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Sample records for controlling cockroaches mice

  1. Effectiveness of an integrated pest management intervention in controlling cockroaches, mice, and allergens in New York City public housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Daniel; McKelvey, Wendy; Carlton, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Marta; Chew, Ginger; Nagle, Sean; Garfinkel, Robin; Clarke, Brian; Tiven, Julius; Espino, Christian; Evans, David

    2009-08-01

    Cockroaches and mice, which are common in urban homes, are sources of allergens capable of triggering asthma symptoms. Traditional pest control involves the use of scheduled applications of pesticides by professionals as well as pesticide use by residents. In contrast, integrated pest management (IPM) involves sanitation, building maintenance, and limited use of least toxic pesticides. We implemented and evaluated IPM compared with traditional practice for its impact on pests, allergens, pesticide use, and resident satisfaction in a large urban public housing authority. We assigned IPM or control status to 13 buildings in five housing developments, and evaluated conditions at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months in 280 apartments in Brooklyn and Manhattan, in New York City (New York). We measured cockroach and mouse populations, collected cockroach and mouse urinary protein allergens in dust, and interviewed residents. All statistical models controlled for baseline levels of pests or allergens. Compared with controls, apartments receiving IPM had significantly lower counts of cockroaches at 3 months and greater success in reducing or sustaining low counts of cockroaches at both 3 and 6 months. IPM was associated with lower cockroach allergen levels in kitchens at 3 months and in beds and kitchens at 6 months. Pesticide use was reduced in IPM relative to control apartments. Residents of IPM apartments also rated building services more positively. In contrast to previous IPM studies, which involved extensive cleaning, repeat visits, and often extensive resident education, we found that an easily replicable single IPM visit was more effective than the regular application of pesticides alone in managing pests and their consequences.

  2. Locomotion control of hybrid cockroach robots

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    Sanchez, Carlos J.; Chiu, Chen-Wei; Zhou, Yan; González, Jorge M.; Vinson, S. Bradleigh; Liang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Natural systems retain significant advantages over engineered systems in many aspects, including size and versatility. In this research, we develop a hybrid robotic system using American (Periplaneta americana) and discoid (Blaberus discoidalis) cockroaches that uses the natural locomotion and robustness of the insect. A tethered control system was firstly characterized using American cockroaches, wherein implanted electrodes were used to apply an electrical stimulus to the prothoracic ganglia. Using this approach, larger discoid cockroaches were engineered into a remotely controlled hybrid robotic system. Locomotion control was achieved through electrical stimulation of the prothoracic ganglia, via a remotely operated backpack system and implanted electrodes. The backpack consisted of a microcontroller with integrated transceiver protocol, and a rechargeable battery. The hybrid discoid roach was able to walk, and turn in response to an electrical stimulus to its nervous system with high repeatability of 60%. PMID:25740855

  3. Students' Knowledge about the Internal Structure of Mice and Cockroaches in Their Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Selda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine 9th class students knowledge about the internal structures of mice and cockroaches using drawings. Drawings of 122 students from the 9th class of a high school in the center of Konya about the internal structures of mice and cockroaches have been analyzed. Drawings were analyzed independently by two…

  4. A single intervention for cockroach control reduces cockroach exposure and asthma morbidity in children.

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    Rabito, Felicia A; Carlson, John C; He, Hua; Werthmann, Derek; Schal, Coby

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to cockroaches is an important asthma trigger, particularly for children with asthma living in inner cities. Integrated pest management is the recommended approach to cockroach abatement; however, it is costly and difficult to implement. The impact of reducing cockroach exposure on asthma outcomes is not known. We sought to test the use of a single intervention, insecticidal bait, to reduce cockroach exposure in the home of children with asthma in New Orleans and to examine the impact of cockroach reduction on asthma outcomes. One hundred two children aged 5 to 17 years with moderate to severe asthma were enrolled in a 12-month randomized controlled trial testing the use of insecticidal bait on cockroach counts and asthma morbidity. Homes were visited 6 times and asthma symptoms were assessed every 2 months. After adjustment, intervention homes had significantly fewer cockroaches than did control homes (mean change in cockroaches trapped, 13.14; 95% CI, 6.88-19.39; P Children in control homes had more asthma symptoms and unscheduled health care utilization in the previous 2 weeks (1.82, 95% CI, 0.14-3.50, P = .03; 1.17, 95% CI, 0.11-2.24, P = .03, respectively) and a higher proportion of children with FEV1 of less than 80% predicted (odds ratio, 5.74; 95% CI, 1.60-20.57; P = .01) compared with children living in intervention homes. Previous research has demonstrated improvement in asthma health outcomes using multifaceted interventions. The strategic placement of insecticidal bait, which is inexpensive, has low toxicity, and is widely available, resulted in sustained cockroach elimination over 12 months and was associated with improved asthma outcomes. This single intervention may be an alternative to multifaceted interventions currently recommended to improve asthma morbidity. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Inbred and outbred mice have equivalent variability in a cockroach allergen-induced model of asthma.

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    Vaickus, Louis J; Bouchard, Jacqueline; Kim, Jiyoun; Natarajan, Sudha; Remick, Daniel G

    2010-12-01

    Outbred mice traditionally are considered to display high variability, thereby limiting their use in some studies. Researchers frequently are encouraged to use inbred strains of mice because of the greater homogeneity of these experimental animals. We compared the pulmonary inflammatory response of inbred BALB/cJ mice to that of outbred HSD-ICR mice by measuring multiple variables, including cytokines, chemokines, number of pulmonary inflammatory cells, and respiratory parameters. Cockroach allergens induced significant pulmonary inflammation in both BALB and ICR mice. Our comparisons of the coefficients of variance for 148 discrete data sets for each strain or stock indicated that BALB and ICR mice have roughly equivalent intrastrain or -stock variability in our model of asthma-like pulmonary inflammation. The average coefficient of variance, calculated as the ratio of the SD to the mean of a data set, was 0.35 ± 0.34 for BALB mice compared with 0.31 ± 0.32 for ICR mice. In conclusion, inbred BALB and outbred ICR mice have roughly equivalent intrastrain or -stock variability in a murine model of asthma-like pulmonary inflammation.

  6. Efficacy of fipronil gel over imlprothrin +cypermethrin aerosol in control of cockroaches (Field Trial

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    Vijender K Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cockroaches are offensive pests visually and expel unpleasant smelling secretion that spoils the flavor of food and environment. This trial was done to test Strikeout bait gel (fipronil 0.055% developed by Parijat Industries (India Pvt. Ltd. for its efficacy against Periplaneta americana and Blatella germanica, under field conditions in certain catering establishments of a city in Uttar Pradesh. Material and Methods: Ten catering establishments with high infestation based on pretreatment cockroach density assessment (Four for fipronil gel, four for imlprothrin+ cypermethrin aerosol and two without any treatment to act as a control were considered for inclusion in trial. Single application of fipronil gel/ imlprothrin+ cypermethrin aerosol was used as crack and crevice treatment. The visual assessment data for cockroach density in treatment and control catering establishments were considered for computation of percent reduction of cockroach infestation in the respective catering establishments. Results: Single application of fipronil gel was able to reduce cockroach infestation up to 96.0% at the end of 12 weeks whereas it was 20% in imlprothrin+ cypermethrin aerosol treated areas. Differences were found statistically significant. However, imlprothrin+ cypermethrin aerosol was more effective (52.0% in reducing the cockroach density by first week in comparison to fipronil gel (47.8% but its efficacy started declining after 5th week onwards. Interpretation and Conclusion: The study reports the efficacy of Strikeout bait gel (fipronil 0.055% for control of cockroaches in catering establishments. The application Strikeout bait gel (fipronil 0.055% was found more convenient to both operators and clients and there was minimal disruption at workplace.

  7. Efficacy of imidacloprid and fipronil gels over synthetic pyrethroid and propoxur aerosols in control of German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blatellidae).

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    Agrawal, V K; Agarwal, Ashok; Choudhary, Varsha; Singh, Rajiv; Ahmed, Nadeem; Sharma, Mahender; Narula, Kusum; Agrawal, Pooja

    2010-03-01

    Resistance amongst cockroaches has been reported to most of the spray insecticides apart from the problem of food contamination and inconvenience. Gel baits which can be selectively applied have been found effective in control of cockroaches in laboratory studies but very few field studies are available. This trial was planned to evaluate the efficacy of fipronil (0.01%) and imidacloprid (2.15%) gels over synthetic pyrethroid (0.02% deltamethrin + 0.13% allethrin) and propoxur (2%) aerosols in control of cockroaches in the field. Survey was done to find out pre-treatment density in catering establishments and houses by visual count and sticky trap methods. A total of 10 catering establishments and 10 houses having high cockroach infestation were selected by sampling (two catering establishments and houses for each insecticidal treatment and two for control). Propoxur and synthetic pyrethroid aerosols were used for spraying the infested sites once only. Single application of fipronil and imidacloprid gels was used as crack and crevice treatment. Visual count method gave better indications of cockroach infestation as compared to sticky trap method, hence, the same was followed for post-treatment evaluation every week up to 12 weeks. Synthetic pyrethroid could not bring about the desired reduction in cockroach infestation in the present study. Single application of fipronil gel was able to reduce cockroach infestation up to 96.8% at the end of 12 weeks whereas imidacloprid application resulted in 90.9% reduction and propoxur resulted in 77.5%. However, propoxur was more effective in reducing the cockroach density by first week in comparison to imidacloprid and fipronil gels but its efficacy started declining after 8th week. Difference was found statistically significant by Kruskal-Wallis H-test. The study reports the efficacy of propoxur aerosol, imidacloprid gel and fipronil gel baits for control of cockroaches.

  8. Efficacy of imidacloprid and fipronil gels over synthetic pyrethroid and propoxur aerosols in control of German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blatellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Agrawal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Resistance amongst cockroaches has been reported to most of the sprayinsecticides apart from the problem of food contamination and inconvenience. Gel baits which canbe selectively applied have been found effective in control of cockroaches in laboratory studies butvery few field studies are available. This trial was planned to evaluate the efficacy of fipronil(0.01% and imidacloprid (2.15% gels over synthetic pyrethroid (0.02% deltamethrin + 0.13%allethrin and propoxur (2% aerosols in control of cockroaches in the field.Methods: Survey was done to find out pre-treatment density in catering establishments and housesby visual count and sticky trap methods. A total of 10 catering establishments and 10 houseshaving high cockroach infestation were selected by sampling (two catering establishments andhouses for each insecticidal treatment and two for control. Propoxur and synthetic pyrethroidaerosols were used for spraying the infested sites once only. Single application of fipronil andimidacloprid gels was used as crack and crevice treatment. Visual count method gave betterindications of cockroach infestation as compared to sticky trap method, hence, the same was followedfor post-treatment evaluation every week up to 12 weeks.Results: Synthetic pyrethroid could not bring about the desired reduction in cockroach infestationin the present study. Single application of fipronil gel was able to reduce cockroach infestation upto 96.8% at the end of 12 weeks whereas imidacloprid application resulted in 90.9% reduction andpropoxur resulted in 77.5%. However, propoxur was more effective in reducing the cockroachdensity by first week in comparison to imidacloprid and fipronil gels but its efficacy started decliningafter 8th week. Difference was found statistically significant by Kruskal-Wallis H-test.Conclusion: The study reports the efficacy of propoxur aerosol, imidacloprid gel and fipronil gelbaits for control of cockroaches.

  9. Field trial on the control effect of fipronil bait against German cockroaches

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    Ree, Han-Il; Lee, In-Yong; Jeon, Soung-Hoo

    2006-01-01

    A field trial on the control effect of fipronil poison bait against German cockroaches (Blatella germanica) was carried out at different restaurant types in Sinchon, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Monitoring was performed applying food baited traps for 2 days per week. Reduction rates of German cockroaches by applying fipronil baits were 90.9% at Korean restaurants, 96.4% at Chinese restaurants, and 89.4% in beer hall kitchens after 4 weeks of the treatment. Overall average of the reduction rate was 93.9%. As the natural reduction rate at untreated restaurants was 11.5% after 4 weeks, a correction of the average reduction rate by applying the Abbot formula was 93.1%. PMID:16969066

  10. Differences in susceptibility to German cockroach frass and its associated proteases in induced allergic inflammation in mice

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    Herman Nancy

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cockroach exposure is a major risk factor for the development of asthma. Inhalation of fecal remnants (frass is the likely sensitizing agent; however isolated frass has not been tested for its ability to induce experimental asthma in mice. Methods Mice (Balb/c or C57Bl/6 were sensitized and challenged with GC frass or GC frass devoid of proteases and measurements of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness were performed (interleukin (IL-5, -13, and interferon gamma (IFNγ levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, serum IgE levels, airway hyperresponsiveness, cellular infiltration, and mucin production. Results Sensitization and challenge of Balb/c mice with GC frass resulted in increased airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. C57Bl/6 mice were not susceptible to this model of sensitization; however they were sensitized to GC frass using a more aggressive sensitization and challenge protocol. In mice that were sensitized by inhalation, the active serine proteases in GC frass played a role in airway hyperresponsiveness as these mice had less airway hyperresponsiveness to acetylcholine and less mucin production. Proteases did not play a role in mediating the allergic inflammation in mice sensitized via intraperitoneal injection. Conclusion While both strains of mice were able to induce experimental asthma following GC frass sensitization and challenge, the active serine proteases in GC frass only play a role in airway hyperresponsiveness in Balb/c mice that were susceptible to sensitization via inhalation. The differences in the method of sensitization suggest genetic differences between strains of mice.

  11. THE PAINT FORMULATION IN LAMBDACYHALOTHRIN USAGE AS P. americana COCKROACH CONTROL MEASURES

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    Lulus Susanti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKKecoa adalah salah satu jenis serangga yang dianggap kotor dan merupakan seranggavektor. Scbagian besar kecoa yang ditemukan di sekitar pemukiman adalah Periplanetaamericana, Periplaneta brunea, Periplaneta australisea, Blatella germanica, Supellalongipalpa, Neostylopiga rhombifoUa dan Nauphaeta cinerea. Beberapa kecoa juga dapatmenularkan virus, bakteria, worm, protozoit dan jamur.Pengcndalian kecoa secara fogging dengan menggunakan insektisida masih kurangefektif dan praktis, sehingga dibutuhkan alternatif pengcndali. Dalam rangka untuk mencarimetode alternatif pengcndalian kecoa, maka akan dilakukan percobaan menggunakan cat kayuyang ditambahkan dengan insektisida.Dalam penelitian ini, insektisida cat kayu menggunakan bahan aktif Lambdacyhalothrin10WP. Pertama-tama dibuat beberapa solusi dari cat insektisida dalam dosis banyak. Kemudiancat papan kayu lapis. Setelah kcring sekitar satu hari, kemudian melakukan pengujian bioassayterhadap kecoa {Periplaneta americana . Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kayuinsektisida cat dengan dosis minimal 1,591% efektif untuk membunuh kecoa hingga 95%.Kata kunci: kecoa, cat berinsektisida, lambdacyhalothrinABSTRATCCockroaches are still considered to be disgusting insects and vector. Mostlycockroaches that are found around the resident, such as Periplaneta americana, Periplanetabrunea,Periplaneta australisea, Blatella germanica, Supella longipalpa, NeostylopigarhombifoUa and Nauphaeta cinerea. There are can transmit virus, bakteria, worm, protozoit andfungi.The methods for cocroaches control by using the fogging with insecticide is still lesseffective and practical, so it will need a controlling alternative. In order to find the alternativemethods for control the cockroach, it will conduct an experiments using impregnated paint woodby insecticide.In this research, insecticide paint wood using an active materials Lambdacyhalothrin10WP. For the first, it make some solution from insecticide paint in

  12. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

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    Li, Guangye; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain.

  13. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

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    Guangye Li

    Full Text Available An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS, which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP based brain-computer interface (BCI was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain.

  14. Adaptation as a mechanism for gain control in cockroach ON and OFF olfactory receptor neurons.

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    Burgstaller, Maria; Tichy, Harald

    2012-02-01

    In many sensory systems adaptation acts as a gain control mechanism that optimizes sensory performance by trading increased sensitivity to low stimulus intensity for decreased sensitivity to high stimulus intensity. Adaptation of insect antennal olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) has been studied for strong odour concentrations, either pulsed or constant. Here, we report that during slowly oscillating changes in the concentration of the odour of lemon oil, the ON and OFF ORNs on the antenna of the cockroach Periplaneta americana adapt to the actual odour concentration and the rate at which concentration changes. When odour concentration oscillates rapidly with brief periods, adaptation improves gain for instantaneous odour concentration and reduces gain for the rate of concentration change. Conversely, when odour concentration oscillates slowly with long periods, adaptation increases gain for the rate of change at the expense of instantaneous concentration. Without this gain control the ON and OFF ORNs would, at brief oscillation periods, soon reach their saturation level and become insensitive to further concentration increments and decrements. At long oscillation periods, on the other hand, the cue would simply be that the discharge begins to change. Because of the high gain for the rate of change, the cockroach will receive creeping changes in odour concentration, even if they persist in one direction. Gain control permits a high degree of precision at small rates when it counts most, without sacrificing the range of detection and without extending the measuring scale.

  15. The Use of Genetic Mechanisms and Behavioral Characteristics to Control Natural Populations of the German Cockroach.

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    1981-03-01

    release of sterile males into natural populations of the German cockroach. Submitted to Entomologia exp. & Appl. Feb., 1981. A first draft was...populations of the German cockroach. Subm. Entomologia Exp. & Appl. Feb., 1981. aEight other publications of earlier research on this Contract have

  16. 舰船蟑螂化学防治策略研究%Cockroaches chemical control strategies in ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙锦程; 郝蕙玲; 运太来

    2011-01-01

    Objective To approach the chemical control strategies for cockroaches in ship. Methods The chemical control strategies frequently used at present were taken into consideration with respects to their merits and demerits, and the effects of various combination of chemical control methods on long-term cockroach control were judged through field experiments. Results Smoke fog and poison bait were ideal for control of cockroaches in ship. Furthermore, the cockroach densities decreased strikingly and their relapses were not observed under the combination of these two treatments, which maintained for 5 months at low densities with rational treatments. Conclusion Density monitoring is advised to be established to control cockroaches effectively in ship,and according to various hazard scales, the corresponding chemical control strategies, in addition to rational administration, are adopted for effectively persistent control of cockroaches in ship in advance.%目的 探讨舰船蟑螂化学防治策略.方法 分析舰船上常用化学防治手段的优劣,通过试验研究,评判几种化学防治方法的不同组合对于舰船蟑螂的长期控制效果.结果 烟雾法和毒饵较为适合舰船蟑螂的控制,它们的组合可显著控制蟑螂密度及其反弹速度,处置措施合理,可维持5个月的低密度水平.结论 舰船蟑螂危害的有效控制必须建立定期的密度监测机制,根据不同危害等级采取相应的化学防治手段,科学合理用药,以实现舰船蟑螂防控的预见性、有效性和可持续性.

  17. The Use of Double Translocations to Control Populations of the German Cockroach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-19

    indicates a catchability of 91.13%. A third sample would be predicted to yield approximately one cockroach if this catchability is relatively constant...nymphs. The second catch was comprised of 37 individuals. This is indicative of a catchability of 88.18%. An estimated third sample would be five residual...assumption that catchability will remain constant between captures. As we can • distinguish cockroaches entering the population between captures by

  18. 浅谈部队的蟑螂防治工作%A discussion about cockroach control in military camps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩招久; 姜志宽; 钱万红; 陈超

    2012-01-01

    In military camps,there are many special sites unique to common public places,where cockroaches may breed and hide actually or potentially . In this article,the situation and strategies of cockroach control in military camps are discussed.%部队营区场所复杂多样,存在很多蟑螂可能孳生与栖息不同于普通公共场所的特殊场所,给蟑螂防治工作提出了更高要求.笔者针对性地对部队蟑螂防治工作的形势与策略进行了讨论.

  19. Effects of integrated cockroach control in supermarkets%超市蜚蠊综合防治效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚宏亮; 张育富; 刘大鹏; 杨维芳; 刘慧; 陈志龙; 孙俊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of integrated cockroach control in supermarket. Methods Three supermarkets, two as experimental sites and one as control, were selected for test. Integrated control measures, which comprised environmental improvement assisted by chemical control, were taken in the experimental sites. The control effects were evaluated with relative density decrease rate as the indicator. Results All the cockroaches captured in the supermarkets were Blattella germanica. Cockroaches were mainly distributed in the fresh food section, cooked food section, storehouse, bakery, food section, vegetable and fruit section, etc., while the cockroach density in the grocery section was relatively low. The cockroach densities in the two experimental sites decreased by 89.96% and 81.38% three days after integrated control measures, by 93.89% and 90.21% three weeks after the measures, and by 95.05% and 89.27% two months after the measures. Conclusion Cockroaches invade the supermarkets seriously, with B. Germanica as the dominant species. Integrated control measures can be used to quickly and effectively decrease the cockroach density in supermarket, and the control effects were durable.%目的 评价综合防治措施对超市蜚蠊的防治效果.方法 选择3家超市,其中2家作为试验场所,1家作为对照.试验场所采取环境治理为主,化学防治为辅的综合防治措施;以相对密度下降率为指标评价防治效果.结果 超市蜚蠊种类均为德国小蠊;主要侵害生鲜区、熟食区、库房、面包房、食品区和蔬果区等,百货区密度较低;采取综合防治措施3d后蜚蠊密度明显下降,超市A及超市B密度下降率分别为89.96%和81.38%;3周后密度下降率分别为93.89%和90.21%;2个月后密度下降率分别为95.05%和89.27%.结论 超市蜚蠊侵害严重,优势种为德国小蠊;综合防治措施可快速有效地降低蜚蠊密度,并且具有较长的持效期.

  20. Intersegmental coordination of cockroach locomotion: adaptive control of centrally coupled pattern generator circuits

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    Einat eFuchs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals’ ability to demonstrate both stereotyped and adaptive locomotor behavior is largely dependent on the interplay between centrally-generated motor patterns and the sensory inputs that shape them. We utilized a combined experimental and theoretical approach to investigate the relative importance of CPG interconnections vs. intersegmental afferents in the cockroach: an animal that is renowned for rapid and stable locomotion. We simultaneously recorded coxal levator and depressor motor neurons (MN in the thoracic ganglia of Periplaneta americana, while sensory feedback was completely blocked or allowed only from one intact stepping leg. In the absence of sensory feedback, we observed a coordination pattern with consistent phase relationship that shares similarities with a double tripod gait, suggesting central, feedforward control. This intersegmental coordination pattern was then reinforced in the presence of sensory feedback from a single stepping leg. Specifically, we report on transient stabilization of phase differences between activity recorded in the middle and hind thoracic MN following individual front-leg steps, suggesting a role for afferent phasic information in the coordination of motor circuits at the different hemiganglia. Data were further analyzed using stochastic models of coupled oscillators and maximum likelihood techniques to estimate underlying physiological parameters, such as uncoupled endogenous frequencies of hemisegmental oscillators and coupling strengths and directions. We found that descending ipsilateral coupling is stronger than ascending coupling, while left-right coupling in both the meso- and meta-thoracic ganglia appear to be symmetrical. We discuss our results in comparison with recent findings in stick insects that share similar neural and body architectures, and argue that the two species may exemplify opposite extremes of a fast-slow locomotion continuum, mediated through different intersegmental

  1. Efficacy of synthetic pyrethroid and propoxur aerosol in the control of German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blatellidae in cookhouses

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    V.K. Agrawal, Rina Tilak , K.K. Dutta Gupta

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: A field trial was carried out in cookhouses in an urban area to evaluate theefficacy of synthetic pyrethroid (0.02% deltamethrin + 0.13% allethrin and propoxur aerosols (2% inthe control of German cockroaches (Blatella germanica.Methods: A total of six cookhouses were selected by simple random sampling method (two each forthe two insecticide treatments and two for control.Results: It was observed that 89.36–87.8 and 77.95–59.74% reductions were achieved with propoxurand synthetic pyrethroid treatment respectively by first week post-treatment. The reduction in propoxurtreated areas by eight weeks post-treatment was 82.98–76.13%, whereas the reduction in thesame time period in synthetic pyrethroid treated areas ranged from 14.36% to an increase in density bya phenomenal 157.86% in one of the treated sites.Interpretation & conclusion: The study reports the efficacy of propoxur aerosol (2% treatment oversynthetic pyrethroid (0.02% deltamethrin + 0.13% allethrin in the control of cockroach infestation incookhouses in urban area.

  2. 某住宅楼蟑螂防治效果观察%Observation on the control efficiency against cockroaches in a residential building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹广庆; 王治; 李平; 文瑜; 周光智

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate cockroach damage and control efficiency of a residential building. Methods Kill cockroach through the methods of remained spray and gel bait, and evaluate the efficacy by damage rate and density descent rate of cockroach. Results The damage rate of cockroach was 87. 50% and 12.50% before and after controlling for 3 days, respectively. The density descent rate was 86.67% ~ 100. 00% , and there was no statistically significant difference before and after control (P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusions The blattella gremanica damage was serious in the residential building, and the methods of remained spray and gel bait had high efficiency against cockroach.%目的 观察某部住宅楼蟑螂侵害情况和防治效果.方法 采用滞留喷洒和胶饵杀灭蟑螂,用蟑螂侵害率和密度下降率评价灭蟑效果.结果 蟑螂侵害率防治前为87.50%,防治后3d为12.50%(3/24),密度下降率为86.67%~100.00%,防治前后差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 该住宅楼德国小蠊侵害严重,滞留喷洒结合灭蟑胶饵杀灭蟑螂效果显著.

  3. Cockroach control methods for departure trains in Wuhan%武汉始发列车蟑螂防治方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹建国; 殷璐; 李春生; 戴兆明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To control cockroaches density on trains effectively. Methods Cockroach species and density were investigated by irritating cockroaches with pyrethrum spray. Fumigation, residual spray, gel bait,poison bait and ULV spray were used to control the cockroaches, then their control effects were studied. Results The component ratio of German cockroach on departure trains in Wuhan was 91.60% - 94.46%. Cockroach infestation rate of high grade to low grade trains increased from 6.85% to 37.69%. The one week killing rates of fumigation or residual spray treated merely were 82. 35% - 100%, but the cockroach densities restored rapidly in 2 months.While treated regularly with residual spray, gel bait and poison bait, the one week killing rates were 91.94% -100% ,and low densities of cockroach were keeped in 2 months. 48 h killing rates of emergent treat with ULV spray and fumigation were 95.83% and 87.69% respectively,it cost RMB 28 and 40 per carriage. Conclusion Cockroaches density on trains can be controlled in low level when treating regularly with residual spray, gel bait and poison bait. High density of cockroaches on trains can be cotrolled with emergent treat with ULV spray, it has advantage over fumigation both in irritation and safety.%目的 科学有效地控制列车蟑螂密度.方法 采用药激法调查列车蟑螂的种类和密度;采用烟熏、滞留喷洒、毒饵、胶饵和超低容量喷雾等方法,进行蜂螂防治效果的研究.结果 德国小蠊在武汉列车蟑螂种群构成比为91.60%~94.46% ;高等级列车至低等级列车的蟑螂侵害率依次上升为6.85%~37.69%;单纯滞留喷洒和烟熏灭蟑1周后的杀灭效果为82.35%~100%,但是2个月左右蟑螂密度迅速回升;定期采用滞留喷洒加灭蟑胶饵和毒饵法灭蟑1周后的杀灭效果为91.94%~100%,2个月后蟑螂密度持续维持较低水平;用超低容量喷雾法和烟熏法应急处理车厢的48 h杀灭率分别为95

  4. 医院蟑螂侵害调查与防治研究%Investigation and control of cockroaches in hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩雪玲; 刘增加; 史锋庆; 付清海; 张文香; 温煜; 胡淑芳; 雷光文

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the degree of cockroaches invasion in hospital, and formulate the control measures. Methods Investigating cockroaches invasion situation by eye and using insecticide trap method, using glue trap to determine the density of cockroaches. Results The invasion rate of cockroaches adult and nymph was 10.27% which was three times more than the national standard. 73% departments exceeded the provided standard, neurosurgery and general surgery department reached nearly 7 times. The positive density index was 12. 02 pieces per room. The egg positive rate was 2. 74% which exceeded the national standards. Two kinds of cockroaches were investigated, they were Blattella geunanica (55. 3% ) and Periplaneta japonica(4A. 7% ). Conclusion The invasion situation of cockroaches is serious in hospitals. It is necessary to control cockroaches and eliminate breeding ground combined with environmental features.%目的 探讨医院蟑螂侵害度,制定防治措施.方法 采用目测法、药驱法调查蟑螂侵害情况,粘捕法测定密度.结果 蟑螂成、若虫侵害率10.27%,超过国家标准3倍,超标的科室占73%,其中神经外科和普通外科超标近7倍.阳性密度指数为12.02只/间,卵荚阳性率为2.74%,均超过国家标准.查见蟑螂种群2种,德国小蠊占55.3%,日本大蠊占44.7%.结论 医院内蟑螂危害严重,应结合医院环境及功能特点采取防治措施,消灭蟑螂孳生地.

