immune status of the host and can range from harmless or subtle presentations to life threatening complications. Invasive fungal infections are categorized into acute, chronic or chronic granulomatous entities. Immunocompromised patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, HIV and patients receiving chemotherapy or chronic oral corticosteroids are mostly affected. Mycetoma and Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis are considered non-invasive forms. Computer tomography is the gold-standard in sinonasal imaging and is complimented by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as it is superior in the evaluation of intraorbital and intracranial extensions. The knowledge and identification of the characteristic imaging patterns in invasive - and non- invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is crucial and the radiologist plays an important role in refining the diagnosis to prevent a possible fatal outcome.

  2. Fungal infection control by garlic extracts (Allium sativum L.) and modulation of peritoneal macrophages activity in murine model of sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burian, J P; Sacramento, L V S; Carlos, I Z

    2017-11-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is grown all over the world as seasoning and medicinal vegetable since 3,000 BC. Allicin is the main component of garlic, being attributed to it the most of its biological activities, such as bactericidal, antifungal and antiviral actions. However, other compounds of garlic present antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, vasodilator activities, protective action against different types of cancer, and immunomodulatory. Fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in people mainly in immunosuppressed ones. Sporothrix schenckii, the causing agent of Sporotrichosis (most common subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America), is dimorphic fungus, of saprophytic life in soil or plants, infecting people and animals mainly through skin injuries and bruises. The main of this work was to evaluate the influence of garlic consuming on immune modulation of healthy and infected Swiss mice in induced way by S. schenckii, since these animals functioning of peritoneal macrophages as well as the nitric oxide and cytokines' production (IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-12) and to evaluate the antifungal potential of garlic with S. schenckii through minimum inhibitory concentration test and colony-forming units. The results showed that garlic offers antifungal potential with S. schenckii. The oral taking of garlic extracts influences the releasing of cytokines by macrophages, regular consuming shows anti-inflammatory effect, and its acute use may take to an inflammatory response. Mice that consumed garlic responded more effectively to fight against the infection.

  3. Fungal infection control by garlic extracts (Allium sativum L. and modulation of peritoneal macrophages activity in murine model of sporotrichosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Burian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Garlic (Allium sativum L. is grown all over the world as seasoning and medicinal vegetable since 3,000 BC. Allicin is the main component of garlic, being attributed to it the most of its biological activities, such as bactericidal, antifungal and antiviral actions. However, other compounds of garlic present antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, vasodilator activities, protective action against different types of cancer, and immunomodulatory. Fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in people mainly in immunosuppressed ones. Sporothrix schenckii, the causing agent of Sporotrichosis (most common subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America, is dimorphic fungus, of saprophytic life in soil or plants, infecting people and animals mainly through skin injuries and bruises. The main of this work was to evaluate the influence of garlic consuming on immune modulation of healthy and infected Swiss mice in induced way by S. schenckii, since these animals functioning of peritoneal macrophages as well as the nitric oxide and cytokines’ production (IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-12 and to evaluate the antifungal potential of garlic with S. schenckii through minimum inhibitory concentration test and colony-forming units. The results showed that garlic offers antifungal potential with S. schenckii. The oral taking of garlic extracts influences the releasing of cytokines by macrophages, regular consuming shows anti-inflammatory effect, and its acute use may take to an inflammatory response. Mice that consumed garlic responded more effectively to fight against the infection.

  4. Fungal infection of the colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praneenararat S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Surat PraneenararatDivision of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, ThailandAbstract: Fungi are pathogens that commonly infect immunocompromised patients and can affect any organs of the body, including the colon. However, the literature provides limited details on colonic infections caused by fungi. This article is an intensive review of information available on the fungi that can cause colon infections. It uses a comparative style so that its conclusions may be accessible for clinical application.Keywords: fungus, colitis, large bowel, large intestine

  5. Fungal infections of the lung in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toma, Paolo; Colafati, Giovanna Stefania; D' Andrea, Maria Luisa [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Imaging, Rome (Italy); Bertaina, Alice; Mastronuzzi, Angela [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology and Transfusion Medicine, Rome (Italy); Castagnola, Elio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Infective Diseases, Genoa (Italy); Finocchi, Andrea [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Rome (Italy); Lucidi, Vincenzina [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Cystic Fibrosis Center, Rome (Italy); Granata, Claudio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    Fungal infections of the lungs are relatively common and potentially life-threatening conditions in immunocompromised children. The role of imaging in children with lung mycosis is to delineate the extension of pulmonary involvement, to assess response to therapy, and to monitor for adverse sequelae such as bronchiectasis and cavitation. The aim of this paper is to show imaging findings in a series of patients with fungal pneumonia from two tertiary children's hospitals, to discuss differential diagnoses and to show how imaging findings can vary depending on the host immune response. (orig.)

  6. Serious fungal infections in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batac, M C R; Denning, D

    2017-06-01

    The Philippines is a low middle-income, tropical country in Southeast Asia. Infectious diseases remain the main causes of morbidity, including tuberculosis. AIDS/HIV prevalence is still low at Philippine Health Statistics 2011, Philippine Dermatological Society Health Information System database, HIV/AIDS and ART registry of the Philippines, epidemiological studies such as The TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database 2005, and personal communication. Aspergillosis and candidiasis were the top causes of fungal infections in the Philippines. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), drawn from the number of tuberculosis patients, affects 77,172 people. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) frequencies, which were derived from the number of asthmatic patients, affect 121,113 and 159,869 respectively. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) affects 1,481,899 women. Other estimates were cryptococcal meningitis 84, Pneumocystis pneumonia 391, oral candidiasis 3,467, esophageal candidiasis 1,522 (all in HIV-infected people), invasive aspergillosis (IA) 3,085, candidemia 1,968, candida peritonitis 246, mucormycosis 20, fungal keratitis 358, tinea capitis 846 and mycetoma 97 annually. A total of 1,852,137 (1.9% of population) are afflicted with a serious fungal infection. Epidemiological studies are needed to validate these estimates, facilitating appropriate medical care of patients and proper prioritization of limited resources.

  7. Essential Oils as Biocides for the Control of Fungal Infections and Devastating Pest (Tuta absoluta) of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouayad Alam, Samira; Dib, Mohammed El Amine; Djabou, Nassim; Tabti, Boufeldja; Gaouar Benyelles, Nassira; Costa, Jean; Muselli, Alain

    2017-07-01

    Thymus capitatus and Tetraclinis articulata essential oils as well their major components (carvacrol and α-pinene) were evaluated for their antifungal and insecticidal activities. Both oils showed good in vitro antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Alternaria alternata, and Botrytis cinerea, the fungi causing tomato rot. In vivo results indicate the efficacies of both essential oils and carvacrol of reduce postharvest fungal pathogens, such as B. cinerea and Al. alternata that are responsible of black and gray rot of tomato fruit. Disease incidence of Al. alternata and B. cinerea decreased on average from 55% to 80% with essential oil of Th. capitatus and pure carcvacrol, while Te. articulata essential oil exhibited inhibition of fungal growth of 55% and 25% against Al. alternata and B. cinerea, respectively, with concentration of 0.4 μl/l air. The insecticidal activity of Th. capitatus and Te. articulata essential oils exhibited also a good insecticidal activity. At the concentration of 0.2 μl/ml air, the oils caused mortality over 80% for all larval stages of Tuta absoluta and 100% mortality for the first-instar after 1.5 h only of exposure. α-Pinene presented lower insecticidal and antifungal activities compared to essential oils of Th. capitatus, Te. articulata and pure carvacrol. Thus, these essential oils can be used as a potential source to develop control agents to manage some of the main pests and fungal diseases of tomato crops. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  8. Burden of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugnani, H C; Denning, D W; Rahim, R; Sadat, A; Belal, M; Mahbub, M S

    2017-06-01

    In Bangladesh there are several published papers on superficial mycoses. Deep mycoses are also recognized as an important emerging problem. Here, we estimate the annual incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh. Demographic data were obtained from world population reports and the data on TB and HIV extracted from the online publications on tuberculosis in Bangladesh and Asia Pacific research statistical data information resources AIDS Data HUB. All the published papers on fungal infections in Bangladesh were identified through extensive search of literature. We estimated the number of affected people from populations at risk and local epidemiological data. Bangladesh has a population of ∼162.6 million, 31% children and only 6% over the age of 60 years. The pulmonary TB caseload reported in 2014 was 119,520, and we estimate a prevalence of 30,178 people with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 80% attributable to TB. An anticipated 90,262 and 119,146 patients have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or severe asthma with fungal sensitization. Only 8,000 people are estimated to be HIV-infected, of whom 2900 are not on ART with a CD4 count Bangladesh. Candida bloodstream infection was estimated based on a 5 per 100,000 rate (8100 cases) and invasive aspergillosis based primarily on leukemia and COPD rates, at 5166 cases. Histoplasmosis was documented in 16 cases mostly with disseminated disease and presumed in 21 with HIV infection. This study constitutes the first attempt to estimate the burden of several types of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

  9. Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Wadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the burden of fungal infections in Jordan for the first time. Material and Methods: Population data was from UN 2011 statistics and TB cases from WHO in 2012. Fewer than 100 patients with HIV were recorded in Jordan in 2013. Approximately 100 renal transplants and eight liver transplants are performed annually. There were 12,233 major surgical procedures in Jordan in 2013, of which 5.3% were major abdominal surgeries; candidemia was estimated in 5% of the population based on other countries, with 33% occurring in the ICU. Candida peritonitis/intra-abdominal candidiasis was estimated to affect 50% of the number of ICU candidemia cases. No adult asthma rates have been recorded for Jordan, so the rate from the Holy Land (8.54% clinical asthma from To et al. has been used. There are an estimated 49,607 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients in Jordan, with 64% symptomatic, 25% Gold stage 3% or 4%, and 7% (3472 are assumed to be admitted to hospital each year. No cystic fibrosis cases have been recorded. Literature searches on fungal infections revealed few data and no prevalence data on fungal keratitis or tinea capitis, even though tinea capitis comprised 34% of patients with dermatophytoses in Jordan. Results: Jordan has 6.3 million inhabitants (65% adults, 6% are >60 years old. The current burden of serious fungal infections in Jordan was estimated to affect ~119,000 patients (1.9%, not including any cutaneous fungal infections. Candidemia was estimated at 316 cases and invasive aspergillosis in leukemia, transplant, and COPD patients at 84 cases. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis prevalence was estimated to affect 36 post-TB patients, and 175 in total. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS prevalence in adults with asthma were estimated at 8900 and 11,748 patients. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis was estimated to affect 97,804 patients, using a 6

  10. Burden of serious fungal infections in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanov, Ali; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Ukraine has high rates of TB, AIDS and cancer. We estimated the burden of fungal disease from epidemiology papers and specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies. HIV/AIDS cases and deaths (2012) and tuberculosis statistics were obtained from the State Service of Ukraine, while chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cases were from M. Miravitlles et al., Thorax 64, 863-868 (2009). Annual estimates are 893,579 Ukrainian women get recurrent vaginal thrush (≥4× per year), 50,847 cases of oral candidiasis and 13,727 cases of oesophageal candidiasis in HIV, and 101 (1%) of 10,085 new AIDS cases develop cryptococcal meningitis, 6152 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (13.5 cases per 100,000). Of the 29,265 cases of active respiratory TB in 2012, it is estimated that 2881 new cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) occurred and that the 5-year period prevalence is 7724 cases with a total CPA burden of 10,054 cases. Assuming adult asthma prevalence is ~2.9%, 28,447 patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) are likely and 37,491 with severe asthma with fungal sensitisation. We estimate 2278 cases and 376 postsurgical intra-abdominal Candida infections. Invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients is estimated at 303 patients annually; 930 cases in COPD patients. Ninety cases of mucormycosis (2 per 1,000,000) are estimated. In total, ~1,000,000 (2.2%) people in Ukraine develop serious fungal infections annually. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Fungal cell gigantism during mammalian infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Zaragoza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between fungal pathogens with the host frequently results in morphological changes, such as hyphae formation. The encapsulated pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is not considered a dimorphic fungus, and is predominantly found in host tissues as round yeast cells. However, there is a specific morphological change associated with cryptococcal infection that involves an increase in capsule volume. We now report another morphological change whereby gigantic cells are formed in tissue. The paper reports the phenotypic characterization of giant cells isolated from infected mice and the cellular changes associated with giant cell formation. C. neoformans infection in mice resulted in the appearance of giant cells with cell bodies up to 30 microm in diameter and capsules resistant to stripping with gamma-radiation and organic solvents. The proportion of giant cells ranged from 10 to 80% of the total lung fungal burden, depending on infection time, individual mice, and correlated with the type of immune response. When placed on agar, giant cells budded to produce small daughter cells that traversed the capsule of the mother cell at the speed of 20-50 m/h. Giant cells with dimensions that approximated those in vivo were observed in vitro after prolonged culture in minimal media, and were the oldest in the culture, suggesting that giant cell formation is an aging-dependent phenomenon. Giant cells recovered from mice displayed polyploidy, suggesting a mechanism by which gigantism results from cell cycle progression without cell fission. Giant cell formation was dependent on cAMP, but not on Ras1. Real-time imaging showed that giant cells were engaged, but not engulfed by phagocytic cells. We describe a remarkable new strategy for C. neoformans to evade the immune response by enlarging cell size, and suggest that gigantism results from replication without fission, a phenomenon that may also occur with other fungal pathogens.

  12. Transplant tourism and invasive fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salmi, I; Metry, A M; Al Ismaili, F; Hola, A; Al Riyami, M; Khamis, F; Al-Abri, S

    2018-04-01

    Deceased and live-related renal transplants (RTXs) are approved procedures that are performed widely throughout the world. In certain regions, commercial RTX has become popular, driven by financial greed. This retrospective, descriptive study was performed at the Royal Hospital from 2013 to 2015. Data were collected from the national kidney transplant registry of Oman. All transplant cases retrieved were divided into two groups: live-related RTX performed in Oman and commercial-unrelated RTX performed abroad. These groups were then divided again into those with and without evidence of fungal infection, either in the wound or renal graft. A total of 198 RTX patients were identified, of whom 162 (81.8%) had undergone a commercial RTX that was done abroad. Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) were diagnosed in 8% of patients who had undergone a commercial RTX; of these patients, 76.9% underwent a nephrectomy and 23.1% continued with a functioning graft. None of the patients with RTXs performed at the Royal Hospital contracted an IFI. The most common fungal isolates were Aspergillus species (including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus nigricans), followed by Zygomycetes. However, there was no evidence of fungal infection including Aspergillus outside the graft site. Computed tomography (CT) findings showed infarction of the graft, renal artery thrombosis, aneurysmal dilatation of the external iliac artery, fungal ball, or just the presence of a perigraft collection. Of the total patients with IFIs, 23.1% died due to septic shock and 53.8% were alive and on hemodialysis. The remaining 23.1% who did not undergo nephrectomy demonstrated acceptable graft function. This is the largest single-center study on commercial RTX reporting the highest number of patients with IFI acquired over a relatively short period of time. Aspergillus spp were the main culprit fungi, with no Candida spp being isolated. A high index of suspicion might

  13. Value of platelet count in the early diagnosis of nosocomial invasive fungal infections in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Chen; Mao, Jian

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the value of a platelet count (PLT) in the early diagnosis of nosocomial invasive fungal infections in premature infants. Based on clinical diagnosis combined with blood culture results, 72 premature infants of 5354 pediatric patients who were hospitalized in the neonatal ward of our hospital between September 2009 and February 2013 were diagnosed with nosocomial invasive fungal infections (fungal infection group). There were 58 premature infants diagnosed with bacterial infections during the same period (bacterial infection group). The control group included 74 premature infants without nosocomial infections who were hospitalized during the same period. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyze the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic efficacy of the PLT and white blood cell (WBC) counts and C-reactive protein (CRP) level in the diagnosis of fungal infections in premature infants. The risk factors for invasive fungal infections included birth weight infection group decreased in the early and acute stages of infection (p infection group decreased in the early and acute stages of infection (p infection group was more significant than the bacterial infection group (p infection group in the early stage of infection (p infection groups in the acute stage of infection (p > 0.05). ROC curve analysis of the WBC and PLT counts and the CRP level in the early diagnosis of fungal infections showed that the area under the curve of the PLT count was 0.912 (95% confidence interval:0.863-0.961), thus indicating a high accuracy with a cutoff PLT count of 157.0 × 10 9 /L. The corresponding sensitivity and specificity were 77.8% and 94.6%, respectively. We conclude that the PLT count is a convenient, economical, and effective predictor of invasive fungal infections in premature infants and has potential in the early diagnosis of fungal infections.

  14. Mycoviruses : future therapeutic agents of invasive fungal infections in humans?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sande, W. W. J.; Lo-Ten-Foe, J. R.; van Belkum, A.; Netea, M. G.; Kullberg, B. J.; Vonk, A. G.

    Invasive fungal infections are relatively common opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients and are still associated with a high mortality rate. Furthermore, these infections are often complicated by resistance or refractoriness to current antimicrobial agents. Therefore, an urgent need

  15. Fungal infections of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegarelli, D J

    1993-12-01

    Although several strains of Candida can infect the oral mucosa, the most commonly encountered oral fungal infection is Candida albicans, which may be highly infective because of its greater level of pathogenicity and adherence properties. C. albicans is an oral commensal in as many as 40% to 65% of healthy adult mouths. The papillated dorsal surface of the tongue and palatal mucosa beneath a maxillary denture are favored reservoir sites. Oral candidal infection almost always involves a compromised host. The compromise may be local or systemic. Local factors include decreased salivation and the weaning of dentures. Systemic factors include diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia, and AIDS. Some have even implicated advanced age and the female gender as being mild predisposing factors. Furthermore, the C. albicans infection itself can depress a host's immune system. A patient with oral candidiasis can present with one or more of the following clinical forms: pseudomembranous, erythematous, hyperplastic, and denture erythematous. Many investigators accept median rhomboid glossitis as a form of chronic oral candidiasis. In some patients with angular cheilitis, genesis of the lesions is secondary to monilial infestation. Because C. albicans is a normal inhabitant in many mouths, diagnostic confirmation of infection often rests with successful response (i.e., resolution of lesions) to antifungal medications. This form of diagnostic confirmation can be further enhanced by culturing the offending microbe, preparing a fungal smear, or even incisional biopsy. The microscopic demonstration of fungal hyphae is highly diagnostic of the candidal infection, whether the hyphae are demonstrated on a PAS smear or on a biopsy within surface stratified squamous epithelium. Numerous medications exist for the treatment of oral candidiasis. They include the antibiotic nystatin as well as clotrimazole, ketoconazole, and fluconazole. Nystatin is safe and is used as a topical agent in rinse or

  16. Fungal infections of Adonis vernalis L. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow pheasant´s Eye is a herbaceous plant from dry ressy areas. Owing to habitat destruction and over- collection for ornamental and medical purposes A. vernalis L. has became scarce in central and south Europe. The reasons for A. vernalis threatened are manyfold. The low seeds germination rate is significant. According to our investigation the main cause of fruit destruction is fungal infection. From the surface of the fruits, collected in Deliblato Sands, the following micromycetes has been isolated and determinated: Fusarium solani (Mart Sacc., Fusarium sporotrichioides Sherb., Alternaria sp. and Drechslera sp. Histologycal analysis showed the presence of conidiomata and conidia Phoma sp. in the seeds.

  17. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot Water immersion of Papaya (Carica Papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashid, M.H.A.; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Continella, A.

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local...... and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green...... and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability...

  18. Fungal periprosthetic joint infection of the hip: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Schoof

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI is a severe complication of total joint arthroplasty with an incidence of approximately 1%. Due to the high risk of persisting infection, successful treatment of fungal PJI is challenging. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the current management of fungal PJI of the hip and, by systematically reviewing the cases published so far, to further improve the medical treatment of this serious complication of total hip arthroplasty. Thus, we conducted a systematic review of the available literature concerning fungal PJI in total hip arthroplasty, including 45 cases of fungal PJI. At the moment a two-stage revision procedure is favorable and there is an ongoing discussion on the therapeutic effect of antifungal drug loaded cement spacers on fungal periprosthetic infections of the hip. Due to the fact that there is rare experience with it, there is urgent need to establish guidelines for the treatment of fungal infections of total hip arthroplasty.

  19. Fungal infection risk groups among school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between ocurrence of fungi in children and living environment (city - countryside, sex, age, diet, undergone diseases therapy with antibiotics and exposure to hospital environment, and to indicate children potentially vulnerable to fungal infections. The material was consisted of swabs collected from the oral cavily, the throat and the nose of healthy children, aged 6-9 and 10-15, from both urban and rural environmens. Candida albicans, the basic aetiological factor in thc majority of mycoses recorded in humans, unquestionably prevailed in the group of the 13 speciec of yeast-like fungi and yeasts isolated. Records of C. glabrata and C. krusei increasing numbers of whose strains show resistance to basic antimycoties, as well as relatively frequent records of Trichosporon beigelii, Saccharomycopsis capsularis and Saccharomyces sp., fungi whose expansiveness and enzymatic activity have been growing, may be considered disconcerting. Vulnerability to fungal infection increases following anti-bacterial antibiotic therapy in the majority of subjects regardless season or age. This is particularly true primarily of the most stable ontocoenosis of the throat. Younger children, on the other hand, are the most vulnerable foUowing infection of the respiratory system. Fungi are likely to colonise the nose in this case. Children living in the countryside who had been ll immediately prior to the collection of the material constitute the highest risk group of the occurrence of fungi in any of the ontocoenoses studied. A greater number of positive inoculations were recorded in these children in comparison to the children from the city. It may be indicative of a more extensive spectrum of natural reservoirs of fungi and the vectors of their transmission in rural areas than those in the city, lower health hygiene and lower immunity or of a more common carriage of fungi among rural children.

  20. Burden of serious fungal infections in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo-León, D E; Armstrong-James, D; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    Serious fungal infections (SFIs) could be more frequent than are recognised. Estimates of the incidence and prevalence of SFIs are essential in order to identify public health problems. We estimated the rates of SFIs in Mexico, following a methodology similar to that used in prior studies. We obtained information about the general population and populations at risk. A systematic literature search was undertaken to identify epidemiological reports of SFIs in Mexico. When Mexican reports were unavailable, we based our estimates on international literature. The most prevalent SFIs in Mexico are recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (5999 per 100,000) followed by allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (60 per 100,000), chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (15.9 per 100,000), fungal keratitis (10.4 per 100,000), invasive candidiasis (8.6 per 100,000) and SFIs in HIV (8.2 per 100,000); coccidioidomycosis (7.6 per 100,000), IA (4.56 per 100,000). These correspond to 2,749,159 people affected in any year (2.45% of the population), probably >10,000 deaths and 7000 blind eyes. SFIs affect immunocompromised and healthy populations. Most are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Validation of these estimates with epidemiological studies is required. The burdens indicate that an urgent need to improve medical skills, surveillance, diagnosis, and management of SFIs exists. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. ALTERATIONS IN BARLEY PROTEOME UPON FUNGAL INFECTION AND TRICYCLAZOLE TREATMENT

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    Manoj Kumar a,b

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The barley proteome was investigated upon fungal infection and subsequent treatment by tricyclazole (TCZ, which is known to have applications in spot blotch disease management in barley.Significantly enhanced chlorophyll content was recorded in TCZ treated plants. The disease severity was significantly reduced after TCZ application in pathogen inoculated plants by reducing the appressoria formation at infection site in barley leaves. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE revealed the expression profile of proteins from (I control plants (healthy barley leaves; application with sterile water,(II plants after foliar application of TCZ (100 µg/ml, (III plants inoculated with B. sorokiniana and (IV plants treated with TCZ (72 h after B. sorokiniana inoculation. A set of 33 proteins expressed differentially after TCZ treatment. Out of this 19 had known functions, while others were unknown or hypothetical proteins. These differentially expressed proteins were related to redox-activity and gene expression, electron transfer,cell division and chromosome partitioning, cell envelop biogenesis, energy metabolism and conversion, respiration and pathogenesis related functions in the barley plants. The study provides a platform and documents the proteins that might be involved in disease management in barley following TCZ application. It is expected that the study will provide boost in understanding proteome regulation upon fungal infection and subsequent anti-fungal treatment and will attract researchers for further validation leading to better pest management.

  2. Standardization of fungal polymerase chain reaction for the early diagnosis of invasive fungal infection

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    P Deshpande

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An early initiation of antifungal therapy in invasive fungal infections (IFIs is critical in reducing the high mortality rate. Current diagnosis of fungal infection relies on microscopy, culture, antigen, antibody specific tests and histological diagnosis. However, these tests either lack sensitivity or specificity. There is thus the need for a rapid, specific and accurate diagnostic method. Objective: The aim of our study was to establish PCR for the rapid detection of Candida and Aspergillus species in clinical specimens with improved sensitivity and specificity. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 proven cases of IFI (confirmed by culture were collected. A total of 15 healthy, 15 patients suffering from bacterial sepsis and 15 patients with HIV, HBV viral infections were included as controls. Clinical specimens were subjected to a standardized nested amplification to produce Round I (504 bp and Round II (150 bp amplicons. Restriction digestion was performed on these products for further identification. Results: Analytical sensitivity was determined using 10 6 -10 CFU/ml of cell suspension. The lower detection limit of the assay was 10 CFU/ml of blood. This test was 100% sensitive and specific with a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 96.7%. Conclusion: The assay was found to be effective for the rapid detection of Candida and Aspergillus in clinical specimens.

  3. Invasive fungal infections in renal transplant recipients: about 11 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, H; Néji, S; Sellami, H; Yaich, S; Cheikhrouhou, F; Guidara, R; Charffedine, K; Makni, F; Hachicha, J; Ayadi, A

    2013-12-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a major complication and an important cause of morbidity and mortality among solid organ transplant recipients. Their diagnosis is difficult and their prognosis is often pejorative. The aim of this study was to report the cases of invasive fungal infections in renal transplant recipients in Habib Bourguiba Sfax university hospital and to identify the main fungal agents. It is a retrospective study of invasive fungal infections in renal transplant recipient reported in our hospital from January 1995 to February 2013. Invasive fungal infections were diagnosed in 11 cases (3.4%) among 321 renal transplant recipients. These infections included four cases of pneumocystosis, two cases of candidiasis, two cases of aspergillosis, two cases of cryptococcosis and one case of mucormycosis. There were six men and five women. The mean age was 37 years. The infection was late in 63% of cases (>3 months after transplantation). The prolonged corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy were the main risk factors (100%) followed by renal failure (45%), graft rejection (45%), broad spectrum antibiotics (45%), CMV infection (36%), neutropenia (36%) and dialysis (18%). The evolution under treatment was favourable only in two cases (18%). Invasive fungal infections are not common among kidney transplant recipients. However, they remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality in this group of patients. Prevention, early diagnosis and appropriate management are necessary to improve prognosis and reduce mortality rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot water immersion of papaya (Carica papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M. H. A.; Grout, B. W. W.; Continella, A.; Mahmud, T. M. M.

    2015-05-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability. The combined treatment had no significant, negative impact on ripening, with quality characteristics such as surface and internal colour change, firmness, soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C maintained at acceptable levels.

  5. Invasive fungal infections in Argentine patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinicki, J P; Catalan Pellet, S; Pappalardo, C; Cruzat, V C; Spinetto, M A; Dubinsky, D; Tiraboschi, I N; Laborde, H A; Nasswetter, G

    2013-08-01

    Infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Invasive fungal infections (IFI) comprise a group of diseases caused by Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Aspergillus and Candida. Few studies of IFI have been published in patients with SLE and associated factors have not been completely defined. The objectives of this paper are to estimate the frequency of IFI in admitted patients with SLE in our hospital, to determine the risk factors associated with IFI in our patients with SLE, and to compare IFI group with a control group (SLE without IFI). The medical charts of patients with IFI (EORTC/MSG, 2008) and SLE (ACR, 1997) admitted to our hospital from June 2001 until June 2012 were reviewed. To identify factors associated with IFI, we developed a case-control study (SLE + IFI vs SLE alone) in a one to three ratio adjusted for sex and age and hospitalization for other reasons. Comparison was made of demographic characteristics, duration of disease and disease activity previous to IFI diagnosis, especially three months before fungal infection. We defined severe activity as SLEDAI ≥ 8. Infection by fungi of the genus Candida was considered only in its disseminated form. Ten cases of IFI were identified in 208 patients with SLE admitted between June 2001 and June 2012. We included 40 patients with SLE (10 with IFI and 30 controls). Of the SLE-IFI patients, eight were women and the average age was 27.5 years (range, 19-42 years). Fungal isolation: eight Cryptococcus neoformans, one Histoplasma capsulatum and one Candida albicans. Sites affected: five in peripheral blood, five in central nervous system (CNS), four in skin/soft tissue and one in pleura. Mortality was 40% (p = 0.002), with Cryptococcus neoformans being the most common fungus. The SLE disease activity was severe in 70% of infected patients and no significant difference with the control group was found (p = 0.195). We also found no

  6. Invasive Fungal Infections Secondary to Traumatic Injury

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    Ryan Kronen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infection (IFI is a rare but serious complication of traumatic injury. The purpose of this article is to review the epidemiology, natural history, mycology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes associated with post-traumatic IFI in military and civilian populations. The epidemiology of post-traumatic IFI is poorly characterized, but incidence appears to be rising. Patients often suffer from severe injuries and require extensive medical interventions. Fungi belonging to the order Mucorales are responsible for most post-traumatic IFI in both civilian and military populations. Risk factors differ between these cohorts but include specific injury patterns and comorbidities. Diagnosis of post-traumatic IFI typically follows positive laboratory results in the appropriate clinical context. The gold standard of treatment is surgical debridement in addition to systemic antifungal therapy. Patients with post-traumatic IFI may be at greater risk of amputation, delays in wound healing, hospital complications, and death as compared to trauma patients who do not develop IFI. More research is needed to understand the factors surrounding the development and management of post-traumatic IFI to reduce the significant morbidity and mortality associated with this disease.

  7. Selection of Infective Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Isolates for Field Inoculation

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    Elisa Pellegrino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi play a key role in host plant growth and health, nutrient and water uptake, plant community diversity and dynamics. AM fungi differ in their symbiotic performance, which is the result of the interaction of two fungal characters, infectivity and efficiency. Infectivity is the ability of a fungal isolate to establish rapidly an extensive mycorrhizal symbiosis and is correlated with pre-symbiotic steps of fungal life cycle, such as spore germination and hyphal growth. Here, different AM fungal isolates were tested, with the aim of selecting infective endophytes for field inoculation. Greenhouse and microcosm experiments were performed in order to assess the ability of 12 AM fungal isolates to produce spores, colonize host roots and to perform initial steps of symbiosis establishment, such as spore germination and hyphal growth. AM fungal spore production and root colonization were significantly different among AM fungal isolates. Spore and sporocarp densities ranged from 0.8 to 7.4 and from 0.6 to 2.0 per gram of soil, respectively, whereas root colonization ranged from 2.9 to 72.2%. Percentage of spore or sporocarp germination ranged from 5.8 to 53.3% and hyphal length from 4.7 to 79.8 mm. The ordination analysis (Redundancy Analysis, RDA showed that environmental factors explained about 60% of the whole variance and their effect on fungal infectivity variables was significant (P = 0.002. The biplot clearly showed that variables which might be used to detect infective AM fungal isolates were hyphal length and root colonization. Such analysis may allow the detection of the best parameters to select efficient AM fungal isolates to be used in agriculture.

  8. Medications that Weaken Your Immune System and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Medications that Weaken Your Immune System and Fungal Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... They are most common among people with weak immune systems. People with certain health conditions may need to ...

  9. Invasive fungal infections in Colombian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría-Alza, Y; Sánchez-Bautista, J; Fajardo-Rivero, J F; Figueroa, C L

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease with multi-organ involvement. Complications, such as invasive fungal infections usually occur in patients with a greater severity of the disease. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk variables associated with invasive fungal infections in a Colombian systemic lupus erythematosus population. Materials and methods A cross-sectional, retrospective study that evaluated patients with systemic lupus erythematosus for six years. The primary outcome was invasive fungal infection. Descriptive, group comparison and bivariate analysis was performed using Stata 12.0 software. Results Two hundred patients were included in this study; 84.5% of the patients were women and the median age was 36 years; 68% of the subjects had haematological complications; 53.3% had nephropathy; 45% had pneumopathy and 28% had pericardial impairment; 7.5% of patients had invasive fungal infections and the most frequently isolated fungus was Candida albicans. Pericardial disease, cyclophosphamide use, high disease activity, elevated ESR, C3 hypocomplementemia, anaemia and lymphopenia had a significant association with invasive fungal infection ( P lupus erythematosus, which was higher than that reported in other latitudes. In this population the increase in disease activity, the presence of pericardial impairment and laboratory alterations (anaemia, lymphopenia, increased ESR and C3 hypocomplementemia) are associated with a greater possibility of invasive fungal infections. Regarding the use of drugs, unlike other studies, in the Colombian population an association was found only with the previous administration of cyclophosphamide. In addition, patients with invasive fungal infections and systemic lupus erythematosus had a higher prevalence of mortality and hospital readmission compared with patients with systemic lupus erythematosus without invasive fungal infection.

  10. Fungal Infections in Some Economically Important Freshwater Fishes

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    Zafar Iqbal*, Uzma Sheikh and Rabia Mughal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to investigate fungal infections in four species of carps including goldfish, Carassius (C. auratus L.; silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys (H. molitrix Richardsons; rahu, Labeo (L. rohita Hamilton and Ctenopharyngodon (C. idella Valenciennes. Nine specimens of each species were studied for the presence of fungal infections. Infected fishes showed clinical signs such as fungal growth on skin, fins, eyes, eroded fins and scales, hemorrhages on body surface and abdominal distension. The specimens from infected organs of fish were inoculated on each, malt extract, Sabouraud dextrose and potato dextrose agars. The fungal colonies of white, black, green, grey and brown colors were observed in the agar plates. Slides were prepared and stained with 0.05% Trypan blue in lactophenol. C. auratus showed the highest infection rate (44.4% followed by H. molitrix and L. rohita (11.1% each. Five fungal species viz. Aspergillus (33.3%, Penicillium (22.2%, Alternaria (27.7%, Blastomyces spp (11.1% and Rhizopus (5.5% were isolated. Posterior part of the fish had significantly (P=0.05 higher (62.5% infection as compared to anterior part (37.5%. The caudal fin with 31.25% infection was the single most affected area. This study showed that most of the fungi isolated from fishes are considered as normal mycoflora, yet many fungi can cause natural infections in ponds and aquarium.

  11. Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

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    ... includes places like chicken coops and caves. Wear gloves when handling materials such as soil, moss, or ... Cell Transplant Recipients. MMWR 2000;49:1-128. Top of Page Related Links Fungal Meningitis National Center ...

  12. Role And Relevance Of Mast Cells In Fungal Infections

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    Rohit eSaluja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to their detrimental role in allergic diseases, mast cells (MCs are well known to be important cells of the innate immune system. In the last decade, they have been shown to contribute significantly to optimal host defense against numerous pathogens including parasites, bacteria, and viruses. The contribution of MCs to the immune responses in fungal infections, however, is largely unknown. In this review, we first discuss key features of mast cell responses to pathogens in general and then summarize the current knowledge on the function of MCs in the defense against fungal pathogens. We especially focus on the potential and proven mechanisms by which MC can detect fungal infections and on possible MC effector mechanisms in protecting from fungal infections.

  13. 5-Lipoxygenase deficiency impairs innate and adaptive immune responses during fungal infection.

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    Adriana Secatto

    Full Text Available 5-Lipoxygenase-derived products have been implicated in both the inhibition and promotion of chronic infection. Here, we sought to investigate the roles of endogenous 5-lipoxygenase products and exogenous leukotrienes during Histoplasma capsulatum infection in vivo and in vitro. 5-LO deficiency led to increased lung CFU, decreased nitric oxide production and a deficient primary immune response during active fungal infection. Moreover, H. capsulatum-infected 5-LO(-/- mice showed an intense influx of neutrophils and an impaired ability to generate and recruit effector T cells to the lung. The fungal susceptibility of 5-LO(-/- mice correlated with a lower rate of macrophage ingestion of IgG-H. capsulatum relative to WT macrophages. Conversely, exogenous LTB4 and LTC4 restored macrophage phagocytosis in 5-LO deficient mice. Our results demonstrate that leukotrienes are required to control chronic fungal infection by amplifying both the innate and adaptive immune response during histoplasmosis.

  14. Epidemiology of fungal infections and risk factors in newborn patients

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    Paolo Manzoni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of fungal infections among newborn babies is increasing, owing mainly to the in­creased ability to care and make survive immature infants at higher specific risk for fungal infections. The risk is higher in infants with very low and extremely low birth weight, in babies receiving total parenteral nutrition, in neonates with limited barrier effect in the gut, or with central venous catheter or other devices where fungal biofilms can originate. Also neonates receiving broad spectrum antibiotics, born through caesarian section or non-breastfed can feature an increased, specific risk. Most fungal infections in neonatology occur in premature children, are of nosocomial origin, and are due to Candida species. Colonization is a preliminary step, and some factors must be considered for the diagnosis and grading process: the iso­lation site, the number of colonized sites, the intensity of colonization, and the Candida subspecies. The most complicated patients are at greater risk of fungal infections, and prophylaxis or pre-emptive therapy should often be considered. A consistent decisional tree in neonatology is yet to be defined, but some efforts have been made in order to identify characteristics that should guide the prophylaxis or treatment choices. A negative blood culture and the absence of symptoms aren’t enough to rule out the diagnosis of fungal infections in newborn babies. Similarly, laboratory tests have been validated only for adults. The clinical judgement is of utmost importance in the diagnostic process, and should take into account the presence of clinical signs of infection, of a severe clinical deterioration, as well as changes in some laboratory tests, and also the presence and characteristics of a pre-existing fungal colonization.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v14i1S.856

  15. Nutrition acquisition strategies during fungal infection of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divon, Hege H; Fluhr, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In host-pathogen interactions, efficient pathogen nutrition is a prerequisite for successful colonization and fungal fitness. Filamentous fungi have a remarkable capability to adapt and exploit the external nutrient environment. For phytopathogenic fungi, this asset has developed within the context of host physiology and metabolism. The understanding of nutrient acquisition and pathogen primary metabolism is of great importance in the development of novel disease control strategies. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on how plant nutrient supplies are utilized by phytopathogenic fungi, and how these activities are controlled. The generation and use of auxotrophic mutants have been elemental to the determination of essential and nonessential nutrient compounds from the plant. Considerable evidence indicates that pathogen entrainment of host metabolism is a widespread phenomenon and can be accomplished by rerouting of the plant's responses. Crucial fungal signalling components for nutrient-sensing pathways as well as their developmental dependency have now been identified, and were shown to operate in a coordinate cross-talk fashion that ensures proper nutrition-related behaviour during the infection process.

  16. Burden of Severe Fungal Infections in Burkina Faso

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    Sanata Bamba

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the limited access to more powerful diagnostic tools, there is a paucity of data regarding the burden of fungal infections in Burkina Faso. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in this sub-Saharan country. We primarily used the national demographic data and performed a PubMed search to retrieve all published papers on fungal infections from Burkina Faso and its surrounding West African countries. Considering the prevalence of HIV infection (0.8% of the population and a 3.4% incidence of cryptococcosis in hospitals, it is estimated that 459 patients per year develop cryptococcosis. For pneumocystosis, it is suggested that 1013 new cases occur every year. Taking into account the local TB frequency (population prevalence at 0.052%, we estimate the prevalence of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis at 1120 cases. Severe forms of asthma with fungal sensitization and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis are estimated to affect 7429 and 5628 cases, respectively. Vulvovaginal candidiasis may affect 179,000 women, and almost 1,000,000 children may suffer from tinea capitis. Globally, we estimate that roughly 1.4 million people in Burkina Faso (7.51% of the population suffer from a serious fungal infection. These data should be used to drive future epidemiological studies, diagnostic approaches, and therapeutic strategies.

  17. Clinical and diagnostic pathways in pediatric fungal infections

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    Elio Castagnola

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, in pediatrics the patients mostly affected by fungal infections are hematological patients, followed by those with solid tumors, and transplant recipients. Candida infections generally occur just after birth, whereas Aspergillus infections are age-related, and increase their incidence with age. However, among infections, the incidence of bacteremias are still greater than that of mycoses. In pediatrics, in Italy the immunocompromised patients – thus particularly susceptible to fungal infections – are mainly those with severe combined immunodeficiency, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and chronic granulomatous disease. Particular Aspergillus or Scedosporium infections should be considered in peculiar kinds of patients, such as those affected by cystic fibrosis. Finally, different kinds of fungi should be considered in those who come from or spend a lot time in specific areas, such as South America (e.g. coccidioidomycoses, for which differential diagnosis is with tuberculosis.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.859

  18. Mortality related to neonatal and pediatric fungal infections

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    Paolo Manzoni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the recent advances in the treatment of neonatal fungal infections, the burden of mortality has been decreasing. However a widely accepted definition is yet to be found, since different thresholds of survival are used in the published trials, and therefore mortality is assumed as occurring 7, 20, 30, or 90 days after treatment, according to the different studies. Regardless of the uncertainty of the definitions, it is more important to know if the patient died with the fungal infection or because of the fungal infection. The new antifungal drugs currently available for neonatal patients were able to increase the survival rates: the attention should, therefore, be focused on the long-term seque­lae, which, on the contrary, still affect a big amount of patients. In particular, neurobehavioral and neurosensorial disorders become often evident with age.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v14i1S.857 

  19. The burden of serious human fungal infections in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomazzi, Juliana; Baethgen, Ludmila; Carneiro, Lilian C; Millington, Maria Adelaide; Denning, David W; Colombo, Arnaldo L; Pasqualotto, Alessandro C

    2016-03-01

    In Brazil, human fungal infections are prevalent, however, these conditions are not officially reportable diseases. To estimate the burden of serious fungal diseases in 1 year in Brazil, based on available data and published literature. Historical official data from fungal diseases were collected from Brazilian Unified Health System Informatics Department (DATASUS). For fungal diseases for which no official data were available, assumptions of frequencies were made by estimating based on published literature. The incidence (/1000) of hospital admissions for coccidioidomycosis was 7.12; for histoplasmosis, 2.19; and for paracoccidioidomycosis, 7.99. The estimated number of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis cases was 6832. Also, there were 4115 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia in AIDS patients per year, 1 010 465 aspergillosis and 2 981 416 cases of serious Candida infections, including invasive and non-invasive diseases. In this study, we demonstrate that more than 3.8 million individuals in Brazil may be suffering from serious fungal infections, mostly patients with malignant cancers, transplant recipients, asthma, previous tuberculosis, HIV infection and those living in endemic areas for truly pathogenic fungi. The scientific community and the governmental agencies should work in close collaboration in order to reduce the burden of such complex, difficult-to-diagnose and hard to treat diseases. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Burden of Fungal Infections in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chekiri-Talbi, Mey; Denning, David

    2017-01-01

    We report for the first time in Algeria and provide burden estimates.We searched for existing data and estimated the incidence and prevalence of fungal diseases based on the population at risk and available epidemiological data. Demographic data were derived from the Service (Office) of the Statistics (ONES), World Health Organization (WHO), The Joint Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and national published reports. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies...

  1. Serious fungal infections in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Batac , Maria Christina R.; Denning, David

    2017-01-01

    The Philippines is a low middle-income, tropical country in Southeast Asia. Infectious diseases remain the main causes of morbidity, including tuberculosis. AIDS/HIV prevalence is still low at <1%, but is rapidly increasing. Fungal disease surveillance has not been done, and its burden has never been estimated. This becomes more important as the population of immunocompromised patients increases, drawn from patients with AIDS, TB, malignancies, autoimmune diseases requiring chronic steroid...

  2. Risk of Fungal Infection to Dental Patients

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    Jaqueline Lopes Damasceno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi can cause various diseases, and some pathogenic fungi have been detected in the water of dental equipment. This environment offers suitable conditions for fungal biofilms to emerge, which can facilitate mycological contamination. This study verified whether the water employed in the dental units of two dental clinics at the University of Franca was contaminated with fungi. This study also evaluated the ability of the detected fungi to form biofilms. The high-revving engine contained the largest average amount of fungi, 14.93 ± 18.18 CFU/mL. The main fungal species verified in this equipment belonged to the genera Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., Candida spp., and Rhodotorula spp. Among the isolated filamentous fungi, only one fungus of the genus Fusarium spp. did not form biofilms. As for yeasts, all the Candida spp. isolates grew as biofilm, but none of the Rhodotorula spp. isolates demonstrated this ability. Given that professionals and patients are often exposed to water and aerosols generated by the dental procedure, the several fungal species detected herein represent a potential risk especially to immunocompromised patients undergoing dental treatment. Therefore, frequent microbiological monitoring of the water employed in dental equipment is crucial to reduce the presence of contaminants.

  3. Fungal Infections Increase the Mortality Rate Three-Fold in Necrotizing Soft-Tissue Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Christopher B; Wesp, Brendan M; Fiore, Nicholas B; Rasane, Rohit K; Torres, Marlon; Turnbull, Isaiah R; Ilahi, Obeid N; Punch, Laurie J; Bochicchio, Grant V

    2017-10-01

    Necrotizing soft-tissue infections (NSTIs) result in significant morbidity and mortality rates, with as many as 76% of patients dying during their index admission. Published data suggest NSTIs rarely involve fungal infections in immunocompetent patients. However, because of the recent recognition of fungal infections in our population, we hypothesized that such infections frequently complicate NSTIs and are associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates. A prospectively maintained Acute and Critical Care Surgery (ACCS) database spanning 2008-2015 and including more than 7,000 patients was queried for patients with NSTIs. Microbiologic data, demographics, and clinical outcomes were abstracted. Risk factors and outcomes associated with NSTI with positive intra-operative fungal cultures were determined. Frequencies were compared by χ 2 and continuous variables by the Student t-test using SPSS. Because the study included only archived data, no patient permission was needed. A total of 230 patients were found to have NSTIs; 197 had intra-operative cultures, and 21 (10.7%) of these were positive for fungi. Fungal infection was more common in women, patients with higher body mass index (BMI), and patients who had had prior abdominal procedures. There were no significant differences in demographics, co-morbidities, or site of infection. The majority of patients (85.7%) had mixed bacterial and fungal infections; in the remaining patients, fungi were the only species isolated. Most fungal cultures were collected within 48 h of hospital admission, suggesting that the infections were not hospital acquired. Patients with positive fungal cultures required two more surgical interventions and had a three-fold greater mortality rate than patients without fungal infections. This is the largest series to date describing the impact of fungal infection in NSTIs. Our data demonstrate a three-fold increase in the mortality rate and the need for two additional operations

  4. Burden of serious fungal infections in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugnani, Harish C; Denning, David W

    2016-01-01

    The Dominican Republic (DR) is the second largest Caribbean nation and, with Haiti, the DR accounts for nearly three-quarters of the cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the Caribbean region and the highest rates of TB in the Americas. The present study estimated the burden of serious fungal infections and some other mycoses in the DR. The data were extracted from the World Health Organization Stop Tuberculosis (WHO STOP TB) program, the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and searches for relevant literature via MEDLINE, PubMed, MedFacts, and so on. The chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) rates were derived from the asthma and TB rates. When no data regarding mycoses were available, we used specific populations at risk and the frequencies of fungal infection in each of these populations to estimate the national prevalence. Among its population of 10,090,000, we estimated that 221,027 (2.2%) have a serious fungal infection, including 158,134 women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. We estimated high numbers of 25,150 for ABPA and 34,000 for severe asthma fungal sensitization (SAFS) (250 and 529/100,000, respectively). CPA was common, with an estimated 2122 cases, of which 707 followed pulmonary TB. The annual prevalence of CPA was estimated to be 1374 cases. Four cases of histoplasmosis and several cases of chromoblastomycosis have also been reported. Pityriasis versicolor and tinea capitis are frequent in children, and 11% have kerion. Local epidemiological investigations are urgently required to validate or modify these estimates of serious fungal infections in the DR. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-Aspergillus fungal infections in chronic granulomatous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotis, John; Pana, Zoe Dorothea; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2013-07-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a congenital immunodeficiency, characterised by significant infections due to an inability of phagocyte to kill catalase-positive organisms including certain fungi such as Aspergillus spp. Nevertheless, other more rare fungi can cause significant diseases. This report is a systematic review of all published cases of non-Aspergillus fungal infections in CGD patients. Analysis of 68 cases of non-Aspergillus fungal infections in 65 CGD patients (10 females) published in the English literature. The median age of CGD patients was 15.2 years (range 0.1-69), 60% of whom had the X-linked recessive defect. The most prevalent non-Aspergillus fungal infections were associated with Rhizopus spp. and Trichosporon spp. found in nine cases each (13.2%). The most commonly affected organs were the lungs in 69.9%. In 63.2% of cases first line antifungal treatment was monotherapy, with amphotericin B formulations being the most frequently used antifungal agents in 45.6% of cases. The overall mortality rate was 26.2%. Clinicians should take into account the occurrence of non-Aspergillus infections in this patient group, as well as the possibility of a changing epidemiology in fungal pathogens. Better awareness and knowledge of these pathogens can optimise antifungal treatment and improve outcome in CGD patients. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Fungal infections of the mucous membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2010-01-01

    A clinical review of three potentially severe fungal diseases, which are characterized in many cases by mucosal involvement, is presented. They are paracoccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, and mucormycosis. Mucosal involvement for paracoccidioidomycosis and rhinocerebral mucormycosis is frequent. Thus, oral involvement may provide early clue for diagnosis. In paracoccidioidomycosis, the mucosal lesion classically shows superficial ulcers with granular appearance and hemorrhagic points, usually on lips, palate, and jugal mucosa. In mucormycosis, necrosis of the palate followed for purulent discharge is a hallmark of rhinocerebral disease. Treatment with amphotericin B desoxycholate or the new second-generation triazoles is highly efficacious.

  7. Discrimination of fungal infections on grape berries via spectral signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Daniel; Griesser, Michaela; Schütz, Erich; Khuen, Marie-Therese; Schefbeck, Christa; Ronellenfitsch, Franz Kai; Schlerf, Martin; Beyer, Marco; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Anhalt, Ulrike; Forneck, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    The fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum are causing economic damages on grapevine worldwide. Especially the simultaneous occurrence of both often results in off-flavours highly threatening wine quality. For the classification of grape quality as well as for the determination of targeted enological treatments, the knowledge of the level of fungal attack is of highest interest. However, visual assessment and pathogen discrimination are cost-intensive. Consequently, a pilot laboratory study aimed at (i) detecting differences in spectral signatures between grape berry lots with different levels of infected berries (B. cinerea and/or P. expansum) and (ii) detecting links between spectral signatures and biochemical as well as quantitative molecular markers for fungal attack. To this end, defined percentages (infection levels) of table grape berries were inoculated with fungal spore suspensions. Spectral measurements were taken using a FieldSpec 3 Max spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder/Colorado, USA) in regular intervals after inoculation. In addition, fungal attack was determined enzymatically) and quantitatively (real-time PCR). In addition, gluconic acid concentrations (as a potential markers for fungal attack) were determined photometrically. Results indicate that based on spectral signatures, a discrimination of P. expansum and B. cinerea infections as well as of different B. cinerea infection levels is possible. Real-time PCR analyses, detecting DNA levels of both fungi, showed yet a low detection level. Whereas the gluconic acid concentrations turned out to be specific for the two fungi tested (B. cinerea vs. P. expansum) and thus may serve as a differentiating biochemical marker. Correlation analyses between spectral measurements and biological data (gluconic acid concentrations, fungi DNA) as well as further common field and laboratory trials are targeted.

  8. Treatment of lingual traumatic ulcer accompanied with fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sella Sella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic ulcer is a common form of ulceration occured in oral cavity caused by mechanical trauma, either acute or chronic, resulting in loss of the entire epithelium. Traumatic ulcer often occurs in children that are usually found on buccal mucosa, labial mucosa of upper and lower lip, lateral tongue, and a variety of areas that may be bitten. To properly diagnose the ulcer, dentists should evaluate the history and clinical description in detail. If the lesion is allegedly accompanied by other infections, such as fungal, bacterial or viral infections, microbiological or serological tests will be required. One of the initial therapy given for fungal infection is nystatin which aimed to support the recovery and repair processes of epithelial tissue in traumatic ulcer case. Purpose: This case report is aimed to emphasize the importance of microbiological examination in suspected cases of ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection. Case: A 12-year-old girl came to the clinic of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia on June 9, 2011 accompanied with her mother. The patient who had a history of geographic tongue came with complaints of injury found in the middle of the tongue. The main diagnosis was ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection based on the results of swab examination. Case management: This traumatic ulcer case was treated with Dental Health Education, oral prophylaxis, as well as prescribing and usage instructions of nystatin. The recovery and repair processes of mucosal epithelium of the tongue then occured after the use of nystatin. Conclusion: It can be concluded that microbiological examination is important to diagnose suspected cases of ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection. The appropriate treatment such as nystatin can be given for traumatic fungal infection.Latar belakang: Ulkus traumatic merupakan bentuk umum dari ulserasi rongga mulut yang terjadi akibat trauma

  9. The role of PET in monitoring therapy in fungal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, Alfred O; Klein, Hans C; Span, Lambert F R; de Vries, Erik F J; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Sathekge, Mike M; Glaudemans, Andor W J M

    2018-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging technique. PET allows in vivo detection of a wide variety of physiologic and pathologic phenomena and it offers a noninvasive tool for the monitoring of therapy in various diseases. Invasive fungal infections (IFIs)

  10. Fungal Infections in Patients with Walled-off Pancreatic Necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werge, Mikkel; Roug, Stine; Novovic, Srdan

    2016-01-01

    drainage and necrosectomy for WON, treated in a tertiary referral center was reviewed. Results Between 2005 and 2013, fungal infection in WON was documented in 57 (46%) of 123 patients. The most common isolates at first positive culture were Candida albicans (55%) and Candida glabrata (20%). Thirty...

  11. Human Dectin-1 Deficiency and Mucocutaneous Fungal Infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, Bart; Ferwerda, Gerben; Plantinga, Theo S.; Willment, Janet A.; van Spriel, Annemiek B.; Venselaar, Hanka; Elbers, Clara C.; Johnson, Melissa D.; Cambi, Alessandra; Huysamen, Cristal; Jacobs, Liesbeth; Jansen, Trees; Verheijen, Karlijn; Masthoff, Laury; Morre, Servaas A.; Vriend, Gert; Williams, David L.; Perfect, John R.; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Wijmenga, Cisca; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Adema, Gosse J.; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Brown, Gordon D.; Netea, Mihai G.

    2009-01-01

    Mucocutaneous fungal infections are typically found in patients who have no known immune defects. We describe a family in which four women who were affected by either recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis or onychomycosis had the early-stop-codon mutation Tyr238X in the beta-glucan receptor dectin-1.

  12. Prevalence of fungal organisms associated with skin infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-five skin specimens were collected from eight Hospitals in Ihiala Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria to determine the prevalence of fungal organisms associated with skin infections in the area. The samples were treated with potassium hydroxide and examined under the microscope, and cultured on ...

  13. Risk factors associated with acquiring superficial fungal infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sonal grooming and good nutrition than if the child was living with just one of the parents, grandparents or any other family member. Socio-economic status of parents has been one of the factors associated with presence of superficial fungal infections. Pupils with parents of low socio-economic status had been found to have ...

  14. Two Fungal Infections of Inflatable Penile Prostheses in Diabetics

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    Brittney H. Cotta, MD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: This report supports the emerging literature that the flora of IPP infections is changing. We suggest considering adding antifungal agents to antibiotic coatings, dips, or washout solutions at the time of penile prosthesis surgery in diabetic patients. Cotta BH, Butcher M, Welliver C, McVary K, and Köhler T. Two fungal infections of inflatable penile prostheses in diabetics. Sex Med 2015;3:339–342.

  15. Histopathological Diagnosis of Fungal Infections: Problems and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathology is a major diagnostic tool in mycology and has the advantage of rapid diagnosis, cost effectiveness, ability to provide initial identification of the infecting fungus and demonstrates tissue reactions and currently the means of diagnosing the infections caused by the fungi: Lodoa loboi and Rhinosporidium ...

  16. Diagnosis and management of fungal urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Carol A

    2014-03-01

    When the terms funguria or fungal urinary tract infection are used, most physicians are referring to candiduria and urinary tract infections due to Candida species. Other fungi, including yeasts and molds can involve the kidney during the course of disseminated infection, but rarely cause symptoms referable to the urinary tract. Candida species appear to be unique in their ability to both colonize and cause invasive disease in the urinary tract. This overview focuses only on candiduria and Candida urinary tract infection because they are common and many times present perplexing management issues. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Fungal infections of the oral mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Anitha Krishnan

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses the various predisposing factors, clinical presentations, clinical differential diagnosis, diagnosis and management of oral candidiasis, as well as briefly highlights upon a few of the more exotic non-Candidal fungi that infect the oral mucosa.

  18. HIV-associated opportunistic fungal infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elton

    to use the. Common site/s laboratory. Clinical. Appropriate. Fungus of infection for diagnosis? specimen laboratory test. Comments. Candida species. Oropharyneal,. Atypical forms. Mucosal. Microscopy. Provides a rapid oesophageal and scrapings, presumptive diagnosis vulvovaginal brushings or mucosa biopsy. Culture.

  19. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF FUNGAL INFECTIONS IN CHRONICALLY DISCHARGING EARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM is a disease of multiple aetiology and well known for its persis tence and recurrence inspite of treatment and are the bearbug of otologist, paediatrician and general practitioner. One of the reason s for the refractoriness to treatment and chronicity is coexist ing fungal infection of the ear. OBJECTIVES: Are to find out the prevalence of fungal infections in chronic discharging ears and to identify and isolate the type of fungus prevalent in these ears . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: Tertiary care hospital level descrip tive study was conducted in 50 cases of CSOM with actively discharging ears for a period of one year starting from February 2013. For all the cases aural swabs were collected from the diseased ear and were used for direct microscopic examination in potassi um hydroxide wet mount. Ear swab was cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plate for fungal cultures. The patient characteristics were prospectively recorded and results were analysed. CONCLUSION : There is high prevalence of coexisting fungal infection in actively discharging ears of CSOM patients

  20. Mucormycosis: a rare fungal infection in tornado victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Cindy L; Finley, Phillip J; Mikkelson, Debbie R; Tibbs, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews four immunocompetent patients who developed a rare fungal infection, mucormycosis, secondary to multiple traumatic injuries sustained during an EF-5 tornado in Joplin, MO. Commonly found in soil and decaying organic matter, mucorales are fungi associated with soft tissue and cutaneous infections. Onset of this fungal infection can occur without clinical signs, presenting several days to several weeks after injury, delaying diagnosis. A multidisciplinary treatment approach including aggressive antifungal therapy and aggressive surgical debridement is critical. This diagnosis should be considered in all patients presenting with injuries sustained from high-velocity embedment of debris such as natural disasters or explosions. We present four cases of mucormycosis, species Apophysomyces trapeziformis. Data reported includes predisposing factors, number of days between injury and diagnosis of mucormycosis, surgical treatment, antifungal therapy, outcomes, and potential risk factors that may have contributed to the development of mucormycosis.

  1. Signs of Fungal Infection in Dead Mimic the Chronic Torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Akhilesh K; Shukla, Vaishaki Y

    2017-07-01

    The cases of battered woman syndrome (BWS) are very common in India. The majority of the women suffer battering by their family members especially in-laws. The injuries occurring each time indicate their being battered, but on being questioned about these happenings, a mismatched history being given by them is the major indication of BWS. In many of the cases, the injuries present over the body either in healing stages or in association with skin diseases may mislead the forensic pathologists and investigating agencies. One such rare autopsy was conducted where the healing lesions of the chronic fungal infections were mistaken as the injuries of chronic torture. The case is presented here to remind to the forensic pathologist about the possibility of the signs of chronic fungal infections in dead, which can mimic the torture, and to discuss its medicolegal implications. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Invasive fungal infections in endogenous Cushing’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Selbach Scheffel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cushing’s syndrome is a condition characterized by elevated cortisol levels that can result from either augmented endogenous production or exogenous administration of corticosteroids. The predisposition to fungal infections among patients with hypercortisolemia has been noted since Cushing’s original description of the disease. We describe here a patient with endo-genous Cushing’s syndrome secondary to an adrenocortical carcinoma, who developed concomitant disseminated cryptococcosis and candidiasis in the course of his disease.

  3. A systematic review of oral fungal infections in patients receiving cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalla, Rajesh V.; Latortue, Marie C.; Hong, Catherine H.; Ariyawardana, Anura; D'Amato-Palumbo, Sandra; Fischer, Dena J.; Martof, Andrew; Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Patton, Lauren L.; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Brennan, Michael T.

    The aims of this systematic review were to determine, in patients receiving cancer therapy, the prevalence of clinical oral fungal infection and fungal colonization, to determine the impact on quality of life and cost of care, and to review current management strategies for oral fungal infections.

  4. Histopathologic diagnosis of fungal infections in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarner, Jeannette; Brandt, Mary E

    2011-04-01

    Fungal infections are becoming more frequent because of expansion of at-risk populations and the use of treatment modalities that permit longer survival of these patients. Because histopathologic examination of tissues detects fungal invasion of tissues and vessels as well as the host reaction to the fungus, it is and will remain an important tool to define the diagnostic significance of positive culture isolates or results from PCR testing. However, there are very few instances where the morphological characteristics of fungi are specific. Therefore, histopathologic diagnosis should be primarily descriptive of the fungus and should include the presence or absence of tissue invasion and the host reaction to the infection. The pathology report should also include a comment stating the most frequent fungi associated with that morphology as well as other possible fungi and parasites that should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Alternate techniques have been used to determine the specific agent present in the histopathologic specimen, including immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and PCR. In addition, techniques such as laser microdissection will be useful to detect the now more frequently recognized dual fungal infections and the local environment in which this phenomenon occurs.

  5. Histopathologic Diagnosis of Fungal Infections in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarner, Jeannette; Brandt, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Fungal infections are becoming more frequent because of expansion of at-risk populations and the use of treatment modalities that permit longer survival of these patients. Because histopathologic examination of tissues detects fungal invasion of tissues and vessels as well as the host reaction to the fungus, it is and will remain an important tool to define the diagnostic significance of positive culture isolates or results from PCR testing. However, there are very few instances where the morphological characteristics of fungi are specific. Therefore, histopathologic diagnosis should be primarily descriptive of the fungus and should include the presence or absence of tissue invasion and the host reaction to the infection. The pathology report should also include a comment stating the most frequent fungi associated with that morphology as well as other possible fungi and parasites that should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Alternate techniques have been used to determine the specific agent present in the histopathologic specimen, including immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and PCR. In addition, techniques such as laser microdissection will be useful to detect the now more frequently recognized dual fungal infections and the local environment in which this phenomenon occurs. PMID:21482725

  6. Risk factors for mucocutaneous fungal infections in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Düriye Deniz Demirseren

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and design: Mucocutaneous fungal infections are common in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. However, fungal infections do not develop in every patient with DM. In this study, we aimed to determine the risk factors for developing mucocutaneous fungal infections in patients with type 2 DM. Materials and methods: A total of 302 type 2 DM patients with mucocutaneous fungal infections and 326 type 2 DM patients without mucocutaneous fungal infections were enrolled. Demographic and clinical features, HbA1c levels, DM durations, body mass indexes (BMIs, and DM related complications of patients were compared and risk factors for developing mucocutaneous fungal infections were determined. Results: Of the 302 patients with mucocutaneous fungal infections, 81.2% (n=245 had dermatophytosis, 16.9% (n=51 had candidal infections, 2.0% (n=6 had pityriasis versicolor. Frequency of male gender, diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy; DM durations and ages of patients were all significantly higher in diabetic patients with fungal infections than patients without fungal infections (all p<0.05. Male gender, age ≥ 50 years, nephropathy and neuropathy were independently associated with developing fungal infection in type 2 DM patients. In subgroup analyses, independent risk factors for dermatophytosis were male gender, age ≥ 50 years, DM duration ≥5 years, and nephropathy. For candidiasis, these factors were BMI≥30 and neuropathy. Conclusion: Elderly, male gender, diabetic neuropathy annd nephropathy are closely associated with developing mucocutaneous infections in patients with type 2 DM.

  7. Thermal behaviour of Anopheles stephensi in response to infection with malaria and fungal entomopathogens

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    Read Andrew F

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temperature is a critical determinant of the development of malaria parasites in mosquitoes, and hence the geographic distribution of malaria risk, but little is known about the thermal preferences of Anopheles. A number of other insects modify their thermal behaviour in response to infection. These alterations can be beneficial for the insect or for the infectious agent. Given current interest in developing fungal biopesticides for control of mosquitoes, Anopheles stephensi were examined to test whether mosquitoes showed thermally-mediated behaviour in response to infection with fungal entomopathogens and the rodent malaria, Plasmodium yoelii. Methods Over two experiments, groups of An. stephensi were infected with one of three entomopathogenic fungi, and/or P. yoelii. Infected and uninfected mosquitoes were released on to a thermal gradient (14 – 38°C for "snapshot" assessments of thermal preference during the first five days post-infection. Mosquito survival was monitored for eight days and, where appropriate, oocyst prevalence and intensity was assessed. Results and conclusion Both infected and uninfected An. stephensi showed a non-random distribution on the gradient, indicating some capacity to behaviourally thermoregulate. However, chosen resting temperatures were not altered by any of the infections. There is thus no evidence that thermally-mediated behaviours play a role in determining malaria prevalence or that they will influence the performance of fungal biopesticides against adult Anopheles.

  8. Antifungal immunity in selected fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Trzeciak-Ryczek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are omnipresent in the environment; hence they are frequent factors causing infections in humans and animals even if their immune system works correctly. These facts stimulated interest in and the will to understand the antifungal immunity mechanisms. It has been, however, evidenced that the immunological response to mycotic pathogens is related to the species and morphological form of the fungus. Nevertheless, it is assumed that always in the antifungal response, there are mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity that cooperate with one another to eliminate such pathogens. It has been evidenced that the main elements of antifungal immunity are physical barriers of the organism, phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, and possibly trogocytosis of PMN and MN cells, as well as T-cells, and to a smaller extent B-cells, the proportion of which is principally related to their products activating the processes of PMN and MN cells. An important role in this immunity also belongs to PRR, which activate the main processes of phagocytosis and cytotoxicity of PMN, MN, NK and DC cells.

  9. Artemisia sieberi Besser essential oil and treatment of fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese

    2017-05-01

    A. sieberi essential oil has been used for treatment of hardly curable infectious ulcers in Middle East Medicine and has been famous due to its wormicide effects. In this review, we evaluated the potency of A. sieberi essential oil in treatment of fungal infections. We searched in PubMed Central, Science direct, Wiley, Springer, SID, and accessible books, reports, thesis. There is a lot of mixed information on chemical compositions of A. sieberi essential oil, but most articles reported α, β-thujones as the main components of essential oils. In vitro studies confirmed the antifungal activity of A. sieberi essential oil against saprophytes fungi, dermatophytes, Malassezia sp. and Candida sp. and these results were confirmed in six clinical studies. The clinical studies confirmed the superiority of A. sieberi essential oil (5%) lotion in improvement of clinical signs of fungal superficial diseases, and mycological laboratory examinations of dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor diseases than clotrimazole (1%) topical treatment. The recurrence rate of superficial fungal infections with dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor was statistically lower in A. sieberi essential oil (5%) lotion than clotrimazole. There are no adverse effects due to the application of A. sieberi essential oil in clinical studies. Despite, the efficacy of A. sieberi essential oil against Candida sp., there is no clinical study about their related infections. Investigation about the effects of A. sieberi essential oil on fungal virulence factors in order to identifying the exact mechanism of antifungal activity and clinical trials on Candida related diseases are recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular and Nonmolecular Diagnostic Methods for Invasive Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Marios; Anagnostou, Theodora; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Caliendo, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Invasive fungal infections constitute a serious threat to an ever-growing population of immunocompromised individuals and other individuals at risk. Traditional diagnostic methods, such as histopathology and culture, which are still considered the gold standards, have low sensitivity, which underscores the need for the development of new means of detecting fungal infectious agents. Indeed, novel serologic and molecular techniques have been developed and are currently under clinical evaluation. Tests like the galactomannan antigen test for aspergillosis and the β-glucan test for invasive Candida spp. and molds, as well as other antigen and antibody tests, for Cryptococcus spp., Pneumocystis spp., and dimorphic fungi, have already been established as important diagnostic approaches and are implemented in routine clinical practice. On the other hand, PCR and other molecular approaches, such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), have proved promising in clinical trials but still need to undergo standardization before their clinical use can become widespread. The purpose of this review is to highlight the different diagnostic approaches that are currently utilized or under development for invasive fungal infections and to identify their performance characteristics and the challenges associated with their use. PMID:24982319

  11. Voriconazole for secondary prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients: results of the VOSIFI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordonnier, Catherine; Rovira, Montserrat; Maertens, Johan; Olavarria, Eduardo; Faucher, Catherine; Bilger, Karin; Pigneux, Arnaud; Cornely, Oliver A; Ullmann, Andrew J; Bofarull, Rodrigo Martino; de la Cámara, Rafael; Weisser, Maja; Liakopoulou, Effie; Abecasis, Manuel; Heussel, Claus Peter; Pineau, Marc; Ljungman, Per; Einsele, Hermann

    2010-10-01

    Recurrence of prior invasive fungal infection (relapse rate of 30-50%) limits the success of stem cell transplantation. Secondary prophylaxis could reduce disease burden and improve survival. A prospective, open-label, multicenter trial was conducted evaluating voriconazole (4 mg/kg/12 h intravenously or 200 mg/12 h orally) as secondary antifungal prophylaxis in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients with previous proven or probable invasive fungal infection. Voriconazole was started 48 h or more after completion of conditioning chemotherapy and was planned to be continued for 100-150 days. Patients were followed for 12 months. The primary end-point of the study was the incidence of proven or probable invasive fungal infection. Forty-five patients were enrolled, 41 of whom had acute leukemia. Previous invasive fungal infections were proven or probable aspergillosis (n=31), proven candidiasis (n=5) and other proven or probable infections (n=6); prior infection could not be confirmed in three patients. The median duration of voriconazole prophylaxis was 94 days. Eleven patients (24%) died within 12 months of transplantation, but only one due to systemic fungal disease. Three invasive fungal infections occurred post-transplant: two relapses (one candidemia and one fatal scedosporiosis) and one new zygomycosis in a patient with previous aspergillosis. The 1-year cumulative incidence of invasive fungal disease was 6.7±3.6%. Two patients were withdrawn from the study due to treatment-related adverse events (i.e. liver toxicity). Voriconazole appears to be safe and effective for secondary prophylaxis of systemic fungal infection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The observed incidence of 6.7% (with one attributable death) is considerably lower than the relapse rate reported in historical controls, thus suggesting that voriconazole is a promising prophylactic agent in this population.

  12. Fungal/mycotic diseases of poultry-diagnosis, treatment and control: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Chakraborty, Sandip; Verma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Ruchi; Barathidasan, Rajamani; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Shambhu Dayal

    2013-12-01

    Fungal/mycotic diseases cause significant economic losses to the poultry industry either due to their direct infectious nature or due to production of mycotoxins, the secondary fungal metabolites produced in grains or poultry feed. Several fungi have created havoc in the poultry industry and some of them cause direct harm to human health due to their zoonotic implications. They are responsible for high morbidity and mortality, especially in young birds and cause stunted growth and diarrhea; and fatal encephalitis. Mycotic dermatitis is a possible health hazard associated with poultry houses. Mycotoxins are the leading cause of producing immunosuppression in birds, which makes them prone to several bacterial and viral infections leading to huge economic losses to the poultry industry. In comparison to bacterial and viral diseases, advances in diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of fungal diseases in poultry has not taken much attention. Recently, molecular biological tools have been explored for rapid and accurate diagnosis of important fungal infections. Effective prevention and control measures include: appropriate hygiene, sanitation and disinfection, strict biosecurity programme and regular surveillance/monitoring of fungal infections as well as following judicious use of anti-fungal drugs. Precautionary measures during crop production, harvesting and storing and in feed mixing plants can help to check the fungal infections including health hazards of mycotoxins/mycotoxicosis. The present review describes the fungal pathogens causing diseases in poultry/birds, especially focusing to their diagnosis, prevention and control measures, which would help in formulating appropriate strategies to have a check and control on these unwanted troubles to the poultry producers/farmers.

  13. Experimental Infection of Snakes with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola Causes Pathological Changes That Typify Snake Fungal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Lankton, Julia; Werner, Katrien; Falendysz, Elizabeth A; McCurley, Kevin; Blehert, David S

    2015-11-17

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging skin infection of wild snakes in eastern North America. The fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola is frequently associated with the skin lesions that are characteristic of SFD, but a causal relationship between the fungus and the disease has not been established. We experimentally infected captive-bred corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) in the laboratory with pure cultures of O. ophiodiicola. All snakes in the infected group (n = 8) developed gross and microscopic lesions identical to those observed in wild snakes with SFD; snakes in the control group (n = 7) did not develop skin infections. Furthermore, the same strain of O. ophiodiicola used to inoculate snakes was recovered from lesions of all animals in the infected group, but no fungi were isolated from individuals in the control group. Monitoring progression of lesions throughout the experiment captured a range of presentations of SFD that have been described in wild snakes. The host response to the infection included marked recruitment of granulocytes to sites of fungal invasion, increased frequency of molting, and abnormal behaviors, such as anorexia and resting in conspicuous areas of enclosures. While these responses may help snakes to fight infection, they could also impact host fitness and may contribute to mortality in wild snakes with chronic O. ophiodiicola infection. This work provides a basis for understanding the pathogenicity of O. ophiodiicola and the ecology of SFD by using a model system that incorporates a host species that is easy to procure and maintain in the laboratory. Skin infections in snakes, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), have been reported with increasing frequency in wild snakes in the eastern United States. While most of these infections are associated with the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, there has been no conclusive evidence to implicate this fungus as a primary pathogen. Furthermore, it is not understood why the

  14. Mycology of Cutaneous Fungal Infections in Ambajogai: a Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Damle

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and eithteen cases of fungal skin infections were studied. Tinea cruris was most common (34.4%, followed by tinea corporis (23.8% znd tinea pedis (21.6%. Tinea versicolor (8.7% tinea manum (4.6% tinea ungaium (3.7% and tinea capitis (3.2% were also seen. The male: female ratio was 4:1. The total isolates were 117. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common isolate (35%. closely followed by Epidermophyton floccosum (31.6%. Trichphyton mentagrophytes (17.9%, Malassezia furfur (13.7% and Microsporum audouini (1.7% were the only other isolates.

  15. Treatment of superficial fungal infections – recommendations of experts of Mycological Section of Polish Dermatological Society

    OpenAIRE

    Romuald Maleszka; Zygmunt Adamski; Jacek Szepietowski; Eugeniusz Baran

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are very commonly occurring diseases in everyday dermatological practice, and knowledge of the wide spectrum of antifungal preparations available nowadays is helpful in almost all medical disciplines. The treatment of fungal infections should be preceded with a proper diagnosis based on the patient’s history, precise clinical examination and diagnostic mycological procedures. A correct diagnosis of fungal infection is possible by its confirmation with proper investigations c...

  16. Modelling fungal sink competitiveness with grains for assimilates in wheat infected by a biotrophic pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancal, Marie-Odile; Hansart, Amandine; Sache, Ivan; Bancal, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Experiments have shown that biotrophic fungi divert assimilates for their growth. However, no attempt has been made either to account for this additional sink or to predict to what extent it competes with both grain filling and plant reserve metabolism for carbon. Fungal sink competitiveness with grains was quantified by a mixed experimental–modelling approach based on winter wheat infected by Puccinia triticina. Methods One week after anthesis, plants grown under controlled conditions were inoculated with varying loads. Sporulation was recorded while plants underwent varying degrees of shading, ensuring a range of both fungal sink and host source levels. Inoculation load significantly increased both sporulating area and rate. Shading significantly affected net assimilation, reserve mobilization and sporulating area, but not grain filling or sporulation rates. An existing carbon partitioning (source–sink) model for wheat during the grain filling period was then enhanced, in which two parameters characterize every sink: carriage capacity and substrate affinity. Fungal sink competitiveness with host sources and sinks was modelled by representing spore production as another sink in diseased wheat during grain filling. Key Results Data from the experiment were fitted to the model to provide the fungal sink parameters. Fungal carriage capacity was 0·56 ± 0·01 µg dry matter °Cd−1 per lesion, much less than grain filling capacity, even in highly infected plants; however, fungal sporulation had a competitive priority for assimilates over grain filling. Simulation with virtual crops accounted for the importance of the relative contribution of photosynthesis loss, anticipated reserve depletion and spore production when light level and disease severity vary. The grain filling rate was less reduced than photosynthesis; however, over the long term, yield loss could double because the earlier reserve depletion observed here would shorten the

  17. Modified ulcer debridement in the treatment of the superficial fungal infection of the cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Yi; Wang, Dian-Qiang; Qi, Xiao-Lin; Cheng, Jun; Xie, Li-Xin

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of modified corneal ulcer debridement in superficial fungal keratitis unresponsive to medications. A total of 209 patients (209 eyes) with fungal keratitis, involving no more than 50% of the stromal depth and not responding to antifungal agents for 2wk, were recruited in this retrospective, noncomparative study. The patients were treated with modified corneal ulcer debridement. All visible corneal infiltrates were removed under an operating microscope to obtain a clean stromal bed and smooth incised edges. Antifungal drugs were used immediately after surgery. Healing time of the ulcers was recorded. Fungal recurrence, visual acuity, corneal thickness and risk factors for treatment failure were monitored. The follow-up was 13.6±5.8mo. The corneal ulcers healed in 195 of 209 eyes (93.3%), with a mean healing time of 8.4±6.8d. The other 14 eyes were further treated by penetrating keratoplasty (PK) (1 eye), anterior lamellar keratoplasty (LK) (7 eyes), conjunctival flap covering (4 eyes) or amniotic membrane transplantation (2 eyes). The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was ≥20/70 in 80.3% of the eyes, ≥20/40 in 56.9% of the eyes, and ≥20/25 in 27.3% of the eyes. The corneas at the lesions became thinner, but all in the safe range. No fungal recurrence or corneal ectasis developed during the follow-up. The risk of treatment failure was higher in patients with preoperative hypopyon ( P =0.036) and ever using steroid ( P =0.025). Modified surgical debridement is a simple and effective method for the treatment of superficial fungal infection of the cornea, with improved visual acuity and no recurrence. Such an intervention in time can rapidly control fungal infection and largely shorten corneal ulcer healing time.

  18. Modified ulcer debridement in the treatment of the superficial fungal infection of the cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Yi Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of modified corneal ulcer debridement in superficial fungal keratitis unresponsive to medications. METHODS: A total of 209 patients (209 eyes with fungal keratitis, involving no more than 50% of the stromal depth and not responding to antifungal agents for 2wk, were recruited in this retrospective, noncomparative study. The patients were treated with modified corneal ulcer debridement. All visible corneal infiltrates were removed under an operating microscope to obtain a clean stromal bed and smooth incised edges. Antifungal drugs were used immediately after surgery. Healing time of the ulcers was recorded. Fungal recurrence, visual acuity, corneal thickness and risk factors for treatment failure were monitored. RESULTS: The follow-up was 13.6±5.8mo. The corneal ulcers healed in 195 of 209 eyes (93.3%, with a mean healing time of 8.4±6.8d. The other 14 eyes were further treated by penetrating keratoplasty (PK (1 eye, anterior lamellar keratoplasty (LK (7 eyes, conjunctival flap covering (4 eyes or amniotic membrane transplantation (2 eyes. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was ≥20/70 in 80.3% of the eyes, ≥20/40 in 56.9% of the eyes, and ≥20/25 in 27.3% of the eyes. The corneas at the lesions became thinner, but all in the safe range. No fungal recurrence or corneal ectasis developed during the follow-up. The risk of treatment failure was higher in patients with preoperative hypopyon (P=0.036 and ever using steroid (P=0.025. CONCLUSION: Modified surgical debridement is a simple and effective method for the treatment of superficial fungal infection of the cornea, with improved visual acuity and no recurrence. Such an intervention in time can rapidly control fungal infection and largely shorten corneal ulcer healing time.

  19. CT evaluation in children with hepatosplenic and renal fungal infection after chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ying; Li Yuhua; Zhu Min; Jiang Hua; Zou Jiayin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To understand the incidence of hepatosplenic and/or renal fungal infection after chemotherapy in children, and to recognize the CT findings and clinical manifestation. Methods: Clinical materials and CT images of 106 patients with leukemia or lymphoma were reviewed retrospectively. 8 cases of hepatosplenic and/or renal fungal infection after chemotherapy were selected, and CT findings of pre- and post anti-fungal therapy were analyzed. Results: Among these 8 cases, the liver was involved in 6, spleen in 6, and kidney in 51 CT findings were multiple round low density lesions. After contrast media administration, there were no or slight enhancement in the lesions. Conclusion: The incidence of hepatosplenic and/or renal fungal infection after chemotherapy in children is relatively high. CT can clearly demonstrate the hepatosplenic and/or renal fungal infection. Correct and prompt diagnosis of the hepatosplenic and/or renal fungal infection can help ensure the process of chemotherapy. (authors)

  20. Fungal Wound Infection (Not Colonization) Is Independently Associated With Mortality in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    fungal-status category was defined according to the deepest level of fungal involvement observed during the hospital course: no fungus (2476 patients...week to give advance guidance for antimicrobial therapy. Patients were examined daily for signs of infection. Protein and calorie needs were supplied...necrotic wound surface), but not viable tissue; and “no fungus ” as absence of fungal elements. Statistical Analysis Each patient’s fungal-status category was

  1. Eradication of superficial fungal infections by conventional and novel approaches: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lalit; Verma, Shivani; Bhardwaj, Ankur; Vaidya, Shubha; Vaidya, Bhuvaneshwar

    2014-02-01

    During the last two decades, the occurrence of fungal infections either superficial or systemic has been increasing. Moreover, fungal infections become more difficult to treat when they show coupling with immunogenic diseases like AIDS. Superficial fungal infections are associated with skin, nail and eye and are less prominent to systemic infection. However, it may be dangerous if not treated properly. It is usually observed that conventional formulations including cream, powder, gels etc. are used to treat skin fungal infections even for the deep seated fungal infections. However, these formulations show various side-effects on the application site like burning, redness and swelling. Further, due to the immediate release of drug from these formulations they can stimulate the immune system of body generating high impact allergic reactions. Deep seated fungal infections like invasive aspergillosis and invasive candidiasis may be more difficult to treat because the drug released from conventional topical formulation can not reach at the target site due to the low penetration capacity. Similarly, in case of fungal infection of nail and eye, conventional formulations show problem of less bioavailability. Thus, to overcome the drawbacks of conventional therapy a lot of research works have been carried out to develop novel formulations of antifungal drugs to deliver them superficially. Novel formulations explored for the skin delivery of antifungal drugs include liposomes, niosomes, ethosomes, microemulsions, nanoparticles, microspheres and micelles. These formulations show extended or sustained release of drug, minimizing the side effect on application site, enhancing bioavailability and reducing the dosing frequency. Further, these formulations also show penetration into the deep skin to treat invasive fungal infections. Novel formulations explored in treatment of fungal infections of eye are liposomes and nanoparticles and whether for nail fungal infections

  2. Cost of invasive fungal infections in the era of new diagnostics and expanded treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds Ashley, Elizabeth; Drew, Richard; Johnson, Melissa; Danna, Robert; Dabrowski, Dominika; Walker, Valery; Prasad, Manishi; Alexander, Barbara; Papadopoulos, George; Perfect, John

    2012-10-01

    To determine the true institutional cost of treating invasive fungal infections in light of recent advances in diagnostic techniques and antifungal therapies for both treatment and prophylaxis of these infections. Economic analysis. Academic medical center. A total of 200 patients discharged from the hospital during 2004-2005 with a diagnosis of proven, probable, or possible aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, invasive candidiasis, or zygomycosis (cases). Patients were matched in a 1:1 fashion with patients having similar underlying disease states but no invasive fungal infections (controls). Data on demographic and clinical characteristics were collected from patients' medical records. In addition, information concerning each patient's hospitalization was recorded. Resource utilization data for a patient's entire hospitalization were collected from the hospital's charge databases and converted to costs. These data were compared between the cases and the controls. After adjusting for race-ethnicity, sex, age, and comorbid illnesses, mean total hospital cost for cases was $32,196 more than for controls (p<0.0001). Nonpharmacy costs accounted for the majority (63%) of this difference, and an additional $3996 was attributed to systemic antifungal drugs. The mean length of hospital stay was longer for cases than controls (25.8 vs 18.4 days). Treatment of patients with invasive fungal infections was associated with a significantly higher inpatient hospital cost compared with controls. However, due to new diagnostic techniques and effective antifungal therapy, the relative cost of these infections appears to be at least stable compared with the previous decade. These findings can help assess the utility of cost-avoidance strategies such as antifungal prophylaxis and application of appropriate treatment. © 2012 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  3. The Effects of Opium Addiction on the Immune System Function in Patients with Fungal Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahi-Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Izadi, Alireza; Keikha, Nasser

    2016-01-01

    The use of narcotics such as opium exposes addicts as susceptible targets of different diseases so that they might easily be exposed to different diseases such as fungal infections. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of addiction to opium and fungal infection on plasma levels of certain cytokines including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-17, Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Present study included 72 individuals who were divided into 4 groups: 1) opium-addicted with fungal infection; 2) opium-addicted without fungal infection; 3) non-opium-addicted with fungal infection; and 4) normal individuals (non-opium-addicted and non-fungal infection). The fungal samples, after being detected and confirmed by a physician, were prepared based on clinical symptoms and then analyzed by direct smear and culture method. The measurement of the plasma level of cytokines was done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The comparison of the mean of the plasma level of cytokines showed that addiction to opium and fungal infection had significant effect on the plasma levels of IL-17, IFN-γ, TGF-β cytokines in all studied groups. The interaction of addiction to opium and fungal infection was only significant in the case of plasma level of IL-6. Addiction to opium and fungal infection, either separately or simultaneously, poses significant effect on the immune system and causes disorders in the cytokine network and the immune system and also provides a suitable environment for fungal infection.

  4. Fungal Infection of the Sinus and Anterior Skull Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Javadi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract   Background: Invasive fungal infection is an opportunistic infection caused commonly   by mucoraccae and aspergillus. It mostly occurs in patients with underlying disease.   Since it has a high mortality and morbidity rate, considering a treatment strategy seems   necessary.   Objective: Since there has not been a clear protocol for treating these patients, we decided   to establish a protocol for fungal infection of sinus and anterior skull base management.   Methods: This retrospective and descriptive case study series included 30 patients.   After confirming the pathogen, the authors came to a proper protocol for treatment which   is mentioned later.   Results: The site involvement included nose and orbital cavity (53.3%, anterior skull   base and brain in conjunction with sinonasal (36.6% and simple nasal cavity involvement   (10%. 86.6% of the patients had underlying diseases. 56.6% of patients had diabetes   as a single underlying disease, while 13.3% had both diabetes and renal failure in   combination. Acute lymphocytic leukemia was present in 6.6%, renal failure in 3.3%, lupus   in 3.3% and chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 3.3% of patients. Mortality rate was   40%. We categorized the patients into 3 groups: only sinonasal, sinonasal and orbit, and   associated anterior skull base and brain involvement.   Conclusion: Early diagnosis is an important factor in improving survival. Anterior   skull base and brain involvement has a very poor prognosis.  

  5. Onychomycosis: A Rare Presentation of Fungal Urinary Tract Infection (UTI in Extremely Preterm Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Kalane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Onychomycosis refers to nail infections caused by any fungus, including yeasts and nondermatophyte molds. Fungal infection has emerged as an important cause of neonatal infections with significant morbidity and mortality, especially in extremely low and very low birth weight infants. We report a 24-days-old boy who presented with onychomycosis on left ring finger nail associated with fungal urine tract infection. Nail finding helped us in detecting fungal urinary tract infection (UTI. Further studies are needed to evaluate the etiologies and treatment of neonatal onychomycosis, and dermatologists should pay attention to this rare event. Hence we are reporting this rare case.

  6. Immunological aspects of Candida and Aspergillus systemic fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Loebnitz, Christoph; Ostermann, Helmut; Franzke, Anke; Loeffler, Juergen; Uharek, Lutz; Topp, Max; Einsele, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Patients with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) have a high risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) even after neutrophil regeneration. Immunological aspects might play a very important role in the IFI development in these patients. Some data are available supporting the identification of high-risk patients with IFI for example patients receiving stem cells from TLR4 haplotype S4 positive donors. Key defense mechanisms against IFI include the activation of neutrophils, the phagocytosis of germinating conidia by dendritic cells, and the fight of the cells of the innate immunity such as monocytes and natural killer cells against germlings and hyphae. Furthermore, immunosuppressive drugs interact with immune effector cells influencing the specific fungal immune defense and antimycotic drugs might interact with immune response. Based on the current knowledge on immunological mechanism in Aspergillus fumigatus, the first approaches of an immunotherapy using human T cells are in development. This might be an option for the future of aspergillosis patients having a poor prognosis with conventional treatment.

  7. Immunological Aspects of Candida and Aspergillus Systemic Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Mueller-Loebnitz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT have a high risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs even after neutrophil regeneration. Immunological aspects might play a very important role in the IFI development in these patients. Some data are available supporting the identification of high-risk patients with IFI for example patients receiving stem cells from TLR4 haplotype S4 positive donors. Key defense mechanisms against IFI include the activation of neutrophils, the phagocytosis of germinating conidia by dendritic cells, and the fight of the cells of the innate immunity such as monocytes and natural killer cells against germlings and hyphae. Furthermore, immunosuppressive drugs interact with immune effector cells influencing the specific fungal immune defense and antimycotic drugs might interact with immune response. Based on the current knowledge on immunological mechanism in Aspergillus fumigatus, the first approaches of an immunotherapy using human T cells are in development. This might be an option for the future of aspergillosis patients having a poor prognosis with conventional treatment.

  8. Potential Roles of Fungal Extracellular Vesicles during Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Luna S.; Nimrichter, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced by virtually all cell types. Within the past few years, work in this field has revealed more information about fungal EVs. Fungal EVs have been shown to carry proteins, lipids, pigments, polysaccharides, and RNA; these components are known virulence factors, a fact which supports the hypothesis that fungal EVs concentrate pathogenic determinants. Additionally, recent studies have demonstrated that fungal EVs stimulate the host immune system. In this review, putative roles of fungal EVs are discussed, including their potential as vaccination tools and their possible contribution to pathogenesis in invasive fungal diseases. PMID:27390779

  9. Potential Roles of Fungal Extracellular Vesicles during Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Joffe, Luna S.; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced by virtually all cell types. Within the past few years, work in this field has revealed more information about fungal EVs. Fungal EVs have been shown to carry proteins, lipids, pigments, polysaccharides, and RNA; these components are known virulence factors, a fact which supports the hypothesis that fungal EVs concentrate pathogenic determinants. Additionally, recent studies have demonstrated that fungal EVs stimulate the host immune system. ...

  10. Spatial and temporal control of fungal natural product synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Fang Yun; Keller, Nancy P

    2014-10-01

    Despite their oftentimes-elusive ecological role, fungal natural products have, for better or worse, impacted our daily lives tremendously owing to their diverse and potent bioactive properties. This Janus-faced nature of fungal natural products inevitably ushered in a field of research dedicated towards understanding the ecology, organisms, genes, enzymes, and biosynthetic pathways that give rise to this arsenal of diverse and complex chemistry. Ongoing research in fungal secondary metabolism has not only increased our appreciation for fungal natural products as an asset but also sheds light on the pivotal role that these once-regarded "metabolic wastes" play in fungal biology, defense, and stress response in addition to their potential contributions towards human mycoses. Full orchestration of secondary metabolism requires not only the seamless coordination between temporal and spatial control of SM-associated machineries (e.g. enzymes, cofactors, intermediates, and end-products) but also integration of these machineries into primary metabolic processes and established cellular mechanisms. An intriguing, but little known aspect of microbial natural product synthesis lies in the spatial organization of both pathway intermediates and enzymes responsible for the production of these compounds. In this highlight, we summarize some major breakthroughs in understanding the genes and regulation of fungal natural product synthesis and introduce the current state of knowledge on the spatial and temporal control of fungal natural product synthesis.

  11. Experimental infection of snakes with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola causes pathological changes that typify snake fungal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Lankton, Julia S.; Werner, Katrien; Falendysz, Elizabeth A.; McCurley, Kevin; Blehert, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging skin infection of wild snakes in eastern North America. The fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola is frequently associated with the skin lesions that are characteristic of SFD, but a causal relationship between the fungus and the disease has not been established. We experimentally infected captive-bred corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) in the laboratory with pure cultures of O. ophiodiicola. All snakes in the infected group (n = 8) developed gross and microscopic lesions identical to those observed in wild snakes with SFD; snakes in the control group (n = 7) did not develop skin infections. Furthermore, the same strain of O. ophiodiicola used to inoculate snakes was recovered from lesions of all animals in the infected group, but no fungi were isolated from individuals in the control group. Monitoring progression of lesions throughout the experiment captured a range of presentations of SFD that have been described in wild snakes. The host response to the infection included marked recruitment of granulocytes to sites of fungal invasion, increased frequency of molting, and abnormal behaviors, such as anorexia and resting in conspicuous areas of enclosures. While these responses may help snakes to fight infection, they could also impact host fitness and may contribute to mortality in wild snakes with chronic O. ophiodiicola infection. This work provides a basis for understanding the pathogenicity of O. ophiodiicola and the ecology of SFD by using a model system that incorporates a host species that is easy to procure and maintain in the laboratory.

  12. Invasive fungal infections in hematology: epidemiology and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bassetti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Recent Italian and International epidemiological data show that invasive fungal infections (IFI, particularly aspergillosis, are still a crucial issue for patients with acute myeloid leukemia. However, in the last years the epidemiology is changing, and in order to determine the real risk of a patient and in order to improve preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic measures, it’s important to identify all the factors (e.g. age, performance status, prophylaxis that play a role in the development of IFI. Immunogenetics may potentially contribute to improve diagnosis providing new therapeutic tools, but results are limited by sample size and absence of thorough functional characterization moreover lack of replication limits translation of data to the clinical practice. Regarding candidemia an Italian study showed that the overall incidence remained unchanged between 2008 and 2010 but with an increase in the number of C. albicans aand C. glabrata infections.

  13. Multiple opportunistic fungal infections in an individual with severe HIV disease: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Silva, Fernando; Damasceno, Lisandra Serra; Serna, Maria Jose Buitrago; Valero, Clara; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Muniz, Mauro de Medeiros; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections have been commonly diagnosed in individuals with advanced HIV disease. Cryptococcosis, pneumocystosis, and histoplasmosis are the most frequent systemic mycoses in people suffering from HIV/AIDS. We report a case of multiple fungal infections in an advanced AIDS-patient. A 33-year-old HIV-positive man from Brazil was hospitalized due to diarrhea, dyspnea, emaciation, hypoxemia, extensive oral thrush, and a CD4+ T lymphocyte count of 20cells/mm(3). Honeycombed-structures consistent with Pneumocystis jirovecii were observed by direct immunofluorescence in induced sputum. Cryptococcus neoformans was recovered from respiratory secretion and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Histopathology of the bone marrow also revealed the presence of Histoplasma capsulatum. Molecular assays were performed in a sputum sample. Nested-PCR confirmed the presence of P. jirovecii and H. capsulatum; qPCR multiplex was positive for C. neoformans and H. capsulatum. With the treatment of antifungal drugs the patient progressed satisfactorily. The diagnosis of several systemic mycoses demonstrates the vulnerability of advanced AIDS-patients. Thus, the detection of AIDS cases in the early stages of infection is necessary for a prompt and adequate introduction of HAART therapy, and the use of prophylaxis to control opportunistic infections. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Solitary Candida albicans Infection Causing Fournier Gangrene and Review of Fungal Etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Tiffany A; Bieniek, Jared M; Sumfest, Joel M

    2014-01-01

    Polymicrobial bacterial infections are commonly found in cases of Fournier gangrene (FG), although fungal growth may occur occasionally. Solitary fungal organisms causing FG have rarely been reported. The authors describe a case of an elderly man with a history of diabetes who presented with a necrotizing scrotal and perineal soft tissue infection. He underwent emergent surgical debridement with findings of diffuse urethral stricture disease and urinary extravasation requiring suprapubic tube placement. Candida albicans was found to be the single causative organism on culture, and the patient recovered well following antifungal treatment. Fungal infections should be considered as rare causes of necrotizing fasciitis and antifungal treatment considered in at-risk immunodeficient individuals.

  15. Oral Yeast Colonization and Fungal Infections in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Simões-Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peritonitis and exit-site infections are important complications in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients that are occasionally caused by opportunistic fungi inhabiting distant body sites. In this study, the oral yeast colonization of PD patients and the antifungal susceptibility profile of the isolated yeasts were accessed and correlated with fungal infection episodes in the following 4 years. Saliva yeast colonization was accessed in 21 PD patients and 27 healthy controls by growth in CHROMagar-Candida® and 18S rRNA/ITS sequencing. PD patients presented a lower oral yeast prevalence when compared to controls, namely, Candida albicans. Other species were also isolated, Candida glabrata and Candida carpophila. The antifungal susceptibility profiles of these isolates revealed resistance to itraconazole, variable susceptibility to caspofungin, and higher MIC values of posaconazole compared to previous reports. The 4-year longitudinal evaluation of these patients revealed Candida parapsilosis and Candida zeylanoides as PD-related exit-site infectious agents, but no correlation was found with oral yeast colonization. This pilot study suggests that oral yeast colonization may represent a limited risk for fungal infection development in PD patients. Oral yeast isolates presented a variable antifungal susceptibility profile, which may suggest resistance to some second-line drugs, highlighting the importance of antifungal susceptibility assessment in the clinical practice.

  16. Evaluation of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides as Topical Anti-Infectives with Broad-Spectrum Activity against Combat-Related Bacterial and Fungal Wound Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    succeeded in developing resistance to a variety of AMPs. 2. Keywords Antimicrobial, peptides, anti-fungal, wounds, burns, bacterial resistance ...against Combat- Related Bacterial and Fungal Wound Infections PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Louis Edward Clemens Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Riptide...Anti-Infectives with Broad- Spectrum Activity against Combat-Related Bacterial and Fungal Wound Infections 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  17. Plasmonic gold nanoparticles for detection of fungi and human cutaneous fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojinrin, Tobiloba; Conde, João; Liu, Kangze; Curtin, James; Byrne, Hugh J; Cui, Daxiang; Tian, Furong

    2017-07-01

    Fungi, which are common in the environment, can cause a multitude of diseases. Warm, humid conditions allow fungi to grow and infect humans via the respiratory, digestive and reproductive tracts, genital area and other bodily interfaces. Fungi can be detected directly by microscopy, using the potassium hydroxide test, which is the gold standard and most popular method for fungal screening. However, this test requires trained personnel operating specialist equipment, including a fluorescent microscope and culture facilities. As most acutely infected patients seek medical attention within the first few days of symptoms, the optimal diagnostic test would be rapid and self-diagnostic simplifying and improving the therapeutic outcome. In suspensions of gold nanoparticles, Aspergillus niger can cause a colour change from red to blue within 2 min, as a result of changes in nanoparticle shape. A similar colour change was observed in the supernatant of samples of human toenails dispersed in water. Scanning electron microscopy, UV/Vis and Raman spectroscopy were employed to monitor the changes in morphology and surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles. The correlation of colour change with the fungal infection was analysed using the absorbance ratio at 520 nm/620 nm. We found a decrease in the ratio when the fungi concentration increased from 1 to 16 CFU/mL, with a detection limit of 10 CFU/mL. The test had an 80% sensitivity and a 95% specificity value for the diagnosis of athlete's foot in human patients. This plasmonic gold nanoparticle-based system for detection of fungal infections measures the change in shape of gold nanoparticles and generates coloured solutions with distinct tonality. Our application has the potential to contribute to self-diagnosis and hygiene control in laboratories/hospitals with fewer resources, just using the naked eye. Graphical abstract Colorimetric method for fungi detection with gold nano particles.

  18. Real-Time PCR in the early detection of invasive fungal infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were cultured for fungi and were analyzed with real-time PCR using universal fungal primers. For positive samples of fungal infection, aspergillus-specific primers were used for detection of aspergillus. Results: Seventeen patients (56.7%) proved to have IFI. Blood culture detected Candida in 2 patients only, ...

  19. Prevalence and Clinical Correlation of Superficial Fungal Foot Infection in Thai Naval Rating Cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongsri, Punyawee; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas; Leeyaphan, Charussri; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Ongmahutmongkol, Pattachee; Komoltri, Chulaluk; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai

    2018-02-13

    Superficial fungal foot infection is one of the most important dermatological diseases currently affecting military personnel. Many Thai naval rating cadets are found to suffer from superficial fungal foot infections and their sequels. To investigate prevalence, potent risk factors, responding pathogens and clinical correlation of superficial fungal foot infection in Thai naval rating cadets training in Naval rating school, Sattahip, Thailand. This cross-sectional study was performed in August 2015. Validated structured questionnaire was used regarding information about behaviors and clinical symptoms. Quality of life was assessed by Dermatology Quality of Life Index (DLQI) questionnaire and clinical presentation demonstrated by Athlete's foot severity score (AFSS). Laboratory investigations including direct microscopic examination and fungal culture were performed and recorded. All of the participants were informed and asked for their consent. A total of 788 Thai naval rating cadets with a mean age of 19 yr were enrolled. There were 406 (51.5%) participants suspected of fungal skin infection from questionnaire screening. After clinical examination, 303 participants (38.5%) were found to have foot lesions (AFSS ≥1). Superficial fungal foot infection was diagnosed with microscopic examination and fungal culture in 57 participants, giving a point prevalence of 7.2%. Tinea pedis was diagnosed in 54 participants with the leading causative organism being Trichophyton mentagrophytes (52.8%). Other 3 participants were diagnosed as cutaneous candidiasis. Wearing combat shoes more than 8 h was found to be a predisposing factor (p = 0.029), taking a shower less than two times a day (p = 0.008), and wearing sandals during shower (p = 0.055) was found to be protective against infection. Most fungal feet infection cases noticed their feet abnormalities (p < 0.001) including scales (p < 0.001), vesicles (p = 0.003) and maceration at interdigital web spaces (p < 0.001). Mean

  20. ISG15 in Host Defense Against Candida albicans Infection in a Mouse Model of Fungal Keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Gao, Nan; Ross, Bing X; Yu, Fu-Shin X

    2017-06-01

    ISG15, a di-ubiquitin-like protein, is critical for controlling certain viral and bacterial infections. We sought to determine if ISG15 plays a role in corneal innate immunity against Candida albicans (C. albicans) using a C57BL/6 (B6) mouse model of human fungal keratitis. Scarified corneas of adult B6 mice were pretreated with TLR5 ligand flagellin and then inoculated with C. albicans. The expression of ISG15 and other genes involved in ISG15 conjugation (ISGylation) was determined by real-time PCR. ISG15 expression and distribution in infected corneas were assessed by immunohistochemistry. ISGylation was examined by Western blotting. siRNA knockdown and recombinant ISG15 were used to elucidate the effects of ISG15 on controlling fungal keratitis by clinical scoring, fungal number plate counting, ELISA cytokine determination, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) infiltration measurement. Heat-killed C. albicans induced expression of ISG15, and hBD2 was markedly enhanced by flagellin-pretreatment in cultured human primary corneal epithelial cells (CECs). In vivo, C. albicans infection induced the expression of ISG15, ISGylation-associated genes (UBE1L, UBCH8, and HERC5), and ISGylation in mouse CECs, all of which were enhanced by flagellin-pretreatment. siRNA knockdown of ISG15 increased keratitis severity, dampened flagellin-induced protection, and greatly suppressed the expressions of ISGylation enzymes, IFN-γ, but not CXCL2 in B6 mouse CECs. Recombinant ISG15, on the other hand, enhanced corneal innate immunity against C. albicans and suppressed infection-induced IL-1β, but not IL-Ra expression. ISG15 alone induced the expression of IL-1Ra, CXCL10, and CRAMP in mouse CECs. ISG15 was upregulated and secreted in cultured human CECs in response to challenge in a type 1 IFN-dependent manner. Our data, for the first time, demonstrate that ISG15 acts as an immunomodulator in the cornea and plays a critical role in controlling fungal keratitis.

  1. Mycological Considerations in the Topical Treatment of Superficial Fungal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Ted

    2016-02-01

    Trichophyton rubrum remains the most common pathogenic dermatophyte in the United States, Europe, and industrialized Asia, although other species are predminant elsewhere. Candida albicans is the most common pathogenic yeast, with other species occasionally encountered. Just a few of the 14 described species of Malassezia cause pityriasis versicolor worldwide. FDA approval does not always accurately reflect the potential utility of any given topical antifungal agent. Azole, hydroxypyridone, and allylamine agents are beneficial in the management of dermatophytosis; however, the allylamines may lead to faster symptom resolution and a higher degree of sustained response. Although in actual clinical use the allylamines have all shown some activity against superficial cutaneous candidiasis and pityriasis versicolor, the azole agents remain drugs of choice. Ciclopirox is an excellent broad-spectrum antifungal agent. Optimal topical therapy for superficial fungal infections cannot yet be reliably based upon in-vitro laboratory determination of sensitivity. Inherent antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties possessed by some antifungal agents may be exploited for clinical purposes. Candida species may be azole-insensitive due to efflux pumps or an altered target enzyme. So-called "antifungal resistance" of dermatophyets is actually due to poor patient adherence (either in dosing or treatment duration), or to reinfection.

  2. Comparison of efficacy of alternative medicine with allopathy in treatment of oral fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Maghu

    2016-01-01

    The study concluded that TTO, being a natural product, is a better nontoxic modality compared to clotrimazole, in the treatment of oral fungal infection and has a promising future for its potential application in oral health products.

  3. Frequency of Cutaneous Fungal Infections and Azole Resistance of the Isolates in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Raiesi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic patients are more susceptible to cutaneous fungal infections. The higher blood sugar levels cause increasing the cutaneous fungal infections in these patients. The main objective of this study was to find the frequency of fungal infections among cutaneous lesions of diabetic patients and to investigate azole antifungal agent susceptibility of the isolates. Materials and Methods: In this study, type 1diabetes (n = 78 and type 2 diabetes (n = 44 comprised 47 cases (38.5% with diabetic foot ulcers and 75 cases (61.5% with skin and nail lesions were studied. Fungal infection was confirmed by direct examination and culture methods. Antifungal susceptibility testing by broth microdilution method was performed according to the CLSI M27-A and M38-A references. Results: Out of 122 diabetic patients, thirty (24.5% were affected with fungal infections. Frequency of fungal infection was 19.1% in patients with diabetic foot ulcer and 28% of patients with skin and nail lesions. Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus were the most common species isolated from thirty patients with fungal infection, respectively. Susceptibility testing carried out on 18 representative isolates (13 C. albicans, five C. glabrata revealed that 12 isolates (10 C. albicans and two C. glabrata isolates (66.6% were resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≥64 mg/ml to fluconazole (FCZ. Likewise, eight isolates (80% of Aspergillus spp. were resistant (MIC ≥4 mg/ml, to itraconazole. Conclusion: Our finding expands current knowledge about the frequency of fungal infections in diabetic patients. We noted the high prevalence of FCZ-resistant Candida spp., particularly in diabetic foot ulcers. More attention is important in diabetic centers about this neglected issue.

  4. Fungal infections as a contributing cause of death: An autopsy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha S Uppin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: With the continuing rise in the number of immunocompromised patients, the incidence of invasive mycoses has increased. Various studies have reported the trends of fungal infections in autopsies. Because of limitations in antemortem clinical diagnosis owing to lack of sensitive diagnostic tools, information regarding frequency and pathogenesis of fungal infections is largely dependent on autopsy studies. Aim: To study the prevalence of fungal infections at autopsy spanning a period of 20 years and to document recent trends, prevalence of various fungi over decades along with underlying predisposing factors and pathological findings. Settings and Design: Retrospective study. Materials and Methods:All autopsies between 1988 and 2007 were reviewed and all cases showing fungal infections were analyzed. The clinical details and demographic data were retrieved from medical records. Representative sections from all organs were stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain and special stains including Gomori′s silver methenamine (GMS and per-iodic acid Schiff (PAS. Culture details were noted, wherever available. Results: A total of 401 autopsies were performed during the study period. Fungal infections were identified in 35 (8.7% of these cases. Leukemia was the commonest risk factor. The commonest pathogen in the present study was Aspergillus sp. The commonest single organ involved was brain (n = 18. Culture positivity was seen in 23.8% cases. Conclusion: The study highlights various predisposing factors and organisms in autopsy series. Existing diagnostic modalities are not sensitive to ensure antemortem diagnosis of fungal infections.

  5. Estimation of the Burden of Serious Human Fungal Infections in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukumani Devi Velayuthan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections (mycoses are likely to occur more frequently as ever-increasingly sophisticated healthcare systems create greater risk factors. There is a paucity of systematic data on the incidence and prevalence of human fungal infections in Malaysia. We conducted a comprehensive study to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Malaysia. Our study showed that recurrent vaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year was the most common of all cases with a diagnosis of candidiasis (n = 501,138. Oesophageal candidiasis (n = 5850 was most predominant among individuals with HIV infection. Candidemia incidence (n = 1533 was estimated in hospitalized individuals, some receiving treatment for cancer (n = 1073, and was detected also in individuals admitted to intensive care units (ICU (n = 460. In adults with asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA was the second most common respiratory mycoses noticed (n = 30,062 along with severe asthma with fungal sensitization (n = 39,628. Invasive aspergillosis was estimated in 184 cases undergoing anti-cancer treatment and 834 ICU cases. Cryptococcal meningitis was diagnosed in 700 subjects with HIV/AIDS and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonitis (PCP in 1286 subjects with underlying HIV disease. The present study indicates that at least 590,214 of the Malaysian population (1.93% is affected by a serious fungal infection annually. This problem is serious enough to warrant the further epidemiological studies to estimate the burden of human fungal infections in Malaysia.

  6. Invasive pulmonary fungal infections in patients with connective tissue disease: a retrospective study from northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.F. Ge

    Full Text Available Invasive pulmonary fungal infection (IPFI is a potentially fatal complication in patients with connective tissue disease (CTD. The current study aimed to uncover the clinical characteristics and risk factors of patients with IPFI-CTD. The files of 2186 CTD patients admitted to a single center in northern China between January 2011 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 47 CTD patients with IPFI were enrolled into this study and assigned to the CTD-IPFI group, while 47 uninfected CTD patients were assigned to the control group. Clinical manifestations were recorded, and risk factors of IPFI were calculated by stepwise logistical regression analysis. Forty-seven (2.15% CTD patients developed IPFI. Systemic lupus erythematosus patients were responsible for the highest proportion (36.17% of cases with IPFI. Candida albicans (72.3% accounted for the most common fungal species. CTD-IPFI patients had significantly elevated white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and fasting glucose values compared to controls (P<0.05. Cough, sputum and blood in phlegm were the most common symptoms. Risk factors of IPFI in CTD included maximum prednisone dose ≥30 mg/day within 3 months prior to infection, anti-microbial drug therapy, and interstitial pneumonia. CTD patients who have underlying interstitial pneumonia, prior prednisone or multiple antibiotics, were more likely to develop IPFI.

  7. Modified atmospheric conditions controlling fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1997-01-01

    a competitive advantage over other fungi in moist conditions with high carbon dioxide levels, such as inside a roquefort cheese or in gas tight grain storage. The key to success in food packaging is to recognise the food ecosystem, as it enables us to identify which micro......Effective control of fungal growth on cheese under storage conditions is of great concern for the dairy industry. Therefore we designed a research project together with the Danish dairy industry on modelling fungal growth on cheese as affected by the combined effect of storage conditions (O2 and CO...

  8. Terbinafine-loaded wound dressing for chronic superficial fungal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskiabi, Farnoush Asghari; Bonakdar, Shahin; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Imani, Mohammad; Jahanshiri, Zahra; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    In spite of developing new drugs and modern formulations, the treatments of chronic fungal infections are still challenging. Fibrous wound dressings are new suggestions for the treatment of chronic superficial infections. In the present study, we formulated an antifungal agent, terbinafine hydrochloride (TFH), which is a hydrophobic drug, in wound dressings prepared by electrospun polycaprolactone, polycaprolactone/gelatin (50:50 w/w) and gelatin. To obtain more water-stable meshes, the preparations were treated by glutaraldehyde and their properties were determined before and after treatment. The morphology of fibrous meshes was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Drug loading efficiency and release rate were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the release rate was monitored for 144 h. Antifungal tests were performed on Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans cultured on Muller-Hinton agar. The toxicity of the meshes was measured after 24 h and 14 days by MTT assay. Terbinafine loading of polycaprolactone/gelatin (50:50) was 100% and it released the highest amount of TFH too. In antifungal tests, all samples were able to hinderT. mentagrophytes and A. fumigatus but not C. albicans growth among them, polycaprolactone fibers made the largest inhibition zone. In MTT assay, none of prepared samples showed toxicity against L929 cells. Teken together, the prepared TFH-loaded PCL/gelatin electrospun meshes were able to release TFH slowly and in a steady state in time. With respect to no obvious cytotoxicity in MTT assay and stong antifungal activity toward T. mentagrophytesin vitro, these TFH-based meshes could be considered as potential candidates in clinical application as wound dressing for treatment of chronic dermatophytosis. - Highlights: • Terbinafine (TFH)-loaded PCL/gelatin electrospun fibers were successfully fabricated. • TFH-loaded PCL/gelatin electrospun fibers showed a slow drug release

  9. Identification and control of fungal organism affecting artificially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the challenges confronting fish farmers is the problem of maintaining a high survival of fish from larvae/fry to adult/table-sized stage. Fungi are problem in hatchery operations preventing successful hatching of fish eggs. This paper reports finding of a study carried out to identify and control fungal organisms affecting ...

  10. Lipoxin Inhibits Fungal Uptake by Macrophages and Reduces the Severity of Acute Pulmonary Infection Caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. R. Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs and lipoxins (LXs are lipid mediators that control inflammation, with the former inducing and the latter inhibiting this process. Because the role played by these mediators in paracoccidioidomycosis was not investigated, we aimed to characterize the role of CysLT in the pulmonary infection developed by resistant (A/J and susceptible (B10.A mice. 48 h after infection, elevated levels of pulmonary LTC4 and LXA4 were produced by both mouse strains, but higher levels were found in the lungs of susceptible mice. Blocking the CysLTs receptor by MTL reduced fungal loads in B10.A, but not in A/J mice. In susceptible mice, MLT treatment led to reduced influx of PMN leukocytes, increased recruitment of monocytes, predominant synthesis of anti-inflammatory cytokines, and augmented expression of 5- and 15-lipoxygenase mRNA, suggesting a prevalent LXA4 activity. In agreement, MTL-treated macrophages showed reduced fungal burdens associated with decreased ingestion of fungal cells. Furthermore, the addition of exogenous LX reduced, and the specific blockade of the LX receptor increased the fungal loads of B10.A macrophages. This study showed for the first time that inhibition of CysLTs signaling results in less severe pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis that occurs in parallel with elevated LX activity and reduced infection of macrophages.

  11. Onychomycosis: A Rare Presentation of Fungal Urinary Tract Infection in an Extremely Preterm Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Kalane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Onychomycosis refers to nail infections, caused by fungi including yeasts and non-dermatophyte moulds. One or several toenails or fingernails (seldom all may be involved in this condition. Many cases of fingernail onychomycosis are due to yeasts. Fungal infection has emerged as an important cause of neonatal infection, associated with significant morbidity and mortality, especially in very low birth weight (< 1500 g and extremely low birth weight (< 1000 g infants. Herein, we report a case of a 24-day-old male infant, who presented with onychomycosis on the left ring fingernail, associated with fungal urinary tract infection (UTI. The evaluation of nails helped us detect fungal UTI. To date, there have been no reports suggesting onychomycosis as a presentation of fungal UTI. We could not find the association between onychomycosis and neonatal fungal UTI. Hence, retrospectively, it can be said that onychomycosis was a presentation of fungal UTI. Further studies are required to evaluate the etiology and treatment of neonatal onychomycosis. Moreover, dermatologists should pay particular attention to this rare event.

  12. [Qualitative fungal composition of services at risk of nosocomial infections at Aristide Le Dantec Hospital (Dakar)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diongue, K; Badiane, A S; Seck, M C; Ndiaye, M; Diallo, M A; Diallo, S; Sy, O; Ndiaye, J L; Faye, B; Ndir, O; Ndiaye, D

    2015-03-01

    In hospitals, the quality control of the air is a key element. Indeed airborne fungi constitute a real danger for patients hospitalized in wards at risk of nosocomial infections especially when they are immunocompromised. The objective was to determine the qualitative fungal flora composition of wards at risk of nosocomial infections at Le Dantec teaching hospital. Between April and May 2013, 73 samples were collected from 45 compartments within seven services at risk of nosocomial infection at Aristide Le Dantec teaching Hospital (Dakar). Samples were made once by sedimentation method and the percentage of positive cultures was 100%. The most represented species were Cladosporium spp. (91.1%), Aspergillus spp. (86.6%), Penicillium spp. 71.1% and Candida spp. (57.7%). Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus were isolated respectively at 15.5% and 11.1%. Wards have been classified according to the number of species isolated; 11 species in pediatric oncology, 10 species in pediatric surgery/neonatal and intensive care, nine species for oncology, eight species in general surgery and dermatology, and four species in internal medicine. This study shows that fungi causing nosocomial infections are present in hospital and their monitoring should be included in the program of Nosocomial Infections Prevention Committees (CLIN). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Antibodies against glycolipids enhance antifungal activity of macrophages and reduce fungal burden after infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Amelia eBueno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease endemic in Latin America. Polyclonal antibodies to acidic glycosphingolipids (GSLs from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis opsonized yeast forms in vitro increasing phagocytosis and reduced the fungal burden of infected animals. Antibodies to GSL were active in both prophylactic and therapeutic protocols using a murine intratracheal infection model. Pathological examination of the lungs of animals treated with antibodies to GSL showed well-organized granulomas and minimally damaged parenchyma compared to the untreated control. Murine peritoneal macrophages activated by IFN-γ and incubated with antibodies against acidic GSLs more effectively phagocytosed and killed P. brasiliensis yeast cells as well as produced more nitric oxide compared to controls. The present work discloses a novel target of protective antibodies against P. brasiliensis adding to other well-studied mediators of the immune response to this fungus.

  14. Invasive fungal infection (IFI) in two pediatric patients with acute leukemia. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derwich, K.; Andrzejewska, M.; Wachowiak, J.; Mankowski, P.

    2009-01-01

    At present over 70% of children with malignancies can be successfully cured although this is achieved at the cost of increased incidence of major complications. Fungal infections account for some 10% of all infections and, in severely immunosuppressed patients, they are still the cause of a high mortality rate (50-95%). As a result the prevention and treatment of adverse effects of antineoplastic therapy is of the most importance and can be a factor determining the success of such treatment. This paper contains two case reports of adolescent female patients diagnosed with acute leukemia who developed invasive fungal infections (IFI) in the course of intensive chemotherapy. (authors)

  15. Models of Caenorhabditis elegans infection by bacterial and fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jennifer R; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2008-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a simple model host for studying the relationship between the animal innate immune system and a variety of bacterial and fungal pathogens. Extensive genetic and molecular tools are available in C. elegans, facilitating an in-depth analysis of host defense factors and pathogen virulence factors. Many of these factors are conserved in insects and mammals, indicating the relevance of the nematode model to the vertebrate innate immune response. Here, we describe pathogen assays for a selection of the most commonly studied bacterial and fungal pathogens using the C. elegans model system.