  5. Investigation on supermarket infestation of cockroaches and the control measures%大型超市蜚蠊侵害调查与防治措施探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张育富; 褚宏亮; 杨维芳; 刘大鹏; 陈志龙; 刘慧; 孙俊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the infestation and population distribution of cockroaches in supermarkets in Nanjing city, providing scientific basis for the control of cockroaches in supermarkets. Methods Four large supermarkets located in different positions in Nanjing city were selected and sticky trap method was applied to determine the encroachment rate and the density of cockroaches. The cockroach species were identified with the number counted and the encroachment rate and the density of cockroaches calculated. Results A total of 8894 cockroaches, all of which were Blattella germanica, were captured. It was found that the infestation of cockroaches in the supermarkets was serious with the encroachment rate amounting to 72.64% and the density being 16.78 per piece. Cockroaches were mainly distributed in storehouse, fresh section, deli section, produce section, food section and bakery of the supermarkets, where there were food and water. But relatively light infestation was seen in the department sections. Conclusion B. germanica has become the dominant species in the supermarkets, where infestation of cockroaches is serious, especially in the areas that are rich in food and water. Comprehensive control measures should be taken to effectively reduce the encroachment rate and the density of cockroaches.%目的 了解南京市大型超市蜚蠊侵害及种群分布等情况,探讨其防治措施,为超市蜚蠊防治提供科学依据.方法 选择南京市不同方位4家大型超市,采用粘捕法调查侵害率和密度,现场鉴定蜚蠊种类并计数,了解超市不同区域的蜚蠊分布情况,并分析其原因.结果 共捕获蜚蠊8894只,均为德国小蠊;超市蜚蠊侵害严重,侵害率达72.64%,密度为16.78只/张,主要分布在食源和水源丰富的库房、生鲜区、熟食区、蔬果区、食品区和面包房,百货区蜚蠊侵害程度相对较轻.结论 德国小蠊已成为超市侵害的优势种,以食源和水源丰富的区域

  6. EEK--A Cockroach!

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Julien, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    Students from thirteen fifth-grade classrooms from six different elementary schools investigate the preferred escape routes of cockroaches. These identified routes of 90-, 120-, 150-, and 180-degrees are the research findings of Paolo Dominici, an Italian scientist. The students used rubber cockroaches and lizards to map out these escape routes.…

  7. The Distribution and Movement of American Cockroaches in Urban Niches of New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, John C; Rabito, Felicia A; Werthmann, Derek; Fox, Mark

    2017-10-01

    American cockroaches are an important source of household allergens in tropical and semitropical climates. To determine which outdoor niches produce American cockroaches, traps were placed at 40 homes in New Orleans to collect nymphs. Nymphs were collected from the sewers, yards, and within the homes themselves. To compare sewers and yards as sources of cockroaches entering homes, adult cockroaches were collected, marked, and released into yards and sewers. No sewer-released cockroaches were collected in homes. Cockroaches released into yards were collected in the homes, suggesting that yards, rather than sewers, are a more important source niche. A field trial applying boric acid granules to the yard was performed in an effort to reduce entry of cockroaches. There was a significant reduction in the cockroach antigen collected in intervention homes compared with controls.

  8. Pheromones of cockroaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoons, C.J.; Ritter, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    The article presents a review of the bíological significance and the chemistry of several pheromones of cockroaches. The data given are in part based on our own work, and in part taken from the literature.

  9. Pheromones of cockroaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoons, C.J.; Ritter, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    The article presents a review of the bíological significance and the chemistry of several pheromones of cockroaches. The data given are in part based on our own work, and in part taken from the literature.

  10. General development situation of cockroach chemical control%蟑螂化学防治的发展概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海婴; 柳小青; 马红梅; 郑卫青

    2010-01-01

    @@ 蟑螂(cockroaches)学名蜚蠊,属于昆虫纲(Insecta)蜚蠊目(Blattaria),俗称茶婆子、偷油婆、香娘子、灶蚂子等.在昆虫中,蟑螂是最古老的种类之一,远在3.5亿年前,就已经在地球上生活了.

  11. Phylogeny of Dictyoptera: Dating the Origin of Cockroaches, Praying Mantises and Termites with Molecular Data and Controlled Fossil Evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Legendre

    Full Text Available Understanding the origin and diversification of organisms requires a good phylogenetic estimate of their age and diversification rates. This estimate can be difficult to obtain when samples are limited and fossil records are disputed, as in Dictyoptera. To choose among competing hypotheses of origin for dictyopteran suborders, we root a phylogenetic analysis (~800 taxa, 10 kbp within a large selection of outgroups and calibrate datings with fossils attributed to lineages with clear synapomorphies. We find the following topology: (mantises, (other cockroaches, (Cryptocercidae, termites. Our datings suggest that crown-Dictyoptera-and stem-mantises-would date back to the Late Carboniferous (~ 300 Mya, a result compatible with the oldest putative fossil of stem-dictyoptera. Crown-mantises, however, would be much more recent (~ 200 Mya; Triassic/Jurassic boundary. This pattern (i.e., old origin and more recent diversification suggests a scenario of replacement in carnivory among polyneopterous insects. The most recent common ancestor of (cockroaches + termites would date back to the Permian (~275 Mya, which contradicts the hypothesis of a Devonian origin of cockroaches. Stem-termites would date back to the Triassic/Jurassic boundary, which refutes a Triassic origin. We suggest directions in extant and extinct species sampling to sharpen this chronological framework and dictyopteran evolutionary studies.

  12. Phylogeny of Dictyoptera: Dating the Origin of Cockroaches, Praying Mantises and Termites with Molecular Data and Controlled Fossil Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Frédéric; Nel, André; Svenson, Gavin J; Robillard, Tony; Pellens, Roseli; Grandcolas, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the origin and diversification of organisms requires a good phylogenetic estimate of their age and diversification rates. This estimate can be difficult to obtain when samples are limited and fossil records are disputed, as in Dictyoptera. To choose among competing hypotheses of origin for dictyopteran suborders, we root a phylogenetic analysis (~800 taxa, 10 kbp) within a large selection of outgroups and calibrate datings with fossils attributed to lineages with clear synapomorphies. We find the following topology: (mantises, (other cockroaches, (Cryptocercidae, termites)). Our datings suggest that crown-Dictyoptera-and stem-mantises-would date back to the Late Carboniferous (~ 300 Mya), a result compatible with the oldest putative fossil of stem-dictyoptera. Crown-mantises, however, would be much more recent (~ 200 Mya; Triassic/Jurassic boundary). This pattern (i.e., old origin and more recent diversification) suggests a scenario of replacement in carnivory among polyneopterous insects. The most recent common ancestor of (cockroaches + termites) would date back to the Permian (~275 Mya), which contradicts the hypothesis of a Devonian origin of cockroaches. Stem-termites would date back to the Triassic/Jurassic boundary, which refutes a Triassic origin. We suggest directions in extant and extinct species sampling to sharpen this chronological framework and dictyopteran evolutionary studies.

  13. 远洋船蟑螂密度调查及其杀灭效果观察%The density monitor and efficacy of controlling cockroaches on ocean-going ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王育兵; 严峥; 夏本立; 尹莉; 王武芳; 郭鹏; 石静; 巩立; 许晓华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To monitor the density, discriminate the species and observe efficacy of controlling cockroaches using a set of insecticides on two ocean-going ships. Methods Observing the density by the method of adhibiting ,then making a discriminationg for its pecies. Using a set of insecticides which were composed of granular bait and gel bait to decrease the density of cockroaches. Results The density of cockroaches were 1.06 and 2.39 pieces per piece per night respectively, all the cockroaches adhibited were Blattella germanica. After using insecticides for seven days,the average density of cockroaches declined by 87.03%. The density declined by 94.14% after three months. Conclusion The methed of using a set of insecticides could get an ideal effect against cockroaches,which is worth popularizing on ships.%目的 了解远洋船上嶂螂种群、密度,观察套餐法在远洋船上杀灭嶂螂的效果.方法 用粘捕法进行蟑螂密度调查,对粘捕到的嶂螂进行种类鉴定,采用套餐法对远洋船上蟑螂进行现场杀灭试验.结果 甲、乙两船饮食场所的蟑螂密度分别为1.06和2.39只/(张·夜);嶂螂的优势种群为德国小蠊;投药后1周嶂螂密度下降率为87.03%,3个月后嶂螂密度下降率达94.14%.结论 远洋船上采用套餐法灭蟑值得推广.

  14. Surveillance and control of cockroach populations from 2010 to 2012 in Changzhou, Jiangsu, China%常州市2010-2012年蜚蠊密度监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹淦; 张建陶; 王鹂

    2015-01-01

    目的:掌握常州市蜚蠊种群、分布、密度及季节消长等动态变化,为常州市蜚蠊防治提供科学依据。方法采用粘捕法调查,捕获蜚蠊进行种群鉴定及分类计数。结果全市共有3种蜚蠊分布,分类鉴定为2科2属3种,德国小蠊为优势种,占捕获总数的92.16%。6-10月为蜚蠊活动高峰期,各行业中农贸市场密度及侵害率最严重,其他较严重行业有餐饮店、宾馆等。结论常州市农贸市场、餐饮店、宾馆等重点行业蜚蠊侵害严重,应采取有针对性的措施进行综合防制。%Objective To determine the species and density of cockroaches and their seasonality in the urban areas so as to provide evidence for scientific control of cockroaches in Changzhou. Methods The density of cockroaches was monitored by sticky⁃trap method and were then identified and counted. Results There were 3 species of cockroaches distributing and testing for 3 species under 2 genera, 2 families, and Blattella germanica was the predominant species, accounting for 92.16%. The active peak of cockroaches was between June and October. Infestation situation of cockroaches in farm produce trade market was the most serious, the others were restaurants, hotels, and so on. Conclusion The infestation of cockroaches was serious in farm produce trade market, restaurants, and hotels. The effective measures should be taken to prevent and control the cockroaches targeted.

  15. 集贸市场蜚蠊侵害和抗药性调查及综合防制研究%Infestation and pesticide resistance of cockroaches in market and relevant comprehensive control measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓丽娟; 刘迪; 刘小泉; 刘俊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the infestation and population distribution of cockroaches in the market and the pesticide resistance of Blattella germanica to provide a basis for comprehensive control measures. Methods The infestation of cockroaches was investigated by visual inspection; the density of cockroaches was measured by cockroach glue board; the pesticide resistance of B. Germanica was determined by residual film method. The pesticides to which the cockroaches were sensitive were used for comprehensive control. Results The infestation rate of cockroaches in the market was 86.67%, and the density was 4.19 cockroaches/board/night. The levels of resistance (folds) of 6. Germanica to beta-cypermethrin, deltamethrin, propoxur, chlorpyrifos, dimethyl dichloroviny phosphate (DDVP), cypermethrin, permethrin, tetramethrin, and azamethiphos were 2.65, 3.82, 1.77, 3.51, 11.19, 5.21, 6.51, 12.00, and 2.11, respectively. The pesticides to which the cockroaches were sensitive and developed low resistance achieved a killing rate of 96.19%. Conclusion There is a high infestation rate of cockroaches in the market of Wuhan city, China. B. Germanica is the dominant species of the cockroaches and has developed high resistance to DDVP and tetramethrin. Comprehensive control measures, including environmental treatment and pesticide use, should be taken to control the density of cockroaches below a harmless level.%目的 了解集贸市场蜚蠊侵害情况、种群分布及德国小蠊的抗药性,为制定防制对策提供依据.方法 采用目测法调查蜚蠊侵害情况,用粘蟑板测定其密度,用药膜接触法测定抗药性,采用敏感和低抗的药物进行综合防制.结果 集贸市场蜚蠊侵害率为86.67%,密度为4.19只/(张·夜);德国小蠊对高效氯氰菊酯、溴氰菊酯、残杀威、毒死蜱、敌敌畏、氯氰菊酯、氯菊酯、胺菊酯、甲基吡(嗯)磷9种杀虫剂的抗药性分别为2.65、3.82、1.77、3.51、11.19、5.21、6.51

  16. Molecular Characteristics of Cockroach Allergens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chii-Huei Wu; Mey-Fann Lee

    2005-01-01

    Cockroaches, commonly found in urban dwellings worldwide, have long been considered vectors of various infectious diseases and cockroach allergens are one of the major etiologic risk factors for IgE-mediated allergic respiratory illness throughout the world. A high prevalence of cockroach hypersensitivity in atopic (20-55 %) and asthmatic (49-60%) populations has been documented. Cockroach allergens with molecular weights ranging from 6 to 120 kD have been identified by various standard immunochemical techniques. This article covers the characteristics of major cockroach allergens that have been purified, sequenced, cloned, and produced as recombinant proteins.

  17. Contamination of cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria) to medically fungi: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirian, H

    2017-05-11

    Fungal infections have emerged worldwide. Cockroaches have been proved vectors of medically fungi. A systematic meta-analysis review about cockroach fungal contamination was investigated. Relevant topics were collected between January 2016 and January 2017. After a preliminary review among 392 collected papers, 156 were selected to become part of the detailed systematic meta-analysis review. Cockroaches contaminated to 38 fungi species belonging to 19 families and 12 orders. About 38, 25 and 13 fungal species were recovered from the American, German and brown-banded cockroaches, respectively with a variety of medical importance. Except the fungi isolated from German and brown-banded cockroaches, 15 species have been isolated only from the American cockroaches. The global world mean and trend of cockroach fungal contamination were 84.1 and 50.6-100%, respectively in the human dwelling environments. There is a significant difference between cockroach fungal contamination in the urban and rural environments (P0.05). The external and internal cockroach fungal contamination is more dangerous than entire surfaces, while the internal is more dangerous than the external surface. The German and brown-banded cockroach fungal contamination are more dangerous than the American cockroaches in the hospital environments. The study indicates that globally cockroach fungal contamination has been increased recognizing as agents of human infections and associating with high morbidity and mortality in immune-compromised patients. These facts, along with insecticide resistance emergence and increasing globally cockroach infestation, reveal importance of cockroaches and need for their control more than ever. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The complete mitochondrial genomes of four cockroaches (Insecta: Blattodea) and phylogenetic analyses within cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xue-Fang; Zhang, Le-Ping; Yu, Dan-Na; Storey, Kenneth B; Zhang, Jia-Yong

    2016-07-15

    Three complete mitochondrial genomes of Blaberidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Gromphadorhina portentosa, Panchlora nivea, Blaptica dubia) and one complete mt genome of Blattidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Shelfordella lateralis) were sequenced to further understand the characteristics of cockroach mitogenomes and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationship of Blattodea. The gene order and orientation of these four cockroach genomes were similar to known cockroach mt genomes, and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region. The mt genomes of Blattodea exhibited a characteristics of a high A+T composition (70.7%-74.3%) and dominant usage of the TAA stop codon. The AT content of the whole mt genome, PCGs and total tRNAs in G. portentosa was the lowest in known cockroaches. The presence of a 71-bp intergenic spacer region between trnQ and trnM was a unique feature in B. dubia, but absent in other cockroaches, which can be explained by the duplication/random loss model. Based on the nucleotide and amino acid datasets of the 13 PCGs genes, neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and bayesian inference (BI) analyses were used to rebuild the phylogenetic relationship of cockroaches. All phylogenetic analyses consistently placed Isoptera as the sister cluster to Cryptocercidae of Blattodea. Ectobiidae and Blaberidae (Blaberoidea) formed a sister clade to Blattidae. Corydiidae is a sister clade of all the remaining cockroach species with a high value in NJ and MP analyses of nucleotide and amino acid datasets, and ML and BI analyses of the amino acid dataset.

  19. Adaptive cockroach swarm algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obagbuwa, Ibidun C.; Abidoye, Ademola P.

    2017-07-01

    An adaptive cockroach swarm optimization (ACSO) algorithm is proposed in this paper to strengthen the existing cockroach swarm optimization (CSO) algorithm. The ruthless component of CSO algorithm is modified by the employment of blend crossover predator-prey evolution method which helps algorithm prevent any possible population collapse, maintain population diversity and create adaptive search in each iteration. The performance of the proposed algorithm on 16 global optimization benchmark function problems was evaluated and compared with the existing CSO, cuckoo search, differential evolution, particle swarm optimization and artificial bee colony algorithms.

  20. Cockroaches in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron; Moseley, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The Madagascar hissing cockroach (MHC) provides an excellent avenue to introduce students to the joys of inquiry-centered learning. MHC's are relatively tame, produce little odor, do not bite, and are easy to handle and breed. Because of these characteristics, they are ideal for classroom activities, science projects, and as pets. They also help…

  1. Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) as carriers of microorganisms of medical importance in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotedar, R.; Shriniwas, U. B.; Verma, A.

    1991-01-01

    A study was conducted to isolate and identify microorganisms of medical importance from cockroaches (Blattella germanica) and to ascertain their vector potential in the epidemiology of nosocomial infections. Bacteria, fungi and parasites of medical importance were isolated and identified. Important bacterial pathogens responsible for wound infections, were further studies by antibiograms. One hundred and fifty-eight out of 159 (99.4%) cockroaches collected from hospital (test) and 113 out of 120 (94.2%) cockroaches collected from residential areas (control) were carrying medically important microorganisms (P less than 0.05). significantly higher (P less than 0.001) number of test cockroaches were carrying a higher bacterial load (1 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(5] as compared to control cockroaches. Multiple drug-resistant bacterial were isolated from test cockroaches. The diversity of drug-resistant bacterial species isolated from test cockroaches suggests their involvement in the transmission of drug-resistant bacteria. Various fungi and parasitic cysts of medical importance were also isolated from the test and control cockroaches, but the carriage rates were low. The findings suggest that cockroaches, in hospitals, can act as potential vectors of medically important bacteria/parasites/fungi. PMID:1879483

  2. Study on the Cockroach Control Strategy at Top-Grade Railway Pass enger Station%铁路特等客运站蜚蠊防制对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱仁义; 王秀花; 张雨淼; 张锦海; 胡美娟; 陈文生; 周宏

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the cockroach control strategy at top-grade rail way passenger station by observing the species, habitats of the cockroach and st udying the effects of varied cockroach-killing methods at different sites. Methods: The integrated procedures included principal environme ntal improvement toget her with intensifying survey, appropriate cockroach-killing ways in different si tes and focusing on the key places. Result: The cockroach density reduced by 77.99%~90.26% and 77.48%-98.24% at different surroundings, respe ctively in 1998 and 1999 in comparison with that of 1997's, before applying the integrated procedures, and the ovum density dropped to 0-0.03 and 0 respect ively. The cockroach de nsity of some sites cut down on 66.67%-88.89%, 74.11%-88.00%, 70.00%-79.07%  and 70.59%-75.71%, respectively at 3, 7, 15 an d 30 days after spraying pesticide as c omparing with that of when cockroach-proof steps hasn't been taken. The pivots c ockroach density was 1.16-1.30 and 0.38-1.18 times the average while strengthening the cockroach killing of pivots in comparison with 2.38 -2.93 times of the contrast. At the same time the amount of insecticide dec reased and the fund was saved. Conclusion: Promising effic iency on cockroach con trol was gained at top-grade railway passenger station, some social and economic benefits were obtained.%目的:通过对蜚 蠊种群、栖息生境和不同场所不同灭蟑方法灭效的调查研究,探讨 铁路特等客运站的蜚蠊防制对策。方法:采用以环境防制为主,加 强监测、分类实施、重点 防制等综合防制措施。结果:措施实施后2年各场所与实施前相比, 蜚蠊成、若虫密度分别 降低77.99%~90.26%和77.48%~98.24%,卵鞘密度分别降低85.00%~ 100%和100%;不同场所一次用药后3、7、15、30d蜚蠊成、若虫密度分别降低66.67%~ 88.89%、74.11%~88.00%、70.00%~79.07%和70.59%~75.71 %;重点部位蜚蠊成、若虫密

  3. Observation the preventive and control effect of optigard adhesive bait on kill cockroaches%欧扑得灭蟑胶饵防治蜚蠊效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏俊锋; 孟刚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate cockroach invasion in dining - room of an guesthouse, and observe the preventive and control effect of Optigard cockroach bait. Method Adhesive catch method was used for density investigation,and Optigard cockroacb bait for chemical control. Results The density index was 11. 14 pieces per box per night before control, and BlatteUa germanica was the dominant species, which accounted for 99. 46%. One month after using the bait.the density was 0.1 per box per night with the mortality rate of 99. 10% . Conclusions The Optigard cockroach bait has good efficacy against Blattella germanica in the guesthouse dining - room with invaded badly, it can control the Cockroaches effectively.%目的 调查某宾馆餐饮部蟑螂侵害情况和采用欧扑得灭蟑胶饵防治的效果.方法 密度调查采用粘捕法,化学防治采用欧扑得灭蟑胶饵.结果 防治前密度指数为11.14只/盒·夜,德国小蠊为绝对优势种,占总捕获数的99.46%.施药后1个月密度指数为0.1只/盒·夜,杀灭率为99.10%.结论 该宾馆餐饮部德国小蠊侵害严重,欧扑得灭蟑胶饵能有效控制其密度.

  4. Genotyping of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from cockroaches and human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Keiko; Furuhata, Katsunori; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2010-10-01

    Molecular-epidemiological analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from cockroaches captured in hospitals and from patient urine was performed, employing randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis to investigate the usefulness of RAPD analysis. Four specific bands at positions of 993, 875, 521, and 402 bp were commonly detected using primer 272 in 16 of 45 cockroach-derived strains (35.6%), but not in 21 urine-derived strains. On analysis using primer 208, 4 specific bands at positions of 1,235, 1,138, 1,068, and 303 bp were commonly detected in 15 of the 45 cockroach-derived (33.3%) and 10 of the 21 patient urine-derived (47.6%) strains, in a total of 25 of 66 strains (37.8%). On cluster analysis, 12 (48.5%) and 16 (66.7%) clusters were grouped based on a homology of 89% or greater, using primer 272 and primer 208, respectively, showing that primer 208 was suitable for the confirmation of diversity. Seven patterns were clustered based on 100% homology using either primer, and 6 of these consisted of only cockroach-derived strains. In the individual groups with 100% homology, all strains in the group were isolated at an identical site during the same period. P. aeruginosa isolated from cockroaches showed diverse genotypes suggesting several sources of contamination, indicating the necessity for investigating infection control targeting cockroaches inhabiting hospitals.

  5. Cockroaches as carriers of human intestinal parasites in two localities in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinfu, Addisu; Erko, Berhanu

    2008-11-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the role of cockroaches as potential carriers of human intestinal parasites in Addis Ababa and Ziway, Ethiopia. A total of 6480 cockroaches were trapped from the two localities from October 2006 to March 2007. All the cockroaches trapped in Addis Ababa (n=2240) and almost 50% (2100/4240) of those trapped in Ziway were identified as Blattella germanica. The rest of the cockroaches trapped in Ziway were identified as Periplaneta brunnea (24.52%), Pycnoscelus surinamensis (16.03%) and Supella longipalpa (9.90%). Microscopic examination of the external body washes of pooled cockroaches and individual gut contents revealed that cockroaches are carriers of Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar cysts as well as Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp. and Ascaris lumbricoides ova. Besides their role as a nuisance, the present study further confirms that cockroaches serve as carriers of human intestinal parasites. The possible association of cockroaches with allergic conditions such as asthma is also discussed. Hence, appropriate control measures should be taken particularly to make hotels and residential areas free of cockroaches as they represent a health risk.

  6. 曲阜市蜚蠊种群密度调查及综合防制方法的研究%Survey of population density of cockroach and its integrated control strategies in Qufu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥力; 宋华; 孔凡吉

    2009-01-01

    Objective To understand the distribution and density of cockroach in Qufu, and provide the scientific evidence for its control. Methods Sticky traps method and insecticide stimulating method were used in this study. Results There were 388 rooms investigated, and a total of 497 cockroaches were caught, which were all Blattella germanica. It included 312 adult cockroach (62.78%) and 185 nymphae (37.22%), respectively. The average infestation rate reached 17.27%. The average density index was 0.62 pieces/box · night. Conclusion It should strengthen the management for key trade and take integrated measure to control the expansion of cockroaches in Qufu.%目的 掌握曲阜市蜚蠊种群分布和密度情况,为制定防制对策提供科学依据.方法 采用粘捕法、药激法进行调查.结果 本次共调查房间388间,捕获蜚蠊497只,均为德国小蠊.其中成虫312只,占62.78%,若虫185只,占37.22%,药激法蜚蠊平均侵害率为17.27%,粘捕法平均密度指数为0.62只/(盒·夜).结论 曲阜市蜚蠊在不同行业和场所的分布及侵害情况有所不同,必须加强对重点行业的管理,采取综合性防制措施,控制蜚蠊在全市扩散和蔓延.

  7. Screening effective insecticides for controlling mosquito, fly and cockroach%对蚊蝇和蟑螂有效防治药剂的筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄静; 靳增军; 王志强; 王建蕊; 王向文; 李现亮

    2012-01-01

    Objective The effect of four kinds of insecticides against Culex pipiens pallens,Musca domestica and Blattella germanica were determined, in order to provide scientific data for vector control. Methods Under laboratory conditions, using soaking, topical application and residual smearing methods. Results The LC50 of delta-methrin to mosquito was 0. 009 1 mg/L, and the toxicity was the highest. The toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin was the second and its LC50 to mosquito was 0. 012 6 mg/L. The toxicity of tetramethrin was the lowest. The LD50 of lambda-cyhalothrin was 0.008 3 礸/ ? to fly. Propoxur was the lowest toxicity. For cockroach, the KT50 of lambda-cyhalothrin, delta-methrin and fenobucarb were 10. 24,10. 85 and 12. 96 min respectively. Conclusion For fly and cockroach, the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin was the highest. The toxicity of delta-methrin to mosquito was the strongest. The control effect of beta-cyfluthrin was the best of them.%目的 掌握多种药剂对淡色库蚊、家蝇和德国小蠊的杀灭效果,为有效控制媒介生物提供依据.方法 在室内条件下分别采用幼虫浸渍法、微量点滴法、三角烧瓶药膜法.结果 溴氰菊酯对淡色库蚊幼虫敏感性最高,毒力最大,LC50为0.009 1 mg/L;高效氯氟氰菊酯次之,LC50为0.0126 mg/L;胺菊酯毒力较弱.家蝇对高效氯氟氰菊酯敏感性同样最高,LD50为0.008 3μg/♀,残杀威毒力最弱.高效氯氟氰菊酯、溴氰菊酯和仲丁威对德国小蠊的KT50分别为10.24、10.85和12.96 min,毒力较强.结论 家蝇、德国小蠊对高效氯氟氰菊酯的敏感性最高,淡色库蚊幼虫对溴氰菊酯的敏感性最高,但高效氯氰菊酯的杀灭效果强于其他.

  8. Mechanical transmission of pathogenic organisms: the role of cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatfeng, Y M; Usuanlele, M U; Orukpe, A; Digban, A K; Okodua, M; Oviasogie, F; Turay, A A

    2005-12-01

    Cockroaches (Diploptera punctata) are basically tropical insects and will do their best to find a home that is both warm and moist. Their involvement in the transmission of tropical diseases is poorly investigated in Africa. A study on the bacterial, fungal and parasitic profile of cockroaches trapped in and around houses in Ekpoma was carried out using standard microbiological techniques. Of a total of 234 cockroaches trapped from different sites (toilets, parlours, kitchens and bedrooms) in houses with pit latrines and water system, the bacterial, fungal and parasitic isolates were identical irrespective of the site, these included: E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Salmonella sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serretia marcescens, S. aureus, S. feacalis, S. epidermidis, Aeromonas sp, Candida sp, Rhizopus sp, Aspergillus sp, Mucor sp, cysts of E. hystolitica, oocysts of C. parvum, C. cayetenensis and Isospora belli, cysts of Balantidium coli, ova of Ascaris lumbricoides, Anchylostoma deodunalae, Enterobius vermicularis, ova Trichuris trichura, larva of Strongyloides stercoralis. Cockroaches trapped in the toilets of houses with pit latrines had a mean bacterial and parasites count of 12.3 x 10(10) org/ml and 98 parasites/ml respectively, while those trapped in the houses with water system had a mean bacterial and parasitic count of 89.5 x 10(7) org/ml and 31 parasites/ml respectively. A bacterial count of 78.9 x 10(7) org/ml was recorded from cockroaches trapped from the kitchens of houses with pit latrines. On the other hand a mean bacterial and parasitic count of 23.7 x 10(6) org/ml and 19 parasites/ml were recorded from kitchens of houses with water system. Cockroaches represent an important reservoir for infectious pathogens, therefore, control of cockroaches will substantially minimise the spread of infectious diseases in our environment.

  9. Cockroaches ’ bacterial infections in wards of hospitals, Hamedan city, west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejati Jalil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the relationship between different species of cockroaches with their bacterial infection in different wards of Hamedan county hospitals, western Iran. Methods: Using sticky trap, hand collection and glass trap, 250 cockroaches were collected from 14 wards of 5 hospitals. After having their identification determined by detection key, all of them were used to isolate bacteria from cuticle and alimentary tract. Results: From four identified species, Blatella germanica were the most common in all of the wards (88.8% and next was the Periplaneta Americana (8%. 20 bacteria species isolated from cockroaches' surface and 21 from digestive organ. Escherichia coli were the most predominant bacteria isolated from external surface (26.5 % as well as alimentary tract (30.8%. The frequency of investigated bacteria on cockroaches' body surface was not significantly different between Periplaneta Americana and Blattella germanica except for Kllebsiella oxytoca (P<0.001 and Providensia Spp (P=0.035. Also, frequency of detected bacteria in cockroaches' digestive organ was not significantly different between these two species. Furthermore, the frequency of bacteria isolated from the cockroaches' external surface was not significantly different from that of digestive organ except for shigella disantery (P<0.001, Pseudomonas aeroginosa (P<0.001 and Klebsiella oxytoca (P=0.01 3. Conclusions: Since cockroaches can carry pathogenic bacteria, so their existence in the hospitals could be a serious public health problem. It is suggested to compile programs in order to control cockroaches especially in the hospitals.

  10. Analysis on inroads situation and control effect of cockroach at a residential building%某居民楼蟑螂侵害及防治效果调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹广庆; 周光智; 王治; 李平; 文瑜; 程绪浩

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查某部居民楼蟑螂侵害情况和防治效果.方法 用药激法调查蟑螂密度,化学防治采用奋斗呐滞留喷洒和优士灭蟑胶饵.结果 德国小蠊为绝对优势种,防治前不同房间平均密度为2.3 ~16.8只/间,施药后3d密度为0.1~1.3只/间,杀灭率为91.07%~ 97.67%,15 d后为0只/间,杀灭率为100%.结论 该住宅楼蟑螂侵害严重,滞留喷洒结合灭蟑胶饵、颗粒饵杀灭蟑螂效果显著,值得推广.%Objective To investigate cockroach invasion in room of a residential building, and observe the preventive and control effect. Methods Medication excite killing method was used for density investigation, 5 % alpha - cypermethrin( Fendona) wettable powder and gel bait for chemical control. Results Blattella germanica was the dominant species. The density was 2.3- 16. 8 pieces per room in different apartment before control,after using control method , the density was 0. 1-1. 3 pieces per room with the mortality rate of 91. 07% -91.61% three days later, and the density was 0 pieces per room with the mortality rate of 100% fifteen days later. Conclusion The cockroach invasion is serious at this residential building. The method of using remained spray and gel bait has high efficacy a-gainst cockroach and deserves to be recommended.

  11. Rapid Elimination of German Cockroach, Blatella germanica, by Fipronil and Imidacloprid Gel Baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasirian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Baits have become popular and effective formulations against urban insect pests. Compared with re­sidual sprays toxic gel baits are used more and more frequently to control urban cockroach populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of two commercially available fipronil and imidacloprid gel bait formulations against Blattella germanica field infested in Iran.Methods:  The study was carried out in an urban area at Tehran from March 2004 to September 2005. The 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits were placed continuously in 3 residential German cockroach infested units. Pre- and post-treatment cockroach density was assessed by visual count method.Results: Pre- and post-treatment visual count of cockroaches in treatment and control areas, and percentage reduc­tion in cockroach density in treatment areas in comparison to control areas was showed that density reduction was increased with the 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits in treated areas from 1st to 9th week in compari­son to control area. After 60 days, German cockroaches eliminated completely from these areas.Conclusion: These results show that fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are highly effective in field German cock­roach infested after insecticide spraying control failure German cockroach infested fields where spraying  of pyrethroid insecticides failed to control the situation and confirm previous  reports stating that avermectin and hydramethylnon are more effective than conventional insecticides in baits against cockroaches. Therefore, fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are appropriate candidates for controlling German cockroach infested dwellings in Iran where control with other insectices failed because of resistance.