  16. Controlling fungal foliar pathogen e.g. Venturia inaequalis, Blumeriella jaapi, in plants involves treating plants with a composition comprising an extract from Yucca as an antifungal agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to control of fungal foliar diseases in plants, preferaby Rosaceae, such as apple scab (Venturia inaequalis), pear scab (Venturia pirina), brown spot (Stemphylium vesicarium) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) by treatment of plant with an extract of Yucca species......, preferably Y. schidigera or Y. filamentosa. The treatment is effective in both prevention and treatment of the fungal infection....

  17. An unusual double fungal infection of the bladder due to Candida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G.V. KandaSwamy

    rarely pathogenic to humans, but may cause skin lesions, keratitis, onychomycosis, sinusitis and pulmonary infections [2]. Candida infection is synonymous with fungal cystitis, but cladosporium involving the bladder has virtually been unheard of. Case report. A 37-year-old diabetic female, mother of one child, presented with ...

  18. Behavior Performance of Diuraphis noxia (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Fungal Endophyte-Infected and Uninfected Perennial Ryegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.L. Clement; D.G. Lester; A. Dan Wilson; K.S. Pike

    1992-01-01

    The behavior and performance of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), on fungal endophyte-infected and endophyte-free perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L., was investigated in the laboratory and field. Aphids did not select endophyte-free over endophyte-infected leaf sheaths and stem segments in petri dish preference tests....

  19. Successful treatment of an invasive fungal infection caused by Talaromyces sp. with voriconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uluhan Sili

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections (IFI are on the rise due to increasing numbers of immunosuppressed and critically ill patients. A malignant-looking pulmonary nodule in an immunosuppressed patient may indeed be caused by a fungal organism. We report a patient, who was eventually diagnosed with an IFI caused by an agent of hyalohyphomycosis, Talaromyces sp. determined via molecular methods and succesfully treated with voriconazole.

  20. Application of Bioluminescence Imaging for In Vivo Monitoring of Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Brock

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi can cause severe invasive infections especially in the immunocompromised host. Patient populations at risk are increasing due to ongoing developments in cancer treatment and transplantation medicine. Only limited diagnostic tools and few antifungals are available, rendering a significant number of invasive fungal infections life threatening. To reduce mortality rates, a better understanding of the infection processes is urgently required. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI is a powerful tool for such purposes, since it allows visualisation of temporal and spatial progression of infections in real time. BLI has been successfully used to monitor infections caused by various microorganisms, in particular bacteria. However, first studies have also been performed on the fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Although BLI was, in principle, suitable to study the infection process, some limitations remained. Here, different luciferase systems are introduced, and current approaches are summarised. Finally, suggestions for further improvements of BLI to monitor fungal infections are provided.

  1. Fungal Infections among Diabetic Foot Ulcer- Patients Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To isolate and identify fungal pathogens associated with dermatophytoses in diabetic patients and identify the spectrum of yeasts colonising diabetic foot ulcers at Kenyatta National Hospital. Design: A cross sectional Laboratory based study. Setting: The Kenyatta National Hospital diabetic clinic. Subjects: Sixty ...

  2. Mendelian Genetics of Human Susceptibility to Fungal Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lionakis, M.S.; Netea, M.G.; Holland, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    A recent surge in newly described inborn errors of immune function-related genes that result in susceptibility to fungal disease has greatly enhanced our understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of antifungal immune responses. Characterization of single-gene defects that predispose to

  3. A Survey of Bacterial and Fungal Oppurtunistic Infections among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacterial pathogens were isolated using Blood and Chocolate agar plates and identified biochemically except the Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) which was tested in all the HIV positive samples by Ziehl Neelson staining technique. The fungal pathogens were isolated using Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) with antibiotics and ...

  4. Critical environmental and genotypic factors for Fusarium verticillioides infection, fungal growth and fumonisin contamination in maize grown in northwestern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ana; Santiago, Rogelio; Ramos, Antonio J; Souto, Xosé C; Aguín, Olga; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Butrón, Ana

    2014-05-02

    In northwestern Spain, where weather is rainy and mild throughout the year, Fusarium verticillioides is the most prevalent fungus in kernels and a significant risk of fumonisin contamination has been exposed. In this study, detailed information about environmental and maize genotypic factors affecting F. verticillioides infection, fungal growth and fumonisin content in maize kernels was obtained in order to establish control points to reduce fumonisin contamination. Evaluations were conducted in a total of 36 environments and factorial regression analyses were performed to determine the contribution of each factor to variability among environments, genotypes, and genotype × environment interactions for F. verticillioides infection, fungal growth and fumonisin content. Flowering and kernel drying were the most critical periods throughout the growing season for F. verticillioides infection and fumonisin contamination. Around flowering, wetter and cooler conditions limited F. verticillioides infection and growth, and high temperatures increased fumonisin contents. During kernel drying, increased damaged kernels favored fungal growth, and higher ear damage by corn borers and hard rainfall favored fumonisin accumulation. Later planting dates and especially earlier harvest dates reduced the risk of fumonisin contamination, possibly due to reduced incidence of insects and accumulation of rainfall during the kernel drying period. The use of maize varieties resistant to Sitotroga cerealella, with good husk coverage and non-excessive pericarp thickness could also be useful to reduce fumonisin contamination of maize kernels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The economic costs to United States hospitals of invasive fungal infections in transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzin, Joseph; Meyers, Juliana L; Friedman, Mark; Korn, Jonathan R; Perfect, John R; Langston, Amelia A; Danna, Robert P; Papadopoulos, George

    2011-05-01

    Patients with a solid organ transplant (SOTs) and hematopoietic stem cell or bone marrow transplants (HSC/BMTs) are at risk of contracting invasive fungal infections (IFIs). Data on the economic burden of IFIs in the United States are sparse. We conducted a retrospective matched cohort study using the 2004-2005 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample. The IFI cohort included patients with ICD-9-CM codes indicating a transplant procedure and an IFI. Matched controls (transplant recipients without an IFI) were chosen based on age (10 year categories), sex, region, hospital type, year, and transplant type. Mortality, length of stay, and costs were reported overall, by transplant type, and by type of mycosis. Nine thousand eight hundred ninety-six patients underwent SOT, and 4661 underwent HSC/BMT. Of these, 80 (0.8%) SOT and 111 (2.4%) HSC/BMT patients had an IFI. Mean age was 41.8 years (SOT) and 37.8 years (HSC/BMT). Aspergillosis was the most common infection. Patients with an IFI had a 5-fold increase in mortality, an additional 19.2 hospital days, and $55,400 in excess costs compared with patients without an IFI. Excess mortality, length of stay, and costs varied by type of transplant and mycosis. The clinical and economic burden of IFIs in transplant recipients may be high. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Whole-Genome Analysis of Exserohilum rostratum from an Outbreak of Fungal Meningitis and Other Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Litvintseva, Anastasia P.; Hurst, Steven; Gade, Lalitha; Frace, Michael A.; Hilsabeck, Remy; Schupp, James M.; Gillece, John D.; Roe, Chandler; Smith, David; Keim, Paul; Lockhart, Shawn R.; Changayil, Shankar; Weil, M. Ryan; MacCannell, Duncan R.; Brandt, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Exserohilum rostratum was the cause of most cases of fungal meningitis and other infections associated with the injection of contaminated methylprednisolone acetate produced by the New England Compounding Center (NECC). Until this outbreak, very few human cases of Exserohilum infection had been reported, and very little was known about this dematiaceous fungus, which usually infects plants. Here, we report using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphism...

  7. Effect of fungal infection on leaf gas-exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence in Quercus ilex

    OpenAIRE

    El Omari, Bouchra; Fleck, Isabel; Aranda, Xavier; Moret, Asumpció; MartíNadal,

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Experiments were conducted to study the susceptibility to infection by two fungal pathogens, Cryphonectria parasitica or Phomopsis spp. of undisturbed holm oaks (Quercus ilex) and the resprout from the stump of trees after excision of the shoot. Leaf gas-exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence were recorded on plants growing in natural conditions for two years, as markers of disease progress at the first stages of infection. In infected plants, pathogen-induced stomata...

  8. Frequency of fungal infection in biopsies of oral mucosal lesions: A prospective hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimmarasa Venkappa Bhovi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To determine the frequency and common site of fungal infection in biopsies of oral mucosal lesions and also to detect the lesions most likely to be infected with fungal infection. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients with oral mucosal lesions were advised routine hematological examination followed by incisional biopsy under local anesthesia. The specimen were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and processed. One section from the specimen was stained with hematoxylin and eosin staining for histopathological diagnosis of the lesion and a second section was stained with Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS stain for detection of fungal infection. Results: Out of the 100 patients, the most common mucosal lesion encountered was carcinoma (56% followed by lesions with dysplastic changes (28%, benign lesions (9%, squamous papilloma (2% and oral submucous fibrosis (5%. The most common anatomic location affected by the mucosal lesions were buccal mucosa, followed by the tongue, gingiva, maxillary tuberosity and floor of the mouth with values of 73%, 16%, 6%, 4% and 1%, respectively. Squamous papilloma had the highest positive association with fungal infection (100% followed by lesions with dysplastic changes (17.9% and carcinoma (8.9%. The maximum fungal positive association was encountered in the mucosal lesions over the tongue (18.7% followed by the buccal mucosa (12.3%. Conclusion: There is statistically significant association of fungal infection with dysplastic lesions and papilloma with the tongue and buccal mucosa as the most common sites. Hence a PAS stain should be performed whenever epithelial dysplasia on the tongue and buccal mucosa is diagnosed.

  9. Role of bronchoalveolar lavage in diagnosis of fungal infections in liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepeoğlu, Merih; Ok Atılgan, Alev; Özdemir, B Handan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary fungal infections remain the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in liver transplant recipients. Fast and accurate causative diagnoses are essential for a good outcome. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage frequently is performed to diagnose pulmonary infections in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic use of bronchoalveolar lavage in liver transplant recipients with pulmonary infections. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 408 patients who underwent liver transplant from January 1990 to December 2012. Patients who underwent bronchoalveolar lavage after transplant were included in this study. There were 18 of 408 liver transplant recipients (4.41%) who underwent bronchoalveolar lavage after transplant. The mean age was 49.5 ± 18 years. In 5 patients (27.8%), fungal microorganisms were observed in the cytology of bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, including Aspergillus fumigatus in 3 patients and Candida albicans in 2 patients. Death occurred in 4 of 5 patients (80%) with fungal infections. No association was observed between the presence of fungal infection and clinical and radiographic findings of the patients. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage is a useful, noninvasive diagnostic tool for the rapid diagnosis of infections in solid-organ transplant recipients.

  10. Stability analysis and optimal control of plant fungal epidemic: An explicit model with curative factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggriani, N.; Putri, L. Nurul; Supriatna, A. K.

    2015-03-01

    Many plants could not escape from diseases caused by fungi. The use of fungicide can help to reduce the spread of the fungi but if it used continuously with the same dosage, the fungi would be invulnerable to fungicide eventually. Hence, it is critical to know the appropriate level of fungicide application and its impact on the dynamics of the plants. In this paper we use an explicit model of fungal outbreaks of plant by taking into account a curative factor including the dynamic of fungicides itself. Granting of fungicide on crops is useful to control the infected plants as well as protecting the vulnerable plants. Optimal control is used to find out how many doses of the appropriate fungicide should be used to cure infected plants. Optimal control is obtained by applying Pontryagin's Minimum Principle. We found that the presence of appropriate level of fungicide speeds up the reduction of infected plants as well as accelerates the growth of healthy plants.

  11. Fungal biological control agents for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana had wide host range against insects and hence these are being exploited as fungal bio-pesticide on a large scale. Both fungi are proved pesticides against many crop pests and farmers are well acquainted with their use on the field. Thus, research was aimed to explore the potency of these fungal spores against larval and adult Culicoides midges, a pest of livestock. Materials and Methods: In-vitro testing of both fungal biological control agents was undertaken in Petri dishes against field collected Culicoides larvae, while in plastic beakers against field collected blood-engorged female Culicoides midges. In-vivo testing was undertaken by spraying requisite concentration of fungal spores on the drainage channel against larvae and resting sites of adult Culicoides midges in the cattle shed. Lethal concentration 50 (LC50 values and regression equations were drawn by following probit analysis using SPSS statistical computerized program. Results: The results of this study revealed LC50 values of 2692 mg and 3837 mg (108 cfu/g for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, respectively, against Culicoides spp. larvae. Death of Culicoides larvae due to B. bassiana showed greenish coloration in the middle of the body with head and tail showed intense blackish changes, while infection of M. anisopliae resulted in death of Culicoides larvae with greenish and blackish coloration of body along with total destruction, followed by desquamation of intestinal channel. The death of adult Culicoides midges were caused by both the fungi and after death growth of fungus were very well observed on the dead cadavers proving the efficacy of the fungus. Conclusion: Preliminary trials with both funguses (M. anisopliae, B. bassiana showed encouraging results against larvae and adults of Culicoides spp. Hence, it was ascertained that, these two fungal molecules can form a part of biological control and

  12. Syk signaling in dendritic cells orchestrates innate resistance to systemic fungal infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul G Whitney

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Host protection from fungal infection is thought to ensue in part from the activity of Syk-coupled C-type lectin receptors and MyD88-coupled toll-like receptors in myeloid cells, including neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs. Given the multitude of cell types and receptors involved, elimination of a single pathway for fungal recognition in a cell type such as DCs, primarily known for their ability to prime T cell responses, would be expected to have little effect on innate resistance to fungal infection. Here we report that this is surprisingly not the case and that selective loss of Syk but not MyD88 in DCs abrogates innate resistance to acute systemic Candida albicans infection in mice. We show that Syk expression by DCs is necessary for IL-23p19 production in response to C. albicans, which is essential to transiently induce GM-CSF secretion by NK cells that are recruited to the site of fungal replication. NK cell-derived-GM-CSF in turn sustains the anti-microbial activity of neutrophils, the main fungicidal effectors. Thus, the activity of a single kinase in a single myeloid cell type orchestrates a complex series of molecular and cellular events that underlies innate resistance to fungal sepsis.

  13. Putative Rust Fungal Effector Proteins in Infected Bean and Soybean Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bret; Campbell, Kimberly B; Beard, Hunter S; Garrett, Wesley M; Islam, Nazrul

    2016-05-01

    The plant-pathogenic fungi Uromyces appendiculatus and Phakopsora pachyrhizi cause debilitating rust diseases on common bean and soybean. These rust fungi secrete effector proteins that allow them to infect plants, but their effector repertoires are not understood. The discovery of rust fungus effectors may eventually help guide decisions and actions that mitigate crop production loss. Therefore, we used mass spectrometry to identify thousands of proteins in infected beans and soybeans and in germinated fungal spores. The comparative analysis between the two helped differentiate a set of 24 U. appendiculatus proteins targeted for secretion that were specifically found in infected beans and a set of 34 U. appendiculatus proteins targeted for secretion that were found in germinated spores and infected beans. The proteins specific to infected beans included family 26 and family 76 glycoside hydrolases that may contribute to degrading plant cell walls. There were also several types of proteins with structural motifs that may aid in stabilizing the specialized fungal haustorium cell that interfaces the plant cell membrane during infection. There were 16 P. pachyrhizi proteins targeted for secretion that were found in infected soybeans, and many of these proteins resembled the U. appendiculatus proteins found in infected beans, which implies that these proteins are important to rust fungal pathology in general. This data set provides insight to the biochemical mechanisms that rust fungi use to overcome plant immune systems and to parasitize cells.

  14. Whole-Genome Analysis of Exserohilum rostratum from an Outbreak of Fungal Meningitis and Other Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Steven; Gade, Lalitha; Frace, Michael A.; Hilsabeck, Remy; Schupp, James M.; Gillece, John D.; Roe, Chandler; Smith, David; Keim, Paul; Lockhart, Shawn R.; Changayil, Shankar; Weil, M. Ryan; MacCannell, Duncan R.; Brandt, Mary E.; Engelthaler, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Exserohilum rostratum was the cause of most cases of fungal meningitis and other infections associated with the injection of contaminated methylprednisolone acetate produced by the New England Compounding Center (NECC). Until this outbreak, very few human cases of Exserohilum infection had been reported, and very little was known about this dematiaceous fungus, which usually infects plants. Here, we report using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and phylogenetic analysis to investigate the molecular origin of the outbreak using 22 isolates of E. rostratum retrieved from 19 case patients with meningitis or epidural/spinal abscesses, 6 isolates from contaminated NECC vials, and 7 isolates unrelated to the outbreak. Our analysis indicates that all 28 isolates associated with the outbreak had nearly identical genomes of 33.8 Mb. A total of 8 SNPs were detected among the outbreak genomes, with no more than 2 SNPs separating any 2 of the 28 genomes. The outbreak genomes were separated from the next most closely related control strain by ∼136,000 SNPs. We also observed significant genomic variability among strains unrelated to the outbreak, which may suggest the possibility of cryptic speciation in E. rostratum. PMID:24951807

  15. Mortality, length of hospitalization, and costs associated with invasive fungal infections in high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzin, Joseph; Meyers, Juliana L; Friedman, Mark; Perfect, John R; Langston, Amelia A; Danna, Robert P; Papadopoulos, George

    2009-10-01

    The mortality, length of hospitalization, and costs associated with invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in hospitalized patients were studied. This retrospective database study used data from the 2004 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide In-patient Sample. Patients were selected for inclusion based on diagnostic codes corresponding to an IFI. A control group was matched to the IFI group based on high-risk conditions (i.e., cancer, infection with human immunodeficiency virus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, and solid-organ, hematopoietic stem cell, or bone marrow transplant), age, sex, and hospital region and teaching status. Excess mortality, length of hospital stay, and costs were estimated as the differences between the IFI and control groups. A total of 11,881 patients were identified with a discharge diagnosis of an IFI who could be matched to a control. Frequent infections included candidiasis (40.2%), other mycoses (36.3%), and aspergillosis (16.4%). Patients with IFIs had a significantly higher mortality rate (15% versus 5%), mean +/- S.E. length of stay (18.7 +/- 0.4 days versus 7.3 +/- 0.1 days), and mean +/- S.E. costs ($44,726 +/- $1,255 versus $15,445 +/- $404) (p < 0.001 for all comparisons) than did patients without IFIs. The burden of IFIs varied by high-risk condition (highest for transplant recipients and patients with cancer) and type of infection (highest for candidiasis, zygomycosis, and aspergillosis). Examination of a large database showed that, compared with high-risk patients without IFIs, those with IFIs had higher mortality, a longer hospital stay, and higher costs associated with their hospitalization.

  16. A pesticide paradox: fungicides indirectly increase fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Jason R; Brown, Jenise; Battaglin, William A; McMahon, Taegan A; Relyea, Rick A

    2017-12-01

    There are many examples where the use of chemicals have had profound unintended consequences, such as fertilizers reducing crop yields (paradox of enrichment) and insecticides increasing insect pests (by reducing natural biocontrol). Recently, the application of agrochemicals, such as agricultural disinfectants and fungicides, has been explored as an approach to curb the pathogenic fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which is associated with worldwide amphibian declines. However, the long-term, net effects of early-life exposure to these chemicals on amphibian disease risk have not been thoroughly investigated. Using a combination of laboratory experiments and analysis of data from the literature, we explored the effects of fungicide exposure on Bd infections in two frog species. Extremely low concentrations of the fungicides azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, and mancozeb were directly toxic to Bd in culture. However, estimated environmental concentrations of the fungicides did not reduce Bd on Cuban tree frog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) tadpoles exposed simultaneously to any of these fungicides and Bd, and fungicide exposure actually increased Bd-induced mortality. Additionally, exposure to any of these fungicides as tadpoles resulted in higher Bd abundance and greater Bd-induced mortality when challenged with Bd post-metamorphosis, an average of 71 d after their last fungicide exposure. Analysis of data from the literature revealed that previous exposure to the fungicide itraconazole, which is commonly used to clear Bd infections, made the critically endangered booroolong frog (Litoria booroolongensis) more susceptible to Bd. Finally, a field survey revealed that Bd prevalence was positively associated with concentrations of fungicides in ponds. Although fungicides show promise for controlling Bd, these results suggest that, if fungicides do not completely eliminate Bd or if Bd recolonizes, exposure to fungicides has the potential to do more harm than

  17. Behavioral mechanisms and morphological symptoms of zombie ants dying from fungal infection

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    Himaman Winanda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasites that manipulate host behavior can provide prominent examples of extended phenotypes: parasite genomes controlling host behavior. Here we focus on one of the most dramatic examples of behavioral manipulation, the death grip of ants infected by Ophiocordyceps fungi. We studied the interaction between O. unilateralis s.l. and its host ant Camponotus leonardi in a Thai rainforest, where infected ants descend from their canopy nests down to understory vegetation to bite into abaxial leaf veins before dying. Host mortality is concentrated in patches (graveyards where ants die on sapling leaves ca. 25 cm above the soil surface where conditions for parasite development are optimal. Here we address whether the sequence of ant behaviors leading to the final death grip can also be interpreted as parasite adaptations and describe some of the morphological changes inside the heads of infected workers that mediate the expression of the death grip phenotype. Results We found that infected ants behave as zombies and display predictable stereotypical behaviors of random rather than directional walking, and of repeated convulsions that make them fall down and thus precludes returning to the canopy. Transitions from erratic wandering to death grips on a leaf vein were abrupt and synchronized around solar noon. We show that the mandibles of ants penetrate deeply into vein tissue and that this is accompanied by extensive atrophy of the mandibular muscles. This lock-jaw means the ant will remain attached to the leaf after death. We further present histological data to show that a high density of single celled stages of the parasite within the head capsule of dying ants are likely to be responsible for this muscular atrophy. Conclusions Extended phenotypes in ants induced by fungal infections are a complex example of behavioral manipulation requiring coordinated changes of host behavior and morphology. Future work should address the

  18. Behavioral mechanisms and morphological symptoms of zombie ants dying from fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, David P; Andersen, Sandra B; Hywel-Jones, Nigel L; Himaman, Winanda; Billen, Johan; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2011-05-09

    Parasites that manipulate host behavior can provide prominent examples of extended phenotypes: parasite genomes controlling host behavior. Here we focus on one of the most dramatic examples of behavioral manipulation, the death grip of ants infected by Ophiocordyceps fungi. We studied the interaction between O. unilateralis s.l. and its host ant Camponotus leonardi in a Thai rainforest, where infected ants descend from their canopy nests down to understory vegetation to bite into abaxial leaf veins before dying. Host mortality is concentrated in patches (graveyards) where ants die on sapling leaves ca. 25 cm above the soil surface where conditions for parasite development are optimal. Here we address whether the sequence of ant behaviors leading to the final death grip can also be interpreted as parasite adaptations and describe some of the morphological changes inside the heads of infected workers that mediate the expression of the death grip phenotype. We found that infected ants behave as zombies and display predictable stereotypical behaviors of random rather than directional walking, and of repeated convulsions that make them fall down and thus precludes returning to the canopy. Transitions from erratic wandering to death grips on a leaf vein were abrupt and synchronized around solar noon. We show that the mandibles of ants penetrate deeply into vein tissue and that this is accompanied by extensive atrophy of the mandibular muscles. This lock-jaw means the ant will remain attached to the leaf after death. We further present histological data to show that a high density of single celled stages of the parasite within the head capsule of dying ants are likely to be responsible for this muscular atrophy. Extended phenotypes in ants induced by fungal infections are a complex example of behavioral manipulation requiring coordinated changes of host behavior and morphology. Future work should address the genetic basis of such extended phenotypes.

  19. Infrared spectroscopy detection of fungal infections and mycotoxins for food safety concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins, which are toxins produced by fungi, can pose great danger to human health with their acute and chronic effects when contaminated foods (grains, fruits, meat, or milk) are ingested. Fungal infections in food crops are extremely common and many developed countries have set standards to mon...

  20. Ontogenetic changes in immunity and susceptibility to fungal infection in Mormon crickets Anabrus simplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insects have innate immunity that may be weakened by resource allocation to growth. I measured enzymatic immunity, encapsulation response, and susceptibility to fungal infection in Mormon crickets of known age. Although the concentrations of circulating spontaneous and total phenoloxidase (PO) incr...

  1. Antifungal activity of some Tanzanian plants used traditionally for the treatment of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamza, O.J.M.; Beukel, C.J.P. van den; Matee, M.I.N.; Moshi, M.J.; Mikx, F.H.M.; Selemani, H.O.; Mbwambo, Z.H.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Verweij, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    Using the ethnobotanical approach, some Tanzanian plants reported to be used by traditional healers for the treatment of oral candidiasis and fungal infections of the skin were collected and screened for their antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis,

  2. The barley powdery mildew effector candidates CSEP0081 and CSEP0254 promote fungal infection success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim; Pedersen, Carsten; Thordal-Christensen, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Proteins (CSEPs) predicted from the barley powdery mildew fungal genome, only a few have been studied and shown to have a function in virulence. Here, we provide evidence that CSEP0081 and CSEP0254 contribute to infection by the fungus. This was studied using Host-Induced Gene Silencing (HIGS), where...

  3. HIV-associated opportunistic fungal infections: a guide to using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review aims to provide a guide for clinicians to using the clinical microbiology laboratory for management of common HIV-associated opportunistic fungal infections, e.g. mucosal candidiasis, cryptococcosis, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), histoplasmosis, etc. Laboratory tests provide valuable guidance at ...

  4. Development of anti β glucan aptamers for use as radiopharmaceutical in the identification of fungal Infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, Camila Maria de Sousa; Reis, Mariana Flister; Correa, Cristiane Rodrigues; Andrade, Antero S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections caused by Candida albicans, are recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immuno compromised individuals. Patients may not show obvious clinical signs or symptoms, making it difficult to detect its origin or new focus that developed through hematogenous spread. Nuclear medicine could contribute to an early diagnosis of fungal infections, since specific markers are available. The aim of this study was to develop, through SELEX technique (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment), aptamers for beta glucan for subsequent labeling with 99 mTc and evaluation of this radiopharmaceutical in the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections, scintigraphy. To obtain aptamers were performed 15 cycles of SELEX technique, using centrifugation as separation method of oligonuclotideos linked to the beta-glucan is not connected. The DNA bands were observed in all 15 cycles. The oligonucleotides obtained after cycles were cloned using the standard protocol kit-Topo TA vector (Invitrogen), and subjected to sequencing Megabase. Three aptamers for yeast cells were selected for this study. Further, other studies should be performed to assess the specificity and affinity thereof for later use in the diagnosis of fungal infections. (author)

  5. Predictive Virtual Infection Modeling of Fungal Immune Evasion in Human Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prauße, Maria T E; Lehnert, Teresa; Timme, Sandra; Hünniger, Kerstin; Leonhardt, Ines; Kurzai, Oliver; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2018-01-01

    Bloodstream infections by the human-pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata increasingly occur in hospitalized patients and are associated with high mortality rates. The early immune response against these fungi in human blood comprises a concerted action of humoral and cellular components of the innate immune system. Upon entering the blood, the majority of fungal cells will be eliminated by innate immune cells, i.e., neutrophils and monocytes. However, recent studies identified a population of fungal cells that can evade the immune response and thereby may disseminate and cause organ dissemination, which is frequently observed during candidemia. In this study, we investigate the so far unresolved mechanism of fungal immune evasion in human whole blood by testing hypotheses with the help of mathematical modeling. We use a previously established state-based virtual infection model for whole-blood infection with C. albicans to quantify the immune response and identified the fungal immune-evasion mechanism. While this process was assumed to be spontaneous in the previous model, we now hypothesize that the immune-evasion process is mediated by host factors and incorporate such a mechanism in the model. In particular, we propose, based on previous studies that the fungal immune-evasion mechanism could possibly arise through modification of the fungal surface by as of yet unknown proteins that are assumed to be secreted by activated neutrophils. To validate or reject any of the immune-evasion mechanisms, we compared the simulation of both immune-evasion models for different infection scenarios, i.e., infection of whole blood with either C. albicans or C. glabrata under non-neutropenic and neutropenic conditions. We found that under non-neutropenic conditions, both immune-evasion models fit the experimental data from whole-blood infection with C. albicans and C. glabrata . However, differences between the immune-evasion models could be observed for the

  6. Predictive Virtual Infection Modeling of Fungal Immune Evasion in Human Whole Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. E. Prauße

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bloodstream infections by the human-pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata increasingly occur in hospitalized patients and are associated with high mortality rates. The early immune response against these fungi in human blood comprises a concerted action of humoral and cellular components of the innate immune system. Upon entering the blood, the majority of fungal cells will be eliminated by innate immune cells, i.e., neutrophils and monocytes. However, recent studies identified a population of fungal cells that can evade the immune response and thereby may disseminate and cause organ dissemination, which is frequently observed during candidemia. In this study, we investigate the so far unresolved mechanism of fungal immune evasion in human whole blood by testing hypotheses with the help of mathematical modeling. We use a previously established state-based virtual infection model for whole-blood infection with C. albicans to quantify the immune response and identified the fungal immune-evasion mechanism. While this process was assumed to be spontaneous in the previous model, we now hypothesize that the immune-evasion process is mediated by host factors and incorporate such a mechanism in the model. In particular, we propose, based on previous studies that the fungal immune-evasion mechanism could possibly arise through modification of the fungal surface by as of yet unknown proteins that are assumed to be secreted by activated neutrophils. To validate or reject any of the immune-evasion mechanisms, we compared the simulation of both immune-evasion models for different infection scenarios, i.e., infection of whole blood with either C. albicans or C. glabrata under non-neutropenic and neutropenic conditions. We found that under non-neutropenic conditions, both immune-evasion models fit the experimental data from whole-blood infection with C. albicans and C. glabrata. However, differences between the immune-evasion models could be

  7. Medical history and progress in infectious diseases, especially systemic fungal infections in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on medical history from the end of the Edo period to the present and development of studies on infectious diseases, especially medical mycology including systemic fungal diseases. With the inflow of Dutch studies at the end of the Edo period and the adoption of European, mainly German, medicine in the Meiji Restoration, Japanese medical studies gradually developed. However, evolution in the medical field as well as other scientific fields was prevented during the 2nd World War. After the War, there was marked progress in scientific fields and medical research made strong advances. In the past 20 years, basic fungal studies and clinical fungal diseases, especially clinical analysis, clinical diagnosis and treatment of systemic fungal infections have progressed. The level in this field is now equivalent to or higher than that in European countries. Further development is necessary, however, to relieve patients suffering from systemic fungal infections. Members of the Japanese Association of Medical Mycology must be leaders among international medical mycologists.

  8. As a Rare Site of Invasive Fungal Infection, Chronic Granulomatous Aspergillus Synovitis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Canbolat Ayhan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus can causes invasive disease of various organs especially in patients with weakened immune systems. Aspergillus synovitis and arthritis are uncommon types of involvement due to this infection. Approches to fungal osteoarticular infections are based on only case reports. This paper presents a rare case of chronic granulomatous Aspergillus synovitis in an immunocompromised 5-year old girl who was treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  9. An abattoir survey of bacterial and fungal infections of cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As for fungi infections, Candida and Mucor spp. were observed with a higher prevalence of candidiasis, which varied significantly (P < 0.05) between localities and sex, but was comparable between breeds and different age groups. Mucor spp. Infections were recorded only in vulva, oviducts and ovaries. This study suggest ...

  10. Invasive Fungal Infections Acquired from Contaminated Food or Nutritional Supplements: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Chiller, Tom M; Mody, Rajal K

    2016-07-01

    Fungi are an integral part of the natural environment and, therefore, play many roles in relation to food: some fungi are used in food production, some are food sources themselves, and some are agents of food spoilage. Some fungi that contaminate food can also be harmful to human health. The harmful but noninfectious health consequences of mycotoxins have been well-characterized, but the extent to which fungi in food pose a risk for invasive infections is unknown. We conducted a literature review to identify cases of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) believed to have resulted from ingestion or inhalation of food, beverages, or dietary supplements (excluding Saccharomyces infections). We identified 11 publications describing cases or small outbreaks of IFIs related to foods or beverages and three describing IFIs related to dietary supplements. These food-associated IFIs were predominantly mold infections, and the few yeast infections were associated with dairy products. Suspected foodborne IFIs appear to be rare, but are increasingly described in the electronically searchable literature. They are associated with a variety of foods, are due to a variety of fungal pathogens, and primarily occur in persons with immunosuppressive conditions or other predisposing factors. Various guidelines for high-risk patients recommend avoidance of certain food products that may contain high levels of fungi, but further work is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these restrictive diets in preventing fungal infections. The relationships between food spoilage, food insecurity, and IFI risk are another area that may warrant further exploration.

  11. Frequency of fungal infection in the nasal polyposis patients undergoing polypectomy in a tertiary care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawad, A.; Nisar, Y.B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of fungal infection in nasal polyposis patients undergoing polypectomy in a tertiary care ENT unit. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of ENT, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad. A total of 60 patients with nasal polyposis were enrolled. Patients who did not give consent, with sinonasal malignancy, diabetes, and pregnant or lactating women were excluded from study. All the patients were operated and specimens of polypectomies were sent to the Department of Pathology for fungal culture, direct microscopy and histopathology. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 20. (author)

  12. Histopathological Features Of Deep Fungal Infections : An Analysis Of Sixteen Skin Biopsies

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    Dhar Subhra

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, skin biopsies in suspected cases of deep fungal infections were subjected to H &E and special stainings. In 2 of the 5 cases of sporotrichosis and in both cases of chromomycosis and of histoplasmosis, PAS positive fungal elements could be demonstrated. In both the cases of histoplasmosis, the fungi were also demonstrated by GMS staining. In 3 cases of sporotrichosis, 2 cases of mycetoma and 3 cases of subcutaneous phycomycosis, fungus could not be demonstrated by PAS staining. However, the histopathological features were corroborative.

  13. Pulmonary fungal infection: Imaging findings in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Semin; Lee, Kyung Soo; Yi, Chin A; Chung, Myung Jin; Kim, Tae Sung; Han, Joungho

    2006-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is the most common endemic mycosis in North America, and is followed by coccidioidomycosis and blastomycosis. Although the majority of these infections in immunocompetent persons are self-limited, some patients can develop severe pneumonitis or various forms of chronic pulmonary infection. Cryptococcoci, Aspergillus, Candidas, and Mucorals are ubiquitous organisms, which may affect immunocompromised patients. Specific imaging findings can be expected, depending on the organisms involved, underlying patients' conditions (immune status), and specific situations after immune depleting procedures

  14. Spectrum of Opportunistic Fungal Infections in HIV/AIDS Patients in Tertiary Care Hospital in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV related opportunistic fungal infections (OFIs continue to cause morbidity and mortality in HIV infected patients. The objective for this prospective study is to elucidate the prevalence and spectrum of common OFIs in HIV/AIDS patients in north India. Relevant clinical samples were collected from symptomatic HIV positive patients (n=280 of all age groups and both sexes and subjected to direct microscopy and fungal culture. Identification as well as speciation of the fungal isolates was done as per the standard recommended methods. CD4+T cell counts were determined by flow cytometry using Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter Count system. 215 fungal isolates were isolated with the isolation rate of 41.1%. Candida species (86.5% were the commonest followed by Aspergillus (6.5%, Cryptococcus (3.3%, Penicillium (1.9%, and Alternaria and Rhodotorula spp. (0.9% each. Among Candida species, Candida albicans (75.8% was the most prevalent species followed by C. tropicalis (9.7%, C. krusei (6.4%, C. glabrata (4.3%, C. parapsilosis (2.7%, and C. kefyr (1.1%. Study demonstrates that the oropharyngeal candidiasis is the commonest among different OFIs and would help to increase the awareness of clinicians in diagnosis and early treatment of these infections helping in the proper management of the patients especially in resource limited countries like ours.

  15. A 15-year-old boy with severe combined immunodeficiency, fungal infection, and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul, Mehtap Haktanir; Tuano, Karen; Healy, C Mary; Vece, Timothy J; Quintanilla, Norma M; Davis, Carla M; Seeborg, Filiz O; Hanson, Imelda Celine

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) outcomes in X-linked severe combined immune deficiency are most effective when performed with patients <3 months of age and without coexisting morbidity, and with donor cells from a matched sibling. Even under such favorable circumstances, outcomes can be suboptimal, and full cellular engraftment may not be complete, which results in poor B or natural killer cell function. Protein losing enteropathies can accompany persistent immune deficiency disorders with resultant low serum globulins (immunoglobulin A [IgA], IgG, IgM) and lymphopenia. Patients with immune disorders acquire infections that can be predicted by their immune dysfunction. Fungal infections are typically noted in neutropenic (congenital or acquired) and T-cell deficient individuals. Coexisting fungal infections are rare, even in hosts who are immunocompromised, and they require careful evaluation. Antifungal treatment may result in drug-drug interactions with significant complications.

  16. Support of the Laboratory in the Diagnosis of Fungal Ocular Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzzini Zago, Virginia; Alcantara Castro, Marino; Naranjo Tackman, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    This is a retrospective, and descriptive study about the support that the laboratory of microbiology aids can provide in the diagnosis of ocular infections in patients whom were attended a tertiary-care hospital in México City in a 10-year-time period. We describe the microbiological diagnosis in palpebral mycose; in keratitis caused by Fusarium, Aspergillus, Candida, and melanized fungi; endophthalmitis; one Histoplasma scleritis and one mucormycosis. Nowadays, ocular fungal infections are more often diagnosed, because there is more clinical suspicion and there are easy laboratory confirmations. Correct diagnosis is important because an early medical treatment gives a better prognosis for visual acuity. In some cases, fungal infections are misdiagnosed and the antifungal treatment is delayed. PMID:22518339

  17. Does fungal endophyte infection improve tall fescue's growth response to fire and water limitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Hall

    Full Text Available Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue's ability to form a symbiosis with Neotyphodium coenophialum, an aboveground fungal endophyte, may enhance its environmental stress tolerance and persistence in these environments. We used a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of endophyte infection (E+ vs. E-, prescribed fire (1 burn vs. 2 burn vs. unburned control, and watering regime (dry vs. wet on tall fescue growth. We assessed treatment effects for growth rates and the following response variables: total tiller length, number of tillers recruited during the experiment, number of reproductive tillers, tiller biomass, root biomass, and total biomass. Water regime significantly affected all response variables, with less growth and lower growth rates observed under the dry water regime compared to the wet. The burn treatments significantly affected total tiller length, number of reproductive tillers, total tiller biomass, and total biomass, but treatment differences were not consistent across parameters. Overall, fire seemed to enhance growth. Endophyte status significantly affected total tiller length and tiller biomass, but the effect was opposite what we predicted (E->E+. The results from our experiment indicated that tall fescue was relatively tolerant of fire, even when combined with dry conditions, and that the fungal endophyte symbiosis was not important in governing this ecological ability. The persistence of tall fescue in native grassland ecosystems may be linked to other endophyte-conferred abilities not measured here

  18. Epidemiology of fungal infections in liver transplant recipients: a six-year study of a large Brazilian liver transplantation centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Zicker

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Liver transplant seems to be an effective option to prolong survival in patients with end-stage liver disease, although it still can be followed by serious complications. Invasive fungal infections (ifi are related to high rates of morbidity and mortality. The epidemiology of fungal infections in Brazilian liver transplant recipients is unknown. The aim of this observational and retrospective study was to determine the incidence and epidemiology of fungal infections in all patients who underwent liver transplantation at Albert Einstein Israeli Hospital between 2002-2007. A total of 596 liver transplants were performed in 540 patients. Overall, 77 fungal infections occurred in 68 (13% patients. Among the 77 fungal infections, there were 40 IFI that occurred in 37 patients (7%. Candida and Aspergillus species were the most common etiologic agents. Candida species accounted for 82% of all fungal infections and for 67% of all IFI, while Aspergillus species accounted for 9% of all fungal infections and for 17% of all IFI. Non-albicans Candida species were the predominant Candida isolates. Invasive aspergillosis tended to occur earlier in the post-transplant period. These findings can contribute to improve antifungal prophylaxis and therapy practices in Brazilian centres.

  19. Fungal periprosthetic joint infection in total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Jakobs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungal periprosthetic joint infection (PJI is a rare but devastating complication following total knee arthroplasty (TKA. A standardized procedure regarding an accurate treatment of this serious complication of knee arthroplasty is lacking. In this systematic review, we collected data from 36 studies with a total of 45 reported cases of a TKA complicated by a fungal PJI. Subsequently, an analysis focusing on diagnostic, medicaments and surgical procedures in the pre-, intra- and postoperative period was performed. Candida spp. accounts for about 80% (36 out of 45 cases of fungal PJIs and is therefore the most frequently reported pathogen. A systemic antifungal therapy was administered in all but one patient whereas a local antifungal therapy, e.g. the use of an impregnated spacer, is of inferior relevance. Resection arthroplasty with delayed re-implantation (two-stage revision was the surgical treatment of choice. However, in 50% of all reported cases the surgical therapy was heterogeneous. The outcome under a combined therapy was moderate with recurrent fungal PJI in 11 patients and subsequent bacterial PJI as a main complication in 5 patients. In summary, this systematic review integrates data from up to date 45 reported cases of a fungal PJI of a TKA. On the basis of the current literature strategies for the treatment of this devastating complication after TKA are discussed

  20. Fluconazole Doses Used for Prophylaxis of Invasive Fungal Infection in Neonatal Intensive Care Units: A Network Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonart, Letícia Paula; Tonin, Fernanda Stumpf; Ferreira, Vinicius Lins; Tavares da Silva Penteado, Suelem; de Araújo Motta, Fábio; Pontarolo, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of different doses of fluconazole used for invasive prophylaxis of fungal infection in neonates. A systematic search was conducted with PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. A manual search was performed as well. Only randomized controlled trials of neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) who received fluconazole prophylaxis for invasive fungal infection, regardless of the dose or therapeutic regimen, were included in this review. Data on baseline characteristics, outcomes incidence of proven invasive Candida infection, overall mortality, and invasive Candida infection-related mortality were extracted. Eleven studies were included in the review, with fluconazole doses of 3, 4, or 6?mg/kg. When the incidence of invasive Candida and invasive Candida-related mortality were considered as outcomes, the 3 and 6?mg/kg fluconazole doses were found to be statistically superior to placebo (OR, 5.48 [95% credible interval, 1.81-18.94] and 2.63 [1.18-7.02], respectively, and 15.32 [1.54-54.31] and 9.14 [1.26-142.7], respectively), but data for the 3 doses were not statistically significantly different. Use of the lowest fluconazole dose (3?mg/kg) should be recommended for Candida prophylaxis in neonates, given that increasing the fluconazole dose is not associated with higher efficacy and has greater potential for toxicity and increased cost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fungal infection in freshwater fishes of Andhra Pradesh, India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology

    2015-02-11

    Feb 11, 2015 ... pieces of mycelia taken out from infected parts of fish body were washed thoroughly with distilled water. They were placed in a Petri dish containing 20 to 30 ml distilled water and baited on different baits viz. Hemp seeds, and Mustered seeds. These Petri dishes were incubated at 15 to 22°C tem for a week.

  2. Superficial fungal infection: prevalence and risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the factors which were significantly associated with the risk of acquisition of dermatophytic infections include age of the child, past history of similar lesion, over-crowding in the home, normal sweat pattern and badly smelling socks among others. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that several risk factors are ...

  3. Tioconazole in the treatment of fungal infections of the skin. An international clinical research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill East, M; Henderson, J T; Jevons, S

    1983-01-01

    In 32 studies involving 1,304 patients tioconazole 1% dermal cream has been shown to be effective and safe in the treatment of a wide variety of superficial fungal infections of the skin and erythrasma. Tioconazole cream is more effective than miconazole nitrate 2% cream in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor and in infections with Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes which cause 70% of dermatophyte infections in man. Data from comparisons with econazole and clotrimazole are too few to allow conclusions to be drawn on relative efficacy. All the creams were easy to apply and there were no serious adverse reactions, local or systemic.

  4. Survey of laboratory practices for diagnosis of fungal infection in seven Asian countries: An Asia Fungal Working Group (AFWG) initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindamporn, Ariya; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Li, Ruoyu; Sun, Pei-Lun; Tan, Ban-Hock; Chua, Mitzi; Wahyuningsih, Retno; Patel, Atul; Liu, Zhengyin; Chen, Yee-Chun; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2017-09-20

    An online survey of mycology laboratories in seven Asian countries was conducted to assess the status, competence, and services available. Country representatives from the Asia Fungal Working Group (AFWG) contacted as many laboratories performing mycology diagnosis as possible in their respective countries, requesting that the laboratory heads complete the online survey. In total, 241 laboratories responded, including 71 in China, 104 in India, 11 in Indonesia, 26 in the Philippines, four in Singapore, 18 in Taiwan, and seven in Thailand. Overall, 129/241 (53.5%) surveyed mycology laboratories operate as separate designated mycology laboratories, 75/241 (31.1%) conduct regular formal staff training, 103/241 (42.7%) are accredited, and 88/157 (56.1%) participate in external quality assurance scheme (EQAS) programs. Microscopy and culture methods are available in nearly all laboratories, although few perform DNA sequencing (37/219; 16.9%) or use matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS) (27/219; 12.3%) for isolate identification. Antifungal susceptibility testing is performed in 142/241 (58.9%) laboratories, mainly for yeasts. The most commonly performed nonculture diagnostic is cryptococcal antigen testing (66 laboratories), followed by galactomannan testing (55), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosis (37), and beta-D-glucan testing (24). Therapeutic drug monitoring is conducted in 21 laboratories. There is almost no access to advanced diagnostic tests, like galactomannan, β-D-glucan, and PCR, in the surveyed laboratories in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These results highlight the need for development of quality laboratories, accreditation and training of manpower in existing laboratories, and access to advanced non-culture-based diagnostic tests to facilitate the diagnosis of fungal infections in Asia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society

  5. Occurrence of Fungal DNA Contamination in PCR Reagents: Approaches to Control and Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czurda, S.; Smelik, S.; Preuner-Stix, S.; Nogueira, F.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification techniques permitting sensitive and rapid screening in patients at risk for invasive fungal infections are an important addition to conventional fungal diagnostic methods. However, contamination with fungal DNA may be a serious threat to the validity of fungal amplification-based assays. Besides rigorous handling procedures to avoid false-positive test results from exogenous sources, we have implemented protocols for comprehensive assessment of fungal contamination in all materials involved in the analytical process. Traces of fungal DNA were found in different commercially available PCR reagents, including lyophilized primers, TaqMan probes, and master mix solutions. These contaminants resulted in a considerable rate of false-positive tests in panfungal real-time PCR analysis. To address this problem, we have established a decontamination protocol based on the activity of a double-strand specific DNase. Using this approach, we have significantly reduced the frequency of false-positive test results attributable to contaminated reagents. On the basis of our findings, we strongly recommend routine monitoring of all reagents used in fungal PCR assays for the presence of relevant contaminants. As long as fungal-grade reagents are not readily available, pretreatment methods facilitating elimination of fungal DNA are critical for reducing the risk of false-positive results in highly sensitive molecular fungal detection assays. PMID:26560539

  6. Cereal fungal infection, mycotoxins, and lactic acid bacteria mediated bioprotection: from crop farming to cereal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Pedro M; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) metabolites are a reliable alternative for reducing fungal infections pre-/post-harvest with additional advantages for cereal-base products which convene the food market's trend. Grain industrial use is in expansion owing to its applicability in generating functional food. The food market is directed towards functional natural food with clear health benefits for the consumer in detriment to chemical additives. The food market chain is becoming broader and more complex, which presents an ever-growing fungal threat. Toxigenic and spoilage fungi are responsible for numerous diseases and economic losses. Cereal infections may occur in the field or post-processing, along the food chain. Consequently, the investigation of LAB metabolites with antifungal activity has gained prominence in the scientific research community. LAB bioprotection retards the development of fungal diseases in the field and inhibit pathogens and spoilage fungi in food products. In addition to the health safety improvement, LAB metabolites also enhance shelf-life, organoleptic and texture qualities of cereal-base foods. This review presents an overview of the fungal impact through the cereal food chain leading to investigation on LAB antifungal compounds. Applicability of LAB in plant protection and cereal industry is discussed. Specific case studies include Fusarium head blight, malting and baking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Audit of laboratory mycology services for the management of patients with fungal infections in the northwest of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, I A; Critten, P; Isalska, B; Denning, D W

    2006-07-01

    Fungal infection is increasingly recognised as an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised patients. Little information exists on laboratory services available and the methods used by general microbiology laboratories to diagnose these important infections. To investigate the services microbiology laboratories in northwest England provide towards the diagnosis and management of superficial and deep fungal infections. A questionnaire was sent to laboratories to get a holistic view of the support given to clinicians looking after patients with fungal infections. The aim was not to investigate details of each laboratory's standard operating procedures. The completed questionnaires, which formed the basis of this report, were returned by all 21 laboratories which were recruited. This study was conducted between March 2004 and September 2004. Services were provided to District General Hospitals and to six tertiary centres, including eight teaching hospitals by 16 laboratories. Their bed capacity was 250-1300 beds. Total specimens (including bacterial and viral) processed annually were 42 000-500,000 whereas fungal ones were 560-5400. In most microbiology laboratories of northwest England, clinicians were aware of the potential of fungal pathogens to cause infections especially in immunocompromised patients. Additional measures such as prolonged incubation of samples were introduced to improve fungal yield from patients at high risk. It is necessary to train and educate laboratory and medical staff about the role of serology and molecular methods in diagnosis and management of patients with fungal infection.

  8. [Mixed invasive fungal infection due to Rhizomucor pusillus and Aspergillus niger in an immunocompetent patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo-Laderas, Juan Carlos; Pontes-Moreno, Antonio; Robles-Arista, Juan Carlos; Bautista-Rodriguez, M Dolores; Candau-Alvarez, Alberto; Caro-Cuenca, Maria Teresa; Linares-Sicilia, María José

    2015-01-01

    Mucormycosis infections are rare in immunocompetent patients, and very few cases of mucormycosis associated with aspergillosis in non-haematological patients have been reported. A 17-year-old male, immunocompetent and without any previously known risk factors, was admitted to hospital due to a seizure episode 11 days after a motorcycle accident. He had a complicated clinical course as he had a mixed invasive fungal infection with pulmonary involvement due to Aspergillus niger and disseminated mucormycosis due to Rhizomucor pusillus (histopathological and microbiological diagnosis in several non-contiguous sites). He was treated with liposomal amphotericin B for 7 weeks (total cumulative dose >10 g) and required several surgical operations. The patient survived and was discharged from ICU after 5 months and multiple complications. Treatment with liposomal amphotericin B and aggressive surgical management achieved the eradication of a mixed invasive fungal infection. However, we emphasise the need to maintain a higher level of clinical suspicion and to perform microbiological techniques for early diagnosis of invasive fungal infections in non-immunocompromised patients, in order to prevent spread of the disease and the poor prognosis associated with it. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Fungal infection counters insecticide resistance in African malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farenhorst, Marit; Mouatcho, Joel C.; Kikankie, Christophe K.; Brooke, Basil D.; Hunt, Richard H.; Thomas, Matthew B.; Koekemoer, Lizette L.; Knols, Bart G. J.; Coetzee, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes is threatening the effectiveness and sustainability of malaria control programs in various parts of the world. Through their unique mode of action, entomopathogenic fungi provide promising alternatives to chemical control. However, potential

  10. Advances in infection control

    OpenAIRE

    Marra, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several initiatives took place in recent years in relation to nosocomial infection control in order to increase patient safety. Some of these initiatives will be commented in this brief review. RESUMO Várias iniciativas aconteceram nos últimos anos em relação ao controle das infecções no ambiente hospitalar para aumentar a segurança do paciente. Algumas dessas iniciativas são comentadas nesta breve revisão.

  11. Ionizing radiation delivered by specific antibody is therapeutic against a fungal infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadachova, Ekaterina; Nakouzi, Antonio; Bryan, Ruth A.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2003-09-01

    There is an urgent need for new antimicrobial therapies to combat drug resistance, new pathogens, and the relative inefficacy of current therapy in compromised hosts. Ionizing radiation can kill microorganisms quickly and efficiently, but this modality has not been exploited as a therapeutic antimicrobial strategy. We have developed methods to target ionizing radiation to a fungal cell by labeling a specific mAb with the therapeutic radioisotopes Rhenium-188 and Bismuth-213. Radiolabeled antibody killed cells of human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro, thus converting an antibody with no inherent antifungal activity into a microbicidal molecule. Administration of radiolabeled antibody to mice with C. neoformans infection delivered 213Bi and 188Re to the sites of infection, reduced their organ fungal burden, and significantly prolonged their survival without apparent toxicity. This study establishes the principle that targeted radiation can be used for the therapy of an infectious disease, and suggests that it may have wide applicability as an antimicrobial strategy.

  12. Multiple Erythema Lesions Obscured As Fungal Skin Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allma Koçinaj

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Erythema migrans is a ring like erythema, with a few centimeters in diameter. Usually it occur solitary, days to weeks after an infected tick bite. According to skin changes it can be manifested acutely such as erythema migrans in Lyme Borreliosis, borrelial lymphocytoma (subacute, or as a late Lyme disease with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. All stages of this disease can be treatable with antimicrobial agents. As a first case in our department with multiple lesions, we describe a 14-year-old female and review the patient’s clinical and laboratory features, the causes of the disease, diagnosis as well as treatment.

  13. Indoor airborne fungal pollution in newborn units in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirel, Rasime; Sen, Burhan; Kadaifciler, Duygu; Yoltas, Aysegul; Okten, Suzan; Ozkale, Evrim; Berikten, Derya; Samson, Robert A.; Haliki Uztan, Alev; Yilmaz, Neriman; Abaci Gunyar, Ozlem; Aydogdu, Halide; Asan, Ahmet; Kivanc, Merih; Ozdil, Soner; Sakartepe, Erhan

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic and/or opportunistic fungal species are major causes of nosocomial infections, especially in controlled environments where immunocompromised patients are hospitalized. Indoor fungal contamination in hospital air is associated with a wide range of adverse health effects. Regular

  14. Oral treatments for fungal infections of the skin of the foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally E. M. Bell-Syer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: About 15% of the world population have fungal infections of the feet (tinea pedis or athlete's foot. There are many clinical presentations of tinea pedis, and most commonly, tinea pedis is seen between the toes (interdigital and on the soles, heels, and sides of the foot (plantar. Plantar tinea pedis is known as moccasin foot. Once acquired, the infection can spread to other sites including the nails, which can be a source of re-infection. Oral therapy is usually used for chronic conditions or when topical treatment has failed. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of oral treatments for fungal infections of the skin of the foot (tinea pedis. METHODS: Search methods: For this update we searched the following databases to July 2012: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 1946, EMBASE (from 1974, and CINAHL (from 1981. We checked the bibliographies of retrieved trials for further references to relevant trials, and we searched online trials registers. Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials of oral treatments in participants who have a clinically diagnosed tinea pedis, confirmed by microscopy and growth of dermatophytes (fungi in culture. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently undertook study selection, "Risk of bias" assessment, and data extraction. MAIN RESULTS: We included 15 trials, involving 1,438 participants. The 2 trials (71 participants comparing terbinafine and griseofulvin produced a pooled risk ratio (RR of 2.26 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.49 to 3.44 in favors of terbinafine's ability to cure infection. No significant difference was detected between terbinafine and itraconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole, fluconazole and ketoconazole, or between griseofulvin and ketoconazole, although the trials were generally small. Two trials showed that terbinafine and itraconazole were effective compared with placebo: terbinafine (31 participants, RR

  15. Impact of Climate Change on Five Major Crop Fungal Diseases: Building Climatic Indicators of Infection Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay, M.; Caubel, J.; Bourgeois, G.; Huard, F.; Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.

    2013-12-01

    The climate change will modify the severity and occurrence of fungal crop diseases, as the bioclimatic niches of pathogens will shift according to temperature and rainfall patterns evolution. Therefore it becomes necessary to integrate fungal disease pressure assessment into evaluation tools of crop suitability at the regional level. The aim of this study was to build two climatic indicators, the Average Infection Efficiency (AIE) and the Number of Infection Days (NID), quantifying the potential effect of climate on infection intensity and occurrence. A simple and continuous function was developed to calculate them, which is easy to parameterize from experimental measurements, usable on large spatial scales and adaptable to various pathogens. The evolution of those climatic indicators was then studied for five major fungal crop diseases in Northern France, the phoma of oilseed rape, the potato late blight, the downy mildew of grape, the leaf rust of wheat and the net blotch of barley. These indicators were applied on a multisite analysis in Northern France. They were calculated during the crop cycle when the host plant is able to be infected, over the period between 1970 and 2100 for the balanced scenario of climate change A1B. In late spring and summer, higher temperatures combined with lower humidity reduced the risk of infection of potato late blight and downy mildew of grape. In autumn and spring the balance between warmer temperatures and lower humidity determined the risk of infection on oilseed rape and cereals: increased risk in late autumn and early spring, and decreased risk in early autumn and mid-spring when low humidity becomes limiting. This statement highlighted the need for using between year scale for a relevant analysis of climate change impact on infection risk. The indicators we developed are thus useful for land management at regional scale and medium term, in particular for stakeholders who need decision support tools through which they could

  16. New insights into mycoviruses and exploration for the biological control of crop fungal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiatao; Jiang, Daohong

    2014-01-01

    Mycoviruses are viruses that infect fungi. A growing number of novel mycoviruses have expanded our knowledge of virology, particularly in taxonomy, ecology, and evolution. Recent progress in the study of mycoviruses has comprehensively improved our understanding of the properties of mycoviruses and has strengthened our confidence to explore hypovirulence-associated mycoviruses that control crop diseases. In this review, the advantages of using hypovirulence-associated mycoviruses to control crop diseases are discussed, and, as an example, the potential for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence-associated DNA virus 1 (SsHADV-1) to control the stem rot of rapeseed (Brassica napus) is also introduced. Fungal vegetative incompatibility is likely to be the key factor that limits the wide utilization of mycoviruses to control crop diseases; however, there are suggested strategies for resolving this problem.

  17. Fungus-Specific CD4 T Cells as Specific Sensors for Identification of Pulmonary Fungal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffold, Alexander; Schwarz, Carsten; Bacher, Petra

    2018-02-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) suffer from chronic lung infections, caused by bacterial, viral or fungal pathogens, which determine morbidity and mortality. The contribution of individual pathogens to chronic disease and acute lung exacerbations is often difficult to determine due to the complex composition of the lung microbiome in CF. In particular, the relevance of fungal pathogens in CF airways remains poorly understood due to limitations of current diagnostics to identify the presence of fungal pathogens and to resolve the individual host-pathogen interaction status. T-lymphocytes play an essential role in host defense against pathogens, but also in inappropriate immune reactions such as allergies. They have the capacity to specifically recognize and discriminate the different pathogens and orchestrate a diverse array of effector functions. Thus, the analysis of the fungus-specific T cell status of an individual can in principle provide detailed information about the identity of the fungal pathogen(s) encountered and the actual fungus-host interaction status. This may allow to classify patients, according to appropriate (protective) or inappropriate (pathology-associated) immune reactions against individual fungal pathogens. However, T cell-based diagnostics are currently not part of the clinical routine. The identification and characterization of fungus-specific T cells in health and disease for diagnostic purposes are associated with significant challenges. Recent technological developments in the field of fungus-specific T helper cell detection provide new insights in the host T cell-fungus interaction. In this review, we will discuss basic principles and the potential of T cell-based diagnostics, as well as the perspectives and further needs for use of T cells for improved clinical diagnostics of fungal diseases.

  18. Cutaneous fungal infection in a renal transplantation patient due to a rare fungus belonging to order Pleosporales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Galipothu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections are being increasingly reported from immuno-compromised as well as immuno-competent patients. Transplant patients are on long term immunosuppressive therapy which makes them highly vulnerable to opportunistic fungal infections .These infections can be cutaneous or systemic. Several fungi have been reported to be the culprits such as Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., C. neoformans, P. carinii, and zygomycetes group of fungi. Cutaneous infections are most commonly caused by Pityriasis (tinea versicolor, dermatophytes, and candida sp but these days the demtiaceous fungi are becoming more frequently reported .Here we report a case of post renal transplant cutaneous infection caused by dematiaceous fungus belonging to the order Pleosporales

  19. Defining opportunistic invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients with cancer and hematopoietic stem cell transplants: an international consensus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rex, J.H.; Pauw, B.E. de; Bennett, J.E.; Bille, J.; Crokaert, F.; Denning, D.W.; Donnelly, J.P.; Edwards, J.E.; Erjavec, Z.; Fiere, D.; Lortholary, O.; Maertens, J.K.M.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Patterson, T.F.; Ritter, J.; Selleslag, D.; Shah, P.M.; Stevens, D.A.; Walsh, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    During the past several decades, there has been a steady increase in the frequency of opportunistic invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in immunocompromised patients. However, there is substantial controversy concerning optimal diagnostic criteria for these IFIs. Therefore, members of the European

  20. Using Optical Sensors to Identify Water Deprivation, Nitrogen Shortage, Weed Presence and Fungal Infection in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerassimos G. Peteinatos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The success of precision agriculture relies largely on our ability to identify how the plants’ growth limiting factors vary in time and space. In the field, several stress factors may occur simultaneously, and it is thus crucial to be able to identify the key limitation, in order to decide upon the correct contra-action, e.g., herbicide application. We performed a pot experiment, in which spring wheat was exposed to water shortage, nitrogen deficiency, weed competition (Sinapis alba L. and fungal infection (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici in a complete, factorial design. A range of sensor measurements were taken every third day from the two-leaf stage until booting of the wheat (BBCH 12 to 40. Already during the first 10 days after stress induction (DAS, both fluorescence measurements and spectral vegetation indices were able to differentiate between non-stressed and stressed wheat plants exposed to water shortage, weed competition or fungal infection. This meant that water shortage and fungal infection could be detected prior to visible symptoms. Nitrogen shortage was detected on the 11–20 DAS. Differentiation of more than one stress factors with the same index was difficult.

  1. Novel fungal proteins in the chalkbrood infection of honey bee larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Doris; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Grell, Morten Nedergaard

    2009-01-01

    . Here we investigate the interaction between the honey bee and its fungal pathogen Ascosphaera apis, the causative agent of chalkbrood, by identifying enzymes secreted by bee and fungus during different timepoints of infection. Upon testing A. apis-infected larvae for enzyme activity, the larvae...... the trappants are sequenced and annotated, selected genes are further described. As a result, we will deepen the understanding of chalkbrood, one of the main honey bee pests with relevant impact on the economy, among others due to the essential role of bees in pollination....

  2. A rapid non-destructive method for quantification of fungal infection on barley and malt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodevin, Sabrina; Larsen, Tone Glarborg; Lok, Finn

    Description of topic: Barley harvest 2007 in Europe has seen the resurgence of crops highly infected by filamentous fungi. Hence the evaluation of fungal infection on barley and malt kernels by conventional optical measurement methods lacks accuracy and can be tedious. Here we are presenting a new...... vision system to rapidly perform this task using the VideometerLab®. This system provides a rapid colour, shape and texture measurement, ideal to analyze kernels surfaces. The principle employed is a high-intensity sphere illuminated by light emitting diodes together with a highresolution black and white...

  3. Volatiles emitted from maize ears simultaneously infected with two Fusarium species mirror the most competitive fungal pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Sherif

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Along with barley and rice, maize provides staple food for more than half of the world population. Maize ears are regularly infected with fungal pathogens of the Fusarium genus, which, besides reducing yield, also taint grains with toxic metabolites. In an earlier work, we have shown that maize ears infection with single Fusarium strains was detectable through volatile sensing. In nature, infection most commonly occurs with more than a single fungal strain; hence we tested how the interactions of two strains would modulate volatile emission from infected ears. For this purpose, ears of a hybrid and a dwarf maize variety were simultaneously infected with different strains of F. graminearums and F. verticillioides and, the resulting volatile profiles were compared to the ones of ears infected with single strains. Disease severity, fungal biomass and the concentration of an oxylipin 9-hydroxy octadecadienoic acid, a signaling molecule involved in plant defense, were monitored and correlated to volatile profiles. Our results demonstrate that in simultaneous infections of hybrid and dwarf maize, the most competitive fungal strains had the largest influence on the volatile profile of infected ears. In both concurrent and single inoculations, volatile profiles reflected disease severity. Additionally, the data further indicate that dwarf maize and hybrid maize might emit common (i.e. sesquiterpenoids and specific markers upon fungal infection. Overall this suggests that volatile profiles might be a good proxy for disease severity regardless of the fungal competition taking place in maize ears. With the appropriate sensitivity and reliability, volatile sensing thus appears as a promising tool for detecting fungal infection of maize ears under field conditions.

  4. FUNGAL INFECTIONS OF THE EAR IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST: A REVIEW

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    Borlingegowda Viswanatha

    2011-01-01

           Hematological investigations play a very important role in confirming the diagnosis and immunity status of the patients. In diabetic patients with otomycosis, along with antifungal therapy blood sugar levels should be controlled with medical therapy to prevent complications.

  5. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase controls fungal loads and immunity in Paracoccidioidomicosis but is more important to susceptible than resistant hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Eliseu F; Loures, Flávio V; Bazan, Silvia B; Feriotti, Claudia; Pina, Adriana; Schanoski, Alessandra S; Costa, Tânia A; Calich, Vera L G

    2014-11-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis, a primary fungal infection restricted to Latin America, is acquired by inhalation of fungal particles. The immunoregulatory mechanisms that control the severe and mild forms of paracoccidioidomycosis are still unclear. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an IFN-γ induced enzyme that catalyzes tryptophan metabolism, can control host-pathogen interaction by inhibiting pathogen growth, T cell immunity and tissue inflammation. In this study, we investigated the role of IDO in pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis of susceptible and resistant mice. IDO was blocked by 1-methyl-dl-tryptophan (1MT), and fungal infection studied in vitro and in vivo. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection was more severe in 1MT treated than untreated macrophages of resistant and susceptible mice, concurrently with decreased production of kynurenines and IDO mRNA. Similar results were observed in the pulmonary infection. Independent of the host genetic pattern, IDO inhibition reduced fungal clearance but enhanced T cell immunity. The early IDO inhibition resulted in increased differentiation of dendritic and Th17 cells, accompanied by reduced responses of Th1 and Treg cells. Despite these equivalent biological effects, only in susceptible mice the temporary IDO blockade caused sustained fungal growth, increased tissue pathology and mortality rates. In contrast, resistant mice were able to recover the transitory IDO blockade by the late control of fungal burdens without enhanced tissue pathology. Our studies demonstrate for the first time that in pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis, IDO is an important immunoregulatory enzyme that promotes fungal clearance and inhibits T cell immunity and inflammation, with prominent importance to susceptible hosts. In fact, only in the susceptible background IDO inhibition resulted in uncontrolled tissue pathology and mortality rates. Our findings open new perspectives to understand the immunopathology of paracoccidioidomycosis, and suggest

  6. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase controls fungal loads and immunity in Paracoccidioidomicosis but is more important to susceptible than resistant hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseu F Araújo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis, a primary fungal infection restricted to Latin America, is acquired by inhalation of fungal particles. The immunoregulatory mechanisms that control the severe and mild forms of paracoccidioidomycosis are still unclear. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO, an IFN-γ induced enzyme that catalyzes tryptophan metabolism, can control host-pathogen interaction by inhibiting pathogen growth, T cell immunity and tissue inflammation.In this study, we investigated the role of IDO in pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis of susceptible and resistant mice. IDO was blocked by 1-methyl-dl-tryptophan (1MT, and fungal infection studied in vitro and in vivo. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection was more severe in 1MT treated than untreated macrophages of resistant and susceptible mice, concurrently with decreased production of kynurenines and IDO mRNA. Similar results were observed in the pulmonary infection. Independent of the host genetic pattern, IDO inhibition reduced fungal clearance but enhanced T cell immunity. The early IDO inhibition resulted in increased differentiation of dendritic and Th17 cells, accompanied by reduced responses of Th1 and Treg cells. Despite these equivalent biological effects, only in susceptible mice the temporary IDO blockade caused sustained fungal growth, increased tissue pathology and mortality rates. In contrast, resistant mice were able to recover the transitory IDO blockade by the late control of fungal burdens without enhanced tissue pathology.Our studies demonstrate for the first time that in pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis, IDO is an important immunoregulatory enzyme that promotes fungal clearance and inhibits T cell immunity and inflammation, with prominent importance to susceptible hosts. In fact, only in the susceptible background IDO inhibition resulted in uncontrolled tissue pathology and mortality rates. Our findings open new perspectives to understand the immunopathology of

  7. Chlorine gas exposure increases susceptibility to invasive lung fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Melissa A; Doran, Stephen F; Yu, Zhihong; Dunaway, Chad W; Matalon, Sadis; Steele, Chad

    2013-06-01

    Chlorine (Cl₂) is a highly irritating and reactive gas with potential occupational and environmental hazards. Acute exposure to Cl₂ induces severe epithelial damage, airway hyperreactivity, impaired alveolar fluid clearance, and pulmonary edema in the presence of heightened inflammation and significant neutrophil accumulation in the lungs. Herein, we investigated whether Cl₂ exposure affected the lung antimicrobial immune response leading to increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Mice exposed to Cl₂ and challenged intratracheally 24 h thereafter with the opportunistic mold Aspergillus fumigatus demonstrated an >500-fold increase in A. fumigatus lung burden 72 h postchallenge compared with A. fumigatus mice exposed to room air. Cl₂-exposed A. fumigatus challenged mice also demonstrated significantly higher lung resistance following methacholine challenge and increased levels of plasma proteins (albumin and IgG) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Despite enhanced recruitment of inflammatory cells to the lungs of Cl₂-exposed A. fumigatus challenged mice, these cells (>60% of which were neutrophils) demonstrated a profound impairment in generating superoxide. Significantly higher A. fumigatus burden in the lungs of Cl₂ exposed mice correlated with enhanced production of IL-6, TNF-α, CXCL1, CCL2, and CCL3. Surprisingly, however, Cl₂-exposed A. fumigatus challenged mice had a specific impairment in the production of IL-17A and IL-22 in the lungs compared with mice exposed to room air and challenged with A. fumigatus. In summary, our results indicate that Cl₂ exposure markedly impairs the antimicrobial activity and inflammatory reactivity of myeloid cells in the lung leading to increased susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens.

  8. Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as an alternative host to study fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Patrícia Canteri; Morey, Alexandre Tadachi; Castanheira, Gabriel Marcondes; Bocate, Karla Paiva; Panagio, Luciano Aparecido; Ito, Fabio Augusto; Furlaneto, Márcia Cristina; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Costa, Idessânia Nazareth; Mora-Montes, Hector Manuel; Almeida, Ricardo Sergio

    2015-11-01

    Models of host–pathogen interactions are crucial for the analysis of microbial pathogenesis. In this context, invertebrate hosts, including Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode) and Galleria mellonella (moth), have been used to study the pathogenesis of fungi and bacteria. Each of these organisms offers distinct benefits in elucidating host–pathogen interactions. In this study,we present a newinvertebrate infection model to study fungal infections: the Tenebrio molitor (beetle) larvae. Here we performed T. molitor larvae infection with one of two important fungal human pathogens, Candida albicans or Cryptococcus neoformans, and analyzed survival curves and larva infected tissues.We showed that increasing concentrations of inoculum of both fungi resulted in increased mortality rates, demonstrating the efficiency of the method to evaluate the virulence of pathogenic yeasts. Additionally, following 12 h post-infection, C. albicans formsmycelia, spreading its hyphae through the larva tissue,whilst GMS stain enabled the visualization of C. neoformans yeast and theirmelanin capsule. These larvae are easier to cultivate in the laboratory than G. mellonella larvae, and offer the same benefits. Therefore, this insect model could be a useful alternative tool to screen clinical pathogenic yeast strainswith distinct virulence traits or different mutant strains.

  9. Farm water as a possible source of fungal infections

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    Stojanov Igor M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of drinking water depends on the water sources, but also on the quality of the water distribution system which supplies the water on to the final user. In addition, the possibility of contamination of water used for watering animals in the farm buildings depends on the hygienic conditions on farms. Microbiological quality of water on farms in Serbia has not been one of the main focuses of animal breeders, although according to the Food Safety Law water is considered as food. As feed safety for the animals, which includes microbiological analyses, is an important concern of breeder farmers, it is also important to control the water safety in order not to become a cause of the animal health problems. Change of the water quality is not important only from the sanitary epidemiological point of view, but the presence of different microorganisms, especially fungi, can cause changes in taste and smell, as organoleptic properties of water. According to legal regulations, there is no difference between the quality requirements for drinking water relative to the water supply intended for animals. For the aforementioned reasons, the subject of this study is microbiological control of water samples from the drinkers for animals at farms. The aim of the work is to examine which fungi are possibly present in the water and what their number is. In total, 35 samples of water from pig and poultry farms were tested. The method of direct seeding and filtration was used. The presence of different types of mold (Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Alternaria sp., Mucor sp. and Rhizopus sp., and Candida sp. was determined. The results indicate the necessity of microbiological control of water for watering of farm animals, which implies the analysis for the presence of molds. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR31071

  10. Fungal Nail Infections: Spectrum of Aetiologic Agents and Pattern of Lesions

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    Anyimson James

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Worldwide, fungal nail infections have been on the increase, with social, cultural and economic factors contributing to it. Information on the spectrum of fungal nail infection is sparse in Nigeria. This study was carried out to establish the infection rates, aetiology and clinical types of onychomycosis in Calabar. Methods: Subjects were drawn from manicure and pedicure salons, farming settlements, mechanic workshops and dermatology clinic. A structured questionnaire was administered to participants for demographic data. Nail scrapings and clippings were obtained from subjects under standard aseptic procedure. Samples were pulverized and subjected to microscopy and culture. Standard mycological techniques were used to identify and characterize isolates. Results: Out of the 32.7% infection rates in the study, males 33.8%% were more infected than females 32.3% and subjects aged 41-50 years had the highest rate of infections. Candida species were more prevalent 63.6% than dermatophytic moulds 36.4%. Trichophyton rubrum was the most prevalent 18.2% dermatophyte. The distribution of pathogenic isolates on fingernails 45.5% and toenails 42.4% was statistically significant (χ2 =7.2, p= 0.03. Disto-lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO 51(50.5% was the most common type of nail lesion but most of the isolates 14(42.4% were recovered from TDO. Conclusion: Onychomycosis affected more adults than adolescents of both sexes in our locality. Candida species are becoming prevalent aetiologic agents of these infections, and their importance should not be overlooked in the management of patients. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(1: 23-27

  11. Rhizoctonia solani infection reduced by bacterial and fungal combination of biofertilizer inoculums on organic potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Orsolya; Biro, Borbala; Abod, Eva; Jung, Timea; Tirczka, Imre; Drexler, Dora

    2017-04-01

    Soil biological functioning and proper agrotechnical management are of key importance in organic agriculture. Beneficial microbial inoculums are used either as plant strengthening products (psp) or also as plant protecting products (ppp). Question is, which type of microbes should be applied to certain soil-plant systems to improve yield or reduce the damage of soil-born plant pathogens? Objective of present study was to compare the effect of inoculums 1 (PPS) with plant growth promoting bacterium strains (PGPR) and inoculums 2 (TPB) with potential biocontrol-agents, including both fungi and bacteria in organic potato production. Field experiment was conducted at the Organic Research Station of the Szent István University (Babatpuszta, Hungary). Growth and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum var. Demon) was studied in the two microbial treatments and control, in four replicates. The PPS inoculums included Pseudomonas protegens, Ps. jessenii and Strenotrophomonas maltophylia, with plant growth promoting (PGPR) effect. TPB inoculums consisted of Trichoderma hartianum, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis strains with main biocontrol effects of fungal and bacterium combination. Strains were incubated for 24 hours at 28 oC in a rotary shaker (140 rpm/min) up till cell-number about 1010 cell.ml-1 in Nutrient broth substrate, and mixed to prepare combined inoculums. Each potato tuber was treated by 10 ml inoculums that was added to 100 ml water respectively with only water at the controls. Yield of potato (10 plants/plot) and tuber quality, i.e. the percentage ratio of scabbiness (Streptomyces scabies), Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium sp. infection was estimated. Abundance of total aerob and anaerob heterotrophs, total microscopic fungi, pseudomonads bacteria and some sporeforming microorganisms was assessed by the most probable number (MPN) method in soil samples, collected four times during vegetation. Soil enzyme, dehydrogenase (DH) and fluorescein diacetate

  12. Anidulafungin in the treatment of invasive fungal infections

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    Kathryn Sabol

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn Sabol, Tawanda GumboUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USAAbstract: More antifungal agents have reached clinical use in the past two decades than at any other time. The echinocandins have been a welcome addition to this group, with the latest being anidulafungin. There are several lines of evidence to support anidulafungin’s role as primary therapy for the treatment of invasive candidiasis in non-neutropenic patients, and as alternative therapy to fluconazole in patients with esophageal candidiasis with azole intolerance or triazole-resistant Candida. Pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic studies in animals have demonstrated superior efficacy, defined as maximal microbial kill, when compared to fluconazole, regardless of the fluconazole susceptibility of the Candida species. These studies, as well as dose-effect studies in patients, also support the currently recommended dose of anidulafungin. A well designed randomized controlled trial has demonstrated anidulafungin’s efficacy in patients with invasive candidiasis. In this paper, we argue that anidulafungin may be preferable to fluconazole for the treatment of candidemia. However, as of yet, the difference between anidulafungin and the other two licensed echinocandins as first-line therapy for invasive candidiasis is unclear. On the other hand, there is insufficient evidence as of yet to support first-line use of anidulafungin in patients with neutropenia or aspergillosis.Keywords: anidulafungin, pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics, efficacy, candidiasis

  13. Resveratrol content of Palomino fino grapes: influence of vintage and fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Ana; Palacios, Victor; Caro, Ildefonso; Pérez, Luis

    2003-02-26

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of certain factors on the resveratrol content of Palomino fino grapes, cultivated in the Jerez-Xérèz-Sherry area, at the moment of harvest. The results show that the resveratrol content is highly influenced by the climatic conditions prior to the period of maturation of the fruit. On the other hand, the gray mold pressure in the vineyard, a fungal infection caused by Botrytis cinerea, increased the resveratrol contents at the early stages of fungal development. When Botrytis development was extensive, the resveratrol content tended to decrease in the juice but tended to increase in the skin. Physiological stress of the plant leads to increases in the resveratrol content, caused as much by the climatic conditions of the vintage as by biotic factors. In this case resveratrol is present mainly in the glycosylated form.

  14. Risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of invasive fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodro, M; Sabé, N; Gomila, A; Ayats, J; Baliellas, C; Roca, J; Melilli, E; Carratalà, J

    2012-11-01

    Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. We sought to assess risk factors, clinical characteristics, and current outcomes of IFI in SOT recipients. We reviewed all episodes of IFI occurring among SOT recipients in a university hospital from 2008 to 2011. To determine risk factors for IFI we carried out a matched case-control study (1:2 ratio). Control subjects were matched for transplant type and timing. We documented 20 episodes of IFI among 744 SOT recipients (2.7%). Sixty-five percent of cases were proven IFI and 35% were probable IFI. The types of IFI documented were aspergillosis in 8 cases, candidiasis in 7, pneumocystosis in 3, Emmonsia species in infection 1, and disseminated cryptococcosis in 1. Ninety-nine percent of the patients had received a prior antibiotic therapy (3 months), 40% presented allograft rejection (3 months), and 40% had prior kidney injury. Complications of IFI included septic shock (50%), respiratory failure (55%), multiple-organ dysfunction (55%), and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (50%). Median days from transplantation to diagnosis was 103 for candidiasis (range, 27-4644) and 1195 for aspergillosis (range, 0-4319). In a comparison of case patients with 40 matched control subjects, case patients more frequently presented prior ICU stay (3 months; P = .05), hemodialysis requirement (P = .02), receipt of high-dose prednisone (6 months; P = .006), and prior antibiotic therapy (P < .001). Prior use of antibiotic treatment was the only risk factor for IFI (odds ratio [OR] 93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.3-1042). Case-fatality rate was 60%. In our recent experience, 2.7% of SOT recipients developed IFI, mainly aspergillosis followed by candidiasis. Prior ICU admission, hemodialysis, receipt of high-dose prednisone, and prior antibiotic use were more frequent in cases when compared with control subjects, with the latter factor being the only

  15. [Antifungal therapy for infants, children and adolescents with suspected or documented invasive fungal infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odio, C M

    2010-04-01

    Fungal nosocomial infections have gradually and consistently increased since the 90s.This increasing threat is closely related with the growing number of people with immune system disorders and their survival. It is also related with the destruction of their physical barriers against infection due to the use of cytotoxic drugs or invasive procedures, such is the case of cancer patients and bone marrow and solid organ transplant patients. Increased survival of patients with congenital or acquired immunodeficiency, premature babies and patients with complex congenital malformations, especially in the gastrointestinal tract, also add up to this scenario. The occurrence of yeast and filamentous fungi infections, especially of the Candida species, has been on the rise. Azole agents overuse, especially fluconazole, for the treatment and prophylaxis of fungal infections has put selective pressure on Candida spp. which resulted in an increase of non-albican species such as C. krusei, C. glabrata and C. famata, among others, as well as their growing resistance to these antifungal agents.

  16. Sulfur fertilization and fungal infections affect the exchange of H(2)S and COS from agricultural crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Elke; Haneklaus, Silvia; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Schnug, Ewald

    2012-08-08

    The emission of gaseous sulfur (S) compounds by plants is related to several factors, such as the plant S status or fungal infection. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is either released or taken up by the plant depending on the ambient air concentration and the plant demand for S. On the contrary, carbonyl sulfide (COS) is normally taken up by plants. In a greenhouse experiment, the dependence of H(2)S and COS exchange with ambient air on the S status of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and on fungal infection with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was investigated. Thiol contents were determined to understand their influence on the exchange of gaseous S compounds. The experiment revealed that H(2)S emissions were closely related to pathogen infections as well as to S nutrition. S fertilization caused a change from H(2)S consumption by S-deficient oilseed rape plants to a H(2)S release of 41 pg g(-1) (dw) min(-1) after the addition of 250 mg of S per pot. Fungal infection caused an even stronger increase of H(2)S emissions with a maximum of 1842 pg g(-1) (dw) min(-1) 2 days after infection. Healthy oilseed rape plants acted as a sink for COS. Fungal infection caused a shift from COS uptake to COS releases. The release of S-containing gases thus seems to be part of the response to fungal infection. The roles the S-containing gases may play in this response are discussed.

  17. Development of Fungal Applications on Netting Substrates for Malaria Vector Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farenhorst, M.; Hilhorst, A.; Thomas, M.B.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Mosquito resistance to chemical insecticides is considered a serious threat for the sustainable use of contemporary malaria vector control methods. Fungal entomopathogens show potential as alternative biological control agents against (insecticide-resistant) anophelines. This study was designed to

  18. In vivo volatile emissions from peanut plants induced by simultaneous fungal infection and insect damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoza, Yasmin J; Alborn, Hans T; Tumlinson, James H

    2002-01-01

    Peanut plants, Arachis hypogaea, infected with white mold. Sclerotium rolfsii, emit a blend of organic compounds that differs both quantitatively and qualitatively from the blend emitted from plants damaged by beet armyworm (BAW; Spodoptera exigua) larvae or from uninfected, undamaged plants. Attackby BAW induced release of lipoxygenase products (hexenols, hexenals, and hexenyl esters), terpenoids, and indole. The plant-derived compound methyl salicylate and the fungal-derived compound 3-octanone were found only in headspace samples from white mold infected plants. White mold-infected plants exposed to BAW damage released all the volatiles emitted by healthy plants fed on by BAW in addition to those emitted in response to white mold infection alone. When BAW larvae were given a choice of feeding on leaves from healthy or white mold-infected plants, they consumed larger quantities of the leaves from infected plants. Exposure to commercially available (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate, linalool, and methyl salicylate, compounds emitted by white mold-infected plants, significantly reduced the growth of the white mold in solid-media cultures. Thus, emission of these compounds by infected plants may constitute a direct defense against this pathogen.

  19. Fungal and Bacterial Infection Mitigation with Antibiotic and Antifungal Loaded Biopolymer Sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ashley Cox

    Musculoskeletal injuries are some of the most prevalent injuries in both civilian and military populations and their infections can be difficult to treat, often resulting in multiple surgeries and increased costs. In both previous and recent military operations, extremity injuries have been the most common battlefield injuries and many involve complex, open fractures. These extremity injuries are especially susceptible to multiple pathogenic, and sometimes drug resistant, bacteria and fungi. Fungal infections have recently become increasingly problematic in both military and civilian populations and have significantly higher amputation rates than those from bacterial infections. Many of these bacterial and fungal strains adhere to tissue and implanted orthopaedic hardware within wounds, forming biofilms. These problematic, often polymicrobial, infections threaten the health of the patient, but the risk also exists of spreading within hospitals to become prominent resistant infections. Local antimicrobial delivery releases high levels of antimicrobials directly to injured wound tissue, overcoming sub-bactericidal or subfungicidal antimicrobial levels present in the avascular wound zones. This research will determine the ability of modified chitosan sponges, buffered with sodium acetate or blended with polyethylene glycol (PEG), to act as short term adjunctive therapies to initial surgical treatment for delivering both antibiotics and/or antifungals for early abatement of infection. The objective of this work was to evaluate both types of modified sponges for in vitro and in vivo material characteristics and device functionality. In vitro analysis demonstrated both the buffered and PEG modified chitosan sponges exhibited increased degradation and functional cytocompatibility. The chitosan/PEG sponges were able to be loaded with hydrophobic antifungals and the sponges released in vitro biologically active concentrations, alone or in combination with the antibiotic

  20. Automated in vivo identification of fungal infection on human scalp using optical coherence tomography and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Kavita; Srivastava, Vishal; Singh Mehta, Dalip

    2018-04-01

    Early identification of fungal infection on the human scalp is crucial for avoiding hair loss. The diagnosis of fungal infection on the human scalp is based on a visual assessment by trained experts or doctors. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the ability to capture fungal infection information from the human scalp with a high resolution. In this study, we present a fully automated, non-contact, non-invasive optical method for rapid detection of fungal infections based on the extracted features from A-line and B-scan images of OCT. A multilevel ensemble machine model is designed to perform automated classification, which shows the superiority of our classifier to the best classifier based on the features extracted from OCT images. In this study, 60 samples (30 fungal, 30 normal) were imaged by OCT and eight features were extracted. The classification algorithm had an average sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 92.30, 90.90 and 91.66%, respectively, for identifying fungal and normal human scalps. This remarkable classifying ability makes the proposed model readily applicable to classifying the human scalp.

  1. Naïve B cells reduce fungal dissemination in Cryptococcus neoformans infected Rag1-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufaud, Chad; Rivera, Johanna; Rohatgi, Soma; Pirofski, Liise-Anne

    2018-01-01

    IgM and B-1 cell deficient mice exhibit early C. neoformans dissemination from lungs to brain, but a definitive role for B cells in conferring resistance to C. neoformans dissemination has not been established. To address this question, we developed an intranasal (i.n.) C. neoformans infection model in B and T cell deficient Rag1 -/- mice and found they also exhibit earlier fungal dissemination and higher brain CFU than wild-type C57Bl/6 (wild-type) mice. To probe the effect of B cells on fungal dissemination, Rag1 -/- mice were given splenic (intravenously) or peritoneal (intraperitoneally) B cells from wild-type mice and infected i.n. with C. neoformans 7 d later. Mice that received B cells had lung histopathology resembling wild type mice 14 d post-infection, and B-1, not B-2 or T cells in their lungs, and serum and lung IgM and IgG 21 d post-infection. Lung CFU were comparable in wild-type, Rag1 -/-, and Rag1 -/- mice that received B cells 21 d post-infection, but brain CFU were significantly lower in mice that received B cells than Rag1 -/- mice that did not. To determine if natural antibody can promote immunity in our model, we measured alveolar macrophage phagocytosis of C. neoformans in Rag1 -/- mice treated with naive wild-type IgM-sufficient or sIgM -/- IgM-deficient sera before infection. Compared to IgM-deficient sera, IgM-sufficient sera significantly increased phagocytosis. Our data establish B cells are able to reduce early C. neoformans dissemination in mice and suggest natural IgM may be a key mediator of early antifungal immunity in the lungs.

  2. Proportion of lower limb fungal foot infections in patients with type 2 diabetes at a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka

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    T M Wijesuriya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Superficial fungal foot infection (SFFI in diabetic patients increases the risk of developing diabetic foot syndrome. Sixteen percent of urban population is suffering from diabetes in Sri Lanka. As the diabetes patients are more prone to get fungal foot infections, early intervention is advisable owing to the progressive nature of the infection. There is no data on the prevalence of SFFIs in diabetic patients in Sri Lanka. Objective: To determine the etiological agents causing SFFI in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods : Three hundred eighty five diabetic patients were included. Nail clippings and swabs were collected from the infected sites using the standard protocol. Laboratory identification was done and pathogens were identified to the species level by morpho physiological methods. Results: Clinically 295 patients showed SFFI, of which 255 (86% were mycologically confirmed for infection. Out of 236 direct microscopy (KOH positives, 227 (96% were culture positive. Two hundred and fifty one patients (98% with SFFI had diabetes for more than 10 years. Of the patients with SFFIs 92% had >100 mg/dl FBS and 81% had >140 mg/dl PPBS levels and 80% had both elevated FBS and PPBS. Non-dermatophyte fungal species were the commonest pathogens followed by yeast and dermatophytes. Conclusion: Aspergillus niger was the commonest pathogen followed by Candida albicans. SFFIs were seen significantly with the increasing age, gender, duration of diabetes and with less controlled glycaemic level.

  3. Image-Processing Scheme to Detect Superficial Fungal Infections of the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Mäder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of superficial fungal infections is assumed to be 20 to 25% of the global human population. Fluorescence microscopy of extracted skin samples is frequently used for a swift assessment of infections. To support the dermatologist, an image-analysis scheme has been developed that evaluates digital microscopic images to detect fungal hyphae. The aim of the study was to increase diagnostic quality and to shorten the time-to-diagnosis. The analysis, consisting of preprocessing, segmentation, parameterization, and classification of identified structures, was performed on digital microscopic images. A test dataset of hyphae and false-positive objects was created to evaluate the algorithm. Additionally, the performance for real clinical images was investigated using 415 images. The results show that the sensitivity for hyphae is 94% and 89% for singular and clustered hyphae, respectively. The mean exclusion rate is 91% for the false-positive objects. The sensitivity for clinical images was 83% and the specificity was 79%. Although the performance is lower for the clinical images than for the test dataset, a reliable and fast diagnosis can be achieved since it is not crucial to detect every hypha to conclude that a sample consisting of several images is infected. The proposed analysis therefore enables a high diagnostic quality and a fast sample assessment to be achieved.

  4. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Voriconazole in the Management of Invasive Fungal Infections: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elewa, Hazem; El-Mekaty, Eman; El-Bardissy, Ahmed; Ensom, Mary H H; Wilby, Kyle John

    2015-12-01

    The broad-spectrum triazole antifungal agent voriconazole is highly efficacious against invasive fungal infections (IFIs) caused by Aspergillus spp. and Candida spp. IFIs are associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, especially in vulnerable populations such as patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplant as well as other immunocompromised patients. Efficacy of voriconazole in these patients is critical to ensure positive outcomes and reduce mortality. However, a major limitation of voriconazole is the risk of adverse events such as hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity. As such, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has been suggested as a mechanism to optimize both efficacy and safety. The aim of this review was to summarize and evaluate evidence from the primary literature that assessed TDM outcomes for voriconazole as well as evaluate the association between CYP2C19 polymorphism and the clinical outcomes of voriconazole. Findings showed associations for both efficacy and safety outcomes with measurement of drug concentrations, yet exact targets or thresholds remain unclear. As such, TDM should be reserved for those patients not responding to therapy with voriconazole or those experiencing adverse drug reactions. Future studies should attempt to further define these populations within controlled settings. Studies that evaluated the effect of CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism on clinical outcomes found no significant relationship between CYP2C19 genotype and hepatotoxicity. These negative findings may be due to lack of power, use of phenotypes not well-defined, and the presence of other interacting factors that may impact voriconazole pharmacokinetics. Future well-designed studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  5. Selection of promising fungal biological control agent of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niassy, S; Maniania, N K; Subramanian, S; Gitonga, L M; Mburu, D M; Masiga, D; Ekesi, S

    2012-06-01

    Larval stages of Frankliniella occidentalis are known to be refractory to fungal infection compared with the adult stage. The objective of this study was to identify promising fungal isolate(s) for the control of larval stages of F. occidentalis. Ten isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae and eight of Beauveria bassiana were screened for virulence against second-instar larvae of F. occidentalis. Conidial production and genetic polymorphism were also investigated. Metarhizium anisopliae isolates ICIPE 7, ICIPE 20, ICIPE 69 and ICIPE 665 had the shortest LT(50) values of 8.0-8.9 days. ICIPE 69, ICIPE 7 and ICIPE 20 had the lowest LC(50) values of 1.1 × 10(7), 2.0 × 10(7) and 3.0 × 10(7) conidia ml(-1), respectively. Metarhizium anisopliae isolate ICIPE 69 produced significantly more conidia than M. anisopliae isolates ICIPE 7 and ICIPE 20. Internally transcribed spacers sequences alignment showed differences in nucleotides composition, which can partly explain differences in virulence. These results coupled with the previous ones on virulence and field efficacy against other species of thrips make M. anisopliae isolate ICIPE 69 a good candidate. Metarhizium anisopliae isolate ICIPE 69 can be suggested for development as fungus-based biopesticide for thrips management. © International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe). Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients with Hematological Malignancies: Emergence of Resistant Pathogens and New Antifungal Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaletsou, Maria N; Walsh, Thomas J; Sipsas, Nikolaos V

    2018-03-01

    Invasive fungal infections caused by drug-resistant organisms are an emerging threat to heavily immunosuppressed patients with hematological malignancies. Modern early antifungal treatment strategies, such as prophylaxis and empirical and preemptive therapy, result in long-term exposure to antifungal agents, which is a major driving force for the development of resistance. The extended use of central venous catheters, the nonlinear pharmacokinetics of certain antifungal agents, neutropenia, other forms of intense immunosuppression, and drug toxicities are other contributing factors. The widespread use of agricultural and industrial fungicides with similar chemical structures and mechanisms of action has resulted in the development of environmental reservoirs for some drug-resistant fungi, especially azole-resistant Aspergillus species, which have been reported from four continents. The majority of resistant strains have the mutation TR34/L98H, a finding suggesting that the source of resistance is the environment. The global emergence of new fungal pathogens with inherent resistance, such as Candida auris, is a new public health threat. The most common mechanism of antifungal drug resistance is the induction of efflux pumps, which decrease intracellular drug concentrations. Overexpression, depletion, and alteration of the drug target are other mechanisms of resistance. Mutations in the ERG11 gene alter the protein structure of C-demethylase, reducing the efficacy of antifungal triazoles. Candida species become echinocandin-resistant by mutations in FKS genes. A shift in the epidemiology of Candida towards resistant non-albicans Candida spp. has emerged among patients with hematological malignancies. There is no definite association between antifungal resistance, as defined by elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations, and clinical outcomes in this population. Detection of genes or mutations conferring resistance with the use of molecular methods may offer better

  7. Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients with Hematological Malignancies: Emergence of Resistant Pathogens and New Antifungal Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria N. Gamaletsou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections caused by drug-resistant organisms are an emerging threat to heavily immunosuppressed patients with hematological malignancies. Modern early antifungal treatment strategies, such as prophylaxis and empirical and preemptive therapy, result in long-term exposure to antifungal agents, which is a major driving force for the development of resistance. The extended use of central venous catheters, the nonlinear pharmacokinetics of certain antifungal agents, neutropenia, other forms of intense immunosuppression, and drug toxicities are other contributing factors. The widespread use of agricultural and industrial fungicides with similar chemical structures and mechanisms of action has resulted in the development of environmental reservoirs for some drug-resistant fungi, especially azole-resistant Aspergillus species, which have been reported from four continents. The majority of resistant strains have the mutation TR34/L98H, a finding suggesting that the source of resistance is the environment. The global emergence of new fungal pathogens with inherent resistance, such as Candida auris, is a new public health threat. The most common mechanism of antifungal drug resistance is the induction of efflux pumps, which decrease intracellular drug concentrations. Overexpression, depletion, and alteration of the drug target are other mechanisms of resistance. Mutations in the ERG11 gene alter the protein structure of C-demethylase, reducing the efficacy of antifungal triazoles. Candida species become echinocandin-resistant by mutations in FKS genes. A shift in the epidemiology of Candida towards resistant non-albicans Candida spp. has emerged among patients with hematological malignancies. There is no definite association between antifungal resistance, as defined by elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations, and clinical outcomes in this population. Detection of genes or mutations conferring resistance with the use of molecular methods

  8. [Fungal nail infections--an update: Part 1--Prevalence, epidemiology, predisposing conditions, and differential diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenoff, P; Ginter-Hanselmayer, G; Tietz, H-J

    2012-01-01

    Onychomycosis describes a chronic fungal infection of the nails most frequently caused by dermatophytes, primarily Trichophyton rubrum. In addition, yeasts (e. g. Candida parapsilosis), more rarely molds (Scopulariopsis brevicaulis), play a role as causative agents of onychomycosis. However, in every case it has to be decided if these yeasts and molds are contaminants, or if they are growing secondarily on pathological altered nails. The point prevalence of onychomycosis in Germany is 12.4%, as demonstrated within the "Foot-Check-Study", which was a part of the European Achilles project. Although, onychomycosis is rarely diagnosed in children and teens, now an increase of fungal nail infections has been observed in childhood. More and more, diabetes mellitus becomes important as significant disposing factor both for tinea pedis and onychomycosis. By implication, the onychomycosis represents an independent and important predictor for development of diabetic foot syndrome and foot ulcer. When considering onychomycosis, a number of infectious and non-infectious nail changes must be excluded. While psoriasis of the nails does not represent a specific risk factor for onychomycosis, yeasts and molds are increasing isolated from patients with psoriatic nail involvement. In most cases this represents secondary growth of fungi on psoriatic nails. Recently, stigmatization and impairment of quality of life due to the onychomycosis has been proven.

  9. Cerebral scedosporiosis: an emerging fungal infection in severe neutropenic patients. CT features and CT pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marco de Lucas, Enrique; Sadaba, Pablo; Lastra Garcia-Baron, Pedro; Ruiz Delgado, Maria Luisa; Gonzalez Mandly, Andres; Gutierrez, Agustin; Diez, Consuelo [Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Department of Radiology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Cuevas, Jorge; Fernandez, Fidel [Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Department of Pathology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Salesa, Ricardo [Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Department of Microbiology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Bermudez, Arancha [Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Department of Hematology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Marco de Lucas, Fernando [Hospital de Basurto, Department of Hematology, Bilbao, Vizcaya (Spain)

    2006-02-01

    Scedosporium prolificans is an emerging opportunistic fungal agent encountered in severely neutropenic patients. The purpose of this paper is to describe the main cranial CT findings from a retrospective review of six patients (four men and two women, 18-66 years old) afflicted with disseminated infection by S. prolificans with neurological symptoms. They were severely neutropenic and presented with severe respiratory failure and conscience deterioration, with a subsequent 100% mortality. The final diagnosis was established by autopsy (performed in five patients) and blood culture findings. Cranial CT showed multiple low-density lesions in four patients without contrast enhancement located in the basal ganglia and corticomedullary junction. Autopsy findings of these lesions demonstrated necrosis and hyphae proliferation inside brain infarcts. Also, two of the patients had a subarachnoid hemorrhage, but angiography could not be performed. CT and autopsy findings were fairly similar to those encountered in cerebral aspergillosis; however, possibly because of its rapid and fatal evolution, no edema or ring enhancing lesions were encountered. Thus, Scedosporium can be included as a rare but possible cause of invasive fungal disseminated central nervous system infections in severely neutropenic patients. (orig.)

  10. Infection of the Sunagoke moss panels with fungal pathogens hampers sustainable greening in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, Motomu; Lehtonen, Mikko T; Koponen, Hilkka; Marttinen, Eeva M; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2011-08-01

    Drought and heat tolerance of the Sunagoke moss (Racomitrium japonicum) and the low thermal conductivity of the dry moss tissue offer novel greening and insulation possibilities of roofs and walls to mitigate the heat island phenomenon in urban environments. However, damage may appear in the moss panels under humid conditions in Japan. In this study we characterized fungi associated with the damaged areas of the Sunagoke moss panels. Fungi were identified by morphology and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis and tested for pathogenicity on R. japonicum (Grimmiaceae) and an unrelated moss species (Physcomitrella patens; Funariaceae) under controlled conditions. Alternaria alternata, Fusarium avenaceum and Fusarium oxysporum caused severe necrosis and death, whereas Cladosporium oxysporum and Epicoccum nigrum caused milder discoloration or chlorosis in both moss species. The fungi pathogenic on moss were closely related to fungal pathogens described from cultivated vascular plants. Ammonium increased severity of fungal diseases in moss. This study demonstrated that fungi can cause economically significant diseases in cultivated moss and hamper commercial use of the moss panels unless appropriate control methods are developed. Use of a single moss clone to cover large surfaces and the air pollutants such as ammonium may increase the risk for fungal disease problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Infections and infestations of the gastrointestinal tract. Part 1: Bacterial, viral and fungal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, R., E-mail: rakslide@gmail.com [Department of Clinical Radiology, South Warwickshire NHS Foundation Trust, Warwick (United Kingdom); Rajesh, A. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Rawat, S. [Department of Radiology, Ruby Hall Clinic, Pune (India); Rajiah, P. [Imaging Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Ramachandran, I. [Department of Clinical Radiology, South Warwickshire NHS Foundation Trust, Warwick (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this article is to review the imaging findings of various infections affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Barium examinations, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasonography all play an important role in the diagnostic workup of gastrointestinal tract infections. Knowledge of differential diagnosis, sites of involvement, and typical imaging features of different infections can help in accurate diagnosis and guide treatment.

  12. Potential of Fungal Pathogens for Biological Control of Water Hyacinth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fungal pathogens associated with water hyacinth. Several potential pathogen isolates including Alternaria eichhorniae, Cercospora sp. and Acremonium zonatum were identified. Isolates of Cercospora sp. and A. eichhorniae were evaluated for their effectiveness on water hyacinth plants in the screen bouse. The disease ...

  13. What's trending in infection control?

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Brett G..; Petrie, Dayna.; Morton, Lindsay.; Dancer, Stephanie J..

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the trends in infection control peer-reviewed journals, mainstream media, and blogs written by infection control professionals DESIGN Narrative and scoping reviews METHODS Narrative and scoping reviews were performed to identify trending infection prevention and control topics from international journals, national news websites, newspapers, and so-called grey literature throughout 2015. Data were analyzed using word frequencies, and results are displayed in word clouds. R...

  14. Fungal parasites infect marine diatoms in the upwelling ecosystem of the Humboldt current system off central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Marcelo H; Jara, Ana M; Pantoja, Silvio

    2016-05-01

    This is the first report of fungal parasitism of diatoms in a highly productive coastal upwelling ecosystem, based on a year-round time series of diatom and parasitic Chytridiomycota abundance in the Humboldt Current System off Chile (36°30.80'S-73°07.70'W). Our results show co-variation in the presence of Skeletonema, Thalassiosira and Chaetoceros diatoms with attached and detached chytrid sporangia. High abundance of attached sporangia was observed during the austral spring, coinciding with a predominance of Thalassiosira and Skeletonema under active upwelling conditions. Towards the end of austral spring, a decreasing proportion of attached sporangia was accompanied by a decline in abundance of Skeletonema and Thalassiosira and the predominance of Chaetoceros, suggesting specificity and host density dependence of chytrid infection. The new findings on fungal parasitism of diatoms provide further support for the inclusion of Fungi in the current model of the role played by the marine microbial community in the coastal ocean. We propose a conceptual model where Fungi contribute to controlling the dynamics of phytoplankton populations, as well as the release of organic matter and the transfer of organic carbon through the pelagic trophic web in coastal upwelling ecosystems. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Probiotics Prevent Candida Colonization and Invasive Fungal Sepsis in Preterm Neonates: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hua-Jian; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Qiao; Shakya, Shristi; Li, Zhong-Yue

    2017-04-01

    To investigate whether probiotic supplementation could reduce the risk of fungal infection in preterm neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), we systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on the effect of probiotics on fungal infection in preterm neonates. The outcomes of interest were Candida colonization and invasive fungal sepsis. Seven trials involving 1371 preterm neonates were included. Meta-analysis (fixed-effects model) showed that probiotic supplementation was significantly associated with a lower risk of Candida colonization (2 RCTs, n = 329; relative risk (RR), 0.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.27-0.67; p = 0.0002; I 2  = 0%), and invasive fungal sepsis (7 RCTs, n = 1371; RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46-0.88; p = 0.006; I 2  = 13%). After excluding one study with a high baseline incidence (75%) of fungal sepsis, the effect of probiotics on invasive fungal sepsis became statistically insignificant (RR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.44-1.78; p = 0.72; I 2  = 15%). When using the random-effects model, the effect of probiotics remained favorable for Candida colonization (RR, 0.43; 95% CI 0.27-0.68; p = 0.0002; I 2  = 0%) but not for fungal sepsis (RR, 0.64; 95% CI 0.38-1.08; p = 0.10; I 2  = 13%). Current evidence indicates that probiotics can reduce the risk of Candida colonization in preterm neonates in NICUs. Limited data support that probiotic supplementation prevents invasive fungal sepsis in preterm neonates. High-quality and adequately powered RCTs are warranted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Multicenter Outbreak of Infections by Saprochaete clavata, an Unrecognized Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaux, Sophie; Criscuolo, Alexis; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Diancourt, Laure; Tarnaud, Chloé; Vandenbogaert, Matthias; Brisse, Sylvain; Coignard, Bruno; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Blanc, Catherine; Hoinard, Damien; Lortholary, Olivier; Bretagne, Stéphane; Thiolet, Jean-Michel; de Valk, Henriette; Courbil, Rémi; Chabanel, Anne; Simonet, Marion; Maire, Francoise; Jbilou, Saadia; Tiberghien, Pierre; Blanchard, Hervé; Venier, Anne-Gaëlle; Bernet, Claude; Simon, Loïc; Sénéchal, Hélène; Pouchol, Elodie; Angot, Christiane; Ribaud, Patricia; Socié, G.; Flèche, M.; Brieu, Nathalie; Lagier, Evelyne; Chartier, Vanessa; Allegre, Thierry; Maulin, Laurence; Lanic, Hélène; Tilly, Hervé; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Pihet, Marc; Schmidt, Aline; Kouatchet, Achille; Vandamme, Yves-Marie; Ifrah, Norbert; Mercat, Alain; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Albert, Olivier; Leguay, Thibaut; Rogues, Anne-Marie; Bonhomme, Julie; Reman, Oumédaly; Lesteven, Claire; Poirier, Philippe; Chabrot, Cécile Molucon; Calvet, Laure; Baud, Olivier; Cambon, Monique; Farkas, Jean Chistophe; Lafon, Bruno; Dalle, Frédéric; Caillot, Denis; Lazzarotti, Aline; Aho, Serge; Combret, Sandrine; Facon, Thierry; Sendid, Boualem; Loridant, Séverine; Louis, Terriou; Cazin, Bruno; Grandbastien, Bruno; Bourgeois, Nathalie; Lotthé, Anne; Cartron, Guillaume; Ravel, Christophe; Colson, Pascal; Gaudard, Philippe; Bonmati, Caroline; Simon, Loic; Rabaud, Christian; Machouart, Marie; Poisson, Didier; Carp, Diana; Meunier, Jérôme; Gaschet, Anne; Miquel, Chantal; Sanhes, Laurence; Ferreyra, Milagros; Leibinger, Franck; Geudet, Philippe; Toubas, Dominique; Himberlin, Chantal; Bureau-Chalot, Florence; Delmer, Alain; Favennec, Loïc; Gargala, Gilles; Michot, Jean-Baptiste; Girault, Christophe; David, Marion; Leprêtre, Stéphane; Jardin, Fabrice; Honderlick, Pierre; Caille, Vincent; Cerf, Charles; Cassaing, Sophie; Recher, Christian; Picard, Muriel; Protin, Caroline; Huguet, Françoise; Huynh, Anne; Ruiz, Jean; Riu-Poulenc, Béatrice; Letocart, Philippe; Marchou, Bruno; Verdeil, Xavier; Cavalié, Laurent; Chauvin, Pamela; Iriart, Xavier; Valentin, Alexis; Bouvet, Emmanuelle; Delmas-Marsalet, Béatrice; Jeblaoui, Asma; Kassis-Chikhani, Najiby; Mühlethaler, Konrad; Zimmerli, Stefan; Zalar, Polona; Sánchez-Reus, Ferran; Gurgui, Merce

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rapidly fatal cases of invasive fungal infections due to a fungus later identified as Saprochaete clavata were reported in France in May 2012. The objectives of this study were to determine the clonal relatedness of the isolates and to investigate possible sources of contamination. A nationwide alert was launched to collect cases. Molecular identification methods, whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and clone-specific genotyping were used to analyze recent and historical isolates, and a case-case study was performed. Isolates from thirty cases (26 fungemias, 22 associated deaths at day 30) were collected between September 2011 and October 2012. Eighteen cases occurred within 8 weeks (outbreak) in 10 health care facilities, suggesting a common source of contamination, with potential secondary cases. Phylogenetic analysis identified one clade (clade A), which accounted for 16/18 outbreak cases. Results of microbiological investigations of environmental, drug, or food sources were negative. Analysis of exposures pointed to a medical device used for storage and infusion of blood products, but no fungal contamination was detected in the unused devices. Molecular identification of isolates from previous studies demonstrated that S. clavata can be found in dairy products and has already been involved in monocentric outbreaks in hematology wards. The possibility that S. clavata may transmit through contaminated medical devices or can be associated with dairy products as seen in previous European outbreaks is highly relevant for the management of future outbreaks due to this newly recognized pathogen. This report also underlines further the potential of WGS for investigation of outbreaks due to uncommon fungal pathogens. PMID:25516620

  17. Cryptococcus neoformans-derived microvesicles enhance the pathogenesis of fungal brain infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-He Huang

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is the most common fungal disease in the central nervous system. The mechanisms by which Cryptococcus neoformans invades the brain are largely unknown. In this study, we found that C. neoformans-derived microvesicles (CnMVs can enhance the traversal of the blood-brain barrier (BBB by C. neoformans invitro. The immunofluorescence imaging demonstrates that CnMVs can fuse with human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs, the constituents of the BBB. This activity is presumably due to the ability of the CnMVs to activate HBMEC membrane rafts and induce cell fusogenic activity. CnMVs also enhanced C. neoformans infection of the brain, found in both infected brains and cerebrospinal fluid. In infected mouse brains, CnMVs are distributed inside and around C. neoformans-induced cystic lesions. GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes were found surrounding the cystic lesions, overlapping with the 14-3-3-GFP (14-3-3-green fluorescence protein fusion signals. Substantial changes could be observed in areas that have a high density of CnMV staining. This is the first demonstration that C. neoformans-derived microvesicles can facilitate cryptococcal traversal across the BBB and accumulate at lesion sites of C. neoformans-infected brains. Results of this study suggested that CnMVs play an important role in the pathogenesis of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis.

  18. Fungal infections in marrow transplant recipients under antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira J.S.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infection is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in bone marrow transplant (BMT recipients. The growing incidence of these infections is related to several factors including prolonged granulocytopenia, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, conditioning regimens, and use of immunosuppression to avoid graft-versus-host disease (GvHD. In the present series, we report five cases of invasive mold infections documented among 64 BMT recipients undergoing fluconazole antifungal prophylaxis: 1 A strain of Scedosporium prolificans was isolated from a skin lesion that developed on day +72 after BMT in a chronic myeloid leukemic patient. 2 Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (Aspergillus fumigatus was diagnosed on day +29 in a patient with a long period of hospitalization before being transplanted for severe aplastic anemia. 3 A tumoral lung lesion due to Rhizopus arrhizus (zygomycosis was observed in a transplanted patient who presented severe chronic GvHD. 4 A tumoral lesion due to Aspergillus spp involving the 7th, 8th and 9th right ribs and local soft tissue was diagnosed in a BMT patient on day +110. 5 A patient with a history of Ph1-positive acute lymphocytic leukemia exhibited a cerebral lesion on day +477 after receiving a BMT during an episode of severe chronic GvHD. At that time, blood and spinal fluid cultures yielded Fusarium sp. Opportunistic infections due to fungi other than Candida spp are becoming a major problem among BMT patients receiving systemic antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole.

  19. The Prevalence and Pattern of Superficial Fungal Infections among School Children in Ile-Ife, South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaide Olutoyin Oke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the skin and nails are common global problems with attendant morbidity among affected individuals. Children are mostly affected due to predisposing factors such as overcrowding and low socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the clinical patterns of superficial fungal infections among primary school children in Ile-Ife. A multistage sampling was conducted to select eight hundred pupils from ten primary schools in Ile-Ife. Data on epidemiological characteristics and clinical history was collected using a semistructured questionnaire and skin scrapings were done. The prevalence of superficial fungal infections among the 800 respondents was 35.0%. Male pupils constituted 51.0% of respondents while the females were 49.0%. The mean age for all the respondents was 9.42 ± 2.00. Tinea capitis was the commonest infection with a prevalence of 26.9% and tinea unguium, tinea corporis, and tinea faciei had a prevalence of 0.8%, 0.6%, and 0.5%, respectively. Tinea manuum had the least prevalence of 0.1%. Pityriasis versicolor had a prevalence of 4.4%. Microsporum audouinii was the leading organism isolated. The study shows that the prevalence of superficial fungal infection (SFI among primary school children in Ile-Ife is high with tinea capitis as the commonest SFI.

  20. The Prevalence and Pattern of Superficial Fungal Infections among School Children in Ile-Ife, South-Western Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, Olaide Olutoyin; Onayemi, Olaniyi; Olasode, Olayinka Abimbola; Omisore, Akinlolu Gabriel; Oninla, Olumayowa Abimbola

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infections of the skin and nails are common global problems with attendant morbidity among affected individuals. Children are mostly affected due to predisposing factors such as overcrowding and low socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the clinical patterns of superficial fungal infections among primary school children in Ile-Ife. A multistage sampling was conducted to select eight hundred pupils from ten primary schools in Ile-Ife. Data on epidemiological characteristics and clinical history was collected using a semistructured questionnaire and skin scrapings were done. The prevalence of superficial fungal infections among the 800 respondents was 35.0%. Male pupils constituted 51.0% of respondents while the females were 49.0%. The mean age for all the respondents was 9.42 ± 2.00. Tinea capitis was the commonest infection with a prevalence of 26.9% and tinea unguium, tinea corporis, and tinea faciei had a prevalence of 0.8%, 0.6%, and 0.5%, respectively. Tinea manuum had the least prevalence of 0.1%. Pityriasis versicolor had a prevalence of 4.4%. Microsporum audouinii was the leading organism isolated. The study shows that the prevalence of superficial fungal infection (SFI) among primary school children in Ile-Ife is high with tinea capitis as the commonest SFI. PMID:25574161

  1. A risk factor analysis of healthcare-associated fungal infections in an intensive care unit: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Su-Pen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of fungal healthcare-associated infection (HAI has increased in a major teaching hospital in the northern part of Taiwan over the past decade, especially in the intensive care units (ICUs. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that were responsible for the outbreak and trend in the ICU. Methods Surveillance fungal cultures were obtained from “sterile” objects, antiseptic solutions, environment of infected patients and hands of medical personnel. Risk factors for comparison included age, gender, admission service, and total length of stay in the ICU, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II scores at admission to the ICU, main diagnosis on ICU admission, use of invasive devices, receipt of hemodialysis, total parenteral nutrition (TPN use, history of antibiotic therapy before HAI or during ICU stay in no HAI group, and ICU discharge status (ie, dead or alive. Univariable analysis followed by multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent risk factors for ICU fungal HAIs and ICU mortality. Results There was a significant trend in ICU fungal HAIs from 1998 to 2009 (P Candida albicans (27.3%, Candida tropicalis (6.6%, Candida glabrata (6.6%, Candida parapsilosis (1.9%, Candida species (0.8%, and other fungi (1.9%. Candida albicans accounted for 63% of all Candida species. Yeasts were found in the environment of more heavily infected patients. The independent risk factors (P P  Conclusions There was a secular trend of an increasing number of fungal HAIs in our ICU over the past decade. Patients with ICU fungal HAIs had a significantly higher mortality rate than did patients without ICU HAIs. Total parenteral nutrition was a significant risk factor for all types of ICU fungal HAIs, and its use should be monitored closely.

  2. Specific and Novel microRNAs Are Regulated as Response to Fungal Infection in Human Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Andreas; Czakai, Kristin; Leonhardt, Ines; Schäferhoff, Karin; Bonin, Michael; Guthke, Reinhard; Einsele, Hermann; Kurzai, Oliver; Löffler, Jürgen; Linde, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Within the last two decades, the incidence of invasive fungal infections has been significantly increased. They are characterized by high mortality rates and are often caused by Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. The increasing number of infections underlines the necessity for additional anti-fungal therapies, which require extended knowledge of gene regulations during fungal infection. MicroRNAs are regulators of important cellular processes, including the immune response. By analyzing their regulation and impact on target genes, novel therapeutic and diagnostic approaches may be developed. Here, we examine the role of microRNAs in human dendritic cells during fungal infection. Dendritic cells represent the bridge between the innate and the adaptive immune systems. Therefore, analysis of gene regulation of dendritic cells is of particular significance. By applying next-generation sequencing of small RNAs, we quantify microRNA expression in monocyte-derived dendritic cells after 6 and 12 h of infection with C. albicans and A. fumigatus as well as treatment with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We identified 26 microRNAs that are differentially regulated after infection by the fungi or LPS. Three and five of them are specific for fungal infections after 6 and 12 h, respectively. We further validated interactions of miR-132-5p and miR-212-5p with immunological relevant target genes, such as FKBP1B, KLF4, and SPN, on both RNA and protein level. Our results indicate that these microRNAs fine-tune the expression of immune-related target genes during fungal infection. Beyond that, we identified previously undiscovered microRNAs. We validated three novel microRNAs via qRT-PCR. A comparison with known microRNAs revealed possible relations with the miR-378 family and miR-1260a/b for two of them, while the third one features a unique sequence with no resemblance to known microRNAs. In summary, this study analyzes the effect of known microRNAs in dendritic cells during

  3. A Review of Occurrence of Fungal Pathogens on Significant Brassicaceous Vegetable Crops and their Control Measures

    OpenAIRE

    M. Srivastava; S.K. Gupta, A.P. Saxena, L.A.J. Shittu and S.K. Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are subjected to viral, bacterial as well as fungal attack, which causes a high yield loss. Temperature and moisture conditions, which promote the growth of fungus, are needed to be studied in order for an effective control of the disease to be estimated. The present review gives a brief account of the fungal diseases which have been considered responsible for major economic loss to the Brassica crops. The epidemiological conditions necessary for the occurrence and prevale...