  12. Rapid Elimination of German Cockroach, Blatella germanica, by Fipronil and Imidacloprid Gel Baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasirian

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Baits have become popular and effective formulations against urban insect pests. Compared with re­sidual sprays toxic gel baits are used more and more frequently to control urban cockroach populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of two commercially available fipronil and imidacloprid gel bait formulations against Blattella germanica field infested in Iran. Methods:  The study was carried out in an urban area at Tehran from March 2004 to September 2005. The 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits were placed continuously in 3 residential German cockroach infested units. Pre- and post-treatment cockroach density was assessed by visual count method. Results: Pre- and post-treatment visual count of cockroaches in treatment and control areas, and percentage reduc­tion in cockroach density in treatment areas in comparison to control areas was showed that density reduction was increased with the 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits in treated areas from 1st to 9th week in compari­son to control area. After 60 days, German cockroaches eliminated completely from these areas. Conclusion: These results show that fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are highly effective in field German cock­roach infested after insecticide spraying control failure German cockroach infested fields where spraying  of pyrethroid insecticides failed to control the situation and confirm previous  reports stating that avermectin and hydramethylnon are more effective than conventional insecticides in baits against cockroaches. Therefore, fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are appropriate candidates for controlling German cockroach infested dwellings in Iran where control with other insectices failed because of resistance.

  13. 南通市蟑螂抗性及防制对策的研究%Study on the resistance of cockroach and its control strategy in Nantong city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章士军; 王智泉; 陈郁

    2011-01-01

    Objective To control the density of cockroach by detecting the resistance of Blattella germanica and rational administration. Method Using drug films to detect the drug resistance of cockroach, study the killing efficacy by chemical control. Results Blattella germaruca was the dominant species and the resistance ratio of tested wild strains to propoxur, Lambda - cyhalothrin and acephate were 1. 20. 5. 66. 5. 14 and 5. 10 respectively, and all were low level of resistance. Conclusions Rational administration according to resistance test, comprehensive ecological improvement can control cockroach density for a long time.%目的 通过对德国小蠊抗药性的检测,合理用药,从而控制蟑螂密度.方法 根据蟑螂抗药性监测方案采用药膜法进行检测;利用化学防治,进行杀灭效果研究.结果 德国小蠊为绝对优势种,德国小蠊现场品系对残杀威、高效氯氰菊酯和乙酰甲胺磷抗性系数分别是0.89、4.78和0.64,均属于低度抗性.经现场用药处理后德国小蠊得到有效控制.结论 根据抗性结果,合理用药与环境治理相结合能在较长时间内有效控制蟑螂密度.

  14. Cockroaches control(1)%蟑螂防治(一)──蟑螂的危害、形态特征与生活史

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜志宽; 吴光华

    2009-01-01

    @@ 蟑螂(cockroaches)学名蜚蠊,属于昆虫纲(Insecta)蜚蠊目(Blattaria),俗称茶婆子、偷油婆、香娘子、灶蚂子等.在昆虫中,蟑螂是最古老的种类之一,远在3.5亿年前,就已经在地球上生活了.

  15. Mucosal exposure to cockroach extract induces allergic sensitization and allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arizmendi Narcy G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic sensitization to aeroallergens develops in response to mucosal exposure to these allergens. Allergic sensitization may lead to the development of asthma, which is characterized by chronic airway inflammation. The objective of this study is to describe in detail a model of mucosal exposure to cockroach allergens in the absence of an exogenous adjuvant. Methods Cockroach extract (CE was administered to mice intranasally (i.n. daily for 5 days, and 5 days later mice were challenged with CE for 4 consecutive days. A second group received CE i.n. for 3 weeks. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR was assessed 24 h after the last allergen exposure. Allergic airway inflammation was assessed by BAL and lung histology 48 h after the last allergen exposure. Antigen-specific antibodies were assessed in serum. Lungs were excised from mice from measurement of cytokines and chemokines in whole lung lysate. Results Mucosal exposure of Balb/c mice to cockroach extract induced airway eosinophilic inflammation, AHR and cockroach-specific IgG1; however, AHR to methacholine was absent in the long term group. Lung histology showed patchy, multicentric damage with inflammatory infiltrates at the airways in both groups. Lungs from mice from the short term group showed increased IL-4, CCL11, CXCL1 and CCL2 protein levels. IL4 and CXCL1 were also increased in the BAL of cockroach-sensitized mice in the short-term protocol. Conclusions Mucosal exposure to cockroach extract in the absence of adjuvant induces allergic airway sensitization characterized by AHR, the presence of Th2 cytokines in the lung and eosinophils in the airways.

  16. Cockroaches as a Source of High Bacterial Pathogens with Multidrug Resistant Strains in Gondar Town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moges, Feleke; Eshetie, Setegn; Endris, Mengistu; Huruy, Kahsay; Muluye, Dagnachew; Feleke, Tigist; G/Silassie, Fisha; Ayalew, Getenet; Nagappan, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cockroaches are source of bacterial infections and this study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial profiles from cockroaches in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods. A total of 60 cockroaches were collected from March 1 to May 30, 2014, in Gondar town. Bacterial species were isolated from external and internal parts of cockroaches. Disk diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20; P values cockroaches, respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae 32 (17.7%), Escherichia coli 29 (16%), and Citrobacter spp. 27 (15%) were the predominant isolates. High resistance rate was observed to cotrimoxazole, 60 (33.1%), and least resistance rate was noted to ciprofloxacin, 2 (1.1%). Additionally, 116 (64.1%) of the isolates were MDR strains; Salmonella spp. were the leading MDR isolates (100%) followed by Enterobacter (90.5%) and Shigella spp. (76.9%). Conclusion. Cockroaches are the potential source of bacteria pathogens with multidrug resistant strains and hence effective preventive and control measures are required to minimize cockroach related infections.

  17. Deterministic Assembly of Complex Bacterial Communities in Guts of Germ-Free Cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaelyan, Aram; Thompson, Claire L; Hofer, Markus J; Brune, Andreas

    2015-12-11

    The gut microbiota of termites plays important roles in the symbiotic digestion of lignocellulose. However, the factors shaping the microbial community structure remain poorly understood. Because termites cannot be raised under axenic conditions, we established the closely related cockroach Shelfordella lateralis as a germ-free model to study microbial community assembly and host-microbe interactions. In this study, we determined the composition of the bacterial assemblages in cockroaches inoculated with the gut microbiota of termites and mice using pyrosequencing analysis of their 16S rRNA genes. Although the composition of the xenobiotic communities was influenced by the lineages present in the foreign inocula, their structure resembled that of conventional cockroaches. Bacterial taxa abundant in conventional cockroaches but rare in the foreign inocula, such as Dysgonomonas and Parabacteroides spp., were selectively enriched in the xenobiotic communities. Donor-specific taxa, such as endomicrobia or spirochete lineages restricted to the gut microbiota of termites, however, either were unable to colonize germ-free cockroaches or formed only small populations. The exposure of xenobiotic cockroaches to conventional adults restored their normal microbiota, which indicated that autochthonous lineages outcompete foreign ones. Our results provide experimental proof that the assembly of a complex gut microbiota in insects is deterministic. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Adenovirus-mediated Foxp3 expression in lung epithelial cells reduces airway inflammation in ovalbumin and cockroach-induced asthma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soojin; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Shin, Dasom; Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Hyunil; Moon, Junghee; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-01-01

    Foxp3 is a master regulator of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-cell (Treg) function and is also a suppressor of SKP2 and HER2/ErbB2. There are an increasing number of reports describing the functions of Foxp3 in cell types other than Tregs. In this context, we evaluated the functions of Foxp3 in ovalbumin- and cockroach-induced asthma models. Foxp3-EGFP-expressing adenovirus or EGFP control adenovirus was administered intratracheally (i.t.), followed by challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) or cockroach extract to induce asthma. Th2 cytokine and immune cell profiles of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), as well as serum IgE levels, were analyzed. Histological analyses were also conducted to demonstrate the effects of Foxp3 expression on airway remodeling, goblet cell hyperplasia and inflammatory responses in the lung. Adenoviral Foxp3 was expressed only in lung epithelial cells, and not in CD4+ or CD8+ cells. BALF from Foxp3 gene-delivered mice showed significantly reduced numbers of total immune cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes in response to cockroach allergen or OVA. In addition, Foxp3 expression in the lung reduced the levels of Th2 cytokines and IgE in BALF and serum, respectively. Moreover, histopathological analysis also showed that Foxp3 expression substantially inhibited eosinophil infiltration into the airways, goblet cell hyperplasia and smooth muscle cell hypertrophy. Furthermore, when Tregs were depleted by diphtheria toxin in Foxp3DTR mice, the anti-asthmatic functions of Foxp3 were not altered in OVA-challenged asthma models. In this study, our results suggest that Foxp3 expression in lung epithelial cells, and not in Tregs, inhibited OVA- and cockroach extract-induced asthma. PMID:27633092

  19. Occupational health risks due to shipboard cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Marcus; Latza, Ute; Baur, Xaver

    2008-05-01

    In various investigated populations, sensitization to cockroaches was observed in 8% of screened subjects from temperate climatic zones and in 36% of those from tropical zones. Because of the numerous hiding places and food storages aboard a ship the crews can be highly exposed to cockroaches. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of sensitization to cockroaches and potentially associated health risks in seafarers. In July 2005, a total of 145 seamen sailing under the German flag were recruited from a medical surveillance program for a cross-sectional study (response 95.4%). A standardized interview and a skin prick test (SPT) with nine common inhalant allergens and a cockroach extract (Blatella germanica) were performed. In cockroach-sensitized seafarers total and cockroach-specific IgE was measured and lung function tests conducted. In total, 39 seamen (26.9%) were cockroach-sensitized according to SPT results. Presence of cockroach sensitization in seamen from the tropical zone (37.3%) was significantly higher than in seamen from the temperate zone (21.3%) (odds ratio 2.20, 95% confidence interval 1.04-4.66). The prevalence of sensitization to any of the other nine common allergen mixtures tested was lower (between 2.1 and 12.4%). Neither current or past cockroach exposure on board nor cumulative cockroach exposure and time since last cockroach exposure were associated with cockroach sensitization. Among cockroach SPT-positive seamen, cockroach-specific IgE was detected in 52.8%. Five out of 37 (13.5%) SPT-positive seamen exhibited an obstructive ventilation pattern. The prevalence of work-related atopic symptoms was 9.0% (n = 13). These symptoms were not related to cockroach sensitization. The high prevalence of sensitization to cockroaches among seamen in the presented study emphasizes the strong sensitization potency of these insects. Longitudinal studies and bronchial cockroach challenge tests are necessary to assess the clinical relevance of

  20. Nest sanitation through defecation: antifungal properties of wood cockroach feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Mead, Kerry; Du Comb, William S.; Benson, Ryan W.; Godoy, Veronica G.

    2013-11-01

    The wood cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus nests as family units inside decayed wood, a substrate known for its high microbial load. We tested the hypothesis that defecation within their nests, a common occurrence in this species, reduces the probability of fungal development. Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, were incubated with crushed feces and subsequently plated on potato dextrose agar. Relative to controls, the viability of fungal conidia was significantly reduced following incubation with feces and was negatively correlated with incubation time. Although the cockroach's hindgut contained abundant β-1,3-glucanase activity, its feces had no detectable enzymatic function. Hence, these enzymes are unlikely the source of the fungistasis. Instead, the antifungal compound(s) of the feces involved heat-sensitive factor(s) of potential microbial origin. When feces were boiled or when they were subjected to ultraviolet radiation and subsequently incubated with conidia, viability was "rescued" and germination rates were similar to those of controls. Filtration experiments indicate that the fungistatic activity of feces results from chemical interference. Because Cryptocercidae cockroaches have been considered appropriate models to make inferences about the factors fostering the evolution of termite sociality, we suggest that nesting in microbe-rich environments likely selected for the coupling of intranest defecation and feces fungistasis in the common ancestor of wood cockroaches and termites. This might in turn have served as a preadaptation that prevented mycosis as these phylogenetically related taxa diverged and evolved respectively into subsocial and eusocial organizations.

  1. Safe Cockroach Control: A Guide to Setting Up an Integrated Pest Management Program within a School System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher; And Others

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision-making approach to pest control that has been used successfully on farms, city parks, offices, homes, and schools. IPM programs help individuals decide when treatments are necessary, where treatment would be most helpful, and what combinations of tactics would be most effective, safe, and inexpensive…

  2. 温州市室内蜚蠊种群调查%Investigation of population of cockroaches indoors in Wenzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐毅; 倪朝荣; 庄仁莲; 曹建海; 黄周良; 陈胜则

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the population and distribution of cockroaches in Wenzhou,China.Methods The density of cockroaches was monitored by sticky-trap method in different areas and industries to analyze the population,distribution,and seasonal fluctuation of cockroaches.Results Blattella germanica was the dominant species of cockroaches indoors in Wenzhou,accounting for 97.91% of all cockroaches.For industry,the density of cockroaches was the highest in restaurants (4.28 cockroaches/trap) and farmers' markets (3.33 cockroaches/trap).For area,the density of cockroaches was the highest in Dongtou Island (5.13 cockroaches/trap).The density of cockroaches reached the peak level in June and November.Conclusion Cockroach infestation is severe indoors in Wenzhou.It is necessary to enhance the monitoring and control of cockroaches.%目的 调查分析温州市蜚蠊种群及分布特征.方法 采用粘捕法在全市按地域和行业分布进行密度监测,分析蜚蠊种群、分布、季节消长等特征.结果 温州市室内以德国小蠊为优势种群,占97.91%;密度分布以餐饮业和农贸市场为高,分别为4.28和3.33只/张;同时海岛洞头在地域分布中密度最高,为5.13只/张;季节消长呈现6月和11月双高峰.结论 温州市室内蜚蠊侵害情况严重,应加强防制工作.

  3. Species Diversity and Distributional Pattern of Cockroaches in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafsa Memona

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cockroaches are found as the most common urban pests of tropical countries, prompting economic and serious health risk problem for humans by carrying microbes and allergens, acting as vector for various patho­gens of diseases. The present study was conducted from April 2013 to March 2014 in various human dwelling local­ities of urban area of district Lahore, Pakistan.Methods: Cockroaches were collected randomly by hand, food baited and sticky traps throughout the year. Four species of cockroaches (Periplaneta Americana (P. amercana, Blattella germanica (B. germanica, Blatta orientalis (B. orientalis, and Blatta lateralis (B. lateralis were collected and identified from the study site.Results: B. germanica was the most dominant indoor species with highest diversity indices in study areas. Overall cockroach species diversity was highest in July–September, 2013 with highest Simpson index of diversity and Shan­non index as well. P. americana was found second broadly distributed in the study area followed by B. orientalis and B. lateralis were intermediately distributed in residential areas and narrowly distributed in hospitals. Residential ar­eas and hospitals were highly infested with B. germanica followed by P. americana. Population index of B. ger­manica for hospitals was double than residential areas. B. lateralis was observed as displacing B. orientalis in out­door habitat through competing with its habitat and food sources.Conclusion: The infestation rate of different species depends on availability of food sources, sanitary conditions and climatic conditions. Cockroach infestation can be controlled with knowledge about their biology and behavior, at­tention to sanitation and effective use of commercial insecticides.

  4. Biocontrol of the Brown-banded Cockroach, Supella longipalpa F. (Blattaria: Blattellidae, with Entomopathogenic Fungus, Metharhizium anisopliae

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    Mona Sharififard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering to the high distribution of cockroaches as urban pests, the efficacy of different formula­tions of Metarhizium anisopliae strain Iran 437C were assessed against the brown-banded cockroach, Supella longi­palpa F. under laboratory and field conditions.Methods: Metarhizium anisopliae isolates were screened with immersing adults of the brown-banded cockroachs in aqueous suspension of 108 conidia ml-1 followed by surface or bait treated with different doses of the most virulent isolate against the nymphs. Then formulations of conidia oil-in-water were examined versus cockroach nymphs us­ing different plant oils and paraffin. Then they were evaluated and compared with aqueous suspension and control group. On a large-scale, the sunflower oil-in-water formulation of conidia was sprayed at houses using a hand sprayer.Results: Metarhizium anisopliae IRAN 437C was the most virulent isolate against the brown-banded cockroach, causing 100% mortality in adults at seven days post-exposure. Inoculated bait with this isolate was not enough path­ogenic against the cockroach even at two weeks after treatment. Treated surface with conidia as aqueous suspension or oil-in- water formulation was more effective than the bait formulation against the cockroach caused 39.4–97.2% mortality compared with 2.5% mortality in control group after two days. Spraying the conidia formulated with sun­flower oil was an effective formulation causing 76.1% reduction in the cockroach density on the third day post treatment in the houses.Conclusion: The oil-in-water formulation of M. anisopliae IRAN 437C could be recommended as a promising al­ternative for cockroach control.  

  5. Increased Expression of P-Glycoprotein Is Associated With Chlorpyrifos Resistance in the German Cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weiyuan; Jiang, Chu; Zhou, Xiaojie; Qian, Kun; Wang, Lei; Shen, Yanhui; Zhao, Yan

    2016-09-15

    A principal method for control of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), is the broad-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide, chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate); however, extensive and repeated application has resulted in the development of resistance to chlorpyrifos in this insect. Evidence suggests that ATP-binding cassette protein transporters, including P-glycoprotein, are involved in insecticide resistance. However, little is known of the role of P-glycoprotein in insecticide resistance in the German cockroach. Here, we developed a chlorpyrifos-resistant strain of German cockroach and investigated the relationship between P-glycoprotein and chlorpyrifos resistance using toxicity assays; inhibition studies with two P-glycoprotein inhibitors, verapamil and quinine; P-glycoprotein-ATPase activity assays; and western blotting analysis. After 23 generations of selection from susceptible strain cockroaches, we obtained animals with high resistance to chlorpyrifos. When P-glycoprotein-ATPase activity was inhibited by verapamil and quinine, we observed enhanced susceptibility to chlorpyrifos in both control and chlorpyrifos-resistant cockroaches. No significant alterations of P-glycoprotein expression or ATPase activity were observed in cockroaches acutely exposed to LD50 doses of chlorpyrifos for 24 h, while P-glycoprotein expression and ATPase activity were clearly elevated in the chlorpyrifos-resistant cockroach strain. Thus, we conclude that P-glycoprotein is associated with chlorpyrifos resistance in the German cockroach and that elevated levels of P-glycoprotein expression and ATPase activity may be an important mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance in the German cockroach.

  6. Stress-resolved and cockroach-friendly piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R.; Lee, H.; Butler, J.; Gonzalez, J.; Yi, J.; Vinson, B.; Liang, H.

    2008-04-01

    We investigate effects of bending stress on piezoelectric properties of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a polymer sensor. The sensor was designed and fabricated into a special size and shape so that it can be attached to small insects, such as the American cockroach (Periplaneta Americana) to measure the insects' locomotion. The performance of the sensor is studied using a controlled linear stage to buckle the sensor mimicking the bending of the sensor due to the leg movements of cockroaches. For comparison, a roach robot was used for multi-leg study. Results indicate that buckling motion of the sensor produce an output that is different from regular stretching effect. The sensor-generated charge depends on the localized stress distribution and dipole alignment. This paper discusses the methods of characterization of piezoelectricity useful for insect applications.

  7. Octopamine partially restores walking in hypokinetic cockroaches stung by the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Lior Ann; Glusman, Jose Gustavo; Libersat, Frederic

    2007-12-01

    When stung by the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa, cockroaches Periplaneta americana enter a hypokinetic state that is characterized by little, if any, spontaneous locomotor activity. In the present study we investigate the effect of an octopamine receptor agonist and an antagonist on the locomotor behavior of stung and control cockroaches. We show that in cockroaches stung by a wasp the octopamine receptor agonist chlordimeform induces a significant increase in spontaneous walking. In good agreement, in control individuals an octopamine receptor antagonist significantly reduces walking activity. Adipokinetic hormone I (AKH-I) promotes spontaneous walking in controls but does not do so in stung individuals, which suggests that the venom effect is most probably not mediated by AKH-I. Dopamine receptor agonists or antagonists had no significant effect on the spontaneous walking of stung or control cockroaches, respectively. The effect of the octopamine receptor agonist was maximal when injected into the brain, suggesting that the wasp venom interferes with octopaminergic modulation of walking initiation in central structures of the cockroach brain.

  8. The Fear of Cockroaches Questionnaire (FCQ)

    OpenAIRE

    Scandola, Michele; Bastinelli, Alessia; Spoto, Andrea; Vidotto, Giulio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the Fear of Cockroaches Questionnaire (FCQ) in general Italian population. The FCQ is an 18-item self-report questionnaire assessing fear of cockroaches. It was translated in Italian and modified as a cockroach adaption of the Fear of Spiders Questionnaire. Data obtained from 329 (mean age 24.21 ± 4.08 years) undergraduates revealed that the FCQ allowed discrimination between high fear and low fear subjects. Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed a mono-fac...

  9. [Synantropic cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.) in hospital environment--microbiological hazard for patients and hospital infections risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna; Pancer, Katarzyna W; Gliniewicz, Aleksandra; Mikulak, Ewa; Laudy, Agnieszka; Podsiadło, Barbara; Rabczenko, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine what a hazard for patients creates the presence of cockroaches in hospital environment. The probable hospital infections cases in 9 hospitals in Warsaw were found in database of the Country Hospital Morbidity Register for the year 2004 and correlation between such factors as: drug resistance of bacteria isolated from external part of cockroach's bodies, their ability to biofilm building, adherence, resistance to disinfectants, resistance of cockroaches to insecticides, infestation level vs. infections of several body systems was examined. The microbiological hazard of cockroaches in hospital environment has been proven by our findings that some of bacterial strains carried on the body of cockroaches belonged to well known species responsible for hospital infections everywhere The strains resistant to several antibiotics used in hospital and the strains able to form virulence factors were found. Some correlation was found between resistance of cockroaches for biocides and higher infestation of the hospital environment. Cockroaches infected in hospital environment might be the active carrier of bacterial strains as well as indicator of the bacterial presence on the surfaces in the hospital building not enough treated with disinfectants. On the base of our findings we may suppose that in hospital infections the role of infected cockroaches are less important than the other factors but should be not completely neglected. Surveillance and control of hospital infections should be more completed, connected not only with continuous monitoring of resistance of bacterial strains to antibiotics but also to disinfectants used in hospital as well as evaluation of infestation of the hospital environment and resistance of cockroaches to biocides.

  10. A wasp manipulates neuronal activity in the sub-esophageal ganglion to decrease the drive for walking in its cockroach prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Gal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The parasitoid Jewel Wasp hunts cockroaches to serve as a live food supply for its offspring. The wasp stings the cockroach in the head and delivers a cocktail of neurotoxins directly inside the prey's cerebral ganglia. Although not paralyzed, the stung cockroach becomes a living yet docile 'zombie', incapable of self-initiating spontaneous or evoked walking. We show here that such neuro-chemical manipulation can be attributed to decreased neuronal activity in a small region of the cockroach cerebral nervous system, the sub-esophageal ganglion (SEG. A decrease in descending permissive inputs from this ganglion to thoracic central pattern generators decreases the propensity for walking-related behaviors. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have used behavioral, neuro-pharmacological and electrophysiological methods to show that: (1 Surgically removing the cockroach SEG prior to wasp stinging prolongs the duration of the sting 5-fold, suggesting that the wasp actively targets the SEG during the stinging sequence; (2 injecting a sodium channel blocker, procaine, into the SEG of non-stung cockroaches reversibly decreases spontaneous and evoked walking, suggesting that the SEG plays an important role in the up-regulation of locomotion; (3 artificial focal injection of crude milked venom into the SEG of non-stung cockroaches decreases spontaneous and evoked walking, as seen with naturally-stung cockroaches; and (4 spontaneous and evoked neuronal spiking activity in the SEG, recorded with an extracellular bipolar microelectrode, is markedly decreased in stung cockroaches versus non-stung controls. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified the neuronal substrate responsible for the venom-induced manipulation of the cockroach's drive for walking. Our data strongly support previous findings suggesting a critical and permissive role for the SEG in the regulation of locomotion in insects. By injecting a venom cocktail directly into the

  11. A Wasp Manipulates Neuronal Activity in the Sub-Esophageal Ganglion to Decrease the Drive for Walking in Its Cockroach Prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Ram; Libersat, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    Background The parasitoid Jewel Wasp hunts cockroaches to serve as a live food supply for its offspring. The wasp stings the cockroach in the head and delivers a cocktail of neurotoxins directly inside the prey's cerebral ganglia. Although not paralyzed, the stung cockroach becomes a living yet docile ‘zombie’, incapable of self-initiating spontaneous or evoked walking. We show here that such neuro-chemical manipulation can be attributed to decreased neuronal activity in a small region of the cockroach cerebral nervous system, the sub-esophageal ganglion (SEG). A decrease in descending permissive inputs from this ganglion to thoracic central pattern generators decreases the propensity for walking-related behaviors. Methodology and Principal Findings We have used behavioral, neuro-pharmacological and electrophysiological methods to show that: (1) Surgically removing the cockroach SEG prior to wasp stinging prolongs the duration of the sting 5-fold, suggesting that the wasp actively targets the SEG during the stinging sequence; (2) injecting a sodium channel blocker, procaine, into the SEG of non-stung cockroaches reversibly decreases spontaneous and evoked walking, suggesting that the SEG plays an important role in the up-regulation of locomotion; (3) artificial focal injection of crude milked venom into the SEG of non-stung cockroaches decreases spontaneous and evoked walking, as seen with naturally-stung cockroaches; and (4) spontaneous and evoked neuronal spiking activity in the SEG, recorded with an extracellular bipolar microelectrode, is markedly decreased in stung cockroaches versus non-stung controls. Conclusions and Significance We have identified the neuronal substrate responsible for the venom-induced manipulation of the cockroach's drive for walking. Our data strongly support previous findings suggesting a critical and permissive role for the SEG in the regulation of locomotion in insects. By injecting a venom cocktail directly into the SEG, the

  12. Reversible brain inactivation induces discontinuous gas exchange in cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Philip G D; White, Craig R

    2013-06-01

    Many insects at rest breathe discontinuously, alternating between brief bouts of gas exchange and extended periods of breath-holding. The association between discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) and inactivity has long been recognised, leading to speculation that DGCs lie at one end of a continuum of gas exchange patterns, from continuous to discontinuous, linked to metabolic rate (MR). However, the neural hypothesis posits that it is the downregulation of brain activity and a change in the neural control of gas exchange, rather than low MR per se, which is responsible for the emergence of DGCs during inactivity. To test this, Nauphoeta cinerea cockroaches had their brains inactivated by applying a Peltier-chilled cold probe to the head. Once brain temperature fell to 8°C, cockroaches switched from a continuous to a discontinuous breathing pattern. Re-warming the brain abolished the DGC and re-established a continuous breathing pattern. Chilling the brain did not significantly reduce the cockroaches' MR and there was no association between the gas exchange pattern displayed by the insect and its MR. This demonstrates that DGCs can arise due to a decrease in brain activity and a change in the underlying regulation of gas exchange, and are not necessarily a simple consequence of low respiratory demand.

  13. 2012 Linfen city cockroach density monitoring survey report%2012年临汾市蟑螂密度监测调查报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董献民; 尹保行; 连颜芳; 李芳; 石瑞

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解临汾市城区蟑螂侵害状况。方法2012年将粘捕法捕获的蟑螂进行分类,统计数量。结果临汾市蟑螂以德国小蠊为优势种,总侵害率为80.8%,餐饮业蟑螂侵害率高达89.1%,居民区侵害率为86.7%,宾馆侵害率为62.1%。蟑螂平均密度为3.8只/张。结论临汾市蟑螂侵害严重,防制蟑螂工作应尽快落实。%Objective To understand the the Linfen City cockroach infringement situation. Methods 2012 sticky recapture method to capture cockroaches Classification, Statistics quantity. Results Linfen City cockroach German cockroach is the dominant species. Total infringement of 80.8.The restaurant industry cockroaches infringement rate up to 89.1%, neighborhoods infringe 86.7%, was 62.1%of hotel infringement. The average density of the cockroach 3.8/Zhang. Conclusion Serious infringement of Linfen City cockroach control cockroaches must be implemented as soon as possible.

  14. Evaluation of Five Local Formulated Insecticides against German Cockroach (Blattella germanica L. in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shahi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., is a serious household and public health pest worldwide. Con­trol of this species has been very difficult to achieve. Toxicity of cypermethrin EC10%, deltamethrin EC5%, diazi­non EC0.5%, lambda-cyhalothrin EC5% and Negon® (permethrin+propoxur oil liquid1% commercial for­mula­tions were investigated against adult males of German cockroaches collected from four hospitals of Bandar Abbas City, southern Iran, during 2006. These insecticides have been used for cockroach con­trol in this city.Methods: The tests were carried out only on males by the glass jar contact method recommended by the WHO.Results: Maximum mortality rates of 20, 35, 90, and 100% were obtained after one hour contact to label-recom­mended doses of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambad-cyhalothrin, diazinon and permethrin+propoxur insecti­cides, respectively. KT50 results were different from 5.68 min for permethrin+propoxur mixture to 240.37 min for cyper­methrin. German cockroach showed < 80 per cent mortality using three pyrethroid insecticides.Conclusion: It seems that the label-recommended concentrations of these insecticides were wrong and lower than WHO advised for cockroach control. For monitoring of resistance it is recommended to do more tests using the pure ac­tive ingredient of these insecticides.