  4. Reno-invasive fungal infection presenting as acute renal failure: Importance of renal biopsy for early diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarshi Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal zygomycosis, caused by invasive fungi, is a rare and potentially fatal infec-tion. The patient usually presents with non-specific symptoms and renal failure. A 34-year-old male non-diabetic and without any predisposing factors for systemic fungal infection presented to the emergency department with diffuse abdominal pain, high-grade fever and acute renal failure with a serum creatinine of 6.5. A computed tomography showed bilateral diffuse globular nephromegaly. A urine smear for fungal examination showed right angle branching hyphae and kidney biopsy showed fungal hyphae within the glomeruli, tubules and interstitium. Although radiological investigations can give us a clue, the definitive diagnosis can only be made by kidney biopsy. A high index of suspicion and timely diagnosis is important for a proper management.

  5. A histological procedure to study fungal infection in the wax moth Galleria mellonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Perdoni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The invertebrate model Galleria mellonella is a widely used factitious host to study the microbial pathogenesis in vivo. However, a specific procedure for the recovery and the processing of the infected tissues, important for a better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions, has not been reported to our knowledge. In the present study we describe a new procedure of fixation and processing of larval tissue that allows studying the larval topographic anatomy and assessing the morphological changes due to the fungal infection. Lepidopteran larvae were infected with Candida albicans strains displaying various biofilm-forming abilities. The whole larvae were then examined for tissue changes by histological techniques. We show that comparing cutting planes, serial transversal sections of paraffin-embedded larva result in better accuracy and information recovering. Using this technique, it was possible to preserve the integrity of G. mellonella internal structures allowing the detailed analysis of morphological differences in different experimental groups (i.e., healthy vs infected larvae. We were also able to study strain-related differences in the pathogenesis of C. albicans by observing the immune response elicited and the invasiveness of two isolates within the larval tissues. In general, by processing the whole larva and optimizing routinely histochemical stainings, it is possible to visualize and analyse infected tissues. Various degrees of pathogenicity (strain- or inoculum-related, and the infection time course can be described in details. Moreover, the host immune response events can be followed throughout the infectious process leading to a comprehensive picture of the studied phenomenon.

  6. A histological procedure to study fungal infection in the wax moth Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdoni, F; Falleni, M; Tosi, D; Cirasola, D; Romagnoli, S; Braidotti, P; Clementi, E; Bulfamante, G; Borghi, E

    2014-09-23

    The invertebrate model Galleria mellonella is a widely used factitious host to study the microbial pathogenesis in vivo. However, a specific procedure for the recovery and the processing of the infected tissues, important for a better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions, has not been reported to our knowledge. In the present study we describe a new procedure of fixation and processing of larval tissue that allows studying the larval topographic anatomy and assessing the morphological changes due to the fungal infection. Lepidopteran larvae were infected with Candida albicans strains displaying various biofilm-forming abilities. The whole larvae were then examined for tissue changes by histological techniques. We show that comparing cutting planes, serial transversal sections of paraffin-embedded larva result in better accuracy and information recovering. Using this technique, it was possible to preserve the integrity of G. mellonella internal structures allowing the detailed analysis of morphological differences in different experimental groups (i.e., healthy vs infected larvae). We were also able to study strain-related differences in the pathogenesis of C. albicans by observing the immune response elicited and the invasiveness of two isolates within the larval tissues. In general, by processing the whole larva and optimizing routinely histochemical stainings, it is possible to visualize and analyse infected tissues. Various degrees of pathogenicity (strain- or inoculum-related), and the infection time course can be described in details. Moreover, the host immune response events can be followed throughout the infectious process leading to a comprehensive picture of the studied phenomenon.

  7. Candidiasis: a fungal infection--current challenges and progress in prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hani, Umme; Shivakumar, Hosakote G; Vaghela, Rudra; Osmani, Riyaz Ali M; Shrivastava, Atul

    2015-01-01

    Despite therapeutic advances candidiasis remains a common fungal infection most frequently caused by C. albicans and may occur as vulvovaginal candidiasis or thrush, a mucocutaneous candidiasis. Candidiasis frequently occurs in newborns, in immune-deficient people like AIDS patients, and in people being treated with broad spectrum antibiotics. It is mainly due to C. albicans while other species such as C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei are increasingly isolated. OTC antifungal dosage forms such as creams and gels can be used for effective treatment of local candidiasis. Whereas, for preventing spread of the disease to deeper vital organs, candidiasis antifungal chemotherapy is preferred. Use of probiotics and development of novel vaccines is an advanced approach for the prevention of candidiasis. Present review summarizes the diagnosis, current status and challenges in the treatment and prevention of candidiasis with prime focus on host defense against candidiasis, advancements in diagnosis, probiotics role and recent progress in the development of vaccines against candidiasis.

  8. Voriconazole for prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, David I; Liu, Qifa; Slavin, Monica

    2017-05-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) are associated with a high mortality, and accordingly most alloHSCT recipients receive prophylaxis with antifungal agents. Despite some improvement in outcomes of IFIs over time, they continue to represent substantial clinical risk, mortality, and financial burden. Areas covered: We review the main pathogens responsible for IFIs in recipients of alloHSCT, current treatment recommendations, and discuss clinical and economic considerations associated with voriconazole prophylaxis of IFIs in these patients. Expert commentary: The clinical efficacy of voriconazole appears to be at least equivalent to other antifungal treatments, and generally well tolerated. Overall, benefit-risk balance is favorable, and findings from cost-effectiveness analyses support the use of voriconazole prophylaxis of IFIs in recipients of alloHSCT.

  9. Crossover fungal pathogens: the biology and pathogenesis of fungi capable of crossing kingdoms to infect plants and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Gregory M; Keller, Nancy P

    2013-12-01

    The outbreak of fungal meningitis associated with contaminated methylprednisolone acetate has thrust the importance of fungal infections into the public consciousness. The predominant pathogen isolated from clinical specimens, Exserohilum rostratum (teleomorph: Setosphaeria rostrata), is a dematiaceous fungus that infects grasses and rarely humans. This outbreak highlights the potential for fungal pathogens to infect both plants and humans. Most crossover or trans-kingdom pathogens are soil saprophytes and include fungi in Ascomycota and Mucormycotina phyla. To establish infection, crossover fungi must overcome disparate, host-specific barriers, including protective surfaces (e.g. cuticle, skin), elevated temperature, and immune defenses. This review illuminates the underlying mechanisms used by crossover fungi to cause infection in plants and mammals, and highlights critical events that lead to human infection by these pathogens. Several genes including veA, laeA, and hapX are important in regulating biological processes in fungi important for both invasive plant and animal infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Invasive fungal infections in children with cancer, neutropenia and fever, in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Yalda; Brücher, Roberto; Alvarez, Ana María; Becker, Ana; Cofré, José; Enríquez, Nancy; Payá, Ernesto; Salgado, Carmen; Santolaya, María Elena; Tordecilla, Juan; Varas, Mónica; Villarroel, Milena; Viviani, Tamara; Zubieta, Marcela; O'Ryan, Miguel

    2002-10-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFI) cause prolonged hospitalizations and increase the possibility of death among patients with cancer and febrile neutropenia (FN). Up to 10% of febrile neutropenic episodes may be caused by IFI. To estimate the incidence of IFI among a large group of Chilean children with cancer and FN. Clinical and laboratory information was collected from a data base provided by the "Programa Infantil Nacional de Drogas Antineoplásicas" (PINDA) that included 445 FN episodes occurring in five hospitals in Santiago, Chile. This information was used to identify children that presented with signs and symptoms compatible with an IFI. According to predefined criteria based on a literature review, IFI episodes were categorized as "proven", "probable" or "possible". A total of 41/445 episodes (9.2%) were compatible with an IFI of which 4 (0.9%) were proven, 23 (5.2%) probable, and 14 (3.1%) possible. Hospitalization was longer (27 vs 8 days, p < .01), new infectious foci appeared with higher frequency (71 vs 38%, p < .01), and mortality was higher (10 vs 1.6%, p < .001) in children with IFI compatible episodes, when compared to children who did not have an IFI. The estimated incidence of IFI in Chilean children with cancer and FN ranged between 6-9% depending on the stringency of criteria selection used for classification. This estimate is similar to that reported by other studies. The low detection yield of clinically compatible IFI underscores the need of improved diagnosis of fungal infections in this population.

  11. Pharmacokinetics and safety of posaconazole delayed-release tablets for invasive fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiederhold NP

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nathan P Wiederhold Departments of Pathology and Medicine/Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, South Texas Reference Laboratories, San Antonio, TX, USA Abstract: Posaconazole is a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal agent with potent activity against various pathogenic fungi, including yeast and moulds. Clinical studies have demonstrated that this agent is efficacious as prophylaxis against invasive fungal infections in patients at high risk, and may also be useful as salvage therapy against invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. However, the bioavailability of posaconazole following administration by oral suspension, which was the only formulation clinically available for many years, is highly variable and negatively influenced by several factors. Because of this, many patients had subtherapeutic or undetectable posaconazole levels when the oral suspension was used. To overcome this limitation, a delayed-release tablet was developed and is now available for clinical use. Hot-melt extrusion technology is used to combine a pH-sensitive polymer with posaconazole to produce a formulation that releases the drug in the elevated pH of the intestine where absorption occurs rather than in the low-pH environment of the stomach. This results in enhanced bioavailability and increased posaconazole exposure. Studies in healthy volunteers have demonstrated significantly higher and more consistent exposures with the tablet formulation compared to the oral suspension. In addition, pharmacokinetic parameters following administration of the tablets were not significantly affected by medications that raise gastric pH or increase gastric motility, and the tablets could also be administered without regard to food. Similar results have also been found in patients at high risk for invasive fungal infections who have received posaconazole tablets. The tablet formulation also appears to be well tolerated to date, although data

  12. Pharmacodynamic studies of voriconazole: informing the clinical management of invasive fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Kathleen M; Olson, Jared; Stockmann, Chris; Constance, Jonathan E; Enioutina, Elena Y; Rower, Joseph E; Linakis, Matthew W; Balch, Alfred H; Yu, Tian; Liu, Xiaoxi; Thorell, Emily A; Sherwin, Catherine M T

    2016-08-01

    Voriconazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent commonly used to treat invasive fungal infections (IFI), including aspergillosis, candidiasis, Scedosporium infection, and Fusarium infection. IFI often occur in immunocompromised patients, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this review is to summarize the pharmacodynamic properties of voriconazole and to provide considerations for potential optimal dosing strategies. Studies have demonstrated superior clinical response when an AUC/MIC >25 or Cmin/MIC >1 is attained in adult patients, correlating to a trough concentration range as narrow as 2-4.5 mg/L; however, these targets are poorly established in the pediatric population. Topics in this discussion include voriconazole use in multiple age groups, predisposing patient factors for IFI, and considerations for clinicians managing IFI. Expert commentary: The relationship between voriconazole dosing and exposure is not well defined due to the large inter- and intra-subject variability. Development of comprehensive decision support tools for individualizing dosing, particularly in children who require higher dosing, will help to increase the probability of achieving therapeutic efficacy and decrease sub-therapeutic dosing and adverse events.

  13. Domestic shower hose biofilms contain fungal species capable of causing opportunistic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moat, John; Rizoulis, Athanasios; Fox, Graeme; Upton, Mathew

    2016-10-01

    The domestic environment can be a source of pathogenic bacteria. We show here that domestic shower hoses may harbour potentially pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Well-developed biofilms were physically removed from the internal surface of shower hoses collected in four locations in England and Scotland. Amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S and 18S rRNA targets revealed the presence of common aquatic and environmental bacteria, including members of the Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and non-tuberculous Mycobacteria. These bacteria are associated with infections in immunocompromised hosts and are widely reported in shower systems and as causes of water-acquired infection. More importantly, this study represents the first detailed analysis of fungal populations in shower systems and revealed the presence of sequences related to Exophiala mesophila, Fusarium fujikuroi and Malassezia restricta. These organisms can be associated with the environment and healthy skin, but also with infection in compromised and immuno-competent hosts and occurrence of dandruff. Domestic showering may result in exposure to aerosols of bacteria and fungi that are potentially pathogenic and toxigenic. It may be prudent to limit development of these biofilms by the use of disinfectants, or regular replacement of hoses, where immuno-compromised persons are present.

  14. Fungal infection of gingiva in a patient with hyperimmunoglobulin-E (Job′s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES, also known as Job′s syndrome, is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by eczema, recurrent skin and lung infections, elevated serum IgE, and connective tissue and skeletal abnormalities. Individuals with HIES share a characteristic facial appearance and many oral manifestations including retained primary dentition, a high-arched palate, variations of the oral mucosa and gingiva, and recurrent oral candidiasis. An 18-year-old lady presented with gingival swelling, bleeding from the gums, recurrent skin infections, and recurrent respiratory infections with intermittent fever. After thorough extra oral, intra oral and radiographic examination, serological investigations were performed. Growth of candida hyphae in the biopsy specimen of gingiva and increased levels of serum IgE with typical extra oral findings established the diagnosis as Job′s syndrome (hyper IgE syndrome. Treatment with anti-fungal antibiotics and phase-I therapy including scaling and root planing followed by gingivoplasty using diode laser (980 nm was performed. HIES was previously defined on the basis of clinical manifestations and laboratory markers that were not specific to the disease. With the identification of STAT3 mutations as the cause of HIES, we can definitively characterize the disease at molecular and immunologic levels. This case emphasizes the role of the dentist in the diagnosis of rare syndromes which alters the treatment plan.

  15. Effect of waxy (Low Amylose) on Fungal Infection of Sorghum Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnell-Harris, Deanna L; Sattler, Scott E; O'Neill, Patrick M; Eskridge, Kent M; Pedersen, Jeffrey F

    2015-06-01

    Loss of function mutations in waxy, encoding granule bound starch synthase (GBSS) that synthesizes amylose, results in starch granules containing mostly amylopectin. Low amylose grain with altered starch properties has increased usability for feed, food, and grain-based ethanol. In sorghum, two classes of waxy (wx) alleles had been characterized for absence or presence of GBSS: wx(a) (GBSS(-)) and wx(b) (GBSS(+), with reduced activity). Field-grown grain of wild-type; waxy, GBSS(-); and waxy, GBSS(+) plant introduction accessions were screened for fungal infection. Overall, results showed that waxy grains were not more susceptible than wild-type. GBSS(-) and wild-type grain had similar infection levels. However, height was a factor with waxy, GBSS(+) lines: short accessions (wx(b) allele) were more susceptible than tall accessions (undescribed allele). In greenhouse experiments, grain from accessions and near-isogenic wx(a), wx(b), and wild-type lines were inoculated with Alternaria sp., Fusarium thapsinum, and Curvularia sorghina to analyze germination and seedling fitness. As a group, waxy lines were not more susceptible to these pathogens than wild-type, supporting field evaluations. After C. sorghina and F. thapsinum inoculations most waxy and wild-type lines had reduced emergence, survival, and seedling weights. These results are valuable for developing waxy hybrids with resistance to grain-infecting fungi.

  16. A rapid infection assay for Armillaria and real-time PCR quantitation of the fungal biomass in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Kendra; Bhat, Ravi; Fujiyoshi, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Slow and unreliable infection in the greenhouse has been a barrier to research on Armillaria root disease. The existing infection assay takes 7-18 months for detectable infection, during which time the inoculum often dies, resulting in unequal challenge among plants. Because symptom expression and mortality are rare, presence or absence of infection, determined by culturing, is the only datum derived from the existing infection assay. This limits both routine comparisons of strain virulence and complex investigations of pathogenesis, neither of which have been done for Armillaria mellea. We tested a new infection assay, in which grape rootstocks growing in tissue culture medium are inoculated, and compared to rootstocks previously characterized from the existing infection assay as tolerant (Freedom) or susceptible (3309C). Culture media of 25 plants per rootstock was inoculated and five plants per rootstock were harvested 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postinoculation; the experiment was completed twice. Confocal microscopy and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) were used to quantify infection. Roots were treated with WGA-AlexaFluor488, hyphae and roots were scanned on green and red channels on a confocal microscope, and percent root colonization was quantified. A fungal gene (EF1?) was determined to have a single copy in A. mellea, and both EF1? and a single-copy grape gene (UFGT) were amplified by Q-PCR; fungal DNA: plant DNA served as a measure of fungal biomass. Armillaria was detected by culture, microscopy, and Q-PCR starting 2 weeks postinoculation from all inoculated plants, demonstrating that the new infection assay is rapid and plants do not escape infection. Our findings of higher percent root colonization (as measured by microscopy) of 3309C than Freedom at all harvests (P<0.0001), consistently higher fungal biomass (as measured by Q-PCR) of 3309 than Freedom, and a significant positive correlation between percent root colonization and fungal biomass (P=0.01) suggests

  17. Prevention of bacterial and fungal infections in acute leukemia patients: a new and potent combination of oral norfloxacin and amphotericin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T; Dan, K; Nomura, T

    1993-09-01

    The effect of a combination regimen using norfloxacin (NFLX) and amphotericin B (AMPH-B) for prevention of infections in patients with acute leukemia being treated by remission-induction chemotherapy in a randomized, controlled trial was studied. One hundred and six consecutive, evaluable patients were randomly assigned to receive orally 200 mg of norfloxacin two or four times daily and 200 mg of amphotericin B four times daily, or amphotericin B only. A smaller percentage of patients with bacteriologically-documented infections was observed in the study group compared with the control group (34.6% vs 56.9%; P combination antimicrobial regimen is safe and effective for prevention of gram-negative bacterial as well as fungal infections in patients with acute leukemia being treated with cytotoxic remission-induction chemotherapy.

  18. An investigation of how fungal infection influences drug penetration through onychomycosis patient's nail plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, W J; Jones, S A; Traynor, M J; Guesné, S; Murdan, S; Brown, M B

    2016-05-01

    The treatment of onychomycosis remains problematic even though there are several potent antifungal agents available for patient use. The aim of this investigation was to understand whether the structural modifications that arise when a patient's nail become infected plates influences the permeation of drugs into the nail following topical application. It was hoped that through improving understanding of the nail barrier in the diseased state, the development of more effective topical treatments for onychomycosis could be facilitated. The permeation of three compounds with differing hydrophobicities, caffeine, terbinafine and amorolfine (clogD at pH 7.4 of -0.55, 3.72 and 4.49 respectively), was assessed across both healthy and onychomycosis infected, full thickness, human nail plate sections. Transonychial water loss (TOWL) measurements performed on the healthy and diseased nails supported previous observations that the nail behaves like a porous barrier given the lack of correlation between TOWL values with the thicker, diseased nails. The flux of the more hydrophilic caffeine was twofold greater across diseased in comparison with the healthy nails, whilst the hydrophobic molecules terbinafine and amorolfine showed no statistically significant change in their nail penetration rates. Caffeine flux across the nail was found to correlate with the TOWL measurements, though no correlation existed for the more hydrophobic drugs. These data supported the notion that the nail pores, opened up by the infection, facilitated the passage of hydrophilic molecules, whilst the keratin binding of hydrophobic molecules meant that their transport through the nail plate was unchanged. Therefore, in order to exploit the structural changes induced by nail fungal infection it would be beneficial to develop a small molecular weight, hydrophilic antifungal agent, which exhibits low levels of keratin binding. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An investigation of how fungal infection influences drug penetration through onychomycosis patient’s nail plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, W.J.; Jones, S.A.; Traynor, M.J.; Guesné, S.; Murdan, S.; Brown, M.B.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of onychomycosis remains problematic even though there are several potent antifungal agents available for patient use. The aim of this investigation was to understand whether the structural modifications that arise when a patient’s nail become infected plates influences the permeation of drugs into the nail following topical application. It was hoped that through improving understanding of the nail barrier in the diseased state, the development of more effective topical treatments for onychomycosis could be facilitated. The permeation of three compounds with differing hydrophobicities, caffeine, terbinafine and amorolfine (clog D at pH 7.4 of −0.55, 3.72 and 4.49 respectively), was assessed across both healthy and onychomycosis infected, full thickness, human nail plate sections. Transonychial water loss (TOWL) measurements performed on the healthy and diseased nails supported previous observations that the nail behaves like a porous barrier given the lack of correlation between TOWL values with the thicker, diseased nails. The flux of the more hydrophilic caffeine was twofold greater across diseased in comparison with the healthy nails, whilst the hydrophobic molecules terbinafine and amorolfine showed no statistically significant change in their nail penetration rates. Caffeine flux across the nail was found to correlate with the TOWL measurements, though no correlation existed for the more hydrophobic drugs. These data supported the notion that the nail pores, opened up by the infection, facilitated the passage of hydrophilic molecules, whilst the keratin binding of hydrophobic molecules meant that their transport through the nail plate was unchanged. Therefore, in order to exploit the structural changes induced by nail fungal infection it would be beneficial to develop a small molecular weight, hydrophilic antifungal agent, which exhibits low levels of keratin binding. PMID:26969264

  20. Identification of Biocontrol Agents to Control the Fungal Pathogen, Geomyces destructans, in Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, S.; Cheng, T.

    2013-12-01

    The fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans (Gd) causes the disease White-nose Syndrome (WNS) in bats and is estimated to have killed millions of bats since its emergence in North America in 2006. Gd is predicted to cause the local extinction of at least three bat species if rates of decline continue unabated. Given the devastating impacts of Gd to bat populations, identifying a viable method for controlling the pathogen is pertinent for conservation of affected bat species. Our work focuses on identifying naturally-occurring skin bacteria on bats that are antagonistic to Gd that could potentially be used as a biocontrol. We cultured bacteria from skin swabs taken from wild bats (Myotis lucifugus, Eptesicus fuscus, Myotis sodalis, Perimyotis subflavus). We conducted challenge experiments to identify bacterial strains that inhibited Gd growth. Bacteria that exhibited antifungal properties were identified using 16S and gyrB markers. Our methods identified several bacteria in the Pseudomonas fluorescens complex as potential biocontrol agents. Future work will continue to test the viability of these bacteria as biocontrol agents via experimental treatments with live captive bats. The failure of previous non-biocontrol methods highlights the importance of developing these bacteria as a biologically-friendly method for controlling Gd. A bat infected with Geomyces destructans. Photo by West Virginia Division of Natural Resources Bacterial culture from the swab of a bat's wings

  1. Use of Endophytic and Rhizosphere Actinobacteria from Grapevine Plants To Reduce Nursery Fungal Graft Infections That Lead to Young Grapevine Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Pérez, José Manuel; González-García, Sandra; Cobos, Rebeca; Olego, Miguel Ángel; Ibañez, Ana; Díez-Galán, Alba; Garzón-Jimeno, Enrique; Coque, Juan José R

    2017-12-15

    Endophytic and rhizosphere actinobacteria isolated from the root system of 1-year-old grafted Vitis vinifera plants were evaluated for their activities against fungi that cause grapevine trunk diseases. A total of 58 endophytic and 94 rhizosphere isolates were tested. Based on an in vitro bioassay, 15.5% of the endophytic isolates and 30.8% of the rhizosphere isolates exhibited antifungal activity against the fungal pathogen Diplodia seriata , whereas 13.8% of the endophytic isolates and 16.0% of the rhizosphere isolates showed antifungal activity against Dactylonectria macrodidyma (formerly Ilyonectria macrodidyma ). The strains which showed the greatest in vitro efficacy against both pathogens were further analyzed for their ability to inhibit the growth of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium minimum (formerly Phaeoacremonium aleophilum ). Based on their antifungal activity, three rhizosphere isolates and three endophytic isolates were applied on grafts in an open-root field nursery in a 3-year trial. The field trial led to the identification of one endophytic strain, Streptomyces sp. VV/E1, and two rhizosphere isolates, Streptomyces sp. VV/R1 and Streptomyces sp. VV/R4, which significantly reduced the infection rates produced by the fungal pathogens Dactylonectria sp., Ilyonectria sp., P. chlamydospora , and P. minimum , all of which cause young grapevine decline. The VV/R1 and VV/R4 isolates also significantly reduced the mortality level of grafted plants in the nursery. This study shows that certain actinobacteria could represent a promising new tool for controlling fungal trunk pathogens that infect grapevine plants through the root system in nurseries. IMPORTANCE Grapevine trunk diseases are a major threat to the wine and grape industry worldwide. They cause a significant reduction in yields as well as in grape quality, and they can even cause plant death. Trunk diseases are caused by fungal pathogens that enter through pruning wounds and/or the

  2. Epidemiology of deep cutaneous fungal infections in Korea (2006-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung Shin; Kim, Jae Kyung; Lee, Mi Woo; Moon, Kee-Chan; Kim, Beom Joon; Son, Sang Wook; Ahn, Hyo Hyun; Oh, Sang Ho; Yu, Hee Joon; Lee, Dong Youn; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Cho, Baik Kee; Kim, Moon Bum; Suh, Kee Suck; Kim, You Chan; Ro, Byung In; Park, Joon Soo; Choi, Jong Soo; Lee, Jee Bum

    2015-10-01

    Deep cutaneous fungal infections (DCFI) occur worldwide and their prevalence is influenced by personal factors of the affected patients and the geographic and cultural features. Surveillance studies of DCFI with respect to the various clinical backgrounds of affected patients can ultimately help to improve their outcome. Expanding on our previous study, we performed a retrospective analysis of patients with DCFI who were treated in a group of university teaching hospitals in Korea to determine the trends within a 5-year period. A retrospective medical record review of patients with DCFI treated between 2006 and 2010 at 16 university teaching hospitals located throughout Korea was performed. Among the 51 cases of DCFI (median patient age, 47.0 years), opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts accounted for half. Patients in this group included 11 who were transplant recipients and 12 with malignancies. Overall, Candida (13/51) was the most common causative organism, followed by Sporothrix (12) and Aspergillus (6). Papuloplaques and nodular lesions were the typical presentation, with maculopatches and ulcers also occurring in considerable numbers. Ten patients had systemic involvement. Eight immunocompromised patients did not recover from the disease despite systemic antifungal treatment. Our results highlight the equal involvement of opportunistic and primary pathogens in DCFI, as determined in cases from a 5-year period. Especially in immunocompromised hosts with non-specific skin findings, clinical suspicion is important because failure to diagnose a DCFI causes significant morbidity and possibly even death. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  3. Multiorgan fungal infection caused by Microsporum canis in a green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae-Ho; Kim, Eun-Ju; Choi, Ul Soo

    2014-06-01

    Multiple organ invasion by keratinophilic fungi in the green iguana (Iguana iguana) has not been previously reported. In this case, a 1-yr-old female green iguana presented with a nodular, darkly discolored skin lesion surrounded by necrosis in the right ventral abdominal region. A cytologic examination of the fine needle aspiration of the lesion revealed an exuberant proliferation of fibroblasts, macrophages, and multinucleated cells along with frequent filamentous structures consistent with hyphal elements. The necropsy revealed diffuse infiltration of the liver, lung, and cardiac apex with white nodules. A histopathologic examination of the lesions also confirmed a fungal infection associated with granulomatous inflammation. Rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the chitin synthase 1 gene was conducted for rapid direct detection, and inter-simple sequence repeat fingerprinting was conducted to classify the infectious origin. The PCR analysis definitively demonstrated representative Microsporum canis fungus. The present report is the first case of disseminated M. canis infection with multiorgan involvement in a green iguana.

  4. Genotypic Regulation of Aflatoxin Accumulation but Not Aspergillus Fungal Growth upon Post-Harvest Infection of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korani, Walid Ahmed; Chu, Ye; Holbrook, Corley; Clevenger, Josh; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2017-07-12

    Aflatoxin contamination is a major economic and food safety concern for the peanut industry that largely could be mitigated by genetic resistance. To screen peanut for aflatoxin resistance, ten genotypes were infected with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Aspergillus flavus strain. Percentages of fungal infected area and fungal GFP signal intensity were documented by visual ratings every 8 h for 72 h after inoculation. Significant genotypic differences in fungal growth rates were documented by repeated measures and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) analyses. SICIA (Seed Infection Coverage and Intensity Analyzer), an image processing software, was developed to digitize fungal GFP signals. Data from SICIA image analysis confirmed visual rating results validating its utility for quantifying fungal growth. Among the tested peanut genotypes, NC 3033 and GT-C20 supported the lowest and highest fungal growth on the surface of peanut seeds, respectively. Although differential fungal growth was observed on the surface of peanut seeds, total fungal growth in the seeds was not significantly different across genotypes based on a fluorometric GFP assay. Significant differences in aflatoxin B levels were detected across peanut genotypes. ICG 1471 had the lowest aflatoxin level whereas Florida-07 had the highest. Two-year aflatoxin tests under simulated late-season drought also showed that ICG 1471 had reduced aflatoxin production under pre-harvest field conditions. These results suggest that all peanut genotypes support A. flavus fungal growth yet differentially influence aflatoxin production.

  5. Genotypic Regulation of Aflatoxin Accumulation but Not Aspergillus Fungal Growth upon Post-Harvest Infection of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Ahmed Korani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin contamination is a major economic and food safety concern for the peanut industry that largely could be mitigated by genetic resistance. To screen peanut for aflatoxin resistance, ten genotypes were infected with a green fluorescent protein (GFP—expressing Aspergillus flavus strain. Percentages of fungal infected area and fungal GFP signal intensity were documented by visual ratings every 8 h for 72 h after inoculation. Significant genotypic differences in fungal growth rates were documented by repeated measures and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC analyses. SICIA (Seed Infection Coverage and Intensity Analyzer, an image processing software, was developed to digitize fungal GFP signals. Data from SICIA image analysis confirmed visual rating results validating its utility for quantifying fungal growth. Among the tested peanut genotypes, NC 3033 and GT-C20 supported the lowest and highest fungal growth on the surface of peanut seeds, respectively. Although differential fungal growth was observed on the surface of peanut seeds, total fungal growth in the seeds was not significantly different across genotypes based on a fluorometric GFP assay. Significant differences in aflatoxin B levels were detected across peanut genotypes. ICG 1471 had the lowest aflatoxin level whereas Florida-07 had the highest. Two-year aflatoxin tests under simulated late-season drought also showed that ICG 1471 had reduced aflatoxin production under pre-harvest field conditions. These results suggest that all peanut genotypes support A. flavus fungal growth yet differentially influence aflatoxin production.

  6. Repurposing antipsychotic drugs into antifungal agents: Synergistic combinations of azoles and bromperidol derivatives in the treatment of various fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Selina Y L; Garzan, Atefeh; Dennis, Emily K; Shrestha, Sanjib K; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2017-10-20

    As the number of hospitalized and immunocompromised patients continues to rise, invasive fungal infections, such as invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis, threaten the life of millions of patients every year. The azole antifungals are currently the most prescribed drugs clinically that display broad-spectrum antifungal activity and excellent oral bioavailability. Yet, the azole antifungals have their own limitations and are unable to meet the challenges associated with increasing fungal infections and the accompanied development of resistance against azoles. Exploring combination therapy that involves the current azoles and another drug has been shown to be a promising strategy. Haloperidol and its derivative, bromperidol, were originally discovered as antipsychotics. Herein, we synthesize and report a series of bromperidol derivatives and their synergistic antifungal interactions in combination with a variety of current azole antifungals against a wide panel of fungal pathogens. We further select two representative combinations and confirm the antifungal synergy by performing time-kill assays. Furthermore, we evaluate the ability of selected combinations to destroy fungal biofilm. Finally, we perform mammalian cytotoxicity assays with the representative combinations against three mammalian cell lines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Temperature-Dependent Effects of Cutaneous Bacteria on a Frog’s Tolerance of Fungal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Robak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Defense against pathogens is one of many benefits that bacteria provide to animal hosts. A clearer understanding of how changes in the environment affect the interactions between animals and their microbial benefactors is needed in order to predict the impact and dynamics of emerging animal diseases. Due to its dramatic effects on the physiology of animals and their pathogens, temperature may be a key variable modulating the level of protection that beneficial bacteria provide to their animal hosts. Here we investigate how temperature and the makeup of the skin microbial community affect the susceptibility of amphibian hosts to infection by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, one of two fungal pathogens known to cause the disease chytridiomycosis. To do this, we manipulated the skin bacterial communities of susceptible hosts, northern cricket frogs (Acris crepitans, prior to exposing these animals to Bd under two different ecologically relevant temperatures. Our manipulations included one treatment where antibiotics were used to reduce the skin bacterial community, one where the bacterial community was augmented with the antifungal bacterium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and one in which the frog’s skin bacterial community was left intact. We predicted that frogs with reduced skin bacterial communities would be more susceptible (i.e., less resistant to and/or tolerant of Bd infection, and frogs with skin bacterial communities augmented with the known antifungal bacterium would be less susceptible to Bd infection and chytridiomycosis. However, we also predicted that this interaction would be temperature dependent. We found a strong effect of temperature but not of skin microbial treatment on the probability and intensity of infection in Bd-exposed frogs. Whether temperature affected survival; however, it differed among our skin microbial treatment groups, with animals having more S. maltophilia on their skin surviving longer at 14 but not at

  8. Efficacy and safety of echinocandins versus triazoles for the prophylaxis and treatment of fungal infections: a meta-analysis of RCTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J-F; Xue, Y; Zhu, X-B; Fan, H

    2015-04-01

    Echinocandins and triazoles were proven to be effective antifungal drugs against invasive fungal infections (IFI), which may cause significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety between echinocandins and triazoles for the prophylaxis and treatment of fungal infections. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) up to July 2014. The quality of trials was assessed with the Jadad scoring system. The primary outcomes of interest were treatment success, microbiological success, breakthrough infection, drug-related adverse events (AEs), withdrawals due to AEs, and all-cause mortality. Ten RCTs, involving 2,837 patients, were included, as follows: caspofungin versus fluconazole (n = 1), caspofungin versus itraconazole (n = 1), anidulafungin versus fluconazole (n = 1), micafungin versus fluconazole (n = 4), micafungin versus voriconazole (n = 2), and micafungin versus itraconazole (n = 1). Echinocandins and triazoles showed similar effects in terms of favorable treatment success rate [relative risk (RR) = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97-1.08], microbiological success rate (RR = 0.98, 95% CI, 0.90-1.15), breakthrough infection (RR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.59-2.01), drug-related AEs (RR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.71-1.15), and all-cause mortality (RR = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.66-1.10) in the prophylaxis and treatment of fungal infections. Additionally, echinocandins were more effective than triazoles for prophylaxis in patients undergoing hematologic malignancies or those who received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT; RR = 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.15). Echinocandins significantly decreased the AE-related withdrawals rate compared with triazoles (RR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.33-0.67). This meta-analysis revealed that echinocandins are as effective and safe as triazoles for the prophylaxis

  9. Yeast Infection Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Fungal Nail Infections; [updated 2017 Jan 25; cited 2017 Feb ... 9 screens]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/nail-infections.html Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [ ...

  10. 42 CFR 483.65 - Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Infection control. 483.65 Section 483.65 Public... Care Facilities § 483.65 Infection control. The facility must establish and maintain an infection... development and transmission of disease and infection. (a) Infection control program. The facility must...

  11. Development of defined mixed-culture fungal fermentation starter granulate for controlled production of rice wine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, N.T.P.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2005-01-01

    As a first step in the development of defined fungal starter granules for controlled winemaking from purple glutinous rice, the interaction of moulds and yeasts isolated from Vietnamese rice wine starters and the effect of some representative oriental herbs on the growth of moulds and yeasts were

  12. Brief review on the effect of low-power laser irradiation on neutrophils with emphasis on emerging fungal infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, F. F.; Bani, G. M. A. C.; Mendes, A. C. S. C.; Brigagão, M. R. P. L.; Santos, G. B.; Malaquias, L. C. C.; Chavasco, J. K.; Verinaud, L. M.; Burger, E.

    2015-03-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) participate in an active way in the innate immunity developed after the fungal infection paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Nevertheless, the sole participation of neutrophils is not sufficient to eradicate PCM`s pathogenic fungus: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb). In that way, we aimed to develop a treatment capable of stimulating PMN to the site of injury through low-level laser therapy (LLLT). (LLLT) is safe to use and has not been linked to microorganism resistance so far; in addition, based on previous studies we understand that LLLT may be useful to treat several medical conditions through the stimulation and activation of certain types of cells. This brief review is based on the novel attempt of activating PMN against a fungal infection.

  13. The GITRL-GITR system alters TLR-4 expression on DC during fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiarelli, Anna; Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Agostini, Massimiliano; Bistoni, Francesco; Nocentini, Giuseppe; Cenci, Elio; Riccardi, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    The glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related (GITR) protein is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily influencing natural and acquired immune response. GITR is activated by its ligand, GITRL, mainly expressed on antigen presenting cells. Previously, we demonstrated that GITR plays a role in regulating immune response to Candida albicans. Here we analyzed whether GITRL-GITR interaction influences the recognition of C. albicans by regulating the expression of pattern recognition receptors on splenic dendritic cells. Our report demonstrates that under physiological conditions and during candidiasis the GITRL-GITR system affects TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression on DC. These changes correlate with decrease in: MyD88 activation; CD80 and CD40 expression on DC; T cell activation response, including CD28 expression, IL-2 and IFN-gamma production. Our results point out that, during fungal infection, GITRL-GITR interaction modulates TLR-4 and TLR-2 expression, thereby altering the antigen presentation process, and suggesting a role of GITRL-GITR interaction in resistance against infectious diseases.

  14. Combat trauma-associated invasive fungal wound infections: epidemiology and clinical classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintrob, A C; Weisbrod, A B; Dunne, J R; Rodriguez, C J; Malone, D; Lloyd, B A; Warkentien, T E; Wells, J; Murray, C K; Bradley, W; Shaikh, F; Shah, J; Aggarwal, D; Carson, M L; Tribble, D R

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) in combat casualties led to development of a combat trauma-specific IFI case definition and classification. Prospective data were collected from 1133 US military personnel injured in Afghanistan (June 2009-August 2011). The IFI rates ranged from 0·2% to 11·7% among ward and intensive care unit admissions, respectively (6·8% overall). Seventy-seven IFI cases were classified as proven/probable (n = 54) and possible/unclassifiable (n = 23) and compared in a case-case analysis. There was no difference in clinical characteristics between the proven/probable and possible/unclassifiable cases. Possible IFI cases had shorter time to diagnosis (P = 0·02) and initiation of antifungal therapy (P = 0·05) and fewer operative visits (P = 0·002) compared to proven/probable cases, but clinical outcomes were similar between the groups. Although the trauma-related IFI classification scheme did not provide prognostic information, it is an effective tool for clinical and epidemiological surveillance and research.

  15. Role of echinocandins in the management of fungal infections in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Paolo; Rizzollo, Stefano; Franco, Caterina; Gallo, Elena; Galletto, Paolo; Boano, Elena; Mostert, Michael; Benjamin, Daniel K; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne; Farina, Daniele

    2010-10-01

    As the incidence rates of neonatal systemic fungal infections (SFI) have been increasing over the last years, research efforts have been addressed towards identifying both effective preventative strategies, and efficacious and well-tolerated antifungal drugs. Historically, the first options in treatment of neonatal SFI have been – and currently are – fluconazole and amphotericin B. However, these two drugs carry limitations both in efficacy and in putative toxicity. Recently, new therapeutic alternatives have drawn the neonatologists' attention. Echinocandins are a new class of antifungal drugs with characteristics that might better meet the needs of this particular population of patients. Caspofungin (CSP), micafungin (MICA), and anidulafungin have inherent good activities both against biofilms, and against natively fluconazole-resistant strains of Candida spp, thus overcoming two of the major weaknesses of the commonly used antifungal drugs in nurseries. CSP and MICA have been recently studied in neonatal populations. The kinetics and appropriate dosing of this agent in premature and term infants have been described, but ongoing further studies are needed to better address this area. Case-report series show clinical efficacy and tolerability in critical neonatal patients given CSP and MICA. In addition, extrapolation of data from randomized trials conducted in pediatric and adult patients showed through a subgroup analysis that both CSP and MICA are effective and well tolerated also in neonates. Further studies properly designed for neonatal populations will better address long-term safety and ecological issues related to echinocandin use in neonates.

  16. Gastrointestinal Basidiobolomycosis, a Rare and Under-diagnosed Fungal Infection in Immunocompetent Hosts: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Geramizadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal Basidiobolomycosis (GIB is an unusual, rare, but emerging fungal infection in the stomach, small intestine, colon, and liver. It has been rarely reported in the English literature and most of the reported cases have been from US, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Iran. In the last five years, 17 cases have been reported from one or two provinces in Iran, and it seems that it has been undiagnosed or probably unnoticed in other parts of the country. In this review, we explored the English literature from 1964 through 2013 via PubMed, Google, and Google scholar using the following search keywords: 1 Basidiobolomycosis 2 Basidiobolus ranarum 3 Gastrointestinal Basidiobolomycosis In this review, we attempted to collect all clinical, pathological, and radiological findings of the presenting patients; complemented with previous experiences regarding the treatment and prognosis of the GIB. Since 1964, only 71 cases have been reported, which will be fully described in terms of clinical presentations, methods of diagnosis and treatment as well as prognosis and follow up.

  17. The European Paediatric Mycology Network (EPMyN): Towards a Better Understanding and Management of Fungal Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warris, Adilia

    The European Paediatric Mycology Network (EPMyN) was launched in 2014 to create a European platform for research and education in the field of paediatric mycology. The EPMyN aims to address the lack of paediatric specific evidence and knowledge needed to (1) improve the management and outcome of invasive fungal infections in children and neonates and to (2) enhance and develop paediatric antifungal stewardship programmes.

  18. Prunus domestica pathogenesis-related protein-5 activates the defense response pathway and enhances the resistance to fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-kereamy, Ashraf; El-sharkawy, Islam; Ramamoorthy, Rengasamy; Taheri, Ali; Errampalli, Deena; Kumar, Prakash; Jayasankar, Subramanian

    2011-03-23

    Pathogenesis-related protein-5 (PR-5) has been implicated in plant disease resistance and its antifungal activity has been demonstrated in some fruit species. However, their roles, especially their interactions with the other defense responses in plant cells, are still not fully understood. In this study, we have cloned and characterized a new PR-5 cDNA named PdPR5-1 from the European plum (Prunus domestica). Expression of PdPR5-1 was studied in different cultivars varying in resistance to the brown rot disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Monilinia fructicola. In addition transgenic Arabidopsis, ectopically expressing PdPR5-1 was used to study its role in other plant defense responses after fungal infection. We show that the resistant cultivars exhibited much higher levels of transcripts than the susceptible cultivars during fruit ripening. However, significant rise in the transcript levels after infection with M. fructicola was observed in the susceptible cultivars too. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited more resistance to Alternaria brassicicola. Further, there was a significant increase in the transcripts of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and phytoalexin (camalexin) pathway leading to an increase in camalexin content after fungal infection. Our results show that PdPR5-1 gene, in addition to its anti-fungal properties, has a possible role in activating other defense pathways, including phytoalexin production.

  19. Prunus domestica pathogenesis-related protein-5 activates the defense response pathway and enhances the resistance to fungal infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf El-kereamy

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis-related protein-5 (PR-5 has been implicated in plant disease resistance and its antifungal activity has been demonstrated in some fruit species. However, their roles, especially their interactions with the other defense responses in plant cells, are still not fully understood. In this study, we have cloned and characterized a new PR-5 cDNA named PdPR5-1 from the European plum (Prunus domestica. Expression of PdPR5-1 was studied in different cultivars varying in resistance to the brown rot disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Monilinia fructicola. In addition transgenic Arabidopsis, ectopically expressing PdPR5-1 was used to study its role in other plant defense responses after fungal infection. We show that the resistant cultivars exhibited much higher levels of transcripts than the susceptible cultivars during fruit ripening. However, significant rise in the transcript levels after infection with M. fructicola was observed in the susceptible cultivars too. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited more resistance to Alternaria brassicicola. Further, there was a significant increase in the transcripts of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and phytoalexin (camalexin pathway leading to an increase in camalexin content after fungal infection. Our results show that PdPR5-1 gene, in addition to its anti-fungal properties, has a possible role in activating other defense pathways, including phytoalexin production.

  20. Infection control in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meers, P D

    1988-02-01

    The level of socio-political and economic development achieved by a country determines the quality and quantity of the health care its citizens receive. These factors also govern the amount of attention given to hospital-acquired infection. The problems of infection control in 'developing' countries include, first, the international problems that arise from clashes of personality and viewpoint among those responsible for it, exacerbated in some places by ethnic or religious traditions. Second are problems imposed by factors that affect the spectrum of infectious disease, and third is a variable deficiency of human and financial resources. In the search for solutions, an analysis suggests that nurses are particularly suited to take the lead in the prevention of infection, so that a special initiative directed towards their education in the rapidly developing science of hospital infection and its control is likely to be the most cost effective and appropriate initial approach. This needs to be accompanied by parallel improvements in the education of medical undergraduates. Anything else should be applied in response to measured need, and then only as money and manpower permit. Careful thought is required to avoid squandering scarce resources by applying inappropriate infection control technology.

  1. Comparative study of tricarbonilic complexes of 99mTC in the diagnosis of fungal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Leticia Gabriela; Teran, Mariella Adriana; Reyes, Ana Laura

    2017-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Clinical-epidemiological studies show that the incidence of fungal infections has experienced a substantial increase in the last years. Our working group focused on the radioactive labelling of commercially available antifungal agents and their evaluation as potential specific tracer agents for fungal infections (Curr Radiopharm, 2014, 7( 2), 144-150). Objective: Optimization of various antifungal agents labelling using 99m Tc tricarbonyl complexes and their subsequent evaluation in vitro and in vivo as radiotracers in the detection, through scintigraphic images, of fungal infections. Methodology: Complexes were obtained by substitution of the precursor triaquotricarboniltechnetium (I) with the antifungals: Caspofungin, amphotericin b, Voriconazole and Fluconazole[2]. The physicochemical evaluation of the complexes was performed by the analysis of the stability in milieu, stability in plasma, lipophilicity, plasma protein binding and binding to yeasts. The biological evaluation of the complexes was carried out according to the protocol 070510 approved by the Commission of Animal Experimentation (University of the Republic, Uruguay). The model used consisted of CD1 mice (n=4 per group), females of 8-10 weeks with a weight of 22 ± 2 g. The groups studied were: G0=healthy animals, G1=sterile inflammation, G2=infection by C.albicans and G3=infection by A.niger. The lesions were induced by inoculation of 100μL of the agents in the left hind thigh. Once the lesions were developed, the complexes were administered iv (37MBq,1mCi in 0.1mL) and biodistribution studies were performed at various post-injection times. In addition, images were acquired in a preclinical image system for animals for 60 min, 40 mm ROR, 5-pinhole collimator, 80 x 80 pixel array. Results: All the complexes were obtained with a radiochemical purity higher to 90,0% and were stable more than 4 hours post substitution. Plasma stability, Log P, Protein binding and C

  2. Acute versus Chronic Invasive Fungal Rhinosinusitis: A Case-Control Study

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    Patorn Piromchai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is a challenging condition that can be found mostly in immunocompromised patients. Failure to diagnose and treat this entity promptly usually results in rapid progression and death. The purpose of this study was to determine clinical presentation, complication and morbidity in patients with acute versus chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. Setting and design Case-control study at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University between January 1998 and May 2008. Methods The patient's data with the diagnosis of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis was included. Demographic data, underlying diseases, presenting symptoms, histologic sinonasal tissue evaluations, sinonasal tissue cultures, CT scan findings, surgical interventions, morbidity, and mortality were collected. Results Sixty-five patients were diagnosed as invasive fungal rhinosinusitis between January 1998 and May 2008. The data of six patients were unable to obtain. Fifty-nine patients were included in this study. Patients with immunocompromised status have significant greater risk for acute than chronic IFS, OR = 6.5 ( P = 0.004. Patients with mucosal necrosis have the significant higher risk for acute IFS, OR = 5.5 ( P = 0.01. There was no significant difference in orbital complications proportion between acute and chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, OR = 2.42 ( P = 0.15. Sinus wall erosion have found significantly in chronic IFS group, OR = 0.24 ( P = 0.02. The average hospital stayed was 30.58 ± 26.43 days with no difference between groups ( P = 0.50. Fourteen patients in acute IFS group were dead (31.11% while all patients in chronic IFS group were survived. Conclusions Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis continues to present a challenge to the otolaryngologist. Acute IFS was found most commonly in immunocompromised patients. The most consistent finding of acute IFS was mucosal necrosis and black crust/debris. The CT finding of sinus wall erosion

  3. Infection control in Indonesian Hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duerink, Daphne Offra

    2009-01-01

    The studies in this thesis were performed as part of the AMRIN (Antimicrobial Resistance in Indonesia) study that addressed antimicrobial resistance, antibiotic usage and infection control in Indonesia. They are the first studies that give insight into the incidence of healthcare-associated

  4. Epidemiological data and antifungal susceptibility in invasive fungal infections - a Romanian infectious diseases tertiary hospital’s experience. Preliminary report

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    Agrosoaie Radu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Invasive fungal infections have stood as an important research subject for the past 20 years, being considered as a crucial effect of advancing healthcare services. Low identification rates of invasive fungal infections in blood cultures and low sensibility of biomarkers determine empiric treatments which lead to a change in epidemiological data and antifungal susceptibility. The aim: The epidemiological evaluation of invasive fungal infections and the assessment of antifungal resistance related to this condition. Methods and material: An “antifungal stewardship” retrospective study was developed between January 2010 and April 2016. An epidemiological analysis was performed on 79 cases with proven invasive fungal infections in bloodstream, catheter, and cerebrospinal fluid. We considered: age, gender, HIV status, place of residence, and first option in medical practice of antifungal treatment. The laboratory analysis was performed by the Microbiology Laboratory at “Prof. Dr. Matei Bals” National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Bucharest. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC’s of 15 isolates were identified using colorimetric micro broth dilution panel YEASTONE ®YO10 and compared with susceptibilities obtained by VITEK2®C system. Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019 was used as reference. Results: The incidence of invasive fungal infections was 3.7 on 1000 hospitalized patients. The age of the study population ranged between 12 and 83 years, and most were male (59%. The majority of subjects were from an urban area (84%, and 27% of them were HIV positive. The results obtained in VITEK2C® were similar with those from YEASTONE® YO10 for fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B (100%, without any minor, major or very major errors. The fluconazole was the first option of treatment, followed by voriconazole, caspofungin, anidulafungin. In 37% of cases the first treatment option was replaced with a secondary antifungal

  5. Biomarker-based classification of bacterial and fungal whole-blood infections in a genome-wide expression study

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    Andreas eDix

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a clinical syndrome that can be caused by bacteria or fungi. Early knowledge on the nature of the causative agent is a prerequisite for targeted anti-microbial therapy. Besides currently used detection methods like blood culture and PCR-based assays, the analysis of the transcriptional response of the host to infecting organisms holds great promise. In this study, we aim to examine the transcriptional footprint of infections caused by the bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and the fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus in a human whole-blood model. Moreover, we use the expression information to build a random forest classifier to classify if a sample contains a bacterial, fungal, or mock-infection. After normalizing the transcription intensities using stably expressed reference genes, we filtered the gene set for biomarkers of bacterial or fungal blood infections. This selection is based on differential expression and an additional gene relevance measure. In this way, we identified 38 biomarker genes, including IL6, SOCS3, and IRG1 which were already associated to sepsis by other studies. Using these genes, we trained the classifier and assessed its performance. It yielded a 96% accuracy (sensitivities >93%, specificities >97% for a 10-fold stratified cross-validation and a 92% accuracy (sensitivities and specificities >83% for an additional test dataset comprising Cryptococcus neoformans infections. Furthermore, the classifier is robust to Gaussian noise, indicating correct class predictions on datasets of new species. In conclusion, this genome-wide approach demonstrates an effective feature selection process in combination with the construction of a well-performing classification model. Further analyses of genes with pathogen-dependent expression patterns can provide insights into the systemic host responses, which may lead to new anti-microbial therapeutic advances.

  6. Treatment of invasive fungal infections: stability of voriconazole infusion solutions in PVC bags

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    Andréa I.H. Adams

    Full Text Available Voriconazole is a novel broad-spectrum antifungal drug, employed in the treatment of invasive fungal infections, and represents an alternative to amphotericin B treatment. The manufacturer recommends that any unused reconstituted product should be stored at 2ºC to 8ºC, for no more than 24 h, but no recommendations about i.v. infusion solutions are given. Previous works have reported on the stability of voriconazole in polyolefin bags and just one in 5% dextrose polyvinyl chloride (PVC bags, at a 4 mg.mL-1 concentration. In this work, the stability of voriconazole as an i.v. infusion solution in 0.9% sodium chloride and in 5% dextrose, in PVC bags, at 0.5 mg.mL-1, stored at 4 ºC and at room temperature, protected from light, was evaluated. These infusion solutions were analyzed for a 21-day period. Chemical stability was evaluated by HPLC assay. Visual inspection was performed and pH of the solutions was measured. No color change or precipitation in the solutions was observed. The drug content remained above 90% for 11 days in 0.9% sodium chloride and for 9 days in 5% dextrose solutions. The i.v. infusion solutions stored at room temperature were not stable. At room temperature, the voriconazole content dropped down to 88.3 and 86.6%, in 0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose solutions, respectively, two days after admixture. Assays performed at the end of the study suggest the sorption of voriconazole by the PVC bags. The results of this study allow cost-effective batch production in the hospital pharmacy.

  7. Management of Invasive Fungal Infections in Pediatric Acute Leukemia and the Appropriate Time for Restarting Chemotherapy

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    Özlem Tüfekçi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rapid and effective treatment of invasive fungal infection (IFI in patients with leukemia is important for survival. In this study, we aimed to describe variations regarding clinical features, treatment modalities, time of restarting chemotherapy, and outcome in children with IFI and acute leukemia (AL. METHODS: The charts of all pediatric AL patients in our clinic between the years of 2001 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received prophylactic fluconazole during the chemotherapy period. RESULTS: IFI was identified in 25 (14% of 174 AL patients. Most of them were in the consolidation phase of chemotherapy and the patients had severe neutropenia. The median time between leukemia diagnosis and definition of IFI was 122 days. Twenty-four patients had pulmonary IFI. The most frequent finding on computed tomography was typical parenchymal nodules. The episodes were defined as proven in 4 (16% patients, probable in 7 (28% patients, and possible in 14 (56% patients. The median time for discontinuation of chemotherapy was 27 days. IFI was treated successfully in all patients with voriconazole, amphotericin B, caspofungin, or posaconazole alone or in combination. Chemotherapy was restarted in 50% of the patients safely within 4 weeks and none of those patients experienced reactivation of IFI. All of them were given secondary prophylaxis. The median time for antifungal treatment and for secondary prophylaxis was 26 and 90 days, respectively. None of the patients died due to IFI. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our data show that rapid and effective antifungal therapy with rational treatment modalities may decrease the incidence of death and that restarting chemotherapy within several weeks may be safe in children with AL and IFI.

  8. Evaluating the potential of cubosomal nanoparticles for oral delivery of amphotericin B in treating fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Z

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zhiwen Yang,1,3 Meiwan Chen,2 Muhua Yang,1 Jian Chen,1 Weijun Fang,1 Ping Xu11Department of Pharmacy, Songjiang Hospital Affiliated The First People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 2State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau, 3Shanghai Songjiang Hospital Affiliated Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The oral administration of amphotericin B (AmB has a major drawback of poor bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of glyceryl monoolein (GMO cubosomes as lipid nanocarriers to improve the oral efficacy of AmB. Antifungal efficacy was determined in vivo in rats after oral administration, to investigate its therapeutic use. The human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2 was used in vitro to evaluate transport across a model of the intestinal barrier. In vivo antifungal results showed that AmB, loaded in GMO cubosomes, could significantly enhance oral efficacy, compared against Fungizone®, and that during a 2 day course of dosage 10 mg/kg the drug reached effective therapeutic concentrations in renal tissue for treating fungal infections. In the Caco-2 transport studies, GMO cubosomes resulted in a significantly larger amount of AmB being transported into Caco-2 cells, via both clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, but not macropinocytosis. These results suggest that GMO cubosomes, as lipid nanovectors, could facilitate the oral delivery of AmB.Keywords: glyceryl monoolein cubosomes, oral delivery, amphotericin B, antifungal activity, absorption mechanism

  9. Liposomal amphotericin B for invasive fungal infections : an experimental study in the leukopenic host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W.M. van Etten (Els)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractAdvances in medical treatment have improved the prognosis for patients with cancer. While significant progression has been made in eradicating certain malignant diseases, a growing concern for patients who receive cytotoxic chemotherapy is the development of fungal

  10. Characterization and Molecular Epidemiology of a Fungal Infection of Edible Crabs (Cancer pagurus) and Interaction of the Fungus with the Dinoflagellate Parasite Hematodinium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amanda L.; Hamilton, Kristina M.; Hirschle, Lucy; Wootton, Emma C.; Vogan, Claire L.; Pope, Edward C.; Eastwood, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on an emerging fungal disease of the edible crab, Cancer pagurus. Juvenile (prerecruit) crabs were found to be subject to this disease condition during the months of May to September at two intertidal sites in South Wales, United Kingdom. Histopathology revealed that the fungi overwhelm the host response in the tissues, leading to progressive septicemia. The causative agent of this infection was isolated and grown in pure culture and was identified as a member of the Ophiocordyceps clade by sequencing of the small subunit of the fungal ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Of the crabs naturally infected with the fungus, 94% had a coinfection with the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium species. To determine if there was any interaction between the two disease-causing agents, apparently fungus-free crabs, both with and without natural Hematodinium infections, were challenged with the fungal isolate. The presence of Hematodinium caused a significant reduction in fungal multiplication in the hemocoel of the crabs in comparison to that in Hematodinium-free individuals. Histopathology of coinfected crabs showed a systemic multiplication of Hematodinium within host tissues, leading to a rapid death, while Hematodinium-free crabs experimentally infected with the fungal isolate died due to fungal sepsis (septicemia) with the same characteristic pathology as seen in natural infections. PMID:23160130

  11. Microbial control of Asian longhorned beetles - what are fungal bands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann E. Hajek; Thomas Dubois; Jennifer Lund; Ryan Shanley; Leah Bauer; Michael Smith; Peng Fan; Huang Bo; Hu Jiafu; Zengzhi Li

    2007-01-01

    In Japan, the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria brongniartii is grown in nonwoven fiber bands that are placed around trunks of orchard trees for control of numerous cerambycid pests, including Anoplophora chinensis (= A. malasiaca). The Japanese company producing bands, Nitto Denko in Osaka, markets bands...

  12. Antifungal plant defensins: increased insight in their mode of action as a basis for their use to combat fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Tanne L; Struyfs, Caroline; Cammue, Bruno Pa; Thevissen, Karin

    2017-04-01

    Plant defensins are small, cationic peptides with a highly conserved 3D structure. They have been studied extensively in the past decades. Various biological activities have been attributed to plant defensins, such as anti-insect and antimicrobial activities, but they are also known to affect ion channels and display antitumor activity. This review focuses on the structure, biological activity and antifungal mode of action of some well-characterized plant defensins, with particular attention to their fungal membrane target(s), their induced cell death mechanisms as well as their antibiofilm activity. As plant defensins are, in general, not toxic to human cells, show in vivo efficacy and have low frequencies of resistance occurrence, they are of particular interest in the fight against fungal infections.

  13. Substantiation of the active ingredients rational concentration of ointment for treatment of allergic dermatitis complicated by fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Rukhmakova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Due to the rapid growth of number of allergic skin diseases complicated by secondary fungal infection, creation of new drugs with an integrated anti-allergic and anti-fungal action for their local treatment is especially important. Methods and results. In the process of developing an ointment under conventional name “Allergolik” microbiological studies have been conducted to determine its rational composition. Concentrations of licorice root extract, terbinafine hydrochloride and lavender essential oil have been substantiated as parts of the studied medication. Study of acute toxicity of the developed dosage form has set that it belongs to the IV class of low-toxic substances due to the standard classification of K.K. Sidorova. Conclusion. This testifies the correctness of the choice of drug active ingredients and their concentrations.

  14. Controlling Fungal Biofilms with Functional Drug Delivery Denture Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Jianchuan; Jiang, Fuguang; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Sun, Yuyu

    2015-01-01

    Candida -associated denture stomatitis (CADS), caused by colonization and biofilm-formation of Candida species on denture surfaces, is a significant clinical concern. We show here that modification of conventional denture materials with functional groups can significantly increase drug binding capacity and control drug release rate of the resulting denture materials for potentially managing CADS. In our approach, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based denture resins were surface grafted with ...

  15. Effect of fungal infection on phenolic compounds during the storage of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This work was undertaken to study the effect of Aspergillus infection on phenolic compounds in beans from four cultivars of the coffee plant (Coffea arabica L.. The effects of storage conditions of the coffee beans were also examined. Methodology and results: Beans from four varieties of coffee were artificially infected with three species of Aspergillus: A. niger, A. melleus and A. alliacus, and stored at 0, 8 and 25 ± 2 °C. After 3, 6 and 9 months, the contents of phenolic compounds in the beans were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Conclusion, significance and impact study: The results of this study showed that phenolic compounds were qualitatively and quantitatively higher in the inoculated beans as compared with the uninfected control beans, reflecting a possible induced defense mechanism in the infected beans. Increased storage periods resulted in higher levels of phenols, but the average total, bound and free phenols did not differ between the cultivars tested. Effective control of Apergillus infection in coffee beans can prevent such changes in phenolics that may affect their commercial value.

  16. Histological Observation and Expression Patterns of antimicrobial peptides during Fungal Infection in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Jiangfan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Housefly, Musca domestica, has a complicated immune system. However, its underlying operating mechanism remains elusive. Candida albicans is a major pathogen affecting humans by causing deep infection fungous disease, but it is non-symbiotic in houseflies. To investigate the C. albicans infection process in housefly, the changes in morphological and histological and expression patterns of antimicrobial peptide were monitored to indicate the insect's response to fungal infection. The results showed that scattered brown spots were comprising melanized encapsulation and encapsulated fungal cells were initially observed at the inner side of larvae's body wall 3 h post-infection (PI. Between 6 and 36 h PI, the whole body of larvae was densely covered with the brown spots, which then gradually disappeared. The majority had disappeared at 48 h PI. Some fungi colonized in the gaps between the body wall and the muscle layer, as well as among muscle fibers of the muscle layer at 12 h PI and hyphal was observed at 18 h PI. These fungi colonized distribution changed from a continuous line to scattered spots at 24 h PI and virtually disappeared at 48 h. The results of quantitative PCR analysis revealed that in coordination with the variation during the infection, the expression levels of four antimicrobial peptides were up-regulated. In conclusion, C. albicans infection in M. domestica larvae involved the following stages: injection, infection, immune response and elimination of the pathogen. The rapid response of antimicrobial peptides, melanized encapsulation and agglutination played a vital role against the pathogenic invasion.

  17. Screening of invasive fungal infections by a real-time panfungal (pan-ACF polymerase chain reaction assay in patients with haematological malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malini Rajinder Capoor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Invasive fungal infection (IFI is a fatal infection in haematology patients. There is an urgent need for reliable screening methods facilitating timely diagnosis and treatment. A real-time panfungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay based on TaqMan technology targeting 18S ribosomal RNA gene was used to screen whole blood specimen obtained from series of Haematology malignancy patients for IFIs. Materials and Methods: The panfungal (Pan-ACF assay was employed to investigate specimen from 133 patients in duplicate with suspected IFI. In addition twenty healthy subjects and twenty patients with bacterial infections were taken as control. The patients with suspected IFI were also diagnosed by conventional methods including direct microscopy, culture techniques and antigen detection (galactomannan antigen ELISA and latex agglutination for cryptococcal antigen. The results of molecular testing were evaluated in relation to the criteria proposed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and patients were classified as having proven and probable IFD. Results: Of 133 patients, 89 had proven, 18 had probable and 26 had possible IFI. One hundred four samples were reverse transcription-PCR positive. Of 89 proven cases, 84 were panfungal PCR positive. These 84 cases included 82 cases which revealed growth on fungal blood culture and two cases were negative on fungal blood culture. Of the 82 cases which revealed growth on culture: 74 grew Candida in culture, 3 grew Fusarium solani, 5 grew Aspergillus species on blood culture. The later five were also galactomannan antigen positive. The five specimen which were negative on panfungal PCR, two grew Trichosporon asahii, one grew Candida rugosa and two grew as Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans. Of the 18 probable cases, 18 were panfungal PCR positive. These were also galactomannan antigen positive. The sensitivity and specificity of panfungal PCR in proven cases were

  18. Biomimicry of volatile-based microbial control for managing emerging fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, K T; Joseph Sexton, D; Cornelison, C T

    2017-12-14

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to be produced by a wide range of micro-organisms and for a number of purposes. Volatile-based microbial inhibition in environments such as soil is well-founded, with numerous antimicrobial VOCs having been identified. Inhibitory VOCs are of interest as microbial control agents, as low concentrations of gaseous VOCs can elicit significant antimicrobial effects. Volatile organic compounds are organic chemicals typically characterized as having low molecular weight, low solubility in water, and high vapour pressure. Consequently, VOCs readily evaporate to the gaseous phase at standard temperature and pressure. This contact-independent antagonism presents unique advantages over traditional, contact-dependent microbial control methods, including increased surface exposure and reduced environmental persistence. This approach has been the focus of our recent research, with positive results suggesting it may be particularly promising for the management of emerging fungal pathogens, such as the causative agents of white-nose syndrome of bats and snake fungal disease, which are difficult or impossible to treat using traditional approaches. Here, we review the history of volatile-based microbial control, discuss recent progress in formulations that mimic naturally antagonistic VOCs, outline the development of a novel treatment device, and highlight areas where further work is needed to successfully deploy VOCs against existing and emerging fungal pathogens. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Properties of Oral Voriconazole in Patients with Invasive Fungal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taotao; Xie, Jiao; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Xiaowei; Lei, Jin'e; Wang, Xue; Dong, Haiyan; Yang, Qianting; Chen, Limei; Xing, Jianfeng; Dong, Yalin

    2015-09-01

    To assess the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) properties of voriconazole and to investigate the relationship between PK/PD parameters and the efficacy of a fixed-dose oral regimen in the treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs). Prospective and observational PK/PD study. A university-affiliated medical center. Fifteen hospitalized patients with proven IFIs who were treated with oral voriconazole for at least 2 weeks. We investigated the PK/PD properties of voriconazole using a noncompartmental analysis in 15 patients. Marked interpatient variation in voriconazole pharmacokinetic properties was noted including peak plasma concentrations (median 2.31 mg/L, range 1.06-4.01 mg/L), 12-hour area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUCτ ) (median 21.18 hr mg/L, range 7.71-42.07 hr mg/L), ratio of the unbound drug AUC over 24 hours (fAUC24 ) divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration (fAUC24 :MIC; median 62.61, range 6.48-415.30), and the free trough plasma concentration (Cmin ) divided by the MIC (fCmin :MIC; median 1.81, range 0.46-15.52). There was a good correlation between voriconazole Cmin and AUCτ (R(2)  = 0.805). Voriconazole therapy was effective in 66.7% of patients (10/15). No significant difference was observed with regard to successful clinical response between the patients with a fAUC24 :MIC and fCmin :MIC values higher than 25 and higher than 1 (10/12 vs 10/13, respectively; χ(2)  = 1.61, p=0.688). There is substantial interpatient variability in the PK/PD properties of voriconazole. fAUC24 :MIC values higher than 25 and fCmin :MIC values higher than 1 may predict clinical response in patients with IFIs. Designing an optimal dosage regimen based on individual PK/PD properties will improve the efficacy in patients with IFIs. © 2015 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  20. Revised definitions of invasive fungal disease from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Group.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauw, B.E. de; Walsh, T.J.; Donnelly, J.P.; Stevens, D.A.; Edwards, J.E.; Calandra, T; Pappas, P.G.; Maertens, J.; Lortholary, O.; Kauffman, C.A.; Denning, D.W.; Patterson, T.F.; Maschmeyer, G.; Bille, J.; Dismukes, W.E.; Herbrecht, R.; Hope, W.W.; Kibbler, C.C.; Kullberg, B.J.; Marr, K.A.; Munoz, P.; Odds, F.C.; Perfect, J.R.; Restrepo, A.; Ruhnke, M.; Segal, B.H.; Sobel, J.D.; Sorrell, T.C.; Viscoli, C.; Wingard, J.R.; Zaoutis, T.; Bennett, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality. Clarity and uniformity in defining these infections are important factors in improving the quality of clinical studies. A standard set of definitions strengthens the consistency and reproducibility of such studies.

  1. Combined effect of gamma radiation and some fungal control agents on the greasy cut- worm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd EL- Wahed, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    The greasy cut worm, Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera- Noctuidae) is widely distributed all over the world, particularly in moderate and subtropical countries of the northern and southern hemispheres (Kononenko ,2003). The greasy cut worm causes damage to vegetables, cucurbitaceous and industrial crops. The greatest damage is caused to cotton, essential-oil cultures, maize, tobacco, sunflower, tomatoes, sugar beet and potato. The pest can strongly harm vegetables, and also damage seedlings of tree species (pine, maple, and nut). This pest has solitary habits. They commonly feed on seedlings at ground level, cutting off the stem and sometimes dragging the plants into their burrows. The continuous use of chemical pesticides against pests, resistance to the action of pesticides had dramatically evolved. Also, the extensive use of these chemicals has given rise to problems such as residual toxicity (pollution) and harmful effects on beneficial insects, which are natural enemies of target or nontarget pest species. Such problems have become a cause of search for safety pesticides including microbial agents as fungi, bacteria and viruses (Rashed, 1993). The use of radiation to induce dominate lethal mutations in the sterile insect technique (SIT) is now as the major component of many large and successful programs for pest suppression and eradication. Adult insects, and their different developmental stages, differ in their sensitivity to the induction of dominate lethal mutation. Care has to be taken to identify the appropriate dose of radiation that produces the required level of sterility without impairing the overall fitness of the released insects.(Sawires, 2005). This technique would be successful control device for suppressing and combating many lepidopteraus insect pests, including A. Ipsilon has been studied (EL- kady et al., 1983, EL-Naggar et al., 1984, Abd El -Hamid 2004 and Gabarty, 2008). Entomopathogenic fungi that infect insects have received considerable

  2. Staff Knowledge, Adherence to Infection Control Recommendations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staff Knowledge, Adherence to Infection Control Recommendations and Seroconversion Rates in Hemodialysis Centers in Khartoum. ... Adherence of staff members to infection control recommendations was evaluated by direct observation. Results: ... A structured training program for HD staff members is urgently required.

  3. Manual of infection prevention and control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damani, N. N

    2012-01-01

    .... Unlike other books on infection control, the main strength of this book is to provide clear, up-to-date and practical guidance in infection control in an easy to read format which can act as a quick...

  4. Effects of Low Dose Chronic Radiation and Heavy Metals on Plants and Their Fungal and Virus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dmitriev

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of low dose chronic radiation on plant disease resistance and fungal and virus infections have been studied. The results obtained in the 10-km Chernobyl zone demonstrated a decrease in plant disease resistance and appearance of a "new" population of stem rust agents of cereal with a high frequency of more virulent clones. Radionuclide contamination and heavy metals lead to wider virus spread and a higher diversity of virus species. The Chernobyl zone is a territory of enhanced risk and potential threats for the environment. A special type of monitoring of microevolution processes in plant pathogens should provide better understanding of how serious these potential threats are.

  5. 38 CFR 51.190 - Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infection control. 51.190... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.190 Infection control. The facility management must establish and maintain an infection control program designed to provide a safe, sanitary, and...

  6. 38 CFR 52.190 - Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infection control. 52.190... FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.190 Infection control. The program management must establish and maintain an infection control program designed to prevent the development and...

  7. 42 CFR 460.74 - Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Infection control. 460.74 Section 460.74 Public...) PACE Administrative Requirements § 460.74 Infection control. (a) Standard procedures. The PACE organization must follow accepted policies and standard procedures with respect to infection control, including...

  8. An unusual double fungal infection of the bladder due to Candida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal cystitis is usually associated with candida species. Most of the cases are asymptomatic and often due to contamination. Following, we describe the case of a young diabetic lady who presented with severe bladder storage symptoms and persistent sterile pyuria. As candida was isolated from the urine, a diagnosis of ...

  9. Fungal diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, Thomas R; Wickes, Brian

    2014-04-01

    Early diagnosis of fungal infection is critical to effective treatment. There are many impediments to diagnosis such as a diminishing number of clinical mycologists, cost, time to result, and requirements for sensitivity and specificity. In addition, fungal diagnostics must meet the contrasting needs presented by the increasing diversity of fungi found in association with the use of immunosuppressive agents in countries with high levels of medical care and the need for diagnostics in resource-limited countries where large numbers of opportunistic infections occur in patients with AIDS. Traditional approaches to diagnosis include direct microscopic examination of clinical samples, histopathology, culture, and serology. Emerging technologies include molecular diagnostics and antigen detection in clinical samples. Innovative new technologies that use molecular and immunoassay platforms have the potential to meet the needs of both resource-rich and resource-limited clinical environments.

  10. Flight behaviour of honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers is altered by initial infections of the fungal parasite Nosema apis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosselli, Ryan; Grassl, Julia; Carson, Andrew; Simmons, Leigh W.; Baer, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) host a wide range of parasites, some being known contributors towards dramatic colony losses as reported over recent years. To counter parasitic threats, honey bees possess effective immune systems. Because immune responses are predicted to cause substantial physiological costs for infected individuals, they are expected to trade off with other life history traits that ultimately affect the performance and fitness of the entire colony. Here, we tested whether the initial onset of an infection negatively impacts the flight behaviour of honey bee workers, which is an energetically demanding behaviour and a key component of foraging activities. To do this, we infected workers with the widespread fungal pathogen Nosema apis, which is recognised and killed by the honey bee immune system. We compared their survival and flight behaviour with non-infected individuals from the same cohort and colony using radio frequency identification tags (RFID). We found that over a time frame of four days post infection, Nosema did not increase mortality but workers quickly altered their flight behaviour and performed more flights of shorter duration. We conclude that parasitic infections influence foraging activities, which could reduce foraging ranges of colonies and impact their ability to provide pollination services. PMID:27827404

  11. Flight behaviour of honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers is altered by initial infections of the fungal parasite Nosema apis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosselli, Ryan; Grassl, Julia; Carson, Andrew; Simmons, Leigh W; Baer, Boris

    2016-11-09

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) host a wide range of parasites, some being known contributors towards dramatic colony losses as reported over recent years. To counter parasitic threats, honey bees possess effective immune systems. Because immune responses are predicted to cause substantial physiological costs for infected individuals, they are expected to trade off with other life history traits that ultimately affect the performance and fitness of the entire colony. Here, we tested whether the initial onset of an infection negatively impacts the flight behaviour of honey bee workers, which is an energetically demanding behaviour and a key component of foraging activities. To do this, we infected workers with the widespread fungal pathogen Nosema apis, which is recognised and killed by the honey bee immune system. We compared their survival and flight behaviour with non-infected individuals from the same cohort and colony using radio frequency identification tags (RFID). We found that over a time frame of four days post infection, Nosema did not increase mortality but workers quickly altered their flight behaviour and performed more flights of shorter duration. We conclude that parasitic infections influence foraging activities, which could reduce foraging ranges of colonies and impact their ability to provide pollination services.

  12. Infection Control: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare-Associated Infections (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) VISA/VRSA (Vancomycin-Intermediate/Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) in Healthcare Settings (Centers for Disease Control and ...

  13. Susceptibility and Immune Defence Mechanisms of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae against Entomopathogenic Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Hussain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Insects infected with entomopathogenic fungi, experience physiological changes that influence their growth and immune defence. The potential of nine isolates of entomopathogenic fungi was evaluated after determining percent germination and relative conidial hydrophobicity. However, nutritional indices were evaluated after immersing eighth-instar Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae into each isolate suspension (1 × 107 conidia/mL. The results showed that isolates B6884 and M9374 had 44.51% and 39.02% higher conidial hydrophobicity compared with isolate I03011 (least virulent. The results of nutritional index assays revealed a significant reduction in growth indices after infection with different isolates. Compared with control, B6884 and M9374 greatly decreased larval growth by reducing the efficacy of conversion of ingested food (36%–47% and Efficacy of conversion of digested food (50%–63%. Furthermore, only isolate B6884 induced 100% mortality within 12 days. Compared with control, isolate I03011, possessing the lowest conidial hydrophobicity, only reduced 0.29% of the efficacy of conversion of ingested food (ECI and 0.48% of the efficacy of conversion of digested food (ECD. Similarly, transcriptomic analysis of genes related to the Red palm weevil (RPW immune response, including pathogen recognition receptors (C-type lectin and endo-beta-1,4-glucanse, signal modulator (Serine protease-like protein, signal transductors (Calmodulin-like protein and EF-hand domain containing protein and effectors (C-type lysozyme, Cathepsin L., Defensin-like protein, Serine carboxypeptidase, and Thaumatin-like protein, was significantly increased in larval samples infected with B6884 and M9374. These results suggest that for an isolate to be virulent, conidial hydrophobicity and germination should also be considered during pathogen selection, as these factors could significantly impact host growth and immune defence mechanisms.

  14. Fungal endophytes in a 400-million-yr-old land plant: infection pathways, spatial distribution, and host responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Michael; Taylor, Thomas N; Hass, Hagen; Kerp, Hans; Dotzler, Nora; Hermsen, Elizabeth J

    2007-01-01

    The Early Devonian Rhynie chert has been critical in documenting early land plant-fungal interactions. However, complex associations involving several fungi that enter into qualitatively different relationships with a single host plant and even interact with one another have not yet been detailed. Here, we studied petrographic thin sections of the Rhynie chert plant Nothia aphylla. Three fungal endophytes (co)occur in prostrate axes of this plant: narrow hyphae producing clusters of small spores; large spherical spores/zoosporangia; and wide aseptate hyphae that form intercellular vesicles in the cortex. Host responses on attack include bulging of infected rhizoids, formation of encasement layers around intracellular hyphae, and separation of infected from uninfected tissues by secondarily thickened cell walls. A complex simultaneous interaction of N. aphylla with three endophytic fungi was discovered. The host responses indicate that some of the mechanisms causing host responses in extant plants were in place 400 million yr ago. Anatomical and life history features of N. aphylla suggest that this plant may have been particularly susceptible to colonization by fungi.

  15. Expression of cytokines in aqueous humor from fungal keratitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingnan; Liang, Qingfeng; Liu, Yang; Pan, Zhiqiang; Baudouin, Christophe; Labbé, Antoine; Lu, Qingxian

    2018-04-19

    Although a series of reports on corneal fungal infection have been published, studies on pathogenic mechanisms and inflammation-associated cytokines remain limited. In this study, aqueous humor samples from fungal keratitis patients were collected to examine cytokine patterns and cellular profile for the pathogenesis of fungal keratitis. The aqueous humor samples were collected from ten patients with advanced stage fungal keratitis. Eight aqueous humor samples from patients with keratoconus or corneal dystrophy were taken as control. Approximately 100 μl to 300 μl of aqueous humor in each case were obtained for examination. The aqueous humor samples were centrifuged and the cells were stained and examined under optical microscope. Bacterial and fungal cultures were performed on the aqueous humor and corneal buttons of all patients. Cytokines related to inflammation including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were examined using multiplex bead-based Luminex liquid protein array systems. Fungus infection was confirmed in these ten patients by smear stains and/or fungal cultures. Bacterial and fungal cultures revealed negative results in all aqueous humor specimens. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were the predominant infiltrating cells in the aqueous humor of fungal keratitis. At the advanced stages of fungal keratitis, the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-γ in the aqueous humor were significantly increased when compared with control (phumor was associated with fungal keratitis.

  16. A novel ion-beam-mutation effect application in identification of gene involved in bacterial antagonism to fungal infection of ornamental crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadtanapuk, S.; Teraarusiri, W.; Nanakorn, W.; Yu, L.D.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ion beam bombardment induced mutation in bacterial B. licheniformis. • A mutant lost antifungal activity. • DNA fingerprint of the mutant was analyzed. • The lost gene was indentified to code for TrxR gene. • TrxR gene from B. licheniformis expressed the flower antagonism to fungi. - Abstract: This work is on a novel application of ion beam effect on biological mutation. Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) is a common soil bacterium with an antagonistic effect on Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. In an attempt to control fungal diseases of local crops by utilizing B. licheniformis, we carried out gene analysis of the bacterium to understand the bacterial antagonistic mechanism. The bacterial cells were bombarded to induce mutations using nitrogen ion beam. After ion bombardment, DNA analysis revealed that the modified polymorphism fragment present in the wild type was missing in a bacterial mutant which lost the antifungal activity. The fragments conserved in the wild type but lost in the mutant bacteria was identified to code for the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) gene. The gene analysis showed that the TrxR gene from B. licheniformis had the expression of the antagonism to fungi in a synchronous time evolution with the fungus inhibition when the bacteria were co-cultivated with the fungi. The collective results indicate the TrxR gene responsible for the antagonism of bacteria B. licheniformis to fungal infection

  17. A novel ion-beam-mutation effect application in identification of gene involved in bacterial antagonism to fungal infection of ornamental crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadtanapuk, S.; Teraarusiri, W.; Nanakorn, W.; Yu, L. D.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2014-05-01

    This work is on a novel application of ion beam effect on biological mutation. Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) is a common soil bacterium with an antagonistic effect on Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. In an attempt to control fungal diseases of local crops by utilizing B. licheniformis, we carried out gene analysis of the bacterium to understand the bacterial antagonistic mechanism. The bacterial cells were bombarded to induce mutations using nitrogen ion beam. After ion bombardment, DNA analysis revealed that the modified polymorphism fragment present in the wild type was missing in a bacterial mutant which lost the antifungal activity. The fragments conserved in the wild type but lost in the mutant bacteria was identified to code for the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) gene. The gene analysis showed that the TrxR gene from B. licheniformis had the expression of the antagonism to fungi in a synchronous time evolution with the fungus inhibition when the bacteria were co-cultivated with the fungi. The collective results indicate the TrxR gene responsible for the antagonism of bacteria B. licheniformis to fungal infection.

  18. A novel ion-beam-mutation effect application in identification of gene involved in bacterial antagonism to fungal infection of ornamental crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadtanapuk, S. [Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Phayao, Maeka, Muang, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Teraarusiri, W. [Central Laboratory, University of Phayao, Maeka, Muang, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Nanakorn, W. [The Crown Property Bureau, 173 Nakhonratchasrima Road, Dusit, Bangkok 10300 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S., E-mail: soanu.1@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Ion beam bombardment induced mutation in bacterial B. licheniformis. • A mutant lost antifungal activity. • DNA fingerprint of the mutant was analyzed. • The lost gene was indentified to code for TrxR gene. • TrxR gene from B. licheniformis expressed the flower antagonism to fungi. - Abstract: This work is on a novel application of ion beam effect on biological mutation. Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) is a common soil bacterium with an antagonistic effect on Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. In an attempt to control fungal diseases of local crops by utilizing B. licheniformis, we carried out gene analysis of the bacterium to understand the bacterial antagonistic mechanism. The bacterial cells were bombarded to induce mutations using nitrogen ion beam. After ion bombardment, DNA analysis revealed that the modified polymorphism fragment present in the wild type was missing in a bacterial mutant which lost the antifungal activity. The fragments conserved in the wild type but lost in the mutant bacteria was identified to code for the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) gene. The gene analysis showed that the TrxR gene from B. licheniformis had the expression of the antagonism to fungi in a synchronous time evolution with the fungus inhibition when the bacteria were co-cultivated with the fungi. The collective results indicate the TrxR gene responsible for the antagonism of bacteria B. licheniformis to fungal infection.

  19. 75 FR 3912 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control Practices... Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), regarding: (1) The practice of hospital infection control; (2) strategies for surveillance, prevention, and control of infections (e.g., nosocomial infections...

  20. Managing invasive fungal infections: relying on clinical instincts or on a rational navigation system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pauw, Ben E; Viscoli, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    The management of invasive fungal disease in the immunocompromised host is complex and requires the specialized knowledge of physicians whose primary interest is actually the underlying disease rather than infectious complications. This Supplement aims to provide these physicians with some tools that may help to guide them through the maze of suspicion that an invasive fungal disease is present by offering an integrated care pathway of rational patient management. Such pathways will inevitably vary in detail in different centres and depend for their success on the presence of multidisciplinary teams and an explicit agreement on at least the minimum requirements for effective management. The integrated care pathways presented constitute an objective instrument to allow regular audits for recognizing opportunities to change practice if and when weaknesses are identified.

  1. Fungal colonization and/or infection in non-neutropenic critically ill patients: results of the EPCAN observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, C; Alvarez-Lerma, F; Ruiz-Santana, S; León, M A; Nolla, J; Jordá, R; Saavedra, P; Palomar, M

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the incidence of fungal colonization and infection in non-neutropenic critically ill patients and to identify factors favoring infection by Candida spp. A total of 1,655 consecutive patients (>18 years of age) admitted for > or = 7 days to 73 medical-surgical Spanish intensive care units (ICUs) participated in an observational prospective cohort study. Surveillance samples were obtained once a week. One or more fungi were isolated in different samples in 59.2% of patients, 94.2% of which were Candida spp. There were 864 (52.2%) patients with Candida spp. colonization and 92 (5.5%) with proven Candida infection. In the logistic regression analysis risk factors independently associated with Candida spp. infection were sepsis (odds ratio [OR] = 8.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.07-13.6), multifocal colonization (OR = 3.49, 95% CI 1.74-7.00), surgery (OR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.27-3.30), and the use of total parenteral nutrition (OR = 4.37, 95% CI 2.16-8.33). Patients with Candida spp. infection showed significantly higher in-hospital and intra-ICU mortality rates than those colonized or non-colonized non-infected (P colonization, mainly due to Candida spp., was documented in nearly 60% of non-neutropenic critically ill patients admitted to the ICU for more than 7 days. Proven candidal infection was diagnosed in 5.5% of cases. Risk factors independently associated with Candida spp. infection were sepsis, multifocal colonization, surgery, and the use of total parenteral nutrition.

  2. Evaluation of pulmonary fungal diseases in patients with fungal rhino-sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sh. Badawy

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Universal screening for pulmonary fungal infection especially in patients with fungal rhino sinusitis is highly recommended to treat it early, decrease morbidity and mortality of the diseases.

  3. [Evaluation of the significance of molecular methods in the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections: comparison with conventional methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susever, Serdar; Yeğenoğlu, Yıldız

    2011-04-01

    Direct microscopy and culture methods are still valuable standard conventional methods for the diagnosis of infections caused by true or opportunistic fungal pathogens, especially in high risk patients. However, some of the problems concerning the application and interpretation of those methods, indicate a need for more rapid, practical and reliable tests with high sensitivity and specificity. This study was conducted to compare the results obtained by molecular methods with the results of conventional methods performed simultaneously for the detection and identification of causative fungi in clinical samples. Clinical samples [24 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL); 14 blood; 5 peritoneal, 4 pleural and 1 pericardial fluids; 1 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 1 urine] from 50 immunosuppressed patients were included in the study. All of the samples were cultivated on Sabouraud dextrose and brain-heart infusion agar media and incubated at 30°C and 37°C for 30 days. Samples other than blood were stained with 10-15% KOH + calcofluor white and examined by direct microscopy. Conventional identification of the isolates were performed by using basic morphological and biochemical characteristics. The isolation of fungal DNAs for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was achieved by classical phenol-chloroform-isoamylalcohol procedure (9-10 hours) and commercial DNA extraction kit (6-7 hours) and general and species-specific primers (multiplex) from ITS1, ITS2, ITS3, ITS4, 5.8S rDNA and 28S rDNA regions were chosen for amplification. In PCR results, 550 base-paired (bp) bands obtained with universal primers were evaluated as fungal DNA positivity, and 273 bp, 320 bp, 423 bp, 357 bp, 136 bp and 385 bp bands with species-specific primers were evaluated as Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus positivities, respectively. Seventeen (34%) of the 50 samples yielded fungal growth on culture (C.albicans in 12

  4. The Verticillium-specific protein VdSCP7 localizes to the plant nucleus and modulates immunity to fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lisha; Ni, Hao; Du, Xuan; Wang, Sheng; Ma, Xiao-Wei; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Guo, Hui-Shan; Hua, Chenlei

    2017-07-01

    Fungal pathogens secrete effector proteins to suppress plant basal defense for successful colonization. Resistant plants, however, can recognize effectors by cognate R proteins to induce effector-triggered immunity (ETI). By analyzing secretomes of the vascular fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae, we identified a novel secreted protein VdSCP7 that targets the plant nucleus. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged VdSCP7 gene with either a mutated nuclear localization signal motif or with additional nuclear export signal was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana, and investigated for induction of plant immunity. The role of VdSCP7 in V. dahliae pathogenicity was characterized by gene knockout and complementation, and GFP labeling. Expression of the VdSCP7 gene in N. benthamiana activated both salicylic acid and jasmonate signaling, and altered the plant's susceptibility to the pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora capsici. The immune response activated by VdSCP7 was highly dependent on its initial extracellular secretion and subsequent nuclear localization in plants. Knockout of the VdSCP7 gene significantly enhanced V. dahliae aggressiveness on cotton. GFP-labeled VdSCP7 is secreted by V. dahliae and accumulates in the plant nucleus. We conclude that VdSCP7 is a novel effector protein that targets the host nucleus to modulate plant immunity, and suggest that plants can recognize VdSCP7 to activate ETI during fungal infection. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Effects of multiple climate change factors on the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis: infection frequency and tissue chemistry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosi, Glade [University of Kentucky; McCulley, Rebecca L [University of Kentucky; Bush, L P [University of Kentucky; Nelson, Jim A [University of Kentucky; Classen, Aimee T [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Norby, Richard J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Climate change (altered CO{sub 2}, warming, and precipitation) may affect plant-microbial interactions, such as the Lolium arundinaceum-Neotyphodium coenophialum symbiosis, to alter future ecosystem structure and function. To assess this possibility, tall fescue tillers were collected from an existing climate manipulation experiment in a constructed old-field community in Tennessee (USA). Endophyte infection frequency (EIF) was determined, and infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) tillers were analysed for tissue chemistry. The EIF of tall fescue was higher under elevated CO{sub 2} (91% infected) than with ambient CO{sub 2} (81%) but was not affected by warming or precipitation treatments. Within E+ tillers, elevated CO{sub 2} decreased alkaloid concentrations of both ergovaline and loline, by c. 30%; whereas warming increased loline concentrations 28% but had no effect on ergovaline. Independent of endophyte infection, elevated CO{sub 2} reduced concentrations of nitrogen, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. These results suggest that elevated CO{sub 2}, more than changes in temperature or precipitation, may promote this grass-fungal symbiosis, leading to higher EIF in tall fescue in old-field communities. However, as all three climate factors are likely to change in the future, predicting the symbiotic response and resulting ecological consequences may be difficult and dependent on the specific atmospheric and climatic conditions encountered.

  6. Selective C-Rel Activation via Malt1 Controls Anti-Fungal T-H-17 Immunity by Dectin-1 and Dectin-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gringhuis, Sonja I.; Wevers, Brigitte A.; Kaptein, Tanja M.; van Capel, Toni M. M.; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun; de Jong, Esther C.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2011-01-01

    C-type lectins dectin-1 and dectin-2 on dendritic cells elicit protective immunity against fungal infections through induction of T(H)1 and T-H-17 cellular responses. Fungal recognition by dectin-1 on human dendritic cells engages the CARD9-Bcl10-Malt1 module to activate NF-kappa B. Here we

  7. 75 FR 63844 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control Practices... healthcare infection control and strategies for surveillance, prevention, and control of healthcare-associated infections (e.g., nosocomial infections), antimicrobial resistance, and related events in settings...

  8. 75 FR 50770 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control Practices... Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), regarding: (1) The practice of hospital infection control; strategies for surveillance, prevention, and control of infections (e.g., nosocomial infections), antimicrobial resistance...

  9. 75 FR 29772 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee, (HICPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control Practices... Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) regarding (1) The practice of healthcare infection control; (2) strategies for surveillance, prevention, and control of infections (e.g., nosocomial infections...

  10. 76 FR 29756 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control Practices... Healthcare Quality Promotion regarding (1) The practice of healthcare infection control; (2) strategies for surveillance, prevention, and control of infections (e.g., nosocomial infections), antimicrobial resistance...

  11. Overexpression of tobacco osmotin (Tbosm) in soybean conferred resistance to salinity stress and fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Kondeti; Arun, Muthukrishnan; Mariashibu, Thankaraj Salammal; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Rajesh, Manoharan; Singh, Narendra K; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy

    2012-12-01

    Salinity and fungal diseases are the two significant constraints limiting soybean productivity. In order to address these problems, we have transformed soybean cv. Pusa 16 via somatic embryogenesis with salinity induced and apoplastically secreted pathogenesis-related tobacco osmotin (Tbosm) gene using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Integration of Tbosm in randomly selected five GUS assay-positive independently transformed soybean plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern hybridization. Reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting confirmed that the Tbosm was expressed in three of the five transformed soybean plants. Further the Western blotting revealed that the truncated osmotin protein accumulated more in apoplastic fluid. The transformed (T(1)) soybean plants survived up to 200 mM NaCl, whereas non-transformed (NT) plants could withstand till 100 mM and perished at 150 mM NaCl. The biochemical analysis revealed the T(1) soybean plants accumulated higher amount of proline, chlorophyll, APX, CAT, SOD, DHAR, MDHAR, and RWC than NT plants. Leaf gas exchange measurements revealed that T(1) soybean plants maintained higher net photosynthetic rate, CO(2) assimilation, and stomatal conductance than NT plants. The three T(1) soybean plants expressing the osmotin gene also showed resistance against three important fungal pathogens of soybean--Microsphaera diffusa, Septoria glycines and Phakopsora pachyrhizi. The T(1) soybean plants produced 32-35 soybean pods/plant containing 10.3-12.0 g of seeds at 200 mM NaCl, whereas NT plant produced 28.6 soybean pods containing 9.6 g of seeds at 100 mM NaCl. The present investigation clearly shows that expression of Tbosm enhances salinity tolerance and fungal disease resistance in transformed soybean plants.

  12. Unmet clinical needs in the treatment of systemic fungal infections: The role of amphotericin B and drug targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, Raquel; de Pablo, Esther; Ballesteros, María Paloma; Serrano, Dolores R

    2017-06-15

    Recently an increase in both the prevalence and incidence of invasive fungal infections have been reported. The number of fungal species that can cause systemic mycoses are higher and current antifungal therapies are still far from ideal. The emergence of antifungal resistances has a major clinical impact when using azoles and echinocandins leading to possible treatment failure and ultimately putting the patient's life at risk. Amphotericin B can play a key role in treating severe invasive mycoses as the incidence of antifungal resistance is very low combined with a high efficacy against a wide range of fungi. However, the use of this drug is limited due to its high toxicity and the infusion-related side effects often necessitating patient hospitalisation. New medicines based on lipid-based systems have been commercialised in the last decade, these treatments are able to reduce the toxicity of the drug but intravenous administration is still required. An oral or topically self-administered amphotericin B formulation can overcome these challenges, however such a product is not yet available. Several drug delivery systems such as cochleates, nanoparticulate and self-emulsifying systems are under development in order to enhance the solubility of the drug in aqueous media and promote oral absorption and cutaneous permeation across the skin. In this review, the type of drug delivery system and the effect of particle size on efficacy, toxicity and biodistribution will be discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A novel model-based control strategy for aerobic filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M.; Albaek, Mads O.

    2017-01-01

    A novel model-based control strategy has been developed for filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes. The system of interest is a pilot scale (550 L) filamentous fungus process operating at Novozymes A/S. In such processes, it is desirable to maximize the total product achieved...... in a batch in a defined process time. In order to achieve this goal, it is important to maximize both the product concentration, and also the total final mass in the fed-batch system. To this end, we describe the development of a control strategy which aims to achieve maximum tank fill, while avoiding oxygen...... limited conditions. This requires a two stage approach: (i) calculation of the tank start fill; and (ii) on-line control in order to maximize fill subject to oxygen transfer limitations. First, a mechanistic model was applied off-line in order to determine the appropriate start fill for processes...

  14. Management of infection control in dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A; Creanor, S; Hurrell, D; Bagg, J; McCowan, M

    2009-04-01

    This was an observational study in which the management policies and procedures associated with infection control and instrument decontamination were examined in 179 dental surgeries by a team of trained surveyors. Information relating to the management of a wide range of infection control procedures, in particular the decontamination of dental instruments, was collected by interview and by examination of practice documentation. This study found that although the majority of surgeries (70%) claimed to have a management policy on infection control, only 50% of these were documented. For infection control policies, 79% of surgeries had access to the British Dental Association Advice Sheet A12. Infection control policies were claimed to be present in 89% of surgeries, of which 62% were documented. Seventy-seven per cent of staff claimed to have received specific infection control training, but for instrument decontamination this was provided mainly by demonstration (97%) or observed practice (88%). Many dental nurses (74%) and dental practitioners (57%) did not recognise the symbol used to designate a single-use device. Audit of infection control or decontamination activities was undertaken in 11% of surgeries. The majority of surgeries have policies and procedures for the management of infection control in dental practice, but in many instances these are not documented. The training of staff in infection control and its documentation is poorly managed and consideration should be given to development of quality management systems for use in dental practice.

  15. Infection control in design and construction work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinge, William H

    2015-01-01

    To clarify how infection control requirements are represented, communicated, and understood in work interactions through the medical facility construction project life cycle. To assist project participants with effective infection control management by highlighting the nature of such requirements and presenting recommendations to aid practice. A 4-year study regarding client requirement representation and use on National Health Service construction projects in the United Kingdom provided empirical evidence of infection control requirement communication and understanding through design and construction work interactions. An analysis of construction project resources (e.g., infection control regulations and room data sheets) was combined with semi-structured interviews with hospital client employees and design and construction professionals to provide valuable insights into the management of infection control issues. Infection control requirements are representationally indistinct but also omnipresent through all phases of the construction project life cycle: Failure to recognize their nature, relevance, and significance can result in delays, stoppages, and redesign work. Construction project resources (e.g., regulatory guidance and room data sheets) can mask or obscure the meaning of infection control issues. A preemptive identification of issues combined with knowledge sharing activities among project stakeholders can enable infection control requirements to be properly understood and addressed. Such initiatives should also reference existing infection control regulatory guidance and advice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Abstract: Implementing Infection Control Measures in Neonatology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background Neonatal infection is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Objective The project's objective is to facilitate quality improvement by reduction of hospital-acquired infection (HAI) in hospitalized neonates. Methods Current infection control practices were surveyed and three main areas were ...

  17. Agrobacterium mediated transformation of brassica juncea (l.) czern with chitinase gene conferring resistance against fungal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, B.; Ambreen, S.; Khan, I.

    2015-01-01

    Brassica juncea (Czern and Coss., L.) is an important oilseed crop. Since it is attacked by several bacterial and fungal diseases, therefore, we developed an easy and simple protocol for the regeneration and transformation of B. juncea variety RAYA ANMOL to give rise to transgenic plants conferring resistance against various fungal diseases. The transformation was carried out using Agrobacterium with Chitinase gene. This gene was isolated from Streptomyces griseus HUT6037. We used two types of explants for transformation i.e. hypocotyls and cotyledons. Only hypocotyls explants showed good results regarding callus initiation. Different hormonal concentrations were applied i.e. BAP 2, 4 and 6 mgL-1 and NAA 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mgL-1. However, high transformation efficiency was observed by supplementing the medium with combination of 2 mgL-1 BAP and 0.2 mgL-1 for initiation of callus. Similarly 10 mgL-1 kanamycin and 200 mgL-1 cefotaxime also proved successful for the selection of transformed callus. In order to confirm the presence of transgenic callus Polymerase chain reaction was performed using specific primers for Chitinase gene. (author)

  18. Study on the Biocontrol Activities of Trichoderma species in Greengram with Infected Fungal Pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May Waine Wityi Htun; Myat Thu; Saw Sandar Maw

    2011-12-01

    Seven species of Trichoderma were isolated from rhizospheric soil sources and studied by cultural morphology and microscopic examinations. In dual plate assay, antifungal effects of seven Trichoderma strains were screened against three plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium sp.) on PDA medium and T-5 isolate showed a wide percentage of inhibitory effects on target pathogens with PIRG value. All Trichoderma strains exhibited a clear zone formation on minimal synthetic medium supplemented with 1% colloidal chitin. T-2 and T-5 were the best chitinase producer strains. In vitro screening for protease activity, the highest protease producing activity of Trichoderma isolate (T-2) were observed in pH indicator medium after 7 days incubation. In pot trial experiment, only T-5 strain exhibited more fungal suppression efficiency on green gram plant than commercial fungicide, Trisan and the other strains. So, it can be said that the effective strain was T-5 strain only which have been more antifungal producing power on three fungal pathogens than Trisan and the resting strains.

  19. Impact of the CYP2C19 genotype on voriconazole exposure in adults with invasive fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadeh, Issam S; Klinker, Kenneth P; Borgert, Samuel J; Richards, Ashley I; Li, Wenhui; Mangal, Naveen; Hiemenz, John W; Schmidt, Stephan; Langaee, Taimour Y; Peloquin, Charles A; Johnson, Julie A; Cavallari, Larisa H

    2017-05-01

    Voriconazole, a first-line agent for the treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), is metabolized by CYP2C19. A significant proportion of patients fail to achieve therapeutic trough concentrations with standard weight-based voriconazole dosing, placing them at increased risk for treatment failure, which can be life threatening. We sought to test the association between the CYP2C19 genotype and subtherapeutic voriconazole concentrations in adults with IFIs. Adults receiving weight-based voriconazole dosing for the treatment of IFIs were genotyped for the CYP2C19*2, *3, and *17 polymorphisms, and CYP2C19 metabolizer phenotypes were inferred. Steady-state voriconazole trough plasma concentrations and the prevalence of subtherapeutic troughs (voriconazole dosing. These results corroborate previous findings in children and support the potential clinical utility of CYP2C19 genotype-guided voriconazole dosing to avoid underexposure in RMs and UMs.

  20. Prophylactic administration of voriconazole with two different doses for invasive fungal infection in children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirozumi Sano

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pediatric patients under treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML are at high risk for invasive fungal infection (IFI. We evaluated the efficacy of prophylactic administration of voriconazole (VRCZ with two different doses. Methods: Between October 2005 and June 2011, 17 children and adolescents (aged 0–20 years undergoing chemotherapy for AML were prophylactically administered with 5 mg/kg/d of oral VRCZ. Furthermore, 22 AML patients (aged 0–19 years were administered 10 mg/kg/d of oral VRCZ between July 2011 and December 2014. The incidences of IFI with two different doses of VRCZ were compared. Results: Irrespective of the dosage of VRCZ, eight patients developed IFI. Of these eight patients, four belonged to the 5 mg/kg/d group and four to the 10 mg/kg/d group. Cumulative incidences of IFI at 180 days after the initiation of chemotherapy were not different between the 5 mg/kg/d and 10 mg/kg/d groups. The trough plasma VRCZ concentration in the 10 mg/kg/d group ranged from < 0.09 μg/mL to 2.17 μg/mL, with a median level of 0.27 μg/mL, and patients with the targeted trough concentration (1–4 μg/mL comprised only 18.8% of the evaluable patients in this group, whereas the trough plasma VRCZ concentration of the evaluable patients in the 5 mg/kg/d group were all below the limit of sensitivity (< 0.09 μg/mL. Conclusion: More dose escalation is required based on this study. As VRCZ concentration is considerably influenced by genetic polymorphisms and drug–drug interactions, VRCZ should be used under therapeutic drug monitoring to keep effective drug concentrations. Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia, concentration, invasive fungal infection, prophylaxis, voriconazole

  1. Fungal Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Fungal Keratitis Sections What is Fungal Keratitis? Fungal Keratitis Causes ... Keratitis Symptoms Fungal Keratitis Treatment What is Fungal Keratitis? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es la Queratitis Fúngica? ...

  2. Spatial and taxonomical overlap of fungi on phylloplanes and invasive alien ladybirds with fungal infections in tree crowns of urban green spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, Andrew Gordon; Ravn, Hans Peter; Jensen, Annette Bruun

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi on phylloplanes in Tilia x europaea crowns between 1 - 13m was assessed in urban parks. Prevalence of fungal infections in ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) collected from T. x europaea was assessed to determine whether fungi found on phylloplanes also occ...

  3. Assessment of microbiological air quality in hemato-oncology units and its relationship with the occurrence of invasive fungal infections: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Goncalves Menegueti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide aging of the human population has promoted an increase in the incidence of neoplasia, including hematological cancers, which render patients particularly vulnerable to invasive fungal infections. For this reason, air filtration in hemato-oncology units has been recommended. However, scarce literature has assessed the impact of microbiological air quality on the occurrence of fungal infections in this population. We performed an integrative review of studies in the MEDLINE database that were published between January 1980 and October 2012, using the following combinations of keywords: air × quality × HEPA, air × quality × hematology, and airborne fungal infections. The search yielded only 13 articles, suggesting that high-efficiency filtering of the ambient air in hemato-oncology units can prevent the incidence of invasive fungal infections. However, no randomized clinical trial was found to confirm this suggestion. Currently, there is no consensus about the maximum allowable count of fungi in the air, which complicates filtration monitoring, including filter maintenance and replacement, and needs to be addressed in future studies.

  4. Phellinus species: An emerging cause of refractory fungal infections in patients with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Ghady; Zerbe, Christa S; Cheng, Michelle; Zelazny, Adrian M; Holland, Steven M; Sheridan, Kathleen R

    2017-03-01

    Aspergillus spp. are a leading cause of mortality in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), but other fungi have emerged in the era of mould prophylaxis. Of these, Phellinus spp. are an under-recognised cause of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in CGD, and data on their presentation and management are scarce. We present a patient with CGD who developed disseminated IFI involving the lungs and brain. Surgical specimens grew a basidiomycete which was disregarded as a contaminant. After three months of progressive disease despite antifungals, he was diagnosed with Phellinus tropicalis by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. He improved with amphotericin B and isavuconazole but required haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We review the literature on Phellinus infections in CGD and conclude that: (i) these infections emerge on mould-active prophylaxis and are indolent; (ii) they typically cause locally destructive disease but can disseminate; (iii) diagnosis is delayed and requires molecular methods; (iv) amphotericin B is most active in vitro; and (v) treatment is protracted and requires surgery and possibly HSCT. In conclusion, Phellinus spp. are emerging pathogens in CGD. Every effort should be made to establish the diagnosis of non-Aspergillus IFIs in patients with CGD by sending tissue specimens for molecular diagnostics. © 2016 The Authors. Mycoses Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Protocol for the systematic review of the prevention, treatment and public health management of impetigo, scabies and fungal skin infections in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philippa; Bowen, Asha; Tong, Steven; Steer, Andrew; Prince, Sam; Andrews, Ross; Currie, Bart; Carapetis, Jonathan

    2016-09-23

    Impetigo, scabies, and fungal skin infections disproportionately affect populations in resource-limited settings. Evidence for standard treatment of skin infections predominantly stem from hospital-based studies in high-income countries. The evidence for treatment in resource-limited settings is less clear, as studies in these populations may lack randomisation and control groups for cultural, ethical or economic reasons. Likewise, a synthesis of the evidence for public health control within endemic populations is also lacking. We propose a systematic review of the evidence for the prevention, treatment and public health management of skin infections in resource-limited settings, to inform the development of guidelines for the standardised and streamlined clinical and public health management of skin infections in endemic populations. The protocol has been designed in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols statement. All trial designs and analytical observational study designs will be eligible for inclusion. A systematic search of the peer-reviewed literature will include PubMed, Excertpa Medica and Global Health. Grey literature databases will also be systematically searched, and clinical trials registries scanned for future relevant studies. The primary outcome of interest will be the clinical cure or decrease in prevalence of impetigo, scabies, crusted scabies, tinea capitis, tinea corporis or tinea unguium. Two independent reviewers will perform eligibility assessment and data extraction using standardised electronic forms. Risk of bias assessment will be undertaken by two independent reviewers according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Data will be tabulated and narratively synthesised. We expect there will be insufficient data to conduct meta-analysis. The final body of evidence will be reported against the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation grading system. The evidence

  6. Nosocomial infections and their control strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ahmed Khan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections are also known as hospital-acquired/associated infections. National Healthcare Safety Network along with Centers for Disease Control for surveillance has classified nosocomial infection sites into 13 types with 50 infection sites, which are specific on the basis of biological and clinical criteria. The agents that are usually involved in hospital-acquired infections include Streptococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Legionella and Enterobacteriaceae family members, namely, Proteus mirablis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens. Nosocomial pathogens can be transmitted through person to person, environment or contaminated water and food, infected individuals, contaminated healthcare personnel's skin or contact via shared items and surfaces. Mainly, multi-drug-resistant nosocomial organisms include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia, whereas Clostridium difficile shows natural resistance. Excessive and improper use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, especially in healthcare settings, is elevating nosocomial infections, which not only becomes a big health care problem but also causes great economic and production loss in the community. Nosocomial infections can be controlled by measuring and comparing the infection rates within healthcare settings and sticking to the best healthcare practices. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides the methodology for surveillance of nosocomial infections along with investigation of major outbreaks. By means of this surveillance, hospitals can devise a strategy comprising of infection control practices.

  7. Journal of the Nigerian Infection Control Association

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of the Nigerian Infection Control Association publishes articles which deal with clinical medicine, basic medical science, dental sciences, pharmaceutical, veterinary sciences, nursing services and medical education and other related disciplines which are pertinent to infection control. Language of Publication: ...

  8. Host-induced gene silencing: a tool for understanding fungal host interaction and for developing novel disease control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cristiano C; Dean, Ralph A

    2012-06-01

    Recent discoveries regarding small RNAs and the mechanisms of gene silencing are providing new opportunities to explore fungal pathogen-host interactions and potential strategies for novel disease control. Plant pathogenic fungi are a constant and major threat to global food security; they represent the largest group of disease-causing agents on crop plants on the planet. An initial understanding of RNA silencing mechanisms and small RNAs was derived from model fungi. Now, new knowledge with practical implications for RNA silencing is beginning to emerge from the study of plant-fungus interactions. Recent studies have shown that the expression of silencing constructs in plants designed on fungal genes can specifically silence their targets in invading pathogenic fungi, such as Fusarium verticillioides, Blumeria graminis and Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici. Here, we highlight the important general aspects of RNA silencing mechanisms and emphasize recent findings from plant pathogenic fungi. Strategies to employ RNA silencing to investigate the basis of fungal pathogenesis are discussed. Finally, we address important aspects for the development of fungal-derived resistance through the expression of silencing constructs in host plants as a powerful strategy to control fungal disease. © 2011 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Infection control in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mohamed F; Askari, Reza

    2014-12-01

    It is critical for health care personnel to recognize and appreciate the detrimental impact of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infections. The economic, clinical, and social expenses to patients and hospitals are overwhelming. To limit the incidence of ICU-acquired infections, aggressive infection control measures must be implemented and enforced. Researchers and national committees have developed and continue to develop evidence-based guidelines to control ICU infections. A multifaceted approach, including infection prevention committees, antimicrobial stewardship programs, daily reassessments-intervention bundles, identifying and minimizing risk factors, and continuing staff education programs, is essential. Infection control in the ICU is an evolving area of critical care research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Antifungal activity of a β-peptide in synthetic urine media: Toward materials-based approaches to reducing catheter-associated urinary tract fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Namrata; Lee, Myung-Ryul; Rodríguez López, Angélica de L; Palecek, Sean P; Lynn, David M

    2016-10-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are the most common type of hospital-acquired infection, with more than 30 million catheters placed annually in the US and a 10-30% incidence of infection. Candida albicans forms fungal biofilms on the surfaces of urinary catheters and is the leading cause of fungal urinary tract infections. As a step toward new strategies that could prevent or reduce the occurrence of C. albicans-based CAUTI, we investigated the ability of antifungal β-peptide-based mimetics of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to kill C. albicans and prevent biofilm formation in synthetic urine. Many α-peptide-based AMPs exhibit antifungal activities, but are unstable in high ionic strength media and are easily degraded by proteases-features that limit their use in urinary catheter applications. Here, we demonstrate that β-peptides designed to mimic the amphiphilic helical structures of AMPs retain 100% of their structural stability and exhibit antifungal and anti-biofilm activity against C. albicans in a synthetic medium that mimics the composition of urine. We demonstrate further that these agents can be loaded into and released from polymer-based multilayer coatings applied to polyurethane, polyethylene, and silicone tubing commonly used as urinary catheters. Our results reveal catheters coated with β-peptide-loaded multilayers to kill planktonic fungal cells for up to 21days of intermittent challenges with C. albicans and prevent biofilm formation on catheter walls for at least 48h. These new materials and approaches could lead to advances that reduce the occurrence of fungal CAUTI. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections are the most common type of hospital-acquired infection. The human pathogen Candida albicans is the leading cause of fungal urinary tract infections, and forms difficult to remove 'biofilms' on the surfaces of urinary catheters. We investigated synthetic β-peptide mimics of natural antimicrobial peptides as an

  11. Fungal infection in the tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) and in other crustaceans from the Cochin Backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, U.K.; Meenakshikunjamma, P.P.; Purushan, K.S.

    more serious necrotic lesions than Saprolegnia parasitica. In the other crustaceans, Achlya racemosa and another Achlya sp. were also recorded besides S. parasitica. Experimental infection showed that smaller and thin-shelled crustaceans were more...

  12. Prolonged pre-incubation increases the susceptibility of Galleria mellonella larvae to bacterial and fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Niall; Surlis, Carla; Maher, Amie; Gallagher, Clair; Carolan, James C; Clynes, Martin; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Galleria mellonella larvae are widely used for assessing the virulence of microbial pathogens and for measuring the in vivo activity of antimicrobial agents and produce results comparable to those that can be obtained using mammals. The aim of the work described here was to ascertain the effect of pre-incubation at 15°C for 1, 3, 6 or 10 weeks on the susceptibility of larvae to infection with Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. Larvae infected with C. albicans after 1 week pre-incubation at 15°C showed 73.3 ± 3.3% survival at 24 hours post-infection while those infected after 10 weeks pre-incubation showed 30 ± 3.3% survival (P system but the duration of the pre-incubation stage significantly affects their susceptibility to microbial pathogens possibly as a result of altered metabolism.

  13. Invasive candidiasis in critical care setting, updated recommendations from “Invasive Fungal Infections-Clinical Forum”, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhoufi, Ashraf; Ahmadi, Arezoo; Asnaashari, Amir Mohammad Hashem; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali; Bidgoli, Behrooz Farzanegan; Moghaddam, Omid Moradi; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Abbasi, Saeed; El-Sobky, Malak; Ghaziani, Ali; Jarrahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Shahrami, Reza; Shirazian, Farzad; Soltani, Farhad; Yazdinejad, Homeira; Zand, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis (IC) bears a high risk of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care units (ICU). With the current advances in critical care and the use of wide-spectrum antibiotics, invasive fungal infections (IFIs) and IC in particular, have turned into a growing concern in the ICU. Further to blood cultures, some auxiliary laboratory tests and biomarkers are developed to enable an earlier detection of infection, however these test are neither consistently available nor validated in our setting. On the other hand, patients’ clinical status and local epidemiology data may justify the empiric antifungal approach using the proper antifungal option. The clinical approach to the management of IC in febrile, non-neutropenic critically ill patients has been defined in available international guidelines; nevertheless such recommendations need to be customized when applied to our local practice. Over the past three years, Iranian experts from intensive care and infectious diseases disciplines have tried to draw a consensus on the management of IFI with a particular focus on IC in the ICU. The established IFI-clinical forum (IFI-CF), comprising the scientific leaders in the field, has recently come up with and updated recommendation on the same (June 2014). The purpose of this review is to put together literature insights and Iranian experts’ opinion at the IFI-CF, to propose an updated practical overview on recommended approaches for the management of IC in the ICU. PMID:25374806

  14. Protection of immunocompromised mice from fungal infection with a thymus growth-stimulatory component from Selaginella involvens, a fern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, V; Asha, V V; John, J Anil; Subramoniam, A

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that the water extract of Selaginella involvens (Sw.) Spring, a wild fern, exhibits thymus growth-stimulatory activity in adult mice (reversal of involution of thymus) and remarkable anti-lipid peroxidation activity. Follow-up studies were carried out in the present study. Activity-guided isolation of the active component (AC) was carried out. The effect of AC on immune function was studied using fungal (Aspergillus fumigatus) challenge in cortisone-treated mice. The in vitro antifungal activity of AC was assayed using disc diffusion assay. In vitro and in vivo effect of AC on DNA synthesis in thymus was studied using (3)H-thymidine incorporation. In in vitro anti-lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl radical scavenging and inhibition of superoxide production were assayed. The active principle/component (AC) was isolated in a chromatographically pure form from the water extract of S. involvens. AC showed positive reaction to glycosides. AC possessed both thymus growth-stimulatory and antioxidant properties. It protected cortisone-treated mice from A. fumigatus challenge. It did not exhibit in vitro antifungal activity. Increased (3)H-thymidine incorporation was observed in the reticuloepithelium of thymus obtained from AC-treated mice. However, in vitro AC treatment to thymus for 5 h did not result in an increase in (3)H-thymidine incorporation. AC (named as Selagin), from S. involvens, could reverse involution of thymus to a large extent, exhibit remarkable antioxidant activity, and protect immunocompromised mice from fungal infection. Therefore, it is very promising for the development of a drug to ameliorate old age-related health problems and prolong lifespan.

  15. Clinical utility of bronchoalveolar lavage and respiratory tract biopsies in diagnosis and management of suspected invasive respiratory fungal infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Surabhi; Li, Betty; Underhill, Nicole; Maloney, Rebekah; Katz, Ben Z; Hijiya, Nobuko

    2015-09-01

    Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and respiratory tract biopsies are important tools for diagnosing fungal infections in children with cancer and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of BAL and respiratory tract biopsies on the management of suspected fungal infections in oncology and HSCT patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of oncology and HSCT patients with possible, probable, or proven fungal infection of the respiratory tract and determined whether BAL or biopsy following computed tomography (CT) prompted a change in management. Among 101 patients (0.5-29 years of age), 24 underwent a BAL and 31 had biopsies (27 lung and 4 sinus). The remaining 46 patients had CT scans only. Of these, there were radiographic findings suggestive of a fungal infection in 38 patients (83%). Thirty of these 38 patients (79%) had a change in management. BAL provided a diagnosis in 6 of 24 patients (25%). There was a change in management in 2 of the 6 (33%). Respiratory tract biopsy provided a diagnosis in 12 of 31 patients (39%). Biopsy results led to a change in management in 4 of the 12 patients (33%). Significant postoperative morbidity attributed to biopsy occurred in 3 of 31 patients (10%); 2 patients had pneumothorax requiring chest tube and intubation and a patient had prolonged intubation. BAL and biopsy in children with an oncological diagnosis or those undergoing HSCT only infrequently lead to changes in management in the era of empiric therapy with broad-spectrum anti-fungal agents. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Molecular Characterization, Structural Modeling, and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Basrai Thaumatin-Like Protein against Fungal Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Nusrat; Saleem, Mahjabeen; Naz, Mamoona; Gul, Roquyya; Rehman, Hafiz Muzzammel

    2017-01-01

    A thaumatin-like protein gene from Basrai banana was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli . Amplified gene product was cloned into pTZ57R/T vector and subcloned into expression vector pET22b(+) and resulting pET22b-basrai TLP construct was introduced into E. coli BL21. Maximum protein expression was obtained at 0.7 mM IPTG concentration after 6 hours at 37°C. Western blot analysis showed the presence of approximately 20 kDa protein in induced cells. Basrai antifungal TLP was tried as pharmacological agent against fungal disease. Independently Basrai antifungal protein and amphotericin B exhibited their antifungal activity against A. fumigatus ; however combined effect of both agents maximized activity against the pathogen. Docking studies were performed to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of TLP against A. fumigatus by probing binding pattern of antifungal protein with plasma membrane ergosterol of targeted fungal strain. Ice crystallization primarily damages frozen food items; however addition of antifreeze proteins limits the growth of ice crystal in frozen foods. The potential of Basrai TLP protein, as an antifreezing agent, in controlling the ice crystal formation in frozen yogurt was also studied. The scope of this study ranges from cost effective production of pharmaceutics to antifreezing and food preserving agent as well as other real life applications.