  15. Diet specialization in an extreme omnivore: nutritional regulation in glucose-averse German cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shik, J Z; Schal, C; Silverman, J

    2014-10-01

    Organisms have diverse adaptations for balancing dietary nutrients, but often face trade-offs between ingesting nutrients and toxins in food. While extremely omnivorous cockroaches would seem excluded from such dietary trade-offs, German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in multiple populations have rapidly evolved a unique dietary specialization - an aversion to glucose, the phagostimulant in toxic baits used for pest control. We used factorial feeding experiments within the geometric framework to test whether glucose-averse (GA) cockroaches with limited access to this critical metabolic fuel have compensatory behavioural and physiological strategies for meeting nutritional requirements. GA cockroaches had severely constrained intake, fat and N mass, and performance on glucose-based diets relative to wild-type (WT) cockroaches and did not appear to exhibit digestive strategies for retaining undereaten nutrients. However, a GA × WT 'hybrid' had lower glucose aversion than GA and greater access to macronutrients within glucose-based diets - while still having lower intake and survival than WT. Given these intermediate foraging constraints, hybrids may be a reservoir for this maladaptive trait in the absence of positive selection and may account for the rapid evolution of this trait following bait application. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Involvement of the opioid system in the hypokinetic state induced in cockroaches by a parasitoid wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavra, Tali; Libersat, Frederic

    2011-03-01

    The parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa stings and injects venom into the cockroach brain to induce a long-lasting hypokinetic state. This state is characterized by decreased responsiveness to aversive stimuli, suggesting the manipulation of a neuromodulatory system in the cockroach's central nervous system. A likely candidate is the opioid system, which is known to affect responsiveness to stimuli in insects. To explore this possibility, we injected cockroaches with different opioid receptor agonists or antagonists before they were stung by a wasp and tested the escape behavior of these cockroaches to electric foot shocks. Antagonists significantly decreased the startle threshold in stung individuals, whereas agonists led to an increased startle threshold in controls. Yet, neither agonists nor antagonists had any effect on grooming. To further characterize the interaction between the venom and opioid receptors, we used an antenna-heart preparation. In un-stung individuals external application of crude venom completely inhibits antenna-heart contractions. In stung individuals the antenna-heart showed no contractions. Although acetylcholine restored contractions, the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone was unable to antagonize the venom inhibition. These results suggest that the venom of A. compressa might contribute to the manipulation of cockroach behavior by affecting the opioid system.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF BACTERIOLOGICAL INFECTIONS OF THE AMERICAN COCKROACHES IN PAVEH CITY, KERMANSHAH PROVINCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyad, Sirvan; Vahabi, Ahmad; Vahabi, Boshra; Sayyadi, Mahnaz; Sahne, Shahnaz Haji

    2016-02-01

    American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, are the most important pests in hospitals and dwelling environments. They are mechanical vectors of some bacterial pathogens. The present investigation was carried out in Ghods hospital and 5 dwelling localities of Paveh city to evaluate bacterial infestations of American cockroaches in this region of Iran. The samples were randomly collected from hospital environments and toilets and kitchens of the dwelling localities from December-March 2012 and July-September 2013. The samples were captured using sterile test tubes and sterile hand gloves. Totally, 98 cockroaches were collected from hospital (45.9%) and dwelling (54.1%) environments. Eight groups of bacteria including: Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Serratia spp., Entrobacter spp. and Escherichia coli were extracted. The findings of the present study revealed that the American cockroaches are very important in transmission of some bacterial pathogens, so health education and using the effective control methods to elimination and reduction of cockroaches are necessary.

  18. Evaluation of Five Local Formulated Insecticides against German Cockroach (Blattella germanica L. in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shahi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., is a serious household and public health pest worldwide. Con­trol of this species has been very difficult to achieve. Toxicity of cypermethrin EC10%, deltamethrin EC5%, diazi­non EC0.5%, lambda-cyhalothrin EC5% and Negon® (permethrin+propoxur oil liquid1% commercial for­mula­tions were investigated against adult males of German cockroaches collected from four hospitals of Bandar Abbas City, southern Iran, during 2006. These insecticides have been used for cockroach con­trol in this city. Methods: The tests were carried out only on males by the glass jar contact method recommended by the WHO. Results: Maximum mortality rates of 20, 35, 90, and 100% were obtained after one hour contact to label-recom­mended doses of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambad-cyhalothrin, diazinon and permethrin+propoxur insecti­cides, respectively. KT50 results were different from 5.68 min for permethrin+propoxur mixture to 240.37 min for cyper­methrin. German cockroach showed < 80 per cent mortality using three pyrethroid insecticides. Conclusion: It seems that the label-recommended concentrations of these insecticides were wrong and lower than WHO advised for cockroach control. For monitoring of resistance it is recommended to do more tests using the pure ac­tive ingredient of these insecticides.

  19. Vectorial Potential of Cockroaches in Transmitting Parasites of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to determine the role of cockroaches as potential carriers of parasites of ... vectored by the cockroaches in the study area. MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... bacteria isolated from body surface of German.

  20. Toxicity of fatty acid salts to German and American cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, R W; Koehler, P G; Pereira, R M

    2008-08-01

    The toxicity of fatty acid salts to German, Blattella germanica (L.), and American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), was evaluated. Potassium and sodium laurate caused up to 95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Even-numbered potassium fatty acid salts, C8-C18 were assessed for toxicity at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% concentrations by a 30-s immersion of cockroaches. The more soluble of the fatty acid salts at 2% concentration caused 65-95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Potassium oleate, C18, was most toxic to both German (LC50 = 0.36%) and American (LC50 = 0.17%) cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions on a substrate were tested by placing cockroaches in contact with treated floor tiles immediately after application (wet) or after the solutions had dried. Sodium laurate and potassium caprate caused mortality of German (62 +/- 17.4 and 58 +/- 12.6%, respectively) and American cockroaches (52 +/- 18.5 and 28 +/- 4.9%, respectively) on wet tiles, whereas potassium oleate caused mortality of German cockroaches (67 +/- 14.1%) only. Dry fatty acids caused no mortality among exposed cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions can be effective in killing German and American cockroaches but only when insects are thoroughly wetted with 1-2% fatty acid salt solutions.

  1. The Madagascar hissing cockroach as a novel surrogate host for Burkholderia pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Nathan A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are gram-negative pathogens responsible for the diseases melioidosis and glanders, respectively. Both species cause disease in humans and animals and have been designated as category B select agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Burkholderia thailandensis is a closely related bacterium that is generally considered avirulent for humans. While it can cause disease in rodents, the B. thailandensis 50% lethal dose (LD50 is typically ≥ 104-fold higher than the B. pseudomallei and B. mallei LD50 in mammalian models of infection. Here we describe an alternative to mammalian hosts in the study of virulence and host-pathogen interactions of these Burkholderia species. Results Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MH cockroaches possess a number of qualities that make them desirable for use as a surrogate host, including ease of breeding, ease of handling, a competent innate immune system, and the ability to survive at 37°C. MH cockroaches were highly susceptible to infection with B. pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis and the LD50 was 50 for Escherichia coli in MH cockroaches was >105 cfu. B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. thailandensis cluster 1 type VI secretion system (T6SS-1 mutants were all attenuated in MH cockroaches, which is consistent with previous virulence studies conducted in rodents. B. pseudomallei mutants deficient in the other five T6SS gene clusters, T6SS-2 through T6SS-6, were virulent in both MH cockroaches and hamsters. Hemocytes obtained from MH cockroaches infected with B. pseudomallei harbored numerous intracellular bacteria, suggesting that this facultative intracellular pathogen can survive and replicate inside of MH cockroach phagocytic cells. The hemolymph extracted from these MH cockroaches also contained multinuclear giant cells (MNGCs with intracellular B. pseudomallei, which indicates that infected hemocytes can

  2. The Madagascar hissing cockroach as a novel surrogate host for Burkholderia pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are gram-negative pathogens responsible for the diseases melioidosis and glanders, respectively. Both species cause disease in humans and animals and have been designated as category B select agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Burkholderia thailandensis is a closely related bacterium that is generally considered avirulent for humans. While it can cause disease in rodents, the B. thailandensis 50% lethal dose (LD50) is typically ≥ 104-fold higher than the B. pseudomallei and B. mallei LD50 in mammalian models of infection. Here we describe an alternative to mammalian hosts in the study of virulence and host-pathogen interactions of these Burkholderia species. Results Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MH cockroaches) possess a number of qualities that make them desirable for use as a surrogate host, including ease of breeding, ease of handling, a competent innate immune system, and the ability to survive at 37°C. MH cockroaches were highly susceptible to infection with B. pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis and the LD50 was cockroaches was >105 cfu. B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. thailandensis cluster 1 type VI secretion system (T6SS-1) mutants were all attenuated in MH cockroaches, which is consistent with previous virulence studies conducted in rodents. B. pseudomallei mutants deficient in the other five T6SS gene clusters, T6SS-2 through T6SS-6, were virulent in both MH cockroaches and hamsters. Hemocytes obtained from MH cockroaches infected with B. pseudomallei harbored numerous intracellular bacteria, suggesting that this facultative intracellular pathogen can survive and replicate inside of MH cockroach phagocytic cells. The hemolymph extracted from these MH cockroaches also contained multinuclear giant cells (MNGCs) with intracellular B. pseudomallei, which indicates that infected hemocytes can fuse while flowing through the insect’s open

  3. Investigating cockroach allergens: aiming to improve diagnosis and treatment of cockroach allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomés, Anna; Arruda, Luisa Karla

    2014-03-01

    Cockroach allergy is an important health problem associated with the development of asthma, as a consequence of chronic exposure to low levels of allergens in susceptible individuals. In the last 20 years, progress in understanding the disease has been possible, thanks to the identification and molecular cloning of cockroach allergens and their expression as recombinant proteins. Assays for assessment of environmental allergen exposure have been developed and used to measure Bla g 1 and Bla g 2, as markers of cockroach exposure. IgE antibodies to cockroach extracts and to specific purified allergens have been measured to assess sensitization and analyze association with exposure and disease. With the development of the field of structural biology and the expression of recombinant cockroach allergens, insights into allergen structure, function, epitope mapping and allergen-antibody interactions have provided further understanding of mechanisms of cockroach allergic disease at the molecular level. This information will contribute to develop new approaches to allergen avoidance and to improve diagnosis and therapy of cockroach allergy.

  4. Endotoxin Is Not Essential for the Development of Cockroach Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Cockroach (CR) is an important inhalant allergen and can induce allergic asthma. However, the mechanism by which CR induces airway allergic inflammation and the role of endotoxin in CR extract are not clearly understood in regards to the development of airway inflammation. In this study, we evaluated whether endotoxin is essential to the development of CR induced airway allergic inflammation in mice. Materials and Methods Airway allergic inflammation was induced by intranasal administ...

  5. Cockroach as the Earliest Eusocial Animal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter VR(S)ANSK(Y)

    2010-01-01

    A completely preserved cockroach Sociala perlucida gen.et sp.nov.(Blattida:Socialidae fam.nov.) is described from the Mesozoic (Albian Early Cretaceous) amber of Archingeay in France.It is categorized within the new family Socialidae,originating from the Mesozoic cockroach family Liberiblattinidae,and representing the sister group to the most basal known eutermite families.Numerous direct and indirect morphological evidence (such as a unique narrow body and pronotum with reduced coloration,legs without carination and with numerous sensiilar pitts (forelegs) as adaptations to life in nests analogical to the living termitophillous species;enlarged head,long paips for communication,a general venation modified in a direction towards termites (subcosta and radial vein [R] approximated,R branches approximated,simplified,cross-veins reduced),and possibly also the development of the breaking forewing sutura for detaching wings after marriage flight),suggest its eusociai mode of life.Thus,the first eusociality originated within cockroaches,prior to giving birth to termites;termites and Cryptocercus are not directly related.The group of eusocial cockroaches makes termite morphotaxon polyphyletic,but also in this case,the erection of a new order for mastotermites (including Cratomastotermitidae) and/or the inclusion of eusocial,morphological cockroaches within termites appears counterproductive,thus an example of such a general exception to the taxonomical procedure is provided.

  6. Cockroaches probably cleaned up after dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vršanský, Peter; van de Kamp, Thomas; Azar, Dany; Prokin, Alexander; Vidlička, L'ubomír; Vagovič, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Dinosaurs undoubtedly produced huge quantities of excrements. But who cleaned up after them? Dung beetles and flies with rapid development were rare during most of the Mesozoic. Candidates for these duties are extinct cockroaches (Blattulidae), whose temporal range is associated with herbivorous dinosaurs. An opportunity to test this hypothesis arises from coprolites to some extent extruded from an immature cockroach preserved in the amber of Lebanon, studied using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. 1.06% of their volume is filled by particles of wood with smooth edges, in which size distribution directly supports their external pre-digestion. Because fungal pre-processing can be excluded based on the presence of large particles (combined with small total amount of wood) and absence of damages on wood, the likely source of wood are herbivore feces. Smaller particles were broken down biochemically in the cockroach hind gut, which indicates that the recent lignin-decomposing termite and cockroach endosymbionts might have been transferred to the cockroach gut upon feeding on dinosaur feces.

  7. Are Cockroaches an Important Source of Indoor Endotoxins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ka Man

    2017-01-18

    Endotoxins are common indoor biocontaminants. Their levels have been shown to link to many sources and factors. One of them is cockroach infestation but the role of cockroaches and contamination mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that not only is cockroach infestation a sign of poor hygiene, but it also contributes to indoor endotoxins via fecal contamination. In this study, different cockroach species were caught in homes. The endotoxin and allergen levels and their ratios in cockroach feces were determined. To estimate the amount of indoor endotoxins that originated from cockroaches, a new approach of using these new cockroach endotoxin and allergen ratios to compare with environmental data was employed. We found that Supella (S.) longipalpa, Periplaneta (P.) australasiae, and Blattella (B.) germanica were dominant in homes. On average, P. australasiae feces had a higher level but greater variation of endotoxins. B. germanica feces had the highest levels of allergens measured. Depending on environmental bacterial load and the type of cockroaches present, cockroach endotoxins in the environment may vary greatly. Cockroaches directly contribute to indoor endotoxins rather than just being a sign of poor hygiene. The type and extent of cockroach infestation should be taken into consideration when assessing and remediating indoor endotoxin contamination.

  8. Engineered Skin Cells Control Type 2 Diabetes in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167588.html Engineered Skin Cells Control Type 2 Diabetes in Mice: Study 'Therapeutic ... technique, heralded as a major breakthrough in genetic engineering, allows scientists to make precision "edits" in DNA -- ...

  9. Self-righting behavior of cockroaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Wohrl, Toni; Lam, Han; Full, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Small insects must be able to right themselves from an upside-down orientation to survive. Previous studies described diverse self-righting strategies in insects. Here, we compare the self-righting behaviors in three cockroach species on a flat, rigid ground to begin to reveal what governs the choice of dominant behaviors. All species self-righted successfully (75 +/- 11 % probability) and quickly (as low as 140 ms and typically within 2 s). The smallest winged American cockroach, which has the most elongate, least flattened body, and longest legs, primarily pushed legs against the ground to roll its body to the side to self-right (relative frequency = 93%). The largest wingless Madagascar hissing cockroach with the shortest legs primarily (84%) hyperextended body to roll to the side and then rubbed its legs on the ground to self-right. The intermediate winged discoid cockroach, which has the least elongate, most flattened body, more often (57%) abducted wings and flexed body to raise center of mass and reduce ground contact and rotated about the wing edges to self-right. We hypothesize that, given morphological and physiological constraints, the gravitational potential energy landscape resulting from the animals' body/appendage-ground interaction governs their dominant behaviors. Our study provides inspiration for robotics, as many current terrestrial robots have rigid, cuboidal bodies which hinder self-righting.

  10. Pavlov's cockroach: classical conditioning of salivation in an insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiro Watanabe

    Full Text Available Secretion of saliva to aid swallowing and digestion is an important physiological function found in many vertebrates and invertebrates. Pavlov reported classical conditioning of salivation in dogs a century ago. Conditioning of salivation, however, has been so far reported only in dogs and humans, and its underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive because of the complexity of the mammalian brain. We previously reported that, in cockroaches Periplaneta americana, salivary neurons that control salivation exhibited increased responses to an odor after conditioning trials in which the odor was paired with sucrose solution. However, no direct evidence of conditioning of salivation was obtained. In this study, we investigated the effects of conditioning trials on the level of salivation. Untrained cockroaches exhibited salivary responses to sucrose solution applied to the mouth but not to peppermint or vanilla odor applied to an antenna. After differential conditioning trials in which an odor was paired with sucrose solution and another odor was presented without pairing with sucrose solution, sucrose-associated odor induced an increase in the level of salivation, but the odor presented alone did not. The conditioning effect lasted for one day after conditioning trials. This study demonstrates, for the first time, classical conditioning of salivation in species other than dogs and humans, thereby providing the first evidence of sophisticated neural control of autonomic function in insects. The results provide a useful model system for studying cellular basis of conditioning of salivation in the simpler nervous system of insects.

  11. Insecticidal Properties of Essential Oils and Some of Their Constituents on the Turkestan Cockroach (Blattodea: Blattidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaire, Sudip; O'Connell, Mary; Holguin, Francisco O; Amatya, Anup; Bundy, Scott; Romero, Alvaro

    2017-04-01

    The Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis (Walker), has become the most important peridomestic species in urban areas of the Southwestern United States. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of botanical compounds to control this urban pest. We tested the acute toxicity and repellency of six botanical constituents and three essential oils on Turkestan cockroach nymphs. Chemical composition of the essential oils was also determined. Topical and fumigant assays with nymphs showed that thymol was the most toxic essential oil constituent, with a LD50 of 0.34 mg/nymph and a LC50 of 27.6 mg/liter air, respectively. Contact toxicity was also observed in assays with trans-Cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, geraniol, methyl eugenol, and p-Cymene. Methyl eugenol and geraniol had limited fumigant toxicity. The essential oils from red thyme, clove bud, and Java citronella exhibited toxicity against nymphs. Cockroaches avoided fresh dry residues of thymol and essential oils. Chemical analysis of the essential oils confirmed high contents of effective essential oil constituents. Our results demonstrated that essential oils and some of their constituents have potential as eco-friendly insecticides for the management of Turkestan cockroaches. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Coping with parvovirus infections in mice: health surveillance and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Lydia M; Bleich, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Parvoviruses of mice, minute virus of mice (MVM) and mouse parvovirus (MPV), are challenging pathogens to eradicate from laboratory animal facilities. Due to the impediment on rodent-based research, recent studies have focused on the assessment of re-derivation techniques and parvoviral potential to induce persistent infections. Summarizing recent data, this review gives an overview on studies associated with parvoviral impact on research, diagnostic methods, parvoviral persistence and re-derivation techniques, demonstrating the complex nature of parvovirus infection in mice and unfolding the challenge of controlling parvovirus infections in laboratory animal facilities.

  13. Cockroaches keep predators guessing by using preferred escape trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenici, P.; Booth, D.; Blagburn, J.M.; Bacon, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Anti-predator behaviour is vital for most animals, and calls for accurate timing and swift motion. While fast reaction times [1] and predictable, context-dependent, escape initiation distances [2] are common features of most escape systems, previous work has highlighted the need for unpredictability in escape directions, in order to prevent predators from learning a repeated, fixed pattern [3–5]. Ultimate unpredictability would result from random escape trajectories. Although this strategy would deny any predictive power to the predator, it would also result in some escape trajectories towards the threat. Previous work has shown that escape trajectories are in fact generally directed away from the threat, although with a high variability [5–8]. However, the rules governing this variability are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate tha t individual cockroaches (Periplaneta americana, a much studied model prey species [9–14]) keep each escape unpredictable by running along one of a set of preferred trajectories at fixed angles from the direction of the threatening stimulus. These results provide a new paradigm for understanding the behavio ural strategies for escape responses, underscoring the need to revisit the neural mechanisms controlling escape directions in the cockroach and similar animal models, and the evolutionary forces driving unpredictable, or “protean” [3], anti-predator behaviour. PMID:19013065

  14. 城区居民家庭蟑螂侵害现状及防治对策%Invasion situation of cockroach and its control strategies in urban area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶慧; 崔华; 宋华

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解和掌握曲阜市蟑螂种群分布和密度情况,为制定蟑螂防治对策提供科学依据.方法 采用粘捕法、药激法2种调查方法.结果 本次共调查房间388间,捕获蟑螂497只,均为德国小蠊,其中成虫312只、占62.78%,若虫185只、占37.22%,蟑螂平均侵害率为37.27%,蟑螂粘捕盒法平均密度指数为0.52只/(盒·夜).结论 曲阜市蟑螂在不同行业和场所的分布及侵害情况比较严重,必须加强对重点行业的管理,采取综合防治措施.%Objective In order to understand and grasp species and density of cockroach in urban area of Qufu city and provide scientific data for cotrolling. Methods Sticky traps nightly and insecticide stimulating method. Results Of the investigated rooms,497 cockroaches were caught. They were all Blattella germanica. The adult and nymph were 312 and 185 pieces,occupied 62.78% and 37.22% respectively. The average invasion rate reached 37.27%. The average index denisty was 0. 52 pieces per box for every night. Conclusion The distribution and invasion of cockroaches are severe in different place. It is necessary to strengthen the management for important place and cotrol the expandsion of cockroaches with integrated management in Qufu city.

  15. Cockroaches as carriers of fungi of medical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, A A; Lemos, J A; Prado, M A; Pimenta, F C; Gir, E; Silva, H M; Silva, M R R

    2006-01-01

    The fungal pathogenic flora of the external surface of 103 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) collected from the intensive care unit of a hospital were investigated. In this study, a high percentage of test cockroaches (93.2%) were found to carry fungi of medical importance. The main fungi isolated were species of Candida, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Information about the carriage of pathogenic fungi by cockroaches in hospital environment is scanty. The results suggest that cockroaches can play a role in dissemination of fungi, which they can carry on their external surface.

  16. Identification of cockroach aeroallergens from living cultures of German or American cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, R M; Burks, W; Williams, L W; Milne, D E; Brenner, R J

    1993-01-01

    The Air Sentinel and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes were used to capture airborne particles over living colonies of German or American cockroaches. Silver-stained SDS-PAGE gels revealed protein bands at 80, 55, 36, and several bands below the 33-kD marker. SDS-PAGE/immunoblots of PTFE eluates from German cockroach colonies incubated with serum from cockroach-sensitive individuals revealed IgE-binding bands with apparent molecular weights of 36 and 80 kD. Only the 36-kD allergen and allergens below the 33-kD marker were evident in the American PTFE eluate. ELISA analysis with a monoclonal antibody assay identified the presence of both Bla g I and Bla g II in the German PTFE eluate. No Bla g I or Bla g II could be identified in the American PTFE eluate. These studies demonstrate that in addition to Bla g I and Bla g II, several other aerosolized allergens become airborne over cockroach colonies and may be important in the environment where cockroaches are abundant.

  17. Unidirectional Cross-Resistance in German Cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae) Populations Under Exposure to Insecticidal Baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dangsheng; McGill, Jade; Pietri, Jose E

    2017-08-01

    Insect pests, including the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), are prone to the development of physiological resistance when exposed to a number of insecticide sprays, and cross-resistance is frequently observed. Toxic baits are often used as a primary method of controlling German cockroaches, also resulting in heavy selection pressure from insecticidal baits. In response to this pressure, cockroach populations have developed aversion to specific inert ingredients in bait. Here, we examined the effect of exposure to baits containing fipronil, indoxacarb, or hydramethylnon on the development of physiological resistance to the same and other insecticides in a number of German cockroach strains. We found that prolonged exposure to baits containing fipronil or indoxacarb increased physiological resistance to these compounds. However, no increase in physiological resistance against any insecticide was observed in response to exposure to hydramethylnon bait. Additionally, we found that exposure to fipronil bait increased cross-resistance to indoxacarb. On the other hand, exposure to indoxacarb bait did not increase cross-resistance to fipronil. Neither fipronil nor indoxacarb bait exposure increased resistance to hydramethylnon. Interestingly, the development of insecticide resistance in response to bait exposure was strain-dependent and influenced by bait palatability. Our results demonstrate that exposure to toxic baits, particularly those containing fipronil, plays a significant role in the development of insecticide resistance, including cross-resistance, in German cockroaches. Further, although insecticide resistance in response to baits is mediated by exposure through the oral route, the molecular mechanisms at play are likely different for each insecticide. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Pyrethroid resistance and cross-resistance in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y; Appel, A G; Moar, W J; Liu, N

    2001-11-01

    A German cockroach (Blatella germanica (L)) strain, Apyr-R, was collected from Opelika, Alabama after control failures with pyrethroid insecticides. Levels of resistance to permethrin and deltamethrin in Apyr-R (97- and 480-fold, respectively, compared with a susceptible strain, ACY) were partially or mostly suppressed by piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S,-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF), suggesting that P450 monooxygenases and hydrolases are involved in resistance to these two pyrethroids in Apyr-R. However, incomplete suppression of pyrethroid resistance with PBO and DEF implies that one or more additional mechanisms are involved in resistance. Injection, compared with topical application, resulted in 43- and 48-fold increases in toxicity of permethrin in ACY and Apyr-R, respectively. Similarly, injection increased the toxicity of deltamethrin 27-fold in ACY and 28-fold in Apyr-R. These data indicate that cuticular penetration is one of the obstacles for the effectiveness of pyrethroids against German cockroaches. However, injection did not change the levels of resistance to either permethrin or deltamethrin, suggesting that a decrease in the rate of cuticular penetration may not play an important role in pyrethroid resistance in Apyr-R. Apyr-R showed cross-resistance to imidacloprid, with a resistance ratio of 10. PBO treatment resulted in no significant change in the toxicity of imidacloprid, implying that P450 monooxygenase-mediated detoxication is not the mechanism responsible for cross-resistance. Apyr-R showed no cross-resistance to spinosad, although spinosad had relatively low toxicity to German cockroaches compared with other insecticides tested in this study. This result further confirmed that the mode of action of spinosad to insects is unique. Fipronil, a relatively new insecticide, was highly toxic to German cockroaches, and the multi-resistance mechanisms in Apyr-R did not confer significant cross-resistance to this compound. Thus, we propose

  19. Local enhancement promotes cockroach feeding aggregations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lihoreau

    Full Text Available Communication and learning from each other are part of the success of animal societies. Social insects invest considerable effort into signalling to their nestmates the locations of the most profitable resources in their environment. Growing evidence also indicates that insects glean such information through cues inadvertently provided by their conspecifics. Here, we investigate social information use in the foraging decisions by gregarious cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.. Individual cockroaches given a simultaneous choice in a Y-olfactometer between the odour of feeding conspecifics and the mixed odour of food plus non-feeding conspecifics showed a preference for the arm scented with the odour of feeding conspecifics. Social information (the presence of feeding conspecifics was produced by cockroaches of all age classes and perceived at short distance in the olfactometer arms, suggesting the use of inadvertently provided cues rather than signals. We discuss the nature of these cues and the role of local enhancement (the selection of a location based on cues associated with the presence of conspecifics in the formation of feeding aggregations in B. germanica. Similar cue-mediated recruitments could underpin a wide range of collective behaviours in group-living insects.

  20. A Cockroach-Like Hexapod Robot for Natural Terrain Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Neuroethology. Birch, M. C, Quinn, R. D., Zill , S. N., Ritzmann, R. E. (1998) "A Model Cockroach Leg for Sensori-motor Studies," The Fifth International...S.N. Zill , R.E. Ritzmann, (1998). Kinematics and leg muscle activity in cockroaches climbing over obstacles. The Fifth International Congress of

  1. Controlled exercise is a safe pregnancy intervention in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Kristen M; Charnigo, Richard J; Kincer, Jeanie F; Dickens, Brett J; Pearson, Kevin J

    2013-09-01

    During pregnancy, women often show a willingness to make positive lifestyle changes, such as smoking cessation, initiation of a vitamin regimen, improvement of their diet, and increases in their levels of exercise or physical activity. To study health outcomes in both pregnant mice and their offspring, we developed a model of controlled maternal exercise during mouse pregnancy. Female ICR and C57BL/6 mice underwent controlled wheel walking for 1 h daily, 5 d each week, at a speed of 6 m/min prior to and during pregnancy and nursing. Dam body weight, food consumption, pregnancy rates, litter size, pup weights and litter survival were used as markers of pregnancy success and were not significantly affected by controlled maternal exercise. The proposed exercise paradigm is a safe pregnancy intervention and can be explored further.

  2. 医院蟑螂密度调查及防治措施研究%Investigation on cockroach density and its killing method in the hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国生; 韩晓莉; 王喜明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To kill and control cockroaches effectively in hospital. Methods Controlling cockroaches using integrated management which included insecticides and environmental control measurement. Using cockroaches adhesive killing method. Results There were 133 rooms in the hospital. The density of cockroaches was 2.21 pieces in every room,the invasion rate was 79.69%. After management,the density reduced to 0.10 pieces in every room, the invasion rate was 1. 55% . The decline rate of cockroach density was 98. 06% after the integrated prevevtion by the combination of surrounding management and chemical pesticide application. Conclusion It is serious of cockroaches in the hospital and integrated management should be taken to control the cockroaches.%目的 有效杀灭和预防控制医院内蟑螂危害.方法 采取药物和环境综合防治措施,采取粘捕法进行蟑螂密度监测.结果 全院调查133个房间,防治前阳性房间平均密度指数为2.21只/(盒·夜),侵害率为79.69%,防治后阳性房间平均密度指数为0.10只/(盒·夜),侵害率为1.55%,医院蟑螂密度下降率为98.06%.结论 医院内蟑螂危害严重,要采取综合防治措施才可有效控制蟑螂.

  3. Laboratory investigations on the effect of selected disinfectants on survival of the cockroaches Blattella germanica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racewicz, M

    1983-01-01

    It was ascertained that lysol 2% and 5% showed the most toxic effect in control of cockroaches in the contact method (23.3% and 95.5% mortality after 24 hours of exposure), and that chloramine 1%, 3% and 5% was the most effective food poison (after 19 days exposure 100% of the insects died). When injecting disinfectant into the body cavity, the cockroaches showed a ten times higher sensibility to formalin and chloramine than to lysol. The use, however, of disinfectant in the contact method (particularly lysol 2%) together with an insecticide based on propoxur, allowed to reduce its dose to a half, what gave better results than the use of an insecticide alone in a normal dose.

  4. Neuromechanical response of musculo-skeletal structures in cockroaches during rapid running on rough terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponberg, S; Full, R J

    2008-02-01

    A musculo-skeletal structure can stabilize rapid locomotion using neural and/or mechanical feedback. Neural feedback results in an altered feedforward activation pattern, whereas mechanical feedback using visco-elastic structures does not require a change in the neural motor code. We selected musculo-skeletal structures in the cockroach (Blaberus discoidalis) because their single motor neuron innervation allows the simplest possible characterization of activation. We ran cockroaches over a track with randomized blocks of heights up to three times the animal's ;hip' (1.5 cm), while recording muscle action potentials (MAPs) from a set of putative control musculo-skeletal structures (femoral extensors 178 and 179). Animals experienced significant perturbations in body pitch, roll and yaw, but reduced speed by less than 20%. Surprisingly, we discovered no significant difference in the distribution of the number of MAPs, the interspike interval, burst phase or interburst period between flat and rough terrain trials. During a few very large perturbations or when a single leg failed to make contact throughout stance, neural feedback was detectable as a phase shift of the central rhythm and alteration of MAP number. System level responses of appendages were consistent with a dominant role of mechanical feedback. Duty factors and gait phases did not change for cockroaches running on flat versus rough terrain. Cockroaches did not use a follow-the-leader gait requiring compensatory corrections on a step-by-step basis. Arthropods appear to simplify control on rough terrain by rapid running that uses kinetic energy to bridge gaps between footholds and distributed mechanical feedback to stabilize the body.