  17. Molecular Characterization, Structural Modeling, and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Basrai Thaumatin-Like Protein against Fungal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Yasmin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A thaumatin-like protein gene from Basrai banana was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Amplified gene product was cloned into pTZ57R/T vector and subcloned into expression vector pET22b(+ and resulting pET22b-basrai TLP construct was introduced into E. coli BL21. Maximum protein expression was obtained at 0.7 mM IPTG concentration after 6 hours at 37°C. Western blot analysis showed the presence of approximately 20 kDa protein in induced cells. Basrai antifungal TLP was tried as pharmacological agent against fungal disease. Independently Basrai antifungal protein and amphotericin B exhibited their antifungal activity against A. fumigatus; however combined effect of both agents maximized activity against the pathogen. Docking studies were performed to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of TLP against A. fumigatus by probing binding pattern of antifungal protein with plasma membrane ergosterol of targeted fungal strain. Ice crystallization primarily damages frozen food items; however addition of antifreeze proteins limits the growth of ice crystal in frozen foods. The potential of Basrai TLP protein, as an antifreezing agent, in controlling the ice crystal formation in frozen yogurt was also studied. The scope of this study ranges from cost effective production of pharmaceutics to antifreezing and food preserving agent as well as other real life applications.

  18. Sporicidal effect of amorolfine and other antimycotics used in the therapy of fungal nail infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Hans P; Jäckel, Andreas; Müller, Julia; Schaller, Martin; Borelli, Claudia; Polak, Annemarie

    2015-10-01

    Although topical antifungal therapies for treating onychomycosis are available, the cure rate is unsatisfactorily low with a simultaneously high risk of recurrence. One reason might be the formation of dormant fungal cells by the pathogen, known as spores, which can survive in the affected nail keratin, thereby evading the effect of antifungal drugs. In this in vitro study, the ability of amorolfine and four other antimycotics (ciclopirox, bifonazole, terbinafine and fluconazole) to kill microconidia of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum, chlamydospores of the dermatophyte Epidermophyton floccosum and blastospores of the yeast Candida albicans was extensively studied as these fungi occur predominantly in onychomycosis. The effectiveness of all five antimycotics depended on the drug concentration and the incubation time: a concentration of 10-1000 times the minimum inhibitory concentration against growing hyphae cells is needed to exert a sporicidal action. Amorolfine and ciclopirox showed the same sporicidal efficacy and kinetics for all three varieties of spores. Both were more effective than fluconazole and bifonazole against microconidia and chlamydospores as well as slightly more potent against chlamydospores and blastospores than terbinafine after 4 days of incubation and at concentrations of ≥10 μg ml(-1). Finally, sporicidal activity on the tested strains was demonstrated for all five different antimycotics used for onychomycosis treatment. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Development of vaccines and their use in the prevention of fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, D M; Casadevall, A; Klein, B; Mendoza, L; Travassos, L; Deepe, G S

    1998-01-01

    Vaccine approaches to infectious diseases are widely applied and appreciated. Disciplines such as bacteriology and virology have a rich history of successful vaccine development. The complexity of eukaryotic systems presents additional challenges to the development of vaccines against them. These challenges are being met in the fields of parasitology, and are being revisited for application in oncology. Vaccine opportunities exist in medical mycology. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases has held a series of workshops in medical mycology where the need to develop vaccines for fungal diseases was noted and where important opportunities were discussed. Major advances in vaccinology and the technology of antigen preparation and delivery have increased feasibility and heightened interest. The recent epidemic of coccidioidomycosis in the American Southwest has demonstrated the need for developing a vaccine as an effective preventive measure for those living in and for those who subsequently move into regions with the endemic mycoses. The XIIth Congress of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology included a symposium that summarized new vaccination strategies for selected fungi: Candida albicans, Coccidioides immitis, and Trichophyton verrucosum. The goal of the present summary is to provide representative examples of continuing efforts relating to vaccine development within the medical mycological community highlighting Blastomyces dermatidis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and Pythiumn insidiosum.

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of fungal infections in allogeneic stem cell and solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehreschild, Jörg J; Rüping, Maria J G T; Steinbach, Angela; Cornely, Oliver A

    2010-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) are severe complications in patients receiving immunosuppression after solid organ or allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Extensive study has been conducted on therapeutic strategies for IFD in neutropenic patients, mostly those with hematological malignancy. There is an ongoing discussion on whether these studies may be applied to transplant patients as well. We have reviewed relevant literature on transplantation and clinical mycology of the last 20 years and selected articles relevant for today's treatment decisions. This article reports on the epidemiology of IFD in transplant recipients and current antifungal drugs in the context of tansplantation medicine. For invasive aspergillosis and invasive candidiasis, we give a detailed report of current clinical evidence. This review is intended as a quick-start for clinicians and other care providers new to transplant care and as an update for experienced transplant physicians. In a field in which evidence is scarce and conflicting, we provide evidence-based strategies for diagnosing and treating the most relevant IFD in transplant recipients. Physicians treating transplant patients should maintain a high level of awareness towards IFD. They should know the local epidemiology of IFD to make the optimal decision between current diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Prophylaxis or early treatment should be considered given the high mortality of IFD.

  1. NON DERMATOPHYTIC FUNGAL INFECTIONS AMONGST THE DERMATOPHYTOSIS - A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balram Ji Omar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatophytosis is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Methods: 100 clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis were subjected to mycological examination with microscopy and culture using 10% KOH and Sabouraud’s dextrose Agar(SDAand Dermatophyte test medium(DTM. Results: Direct microscopy revealed fungal elements in 49% cases and 55% were positive on culture and included all cases positive by KOH. Commonest age group affected was between 21-40 years and males outnumbered females 2.2:1. Among 55% positive cases; 65.5% were non dermatophytic molds (NDMs or fungi and 34.5% were dermatophytes. Among the NDMs the isolated species were Aspergillus niger (14.5% , Aspergillus flavus (18.2%, Candida albicans (12.7%, Candida tropicalis (5.5%, Fusarium spp (7.3% , Mucor spp. (5.5% and Acremonium spp. (1.8%. Conclusion:: The isolated NDMs are to be evaluated as primary pathogen causing dermatophytosis in absence of any underlying predisposing factor and need to be considered important for treatment as to reduce the morbidity and psychological stress among such patients

  2. 78 FR 28221 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control Practices... Director, CDC, the Secretary, Health and Human Services regarding (1) the practice of healthcare infection prevention and control; (2) strategies for surveillance, prevention, and control of infections, antimicrobial...

  3. 78 FR 6329 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control Practices... of healthcare infection prevention and control; (2) strategies for surveillance, prevention, and control of infections, antimicrobial resistance, and related events in settings where healthcare is...

  4. 78 FR 62636 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control Practices... healthcare infection prevention and control; (2) strategies for surveillance, prevention, and control of infections, antimicrobial resistance, and related events in settings where healthcare is provided; and (3...

  5. 77 FR 4820 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control Practices... Director, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion regarding (1) the practice of healthcare infection control; (2) strategies for surveillance, prevention, and control of infections (e.g., nosocomial...

  6. Invasive Trichosporon Infection: A systematic review on a re-emerging fungal pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Nobrega De Almeida Júnior

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This review aimed to better depict the clinical features and address the issue of therapeutic management of Trichosporon deep-seated infections.Methods: We comprehensively reviewed the cases of invasive Trichosporon infection reported in the literature from 1994 (date of taxonomic modification to 2015. Data from antifungal susceptibility testing (AST studies were also analyzed. Results: Two hundred and three cases were retained and split into four groups: hemopathy (n=79, other immunodeficiency conditions (n =41, miscellaneous (n=58 and newborns (n=25. Trichosporon asahii was the main causative species (46.7% and may exhibit cross-resistance to different antifungal classes. The unfavorable outcome rate was at 44.3%. By multivariate analysis, breakthrough infection (OR 2.45 was associated with unfavorable outcome, whilst the use of an azole-based therapy improved the prognosis (OR 0.16. Voriconazole-based treatment was associated with favorable outcome in hematological patients (73.6% vs. 41.8%; p=0.016. Compiled data from AST demonstrated that (i T. asahii exhibits the highest MICs to amphotericin B and (ii voriconazole has the best in vitro efficacy against clinical isolates of Trichosporon spp. Conclusions: Trichosporon infection is not only restricted to hematological patients. Analysis of compiled data from AST and clinical outcome support the use of voriconazole as first line therapy.

  7. Behavioral mechanisms and morphological symptoms of zombie ants dying from fungal infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David P; Andersen, Sandra B; Hywel-Jones, Nigel L

    2011-01-01

    the interaction between O. unilateralis s.l. and its host ant Camponotus leonardi in a Thai rainforest, where infected ants descend from their canopy nests down to understory vegetation to bite into abaxial leaf veins before dying. Host mortality is concentrated in patches (graveyards) where ants die on sapling...

  8. Fungal secondary metabolites as inhibitors of infection-related morphogenesis in phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thines, Eckhard; Anke, Heidrun; Weber, Roland W S

    2004-01-01

    The life-cycle of many plant-pathogenic fungi, especially those infecting aerial plant organs, contains several specific developmental stages. If these are sufficiently distinct in their physiology from vegetative hyphal growth, they present potential targets for non-fungitoxic plant protectants. The present review identifies such targets especially in the pre-penetration stages of the infection cycle of Magnaporthe grisea and other fungi infecting from air-borne spores. Examples of non-toxic natural products with activity against spore germination, attachment, appressorium formation, appressorium maturation and penetration of the host surface are given. In contrast, no substances selectively active against in planta growth or sporulation appear to be known. The selective activity of numerous secondary metabolites against specific infection stages without accompanying toxicity against vegetatively growing hyphae indicates a direction for the development of future natural product-derived fungicides which are more easily degraded in the environment and possess fewer non-target effects. Such substances are produced by many saprotrophic and endophytic fungi in pure culture. The paucity of data on the production of biologically active substances in natural situations limits the interpretation of their ecophysiological significance for the producer.

  9. Infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Raabe Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breaking the human-to-human transmission cycle remains the cornerstone of infection control during filoviral (Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever outbreaks. This requires effective identification and isolation of cases, timely contact tracing and monitoring, proper usage of barrier personal protection gear by health workers, and safely conducted burials. Solely implementing these measures is insufficient for infection control; control efforts must be culturally sensitive and conducted in a transparent manner to promote the necessary trust between the community and infection control team in order to succeed. This article provides a review of the literature on infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks focusing on outbreaks in a developing setting and lessons learned from previous outbreaks. The primary search database used to review the literature was PUBMED, the National Library of Medicine website.

  10. Efficacy and safety of micafungin for prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in patients undergoing haplo-identical hematopoietic SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Cheikh, J; Venton, G; Crocchiolo, R; Fürst, S; Faucher, C; Granata, A; Oudin, C; Coso, D; Bouabdallah, R; Vey, N; Duran, S; Fougereau, E; Berger, P; Chabannon, C; Blaise, D

    2013-11-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) such as candidiasis and mold infections have caused significant morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients in recent years. Micafungin, a new echinocandin, inhibits fungal cell wall β-glucan synthesis, with potent activity against most species of Candida and Aspergillus. The aim of this observational study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of micafungin in prophylaxis of IFIs in 26 high-risk adult patients with various hematological diseases receiving haplo-identical Allo-SCT. Only two patients had a history of possible aspergillosis before transplant treated by voriconazole. The patients received a median of four lines (2-7) of treatment before Allo-SCT. Thirteen patients (50%) received at least one prior Auto-SCT; and eight patients (31%) received a previous Allo-SCT. Patients received a median of 29 infusions (range, 15-85) of micafungin (50 mg/day i.v. as a 1-h infusion). The treatment was initiated at the beginning of the transplant conditioning regimen until the hospital discharge. None of our patients discontinued the treatment for drug-related adverse events. Micafungin was not associated with any hepatotoxicity. Only one patient (4%) discontinued the treatment because of early disease progression. In all patients no Candida and/or Aspergillus species was documented after 3 and 6 months from transplant. None of our patients presented a positive galactomannan antigenemia >0.5. Nine patients (35%) presented a CMV reactivation. Four patients presented an acute GVHD grade II and two patients presented a chronic GVHD. The median follow-up was 11 months (3-23). At the last follow-up, there were 20 patients (77%) who were alive; four patients (12%) died because of disease progression and two patients because of graft failure. Micafungin has a good safety and tolerability profile, with an efficacy in preventing IFI in this high-risk population. Our data provide support for an efficacy study in a

  11. miR482 regulation of NBS-LRR defense genes during fungal pathogen infection in cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Hao Zhu

    Full Text Available In this study, we characterized the miR482 family in cotton using existing small RNA datasets and the recently released draft genome sequence of Gossypium raimondii, a diploid cotton species whose progenitor is the putative contributor of the Dt (representing the D genome of tetraploid genome of the cultivated tetraploid cotton species G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. Of the three ghr-miR482 members reported in G. hirsutum, ghr-miR482a has no homolog in G. raimondii, ghr-miR482b and ghr-miR482c each has a single homolog in G. raimondii. Gra-miR482d has five homologous loci (gra-miR482d, f-i in G. raimondii and also exists in G. hirsutum (ghr-miR482d. A variant, miR482.2 that is a homolog of miR2118 in other species, is produced from several GHR-MIR482 loci in G. hirsutum. Approximately 12% of the G. raimondii NBS-LRR genes were predicted targets of various members of the gra-miR482 family. Based on the rationale that the regulatory relationship between miR482 and NBS-LRR genes will be conserved in G. raimondii and G. hirsutum, we investigated this relationship using G. hirsutum miR482 and G. raimondii NBS-LRR genes, which are not currently available in G. hirsutum. Ghr-miR482/miR482.2-mediated cleavage was confirmed for three of the four NBS-LRR genes analysed. As in tomato, miR482-mediated cleavage of NBS-LRR genes triggered production of phased secondary small RNAs in cotton. In seedlings of the susceptible cultivar Sicot71 (G. hirsutum infected with the fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae, the expression levels of ghr-miR482b/miR482b.2, ghr-miR482c and ghr-miR482d.2 were down-regulated, and several NBS-LRR targets of ghr-miR482c and ghr-miR482d were up-regulated. These results imply that, like tomato plants infected with viruses or bacteria, cotton plants are able to induce expression of NBS-LRR defence genes by suppression of the miRNA-mediated gene silencing pathway upon fungal pathogen attack.

  12. Fungal spondylodiscitis in a patient recovered from H7N9 virus infection: a case study and a literature review of the differences between Candida and Aspergillus spondylodiscitis * #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lie-dao; Feng, Zhi-yun; Wang, Xuan-wei; Ling, Zhi-heng; Lin, Xiang-jin

    2016-01-01

    To report a rare case of fungal spondylodiscitis in a patient recovered from H7N9 virus infection and perform a literature review of the different characteristics of Candida and Aspergillus spondylodiscitis, we reviewed cases of spondylodiscitis caused by Candida and Aspergillus species. Data, including patients’ information, pathogenic species, treatment strategy, outcomes, and relapses, were collected and summarized. The characteristics of Candida and Aspergillus spondylodiscitis were compared to see if any differences in clinical features, management, or consequences could be detected. The subject of the case study was first misdiagnosed as having a vertebral tumor, and then, following open biopsy, was diagnosed as having fungal spondylodiscitis. The patient made a good recovery following radical debridement. Seventy-seven additional cases of Candida spondylodiscitis and 94 cases of Aspergillus spondylodiscitis were identified in the literature. Patients with Candida spondylodiscitis tended to have a better outcome than patients with Aspergillus spondylodiscitis (cure rate 92.3% vs. 70.2%). Candida was found more frequently (47.8%) than Aspergillus (26.7%) in blood cultures, while neurological deficits were observed more often in patients with Aspergillus spondylodiscitis (43.6% vs. 25.6%). Candida spinal infections were more often treated by radical debridement (60.5% vs. 39.6%). Patients with Candida spondylodiscitis have better outcomes, which may be associated with prompt recognition, radical surgical debridement, and azoles therapy. A good outcome can be expected in fungal spondylodiscitis with appropriate operations and anti-fungal drugs. PMID:27819134

  13. Fungal spondylodiscitis in a patient recovered from H7N9 virus infection: a case study and a literature review of the differences between Candida and Aspergillus spondylodiscitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lie-Dao; Feng, Zhi-Yun; Wang, Xuan-Wei; Ling, Zhi-Heng; Lin, Xiang-Jin

    To report a rare case of fungal spondylodiscitis in a patient recovered from H7N9 virus infection and perform a literature review of the different characteristics of Candida and Aspergillus spondylodiscitis, we reviewed cases of spondylodiscitis caused by Candida and Aspergillus species. Data, including patients' information, pathogenic species, treatment strategy, outcomes, and relapses, were collected and summarized. The characteristics of Candida and Aspergillus spondylodiscitis were compared to see if any differences in clinical features, management, or consequences could be detected. The subject of the case study was first misdiagnosed as having a vertebral tumor, and then, following open biopsy, was diagnosed as having fungal spondylodiscitis. The patient made a good recovery following radical debridement. Seventy-seven additional cases of Candida spondylodiscitis and 94 cases of Aspergillus spondylodiscitis were identified in the literature. Patients with Candida spondylodiscitis tended to have a better outcome than patients with Aspergillus spondylodiscitis (cure rate 92.3% vs. 70.2%). Candida was found more frequently (47.8%) than Aspergillus (26.7%) in blood cultures, while neurological deficits were observed more often in patients with Aspergillus spondylodiscitis (43.6% vs. 25.6%). Candida spinal infections were more often treated by radical debridement (60.5% vs. 39.6%). Patients with Candida spondylodiscitis have better outcomes, which may be associated with prompt recognition, radical surgical debridement, and azoles therapy. A good outcome can be expected in fungal spondylodiscitis with appropriate operations and anti-fungal drugs.

  14. In vitro interactions of amantadine hydrochloride, R-(-)-deprenyl hydrochloride and valproic acid sodium salt with antifungal agents against filamentous fungal species causing central nervous system infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgóczy, L; Tóth, Liliána; Virágh, M; Papp, T; Vágvölgyi, C S

    2012-12-01

    The mortality rates of fungal infections that affect the central nervous system are high in consequence of the absence of effective antifungal drugs with good penetration across the blood-brain barrier and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In the present work in vitro antifungal activities of three good penetrating non-antifungal drugs (amantadine hydrochloride, R-(-)-deprenyl hydrochloride, valproic acid sodium salt) and their combinations with three antifungal agents (amphotericin B, itraconazole, terbinafine) were tested with broth microdilution method against eight fungal isolates belonging to Zygomycetes (Lichtheimia corymbifera, Rhizomucor miehei, Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis, Saksenaeavasiformis) and Aspergillus genus (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. terreus). These are known to be possible agents of central nervous fungal infections (CNFI). When used alone, the investigated nonantifungal drugs exerted slight antifungal effects. In their combinations with antifungal agents they acted antagonistically, additively and synergistically against zygomyceteous isolates. Primarily antagonistic interactions were revealed between the investigated drugs in case of Aspergilli, but additive and synergistic interactions were also observed. The additive and synergistic combinations allowed the usage of reduced concentrations of antifungal agents to inhibit the fungal growth in our study. These combinations would be a basis of an effective, less toxic therapy for treatment of CNFI.

  15. Low rate of infection control in enterococcal periprosthetic joint infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Mohammad R; Tripathi, Mohan S; Kenyon, Robert; Wetters, Nathan; Della Valle, Craig J; Parvizi, Javad

    2012-10-01

    Enterococcal periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are rare after joint arthroplasty. These cases are usually reported in series of PJIs caused by other pathogens. Because few studies have focused only on enterococcal PJIs, management and control of infection of these cases have not yet been well defined. We asked (1) what is the proportion of enterococcal PJI in our institutes; and (2) what is the rate of infection control in these cases? We respectively identified 22 and 14 joints with monomicrobial and polymicrobial PJI, respectively, caused by enterococcus. The diagnosis of PJI was made based on the presence of sinus tract or two positive intraoperative cultures. PJI was also considered in the presence of one positive intraoperative culture and abnormal serology. We determined the proportion of enterococcal PJI and management and control of infection in these cases. Minimum followup was 1.5 years (mean, 3.2 years). The proportion of monomicrobial enterococcal PJI was 2.3% (22 of 955 cases of PJI). Mean number of surgeries was two (range, 1-4). Initial irrigation and débridement was performed in 10 joints and eight patients needed reoperation. Seven of the 16 joints were initially managed using two-stage exchange arthroplasty and did not need further operation. Six patients had a definitive resection arthroplasty. Salvage surgeries (fusion and above-knee amputation) were performed in three cases (8%). The infection was ultimately controlled in 32 of the 36 patients. Management of enterococcal PJI is challenging and multiple operations may need to be performed to control the infection. Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  16. Lock-picks: fungal infection facilitates the intrusion of strangers into ant colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csata, Enikő; Timuş, Natalia; Witek, Magdalena; Casacci, Luca Pietro; Lucas, Christophe; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève; Sztencel-Jabłonka, Anna; Barbero, Francesca; Bonelli, Simona; Rákosy, László; Markó, Bálint

    2017-01-01

    Studies investigating host-parasite systems rarely deal with multispecies interactions, and mostly explore impacts on hosts as individuals. Much less is known about the effects at colony level, when parasitism involves host organisms that form societies. We surveyed the effect of an ectoparasitic fungus, Rickia wasmannii, on kin-discrimination abilities of its host ant, Myrmica scabrinodis, identifying potential consequences at social level and subsequent changes in colony infiltration success of other organisms. Analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), known to be involved in insects’ discrimination processes, revealed variations in chemical profiles correlated with the infection status of the ants, that could not be explained by genetic variation tested by microsatellites. In behavioural assays, fungus-infected workers were less aggressive towards both non-nestmates and unrelated queens, enhancing the probability of polygyny. Likewise, parasitic larvae of Maculinea butterflies had a higher chance of adoption by infected colonies. Our study indicates that pathogens can modify host recognition abilities, making the society more prone to accept both conspecific and allospecific organisms. PMID:28402336

  17. Quality of nosocomial infection control in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchaivijitr, Somwang; Supchutikul, Anuwat; Waitayapiches, Sribenja; Kachintorn, Kanchana

    2005-12-01

    To study the quality of nosocomial infection control with respect to structure and process. Data collection by questionnaire and interview administrators and medical personnel in 57 hospitals in Thailand in 2002. Nosocomial infection control was implemented in all 57 hospitals. In every hospital, there was an infection control committee (ICC) and at least 1 infection control nurse (ICN). The quality of ICNs regarding knowledge, skill and time available for infection control needed to be improved. Surveillance methods of NI were not appropriate in many hospitals. Doctors were not interested in NI control and supply of certain materials was not adequate. Lack of support and co-operation of doctors and nurses was found. Service of certain departments needed to be revised in over 50%. Doctors and nurses not directly involved in NI controlled were not satisfied with current practices. Quality of NI control in Thailand has yet to be improved regarding structure and process. Better cooperation between NI control team and healthcare personnel needs to be developed.

  18. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of caspofungin versus liposomal amphotericin B in empirical treatment of invasive fungal infections in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S J; Senol, E; Kara, A; Al-Badriyeh, D; Kong, D C M; Dinleyici, E C

    2013-09-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are a major concern within healthcare systems. This pharmacoeconomic study evaluated the use of caspofungin (CAS) versus liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) in the empirical treatment of IFIs within the Turkish healthcare system. A decision-analytic model was adopted, utilising data from a randomised, non-inferiority clinical trial and a panel of clinical experts in Turkey. A five-point composite outcome measure was used to evaluate both agents. Sensitivity analyses were performed. In the base-case scenario, CAS was preferred over L-AmB by Turkish Lira (TL) 3961 per patient treated, TL 12 904 per successfully treated patient and TL 3972 per death averted. One-way sensitivity analysis did not change the study outcome. Monte Carlo simulation concluded a 71.0% chance of the outcome favouring CAS. The results were most sensitive to changes in length of stay. This is the first economic evaluation of the empirical treatment of IFIs in Turkey and suggests that CAS is more cost effective than L-AmB. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  19. Invasive fungal infection among hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients with mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Chen-Yiu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive fungal infection (IFI is associated with high morbidity and high mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT patientsThe purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and outcomes of HSCT patients with IFIs who are undergoing MV at a single institution in Taiwan. Methods We performed an observational retrospective analysis of IFIs in HSCT patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV in an intensive care unit (ICU from the year 2000 to 2009. The characteristics of these HSCT patients and risk factors related to IFIs were evaluated. The status of discharge, length of ICU stay, date of death and cause of death were also recorded. Results There were 326 HSCT patients at the Linkou Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan during the study period. Sixty of these patients (18% were transferred to the ICU and placed on mechanical ventilators. A total of 20 of these 60 patients (33% had IFIs. Multivariate analysis indicated that independent risk factors for IFI were admission to an ICU more than 40 days after HSCT, graft versus host disease (GVHD, and high dose corticosteroid (p p = 0.676. Conclusion There was a high incidence of IFIs in HSCT patients requiring MV in the ICU in our study cohort. The independent risk factors for IFI are ICU admission more than 40 days after HSCT, GVHD, and use of high-dose corticosteroid.

  20. Fungal Infections of the Central Nervous System in Small Animals: Clinical Features, Diagnosis, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Timothy; Taylor, Amanda R; Thomovsky, Stephanie A

    2018-01-01

    Small animal mycoses vary geographically. Different clinical presentations are seen in animals with infection of the central nervous system (CNS), including multifocal meningoencephalomyelitis, intracranial lesions that accompany sinonasal lesions, rapidly progressive ventriculitis, or solitary granuloma of the brain or spinal cord. Systemic, nasal, or extraneural clinical signs are common but, especially in granuloma cases, do not always occur. Surgery may have a diagnostic and therapeutic role in CNS granuloma. There have been recent advancements in serology. Fluconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole cross the blood-brain barrier, but voriconazole is neurotoxic to cats. Liposomal and lipid-encapsulated formulations of amphotericin B are preferred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Behavioural effects of fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae in adult malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondiaka, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria remains a major global health problem with the burden of disease greatest in Sub-Saharan Africa. The strategies for malaria control differ throughout the world according to levels of endemicity and the magnitude of disease but the focus remains either to control malaria parasites or

  2. Behavioural effects of fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae in adult malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondiaka, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria remains a major global health problem with the burden of disease greatest in Sub-Saharan Africa. The strategies for malaria control differ throughout the world according to levels of endemicity and the magnitude of disease but the focus remains either to control malaria parasites or vectors.

  3. Clinico-Mycological Study Of Superficial Fungal Infection In Children In An Urban Clinic In Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbhuiya Joyashree Nath

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy children up to the age of 12 years who were suffering from dermatophytosis, candidiasis or pityriasis versicolor were studied clinically and mycologically. Dermatophytosis was the major group, which constituted 52.86% of children. It was followed by candidiasis that constituted 40% of children and pityriasis versicolor was the least, being 7.14% of children. Amongst the clinical types of dermatophytosis, tinea capitis was the commonest (32.43% followed by tinea corporis (27.03%. Candidial intertrigo was the commonest (42.86% from of candidiasis, followed by diaper dermatitis (32.14%. Most susceptible age group was school going children. Peak incidence of infection was during the months of June to September. T rubrum was the commonest dermatophyte isolated in culture. C. albicans was the most common species of candida isolated in culture.

  4. GRASPing infection: a workload measurement tool for infection control nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trundle, C M; Farrington, M; Anderson, L; Redpath, C K

    2001-11-01

    The GRASP nursing workload management system was used over a five-month period by both the infection control nurses (ICNs) in an infection control team (ICT) in a 1200-bedded university teaching hospital trust. GRASP data were used to quantify and qualify patient and Trust requirements for infection control (IC). The results indicated that care was being prioritised as the average daily patient care requirement was 15.9 h, whereas the ICNs were only able to provide 12.7 h to meet this. Infection control nurses spent 5.3 h dealing with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and only 3.9 h in preparation and delivery of education. A 'fire brigade service' was being provided at the expense of developmental and strategic issues. GRASP provided a method of quantifying, recording and analysing workload. It was used to support recommendations from the Health Quality Service Organizational Audit (Kings Fund), the Department of Health (DoH), the National Audit Office (NAO), and the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) for an increased focus on education and risk management in IC. It was also used in a skill-mix exercise, and resulted in the appointment of additional staffing to the ICT. GRASP data could be used for benchmarking with other institutions to provide a flexible system which may be adapted to meet the changing demands of the health service. It provides a means for ICNs to measure and manage their workload, and may be adapted to other members of the ICT. Copyright 2001 The Hospital Infection Society.

  5. Comparative study of tricarbonilic complexes of {sup 99m}TC in the diagnosis of fungal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, Leticia Gabriela; Teran, Mariella Adriana [Facultad de Quimica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Reyes, Ana Laura [Cudim, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Clinical-epidemiological studies show that the incidence of fungal infections has experienced a substantial increase in the last years. Our working group focused on the radioactive labelling of commercially available antifungal agents and their evaluation as potential specific tracer agents for fungal infections (Curr Radiopharm, 2014, 7( 2), 144-150). Objective: Optimization of various antifungal agents labelling using {sup 99m}Tc tricarbonyl complexes and their subsequent evaluation in vitro and in vivo as radiotracers in the detection, through scintigraphic images, of fungal infections. Methodology: Complexes were obtained by substitution of the precursor triaquotricarboniltechnetium (I) with the antifungals: Caspofungin, amphotericin b, Voriconazole and Fluconazole[2]. The physicochemical evaluation of the complexes was performed by the analysis of the stability in milieu, stability in plasma, lipophilicity, plasma protein binding and binding to yeasts. The biological evaluation of the complexes was carried out according to the protocol 070510 approved by the Commission of Animal Experimentation (University of the Republic, Uruguay). The model used consisted of CD1 mice (n=4 per group), females of 8-10 weeks with a weight of 22 ± 2 g. The groups studied were: G0=healthy animals, G1=sterile inflammation, G2=infection by C.albicans and G3=infection by A.niger. The lesions were induced by inoculation of 100μL of the agents in the left hind thigh. Once the lesions were developed, the complexes were administered iv (37MBq,1mCi in 0.1mL) and biodistribution studies were performed at various post-injection times. In addition, images were acquired in a preclinical image system for animals for 60 min, 40 mm ROR, 5-pinhole collimator, 80 x 80 pixel array. Results: All the complexes were obtained with a radiochemical purity higher to 90,0% and were stable more than 4 hours post substitution. Plasma stability, Log P, Protein binding and C

  6. Maize Fungal Growth Control with Scopoletin of Cassava Roots Produced in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiatou Ba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical contamination of food is among the main public health issues in developing countries. With a view to find new natural bioactive products against fungi responsible for chemical contamination of staple food such as maize, the antifungal activity tests of scopoletin extracted from different components of the cassava root produced in Benin were carried out. The dosage of scopoletin from parts of the root (first skin, second skin, whole root, and flesh was done by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The scopoletin extract was used to assess the activity of 12 strains (11 strains of maize and a reference strain. The presence of scopoletin was revealed in all components of the cassava root. Scopoletin extracted from the first skin cassava root was the most active both as inhibition of sporulation (52.29 to 87.91% and the mycelial growth (36.51–80.41%. Scopoletin extract from the cassava root skins showed significant inhibitory activity on the tested strains with fungicide concentration (MFC between 0.0125 mg/mL and 0.1 mg/mL. The antifungal scopoletin extracted from the cassava root skins may be well beneficial for the fungal control of the storage of maize.

  7. Exploiting the behaviour of wild malaria vectors to achieve high infection with fungal biocontrol agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mnyone, L.L.; Lyimo, I.N.; Lwetoijera, D.W.; Mpingwa, M.W.; Nchimbi, N.; Hancock, P.A.; Russell, T.L.; Kirby, M.J.; Takken, W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Control of mosquitoes that transmit malaria has been the mainstay in the fight against the disease, but alternative methods are required in view of emerging insecticide resistance. Entomopathogenic fungi are candidate alternatives, but to date, few trials have translated the use of these

  8. Development and validation of a risk model for identification of non-neutropenic, critically ill adult patients at high risk of invasive Candida infection: the Fungal Infection Risk Evaluation (FIRE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, D; Muskett, H; Harvey, S; Grieve, R; Shahin, J; Patel, K; Sadique, Z; Allen, E; Dybowski, R; Jit, M; Edgeworth, J; Kibbler, C; Barnes, R; Soni, N; Rowan, K

    2013-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that invasive fungal disease (IFD) is more likely to occur in non-neutropenic patients in critical care units. A number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have evaluated antifungal prophylaxis in non-neutropenic, critically ill patients, demonstrating a reduction in the risk of proven IFD and suggesting a reduction in mortality. It is necessary to establish a method to identify and target antifungal prophylaxis at those patients at highest risk of IFD, who stand to benefit most from any antifungal prophylaxis strategy. To develop and validate risk models to identify non-neutropenic, critically ill adult patients at high risk of invasive Candida infection, who would benefit from antifungal prophylaxis, and to assess the cost-effectiveness of targeting antifungal prophylaxis to high-risk patients based on these models. Systematic review, prospective data collection, statistical modelling, economic decision modelling and value of information analysis. Ninety-six UK adult general critical care units. Consecutive admissions to participating critical care units. None. Invasive fungal disease, defined as a blood culture or sample from a normally sterile site showing yeast/mould cells in a microbiological or histopathological report. For statistical and economic modelling, the primary outcome was invasive Candida infection, defined as IFD-positive for Candida species. Systematic review: Thirteen articles exploring risk factors, risk models or clinical decision rules for IFD in critically ill adult patients were identified. Risk factors reported to be significantly associated with IFD were included in the final data set for the prospective data collection. Data were collected on 60,778 admissions between July 2009 and March 2011. Overall, 383 patients (0.6%) were admitted with or developed IFD. The majority of IFD patients (94%) were positive for Candida species. The most common site of infection was blood (55%). The incidence of IFD

  9. Lethal and pre-lethal effects of a fungal biopesticide contribute to substantial and rapid control of malaria vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Blanford

    Full Text Available Rapidly emerging insecticide resistance is creating an urgent need for new active ingredients to control the adult mosquitoes that vector malaria. Biopesticides based on the spores of entomopathogenic fungi have shown considerable promise by causing very substantial mortality within 7-14 days of exposure. This mortality will generate excellent malaria control if there is a high likelihood that mosquitoes contact fungi early in their adult lives. However, where contact rates are lower, as might result from poor pesticide coverage, some mosquitoes will contact fungi one or more feeding cycles after they acquire malaria, and so risk transmitting malaria before the fungus kills them. Critics have argued that 'slow acting' fungal biopesticides are, therefore, incapable of delivering malaria control in real-world contexts. Here, utilizing standard WHO laboratory protocols, we demonstrate effective action of a biopesticide much faster than previously reported. Specifically, we show that transient exposure to clay tiles sprayed with a candidate biopesticide comprising spores of a natural isolate of Beauveria bassiana, could reduce malaria transmission potential to zero within a feeding cycle. The effect resulted from a combination of high mortality and rapid fungal-induced reduction in feeding and flight capacity. Additionally, multiple insecticide-resistant lines from three key African malaria vector species were completely susceptible to fungus. Thus, fungal biopesticides can block transmission on a par with chemical insecticides, and can achieve this where chemical insecticides have little impact. These results support broadening the current vector control paradigm beyond fast-acting chemical toxins.

  10. Immune Protection against Lethal Fungal-Bacterial Intra-Abdominal Infections

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    Elizabeth A. Lilly

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymicrobial intra-abdominal infections (IAIs are clinically prevalent and cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially those involving fungi. Our laboratory developed a mouse model of IAI and demonstrated that intraperitoneal inoculation with Candida albicans or other virulent non-albicans Candida (NAC species plus Staphylococcus aureus resulted in 70 to 80% mortality in 48 to 72 h due to robust local and systemic inflammation (sepsis. Surprisingly, inoculation with Candida dubliniensis or Candida glabrata with S. aureus resulted in minimal mortality, and rechallenge of these mice with lethal C. albicans/S. aureus (i.e., coninfection resulted in >90% protection. The purpose of this study was to define requirements for C. dubliniensis/S. aureus-mediated protection and interrogate the mechanism of the protective response. Protection was conferred by C. dubliniensis alone or by killed C. dubliniensis plus live S. aureus. S. aureus alone was not protective, and killed S. aureus compromised C. dubliniensis-induced protection. C. dubliniensis/S. aureus also protected against lethal challenge by NAC plus S. aureus and could protect for a long-term duration (60 days between primary challenge and C. albicans/S. aureus rechallenge. Unexpectedly, mice deficient in T and B cells (Rag-1 knockouts [KO] survived both the initial C. dubliniensis/S. aureus challenge and the C. albicans/S. aureus rechallenge, indicating that adaptive immunity did not play a role. Similarly, mice depleted of macrophages prior to rechallenge were also protected. In contrast, protection was associated with high numbers of Gr-1hi polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs in peritoneal lavage fluid within 4 h of rechallenge, and in vivo depletion of Gr-1+ cells prior to rechallenge abrogated protection. These results suggest that Candida species can induce protection against a lethal C. albicans/S. aureus IAI that is mediated by PMNLs and postulated to be a unique form of

  11. Metabolomics reveals simultaneous influences of plant defence system and fungal growth in Botrytis cinerea-infected Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Young-Shick; Martinez, Agathe; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Jeandet, Philippe; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Cilindre, Clara

    2012-10-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a fungal plant pathogen of grape berries, leading to economic and quality losses in wine production. The global metabolite changes induced by B. cinerea infection in grape have not been established to date, even though B. cinerea infection is known to cause significant changes in chemicals or metabolites. In order to better understand metabolic mechanisms linked to the infection process and to identify the metabolites associated with B. cinerea infection, (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used in global metabolite profiling and multivariate statistical analysis of berries from healthy and botrytized bunches. Pattern recognition methods, such as principal component analysis, revealed clear metabolic discriminations between healthy and botrytized berries of botrytized bunches and healthy berries of healthy bunches. Significantly high levels of proline, glutamate, arginine, and alanine, which are accumulated upon plant stress, were found in healthy and botrytized berries of botrytized bunches. Moreover, largely degraded phenylpropanoids, flavonoid compounds, and sucrose together with markedly produced glycerol, gluconic acid, and succinate, all being directly associated with B. cinerea growth, were only found in botrytized berries of botrytized bunches. This study reports that B. cinerea infection causes significant metabolic changes in grape berry and highlights that both the metabolic perturbations associated with the plant defence system and those directly derived from fungal pathogen growth should be considered to better understand the interaction between metabolic variation and biotic pathogen stress in plants.

  12. UV air cleaners and upper-room air ultraviolet germicidal irradiation for controlling airborne bacteria and fungal spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujundzic, Elmira; Matalkah, Fatimah; Howard, Cody J; Hernandez, Mark; Miller, Shelly L

    2006-10-01

    In-room air cleaners (ACs) and upper-room air ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) are engineering control technologies that can help reduce the concentrations of airborne bacteria and fungal spores in the indoor environment. This study investigated six different types of ACs and quantified their ability to remove and/or inactivate airborne bacteria and fungal spores. Four of the air cleaners incorporated UV lamp(s) into their flow path. In addition, the efficacy of combining ACs with upper-room air UVGI was investigated. With the ventilation system providing zero or six air changes per hour, the air cleaners were tested separately or with the upper-room air UVGI system in operation in an 87-m3 test room. Active bacteria cells and fungal spores were aerosolized into the room such that their numbers and physiologic state were comparable both with and without air cleaning and upper-room air UVGI. In addition, the disinfection performance of a UV-C lamp internal to one of the ACs was evaluated by estimating the percentage of airborne bacteria cells and fungal spores captured on the air filter medium surface that were inactivated with UV exposure. Average airborne microbial clean air delivery rates (CADRm) varied between 26-981 m3 hr-1 depending on the AC, and between 1480-2370 m3 hr-1, when using air cleaners in combination with upper-room air UVGI. Culturing, direct microscopy, and optical particle counting revealed similar CADRm. The ACs performed similarly when challenged with three different microorganisms. Testing two of the ACs showed that no additional air cleaning was provided with the operation of an internal UV-C lamp; the internal UV-C lamps, however, inactivated 75% of fungal spores and 97% of bacteria cells captured in the air filter medium within 60 min.

  13. Biochemical Control of Fungal Biomass and Enzyme Production During Native Hawaiian Litter Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatangelo, K. L.; Cordova, T. P.; Vitousek, P. M.

    2007-12-01

    Microbial growth and enzyme production during decomposition is controlled by the availability of carbon substrates, essential elements, and the ratios of these (such as lignin:N). We manipulated carbon:nutrient stoichiometry during decomposition using a natural fertility gradient in Hawaii and litter of varying initial biochemistry. We collected freshly senesced litter of seven biochemically distinct species from three sites offering differing levels of N, P, cations, and 15N , but similar yearly rainfall and temperature patterns. Litter types were decomposed at both the sites they were collected, and at the other site(s) that species was found. Litter was collected at multiple time points, and after one year of decomposition, calculated K constants varied an order of magnitude, from 0.276 to 2.76. Decomposition rates varied significantly with both litter site of origin and deployment, except at the oldest, P-limited site, where litter site of origin was not significantly correlated with decomposition within species. As microbial exocellular enzymes provide the catalyst for the breakdown of organic molecules including phenols, cellulose, and cutin, we assayed polyphenol oxidase, cellobiohydrolase, cutinase, chitinase, and lignin peroxidase to evaluate the breakdown sequence of different litter types. To measure the fungal biomass accumulating during decomposition, we extracted (22E)-Ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3beta- ol (ergosterol) on a subset of samples. The production of particular exocellular enzymes on litter species responded distinctly to origin and decomposition sites: after six months, chitinase and cellobiohydrolase were significantly affected by origin site, whereas polyphenol oxidase activity was controlled by deployment site. We conclude that site characteristics can alter the interaction between litter carbon:nutrient ratios and decomposition rate, mediated through microbial biomass and enzyme production.

  14. Korean infection control nurses' knowledge and awareness of infection control against Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung M; Choi, Jeong S

    2017-07-01

    To assess the level of knowledge and awareness of Ebola virus disease infection control among infection control nurses and to identify a correlation between these factors. The data were collected from 125 infection control nurses by using a self-report questionnaire. The data were collected on sociodemographic and hospital characteristics, as well as the level of knowledge and awareness of Ebola virus disease infection control. The respondents' mean level of knowledge (correct-answer rate) was 87.7% and their mean level of awareness was 3.86 (1 = "not important at all" to 4 = "very important"). Knowledge of Ebola virus disease infection control was significantly higher among those nurses who had received some Ebola virus disease education. There was a significant positive correlation between the level of knowledge and the level of awareness. The development of effective education and training systems is necessary to improve infection control nurses' knowledge and awareness of Ebola virus disease infection control. Moreover, each hospital should build effective and systematic Ebola virus disease infection control strategies. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  15. IRIDOID GLYCOSIDES FROM LINARIA GENISTIFOLIA (L. MILL. IN BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF SOIL-BORNE FUNGAL PATHOGENS OF WHEAT AND SOME STRUCTURE CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mashcenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological activity of the iridoid glycosides extract from Linaria genistifolia (L. Mill. has been investigated, namely its influence on the resistance of the winter wheat Odesschi 51 plant to the caused by the Fusarium oxysporum and Helminthosporium avenae pathogenic fungi root rot. Our results indicate that summary iridoid glycosides from this plant, containing four major known compounds: 5-O-allosylantirrinoside, antirrinoside, linarioside and 6-β-hidroxiantirride, can be successfully employed in biological control of the afore-mentioned wheat pathogens: it stimulates wheat grains germination and embryonic root growth in conditions of fungal infection. 1H and 13C NMR characteristics of 5-O-allosylantirrinoside in Py-d5 are for the first time presented. Structures of two conformers of 5-O-allosylantirrinoside in D2O and Py-d5 solutions are proposed, based on the experimental NMR evidence and molecular modelling studies.

  16. Motivation to comply with infection control procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartzokas, C A; Slade, P D

    1991-06-01

    This paper addresses the critical issue of motivating hospital staff to comply with standard infection control procedures. Previous psychological assessment of infection control knowledge, attitudes and behaviour has indicated that the reasons for non-compliance are very basic and reflect inter alia a low perception of the importance of the measures and a lack of motivation. It is argued that, although staff have a theoretical awareness of the value of complying with such procedures, in practice these seem to have a low priority. Compliance levels, therefore, are variable and generally of a low order. If recent advances in the fields of social psychology, behavioural psychology and clinical psychology could be imported to hospital medicine, they could have a dramatic impact in infection control. The Elaboration Likelihood Model, an effective theoretical approach to message-based persuasion, and the energizing effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivational processes are defined. Finally, the implications of these concepts for persuasive intra-hospital communication in infection control are highlighted. They can provide a framework for developing effective infection prevention programmes.

  17. In situ detection of a fungal glycoprotein-elicitor in stem rust-infected susceptible and resistant wheat using immunogold electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marticke, K H; Reisener, H J; Fischer, R; Hippe-Sanwald, S

    1998-08-01

    Immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) was used to analyze the compatible and incompatible host-pathogen interaction between the obligate, biotroph stem rust (Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici; Pgt) and primary leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The investigation was focused on the subcellular localization of a fungal elicitor glycoprotein of stem rust (Pgt-elicitor). Uredospores as well as fungal infection structures of stem rust on wheat leaves were probed with a specific monoclonal antibody, in order to determine the in situ distribution pattern of the antigen. Binding to the anti-elicitor antibody was observed over the cell wall and the germ pore of germinating uredospores. Immunogold staining was found over the infection structures of stem rust within the wheat leaf tissue of both the compatible and incompatible plant-pathogen interaction. Distinct cell wall layers of the intercellular mycelium, of the haustorial mother cells, as well as of the haustoria were clearly labeled. Gold particles were also detected over the intercellular space and the extrahaustorial matrix in between the extrahaustorial membrane and the haustorial cell wall which indicated a release of elicitor molecules from the fungal cell wall. No labeling was observed over the host cell cytoplasm of the compatible and incompatible interaction, respectively. The immunocytochemical detection of elicitor epitopes over the hyphal cell walls of in vitro grown axenic cultures of P. graminis f.sp. tritici confirmed the occurrence of elicitor molecules in young hyphal material. Elicitor molecules were released by the hyphae of axenic cultures of stem rust in vitro.

  18. A novel model-based control strategy for aerobic filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M; Albaek, Mads O; Cassells, Benny; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist V

    2017-07-01

    A novel model-based control strategy has been developed for filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes. The system of interest is a pilot scale (550 L) filamentous fungus process operating at Novozymes A/S. In such processes, it is desirable to maximize the total product achieved in a batch in a defined process time. In order to achieve this goal, it is important to maximize both the product concentration, and also the total final mass in the fed-batch system. To this end, we describe the development of a control strategy which aims to achieve maximum tank fill, while avoiding oxygen limited conditions. This requires a two stage approach: (i) calculation of the tank start fill; and (ii) on-line control in order to maximize fill subject to oxygen transfer limitations. First, a mechanistic model was applied off-line in order to determine the appropriate start fill for processes with four different sets of process operating conditions for the stirrer speed, headspace pressure, and aeration rate. The start fills were tested with eight pilot scale experiments using a reference process operation. An on-line control strategy was then developed, utilizing the mechanistic model which is recursively updated using on-line measurements. The model was applied in order to predict the current system states, including the biomass concentration, and to simulate the expected future trajectory of the system until a specified end time. In this way, the desired feed rate is updated along the progress of the batch taking into account the oxygen mass transfer conditions and the expected future trajectory of the mass. The final results show that the target fill was achieved to within 5% under the maximum fill when tested using eight pilot scale batches, and over filling was avoided. The results were reproducible, unlike the reference experiments which show over 10% variation in the final tank fill, and this also includes over filling. The variance of the final tank fill is

  19. Higher diversity in fungal species discriminates children with type 1 diabetes mellitus from healthy control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalewska B

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Beata Kowalewska,1 Katarzyna Zorena,2 Małgorzata Szmigiero-Kawko,3 Piotr Wąż,4 Małgorzata Myśliwiec3 1Department of Tropical Medicine and Epidemiology, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, 2Department of Immunology and Environmental Microbiology, 3Clinic of Paediatrics, Diabetology and Endocrinology, 4Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland Objective: To conduct qualitative and quantitative assessment of yeast-like fungi in the feces of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM with respect to their metabolic control and duration of the disease.Materials and methods: The studied materials included samples of fresh feces collected from 53 children and adolescents with T1DM. Control group included 30 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Medical history was taken and physical examination was conducted in the two study arms. Prevalence of the yeast-like fungi in the feces was determined as well as their amounts, species diversity, drug susceptibility, and enzymatic activity.Results: The yeast-like fungi were found in the samples of feces from 75.4% of T1DM patients and 70% controls. In the group of T1DM patients, no correlation was found between age (Rs=0.253, P=0.068, duration of diabetes (Rs=−0.038, P=0.787, or body mass index (Rs=0.150, P=0.432 and the amount of the yeast-like fungi isolated in the feces. Moreover, no correlation was seen between the amount of the yeast-like fungi and glycated hemoglobin (Rs=0.0324, P=0.823, systolic blood pressure (Rs=0.102, P=0.483, or diastolic blood pressure (Rs=0.271, P=0.345.Conclusion: Our research has shown that children and adolescents with T1DM show higher species diversity of the yeast-like fungi, with Candida albicans being significantly less prevalent versus control subjects. Moreover, fungal species in patients with T1DM turn out to be more resistant to antifungal treatment. Keywords: children, diabetes mellitus type 1

  20. Use of benzo analogs to enhance antimycotic activity of strobilurin for control of aflatoxigenic fungal pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong H Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine two benzo analogs, octylgallate (OG and veratraldehyde (VT, as antifungal agents against strains of Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus (toxigenic or atoxigenic. Both toxigenic and atoxigenic strains used were capable of producing kojic acid, another cellular secondary product. A. fumigatus was used as a genetic model for this study. When applied independently, OG exhibits considerably higher antifungal activity compared to VT. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of OG were 0.3 - 0.5 mM, while that of VT were 3.0 - 5.0 mM in agar plate-bioassays. OG or VT in concert with the fungicide kresoxim methyl (Kre-Me; strobilurin greatly enhanced sensitivity of Aspergillus strains to Kre-Me. The combination with OG also overcame the tolerance of A. fumigatus mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK mutants to Kre-Me. The degree of compound interaction resulting from chemosensitization of the fungi by OG was determined using checkerboard bioassays, where synergistic activity greatly lowered MICs or minimum fungicidal concentrations. However, the control chemosensitizer benzohydroxamic acid, an alternative oxidase inhibitor conventionally applied in concert with strobilurin, did not achieve synergism. The level of antifungal or chemosensitizing activity was also compound - strain specific, indicating differential susceptibility of tested strains to OG or VT, and/or heat stress. Besides targeting the antioxidant system, OG also negatively affected the cell wall-integrity pathway, as determined by the inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall-integrity MAPK pathway mutants. We concluded that certain benzo analogs effectively inhibit fungal growth. They possess chemosensitizing capability to increase efficacy of Kre-Me and thus could reduce effective dosages of strobilurins and alleviate negative side effects associated with current antifungal practices. OG also exhibits moderate antiaflatoxigenic activity.

  1. Endotoxin, Ergosterol, Fungal DNA and Allergens in Dust from Schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia- Associations with Asthma and Respiratory Infections in Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbäck, Dan; Markowicz, Pawel; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael Dho; Larsson, Lennart; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96%) from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor’s diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380–690 ppm). No cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f 1) or horse allergens (Ecu cx) were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t), house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1) and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1) were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective) associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS) and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention. PMID

  2. Monitoring of clinical strains and environmental fungal aerocontamination to prevent invasive aspergillosis infections in hospital during large deconstruction work: a protocol study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffert, Sophie Tiphaine; Melloul, Elise; Dananché, Cédric; Hénaff, Laetitia; Bénet, Thomas; Cassier, Pierre; Dupont, Damien; Guillot, Jacques; Botterel, Françoise; Wallon, Martine; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Vanhems, Philippe

    2017-11-25

    Monitoring fungal aerocontamination is an essential measure to prevent severe invasive aspergillosis (IA) infections in hospitals. One central block among 32 blocks of Edouard Herriot Hospital (EHH) was entirely demolished in 2015, while care activities continued in surrounding blocks. The main objective was to undertake broad environmental monitoring and clinical surveillance of IA cases to document fungal dispersion during major deconstruction work and to assess clinical risk. A daily environmental survey of fungal loads was conducted in eight wards located near the demolition site. Air was collected inside and outside selected wards by agar impact samplers. Daily spore concentrations were monitored continuously by volumetric samplers at a flow rate of 10 L.min -1 . Daily temperature, wind direction and speed as well as relative humidity were recorded by the French meteorological station Meteociel. Aspergillus fumigatus strains stored will be genotyped by multiple-locus, variable-number, tandem-repeat analysis. Antifungal susceptibility will be assessed by E-test strips on Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium supplemented with agar. Ascertaining the adequacy of current environmental monitoring techniques in hospital is of growing importance, considering the rising impact of fungal infections and of curative antifungal costs. The present study could improve the daily management of IA risk during major deconstruction work and generate new data to ameliorate and redefine current guidelines. This study was approved by the clinical research and ethics committees of EHH. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Endotoxin, ergosterol, fungal DNA and allergens in dust from schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia- associations with asthma and respiratory infections in pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbäck, Dan; Markowicz, Pawel; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael Dho; Larsson, Lennart; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96%) from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor's diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380-690 ppm). No cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f 1) or horse allergens (Ecu cx) were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t), house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1) and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1) were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective) associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS) and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention.

  4. Endotoxin, ergosterol, fungal DNA and allergens in dust from schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia- associations with asthma and respiratory infections in pupils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Norbäck

    Full Text Available There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96% from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH, muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor's diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380-690 ppm. No cat (Fel d1, dog (Can f 1 or horse allergens (Ecu cx were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t, house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1 and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1 were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention.

  5. Epidemiology and Control of Gastrointestinal Nematodes Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the epidemiology and control of gastrointestinal nematode infections in lambs in a semi-arid area of Kajiado District of Kenya was carried out between January 2001 and December 2001. Forty Dorper lambs were randomly recruited at the age of 6 weeks and their faecal samples examined for strongyle-type ...

  6. Development and Evaluation of Amphotericin B Loaded Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery to Systemic Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabathula, Pavan

    A targeted nanotheronostic drug delivery system to diagnose and treat life threatening invasive fungal infections (IFIs) such as cryptococcal meningitis was designed, developed, characterized, and evaluated. To address the development processes, first, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) (34-40 nm) coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA), loaded and targeted with amphotericin B (AMB) (AMB-IONP) was formulated by applying a layer by layer approach. Several designs (A, B, C, D, & E) of AMB-IONP were developed and their physicochemical properties such as drug loading with HPLC method, particle size, poly dispersity index (PDI), and zeta-potential using dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique, morphology with transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), and in vitro drug release profile with dialysis method were evaluated. Second, uptake (with fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry) and killing efficacy (with susceptibility testing) of AMB-IONP in fungal clinical isolates of Candida species were evaluated and compared with standard drug AMB deoxycholate (AMB-D) data. Third, the cellular uptake mechanisms with endocytosis inhibitors and intracellular trafficking using TEM for design D were evaluated in selected isolates. Fourth, a stable lyophilized AMB-IONP formulation was developed and was suitable for clinical trials. A validated isocratic HPLC method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of AMB. Design D was determined to be the lead formulation with drug loading of 13.6+/-6.9 of AMB/mg of IONP. The size, zeta-potential, and PDI for all formulation designs were found to be in an optimum range for a nanomedicine with ≤36 nm, ˜ -20 mV, and ≤0.2, respectively. The TEM images confirmed that the nanoparticles were monodispersed and spherical in shape. The drug release profile indicated a burst release up to 3 hours for designs A and B, followed by a sustained drug release profile up to 72 hours. Designs C and D (with and without glutaraldehyde

  7. Top-down control of soil fungal community composition by a globally distributed keystone consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crowther, T. W.; Stanton, D.G.W.; Thomas, S.M.; A'Bear, A.D.; Hiscox, J.; Jones, T.H.; Voříšková, Jana; Baldrian, Petr; Boddy, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 11 (2013), s. 2518-2528 ISSN 0012-9658 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/0709 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : decomposition * fungal energy channel * keystone species Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.000, year: 2013

  8. Controlling pecan weevil with beneficial fungi: the impact of fungal species and fertilizer regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan. Prior research indicated the potential for using entomopathogenic fungi to suppress pecan weevil in the soil. We compared the efficacy of two fungal species, Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52), in their a...

  9. Who Gets Fungal Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources en español Definición Síntomas Riesgo y prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y pruebas Tratamiento Profesionales de la salud ... Definición Síntomas Las Personas en Riesgo y Prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y Exámenes Tratamiento y Resultados Profesionales de ...

  10. Fungal Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources en español Definición Síntomas Riesgo y prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y pruebas Tratamiento Profesionales de la salud ... Definición Síntomas Las Personas en Riesgo y Prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y Exámenes Tratamiento y Resultados Profesionales de ...

  11. Fungal nail infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 25. Hay RJ. Dermatophytosis (ringworm) and other superficial mycoses. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, ... the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should ...

  12. Azole-based chemoprophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in paediatric patients with acute leukaemia: an internal audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Sara; Pieper, Stephanie; Kolve, Hedwig; Goletz, Grazyna; Jürgens, Heribert; Groll, Andreas H

    2014-03-01

    Children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and recurrent acute leukaemias (RALs) are at high risk of life-threatening invasive fungal infections (IFIs). We analysed implementation, safety and efficacy of a standard operating procedure for oral, azole-based, mould-active antifungal prophylaxis. Patients with AML and RALs aged ≥13 years received 200 mg of posaconazole three times daily and patients aged 2-12 years received 200 mg of voriconazole two times daily from the completion of chemotherapy until haematopoietic recovery. Algorithms for fever or focal findings in all patients with haematological malignancies included blood cultures, high-resolution CT and other appropriate imaging, serial serum galactomannan, invasive diagnostics and pre-emptive therapy with change in class if on antifungal medication. From 2006 to 2010, 40 patients (0.8-17 years; 21 males) with newly diagnosed AML (n = 31) or RAL (n = 9) were admitted, of whom 36 received a total of 149 courses of chemotherapy (reasons for exclusion: contraindications and early death ≤3 days). Azole prophylaxis was given in 87.2% (n = 130/149) of episodes. Pre-emptive antifungal therapy for pulmonary infiltrates was initiated in 5/36 (13.9%) patients or 6/130 (4.6%) episodes for a duration of 3-22 days. No proven or probable IFIs occurred. Adverse events (AEs) were common but mostly low grade and reversible. Three courses (2.3%) were discontinued due to AEs. In simultaneously admitted new patients with acute lymphatic leukaemia (ALL; n = 101) and paediatric lymphomas (n = 29) not receiving standard antifungal prophylaxis, proven/probable IFIs occurred in 4 patients with ALL (4.0%) and 7/130 patients (5.4%) received pre-emptive therapy. Azole-based, mould-active antifungal prophylaxis in high-risk paediatric patients with AML and RALs was satisfactorily implemented, well tolerated and effective. The low rate of IFIs in patients with ALL/lymphoma supports the lack of a general indication for

  13. Risk Factors for Invasive Fungal Infection among Thai Oncologic Patients with Febrile Neutropenia and Cutaneous Presentation: A 5-Year Retrospective Study in Southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiempanakit, Kumpol; Naorungroj, Surarit; Chiratikarnwong, Kanokphorn; Auepemkiate, Sauvarat; Apinantriyo, Benjawan

    2017-12-29

    Background: Febrile neutropenia (FNP) is a condition defined by fever and neutropenia. There are current only limited data on related cutaneous manifestations. This study aimed to assess cutaneous lesions and their etiologies in a Thai group of FNP patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 43 non-transplant febrile neutropenic patients with concurrent cutaneous lesions, as determined by dermatopathologic studies at Songklanagarind Hospital in Thailand over a five-year period. Results: The mean age was 39 years (SD: 18.8). Approximately 60% were male. The most common underlying disease was a hematologic neoplasm. Twenty-one of the participants had developed FNP within 7.5±8.7 days after presenting with skin lesions. Twenty-two participants had skin lesions 9.0±11.1 days after FNP diagnosis. Cutaneous manifestations were mostly in the form of multiple lesions (67.4%), of which the most common were nodular skin lesions (37.2%) presenting on the lower extremities of the body (58.1%). The dermatopathologic diagnoses included infections which were almost all fungal and leukemia cutis. The development of skin lesions after FNP proved to be a statistically significant risk factor for fungal infection (OR 8.13, P = 0.009), whereas age (over 40 years) proved to be a statistically significant protective factor (OR 0.20, P = 0.04). Conclusions: There are a variety of cutaneous manifestations in FNP, of which the most common were cutaneous nodular skin lesions in the lower extremities. The most frequent infection was fungal in patients under 40 who had developed skin lesions after FNP. Creative Commons Attribution License

  14. Multidisciplinary approach to the treatment of invasive fungal infections in adult patients. Prophylaxis, empirical, preemptive or targeted therapy, which is the best in the different hosts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Zaragoza

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rafael Zaragoza1, Javier Pemán2, Miguel Salavert3, Ángel Viudes2, Amparo Solé4, Isidro Jarque5, Emilio Monte6, Eva Romá6, Emilia Cantón71Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Universitario Dr Peset, Valencia, Spain; 2Servicio de Microbiología; 3Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas; 4Unidad de Trasplante Pulmonar; 5Servicio de Hematología; 6Servicio de Farmacia; 7Unidad de Microbiología Experimental, Centro de Investigación, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia, SpainAbstract: The high morbidity, mortality, and health care costs associated with invasive fungal infections, especially in the critical care setting and immunocompromised host, have made it an excellent target for prophylactic, empiric, and preemptive therapy interventions principally based on early identification of risk factors. Early diagnosis and treatment are associated with a better prognosis. In the last years there have been important developments in antifungal pharmacotherapy. An approach to the new diagnosis tools in the clinical mycology laboratory and an analysis of the use new antifungal agents and its application in different clinical situations has been made. Furthermore, an attempt of developing a state of the art in each clinical scenario (critically ill, hematological, and solid organ transplant patients has been performed, trying to choose the best strategy for each clinical situation (prophylaxis, pre-emptive, empirical, or targeted therapy. The high mortality rates in these settings make mandatory the application of early de-escalation therapy in critically ill patients with fungal infection. In addition, the possibility of antifungal combination therapy might be considered in solid organ transplant and hematological patients.Keywords: invasive fungal infections, prophylaxis, empirical therapy, preemptive treatment, targeted therapy

  15. Spatial and taxonomical overlap of fungi on phylloplanes and invasive alien ladybirds with fungal infections in tree crowns of urban green spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Andy G; Ravn, Hans Peter; Jensen, Annette B; Meyling, Nicolai V

    2016-09-01

    Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi on phylloplanes in Tilia × europaea crowns between 1 and 13 m was assessed in urban parks. Prevalence of fungal infections in ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) collected from Tilia × europaea was assessed to determine whether fungi found on phylloplanes also occurred as infections in ladybirds. Isaria spp. was most abundant on phylloplanes (mean colony forming units (CFU) per leaf ± SE, 0.33 ± 0.03) followed by Beauveria spp. (0.22 ± 0.02 CFU per leaf) and Lecanicillium spp. (0.19 ± 0.02 CFU per leaf). Densities of inoculum were higher in inner crowns and decreased with height, although Lecanicillium spp. peaked at 5-7 m. Upper phylloplane surfaces harboured higher densities of Isaria spp. and Beauveria spp. than lower surfaces, whereas Lecanicillium spp. was equally distributed. Most prevalent on ladybirds were Isaria spp. (20.6% Harmonia axyridis; 4.8% natives), Lecanicillium spp. (13.6% H. axyridis; 4.8% natives), with fewer Beauveria spp. infections (2.6% H. axyridis). Molecular identification revealed Beauveria bassiana, B. pseudobassiana, Isaria farinosa and Lecanicillium muscarium among isolates of both tree and ladybird origin. Tilia × europaea phylloplanes support a diverse assemblage of entomopathogenic fungal species with a different prevalence in coccinellids compared to their relative abundance in this habitat. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The monosaccharide transporter gene, AtSTP4, and the cell-wall invertase, Atbetafruct1, are induced in Arabidopsis during infection with the fungal biotroph Erysiphe cichoracearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulos, Vasileios; Gilbert, Martin J; Pittman, Jon K; Marvier, Alison C; Buchanan, Aram J; Sauer, Norbert; Hall, J L; Williams, Lorraine E

    2003-06-01

    Powdery mildew fungi are biotrophic pathogens that form a complex interface, the haustorium, between the host plant and the parasite. The pathogen acts as an additional sink, competing with host sinks, resulting in considerable modification of photoassimilate production and partitioning within the host tissue. Here, we examine the factors that may contribute to these changes. We show for the first time in one biotrophic interaction (Arabidopsis/Erysiphe cichoracearum) all of the following responses: Glc uptake in host tissues is enhanced after fungal infection; this coincides with the induction of expression of the monosaccharide transporter gene, Arabidopsis sugar transport protein 4 (AtSTP4), in infected leaves; invertase activity and transcript levels for a cell wall invertase, Atbetafruct1, increase substantially in Arabidopsis during attack by this pathogen. Before infection, Arabidopsis plants transformed with an AtSTP4 promoter-beta-glucuronidase construct show expression mainly in sink tissues such as roots; after infection, AtSTP4 expression is induced in the mature leaves and increases over the 6-d time period. Sections of infected leaves stained for beta-glucuronidase show that AtSTP4 expression is not confined to infected epidermal cells but is also evident in a wider range of cells, including those of the vascular tissue. The results are discussed in relation to the possible coordinated expression of hexose transporters and cell wall invertase in the host response to powdery mildew infection.

  17. Hexane abatement and spore emission control in a fungal biofilter-photoreactor hybrid unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saucedo-Lucero, J.O. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, División de Ciencias Ambientales, Camino a la Presa San José No. 2055, C.P., 78216 San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Quijano, G. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Arriaga, S. [IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, División de Ciencias Ambientales, Camino a la Presa San José No. 2055, C.P., 78216 San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Muñoz, R., E-mail: mutora@iq.uva.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • A fungal biofilter/photoreactor was evaluated in terms of hexane and spore removal. • Biofilter supported elimination capacities of ≈35 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1} and CO{sub 2} yields of ≈75%. • The photocatalytic process slightly boosted the hexane abatement performance. • Biofilter emitted fungal spores at concentrations of 2.4 × 10{sup 3}–9.0 × 10{sup 4} CFU m{sup −3}. • Photo-assisted post-treatments resulted in spore deactivation efficiencies of 98%. - Abstract: The performance of a fungal perlite-based biofilter coupled to a post-treatment photoreactor was evaluated over 234 days in terms of n-hexane removal, emission and deactivation of fungal spores. The biofilter and photoreactor were operated at gas residence times of 1.20 and 0.14 min, respectively, and a hexane loading rate of 115 ± 5 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. Steady n-hexane elimination capacities of 30–40 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1} were achieved, concomitantly with pollutant mineralization efficiencies of 60–90%. No significant influence of biofilter irrigation frequency or irrigation nitrogen concentration on hexane abatement was recorded. Photolysis did not support an efficient hexane post-treatment likely due to the short EBRT applied in the photoreactor, while overall hexane removal and mineralization enhancements of 25% were recorded when the irradiated photoreactor was packed with ZnO-impregnated perlite. However, a rapid catalyst deactivation was observed, which required a periodic reactivation every 48 h. Biofilter irrigation every 3 days supported fungal spore emissions at concentrations ranging from 2.4 × 10{sup 3} to 9.0 × 10{sup 4} CFU m{sup −3}. Finally, spore deactivation efficiencies of ≈98% were recorded for the photolytic and photocatalytic post-treatment processes. This study confirmed the potential of photo-assisted post-treatment processes to mitigate the emission of hazardous fungal spores and boost the abatement performance of

  18. Effects of gamma irradiation on long-storage seeds of Oryza sativa (cv. 2233) and their surface infecting fungal diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, J.P. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kalyani, Nadia 741235, West Bengal (India); University Grant Commission, Department of Atomic Energy Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Center, 3/LB-8, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101 Taiwan (China)], E-mail: jyoti_maity@yahoo.com; Kar, S. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kalyani, Nadia 741235, West Bengal (India); Banerjee, S. [W.M. Keck Biomedical Materials Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2920 (United States); Chakraborty, A. [University Grant Commission, Department of Atomic Energy Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Center, 3/LB-8, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Santra, S.C. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kalyani, Nadia 741235, West Bengal (India)

    2009-11-15

    We have reported an effective {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation method for the removal and long-time prevention of contaminating fungi of Oryza sativa cv-2233, without the losses of seed viabilities. The fungal growth and their population on gamma treated seeds was found to decrease significantly (p<0.05) with the increasing irradiation dose and storage time. Immediately after irradiation, the depletion of fungal population on rice seed was noticed (>50%) at 2 kGy, whereas total inhibition was noticed at 3 kGy after 1.5 month.

  19. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease and Infection Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Johnston

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past year, several situations have occurred in Canada in which patients who had recently undergone a surgical procedure were subsequently diagnosed with confirmed or suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. This raised concerns over contamination of surgical instruments: which instruments might have been contaminated from direct exposure to tissues; can instruments become cross-contaminated by exposure to other contaminated instruments; what assessment is necessary to determine cross-contamination; and what should be done with instruments that have been contaminated. Additionally, should there be a patient traceback in the face of potential but unproven exposure? Unfortunately, there are no easy answers to most of the above questions. Australia, the United Kingdom and the World Health Organization have developed guidelines for the infection control management of patients with CJD, as well as instruments and devices that come into contact with them and their tissues (1-3. Health Canada's draft CJD infection control guidelines, withdrawn from the Health Canada Web site until safety concerns regarding sodium hydroxide can be addressed, closely mirrored recommendations made in those documents. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for CJD are under revision. However, a recent American publication made recommendations on what procedures should be used for reprocessing items that have been in contact with the prion protein (PrP (4. These recommendations differ substantially from the draft Canadian guidelines. This article reviews current knowledge about CJD, and highlights some of the infection control concerns and controversies.

  20. Hospital design for better infection control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lateef Fatimah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical design and infrastructure of a hospital or institution is an essential component of its infection control measure. Thus is must be a prerequisite to take these into consideration from the initial conception and planning stages of the building. The balance between designing a hospital to be an open, accessible and public place and the control to reduce the spread of infections diseases is a necessity. At Singapore General Hospital, many lessons were learnt during the SARS outbreak pertaining to this. During and subsequent to the SARS outbreak, many changes evolved in the hospital to enable us to handle and face any emerging infectious situation with calm, confidence and the knowledge that staff and patients will be in good stead. This paper will share some of our experiences as well as challenges

  1. Fungal infections in neutropenic patients: a 8-year prospective study Infecções fúngicas em pacientes neutropênicos: estudo prospectivo de 8 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Nucci

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report a eight-year prospective study designed to further characterize incidence, epidemiology, specific syndromes, treatment and prognosis associated with fungal infections in neutropenic patients. During the study period 30 fungal infections were diagnosed in 30 patients among 313 episodes of fever and neutropenia (10%. There were 15 cases of candidiasis, 5 pulmonary aspergillosis, 3 sinusitis by Aspergillus fumigatus, 5 infections by Fusarium sp., one infection by Trichosporon sp., and one infection due to Rhodotorula rubra. Blood cultures were positive in 18 cases (60%. The predisposing factors for fungal infection in multivariate analysis were the presence of central venous catheter (pCom o objetivo de melhor caracterizar incidência, epidemiologia, síndromes específicas, tratamento e prognóstico associado com infecções fúngicas sistêmicas em pacientes neutropênicos foi feito um estudo prospectivo de 8 anos. Durante este período foram diagnosticadas 30 infecções fúngicas em 30 pacientes neutropênicos febris (10%. Houve 15 casos de candidíase, 5 aspergiloses pulmonares, 3 sinusites por Aspergillus fumigatus, 5 infecções por Fusarium sp., uma infecção por Trichosporon sp., e uma infecção por Rhodotorula rubra. As hemoculturas foram positivas em 18 casos (60%. Os fatores de risco para infecção fúngica em análise multivariada foram: presença de cateter venoso central (p<0,001, duração maior de neutropenia <100/mm³ (p<0,001, uso de corticosteróides (p<0,001, bacteremia por germes gram-positivos (p=0,002 e idade menor (p=0.03. Em análise multivariada apenas recuperação da neutropenia (p<0,001 esteve associada com bom prognóstico, enquanto que o diagnóstico de infecção por Fusarium sp. (p=0,006 se correlacionou com um mau prognóstico. A taxa de óbito foi de 43%. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante nas taxas de óbito em pacientes que receberam (52% ou não (50% terapia anti

  2. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Puccinia psidii Uredospores Reveals Differences of Fungal Populations Infecting Eucalyptus and Guava.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Quecine

    Full Text Available Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l. is the causal agent of eucalyptus and guava rust, but it also attacks a wide range of plant species from the myrtle family, resulting in a significant genetic and physiological variability among populations accessed from different hosts. The uredospores are crucial to P. psidii dissemination in the field. Although they are important for the fungal pathogenesis, their molecular characterization has been poorly studied. In this work, we report the first in-depth proteomic analysis of P. psidii s.l. uredospores from two contrasting populations: guava fruits (PpGuava and eucalyptus leaves (PpEucalyptus. NanoUPLC-MSE was used to generate peptide spectra that were matched to the UniProt Puccinia genera sequences (UniProt database resulting in the first proteomic analysis of the phytopathogenic fungus P. psidii. Three hundred and fourty proteins were detected and quantified using Label free proteomics. A significant number of unique proteins were found for each sample, others were significantly more or less abundant, according to the fungal populations. In PpGuava population, many proteins correlated with fungal virulence, such as malate dehydrogenase, proteossomes subunits, enolases and others were increased. On the other hand, PpEucalyptus proteins involved in biogenesis, protein folding and translocation were increased, supporting the physiological variability of the fungal populations according to their protein reservoirs and specific host interaction strategies.

  3. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Puccinia psidii Uredospores Reveals Differences of Fungal Populations Infecting Eucalyptus and Guava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Andressa Peres; Regiani, Thais; Franceschini, Lívia Maria; Budzinski, Ilara Gabriela Frasson; Marques, Felipe Garbelini; Labate, Mônica Teresa Veneziano; Guidetti-Gonzalez, Simone; Moon, David Henry; Labate, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l.) is the causal agent of eucalyptus and guava rust, but it also attacks a wide range of plant species from the myrtle family, resulting in a significant genetic and physiological variability among populations accessed from different hosts. The uredospores are crucial to P. psidii dissemination in the field. Although they are important for the fungal pathogenesis, their molecular characterization has been poorly studied. In this work, we report the first in-depth proteomic analysis of P. psidii s.l. uredospores from two contrasting populations: guava fruits (PpGuava) and eucalyptus leaves (PpEucalyptus). NanoUPLC-MSE was used to generate peptide spectra that were matched to the UniProt Puccinia genera sequences (UniProt database) resulting in the first proteomic analysis of the phytopathogenic fungus P. psidii. Three hundred and fourty proteins were detected and quantified using Label free proteomics. A significant number of unique proteins were found for each sample, others were significantly more or less abundant, according to the fungal populations. In PpGuava population, many proteins correlated with fungal virulence, such as malate dehydrogenase, proteossomes subunits, enolases and others were increased. On the other hand, PpEucalyptus proteins involved in biogenesis, protein folding and translocation were increased, supporting the physiological variability of the fungal populations according to their protein reservoirs and specific host interaction strategies. PMID:26731728

  4. Control of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, D; Segales, J; Meyns, T; Sibila, M; Pieters, M; Haesebrouck, F

    2008-01-25

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the primary pathogen of enzootic pneumonia, occurs worldwide and causes major economic losses to the pig industry. The organism adheres to and damages the ciliated epithelium of the respiratory tract. Affected pigs show chronic coughing, are more susceptible to other respiratory infections and have a reduced performance. Control of the disease can be accomplished in a number of ways. First, management practices and housing conditions in the herd should be optimized. These include all-in/all-out production, limiting factors that may destabilize herd immunity, maintaining optimal stocking densities, prevention of other respiratory diseases, and optimal housing and climatic conditions. Strategic medication with antimicrobials active against M. hyopneumoniae and, preferably, also against major secondary bacteria may be useful during periods when the pigs are at risk for respiratory disease. Finally, commercial bacterins are widely used to control M. hyopneumoniae infections. The main effects of vaccination include less clinical symptoms, lung lesions and medication use, and improved performance. However, bacterins provide only partial protection and do not prevent colonization of the organism. Different vaccination strategies (timing of vaccination, vaccination of sows, vaccination combined with antimicrobial medication) can be used, depending on the type of herd, the production system and management practices, the infection pattern and the preferences of the pig producer. Research on new vaccines is actively occurring, including aerosol and feed-based vaccines as well as subunit and DNA vaccines. Eradication of the infection at herd level based on age-segregation and medication is possible, but there is a permanent risk for re-infections.

  5. Infection control in Dental Laboratories: A survey of Nigerian dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Transmission of infection may occur in laboratory oral healthcare setting with undermined infection control. Objective: To assess infection control knowledge and confidence in protecting self from occupational acquisition of HIV infection among Nigerian dental technology students. Methods: This ...

  6. Fungal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to other illnesses such as the flu or tuberculosis. Some fungal diseases like fungal meningitis and bloodstream ... prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y pruebas Tratamiento Profesionales de la salud Estadísticas Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources ...

  7. A rapid genotyping method for an obligate fungal pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici, based on DNA extraction from infected leaf and Multiplex PCR genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjalbert Jérôme

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici (PST, an obligate fungal pathogen causing wheat yellow/stripe rust, a serious disease, has been used to understand the evolution of crop pathogen using molecular markers. However, numerous questions regarding its evolutionary history and recent migration routes still remains to be addressed, which need the genotyping of a large number of isolates, a process that is limited by both DNA extraction and genotyping methods. To address the two issues, we developed here a method for direct DNA extraction from infected leaves combined with optimized SSR multiplexing. Findings We report here an efficient protocol for direct fungal DNA extraction from infected leaves, avoiding the costly and time consuming step of spore multiplication. The genotyping strategy we propose, amplified a total of 20 SSRs in three Multiplex PCR reactions, which were highly polymorphic and were able to differentiate different PST populations with high efficiency and accuracy. Conclusion These two developments enabled a genotyping strategy that could contribute to the development of molecular epidemiology of yellow rust disease, both at a regional or worldwide scale.

  8. Fungal pathogens of Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) from Brazil, with reference to classical biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Claudine D S; Barreto, Robert W; Killgore, Eloise

    2007-01-01

    A survey of fungal pathogens of Miconia calvescens was carried out in Brazil aimed at finding potential classical biocontrol agents for management of this invasive alien weed in Hawaii. Coccodiella miconiae, Glomerella cingulata (= Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. miconiae) and the new species Guignardia miconiae and Korunomyces prostratus were found associated with foliar diseases and are described herein. Two previously undescribed spore stages of Coccodiella miconiae also were obtained allowing a complete description of this species. Pseudocercospora tamonae associated with leaf spots of other species of Miconia also was collected and also was proven to be pathogenic to M. calvescens.

  9. IL-4 receptor-alpha-dependent control of Cryptococcus neoformans in the early phase of pulmonary infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Grahnert

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes lung inflammation and meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised people. Previously we showed that mice succumb to intranasal infection by induction of pulmonary interleukin (IL-4Rα-dependent type 2 immune responses, whereas IL-12-dependent type 1 responses confer resistance. In the experiments presented here, IL-4Rα⁻/⁻ mice unexpectedly show decreased fungal control early upon infection with C. neoformans, whereas wild-type mice are able to control fungal growth accompanied by enhanced macrophage and dendritic cell recruitment to the site of infection. Lower pulmonary recruitment of macrophages and dendritic cells in IL-4Rα⁻/⁻ mice is associated with reduced pulmonary expression of CCL2 and CCL20 chemokines. Moreover, IFN-γ and nitric oxide production are diminished in IL-4Rα⁻/⁻ mice compared to wild-type mice. To directly study the potential mechanism(s responsible for reduced production of IFN-γ, conventional dendritic cells were stimulated with C. neoformans in the presence of IL-4 which results in increased IL-12 production and reduced IL-10 production. Together, a beneficial role of early IL-4Rα signaling is demonstrated in pulmonary cryptococcosis, which contrasts with the well-known IL-4Rα-mediated detrimental effects in the late phase.

  10. 42 CFR 485.725 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Infection control. 485... participation: Infection control. The organization that provides outpatient physical therapy services establishes an infection-control committee of representative professional staff with responsibility for...

  11. 42 CFR 418.60 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Infection control. 418....60 Condition of participation: Infection control. The hospice must maintain and document an effective infection control program that protects patients, families, visitors, and hospice personnel by preventing...

  12. Identification and evaluation of potential bio-control fungal endophytes against Ustilagonoidea virens on rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andargie, Mebeaselassie; Congyi, Zhu; Yun, Yun; Li, Jianxiong

    2017-06-01

    False smut disease of rice is posing an increasing concern for production, not only because of the hiking epidemic occurrence in rice production, but also because of the challenging specific pathogenesis of the disease. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of five fungal endophytes to reduce negative effects of rice false smut fungus (Ustilagonoidea virens) on rice plants, in both the laboratory and greenhouse. Though all the fungal isolates showed the ability to inhibit the growth of U. virens with varying degrees, isolate E337 showed significant antagonistic activity against the pathogenic fungi. The isolate E337 was identified as Antennariella placitae by molecular and morphological data analysis including 18S rDNA sequence analysis. This isolate showed a significant in vitro inhibition of mycelial growth of U. virens by dual culture method and it was subsequently tested for its in vivo biocontrol potential on false smut disease on rice plants. Greenhouse experiments confirmed that applications of conidia of A. placitae protected rice plants by improving rice yield and by decreasing the severity of false smut disease on susceptible rice plants. This is the first report where A. placitae has been identified as a biocontrol organism.

  13. Tratamento pelo fluconazol de pacientes imuno-comprometidos com graves infecções fúngicas Treatment by fluconazole of severe fungal infections in immunocompromised patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Boulos

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficácia do fluconazol no tratamento de infecções fúngicas em 108 pacientes imunocomprometidos. As doses iniciais variaram de 50 a mais de 400 mg/dia. Dos 108 pacientes, 57 (52,8% tinham criptococose, 45 (41,7% candidíase e 6 (5,5% outras infecções fúngicas, sendo que 66,6% dos pacientes eram portadores de AIDS. Dos 57 pacientes com criptococose houve acometimento do SNC em 52 (91,2%; 39 de 43 pacientes com criptococose (90,7% e 36 de 39 dos portadores de candidíase (92,3% curaram ou tiveram boa evolução clínica. A erradicação do fungo ocorreu em 19 de 30 casos com criptococose (63,3% e em 21 de 26 casos com candidíase (80,7% que puderam ser avaliados. Onze dos 108 pacientes (10,2% apresentaram reações adversas,principalmente gastrintestinais de pequena intensidade, porém um paciente apresentou envolvimento hepático na vigência de terapêutica com fluconazol. Conclui-se que o fluconazol é droga eficaz e de baixa toxicidade para tratar criptococose e candidíase, constituindo-se boa alternativa à terapêutica convencional com anfotericina B.Fluconazole therapy was evaluated prospec-tively in 108 patients with immunossupression and serious fungal infections. Patients were enrolled if they had a life-threatening fungal infection and conventional therapy had failed to eradicate infection, had caused serious toxic reactions, or was contraindicated. Patients were treated with 50 to over 400 mg/day initially. AIDS was underlying risk factor in 66.6% of the patients evaluated in the study and in 92.9% of 57 patients with cryptococcal infection. Satisfactory clinical response was observed in 43 patients with active cryptococcal infection and in 39 patients with active candidiasis, 90.7% and 92.3% respectively. Concerning mycologic response, 63.3% and 80.7% of 30 patients with cryptococcal infection and 26 patients with candidiasis respectively had final negative cultures. Eleven patients (10.2% had adverses effects

  14. Photodynamic antimicrobial polymers for infection control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin P McCoy

    Full Text Available Hospital-acquired infections pose both a major risk to patient wellbeing and an economic burden on global healthcare systems, with the problem compounded by the emergence of multidrug resistant and biocide tolerant bacterial pathogens. Many inanimate surfaces can act as a reservoir for infection, and adequate disinfection is difficult to achieve and requires direct intervention. In this study we demonstrate the preparation and performance of materials with inherent photodynamic, surface-active, persistent antimicrobial properties through the incorporation of photosensitizers into high density poly(ethylene (HDPE using hot-melt extrusion, which require no external intervention except a source of visible light. Our aim is to prevent bacterial adherence to these surfaces and eliminate them as reservoirs of nosocomial pathogens, thus presenting a valuable advance in infection control. A two-layer system with one layer comprising photosensitizer-incorporated HDPE, and one layer comprising HDPE alone is also described to demonstrate the versatility of our approach. The photosensitizer-incorporated materials are capable of reducing the adherence of viable bacteria by up to 3.62 Log colony forming units (CFU per square centimeter of material surface for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, and by up to 1.51 Log CFU/cm(2 for Escherichia coli. Potential applications for the technology are in antimicrobial coatings for, or materials comprising objects, such as tubing, collection bags, handrails, finger-plates on hospital doors, or medical equipment found in the healthcare setting.

  15. PERTUSSIS — INFECTION NOT UNDER COMPLETE CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Tatochenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the problem of pertussis infection in children of various age groups and causes of high prevalence of this infection in the Russian Federation. According to the author’s opinion the main factors of such a bad situation with this disease are insufficient registration of the cases, increasing amount of parents’ rejections of vaccination with DTP-vaccine, gradual fading of the post-vaccinal immunity and low level of children defense before school, as well as difficulties in diagnostics and atypical clinical course of the disease in adolescents and adults. The issues of modern views on variability of infectious agents, comparative efficacy and immunogenicity of whole cell and acellular vaccines and international experience in usage of acellular DTP-vaccines are reviewed with a special attention. Increasing of the vaccination coverage (due to the switch to the less reactogenic aDTP-vaccines, introduction of booster dosages among younger school children and adolescents, vaccination of pregnant women and cocooning strategy in order to protect newborns and infants under 6 months old can be possible ways to improve epidemiologic situation and control of pertussis infection.

  16. Control of Passion Fruit Fungal Diseases Using Essential Oils Extracted from Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus agglomerata in Egerton University Main Campus Njoro, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Njenga Waithaka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth of fruits which form an important part of human diet has been jeopardized by the many fungal diseases that are present today. This study was conceived to isolate the most common fungal pathogens in passion fruits. Fungi were isolated using potato dextrose agar in addition to characterization using morphological, cultural, and biochemical means. Extraction of essential oils from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus agglomerata was done. Before carrying the sensitivity test of essential oils to the fungal isolates, constituents of the essential oils were determined. The most common fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits were Alternaria spp. (45%, Fusarium spp. (22%, Colletotrichum spp. (17%, and Penicillium spp. (16%. There was a relationship between heating time and yield of essential oils in rosemary (r=0.99 and eucalyptus (r=0.99. Conversely, there was no significant difference in the amount of essential oils produced by rosemary and eucalyptus (P=0.08. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in growth inhibition of the fungal pathogens between essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus (P=0.000438. Fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits can be controlled using essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus. The oils need to be produced in large scale.

  17. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Enterobiasis (also known as Pinworm Infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk ...

  18. Intra-specific differentiation of fungal endosymbiont Alternaria longissima CLB44 using RNA secondary structure analysis and their anti-infective potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, H C Yashavantha; Satish, Sreedharamurthy

    2016-08-01

    New antimicrobial agents derived from endosymbio-tic fungi with unique and targeted mode of action are crucially rudimentary to combat multidrug-resistant infections. Most of the fungi isolated as endosymbionts show close morphological feature resemblance to plant pathogenic or free-living forms, and it is difficult to differentiate these different lifestyles. A fungal endosymbiont strain CLB44 was isolated from Combretum latifolium Blume (Combretaceae). CLB44 was then identified as Alternaria longissima based on morphological and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) intervening 5.8S rRNA gene sequence analysis. ITS2 RNA secondary structure analysis was carried out using mfold server with temperature 37 °C, and anti-infective potential was determined by MIC and disk diffusion methods. ITS2 RNA secondary structure analysis clearly distinguished endosymbiotic A. longissima CLB44 from free-living and pathogenic A. longissima members in the same monophyletic clade. Secondary metabolites produced effectively inhibited Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25 μg/ml), Escherichia coli (25 μg/ml), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (50 μg/ml), Candida albicans (100 μg/ml), and other human pathogens. This study emerges as an innovative finding that explores newly revealed ITS2 RNAs that may be an insight as new markers for refining phylogenetic relations and to distinguish fungal endosymbionts with other free-living or pathogenic forms. A. longissima CLB44, in the emerging field of endosymbionts, will pave the way to a novel avenue in drug discovery to combat multidrug-resistant infections. The sequence data of this fungus is deposited in GenBank under the accession no. KU310611.

  19. High Incidences of Invasive Fungal Infections in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Receiving Induction Chemotherapy without Systemic Antifungal Prophylaxis: A Prospective Observational Study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Luh Tang

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections (IFIs is an important complication for acute myeloid leukemia (AML patients receiving induction chemotherapy. However, the epidemiological information is not clear in Southeastern Asia, an area of potential high incidences of IFIs. To clarify it, we enrolled 298 non-M3 adult AML patients receiving induction chemotherapy without systemic anti-fungal prophylaxis from Jan 2004 to Dec 2009, when we applied a prospective diagnostic and treatment algorithm for IFIs. Their demographic parameters, IFI characters, and treatment outcome were collected for analysis. The median age of these patients was 51 years. Standard induction chemotherapy was used for 246 (82.6% patients, and 66.8% of patients achieved complete remission (CR or partial remission. The incidence of all-category IFIs was 34.6% (5.7% proven IFIs, 5.0% probable IFIs and 23.8% possible IFIs. Candida tropicalis was the leading pathogen among yeast, and lower respiratory tract was the most common site for IFIs (75.4%, 80/106. Standard induction chemotherapy and failure to CR were identified as risk factors for IFIs. The presence of IFI in induction independently predicted worse survival (hazard ratio 1.536 (1.100-2.141, p value = 0.012. Even in those who survived from the initial IFI insults after 3 months, the presence of IFIs in induction still predicted a poor long-term survival. This study confirms high incidences of IFIs in Southeastern Asia, and illustrates potential risk factors; poor short-term and long-term outcomes are also demonstrated. This epidemiological information will provide useful perspectives for anti-fungal prophylaxis and treatment for AML patients during induction, so that best chances of cure and survival can be provided.

  20. Epidemiology of Invasive Fungal Infections at Two Tertiary Care Neonatal Intensive Care Units Over a 12-Year Period (2000-2011

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    Roshani R. Agarwal MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a retrospective review of 168 patients with invasive fungal infections from January 2000 to December 2011 in 2 neonatal intensive care units. Patients with Candida bloodstream infection (BSI, n = 152 were further analyzed. C albicans was the most common species overall (47%; however, there was an increase in non–albicans sp from 2006 to 2011. Candida BSI clearance rates were lower in extremely low birth weight infants (77% vs 93%, P = .01 and in patients with C albicans infections (77% vs 91%, P = .01. Clearance rates improved from 2000 to 2005 (70% - 90% to 2006 to 2011 (86% -100%. Combination antifungal use increased during the later years (73% vs 49%, P < .05 and in patients with end-organ dissemination (83% vs 54%, P < .05. We concluded that extremely low birth weight infants and C albicans infection are factors associated with nonclearance of Candida BSI. Successful clearance of Candida BSI improved in 2006 to 2011, perhaps due to increase in non–albicans species and the use of combination antifungals.

  1. Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Fungal Associates of Conifer Bark Beetles and their Potential in Bark Beetle Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Dineshkumar; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hammerbacher, Almuth

    2016-09-01

    Conifer bark beetles attack and kill mature spruce and pine trees, especially during hot and dry conditions. These beetles are closely associated with ophiostomatoid fungi of the Ascomycetes, including the genera Ophiostoma, Grosmannia, and Endoconidiophora, which enhance beetle success by improving nutrition and modifying their substrate, but also have negative impacts on beetles by attracting predators and parasites. A survey of the literature and our own data revealed that ophiostomatoid fungi emit a variety of volatile organic compounds under laboratory conditions including fusel alcohols, terpenoids, aromatic compounds, and aliphatic alcohols. Many of these compounds already have been shown to elicit behavioral responses from bark beetles, functioning as attractants or repellents, often as synergists to compounds currently used in bark beetle control. Thus, these compounds could serve as valuable new agents for bark beetle management. However, bark beetle associations with fungi are very complex. Beetle behavior varies with the species of fungus, the stage of the beetle life cycle, the host tree quality, and probably with changes in the emission rate of fungal volatiles. Additional research on bark beetles and their symbiotic associates is necessary before the basic significance of ophiostomatoid fungal volatiles can be understood and their applied potential realized.

  2. Fate of biological control introductions: monitoring an Australian fungal pathogen of grasshoppers in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidochka, M J; Walsh, S R; Ramos, M E; St Leger, R J; Silver, J C; Roberts, D W

    1996-01-01

    In North America there are two generally recognized pathotypes (pathotypes 1 and 2) of the fungus Entomophaga grylli which show host-preferential infection of grasshopper subfamilies. Pathotype 3, discovered in Australia, has a broader grasshopper host range and was considered to be a good biocontrol agent. Between 1989 and 1991 pathotype 3 was introduced at two field sites in North Dakota. Since resting spores are morphologically indistinguishable among pathotypes, we used pathotype-specific DNA probes to confirm pathotype identification in E. grylli-infected grasshoppers collected at the release sites in 1992, 1993, and 1994. In 1992, up to 23% of E. grylli-infected grasshoppers of the subfamilies Melanoplinae, Oedipodinae, and Gomphocerinae were infected by pathotype 3, with no infections > 1 km from the release sites. In 1993, pathotype 3 infections declined to 1.7%. In 1994 grasshopper populations were low and no pathotype 3 infections were found. The frequency of pathotype 3 infection has declined to levels where its long-term survival in North America is questionable. Analyses of biocontrol releases are critical to evaluating the environmental risks associated with these ecological manipulations, and molecular probes are powerful tools for monitoring biocontrol releases. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8570660

  3. Molecular analysis of fungal populations in patients with oral candidiasis using internal transcribed spacer region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieda, Shinsuke; Moriyama, Masafumi; Takeshita, Toru; Takashita, Toru; Maehara, Takashi; Imabayashi, Yumi; Shinozaki, Shoichi; Tanaka, Akihiko; Hayashida, Jun-Nosuke; Furukawa, Sachiko; Ohta, Miho; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is closely associated with changes in the oral fungal flora and is caused primarily by Candida albicans. Conventional methods of fungal culture are time-consuming and not always conclusive. However, molecular genetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal rRNA is rapid, reproducible and simple to perform. In this study we examined the fungal flora in patients with oral candidiasis and investigated changes in the flora after antifungal treatment using length heterogeneity-polymerization chain reaction (LH-PCR) analysis of ITS regions. Fifty-two patients with pseudomembranous oral candidiasis (POC) and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Fungal DNA from oral rinse was examined for fungal species diversity by LH-PCR. Fungal populations were quantified by real-time PCR and previously-unidentified signals were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. Relationships between the oral fungal flora and treatment-resistant factors were also examined. POC patients showed significantly more fungal species and a greater density of fungi than control individuals. Sixteen fungi were newly identified. The fungal populations from both groups were composed predominantly of C. albicans, though the ratio of C. dubliniensis was significantly higher in POC patients than in controls. The diversity and density of fungi were significantly reduced after treatment. Furthermore, fungal diversity and the proportion of C. dubliniensis were positively correlated with treatment duration. These results suggest that C. dubliniensis and high fungal flora diversity might be involved in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. We therefore conclude that LH-PCR is a useful technique for diagnosing and assessing the severity of oral candidal infection.

  4. Development of Proteomics-Based Fungicides: New Strategies for Environmentally Friendly Control of Fungal Plant Diseases

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    Mohamed Rabie El-Akhal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteomics has become one of the most relevant high-throughput technologies. Several approaches have been used for studying, for example, tumor development, biomarker discovery, or microbiology. In this “post-genomic” era, the relevance of these studies has been highlighted as the phenotypes determined by the proteins and not by the genotypes encoding them that is responsible for the final phenotypes. One of the most interesting outcomes of these technologies is the design of new drugs, due to the discovery of new disease factors that may be candidates for new therapeutic targets. To our knowledge, no commercial fungicides have been developed from targeted molecular research, this review will shed some light on future prospects. We will summarize previous research efforts and discuss future innovations, focused on the fight against one of the main agents causing a devastating crops disease, fungal phytopathogens.

  5. Isolation and characterization of soil Streptomyces species as potential biological control agents against fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista-Martínez, Zahaed

    2014-05-01

    The use of antagonist microorganisms against fungal plant pathogens is an attractive and ecologically alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Streptomyces are beneficial soil bacteria and potential candidates for biocontrol agents. This study reports the isolation, characterization and antagonist activity of soil streptomycetes from the Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve, a Natural protected area in Campeche, Mexico. The results showed morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization of six actinomycetes and their inhibitory activity against Curvularia sp., Aspergillus niger, Helminthosporium sp. and Fusarium sp. One isolate, identified as Streptomyces sp. CACIS-1.16CA showed the potential to inhibit additional pathogens as Alternaria sp., Phytophthora capsici, Colletotrichum sp. and Rhizoctonia sp. with percentages ranging from 47 to 90 %. This study identified a streptomycete strain with a broad antagonist activity that could be used for biocontrol of plant pathogenic fungi.

  6. STUDY OF MICROBIAL DIVERSITY OF FUNGAL COMMUNITIES FROM RHIZOSPHERE AND PHYLOSPHERE OF STRAWBERRY TREATED WITH CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL AGENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF PATHOGENS

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    Gabi-Mirela Matei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The negative impact of long term utilization of pesticides on yields quality, as well as on the human health made scientific community to seek new ways, less expensive and environmental friendly for protecting cultivated plants against pathogens. Biological control agents of microbial origin represented by living selected strains or their metabolites are more and more frequently utilized for protecting horticultural plants intensely consumed by European population, such as strawberry. A green house experiment was designed to compare the structure of rhizospheric and phylospheric microflora of strawberry cv. Senga Sengana, sensible to Botrytis cinerea (the agent of grey mould treated with systemic and contact fungicides, as well as with four biological control preparations of microbial origin administrated on plant leaves or in the soil. The structure of fungal communities in rhizosphere and phylosphere of strawberry cv. Senga Sengana varied as a function of the nature of control agent and the method of administration. Non significant influence on soil fungal community diversity index and species number was registered after the treatment with chemical and biological control agents, but significant increments were induced in time by control agents as compared with both non-treated control and chemical pesticides. Fungal community structure from strawberry leaves was not significantly influenced by chemical and biological control agents. The most favourable influence on fungal communities registered for bio-control agents E1 and E2 due to

  7. Bacterial antagonists of fungal pathogens also control root-knot nematodes by induced systemic resistance of tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Mohamed; Heuer, Holger; Hallmann, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The potential of bacterial antagonists of fungal pathogens to control the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was investigated under greenhouse conditions. Treatment of tomato seeds with several strains significantly reduced the numbers of galls and egg masses compared with the untreated control. Best performed Bacillus subtilis isolates Sb4-23, Mc5-Re2, and Mc2-Re2, which were further studied for their mode of action with regard to direct effects by bacterial metabolites or repellents, and plant mediated effects. Drenching of soil with culture supernatants significantly reduced the number of egg masses produced by M. incognita on tomato by up to 62% compared to the control without culture supernatant. Repellence of juveniles by the antagonists was shown in a linked twin-pot set-up, where a majority of juveniles penetrated roots on the side without inoculated antagonists. All tested biocontrol strains induced systemic resistance against M. incognita in tomato, as revealed in a split-root system where the bacteria and the nematodes were inoculated at spatially separated roots of the same plant. This reduced the production of egg masses by up to 51%, while inoculation of bacteria and nematodes in the same pot had only a minor additive effect on suppression of M. incognita compared to induced systemic resistance alone. Therefore, the plant mediated effect was the major reason for antagonism rather than direct mechanisms. In conclusion, the bacteria known for their antagonistic potential against fungal pathogens also suppressed M. incognita. Such "multi-purpose" bacteria might provide new options for control strategies, especially with respect to nematode-fungus disease complexes that cause synergistic yield losses.

  8. Distinctively variable sequence-based nuclear DNA markers for multilocus phylogeography of the soybean- and rice-infecting fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A series of multilocus sequence-based nuclear DNA markers was developed to infer the phylogeographical history of the Basidiomycetous fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA infecting rice and soybean worldwide. The strategy was based on sequencing of cloned genomic DNA fragments (previously used as RFLP probes) and subsequent screening of fungal isolates to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Ten primer pairs were designed based on these sequences, which resulted in PCR amplification of 200-320 bp size products and polymorphic sequences in all markers analyzed. By direct sequencing we identified both homokaryon and heterokaryon (i.e. dikaryon) isolates at each marker. Cloning the PCR products effectively estimated the allelic phase from heterokaryotic isolates. Information content varied among markers from 0.5 to 5.9 mutations per 100 bp. Thus, the former RFLP codominant probes were successfully converted into six distinctively variable sequence-based nuclear DNA markers. Rather than discarding low polymorphism loci, the combination of these distinctively variable anonymous nuclear markers would constitute an asset for the unbiased estimate of the phylogeographical parameters such as population sizes and divergent times, providing a more reliable species history that shaped the current population structure of R. solani AG-1 IA. PMID:21637462

  9. Infection control practice in countries with limited resources.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alp, E.; Leblebicioglu, H.; Doganay, M.; Voss, A.

    2011-01-01

    Nosocomial infections and their control are a world-wide challenge. The prevalence of nosocomial infections is generally higher in developing countries with limited resources than industrialized countries. In this paper we aimed to further explain the differences with regard to infection control

  10. Evaluation of Nosocomial Infection Control Programs in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegueti, Mayra Gonçalves; Canini, Silvia Rita Marin da Silva; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Fernando; Laus, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    to evaluate the Nosocomial Infection Control Programs in hospital institutions regarding structure and process indicators. this is a descriptive, exploratory and quantitative study conducted in 2013. The study population comprised 13 Nosocomial Infection Control Programs of health services in a Brazilian city of the state of São Paulo. Public domain instruments available in the Manual of Evaluation Indicators of Nosocomial Infection Control Practices were used. The indicators with the highest average compliance were "Evaluation of the Structure of the Nosocomial Infection Control Programs" (75%) and "Evaluation of the Epidemiological Surveillance System of Nosocomial Infection" (82%) and those with the lowest mean compliance scores were "Evaluation of Operational Guidelines" (58.97%) and "Evaluation of Activities of Control and Prevention of Nosocomial Infection" (60.29%). The use of indicators identified that, despite having produced knowledge about prevention and control of nosocomial infections, there is still a large gap between the practice and the recommendations.

  11. Pathology Laboratories and Infection Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Baral

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory health care workers are vulnerable to infection with the Hospital Acquired Infections (HAIs while receiving, handling and disposing biological samples. Ideally the infrastructure of the lab should be according to the best practices like good ventilation, room pressure differential, lighting, space adequacy, hand hygiene facilities, personal protective equipments, biological safety cabinets etc. Disinfection of the environment, and specific precautions with sharps and microbial cultures should follow the protocols and policies of the Infection Prevention and Control Practices (IPAC. If Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Legionella pneumophila are expected, diagnostic tests should be performed in a bio-safety level 3 facilities (for agents which may cause serious or potentially lethal disease in healthy adults after inhalation. Laboratory access should be limited only to people working in it.Along with the advent of new technologies and advanced treatment we are now facing problems with the dreadful HAIs with Antimicrobial Resistant Organisms (AROs which is taking a pandemic form. According to WHO, hundreds of millions of patients develop HAI every year worldwide and as many as 1.4 million occur each day in hospitals alone. The principal goals for hospital IPAC programs are to protect the patient, protect the health care worker (HCW, visitors, and other persons in the health environment, and to accomplish the previous goals in a cost-effective manner like hand hygiene, surveillance, training of the HCWs, initiating awareness programs and making Best Practices and Guidelines to be followed by everyone in the hospital.The initiation for the best practices in the Pathology Laboratories can be either Sporadic or Organizational. Sporadic initiation is when the laboratories make their own IPAC policies. It has been seen that in few centres these policies have been conceptualized but not materialized. Organizational initiation is much more

  12. Pioneers in infection control-Joseph Lister.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, S W B

    2003-12-01

    Joseph Lister is one of the pioneers of Infection Control. Not only did he reduce the incidence of wound infection (usually fatal pre-Lister) by the introduction of antiseptic surgery using carbolic acid, but also he was the first to apply Pasteur's principles to humans. He showed that urine could be kept sterile after boiling in swan-necked flasks. He was the first person to isolate bacteria in pure culture (Bacillus lactis) using liquid cultures containing either Pasteur's solution of turnip infusion and a special syringe to dilute the inoculum and so can be considered a co-founder of medical microbiology with Koch, who later isolated bacteria on solid media. Lister also pioneered the use of catgut and rubber tubing for wound drainage. His life can be split into five periods: 1844-1853, London: first period; 1853-1860, Edinburgh: first period; 1860-1869, Glasgow (where he developed his 'antiseptic system'); 1869-1877, Edinburgh: second period; 1877-1900, London: second period.

  13. Successful Use of Posaconazole to Treat Invasive Cutaneous Fungal Infection in a Liver Transplant Patient on Sirolimus

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    Randah Dahlan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are an important and common cause of cutaneous infections affecting solid organ transplant recipients. These infections can represent a primary site of infection with the potential for dissemination, or a manifestation of metastatic infection. The high morbidity and mortality associated with these infections necessitates urgent therapy with antifungal drugs; however, the interaction between these drugs and immunosuppressive therapies can be a major limitation because of drug toxicity. A case of soft tissue infection of the toe caused by Fusarium chlamydosporum and Candida guilliermondii in a liver transplant patient on sirolimus, who was successfully treated with the new antifungal agent posaconazole, is described. The pharmacokinetic interactions of sirolimus and the new triazoles, and their impact on treatment choices are briefly discussed.

  14. Primary prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in patients with hematologic malignancies. Recommendations of the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society for Haematology and Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornely, Oliver A.; Böhme, Angelika; Buchheidt, Dieter; Einsele, Hermann; Heinz, Werner J.; Karthaus, Meinolf; Krause, Stefan W.; Krüger, William; Maschmeyer, Georg; Penack, Olaf; Ritter, Jörg; Ruhnke, Markus; Sandherr, Michael; Sieniawski, Michal; Vehreschild, Jörg-Janne; Wolf, Hans-Heinrich; Ullmann, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    There is no widely accepted standard for antifungal prophylaxis in patients with hematologic malignancies. The Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society for Haematology and Oncology assigned a committee of hematologists and infectious disease specialists to develop recommendations. Literature data bases were systematically searched for clinical trials on antifungal prophylaxis. The studies identified were shared within the committee. Data were extracted by two of the authors (OAC and MSi). The consensus process was conducted by email communication. Finally, a review committee discussed the proposed recommendations. After consensus was established the recommendations were finalized. A total of 86 trials were identified including 16,922 patients. Only a few trials yielded significant differences in efficacy. Fluconazole 400 mg/d improved the incidence rates of invasive fungal infections and attributable mortality in allogeneic stem cell recipients. Posaconazole 600 mg/d reduced the incidence of IFI and attributable mortality in allogeneic stem cell recipients with severe graft versus host disease, and in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome additionally reduced overall mortality. Aerosolized liposomal amphotericin B reduced the incidence rate of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Posaconazole 600 mg/d is recommended in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome or undergoing allogeneic stem cell recipients with graft versus host disease for the prevention of invasive fungal infections and attributable mortality (Level A I). Fluconazole 400 mg/d is recommended in allogeneic stem cell recipients until development of graft versus host disease only (Level A I). Aerosolized liposomal amphotericin B is recommended during prolonged neutropenia (Level B II). PMID:19066334

  15. Ventilator associated pneumonia and infection control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alp Emine

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. The incidence of VAP varies from 7% to 70% in different studies and the mortality rates are 20–75% according to the study population. Aspiration of colonized pathogenic microorganisms on the oropharynx and gastrointestinal tract is the main route for the development of VAP. On the other hand, the major risk factor for VAP is intubation and the duration of mechanical ventilation. Diagnosis remains difficult, and studies showed the importance of early initiation of appropriate antibiotic for prognosis. VAP causes extra length of stay in hospital and intensive care units and increases hospital cost. Consequently, infection control policies are more rational and will save money.

  16. Fungal Infection Induces Sex-Specific Transcriptional Changes and Alters Sexual Dimorphism in the Dioecious Plant Silene latifolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklaus Zemp

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism, including differences in morphology, behavior and physiology between females and males, is widespread in animals and plants and is shaped by gene expression differences between the sexes. Such expression differences may also underlie sex-specific responses of hosts to pathogen infections, most notably when pathogens induce partial sex reversal in infected hosts. The genetic changes associated with sex-specific responses to pathogen infections on the one hand, and sexual dimorphism on the other hand, remain poorly understood. The dioecious White Campion (Silene latifolia displays sexual dimorphism in floral traits and infection with the smut fungus Micobrotryum lychnidis-dioicae induces a partial sex reversal in females. We find strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection and reduced sexual dimorphism in infected S. latifolia. This provides a direct link between pathogen-mediated changes in sex-biased gene expression and altered sexual dimorphism in the host. Expression changes following infection affected mainly genes with male-biased expression in healthy plants. In females, these genes were up-regulated, leading to a masculinization of the transcriptome. In contrast, infection in males was associated with down-regulation of these genes, leading to a demasculinization of the transcriptome. To a lesser extent, genes with female-biased expression in healthy plants were also affected in opposite directions in the two sexes. These genes were overall down-regulated in females and up-regulated in males, causing, respectively, a defeminization in infected females and a feminization of the transcriptome in infected males. Our results reveal strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection in a dioecious plant and provide a link between pathogen-induced changes in sex-biased gene expression and sexual dimorphism.

  17. Fungal keratitis

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    Sonal S Tuli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sonal S TuliUniversity of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA  Clinical question: What is the most appropriate management of fungal keratitis?Results: Traditionally, topical Natamycin is the most commonly used medication for filamentous fungi while Amphotericin B is most commonly used for yeast. Voriconazole is rapidly becoming the drug of choice for all fungal keratitis because of its wide spectrum of coverage and increased penetration into the cornea.Implementation: Repeated debridement of the ulcer is recommended for the penetration of topical medications. While small, peripheral ulcers may be treated in the community, larger or central ulcers, especially if associated with signs suggestive of anterior chamber penetration should be referred to a tertiary center. Prolonged therapy for approximately four weeks is usually necessary.Keywords: fungal keratitis, keratomycosis, antifungal medications, debridement

  18. Capítulo 8 - Infecções fúngicas em imunocomprometidos Chapter 8 - Fungal infections in immunocompromised patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Frare e Silva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As complicações pulmonares se constituem na maior causa de morbidade e mortalidade no hospedeiro imunocomprometido, devido à deficiência nos mecanismos básicos de defesa. Independente da causa da imunodepressão, infecções bacterianas, virais e fúngicas são as mais frequentes. Entre as infecções fúngicas, a aspergilose é a mais comum (incidência de 1-9% e mortalidade de 55-92% nos diferentes tipos de transplantados. Embora a forma pneumônica seja a mais frequente, lesões do sistema nervoso central e sinusite não são raras. O sinal do halo em TC de tórax representa uma área de baixa atenuação em volta do nódulo, revelando edema ou hemorragia. O padrão ouro para o diagnóstico é a identificação do fungo por cultura de escarro, amostras de LBA ou biópsia. Na falta dessa identificação, a detecção de galactomanana, um dos componentes da parede celular de Aspergillus sp., tem mostrado sensibilidade e especificidade de 89% e 98%, respectivamente. Anfotericina B, anfotericina B lipossomal, caspofungina e voriconazol têm efeito sobre o fungo, com destaque para esse último. A pneumonia por Pneumocystis jirovecii, que pode ser fatal, teve sua incidência reduzida pelo uso preventivo de sulfametoxazol/trimetoprima. Dispneia e hipoxemia em pacientes imunodeprimidos indicam a necessidade da pesquisa de fungos. O uso de sulfametoxazol/trimetoprima por 14-21 dias associado com corticosteroides costuma ser eficaz. A candidíase disseminada é outra rara enfermidade fúngica causada por Candida spp.Pulmonary complications are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, who lack of the basic mechanisms of cellular defense. Regardless of the cause of the immunodeficiency, the most common complications are infections (bacterial, viral or fungal. Among the fungal infections, aspergillosis is the most common (incidence, 1-9%; mortality, 55-92% following organ transplant. Although pulmonary

  19. Burden and treatment patterns of invasive fungal infections in hospitalized patients in the Middle East: real-world data from Saudi Arabia and Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alothman AF

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adel F Alothman,1 Abdulhakeem O Althaqafi,2 Madonna J Matar,3 Rima Moghnieh,4 Thamer H Alenazi,1 Fayssal M Farahat,2 Shelby Corman,5 Caitlyn T Solem,5 Nirvana Raghubir,6 Cynthia Macahilig,7 Claudie Charbonneau,8 Jennifer M Stephens5 1College of Medicine, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Infection Prevention and Control, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin AbdulAziz University for Health Sciences, King AbdulAziz Medical City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Infectious Disease, Notre Dame de Secours University Hospital, Byblos, Lebanon; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 5Real-world Evidence/Data Analytics Center of Excellence, Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, USA; 6Pfizer, New York, NY, 7Medical Data Analytics, Parsippany, NJ, USA; 8Pfizer International Operation, Paris, France Objectives: The objective of this study was to document the burden and treatment patterns associated with invasive fungal infections (IFIs due to Candida and Aspergillus species in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Methods: A retrospective chart review study was conducted using data recorded from 2011 to 2012 from hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of IFI due to Candida or Aspergillus, which was culture proven or suspected based on clinical criteria. Hospital data were abstracted for a random sample of patients to capture demographics, treatment patterns, hospital resource utilization, and clinical outcomes. Descriptive results were reported. Results: Five hospitals participated and provided data on 102 patients with IFI (51 from Lebanon and 51 from Saudi Arabia. The mean age of the patients was 55 years, and 55% were males. Comorbidities included diabetes (41%, coronary artery disease (24%, leukemia (19%, moderate

  20. 50-plus years of fungal viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabrial, Said A., E-mail: saghab00@email.uky.edu [Plant Pathology Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Castón, José R. [Department of Structure of Macromolecules, Centro Nacional Biotecnologıa/CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Jiang, Daohong [State Key Lab of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Nibert, Max L. [Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Suzuki, Nobuhiro [Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Mycoviruses are widespread in all major taxa of fungi. They are transmitted intracellularly during cell division, sporogenesis, and/or cell-to-cell fusion (hyphal anastomosis), and thus their life cycles generally lack an extracellular phase. Their natural host ranges are limited to individuals within the same or closely related vegetative compatibility groups, although recent advances have established expanded experimental host ranges for some mycoviruses. Most known mycoviruses have dsRNA genomes packaged in isometric particles, but an increasing number of positive- or negative-strand ssRNA and ssDNA viruses have been isolated and characterized. Although many mycoviruses do not have marked effects on their hosts, those that reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic fungal hosts are of considerable interest for development of novel biocontrol strategies. Mycoviruses that infect endophytic fungi and those that encode killer toxins are also of special interest. Structural analyses of mycoviruses have promoted better understanding of virus assembly, function, and evolution. - Highlights: • Historical perspective of fungal virus research. • Description, classification and diversity of fungal virus families. • Structural features of fungal virus particles. • Hypovirulence and exploitation of mycoviruses in biological control of plant pathogenic fungi.

  1. Assessing the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of secondary metabolites produced by several fungal biological control agents with the Ames assay and the VITOTOX(®) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvelis, Vassili N; Wang, Chengshu; Skrobek, Anke; Pappas, Katherine M; Typas, Milton A; Butt, Tariq M

    2011-05-18

    The potential genotoxic effects of several pure secondary metabolites produced by fungi used as biological control agents (BCAs) were studied with the Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay and the Vitotox test, with and without metabolic activation. A complete set of Salmonella tester strains was used to avoid false negative results. To detect possible mutagenic and/or cytotoxic effects of fungal secondary metabolites due to synergistic action, crude extracts and fungal cell extracts of the BCAs were also examined. Although the sensitivity of the methods varied depending on the metabolite used, clearly no genotoxicity was observed in all cases. The results of the two assays are discussed in the light of being used in a complementary fashion for a convincing risk-assessment evaluation of fungal BCAs and their secondary metabolites. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a biocontrol agent for plant disease control with special emphasis on the near commercial fungal antagonist Clonostachys rosea strain "IK726"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dan Funck; Knudsen, Inge M.B.; Lübeck, Mette

    2007-01-01

    . Among the success stories for control of seed- and soilborne diseases are fungal biocontrol agents based on Trichoderma harzianum, Clonostachys rosea and Conithyrium minitans, and bacterial biocontrol agents based on strains of Agrobacterium, Pseudomonas and Streptomyces. We have developed C. rosea...

  3. Controlling fungal foliar pathogen e.g. Venturia inaequalis, Blumeriella jaapi, in plants involves treating plants with a composition comprising an extract from Yucca as an antifungal agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to control of fungal foliar diseases in plants, preferaby Rosaceae, such as apple scab (Venturia inaequalis), pear scab (Venturia pirina), brown spot (Stemphylium vesicarium) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) by treatment of plant with an extract of Yucca species...

  4. Red Regional de Laboratorios para la Vigilancia de las Infecciones Fúngicas Invasoras y Susceptibilidad a los Antifúngicos Regional Laboratory Network for Surveillance of Invasive Fungal Infections and Antifungal Susceptibility in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cuenca-Estrella

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the general objectives of the Regional Laboratory Network for Surveillance of Invasive Fungal Infections and Antifungal Susceptibility in Latin America. Formation of the Network was coordinated by the Essential Medicines, Vaccines, and Health Technologies Unit of the Pan American Health Organization, with the technical and financial support of the National Center for Microbiology of the Carlos III Health Institute (Spain, and the technical support of the Microbiology Department of the Dr. C. Malbrán National Institute on Infectious Diseases (Argentina and the Microbiology Unit of the Parasitology Service of the Adolfo Lutz Institute (Brazil. The Network's principle objectives are epidemiological surveillance of invasive fungal infections through detection of antifungal resistance and identification of emergent, invasive fungal infections; establishment of norms and common protocols for early diagnosis of mycoses; and strengthening coordination, communications, and transference mechanisms among countries. The Network must be gradually implemented and must include staff training, a systematic process for sharing technology, evaluation of diagnostic techniques, identification of fungal species, and standardized tests for antifungal susceptibility.

  5. Compliance to infection prevention and control guidelines among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nosocomial infections ,commonly known as hospital acquired infections (HAI) include several pathogens like Escherichia coli, Hepatitis viruses, HIV, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus etc. These agents are transmitted directly or indirectly. Prevention and control of Nosocomial infections is the most important approach in ...

  6. Knowledge and attitudes of infection prevention and control among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Health Sciences students are exposed early to hospitals and to activities which increase their risk of acquiring infections. Infection control practices are geared towards reduction of occurrence and transmission of infectious diseases. Objective: To evaluate knowledge and attitudes of infection prevention and ...