  5. 常州市蜚蠊种群分布及侵害调查%Investigation on the population distribution and infestation of the cockroaches in Changzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹淦; 张建陶; 王鹂; 林琴; 赵立凡

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To grasp the population distribution and infestation situation of cockroaches so as to provide evidences for scientific control of cockroach in Changzhou. METHODS Used sticky card trap method. RESULTS There were 3 species of cockroaches distributing and testing for 3 species under 2 genera, 2 families, and Blattella germanica was the dominant species, accounting for 93.39%. The infestation rate of cockroaches reached 46.98% , infestation situation of cockroaches in farm produce trade market was the most serious, the others were restaurants, supermarkets, hotels, food making rooms, bar and tea rooms, bathrooms. CONCLUSION The infestation with cockroaches is seriously in Changzhou. The effective measures should be taken to prevent and control the cockroaches.%目的 掌握常州市蜚蠊种群分布和侵害状况,为科学防制提供依据.方法 采用粘捕法.结果全市共有3种蜚蠊分布,分类鉴定为2科2属3种,优势种为德国小蠊,占93.39%.蜚蠊侵害率为46.98%,农贸市场侵害最严重,其他有餐饮业、商场超市、宾馆、食品加工厂、酒吧茶室、浴室.结论 常州市各行业蜚蠊侵害严重,应采取有效措施进行防制.

  6. Treating cockroach phobia with augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Cristina; Bretón-López, Juani; Quero, Soledad; Baños, Rosa; García-Palacios, Azucena

    2010-09-01

    In vivo exposure is the recommended treatment of choice for specific phobias; however, it demonstrates a high attrition rate and is not effective in all instances. The use of virtual reality (VR) has improved the acceptance of exposure treatments to some individuals. Augmented reality (AR) is a variation of VR wherein the user sees the real world augmented by virtual elements. The present study tests an AR system in the short (posttreatment) and long term (3, 6, and 12 months) for the treatment of cockroach phobia using a multiple baseline design across individuals (with 6 participants). The AR exposure therapy was applied using the "one-session treatment" guidelines developed by Ost, Salkovskis, and Hellström (1991). Results showed that AR was effective at treating cockroach phobia. All participants improved significantly in all outcome measures after treatment; furthermore, the treatment gains were maintained at 3, 6, and 12-month follow-up periods. This study discusses the advantages of AR as well as its potential applications.

  7. Serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors improve micturition control in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Redaelli

    Full Text Available Poor micturition control may cause profound distress, because proper voiding is mandatory for an active social life. Micturition results from the subtle interplay of central and peripheral components. It involves the coordination of autonomic and neuromuscular activity at the brainstem level, under the executive control of the prefrontal cortex. We tested the hypothesis that administration of molecules acting as reuptake inhibitors of serotonin, noradrenaline or both may exert a strong effect on the control of urine release, in a mouse model of overactive bladder. Mice were injected with cyclophosphamide (40 mg/kg, to increase micturition acts. Mice were then given one of four molecules: the serotonin reuptake inhibitor imipramine, its metabolite desipramine that acts on noradrenaline reuptake, the serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor duloxetine or its active metabolite 4-hydroxy-duloxetine. Cyclophosphamide increased urine release without inducing overt toxicity or inflammation, except for increase in urothelium thickness. All the antidepressants were able to decrease the cyclophosphamide effects, as apparent from longer latency to the first micturition act, decreased number of urine spots and volume of released urine. These results suggest that serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors exert a strong and effective modulatory effect on the control of urine release and prompt to additional studies on their central effects on brain areas involved in the social and behavioral control of micturition.

  8. Repellent activity of essential oils against cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattidae, Blattellidae, and Blaberidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Bhakdeenuan, Payu; Wongsinkongman, Prapai; Boonruad, Thidarat; Bansiddhi, Jaree; Chavalittumrong, Pranee; Komalamisra, Narumon; Siriyasatien, Padet; Mulla, Mir S

    2007-07-01

    Seven commercial essential oils extracted from the plant species Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf., Citrus hystrix DC., Curcuma longa L., Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers., Piper nigrum L., Psidium guajava L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and naphthalene as a control, were evaluated for repellent activity against the three cockroach species Periplaneta americana (L.), Blattella germanica (L.) and Neostylopyga rhombifolia (Stoll) under laboratory conditions. The essential oil derived from Citrus hystrix showed the best repellency over other candidate essential oils and naphthalene. The essential oil of Citrus hystrix exhibited complete repellency (100%) against P. americana and B. germanica, and also showed the highest repellency (among the essential oils tested) of about 87.5% against N. rhombifolia under laboratory conditions. In the field, Citrus hystrix essential oil formulated as a 20% active ingredient in ethanol and some additives provided satisfactory repellency of up to 86% reduction in cockroaches, mostly P. americana and N. rhombifolia with a residual effect lasting a week after treatment. Citrus hystrix essential oil has good potential for being used as a cockroach repellent. Further improvements in efficacy and residual activity may be realized with appropriate formulations.

  9. 蟑螂驱避剂的研究现状%The research status of cockroach repellent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雅红; 肖义军

    2016-01-01

    蟑螂是一类常见的病媒昆虫,目前主要采取化学杀虫剂的办法来防治,但存在污染环境和抗药性问题,在某些场合还存在不适合使用杀虫剂的问题。采用驱避剂驱赶昆虫来防治蟑螂是一种值得探索的方法。驱避剂是一类能引起害虫产生忌避作用的化学物质,驱避剂的使用历史悠久。文中就近年来蟑螂驱避剂的研究现状进行综述。%Cockroaches are a class of common insect vectors. At present, chemical pesticides is a mainly measure to combat with cockroaches, but environmental pollution and resistance are the problems that difficult to solve. Some occasions there is a problem for the use of pesticides which is not allowed. Driven by the use of insect repellents to control cockroaches is a method worth explor-ing. Repellents are a class chemical substances that can cause pest shelter, and the use of repellent has a long history. This paper summarizes recent research on the status of the cockroach repellent.

  10. Cockroaches (Blattaria) of Ecuador-checklist and history of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidlička, Lubomír

    2013-01-09

    Cockroaches are an understudied group and the total number of described taxa increases every year. The last checklist of Ecuador species was published in 1926. The main aim of this study was to complete a new checklist of cockroach species recorded in Ecuador supplemented with a research history of cockroaches (Blattaria) on the territory of continental Ecuador. In addition, the checklist contains comments on Ecuadorian faunistic records, including the Galápagos Islands. A total of 114 species (105 in continental Ecuador and 18 in Galápagos Islands) belonging to 6 families and 44 genera are listed. Forty species (38.1 %) occur solely in continental Ecuador and five (27.8 %) are endemic on Galápagos Islands. The results indicate that further research on the cockroach fauna of Ecuador as well as determination of museum collections from this territory is needed.

  11. Toxicity of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillium muscarium against a field-collected strain of the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, B; Limoee, M; Khodavaisy, S; Zamini, G; Izadi, S

    2015-09-01

    The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) has been recognized as a serious health problem throughout the world. Control failures due to insecticide resistance and chemical contamination of environment have led some researchers focus on the other alternative strategy controls. Microbial insecticides such as those containing entomo pathogenic fungi could be of high significance. Lecanicillium muscarium and Beauveria bassiana grow naturally in soils throughout the world and act as a parasite on various arthropod species, causing white muscardine disease. Thus, these two species could be considered as entomopathogenic fungi. The current study conducted to evaluate the toxicity of Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillium muscarium against German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Conidial formulations of L. muscarium (PTCC 5184) and B. bassiana (PTCC5197) were prepared in aqueous suspensions with Tween 20. Bioassays were performed using two methods including submersion of cockroaches in conidial suspension and baiting. Data were analyzed by Probit program and LC50 and LC90 were estimated. The obtained results indicated that both fungi species were toxic against German cockroach however; Beauveria bassiana was significantly 4.8 fold more toxic than L. muscarium against German cockroach using submersion method.

  12. 9 CFR 355.16 - Control of flies, rats, mice, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of flies, rats, mice, etc. 355.16 Section 355.16 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF....16 Control of flies, rats, mice, etc. Flies, rats, mice, and other vermin shall be excluded...

  13. On triatomines, cockroaches and haemolymphagy under laboratory conditions: new discoveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Durán

    Full Text Available For a long time, haematophagy was considered an obligate condition for triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae to complete their life cycle. Today, the ability to use haemolymphagy is suggested to represent an important survival strategy for some species, especially those in genus Belminus. As Eratyrus mucronatus and Triatoma boliviana are found with cockroaches in the Blaberinae subfamily in Bolivia, their developmental cycle from egg to adult under a “cockroach diet” was studied. The results suggested that having only cockroach haemolymph as a food source compromised development cycle completion in both species. Compared to a “mouse diet”, the cockroach diet increased: (i the mortality at each nymphal instar; (ii the number of feedings needed to molt; (iii the volume of the maximum food intake; and (iv the time needed to molt. In conclusion, haemolymph could effectively support survival in the field in both species. Nevertheless, under laboratory conditions, the use of haemolymphagy as a survival strategy in the first developmental stages of these species was not supported, as their mortality was very high. Finally, when Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius stali and Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus species were reared on a cockroach diet under similar conditions, all died rather than feeding on cockroaches. These results are discussed in the context of the ecology of each species.

  14. Olfactory discrimination of structurally similar alcohols by cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakura, M; Okada, R; Mizunami, M

    2002-11-01

    The capability of the cockroach Periplaneta americana to discriminate odors of structurally similar aliphatic alcohols was studied by using an operant conditioning paradigm. Cockroaches were trained to discriminate three odors: one odor associated with sucrose solution (reward) and two odors associated with NaCl solution (non-reward). After training, their odor preferences were tested by counting the number of visits to each odor source. We tested the capability of cockroaches to discriminate (1) three normal aliphatic alcohols with different numbers of carbon (1-pentanol, 1-hexanol and 1-octanol), (2) three C6 aliphatic alcohols (1-hexanol, 2-hexanol and trans-2-hexen-1-ol), (3) binary mixtures of two of these three alcohols and their components, and (4) 1-hexanol solution of three different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 micro g micro l(-1)). Cockroaches exhibited higher preferences for the odors associated with reward in these tests, and we therefore conclude that cockroaches can discriminate these odors. However, discrimination of 1-hexanol and trans-2-hexen-1-ol and their binary mixture was imperfect, in that some statistical tests suggested significant level of discrimination but other tests did not. In addition, the cockroaches learned to associate a 1-hexanol solution of the highest or lowest concentration with sucrose reward but failed to learn to associate 1-hexanol of an intermediate concentration with reward.

  15. On triatomines, cockroaches and haemolymphagy under laboratory conditions: new discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Pamela; Siñani, Edda; Depickère, Stéphanie

    2016-10-01

    For a long time, haematophagy was considered an obligate condition for triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to complete their life cycle. Today, the ability to use haemolymphagy is suggested to represent an important survival strategy for some species, especially those in genus Belminus. As Eratyrus mucronatus and Triatoma boliviana are found with cockroaches in the Blaberinae subfamily in Bolivia, their developmental cycle from egg to adult under a "cockroach diet" was studied. The results suggested that having only cockroach haemolymph as a food source compromised development cycle completion in both species. Compared to a "mouse diet", the cockroach diet increased: (i) the mortality at each nymphal instar; (ii) the number of feedings needed to molt; (iii) the volume of the maximum food intake; and (iv) the time needed to molt. In conclusion, haemolymph could effectively support survival in the field in both species. Nevertheless, under laboratory conditions, the use of haemolymphagy as a survival strategy in the first developmental stages of these species was not supported, as their mortality was very high. Finally, when Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius stali and Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus species were reared on a cockroach diet under similar conditions, all died rather than feeding on cockroaches. These results are discussed in the context of the ecology of each species.

  16. How cockroaches exploit tactile boundaries to find new shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daltorio, Kathryn A; Mirletz, Brian T; Sterenstein, Andrea; Cheng, Jui Chun; Watson, Adam; Kesavan, Malavika; Bender, John A; Martin, Joshua; Ritzmann, Roy E; Quinn, Roger D

    2015-10-23

    Animals such as cockroaches depend on exploration of unknown environments, and their strategies may inspire robotic approaches. We have previously shown that cockroach behavior, with respect to shelters and the walls of an otherwise empty arena, can be captured with a stochastic state-based algorithm. We call this algorithm RAMBLER, randomized algorithm mimicking biased lone exploration in roaches. In this work, we verified and extended this model by adding a barrier in the previously used arena and conducted more cockroach experiments. In two arena configurations, our simulated model's path length distribution was similar to the experimental distribution (mean experimental path length 3.4 and 3.2 m, mean simulated path length 3.9 and 3.3 m). By analyzing cockroach behavior before, along, and at the end of the barrier, we have generalized RAMBLER to address arbitrarily complex 2D mazes. For biology, this is an abstract behavioral model of a decision-making process in the cockroach brain. For robotics, this is a strategy that may improve exploration for goals, especially in unpredictable environments with non-convex obstacles. Generally, cockroach behavior seems to recommend variability in the absence of planning, and following paths defined by walls.

  17. On triatomines, cockroaches and haemolymphagy under laboratory conditions: new discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Pamela; Siñani, Edda; Depickère, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, haematophagy was considered an obligate condition for triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to complete their life cycle. Today, the ability to use haemolymphagy is suggested to represent an important survival strategy for some species, especially those in genus Belminus. As Eratyrus mucronatus and Triatoma boliviana are found with cockroaches in the Blaberinae subfamily in Bolivia, their developmental cycle from egg to adult under a “cockroach diet” was studied. The results suggested that having only cockroach haemolymph as a food source compromised development cycle completion in both species. Compared to a “mouse diet”, the cockroach diet increased: (i) the mortality at each nymphal instar; (ii) the number of feedings needed to molt; (iii) the volume of the maximum food intake; and (iv) the time needed to molt. In conclusion, haemolymph could effectively support survival in the field in both species. Nevertheless, under laboratory conditions, the use of haemolymphagy as a survival strategy in the first developmental stages of these species was not supported, as their mortality was very high. Finally, when Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius stali and Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus species were reared on a cockroach diet under similar conditions, all died rather than feeding on cockroaches. These results are discussed in the context of the ecology of each species. PMID:27706376

  18. 郑州市蟑螂种群密度及侵害情况的调查研究%Investigation on cockroach density and infestation in Zhengzhou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁中良; 王广州; 王志刚; 韩曲波

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解郑州市蟑螂种群密度和侵害情况,为蟑螂防治提供科学依据.方法 采用粘捕法对郑州市三区监测点进行蟑螂侵害、密度情况调查.结果 在各类环境共捕获蟑螂3 843只,平均侵害率为16.66%,密度为2.33只/张.德国小蠊占98.41%,为优势种群.结论 德国小蠊为优势种群,餐饮业、宾馆、农贸市场、浴池密度较高.应采取综合防治措施,有效降低蟑螂侵害率,控制蟑螂密度.%Objective To understand the infestation and density of cockroach, and provide scientific basis for killing cockroach in Zhengzhou city. Methods Using sticky traps to investigate cockroach infestation and density situation at three test points. Results Totally 3 843 cockroaches were caught in different environments in Zhengzhou city in 2010. The average infestation rate reached 16. 66%. The average index of density was 2. 33 pieces. Blattella germanica(9&. 41% ) was the dominant species in various environments. Conclusion Blattella germanica is the dominant species in various environment. There are high density of cockroaches in catering trades, hotel, agricultural market and public baths. It is necessary to take comprehensive control measures and strengthen the technical training to prevent and control cockroaches. Using drugs rationally so as to reduce the infestation rate of cockroaches and control the density of cockroaches effectively.

  19. Prevalence of sensitivity to cockroach allergens and IgE crossreactivity between cockroach and house dust mite allergens in Chinese patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bao-qing; LAI Xu-xin; Birgitte Gjesing; Michael Dho Spangfort; ZHONG Nan-shan

    2010-01-01

    Background Cockroaches are an important indoor allergen source causing allergic rhinitis and asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the cockroach prevalence in mainland of China and the cross-reactivity of IgE between cockroach and house dust mite allergen in Chinese patients.Methods The cockroach sensitization pattern was based on a skin prick test (SPT) obtained from a national multicenter prevalence study, in which 6304 patients from 25 allergy centers across China participated. Factors, including different regions of China, age, gender and the correlations between the American and German cockroaches and house dust mite Der p were investigated. Eighteen out of 1236 clinical sera from south China were selected to perform the cross-inhibition assay between house dust mites and cockroaches.Results Totally 25.7% of patients were SPT positive to the American cockroach (Periplaneta Americana, Per a) and 18.7% SPT positive to the German cockroach (Blattella germanica, Bla g). The prevalence of positive cockroach SPT was higher in southern than in northern China, higher in adults than in children, and higher in males than in females.Patients had relatively low levels of cockroach SPT reactions, mainly class 1 or 2. Of the SPT positive cockroach patients,88% were also SPT positive to house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Der p). An IgE cross-inhibition study confirmed that Der P sensitization could cause false positive SPT reactions against cockroach.Conclusions A relatively high prevalence of cockroach sensitivity was found in mainland of China. However, a cross-inhibition study showed that only a small number of patients appear to have Bla g and/or Per a as primary sensitizing source. The importance of cockroaches as a risk factor for sensitization and triggers of allergic symptoms in mainland of China needs to be further investigated.

  20. 重庆市蟑螂种类及其地理分布研究%Species and geographical distribution of cockroach in Chongqing city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯绍全; 季恒青; 何亚明; 杜江; 赵显伦; 刘南; 朱兵

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the species and geographical distribution of cockroach in Chongqing city. Methods Using bait trap,glue trap and medicine eliminates to catch cockroach,and bring them back to identify in laboratory. Moreover,sorting and analyzing data according to relevant literature searching. Results A total of 13 species of cockroach belonging to 8 genera of 4 branch were recorded in Chongqing city,and their geographical distribution in Chongqing city were described too. Conclusion This investigation will provide scientific basis for controlling cockroach and prevent harm of cockroach in Chongqing city.%目的 摸清重庆市蟑螂种类及其地理分布.方法采用诱捕法、粘捕法和药杀法等收集蟑螂标本进行分类鉴定,并查阅有关文献资料进行分析整理.结果发现重庆市有蟑螂13种,隶属4科8属,并对其地理分布进行了描述.结论为重庆市制定有效的蟑螂防治措施,预防和控制蟑螂的危害提供了科学依据.

  1. Endogenous and environmental factors influence the dietary fractionation of 13C and 15N in hissing cockroaches Gromphadorhina portentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D

    2008-01-01

    Since DeNiro and Epstein's discovery that the (13)C and (15)N isotopic signatures of animals approximate those of their respective diets, the measurement of stable isotope signatures has become an important tool for ecologists studying the diets of wild animals. This study used Madagascar hissing cockroaches (Gromphadorhina portentosa) to examine several preexisting hypotheses about the relationship between the isotopic composition of an animal and its diet. Contrary to my predictions, the results revealed that the tissues of adult cockroaches raised for two generations on a diet of known isotopic composition did not demonstrate enrichment of heavy stable isotopes. Moreover, the (15)N signatures of cockroaches were neither influenced by periods of rapid growth (i.e., 300-fold increase in dry body mass over 120 d) nor by imposed periods of starvation lasting up to 80 d. The offspring born to mothers raised on known diets were enriched in (15)N. Diet-switching experiments showed that turnover times of (13)C were highly correlated with age and ranged from 9 to 10 d to 60 to 75 d in subadults and adults, respectively. Adults subjected to diet switches differed from the subadults in that the adults achieved equilibrated isotopic signatures that were shifted approximately 1.0 per thousand toward their respective original diets. Lipid fractions of adult cockroaches averaged 2.9 per thousand more depleted in (13)C than in lipid-free fractions, but no changes in (13)C were observed in aging adults. Exposure to reduced ambient temperature from 33 degrees C to 23 degrees C over 120 d did not influence isotopic signatures of tissues. Overall, the results of this study reveal that different endogenous and exogenous factors can influence the isotopic signatures of cockroaches. These findings reinforce the need to conduct controlled studies to further examine environmental factors that influence the relationships between the isotopic signatures of animals and their diets.

  2. Photodynamic therapy controls of Staphylococcus aureus intradermal infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Palloma Porto; Pereira, Ítalo Sousa; Rodrigues, Karine Bitencourt; Leal, Lorena Santos; Marques, Andressa Souza; Rosa, Luciano Pereira; da Silva, Francine Cristina; da Silva, Robson Amaro Augusto

    2017-08-01

    Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus lead to skin infections, as well as soft tissues and bone infections. Given the communal resistance to antibiotics developed by strains of this bacterium, photodynamic therapy emerges as a promising alternative treatment to control and cure infections. Females of the Balb/C mice were infected with 10(8) CFU of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and divided into four distinct groups: P-L- (negative control group), P+L- (group exposed only to curcumin), P-L+ (group exposed only to LED incidence of 450 nm, 75 mW/cm(2), and 54 J/cm(2) for 10 min), and P+L+ (group exposed to curcumin followed by 10 min of LED irradiation) (n = 24). The mice were euthanized 48 and 72 h after infection, and biologic materials were collected for analysis of the bacterial load, peripheral blood leukocyte counts, and draining lymph nodes cell counts. The normalization of data was checked and the ANOVA test was applied. The bacterial load in the draining lymph node of P+L+ group was lower when compared to the control groups 72 h post infection (p < 0.0001), indicating that the LED incidence associated with curcumin controls of the staphylococci intradermal infection. The number of the total lymph node cells shows to be lower than control groups in the two availed times (p < 0.01). The histological analysis and the counting of white blood cells did not show differences among cells in the blood and in the tissue of infection. This is the first report showing that photodynamic therapy may be effective against MRSA infection in a murine model of intradermal infection.

  3. Survey of Susceptibility of Cockroaches To Pyrethroids Insecticides in sari Hospital in 1383

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Enayati, Ph.D

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: The medical importance of cockroaches is much greater than what has generally been realized. They are known to carry pathogenic viruses and bacteria such as escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and salmonella species including S.typhi and S.typhimurium. As a result, their eradication is very important.Materials and Methods: One of the best and effective ways of controlling cockoaches is thought to be the chemical method, which is performed by insecticides. It should be stated that the chemical treatment must be combined with enviromental sanitation, otherwise, the results will not be satisfactory. This study was carried out by using four different insecticides like: Permethrin 0.92% Deltamethrin 0.98% and Supermithrin 0.92% to evaluate their susceptibility and resistance.In this study, the cockroaches were collected from Imam Khomeini and Boo Ali Hospitals in Sari and were tested by different cocentrations of above -mentioned insecticides. Susecptibility of cockroaches was performed according to the standards of World Health Organization (W.H.O.Results: In this study, all the strains of cockroaches were exposed to the concentration of the above-mentioned insecticides through surface contact method. Imam Khomeini strain showed the LT50 of 20/24, 19/30, 19/64 minutes and Boo Ali hospitals 19/87, 17/6, 18/66 minutes. For susceptible strain, 8/89, 8/8, 8/64 minutes were obtained to Permethrin, Deltamethrin and Sumithrin respectively. On the other hand, LT90 for Imam Khomeini strain were 42/91, 41/21, 37/38 minutes and Boo Ali hospitals 42/59, 40/88, 34/05 minutes. For susceptible strain, 17/58, 18/43, 17/28 minutes were obtained to Permethrin, Deltamethrin and Supermithrin respectively. In surface contact, the resistance ratio (RR to pyrethroids insecticides (Permethrin, Deltamethrin and Supermithrin of BoAli hospitals strain was 2/23, 2 and 2/15 respectively, while this ratio for Imam Khomeini strain was 2/2, 2

  4. THE PESTICIDE METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE HAS AN ADJUVANT EFFECT ON THE ALLERGIC RESPONSE TO OVALBUMIN IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metarhizium anisopliae is a parasitic fungus employed as a biological control agent against vermin and used in the US for indoor control of cockroaches. Sensitization to cockroach allergens is associated with development of asthma. This pesticide is non-pathogenic for humans and ...

  5. 兰州市2006-2010年蟑螂监测结果分析%Analysis on the monitoring result of cockroaches in Lanzhou City from 2006 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张守斌; 齐跃军; 金俊成

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the growth and decline rules of cockroaches in Lanzhou, and complete the national detection task. Method Sticky capture method. Results 31 258 cockroaches, were captured, and all of them were blattella germanica From 2006 to 2010, the density of cockroaches in farmers markets, hotels, restaurants, residential quarters and hospitals were 3.30 cockroaches/sheet, 4.50 cockroaches/sheet, 2.68 cockroaches/sheet, 3.86 cockroaches/sheet, and 0. 51 cockroach/sheet, respectively; and the infestation rates were 11.03% , 33. 56% , 16. 43% ; 18. 89% , and 6.02% , respectively. Conclusions Blattella germanica was -the dominant species. The density of cockroach increased from February to August each year gradually, and reached its peak in September and October. At the same time the peak of infestation rate also appeared in October. We should control the density of cockroaches by using the seasonal and climatic changes ' influence on the growth and decline of cockroaches and combining with environmental management%目的 了解兰州地区蟑螂消长规律,完成国家监测任务.方法 粘捕法.结果 捕获蟑螂31258只,均为德国小蠊,2006-2010年农贸市场、宾馆、餐饮单位、居民社区和医院蟑螂密度分别为3.30只/张、4.50只/张、2.68只/张、3.86只/张、0.51只/张,侵害率分别为11.03%、33.56%、16.43%、18.89%、6.02%.蟑螂密度每年2~8月逐步升高,9~10月出现一高峰,侵害率的高峰出现在10月.结论 应充分利用季节和气候变化规律对蟑螂消长的影响,结合环境治理开展蟑螂密度控制工作.

  6. 动车组列车蟑螂种群分布及生态习性的研究%Investigation of EMU cockroach population distribution and ecological habits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟丹; 迟淞元; 薛文根; 刘晓闪

    2012-01-01

    Objective To find out the population distribution and habits of EMU train cockroaches,and provide scientific basis for preventing and controlling the EMU train cockroaches. Methods House sticky cockroach recapture method, tracking and observing the activities of the cockroaches. Results The cockroaches on the EMU main mostly were German cockroach. Cockroaches density index; after the waste box > after water machine > distribution room > under bar counter > spare parts storage > bathroom > storage room; treatment medicine under 90 cm, the percentage of eating by stealth was 81. 11%. Conclusion EMU cockroaches mainly distributed after the waste box, the water machine,the power distribution room and so on, the main habitat venues of cockroaches where height is less than 90 cm. The activity patterns are basically the same with the cockroaches in other places. Boarding way of the cockroaches are mainly the following four kinds; the sale of food on the dining car cargo, passengers line package, train preparedness personnel, crew members%目的 摸清动车组列车蟑螂种群分布及生态习性,为动车组列车蟑螂防治提供科学依据.方法 蟑螂屋粘捕法,跟踪观察蟑螂活动情况.结果 动车组列车蟑螂种类主要为德国小蠊,蟑螂密度指数:废物箱后>饮水机后>配电室>吧台下>备品间>卫生间>储藏间;施药90 cm以下高度盗食率为81.11%.结论 动车组列车蟑螂主要分布于废物箱后、饮水机后、配电室等部位,90 cm以下高度是蟑螂主要栖息及活动场所;其活动规律与其他场所蟑螂基本相同.蟑螂主要是餐车出售食品上货时带入,旅客行包带入,列车整备人员带入,乘务人员带人4种途径.

  7. Cockroaches that lack Blattabacterium endosymbionts: the phylogenetically divergent genus Nocticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Nathan; Beninati, Tiziana; Stone, Fred; Walker, James; Sacchi, Luciano

    2007-06-22

    Phylogenetic relationships among termites, mantids and the five traditionally recognized cockroach families have been the subject of several studies during the last half-century. One cockroach lineage that has remained notably absent from such studies is the Nocticolidae. This group of small, elusive surface- and cave-dwelling species from the Old World Tropics has been proposed to represent an additional family. Using molecular sequences, we performed an initial phylogenetic examination of Nocticola spp. The hypothesis that they are phylogenetically divergent was confirmed from the analyses of three genes and a combined dataset. To supplement our phylogenetic analyses, we attempted to amplify 16S rRNA from the obligate mutualistic endosymbiont Blattabacterium cuenoti, present in all cockroaches studied to date. Unexpectedly, amplification was unsuccessful in all Nocticola spp. examined. This result was confirmed by microscopic examinations of fat body tissue. These Nocticola spp. are the first cockroaches found to be uninfected by B. cuenoti, which raise questions about when the bacterium first infected cockroaches.

  8. Primary integumentary allograft reactivity in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J F; Howcroft, T K; Karp, R D

    1987-04-01

    Previous reports have failed to demonstrate integumentary allograft rejection in insects. We realized however, that these studies may not have fully appreciated the structure of the insect exoskeleton. Since the subcuticlar epidermal layer constitutes the only living tissue associated with insect integument, its destruction would indicate that the animal recognized and responded to the foreign tissue. Thus, we investigated allograft reactivity in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, by observing the fate of the epidermal portion of the integument. Each animal in a pair received a 3 X 4-mm integumentary allograft from its partner, as well as a 3 X 4-mm control autograft. The transplants were then examined histologically for signs of epidermal destruction at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10-70 days (in 10-day increments) posttransplantation. The results indicated that significant rejection of the allografts began by day 3, with peak reactivity occurring by day 7 when 92% of the grafts were scored as rejected. At later periods (greater than 20 days), the graft sites showed signs of repopulation by host epidermal cells. The allograft reaction was found to lag behind the xenograft reaction, which showed peak activity after only 1 day posttransplantation. Even so, allograft rejection in this insect occurred quite rapidly (as compared with some other invertebrates), and would appear to be due to a cytotoxic reaction against the epidermal layer.

  9. Detecting substrate engagement: responses of tarsal campaniform sensilla in cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Sasha N; Keller, Bridget R; Chaudhry, Sumaiya; Duke, Elizabeth R; Neff, David; Quinn, Roger; Flannigan, Clay

    2010-06-01

    Sensory signals of contact and engagement with the substrate are important in the control and adaptation of posture and locomotion. We characterized responses of campaniform sensilla, receptors that encode forces as cuticular strains, in the tarsi (feet) of cockroaches using neurophysiological techniques and digital imaging. A campaniform sensillum on the fourth tarsal segment was readily identified by its large action potential in nerve recordings. The receptor discharged to contractions of the retractor unguis muscle, which engages the pretarsus (claws and arolium) with the substrate. We mimicked the effects of muscle contractions by applying displacements to the retractor apodeme (tendon). Sensillum firing did not occur to unopposed movements, but followed engagement of the claws with an object. Vector analysis of forces suggested that resisted muscle contractions produce counterforces that axially compress the tarsal segments. Close joint packing of tarsal segments was clearly observed following claw engagement. Physiological experiments showed that the sensillum responded vigorously to axial forces applied directly to the distal tarsus. Discharges of tarsal campaniform sensilla could effectively signal active substrate engagement when the pretarsal claws and arolium are used to grip the substrate in climbing, traversing irregular terrains or walking on inverted surfaces.

  10. 徐州市蟑螂体表带菌状况调查研究%Investigation on the condition of bacteria carried by cockroaches in Xuzhou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧继荣; 黄立业; 王露梅; 杨晋川

    2011-01-01

    Objective In order to understand different habitat cockroach body surface pathogen situation in urban area of Xuzhou city,and improve the conscious of cockroach's harm. Methods According to different habitats ,dividing the ensnare duration cockroach into different groups ,then testing the pathogen and its total detection of carrying pathogenic bacteria respectively Results The cockroaches transmission rate was 100% in different habitats. E. coli, mould, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella carrying rate were 60%, 100% ,40%, 20% and 20% respectively. Both Hemolytic streptococcus and shigellae infection had not been detected. Conclusion Local cockroach transmission rate is higher. It is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of cockroach.%目的 了解徐州市不同生境室内蟑螂体表带菌状况,提高对蟑螂危害防范意识,控制疾病传播.方法 将诱捕到的蟑螂,根据不同生境进行分组,分别检测蟑螂带菌总数及其携带致病菌情况.结果 不同生境蟑螂带菌率为100%,大肠杆菌、霉菌、铜绿假单胞菌、金黄色葡萄球菌和沙门氏菌携带率分别为60%、100%、40%、20%、20%,溶血性链球菌和志贺氏菌均未检出.结论 徐州市蟑螂带菌率较高,应加强对蟑螂的防治.

  11. 蟑螂密度监测及侵害状况的调查与分析%Investigation and analysis of cockroach density surveillance and infestation condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵宗贤; 蔡蓉; 苏琦; 范刚

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解淮安市城区蟑螂种群、密度、分布、季节消长变化及侵害状况,为合理灭蟑提供科学依据.方法 采用粘捕法进行监测,晚放晨收,每月监测一次.结果 布放粘蟑纸6480张,回收张数6245张,阳性张数163张,粘捕蟑螂数590只,密度0.10只/张,侵害率2.52%.德国小蠊为优势种群.结论 淮安市城区蟑螂种群构成以德国小蠊为主,侵害率以农贸市场和宾馆较高,应进一步加强优势种群的监测与抗药性监测的调查研究,为制定科学合理的病媒生物防治工作提供依据.%Objective To realize the species, density, distribution, seasonal fluctuation and infestation condition of cockroach in Huaian city,and provide scientific basis for cockroach control. Methods The stick-catch method was used to survey once a month, which placed the stick-cockroach paper at night and recovered it in the next morning. Results 6 480 stick-cockroach papers had been putted on and 6 245 had been recovered. 590 cockroaches had been caught on 163 stick-cockroach papers,and the population density was 0. 10 cockroaches per paper and the infestation rate was 2. 52% . Blattella germanica was the dominant species. Conclusion Blattella germanica is the primary cockroach species of Huaian city and there is a higher infestation rate in markets and hotels. It is necessary to strengthen the investigation of dominant species and insecticide resistance surveillance, so that could provide evidence for developing scientific and rational programs for vectors prevention and control.

  12. Spinosad affects chemical communication in the German cockroach, Blatella germanica (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbachi, Wafa; Bensafi, Hanene; Adjami, Yasmine; Ouakid, Mohamed L; Farine, Jean-Pierre; Everaerts, Claude

    2009-12-01

    Spinosad is a biopesticide, derived from fermentation by the soil-dwelling actinomycete, Saccharopolyspora spinosa, which is used to control a variety of insects. Spinosad kills a wide range of insect pests when ingested or topically applied, by overexciting the nervous system, yet is harmless to mammals and many predatory insects. Other modes of action of this insecticide have not been documented. Here, we report that a non-lethal dose of spinosad causes adult male and female German cockroach, Blattella germanica, to exhibit altered responses to their aggregation pheromone as well as to have a changed cuticular hydrocarbon profile.

  13. The bacterial community in the gut of the Cockroach Shelfordella lateralis reflects the close evolutionary relatedness of cockroaches and termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Christine; Thompson, Claire L; Brune, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Termites and cockroaches are closely related, with molecular phylogenetic analyses even placing termites within the radiation of cockroaches. The intestinal tract of wood-feeding termites harbors a remarkably diverse microbial community that is essential for the digestion of lignocellulose. However, surprisingly little is known about the gut microbiota of their closest relatives, the omnivorous cockroaches. Here, we present a combined characterization of physiological parameters, metabolic activities, and bacterial microbiota in the gut of Shelfordella lateralis, a representative of the cockroach family Blattidae, the sister group of termites. We compared the bacterial communities within each gut compartment using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and made a 16S rRNA gene clone library of the microbiota in the colon-the dilated part of the hindgut with the highest density and diversity of bacteria. The colonic community was dominated by members of the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes (mainly Clostridia), and some Deltaproteobacteria. Spirochaetes and Fibrobacteres, which are abundant members of termite gut communities, were conspicuously absent. Nevertheless, detailed phylogenetic analysis revealed that many of the clones from the cockroach colon clustered with sequences previously obtained from the termite gut, which indicated that the composition of the bacterial community reflects at least in part the phylogeny of the host.

  14. There are more asthmatics in homes with high cockroach infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarinho E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although asthma has been commonly associated with sensitivity to cockroaches, a clear causal relationship between asthma, allergy to cockroaches and exposure levels has not been extensively investigated. The objective of the present study was to determine whether asthma occurs more frequently in children living in homes with high cockroach infestation. The intensity of household infestation was assessed by the number of dead insects after professional pesticide application. Children living in these houses in the metropolitan area of Recife, PE, were diagnosed as having asthma by means of a questionnaire based on the ISAAC study. All children had physician-diagnosed asthma and at least one acute exacerbation in the past year. Children of both sexes aged 4 to 12 years who had been living in the households for more than 2 years participated in this transverse study and had a good socioeconomic status. In the 172 houses studied, 79 children were considered to have been exposed to cockroaches and 93 not to have been exposed. Children living in residences with more than 5 dead cockroaches after pesticide application were considered to be at high infestation exposure. Asthma was diagnosed by the questionnaire in 31.6% (25/79 of the exposed group and in 11.8% (11/93 of the non-exposed group (P = 0.001, with a prevalence ratio of 3.45 (95%CI, 1.48-8.20. The present results indicate that exposure to cockroaches was significantly associated with asthma among the children studied and can be considered a risk factor for the disease. Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana were the species found in 96% of the infested houses.

  15. Species clarification of Ogasawara cockroaches which inhabit Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, N; Kawakami, Y; Banzai, A; Ooi, H K; Uchida, A

    2015-03-01

    The so-called "Ogasawara cockroaches" were examined by morphological observations and by breeding experiments to elucidate their actual taxonomical status. Fourteen groups (isolate) of "Ogasawara cockroaches" collected from Iwoto-A, Iwoto-B, Hahajima, Chichijima, Nishijima, Nakodojima, Tokunoshima-A, Tokunoshima-B, Okinawato- A, Okinawa-B, Amamiooshima, Miyakojima, Ishigakijima and Hawaii, were bred and passaged in our laboratory. Cockroaches collected from the field were first reared individually and the sexes of their offspring examined. Cockroaches collected from Iwoto, Tokushima and Okinawa, were found to consist of two groups; those whose offspring were all female and the other whose offspring consist of both male and female. Cross-breeding experiments showed that individuals from the group that did not produce any male but only female offspring were parthenogenetic. On the contrary, the group that have bisexual individuals produced both male and female offspring in a ratio of 1:1. Our results show that the so-called "Ogasawara cockroaches" consist of 2 species, namely, Pycnoscelus surinamensis and Pycnoscelus indicus. There are areas in which both species co-habitated together and there are also areas in which either only one of the two species can be found. The group that reproduces only female offspring and only through parthenogenesis was identified as P. surinamensis. The group that reproduces heterosexually and produce male and female offspring was identified as P. indicus. Thus, the so-called "Ogasawara cockroaches" found in Japan actually consist of 2 species, namely, P. surinamensis and P. indicus, which can be differentiated using the solitary breeding method to demonstrate parthenogenesis in the former and the need for sexual reproduction in the latter.

  16. Life history and habitat associations of the broad wood cockroach, Parcoblatta lata (Blattaria: Blattellidae) and other native cockroaches in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.

    2002-06-18

    Wood cockroaches are an important prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis, an endangered species inhabiting pine forests in the southern United States. These woodpeckers forage on the boles of live pine trees, but their prey consists of a high proportion of wood cockroaches, Parcoblatta spp., that are more commonly associated with dead plant material. Cockroach population density samples were conducted on live pine trees, dead snags and coarse woody debris on the ground. The studies showed that snags and logs are also important habitats of wood cockroaches in pine forests.

  17. Suppression pheromone and cockroach rank formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Rong; Chang, Huan-Wen; Chen, Shu-Chun; Ho, Hsiao-Yung

    2009-06-01

    Although agonistic behaviors in the male lobster cockroach ( Nauphoeta cinerea) are well known, the formation of an unstable hierarchy has long been a puzzle. In this study, we investigate how the unstable dominance hierarchy in N. cinerea is maintained via a pheromone signaling system. In agonistic interactions, aggressive posture (AP) is an important behavioral index of aggression. This study showed that, during the formation of a governing hierarchy, thousands of nanograms of 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (3H-2B) were released by the AP-adopting dominant in the first encounter fight, then during the early domination period and that this release of 3H-2B was related to rank maintenance, but not to rank establishment. For rank maintenance, 3H-2B functioned as a suppression pheromone, which suppressed the fighting capability of rivals and kept them in a submissive state. During the period of rank maintenance, as the dominant male gradually decreased his 3H-2B release, the fighting ability of the subordinate gradually developed, as shown by the increasing odds of a subordinate adopting an AP (OSAP). The OSAP was negatively correlated with the amount of 3H-2B released by the dominant and positively correlated with the number of domination days. The same OSAP could be achieved earlier by reducing the amount of 3H-2B released by the dominant indicates that whether the subordinate adopts an offensive strategy depends on what the dominant is doing.

  18. Fourier domain OCT imaging of American cockroach nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszkowska, Joanna; Gorczynska, Iwona; Ruminski, Daniel; Karnowski, Karol; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Stankiewicz, Maria; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    In this pilot study we demonstrate results of structural Fourier domain OCT imaging of the nervous system of Periplaneta americana L. (American cockroach). The purpose of this research is to develop an OCT apparatus enabling structural imaging of insect neural system. Secondary purpose of the presented research is to develop methods of the sample preparation and handling during the OCT imaging experiments. We have performed imaging in the abdominal nerve cord excised from the American cockroach. For this purpose we have developed a Fourier domain / spectral OCT system operating at 820 nm wavelength range.

  19. [Cockroaches and co. The role of health pests as allergen source].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulf, M; Sander, I; Gonnissen, D; Zahradnik, E; Brüning, T

    2014-05-01

    In most of the cases health pests are carriers of pathogens or parasites which have a negative impact on human health or affect the health of other mammals. What is lesser known is that they can also act as allergens. Most of the health pests in this sense belong to the arthropods, such as cockroaches (Blattaria), mosquitos (Culiciformia), lice (Pediculus humanus corporis), fleas (Siphonaptera) and ticks (Argasidae). In the group of vertebrates rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus), house mice (Mus musculus) and pigeons (Columba livia domestica) are also classified as health pests. Also storage pests which are not carriers of pathogens can induce secondary infestation with hygiene pests or molds and have an underestimated impact on human health. In this article selected examples of health pests and also storage pests as an allergen source are described, taking into account the sensitization prevalence and identified single allergens.

  20. Aerobic Bacterial Community of American Cockroach Periplaneta americana,a Step toward Finding Suitable Paratransgenesis Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Akbari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cockroaches mechanically spread pathogenic agents, however, little is known about their gut microbiota. Identification of midgut microbial community helps targeting novel biological control strategies such as paratransgenesis. Here the bacterial microbiota of Periplaneta americana midgut, were identified and evaluated for finding proper paratransgenesis candidate.Methods: Midgut of specimens were dissected and cultivated in different media. The bacterial isolates were then identified using the phenotypic and 16S-rRNA sequencing methods.Results: The analytical profile index (API kit showed presence of 11 bacterial species including: Escherichia coli, Shigella flexineri, Citrobacter freundii, E. vulneris, Enterobacter cloacae, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Y.intermedia, Leclericia adecarboxylata, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. planticola, and Rahnella aquatilis in the cockroach midguts. The first three species are potentially symbiotic whereas others are transient. The conventional platingmethod revealed presence of only four isolates of Salmonella, E. coli, and Proteus which in three cases mismatched with API and 16S-rRNA genotyping. The API correctly identified the four isolates as Shigella flexneri, Citrobacter freundii, and E. coli (n= 2. 16S-rRNA sequence analysis confirmed the API results; however the C. freundii sequencewas identical with C. murliniae indicating lack of genetic variation in the gene between these two closely related species.Conclusion: A low number of potentially symbiotic bacteria were found in the American cockroach midguts. Among them Enterobacter cloacae is a potential candidate for paratransgenesis approach whereas other bacteria are pathogens and are not useful for the approach. Data analysis showed that identification levels increase from the conventional to API and to genotyping respectively.

  1. Integration of repellents, attractants, and insecticides in a "push-pull" strategy for managing German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalyanya, G; Moore, C B; Schal, C

    2000-05-01

    "Push-pull" is a behavior manipulation strategy in which behavior-modifying stimuli are integrated with a pest control agent. We evaluated the efficacy of an insecticide bait in combination with attractants ("pull"), repellents ("push"), or both ("push-pull") using a hydramethylnon-based bait, feces-contaminated surfaces as an attractant, and methyl neodecanamide-treated surfaces to repel cockroaches. Both adult males and first-instar German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), chose shelters nearest the attractant-treated surfaces and farthest from the repellent-treated surfaces. Food consumption was highest from food nearest the preferred shelters, and mortality was highest when the insecticide bait was near the preferred shelter. These patterns were more apparent in first instars than in adults. Our results from large arena studies in the laboratory show that the push-pull strategy can be used to displace pests from resources or commodities that are to be protected, and simultaneously lure the pest to an attractant source coupled with a pest control agent. Concentrating cockroaches into a limited area should facilitate the precision-targeting of the pest population and promises to reduce insecticide use.

  2. Effective Stimulus Parameters for Directed Locomotion in Madagascar Hissing Cockroach Biobot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jonathan C; Herrera, María; Bustamante, Mauricio; Shingiro, Aristide; Bowen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Swarms of insects instrumented with wireless electronic backpacks have previously been proposed for potential use in search and rescue operations. Before deploying such biobot swarms, an effective long-term neural-electric stimulus interface must be established, and the locomotion response to various stimuli quantified. To this end, we studied a variety of pulse types (mono- vs. bipolar; voltage- vs. current-controlled) and shapes (amplitude, frequency, duration) to parameters that are most effective for evoking locomotion along a desired path in the Madagascar hissing cockroach (G. portentosa) in response to antennal and cercal stimulation. We identified bipolar, 2 V, 50 Hz, 0.5 s voltage controlled pulses as being optimal for evoking forward motion and turns in the expected contraversive direction without habituation in ≈50% of test subjects, a substantial increase over ≈10% success rates previously reported. Larger amplitudes for voltage (1-4 V) and current (50-150 μA) pulses generally evoked larger forward walking (15.6-25.6 cm; 3.9-5.6 cm/s) but smaller concomitant turning responses (149 to 80.0 deg; 62.8 to 41.2 deg/s). Thus, the radius of curvature of the initial turn-then-run locomotor response (≈10-25 cm) could be controlled in a graded manner by varying the stimulus amplitude. These findings could be used to help optimize stimulus protocols for swarms of cockroach biobots navigating unknown terrain.

  3. Effective Stimulus Parameters for Directed Locomotion in Madagascar Hissing Cockroach Biobot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C Erickson

    Full Text Available Swarms of insects instrumented with wireless electronic backpacks have previously been proposed for potential use in search and rescue operations. Before deploying such biobot swarms, an effective long-term neural-electric stimulus interface must be established, and the locomotion response to various stimuli quantified. To this end, we studied a variety of pulse types (mono- vs. bipolar; voltage- vs. current-controlled and shapes (amplitude, frequency, duration to parameters that are most effective for evoking locomotion along a desired path in the Madagascar hissing cockroach (G. portentosa in response to antennal and cercal stimulation. We identified bipolar, 2 V, 50 Hz, 0.5 s voltage controlled pulses as being optimal for evoking forward motion and turns in the expected contraversive direction without habituation in ≈50% of test subjects, a substantial increase over ≈10% success rates previously reported. Larger amplitudes for voltage (1-4 V and current (50-150 μA pulses generally evoked larger forward walking (15.6-25.6 cm; 3.9-5.6 cm/s but smaller concomitant turning responses (149 to 80.0 deg; 62.8 to 41.2 deg/s. Thus, the radius of curvature of the initial turn-then-run locomotor response (≈10-25 cm could be controlled in a graded manner by varying the stimulus amplitude. These findings could be used to help optimize stimulus protocols for swarms of cockroach biobots navigating unknown terrain.

  4. Application of irradiation in bait production to the control of crawling insects in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.; Swietoslawski, J.; Swietoslawski, J

    2000-03-01

    The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: 'Cockroach Kill Gel' for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change.

  5. The evaporative function of cockroach hygroreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Tichy

    Full Text Available Insect hygroreceptors associate as antagonistic pairs of a moist cell and a dry cell together with a cold cell in small cuticular sensilla on the antennae. The mechanisms by which the atmospheric humidity stimulates the hygroreceptive cells remain elusive. Three models for humidity transduction have been proposed in which hygroreceptors operate either as mechanical hygrometers, evaporation detectors or psychrometers. Mechanical hygrometers are assumed to respond to the relative humidity, evaporation detectors to the saturation deficit and psychrometers to the temperature depression (the difference between wet-bulb and dry-bulb temperatures. The models refer to different ways of expressing humidity. This also means, however, that at different temperatures these different types of hygroreceptors indicate very different humidity conditions. The present study tested the adequacy of the three models on the cockroach's moist and dry cells by determining whether the specific predictions about the temperature-dependence of the humidity responses are indeed observed. While in previous studies stimulation consisted of rapid step-like humidity changes, here we changed humidity slowly and continuously up and down in a sinusoidal fashion. The low rates of change made it possible to measure instantaneous humidity values based on UV-absorption and to assign these values to the hygroreceptive sensillum. The moist cell fitted neither the mechanical hygrometer nor the evaporation detector model: the temperature dependence of its humidity responses could not be attributed to relative humidity or to saturation deficit, respectively. The psychrometer model, however, was verified by the close relationships of the moist cell's response with the wet-bulb temperature and the dry cell's response with the dry-bulb temperature. Thus, the hygroreceptors respond to evaporation and the resulting cooling due to the wetness or dryness of the air. The drier the ambient air

  6. Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization for Combinatorial Optimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibidun Christiana Obagbuwa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cockroach Swarm Optimization (CSO algorithm is inspired by cockroach social behavior. It is a simple and efficient meta-heuristic algorithm and has been applied to solve global optimization problems successfully. The original CSO algorithm and its variants operate mainly in continuous search space and cannot solve binary-coded optimization problems directly. Many optimization problems have their decision variables in binary. Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization (BCSO is proposed in this paper to tackle such problems and was evaluated on the popular Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP, which is considered to be an NP-hard Combinatorial Optimization Problem (COP. A transfer function was employed to map a continuous search space CSO to binary search space. The performance of the proposed algorithm was tested firstly on benchmark functions through simulation studies and compared with the performance of existing binary particle swarm optimization and continuous space versions of CSO. The proposed BCSO was adapted to TSP and applied to a set of benchmark instances of symmetric TSP from the TSP library. The results of the proposed Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization (BCSO algorithm on TSP were compared to other meta-heuristic algorithms.

  7. Termite Proteins Cross-React with Cockroach Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimp are among a group of 8 foods that commonly cause food allergy, and shrimp allergens have been demonstrated to cross-react with arthropod proteins, such as those from cockroaches. Edible insects are beginning to be popularized as an alternate source of protein and have a high nutrition value....

  8. Toxicity induced by Prasiola crispa to fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea: evidence for bioinsecticide action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemolin, Ana Paula Pegoraro; Cruz, Litiele Cezar; Paula, Mariane Trindade; Pereira, Betina Kappel; Albuquerque, Margelli Pereira; Victoria, Filipe Carvalho; Pereira, Antônio Batista; Posser, Thaís; Franco, Jeferson Luis

    2014-01-01

    The adverse effects of the alga Prasiola crispa extract (PcE) were investigated in a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and cockroach (Nauphoeta cinerea) model. In flies, toxicity was assessed as mortality and biochemical alterations including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress markers. The cardiotoxic action of PcE was also examined in a model of semi-isolated cockroach heart. The administration of PcE (2 mg/ml) to flies for 24 h resulted in a marked increase in mortality rate (7.6-fold rise compared to control). AChE activity, glutathione (GSH) levels, and hydroperoxide formation remained unchanged. Fly glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activity were significantly altered after PcE treatment. Fraction III (ethyl acetate) of PcE was significantly more toxic to flies compared to fractions I (methanol) and II (ethanol). A significant decrease was noted in cockroach semi-isolated heart function. The addition of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), an oxidizing agent, concomitant with the extract significantly blocked this effect, suggesting that reduced compounds may be involved in the cardiotoxic action produced by PcE. Our results show for the first time the adverse effects of PcE in two insect models, Drosophila melanogaster and Nauphoetacinerea. The insecticidal properties of PcE may be related to changes in important antioxidant/detoxifying systems, as well as to changes in insect cardiac function.

  9. Investigation on the cockroach' s infestation situation in Kaifeng city%开封市蟑螂侵害状况调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 唐振强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand and grasp the infestation situation of cockroach in Kaifeng city and provide scientific basis for cockroach. Methods Unified stick-trap was applied in the surveillance. Results Blattella ger-manica was the absolutely dominant species in Kaifeng city, which accounted for 100%. In different places , there was the highest density index at restaurant, the following were hotel and supermarket. Conclusion Blattella germanica is the dominant species. Hotel and supermarket are the focus of the industry where cockroach breeds and does harm. And it is necessary to monitor and control cockroach in these places.%目的 了解和掌握开封市蟑螂侵害状况,为进一步防治蟑螂提供科学依据.方法 粘捕法.结果 开封市区德国小蠊为绝对优势种,占100%.不同场所中餐饮密度指数最高,其次为宾馆和超市.结论 德国小蠊为优势种群,餐饮、宾馆和超市是蟑螂孳生和危害的重点行业,应加强对这些行业单位蟑螂的监测和防治.

  10. 高校图书馆蟑螂种群结构及生态习性调查研究%Population structure and ecological habits of cockroaches in university library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李生吉; 孙恩涛; 赵金红; 湛孝东

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究安徽省高校图书馆内蟑螂种群构成及生态特征.方法采用药激法和诱捕法捕获蟑螂标本,调查蟑螂的种群构成.同时,动态观察图书馆内蟑螂的栖息场所、夜间活动规律和季节消长等生态习性.结果共捕获蟑螂2 046只,经鉴定属于3科3属6种,以美洲大蠊为优势种,占80.25%.侵害率最高的是库房,卫生间蟑螂平均密度最高,为7.64只/间.图书馆内蟑螂21:00出现活动,24:00和凌晨1:00达高峰,至6:00活动终止;美洲大蠊活动最高峰在5月份前后.结论安徽省高校图书馆蟑螂孳生情况较严重,美洲大蠊为优势种,是防治的主要对象.%Objective To survey the structure and ecological habits of cockroaches, so as to provide evidences for cockroaches control in the library. Methods Catching cockroaches by sticky traps method and the medicine stir up method. Moreover, suitable habitats, nocturnal habits, seasonal fluctuations of cockroaches were studied by dynamic observation. Results 2 046 cockroaches were caught. They were belonged to 3 families, 3 genera and 6 species. Periplaneta americana was the predominant species, which accounted for 80. 25%. The highest infestation rate in storeroom, and cockroach mean density was the highest,its over 7.64 pieces per apartment in toilet. In the library, cockroaches began to be active at 21 o'clock, increased at 24 o'clock and reached a maximum peak at 1 o'clock, then subsided gradually to hiding at 6 o'clock. In addition, the active peak of cockroaches appeared in May in a year round. Conclusion Infestation rate of cockroaches were higher in the library. Hence, appropriate control measures should be taken in Periplaneta americana control, which is the dominant species in university library in Anhui Province.

  11. THE FUNGAL BIOPESTICIDE METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE HAS AN ADJUVANT EFFECT ON THE ALLERGIC RESPONSE TO OVALBUMIN IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Sensitisation to cockroaches is associated with asthma and hence, the elimination of this vermin is of interest. Metarhizium anisopliae is a parasitic fungus used as a pesticide to control cockroach infestation indoors. Previously M. anisopliae has been shown to cause...

  12. Endogenous rhythm and pattern-generating circuit interactions in cockroach motor centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izhak David

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches are rapid and stable runners whose gaits emerge from the intricate, and not fully resolved, interplay between endogenous oscillatory pattern-generating networks and sensory feedback that shapes their rhythmic output. Here we studied the endogenous motor output of a brainless, deafferented preparation. We monitored the pilocarpine-induced rhythmic activity of levator and depressor motor neurons in the mesothoracic and metathoracic segments in order to reveal the oscillatory networks’ architecture and interactions. Data analyses included phase relations, latencies between and overlaps of rhythmic bursts, spike frequencies, and the dependence of these parameters on cycle frequency. We found that, overall, ipsilateral connections are stronger than contralateral ones. Our findings revealed asymmetries in connectivity among the different ganglia, in which meta-to-mesothoracic ascending coupling is stronger than meso-to-metathoracic descending coupling. Within-ganglion coupling between the metathoracic hemiganglia is stronger than that in the mesothoracic ganglion. We also report differences in the role and mode of operation of homologue network units (manifested by levator and depressor nerve activity. Many observed characteristics are similar to those exhibited by intact animals, suggesting a dominant role for feedforward control in cockroach locomotion. Based on these data we posit a connectivity scheme among components of the locomotion pattern generating system.

  13. Subsocial Cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea Mate Indiscriminately with Kin Despite High Costs of Inbreeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchebti, Sofia; Durier, Virginie; Pasquaretta, Cristian; Rivault, Colette; Lihoreau, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Many animals have evolved strategies to reduce risks of inbreeding and its deleterious effects on the progeny. In social arthropods, such as the eusocial ants and bees, inbreeding avoidance is typically achieved by the dispersal of breeders from their native colony. However studies in presocial insects suggest that kin discrimination during mate choice may be a more common mechanism in socially simpler species with no reproductive division of labour. Here we examined this possibility in the subsocial cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea, a model species for research in sexual selection, where males establish dominance hierarchies to access females and control breeding territories. When given a binary choice between a sibling male and a non-sibling male that had the opportunity to establish a hierarchy prior to the tests, females mated preferentially with the dominant male, irrespective of kinship or body size. Despite the lack of kin discrimination during mate choice, inbred-mated females incurred significant fitness costs, producing 20% less offspring than outbred-mated females. We discuss how the social mating system of this territorial cockroach may naturally limit the probability of siblings to encounter and reproduce, without the need for evolving active inbreeding avoidance mechanisms, such as kin recognition. PMID:27655156

  14. Mite and cockroach proteases activate p44/p42 MAP kinases in human lung epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Xiaoyuan

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms underlying epithelial cell activation by indoor inhaled antigens are poorly understood. Methods In this study, we investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs in A549 epithelial cells upon exposure to antigens of house dust mite (HDMA, German cockroach (GCA, and American cockroach (ACA. Results Each of these antigens induced a significant increase in IL-8 levels compared to the medium control. Exposure of A549 cells to these antigens induced the phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPKs within 5 minutes, which reached a peak at 25 minutes later and reached baseline levels at 1 hour after exposure. PD98059, a MEK1 inhibitor, significantly decreased phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAPKs and IL-8 production. Exposure of A549 cells with antigens, which had been preincubated with different protease inhibitors, also resulted in a reduction of both MAPK phosphorylation and IL-8 production. Conclusion Thus, proteolytic antigens present in HDMA, GCA and ACA activate the p44/42 MAPKs airway epithelial cells, which lead to elevated IL-8 production and initiation of the inflammatory cascade.

  15. Incidence of bacteria of public health interest carried by cockroaches in different food-related environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, F; Notario, M J; Cabanás, J M; Jordano, R; Medina, L M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteria of public health interest transmitted by cockroaches in different food-related environments. From April to November, cockroaches were trapped in 11 buildings in different urban areas of Western Andalusia (Spain): three hotels, four grocery stores, a catering establishment, a food-industry plant, a health center, and a care home. The presence of a number of bacterial species, including Salmonella, in these food-related environments was confirmed; these species included microorganisms listed in European Union regulations, such as Salmonella spp., Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.), and Escherichia coli. A wide variety of species were isolated, some belonging to different genera that have a significant impact on public health and hygiene, such as Enterobacter and Klebsiella. To ensure adequate elimination of these microorganisms in food-related environments, the control of vectors such as Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and Blatta orientalis, together with a thorough review of hygiene strategies, appears to be fundamental. It is clearly essential to compare the results of hygiene regulations implemented in food-related environments.

  16. Cockroaches as pollinators of Clusia aff. sellowiana (Clusiaceae) on inselbergs in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasáková, Blanka; Kalinová, Blanka; Gustafsson, Mats H G; Teichert, Holger

    2008-09-01

    A report is made on a new species of Clusia related to C. sellowiana that dominates the vegetation of the Nouragues inselberg in French Guiana. The focus is on the pollination biology and on the remarkable relationship of this plant species to Amazonina platystylata, its cockroach pollinator. This appears to be only the second record of pollination by cockroaches. Pollination ecology was investigated by combining morphological studies, field observations and additional experiments. Floral scent was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The role of acetoin, the major component of the scent of this species of Clusia, in attracting pollinators was examined in field attraction experiments. The ability of cockroaches to perceive acetoin was investigated by electroantennography (EAG). The Clusia species studied produces seeds only sexually. Its nocturnal flowers are visited by crickets, ants, moths and cockroaches. A species of cockroach, Amazonina platystylata, is the principal pollinator. The reward for the visit is a liquid secretion produced by tissues at the floral apex and at the base of the ovary. Although the cockroaches have no structures specialized for pollen collection, their body surface is rough enough to retain pollen grains. The cockroaches show significant EAG reactions to floral volatiles and acetoin, suggesting that the floral scent is a factor involved in attracting the cockroaches to the flowers. The results suggest that the plant-cockroach interaction may be quite specialized and the plant has probably evolved a specific strategy to attract and reward its cockroach pollinators. Acetoin is a substance involved in the chemical communication of several other cockroach species and it seems plausible that the plant exploits the sensitivity of cockroaches to this compound to attract them to the flowers as part of the pollination syndrome of this species.

  17. Cockroaches (Blattodea: Blattidae): A Reservoir of Pathogenic Microbes in Human-Dwelling Localities in Lahore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memona, H; Manzoor, F; Anjum, A A

    2017-03-01

    This study focuses on isolation of pathogenic bacteria from external and internal surfaces of cockroaches collected from houses and hospitals in Lahore. In total, 240 adult cockroaches were collected from houses and hospitals by hand or using sticky traps and food-bait traps. Cockroach species were identified, and microbial screening was done for external surfaces and gut tracts of cockroaches. Jaccard's index of similarity, Bray-Curtis' index of dissimilarity, and Shannon-Wiener's diversity index were used to measure the bacterial community diversity (all species of bacteria) in each habitat. Relative abundance and frequency were measured for each bacterial species on external and internal surfaces of cockroaches. Among human habitations, two major species of cockroaches were isolated, i.e., Periplaneta americana (P. americana) and Blattella germanica (B. germanica). Out of 240 cockroaches collected, 167 were P. americana and 73 were B. germanica. In total, 11 bacterial species were isolated, but no different bacterial load in each habitat was observed. The most common diagnostic bacterium isolated from the external surface of cockroaches was found to be Escherichia coli (10.31%). In contrast, the most common isolate from the internal gut tract of cockroaches was found to be Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with relative frequency of 19.96%. Jaccard's index of similarity of bacterial species found on cockroaches was highest (0.3125) in houses, whereas Bray-Curtis' index of dissimilarity was highest for hospitals (0.2174). The highest Shannon-Wiener's diversity index value was found in bacteria on cockroaches collected from the Punjab Institute of Cardiology (2.610632). No Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Streptococcus pneumonia were found in the digestive tract of any cockroach. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  18. Multidrug resistant bacteria isolated from cockroaches in long-term care facilities and nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hsiu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Residents in long-term care facilities and nursing homes have a relative higher risk for infections. The nocturnal and filthy habits of cockroaches may be ideal disseminators of pathogenic microorganisms in these institutions. This study was designed to determine the infestation and vector potential of cockroaches under this institutional environment. Cockroaches were collected from 69 long-term care facilities and nursing homes in Kaohsiung City. Risk factors related to cockroach infestation were determined by questionnaire survey. In addition, bacteria were isolated and identified from the alimentary tract and external surface of these insects. Antibiotic resistances of these microorganisms were then determined. Cockroach infestation was found in 45 (65.2%) institutions and 558 cockroaches (119 Periplaneta americana and 439 Blattella germanica) were collected. A significant association was found between cockroach infestation and indoor environmental sanitation. From 250 adult cockroaches, 38 species of gram-negative bacteria, 20 species of glucose non-fermenter bacilli and 6 species of gram-positive bacteria were isolated. Moreover, antibiotic resistances were found among the bacteria isolated. These findings indicate that cockroaches have the potential in transmitting pathogenic bacteria with multidrug resistances in long-term care facilities and nursing homes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 45%苯醚·硫酰氟熏蒸剂现场灭蟑药效试验研究%Field test of the biological efficacy of the 45% mixed fumigant of sulfuryl fluoride with d-Cyphenothrin on cockroach control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄清臻; 贾瑞忠; 杨振洲; 李彦; 韩华; 石华; 孙成祥; 毛桂宜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the killing efficacy of the 45% mixed fumigant of sulfuryl fluoride with d - Cyphenothrin on cockroaches. Methods The 45% mixed fumigant of sulfuryl fluoride with d - Cyphenothrin was applied at 10-20 g/m3 in the kitchen operating area of a hotel restaurant and the change in the cockroach density was observed. Results The cockroach mortality rate was 88.04%-100% within 6-72 h after application of the mixed fumigant at 10-20 g/m3, with an average decrease of 82.46%-98.53% in the cockroach density 72 hours after the application of the fumigant. Conclusion The 45% mixed fumigant of sulfuryl fluoride with d-Cyphenothrin can be used to kill cockroaches in confined spaces.%目的 观察45%苯醚·硫酰氟熏蒸剂现场熏蒸灭蟑效果.方法 选择宾馆餐厅的操作间施用45%苯醚·硫酰氟熏蒸剂10~20 g/m3,观察72 h蜚蠊密度变化.结果 45%苯醚·硫酰氟熏蒸剂现场使用10~20 g/m3时,标示性蜚蠊6~72 h死亡率为88.04%~100%,处理后72 h蜚蠊密度平均下降率为82.46%~98.53%.结论 45%苯醚·硫酰氟熏蒸剂可用于密闭场所灭蟑.

  20. Impact of taurine depletion on glucose control and insulin secretion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Natsumi; Ito, Hiromi; Schaffer, Stephen W

    2015-09-01

    Taurine, an endogenous sulfur-containing amino acid, is found in millimolar concentrations in mammalian tissue, and its tissue content is altered by diet, disease and aging. The effectiveness of taurine administration against obesity and its related diseases, including type 2 diabetes, has been well documented. However, the impact of taurine depletion on glucose metabolism and fat deposition has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of taurine depletion (in the taurine transporter (TauT) knockout mouse model) on blood glucose control and high fat diet-induced obesity. TauT-knockout (TauTKO) mice exhibited lower body weight and abdominal fat mass when maintained on normal chow than wild-type (WT) mice. Blood glucose disposal after an intraperitoneal glucose injection was faster in TauTKO mice than in WT mice despite lower serum insulin levels. Islet beta-cells (insulin positive area) were also decreased in TauTKO mice compared to WT mice. Meanwhile, overnutrition by high fat (60% fat)-diet could lead to obesity in TauTKO mice despite lower body weight under normal chow diet condition, indicating nutrition in normal diet is not enough for TauTKO mice to maintain body weight comparable to WT mice. In conclusion, taurine depletion causes enhanced glucose disposal despite lowering insulin levels and lower body weight, implying deterioration in tissue energy metabolism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 济宁市蜚蠊侵害现况及抗药性调查%Study of cockroach infestation and insecticide resistance in the City of Jining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝学安; 梁玉民

    2011-01-01

    industries should be enhanced and comprehensive measures should be taken to control the spread of cockroaches in the City of Jining.

  2. Genetic control of ATGL-mediated lipolysis modulates adipose triglyceride stores in leptin-deficient mice[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelin, Genevieve; Liu, Shun-Mei; Li, Xiaosong; Schwartz, Gary J.; Chua, Streamson

    2012-01-01

    Dissecting the genetics of complex traits such as obesity allows the identification of causal genes for disease. Here, we show that the BALB/c mouse strain carries genetic variants that confer resistance to obesity induced by leptin-deficiency or a high-fat diet (HFD). We set out to identify the physiological and genetic bases underlying this phenotype. When compared with C57BL6/J ob/ob mice (B6), BALB/c ob/ob mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased thermogenic capacity, and improved fat catabolism, each of which can potentially modify obesity. Interestingly, analysis of F1 ob/ob (progeny of B6 ob/+ × BALB/c ob+) mice revealed that obesity resistance in BALB/c ob/ob mice principally relied upon improved fat mobilization. This was mechanistically explained by increased adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) content in adipocytes, along with increased lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation. We conducted a genome-wide scan and defined a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 2. BALB/c alleles on chromosome 2 not only associated with the obesity resistance phenotype but also supported increased ATGL content in adipose tissue. In summary, our study provides evidence that leptin-independent control of adipocyte lipolysis rates directly modifies the balance of macronutrient handling and is sufficient to regulate fat mass in the absence of alterations in food intake and energy expenditure.—Marcelin, G., S-M. Liu, X. Li, G. J. Schwartz, and S. Chua. PMID:22383686

  3. Active antennal movement in cockroaches - towards understanding multimodal exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pequeno-Zurro, Alejandro; Nitschke, Jahn; Szyszka, Paul

    The long and highly mobile cockroach antennae are multifunctional sensory appendages incorporating two of the most fundamental senses – olfaction and touch. Previous laboratory experiments with cockroaches in unisensory tasks have demonstrated the animal’s ability to perform antenna-dependent tasks...... experimental and computational approach to investigate how active antennal movement affects sensory acquisition in a multimodal environment. We characterize the relationship between antennal searching movement and the spatial and temporal properties of encountered odour concentrations, which will serve...... as the basis for a future extension to study olfactory-tactile integration. When presented with a behaviourally relevant odour antennae exhibited systematic movements, and there appears to be a dynamic modulation of coupling between the left and right antenna. In order to gain insight into the coordination...

  4. TFE3 controls lipid metabolism in adipose tissue of male mice by suppressing lipolysis and thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Yuri; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Satoh, Aoi; Okuda, Kanako; Shingyouchi, Akiko; Naka, Ayano; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yahagi, Naoya; Shimada, Masako; Yatoh, Shigeru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yogosawa, Satomi; Izumi, Tetsuro; Sone, Hirohito; Urayama, Osamu; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2013-10-01

    Transcription factor E3 (TFE3) is a transcription factor that binds to E-box motifs and promotes energy metabolism-related genes. We previously reported that TFE3 directly binds to the insulin receptor substrate-2 promoter in the liver, resulting in increased insulin response. However, the role of TFE3 in other tissues remains unclear. In this study, we generated adipose-specific TFE3 transgenic (aP2-TFE3 Tg) mice. These mice had a higher weight of white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue than wild-type (WT) mice under fasting conditions. Lipase activity in the WAT in these mice was lower than that in the WT mice. The mRNA level of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the rate-limiting enzyme for adipocyte lipolysis, was significantly decreased in aP2-TFE3 Tg mice. The expression of Foxo1, which directly activates ATGL expression, was also suppressed in transgenic mice. Promoter analysis confirmed that TFE3 suppressed promoter activities of the ATGL gene. In contrast, G0S2 and Perilipin1, which attenuate ATGL activity, were higher in transgenic mice than in WT mice. These results indicated that the decrease in lipase activity in adipose tissues was due to a decrease in ATGL expression and suppression of ATGL activity. We also showed that thermogenesis was suppressed in aP2-TFE3 Tg mice. The decrease in lipolysis in WAT of aP2-TFE3 Tg mice inhibited the supply of fatty acids to brown adipose tissue, resulting in the inhibition of the expression of thermogenesis-related genes such as UCP1. Our data provide new evidence that TFE3 regulates lipid metabolism by controlling the gene expression related to lipolysis and thermogenesis in adipose tissue.

  5. Protease activity in cockroach and basidiomycete allergen extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongtim, S; Lehrer, S B; Salvaggio, J E; Horner, W E

    1993-01-01

    Inherent proteolytic activity was estimated in cockroach and basidiomycete extracts by quantifying acid soluble peptides that were released by incubating extracts with 1% bovine serum albumin as measured by Lowry (Sigma). Reference proteases released 740 (Proteinase K, 0.1 U), 248 (Trypsin, 1.0 U), and 533 micrograms/ml (Pronase, 0.5 U) of soluble peptides. American whole body cockroach extract (0.1 mg dry weight) released 330 micrograms/ml of soluble peptides, representing 13 trypsin equivalent units (TEU)/mg. Extracts from spores of the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus released 230 micrograms/ml (0.9 TEU/mg) and Pleurotus cap extract released 112 micrograms/ml (0.5 TEU/mg). Mycelium of Pleurotus and the mushroom Psilocybe cubensis and spores of Psilocybe and the puffball Calvatia cyathiformis showed negligible amounts of proteolytic activity. The protease inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonyl flouride reduced the proteolytic activity of American whole body cockroach extract by 80% (@1 mM) and the inhibitor ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid inhibited the proteolytic activity of Pleurotus spores by 95% (@1 mM). Loss of allergen activity as determined by RAST inhibition and immunoprinting correlated with protease activity. Thus, in the preparation and handling of allergen extracts, one should employ conditions that minimize proteolysis.

  6. De novo transcriptome of the Hemimetabolous German cockroach (Blattella germanica.

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    Xiaojie Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is an important insect pest that transmits various pathogens mechanically and causes severe allergic diseases. This insect has long served as a model system for studies of insect biology, physiology and ecology. However, the lack of genome or transcriptome information heavily hinder our further understanding about the German cockroach in every aspect at a molecular level and on a genome-wide scale. To explore the transcriptome and identify unique sequences of interest, we subjected the B. germanica transcriptome to massively parallel pyrosequencing and generated the first reference transcriptome for B. germanica. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 1,365,609 raw reads with an average length of 529 bp were generated via pyrosequencing the mixed cDNA library from different life stages of German cockroach including maturing oothecae, nymphs, adult females and males. The raw reads were de novo assembled to 48,800 contigs and 3,961 singletons with high-quality unique sequences. These sequences were annotated and classified functionally in terms of BLAST, GO and KEGG, and the genes putatively coding detoxification enzyme systems, insecticide targets, key components in systematic RNA interference, immunity and chemoreception pathways were identified. A total of 3,601 SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats loci were also predicted. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The whole transcriptome pyrosequencing data from this study provides a usable genetic resource for future identification of potential functional genes involved in various biological processes.

  7. Cockroaches breathe discontinuously to reduce respiratory water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpf, Natalie G; Matthews, Philip G D; Wilson, Robbie S; White, Craig R

    2009-09-01

    The reasons why many insects breathe discontinuously at rest are poorly understood and hotly debated. Three adaptive hypotheses attempt to explain the significance of these discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs), whether it be to save water, to facilitate gas exchange in underground environments or to limit oxidative damage. Comparative studies favour the water saving hypothesis and mechanistic studies are equivocal but no study has examined the acclimation responses of adult insects chronically exposed to a range of respiratory environments. The present research is the first manipulative study of such chronic exposure to take a strong-inference approach to evaluating the competing hypotheses according to the explicit predictions stemming from them. Adult cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea) were chronically exposed to various treatments of different respiratory gas compositions (O(2), CO(2) and humidity) and the DGC responses were interpreted in light of the a priori predictions stemming from the competing hypotheses. Rates of mass loss during respirometry were also measured for animals acclimated to a range of humidity conditions. The results refute the hypotheses of oxidative damage and underground gas exchange, and provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that DGCs serve to reduce respiratory water loss: cockroaches exposed to low humidity conditions exchange respiratory gases for shorter durations during each DGC and showed lower rates of body mass loss during respirometry than cockroaches exposed to high humidity conditions.

  8. Cloning and characterization of the adipokinetic hormone receptor from the cockroach Periplaneta americana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karina K; Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Cockroaches have long been used as insect models to investigate the actions of biologically active neuropeptides. Here, we describe the cloning and functional expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells of an adipokinetic hormone (AKH) G protein-coupled receptor from the cockroach Periplaneta...

  9. Comparative analysis of pathogenic organisms in cockroaches from different community settings in Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Clement; Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

    2014-04-01

    Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents.

  10. Chow Down! Using Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches to Explore Basic Nutrition Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2009-01-01

    The Madagascar hissing cockroach ("Gromphadorhina portentosa") is one of the most exciting and enjoyable animals to incorporate into your science curriculum. Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MHCs) do not bite, are easy to handle, produce little odor compared to many terrarium animals, have a fascinating social structure, are easy to breed, teach…

  11. Microbial Carriage of Cockroaches at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience B.; Donkor, Eric S.; Attah, Simon K.; Duedu, Kwabena O.; Afutu, Emmanuel; Boamah, Isaac; Olu-Taiwo, Michael; Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F.

    2013-01-01

    Cockroaches are common in the environment of many hospitals in Ghana; however, little is known about their public health risks. To evaluate potential risks, we investigated the external and internal microbial flora of 61 cockroaches from a tertiary hospital in Ghana and evaluated the antibiotic resistance profiles of the common bacterial species. Standard methods were used in all the microbiological investigations and antibiotic susceptibility testing. A rotavirus carriage rate of 19.7% was observed among the cockroaches. Four types of intestinal parasites were carried externally by the cockroaches, and the most prevalent was Hookworm (4.9%). Eight nosocomial bacteria were isolated from the cockroaches, and the most prevalent was Klebsiella pneumoniae, which occurred internally in 29.5% of the cockroaches and 26.2% externally. Multiple drug resistance among common bacteria isolated from the cockroaches ranged from 13.8% (Escherichia coli) to 41.1% (Klebsiella pneumoniae). Cockroaches constitute an important reservoir for pathogenic microorganisms, and may be important vectors of multiple resistant nosocomial pathogens in the studied hospital. PMID:24137051

  12. Mechanisms controlling anaemia in Trypanosoma congolense infected mice.

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    Harry A Noyes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma congolense are extracellular protozoan parasites of the blood stream of artiodactyls and are one of the main constraints on cattle production in Africa. In cattle, anaemia is the key feature of disease and persists after parasitaemia has declined to low or undetectable levels, but treatment to clear the parasites usually resolves the anaemia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The progress of anaemia after Trypanosoma congolense infection was followed in three mouse strains. Anaemia developed rapidly in all three strains until the peak of the first wave of parasitaemia. This was followed by a second phase, characterized by slower progress to severe anaemia in C57BL/6, by slow recovery in surviving A/J and a rapid recovery in BALB/c. There was no association between parasitaemia and severity of anaemia. Furthermore, functional T lymphocytes are not required for the induction of anaemia, since suppression of T cell activity with Cyclosporin A had neither an effect on the course of infection nor on anaemia. Expression of genes involved in erythropoiesis and iron metabolism was followed in spleen, liver and kidney tissues in the three strains of mice using microarrays. There was no evidence for a response to erythropoietin, consistent with anaemia of chronic disease, which is erythropoietin insensitive. However, the expression of transcription factors and genes involved in erythropoiesis and haemolysis did correlate with the expression of the inflammatory cytokines Il6 and Ifng. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The innate immune response appears to be the major contributor to the inflammation associated with anaemia since suppression of T cells with CsA had no observable effect. Several transcription factors regulating haematopoiesis, Tal1, Gata1, Zfpm1 and Klf1 were expressed at consistently lower levels in C57BL/6 mice suggesting that these mice have a lower haematopoietic capacity and therefore less ability to recover from

  13. Cockroach protease allergen induces allergic airway inflammation via epithelial cell activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Sagar L.; Agrawal, Komal; Gaur, Shailendra Nath; Arora, Naveen

    2017-01-01

    Protease allergens are known to enhance allergic inflammation but their exact role in initiation of allergic reactions at mucosal surfaces still remains elusive. This study was aimed at deciphering the role of serine protease activity of Per a 10, a major cockroach allergen in initiation of allergic inflammation at mucosal surfaces. We demonstrate that Per a 10 increases epithelial permeability by disruption of tight junction proteins, ZO-1 and occludin, and enhances the migration of Monocyte derived dendritic cell precursors towards epithelial layer as exhibited by trans-well studies. Per a 10 exposure also leads to secretion of IL-33, TSLP and intracellular Ca2+ dependent increase in ATP levels. Further, in vivo experiments revealed that Per a 10 administration in mice elevated allergic inflammatory parameters along with high levels of IL-33, TSLP, IL-1α and uric acid in the mice lungs. We next demonstrated that Per a 10 cleaves CD23 (low affinity IgE receptor) from the surface of PBMCs and purified B cells and CD25 (IL-2 receptor) from the surface of PBMCs and purified T cells in an activity dependent manner, which might favour Th2 responses. In conclusion, protease activity of Per a 10 plays a significant role in initiation of allergic airway inflammation at the mucosal surfaces. PMID:28198394

  14. Investigation on American cockroaches medically important bacteria in Khorramshahr hospital, Iran

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    Hamid Kassiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate American cockroaches' infection to various bacteria in Khorramshahr Vali-e-Asr hospital, which was done in 2008. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 20 American cockroaches were caught via direct collection. Medically important bacteria were extracted from their outer surface of bodies by standard procedures. Results: Culturing outer surface wash of cockroaches resulted in the separation of Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Proteus and Streptococcus. The main common bacteria were Klebsiella (35% and Pseudomonas (30%. Also, results of culture media showed that about 90% of cockroaches infected to at least one bacterium. Conclusions: American cockroaches can transmit pathogenic and potential pathogenic bacteria, therefore their presence in hospitals may be a sanitation challenge. It is recommended to assess plans in purpose to combat these pests in the hospitals.

  15. [Investigation on species composition of cockroaches and bacteria-carrying on their bodies in five cities of Hainan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Zi; Cui, Yu-Bao; Yang, Wen; Rao, Lang-Yu; Pan, Wan; Chen, Jin-Long

    2008-02-28

    "ZA-type" cages were used to capture cockroaches in 267 sites of 5 cities in Hainan. Species were identified and bacteria were isolated by routine method. 441 cockroaches were collected and identified as five species belonging to two genera, 75.3% being Periplaneta americana. More cockroaches were found in sewerage. Bacteria were detected from 82.4% of cockroaches, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sp, Bacillus proteus and sort of mycetes. Therefore, the dominant species is Periplaneta americana in Hainan, and the high bacteria-carrying behavior of cockroaches indicates its importance in disease transmission.

  16. 信阳市蟑螂密度监测及侵害现况的调查研究%Investigation and research on the density of cockroaches and disoperation in Xinyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑华; 方世民; 徐威; 张英

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解信阳市蟑螂种类、密度、季节消长情况,为信阳市消灭蟑螂提供科学依据.方法 用粘捕法进行调查.结果 在各类环境中共捕获蟑螂1 328只,其中德国小蠊1 193只,美洲大蠊135只,平均侵害率为7.36%,密度为0.65只/张.结论 德国小蠊为优势种群,活动高峰在夏秋季,宾馆和餐饮单位密度较高,应加强蟑螂监测和防制工作.%Objective To understand the type, density and seasonal fluctuation of cockroach in Xinyang City and provide scientific basis for the elimination of cockroach. Method Sticky traps method. Results We had captured 1 328 cockroaches in all kinds of environments, among which 1 193 were blattella germanica and 135 were periplaneta americana. The average disoperation rate was 7. 36% , and the density was 0. 65 cockroach per piece of paper. Conclusions Blattella germanica was the predominant species, and was active in summer and autumn. There were high density of cockroaches in hotels and restaurants, therefore, this units should strengthen the monitor and control of cockroach.

  17. Mixing realities? An application of augmented reality for the treatment of cockroach phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, C M; Juan, M C; Baños, R M; Alcañiz, M; Guillén, V; Rey, B

    2005-04-01

    Augmented reality (AR) refers to the introduction of virtual elements in the real world. That is, the person is seeing an image composed of a visualization of the real world, and a series of virtual elements that, at that same moment, are super-imposed on the real world. The most important aspect of AR is that the virtual elements supply to the person relevant and useful information that is not contained in the real world. AR has notable potential, and has already been used in diverse fields, such as medicine, the army, coaching, engineering, design, and robotics. Until now, AR has never been used in the scope of psychological treatment. Nevertheless, AR presents various advantages. Just like in the classical systems of virtual reality, it is possible to have total control over the virtual elements that are super-imposed on the real world, and how one interacts with those elements. AR could involve additional advantages; on one side it could be less expensive since it also uses the real world (this does not need to be modeled), and it could facilitate the feeling of presence (the sensation of being there), and reality judgment (the fact of judging the experience as real) of the person since the environment he or she is in, and what he or she is seeing is, in fact the "reality." In this paper, we present the data of the first case study in which AR has been used for the treatment of a specific phobia, cockroaches phobia. It addresses a system of AR that permits exposure to virtual cockroaches super-imposed on the real world. In order to carry out the exposure, the guidelines of Ost with respect to "one-session treatment" were followed. The results are promising. The participant demonstrated notable fear and avoidance in the behavioral avoidance test before the treatment, and not only was an important decrease in the scores of fear and avoidance observed after the treatment, but also the participant was capable of approaching, interacting, and killing live

  18. Tau hyperphosphorylation in apolipoprotein E-deficient and control mice after closed head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genis, L; Chen, Y; Shohami, E; Michaelson, D M

    2000-05-15

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice have learning and memory impairments that are associated with specific neurochemical changes and hyperphosphorylation of distinct epitopes of the cytoskeletal protein tau. Furthermore, such mice are highly susceptible to the sequelae of brain trauma and their ability to recover from head injury is impaired. In the present study we investigated the extent that the neuronal maintenance and repair impairments of apoE-deficient mice are related to aberrations at the tau phosphorylation level. This was pursued by subjecting control and apoE-deficient mice to closed head injury (CHI) and examination, utilizing immunoblot assays, of the resulting effects on tau phosphorylation. The results thus obtained revealed that tau of apoE-deficient mice is hyperphosphorylated before CHI and that this insult results in transient tau hyperphosphorylation, whose extent and time course in the two mouse groups varied markedly. Tau hyperphosphorylation in the injured controls was maximal by about 4 hr after injury and reverted to basal levels by 24 hr. In contrast, almost no head injury-induced tau hyperphosphorylation was observed in the apoE-deficient mice at 4 hr after injury. Some tau hyper-phosphorylation was detected in the head-injured apoE-deficient mice after longer time intervals, but its extent was markedly lower than the maximal values obtained in the head injured controls. These findings show that the chronic neuronal impairments brought about by apoE deficiency and the acute response to head injury are both associated with hyperphosphorylation of the same tau domain and that the ability of apoE-deficient mice to mount the acute tau hyperphosphorylation response to head injury is impaired.

  19. Research on data storage CockroachDB Docker application technology%数据存储CockroachDB应用技术Docker的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷雨

    2015-01-01

    CockroachDB将构造一个伸缩性强、分布式的数据库,使用Docker来自动化、流程化开发、测试和部署过程.且不需要安装任何程序就可以学习到如何部署Cockroach,并且在任何系统中部署可靠的、最小化的容器.

  20. Ageing Fxr deficient mice develop increased energy expenditure, improved glucose control and liver damage resembling NASH.

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    Mikael Bjursell

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 (Nr1h4, FXR is a bile acid activated nuclear receptor mainly expressed in the liver, intestine, kidney and adrenal glands. Upon activation, the primary function is to suppress cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1, the rate-limiting enzyme in the classic or neutral bile acid synthesis pathway. In the present study, a novel Fxr deficient mouse line was created and studied with respect to metabolism and liver function in ageing mice fed chow diet. The Fxr deficient mice were similar to wild type mice in terms of body weight, body composition, energy intake and expenditure as well as behaviours at a young age. However, from 15 weeks of age and onwards, the Fxr deficient mice had almost no body weight increase up to 39 weeks of age mainly because of lower body fat mass. The lower body weight gain was associated with increased energy expenditure that was not compensated by increased food intake. Fasting levels of glucose and insulin were lower and glucose tolerance was improved in old and lean Fxr deficient mice. However, the Fxr deficient mice displayed significantly increased liver weight, steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning degeneration and lobular inflammation together with elevated plasma levels of ALT, bilirubin and bile acids, findings compatible with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and cholestasis. In conclusion, ageing Fxr deficient mice display late onset leanness associated with elevated energy expenditure and improved glucose control but develop severe NASH-like liver pathology.

  1. 几种剂型对蟑螂的药效研究%Effect of several kinds of formulation against cockroaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩招久; 陈超; 姜志宽; 钱万红

    2011-01-01

    目的 测试毒饵、喷射剂和杀虫气雾剂对蟑螂的杀灭效果.方法 室内药效试验和模拟现场试验.结果 测试的2个毒饵、2个喷射剂和11个杀虫气雾剂对德国小蠊室内药效和现场模拟防治均有优良的效果,达到了国标A级(GBT 13917.10-2009).喷射剂和杀虫气雾剂杀灭蟑螂的速度比毒饵快,毒饵对环境和人体影响较小.结论 目前市场上防治蟑螂的毒饵、喷射剂、杀虫气雾剂对德国小蠊均有优良的药效,可根据防治需要进行选择.%Objective To evaluate the control effect of baits, sprayers and aerosols against cockroaches.Methods Laboratory bioassay and simulated field test. Results Two baits, two sprayers and eleven aerosols tested in this study showed excellent control effect against Blattella germanica, reaching grade A of national standards (GBT 13917.10 -2009). Sprayers and aerosols killed cockroaches more quickly than baits, while baits were more compatible. Conclusion Most of the baits, sprayers and aerosols in the market can control cockroaches well, and publics can make choice based on their needs indoors cockroach control.

  2. Pest control in Albania: an example of collaboration in technical and scientific development in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkelejda Velo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In September 2007, a severe cockroach (Blattella germanica infestation was reported on the premises of the Scutari Regional Hospital. The hospital was infested by cockroaches despite regular insecticide treatment by local pest control officers. The failure of treatment required a careful evaluation of the problem. It also created the opportunity for a more complete analysis of pest control in Albania.

  3. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR Modulates Cockroach Allergen-Induced Immune Responses through Active TGFβ1 Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, a multifunctional regulator that senses and responds to environmental stimuli, plays a role in normal cell development and immune regulation. Recent evidence supports a significant link between environmental exposure and AhR in the development of allergic diseases. We sought to investigate whether AhR plays a role in mediating cockroach allergen-induced allergic immune responses. Methods. AhR expression in human lung fibroblasts from asthmatic and healthy individuals and in cockroach extract (CRE treated human lung fibroblasts (WI-38 was examined. The role of AhR in modulating CRE induced TGFβ1 production was investigated by using AhR agonist, TCDD, antagonist CH122319, and knockdown of AhR. The role of latent TGFβ1 binding protein-1 (LTBP1 in mediating TCDD induced active TGFβ1 release was also examined. Results. AhR expression was higher in airway fibroblasts from asthmatic subjects as compared to healthy controls. AhR in fibroblasts was activated by TCDD with an increased expression of cyp1a1 and cyp1b1. Increased AhR expression was observed in CRE-treated fibroblasts. Importantly, CRE induced TGFβ1 production in fibroblasts was significantly enhanced by TCDD but inhibited by CH122319. Reduced TGFβ1 production was further confirmed in fibroblasts with AhR knockdown. Moreover, AhR knockdown inhibited CRE induced fibroblast differentiation. Furthermore, TCDD induced active TGFβ1 release was significantly inhibited by LTBP1 knockdown. Conclusion. These results provide evidence for the role of AhR in modulating cockroach allergen-induced immune responses through controlling the active TGFβ1 release, suggesting a possible synergistic effect between exposure to allergens and environmental chemicals on the development of allergic diseases.

  4. Laboratory efficacy test methods and criterions of cockroach baits%蜚蠊毒饵室内药效评估方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任东升; 刘京利; 宁俊艳; 刘起勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of 11 kinds of cockroach baits. Methods Ten adults of Btauella germanica (half male and half female) with feed, water and cockroach baits were put into a beaker. Three replications were made for each bait with blank control. Twenty-four hours later, the cockroach baits were taken out and the LT50, water loss rate and feeding amount were calculated. Results All of the eleven kinds of cockroach baits can kill B. germanica within 96 hours, meeting grade A of national standards (GB/T 13917.7-2009), but their LT50, water loss rate and feeding amount are quite different. Conclusion Eleven kinds of cockroach baits can effectively kill B, germanica. Comprehensive evaluation based on the needs and site conditions should be done to select the most suitable cockroach bait.%目的 探讨11种蜚蠊毒饵对德国小蠊室内药效评估方法.方法 每个烧杯放10只德国小蠊成虫,雌雄各半,放置饲料、水和灭蟑毒饵,每种毒饵重复3次,同时设空白对照;24h后取出毒饵,计算毒饵的失水率、取食量和毒饵对蜚蠊的致死中时间(LT50).结果 11种蜚蠊毒饵在96h内都可杀死德国小蠊,达到了国标A级(GB/T 13917.7-2009),但其LT50、失水率和取食量有很大差异.结论 11种蜚蠊毒饵均可有效杀灭德国小蠊,具体使用可根据需要和现场情况,综合评价选择最适合的蜚蠊毒饵.

  5. Hierarchical genetic analysis of German cockroach (Blattella germanica populations from within buildings to across continents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward L Vargo

    Full Text Available Understanding the population structure of species that disperse primarily by human transport is essential to predicting and controlling human-mediated spread of invasive species. The German cockroach (Blattella germanica is a widespread urban invader that can actively disperse within buildings but is spread solely by human-mediated dispersal over longer distances; however, its population structure is poorly understood. Using microsatellite markers we investigated population structure at several spatial scales, from populations within single apartment buildings to populations from several cities across the U.S. and Eurasia. Both traditional measures of genetic differentiation and Bayesian clustering methods revealed increasing levels of genetic differentiation at greater geographic scales. Our results are consistent with active dispersal of cockroaches largely limited to movement within a building. Their low levels of genetic differentiation, yet limited active spread between buildings, suggests a greater likelihood of human-mediated dispersal at more local scales (within a city than at larger spatial scales (within and between continents. About half the populations from across the U.S. clustered together with other U.S. populations, and isolation by distance was evident across the U.S. Levels of genetic differentiation among Eurasian cities were greater than those in the U.S. and greater than those between the U.S. and Eurasia, but no clear pattern of structure at the continent level was detected. MtDNA sequence variation was low and failed to reveal any geographical structure. The weak genetic structure detected here is likely due to a combination of historical admixture among populations and periodic population bottlenecks and founder events, but more extensive studies are needed to determine whether signatures of global movement may be present in this species.

  6. Population genetic structure of the German cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae) in apartment buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissman, Jonathan R; Booth, Warren; Santangelo, Richard G; Mukha, Dmitry V; Vargo, Edward L; Schal, Coby

    2010-07-01

    The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), is a major residential pest with the potential to vector various pathogens and produce and disseminate household allergens. Understanding population genetic structure and differentiation of this important pest is critical to efforts to eradicate infestations, yet little is known in this regard. Using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation within and among 18 apartments from six apartment complexes located in Raleigh, NC. No departure from panmixia was found between rooms within apartments, indicating that active dispersal resulting in gene flow may occur among rooms within apartment units. Alternatively, aggregations within apartments may exist in relative isolation under a metapopulation framework, derived from a recent, common source. Thus, in the event of population control practices leading to incomplete cockroach eradication within an apartment, recolonization of shelters and rooms is likely to occur from a genetically similar aggregation. A pattern of isolation-by-distance across the six apartment complexes indicated that dispersal was more common within complexes than among them, and F statistics suggested greater genetic similarity between apartments in a single building than between separate buildings of an apartment complex. Similarly, neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analyses were able to cluster only those apartments that were within a single building, indicating higher dispersal with associated gene flow within buildings than between them. The lack of any broader connectivity, as indicated by significant F(ST) and G-tests suggests that human-mediated dispersal of B. germanica between buildings of an apartment complex or between complexes occurs infrequently enough to have negligible effects on gene flow.

  7. Leg Regrowth in Blaberus discoidalis (Discoid Cockroach following Limb Autotomy versus Limb Severance and Relevance to Neurophysiology Experiments.

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    Timothy C Marzullo

    Full Text Available Many insects can regenerate limbs, but less is known about the regrowth process with regard to limb injury type. As part of our neurophysiology education experiments involving the removal of a cockroach leg, 1 the ability of Blaberus discoidalis cockroaches to regenerate a metathoracic leg was examined following autotomy at the femur/trochanter joint versus severance via a transverse coxa-cut, and 2 the neurophysiology of the detached legs with regard to leg removal type was studied by measuring spike firing rate and microstimulation movement thresholds.First appearance of leg regrowth was after 5 weeks in the autotomy group and 12 weeks in the coxa-cut group. Moreover, regenerated legs in the autotomy group were 72% of full size on first appearance, significantly larger (p<0.05 than coxa-cut legs (29% of full size at first appearance. Regenerated legs in both groups grew in size with each subsequent molt; the autotomy-removed legs grew to full size within 18 weeks, whereas coxa-cut legs took longer than 28 weeks to regrow. Removal of the metathoracic leg in both conditions did not have an effect on mortality compared to matched controls with unmolested legs.Autotomy-removed legs had lower spontaneous firing rates, similar marked increased firing rates upon tactile manipulation of tibial barbs, and a 10% higher electrical microstimulation threshold for movement.It is recommended that neurophysiology experiments on cockroach legs remove the limb at autotomy joints instead of coxa cuts, as the leg regenerates significantly faster when autotomized and does not detract from the neurophysiology educational content.

  8. Medically Important Parasites Carried by Cockroaches in Melong Subdivision, Littoral, Cameroon

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    R. J. Atiokeng Tatang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches have been recognized as mechanical vectors of pathogens that can infest humans or animals. A total of 844 adult cockroaches (436 males and 408 females were caught. In the laboratory, cockroaches were first washed in saturated salt solution to remove ectoparasites and then rinsed with 70% alcohol, dried, and dissected for endoparasites. An overall transport rate of 47.39% was recorded. Six genera of parasites were identified. These were Ascaris (33.76%, Trichuris (11.97%, Capillaria (6.16%, Toxocara (4.86%, Hook Worm (4.86%, and Eimeria (2.73%. The parasites were more recorded on the external surface (54.27% of cockroaches than in the internal surface (GIT, 38.51%. The same tendency was obtained between sexes with female cockroaches having a higher transport rate (36.69%. Cockroaches caught in toilets carried more parasites (31.99% as compared to those from kitchens (22.63% and houses (11.14%. Almost all encountered parasites were recognized as responsible of zoonosis and they can be consequently released in nature by hosts and easily disseminated by cockroaches as mechanical vectors. Sanitary education, reenforcement of worms’ eradication programs, and the fight against these insects remain a necessity in the Mélong Subdivision.

  9. Gut Bacterial Community of the Xylophagous Cockroaches Cryptocercus punctulatus and Parasphaeria boleiriana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlanga, Mercedes; Llorens, Carlos; Comas, Jaume; Guerrero, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Cryptocercus punctulatus and Parasphaeria boleiriana are two distantly related xylophagous and subsocial cockroaches. Cryptocercus is related to termites. Xylophagous cockroaches and termites are excellent model organisms for studying the symbiotic relationship between the insect and their microbiota. In this study, high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA was used to investigate the diversity of metagenomic gut communities of C. punctulatus and P. boleiriana, and thereby to identify possible shifts in symbiont allegiances during cockroaches evolution. Our results revealed that the hindgut prokaryotic communities of both xylophagous cockroaches are dominated by members of four Bacteria phyla: Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Other identified phyla were Spirochaetes, Planctomycetes, candidatus Saccharibacteria (formerly TM7), and Acidobacteria, each of which represented 1-2% of the total population detected. Community similarity based on phylogenetic relatedness by unweighted UniFrac analyses indicated that the composition of the bacterial community in the two species was significantly different (P cockroach species clustered with sequences previously described in termites and other cockroaches, but not with those from other animals or environments. These results suggest that, during their evolution, those cockroaches conserved several bacterial communities from the microbiota of a common ancestor. The ecological stability of those microbial communities may imply the important functional role for the survival of the host of providing nutrients in appropriate quantities and balance.

  10. Isocoumarins from American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) and their cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shi-Lin; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Wang, Lei; Bai, Liang-Liang; Peng, Qun-Long; Song, Cai-Lu; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2014-06-01

    Four new isocoumarins (1-4), along with three known ones (5-7), were isolated from the 70% ethanol extract of the whole body of the traditional Chinese insect medicine, American cockroach (Periplaneta americana). The structures with absolute configurations of new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods in combination with X-ray diffraction experiment and CD analyses. Compounds 3-5 showed significant cytotoxic activities in HepG2 and MCF-7 cells with IC50 values in the ranges 6.41-23.91 μM and 6.67-39.07 μM, respectively.

  11. Physiology of environmental adaptations and resource acquisition in cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Donald E

    2015-01-07

    Cockroaches are a group of insects that evolved early in geological time. Because of their antiquity, they for the most part display generalized behavior and physiology and accordingly have frequently been used as model insects to examine physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved with water balance, nutrition, reproduction, genetics, and insecticide resistance. As a result, a considerable amount of information on these topics is available. However, there is much more to be learned by employing new protocols, microchemical analytical techniques, and molecular biology tools to explore many unanswered questions.

  12. [Asymmetry of antennal grooming in the cockroach (Periplaneta americana)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the key features of antennal grooming of male American cockroaches in neutral circumstances. It was shown for the first time that the right antenna was cleaned significantly more often than the left one, which indicates the presence of functional asymmetry of antennal grooming in this insect species. At the same time, no statistically significant asymmetry was found for grooming of antennal bases and legs. Morphological asymmetries of antennae and legs and/or brain lateralization are the plausible sources of observed behavioral asymmetry in antennal grooming.

  13. Multifactorial Control of Autoimmune Insulin-Dependent Diabetes in NOD Mice: Lessons for IBD

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    Edward H Leiter

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in nonobese diabetic (NOD mice is an example of a complex multifactorial disease with strong genetic and environmental components. As such, this model may provide insight not only into mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease, but also may provide insight into how the environment may interact with the genome to initiate pathogenesis in humans. NOD mice are characterized by accumulation of unusually high percentages of T lymphocytes in lymphoid organs. Pancreatic beta cell destruction in NOD mice is T lymphocyte-mediated. Complex interactions between the inherently diabetogenic major histocompatibility complex (MHC haplotype of this strain and non-MHC-associated insulin-dependent diabetes susceptibility genes (Idd are required for cytopathic activation of the leukocytic infiltrates in the pancreas (insulitis. Penetrance of the diabetogenic Idd genes is strongly influenced by both dietary and microbiological factors in the environment. Genetic susceptibility is transmitted by hemopoietic stem cells, and specific defects in T immunoregulation have been traced to defects in the development and function of marrow-derived antigen presenting cells. The spontaneous development of diabetes in NOD mice is different from experimentally induced forms of diabetes in mice in several important respects. In addition to the pathognomic development of pancreatic insulitis, the generalized loss of immunoregulatory control of autoreactive T lymphocytes in NOD mice is reflected by development of leukocytic infiltrates into a plethora of organ systems including the submandibular salivary glands, thyroid glands, kidneys and, occasionally, the colon.

  14. The role of the cerebral ganglia in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation of cockroaches stung by the parasitoid jewel wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Maayan; Libersat, Frederic

    2015-04-01

    The jewel wasp stings cockroaches and injects venom into their cerebral ganglia, namely the subesophageal ganglion (SOG) and supraesophageal ganglion (SupOG). The venom induces a long-term hypokinetic state, during which the stung cockroach shows little or no spontaneous walking. It was shown that venom injection to the SOG reduces neuronal activity, thereby suggesting a similar effect of venom injection in the SupOG. Paradoxically, SupOG-ablated cockroaches show increased spontaneous walking in comparison with control. Yet most of the venom in the SupOG of cockroaches is primarily concentrated in and around the central complex (CX). Thus the venom could chiefly decrease activity in the CX to contribute to the hypokinetic state. Our first aim was to resolve this discrepancy by using a combination of behavioral and neuropharmacological tools. Our results show that the CX is necessary for the initiation of spontaneous walking, and that focal injection of procaine to the CX is sufficient to induce the decrease in spontaneous walking. Furthermore, it was shown that artificial venom injection to the SOG decreases walking. Hence our second aim was to test the interactions between the SupOG and SOG in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation. We show that, in the absence of the inhibitory control of the SupOG on walking initiation, injection of venom in the SOG alone by the wasp is sufficient to induce the hypokinetic state. To summarize, we show that venom injection to either the SOG or the CX of the SupOG is, by itself, sufficient to decrease walking. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Glucose-responsive artificial promoter-mediated insulin gene transfer improves glucose control in diabetic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaeseok Han; Eung-Hwi Kim; Woohyuk Choi; Hee-Sook Jun

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of insulin gene therapy using a glucose-responsive synthetic promoter in type 2 diabetic obese mice.METHODS:We employed a recently developed novel insulin gene therapy strategy using a synthetic promoter that regulates insulin gene expression in the liver in response to blood glucose level changes.We intravenously administered a recombinant adenovirus expressing furin-cleavable rat insulin under the control of the synthetic promoter (rAd-SP-rINSfur) into diabetic Leprdb/db mice.A recombinant adenovirus expressing β-galactosidase under the cytomegalovirus promoter was used as a control (rAd-CMV-βgal).Blood glucose levels and body weights were monitored for 50 d.Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed.Immunohistochemical staining was performed to investigate islet morphology and insulin content.RESULTS:Administration of rAd-SP-rINSfur lowered blood glucose levels and normoglycemia was maintained for 50 d,whereas the rAd-CMV-βgal control virus-injected mice remained hyperglycemic.Glucose tolerance tests showed that rAd-SP-rINSfur-treated mice cleared exogenous glucose from the blood more efficiently than control virus-injected mice at 4 wk [area under the curve (AUC):21 508.80 ± 2248.18 vs 62 640.00 ± 5014.28,P < 0.01] and at 6 wk (AUC:29 956.60 ± 1757.33 vs 60 016.60 ± 3794.47,P < 0.01).In addition,insulin sensitivity was also significantly improved in mice treated with rAd-SP-rINSfur compared with rAd-CMV-βgal-treated mice (AUC:9150.17±1007.78 vs 11 994.20 ± 474.40,P < 0.05).The islets from rAd-SP-rINSfur-injected mice appeared to be smaller and to contain a higher concentration of insulin than those from rAd-CMV-βgal-injected mice.CONCLUSION:Based on these results,we suggest that insulin gene therapy might be one therapeutic option for remission of type 2 diabetes.

  16. Advanced morphology and behaviour of extinct earwig-like cockroaches (Blattida: Fuziidae fam. nov.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vršanský, Peter; Liang, Jun-Hui; Ren, Dong

    2009-12-01

    We describe the extinct cockroach family Fuziidae fam. nov., represented by Fuzia dadao gen. et sp. nov. from the ?Bathonian (168 Ma) Middle Jurassic sediments of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. Males are characterized by unique, long and narrow bodies with a notch on forceps of earwig-like cerci, which attaches to the long external ovipositor during courtship. In a combination with the presence of male tergal glands, it appears the most advanced form of reproduction in the nearly 300 Myr history of long external ovipositor-bearing cockroaches. Its advanced morphology significantly supports attribution of living and fossil cockroaches within a single order Blattida.

  17. Chemical disguise of myrmecophilous cockroaches and its implications for understanding nestmate recognition mechanisms in leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, Volker; Dani, Francesca R; Calamai, Luca; Turillazzi, Stefano; Bohn, Horst; Klass, Klaus-Dieter; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2016-08-05

    Cockroaches of the genus Attaphila regularly occur in leaf-cutting ant colonies. The ants farm a fungus that the cockroaches also appear to feed on. Cockroaches disperse between colonies horizontally (via foraging trails) and vertically (attached to queens on their mating flights). We analysed the chemical strategies used by the cockroaches to integrate into colonies of Atta colombica and Acromyrmex octospinosus. Analysing cockroaches from nests of two host species further allowed us to test the hypothesis that nestmate recognition is based on an asymmetric mechanism. Specifically, we test the U-present nestmate recognition model, which assumes that detection of undesirable cues (non-nestmate specific substances) leads to strong rejection of the cue-bearers, while absence of desirable cues (nestmate-specific substances) does not necessarily trigger aggression. We found that nests of Atta and Acromyrmex contained cockroaches of two different and not yet described Attaphila species. The cockroaches share the cuticular chemical substances of their specific host species and copy their host nest's colony-specific cuticular profile. Indeed, the cockroaches are accepted by nestmate but attacked by non-nestmate ant workers. Cockroaches from Acromyrmex colonies bear a lower concentration of cuticular substances and are less likely to be attacked by non-nestmate ants than cockroaches from Atta colonies. Nest-specific recognition of Attaphila cockroaches by host workers in combination with nest-specific cuticular chemical profiles suggest that the cockroaches mimic their host's recognition labels, either by synthesizing nest-specific substances or by substance transfer from ants. Our finding that the cockroach species with lower concentration of cuticular substances receives less aggression by both host species fully supports the U-present nestmate recognition model. Leaf-cutting ant nestmate recognition is thus asymmetric, responding more strongly to differences than to

  18. Monitoring of cockroach density and seasonal fluctuation in Haikou City%2009~2010年海口市蟑螂种群密度及季节消长监测结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓花; 陈永薇

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解海口市蟑螂种类、密度、季节消长情况,为海口市的蟑螂防治提供科学依据.方法 采用粘捕法分别在居民住宅、餐饮、宾馆、农贸市场和医院等不同环境中进行蟑螂种群分布、密度、季节消长情况调查.结果 海口市蟑螂种群有德国小蠊、美洲大蠊、澳洲大蠊和斑蠊,其中德国小蠊为海口市的优势种群.海口市区蟑螂密度较高[4],全年平均达到2.76只/张,栖息场所蟑螂密度以餐饮业密度最高,达5.86只/张,宾馆次之,达3.26只/张,农贸市场、医院和居民较低,分别为1.16只/张、0.55只/张、0.34只/张.蟑螂一年四季均有活动,8月份蟑螂密度最高,1月份蟑螂密度最低.结论 海口市蟑螂种群发生了明显变化,尤其是德国小蠊侵害严重,应加强蟑螂密度和抗药性等监测,根据监测结果,及时预警预报,提出科学合理的防治措施.%Objective To survey the cockroach species,the density and the seasonal fluctuation and provide scientific basis for elimination cockroach in Haikou. Methods The population distribution,density and seasonal flunctuation of cockroach were suveyed using night sticky trap method in residential areas,hotels,eating houses,markets and hospitals. Results There were four cockroachs species in Haikou:the German cockroach,the American cockroach,the Australian cockroach and the Neostylopyga rhombifolia. The German cockroach was predominant. The cockroach density was high with average density of 2.76/nights and the numbers of cockroadch in eating houses,hotel,market,hospital,residential areas were 5.86/ night,3.26/night, 1.16/night,0.55/night and 0.34/night. The cockroach density was the highest in August and the lowest in January. Conclusion The population and density of cockroach in Haikou varied and integrated monitoring and eliminating measures be adopted to control the pervalence of cockroad.

  19. Development of Diagnostic Insecticide Concentrations and Assessment of Insecticide Susceptibility in German Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) Field Strains Collected From Public Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardisi, Mahsa; Gondhalekar, Ameya D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Insecticide resistance in German cockroaches (Blattella germanica (L.)) has been a barrier to effective control since its first documentation in the 1950s. A necessary first step toward managing resistance is to understand insecticide susceptibility profiles in field-collected strains so that active ingredients (AIs) with lowest resistance levels can be identified. As a first step in this study, diagnostic concentrations (DCs) were determined for 14 insecticide AIs based on lethal concentrations that killed 99% or 90% of the individuals from a susceptible lab strain (JWax-S). Next, cockroaches were collected from two low-income multifamily housing complexes in Danville, IL, and Indianapolis, IN, and used to establish laboratory strains. These strains were screened against the 14 AI-DCs in vial bioassays, and susceptibility profiles were determined by comparing percent mortalities between the field strains relative to the JWax-S strain. Results revealed lowest resistance of field strains to boric acid, abamectin, dinotefuran, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and chlorfenapyr. For the AIs hydramethylnon and imidacloprid, field strains did not display survivorship different than the lab strain, but >90% mortality was never achieved. Lastly, both field strains displayed resistance to indoxacarb, fipronil, acetamiprid, beta-cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin, but at varying levels. These results satisfy two objectives. First, baseline monitoring DCs were established for 14 insecticides presently registered for use against cockroaches, which represents a useful resource. Second, our findings reveal insecticide AIs with lowest resistance levels for use in forthcoming field studies that will investigate impacts of different insecticide deployment strategies on resistance management and evolution in cockroach field populations. PMID:28334270

  20. Effects of drugs on schedule-controlled running of mice in a circular runway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, E; Morse, W H; Dews, P B

    1985-01-01

    Partially food deprived mice ran in a 1-m circular runway. Every 30 circuits, diluted evaporated milk was delivered. Under control conditions mice averaged 0.18 circuits/s for 1 h. The rate was reduced to 0.11 circuits/s 1 h after gavage of Tylose (cellulose derivative) vehicle. Amphetamine, chlordiazepoxide and pentobarbital increased the rate of responding over some dose range, but chlorpromazine, clozapine, imipramine and morphine caused only decreases in responding at effective dose levels. The results are generally similar to reports of effects of the drugs on responses of much briefer duration occurring at similar rates.

  1. High load of multi-drug resistant nosocomial neonatal pathogens carried by cockroaches in a neonatal intensive care unit at Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Birkneh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cockroaches have been described as potential vectors for various pathogens for decades; although studies from neonatal intensive care units are scarce. This study assessed the vector potential of cockroaches (identified as Blatella germanica in a neonatal intensive care unit setup in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A total of 400 Blatella germanica roaches were aseptically collected for five consecutive months. Standard laboratory procedures were used to process the samples. Results From the external and gut homogenates, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp. Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter diversus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella ozaenae, Enterobacter aeruginosa, Salmonella C1, Non Group A streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp. and Shigella flexneri were isolated. Multi-drug resistance was seen in all organisms. Resistance to up to all the 12 antimicrobials tested was observed in different pathogens. Conclusion Cockroaches could play a vector role for nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit and environmental control measures of these vectors is required to reduce the risk of infection. A high level of drug resistance pattern of the isolated pathogens was demonstrated.

  2. 2007-2009年武汉市江夏区蟑螂密度调查%A survey on density of cockroach in Jiangxia district in Wuhan from 2007 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余前峰; 刘智; 彭建军; 吴太平; 田俊华

    2011-01-01

    目的 掌握江夏区2007-2009年蟑螂的种群变化和季节消长,为开展蟑螂防治工作提供科学依据.方法 粘捕法.结果 3年共捕获德国小蠊和黑胸大蠊2种计3050只,德国小蠊为优势种,占总数的93.5%;蟑螂全年活动,4-10月密度均较高,密度最高峰期在6-8月.结论 基本摸清全区不同生境蟑螂的种群构成和活动情况.%Objective To provide scientific basis for cockroach control by grasping of community structure and the seasonal fluctuation in 2007 -2009. Methods Cockroach traps. Results Totally 3 050 were captured and two species were found in this survey. Blattella germanica was predominant species, accouted for 93.5%. Cockroach were active throughout the year, the density of which were higher between April and October, and the highest density generally appeared from June to August. Conclusion The community structure and seasonal fluctuation of cockroach were preliminary known.

  3. Rb and p53 gene deletions in lung adenocarcinomas from irradiated and control mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Woloschak, G.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology

    1997-08-01

    This study was conducted on mouse lung adenocarcinoma tissues that were formalin-treated and paraffin-embedded 25 years ago to investigate the large gene deletions of mRb and p53 in B6CF{sub 1} male mice. A total of 80 lung tissue samples from irradiated mice and 40 lung samples from nonirradiated controls were randomly selected and examined in the mRb portion of this study. The results showed a significant (P < 0.05) higher percentage of mRb deletions in lung adenocarcinomas from mice exposed to 60 once-weekly {gamma}-ray doses than those from mice receiving 24 once-weekly {gamma}-ray doses at low doses and low dose rates; however, the percentage was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that for spontaneous lung adenocarcinomas or lung adenocarcinomas from mice exposed to single-dose {gamma} irradiation at a similar total dose. mRb fragments 3 (71%) and 5 (67%), the parts of the gene that encoded the pocket binding region of Rb protein to adenovirus E1A and SV40 T-antigen, were the most frequently deleted fragments. p53 gene deletion analysis was carried out on normal lungs and lung adenocarcinomas that were initially found to bear mRb deletions. Exons 1,4,5,6, and 9 were chosen to be analyzed.

  4. The gut microbiota modulates glycaemic control and serum metabolite profiles in non-obese diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Thomas U; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Knip, Mikael; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Orešič, Matej

    2014-01-01

    Islet autoimmunity in children who later progress to type 1 diabetes is preceded by dysregulated serum metabolite profiles, but the origin of these metabolic changes is unknown. The gut microbiota affects host metabolism and changes in its composition contribute to several immune-mediated diseases; however, it is not known whether the gut microbiota is involved in the early metabolic disturbances in progression to type 1 diabetes. We rederived non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice as germ free to explore the potential role of the gut microbiota in the development of diabetic autoimmunity and to directly investigate whether the metabolic profiles associated with the development of type 1 diabetes can be modulated by the gut microbiota. The absence of a gut microbiota in NOD mice did not affect the overall diabetes incidence but resulted in increased insulitis and levels of interferon gamma and interleukin 12; these changes were counterbalanced by improved peripheral glucose metabolism. Furthermore, we observed a markedly increased variation in blood glucose levels in the absence of a microbiota in NOD mice that did not progress to diabetes. Additionally, germ-free NOD mice had a metabolite profile similar to that of pre-diabetic children. Our data suggest that germ-free NOD mice have reduced glycaemic control and dysregulated immunologic and metabolic responses.

  5. Comparative repellent properties of certain chemicals against mosquitoes, house flies and cockroaches using modified techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, P H; Tungikar, V B; Sharma, R N

    1994-09-01

    Several terpenoids were assessed for their repellent/toxic properties against mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti), house flies (Musca domestica) and cockroaches (Periplaneta americana). Impregnated wide mesh netting was used in the case of the Dipterans, while treated filtered paper was employed for the bioassays with cockroaches. Persistence of the repellent chemicals was studied. Doses ranged from 5-20 gm/M2 for the Dipterans and 25-100 mg per 4 x 4 cm filter paper for the cockroaches. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) offered the maximum protection of the chemicals tested against mosquitoes but was not so effective against house flies and cockroaches. Citral and Eugenol were effective against all the three test insects. Other test compounds afforded varying degrees of protection. Application strategy and utility of the findings are discussed.

  6. BALB/c mice deficient in CD4 T cell IL-4Rα expression control Leishmania mexicana Load although female but not male mice develop a healer phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J Bryson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunologically intact BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania mexicana develop non-healing progressively growing lesions associated with a biased Th2 response while similarly infected IL-4Rα-deficient mice fail to develop lesions and develop a robust Th1 response. In order to determine the functional target(s for IL-4/IL-13 inducing non-healing disease, the course of L. mexicana infection was monitored in mice lacking IL-4Rα expression in specific cellular compartments. A deficiency of IL-4Rα expression on macrophages/neutrophils (in LysM(creIL-4Rα(-/lox animals had minimal effect on the outcome of L. mexicana infection compared with control (IL-4Rα(-/flox mice. In contrast, CD4(+ T cell specific (Lck(creIL-4Rα(-/lox IL-4Rα(-/- mice infected with L. mexicana developed small lesions, which subsequently healed in female mice, but persisted in adult male mice. While a strong Th1 response was manifest in both male and female CD4(+ T cell specific IL-4Rα(-/- mice infected with L. mexicana, induction of IL-4 was manifest in males but not females, independently of CD4(+ T cell IL-4 responsiveness. Similar results were obtained using pan-T cell specific (iLck(creIL-4Rα(-/lox IL-4Rα(-/- mice. Collectively these data demonstrate that upon infection with L. mexicana, initial lesion growth in BALB/c mice is dependent on non-T cell population(s responsive to IL-4/IL-13 while progressive infection is dependent on CD4(+ T cells responsive to IL-4.

  7. Effects of IL-6 on the development of zygote in mice after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-hua WEI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the effect of IL -6 on the development of zygotes of mice after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Methods  The present experiment included three parts: a Addition of IL-6: 80 female ICR mice were divided into 7 groups by random number table including 6 groups of superovulation (10 each and a group of natural ovulation cycle (n=20. According to addition of IL-6 in different concentration to culture media, the superovulated ICR mice were divided into superovulation control group (0pg/ml IL -6 group, 1pg/ml IL-6 group, 5pg/ml IL-6 group, 10pg/ml IL -6 group, 25pg/ml IL-6 group, and 50pg/ml IL-6 group, with ICR mice in natural ovulation cycle served as control. b Addition of IL-6 receptor antibody (RA: 90 female ICR mice were divided into 7 groups according to the random number table, including 5 groups of superovulation (10 each on the basis of addition of different concentrations IL-6 and IL-6 RA to culture media (0pg/ml IL-6+RA groups, 1pg/ml IL-6+RA group, 5pg/ml IL-6+RA group, 10pg/ml IL-6+RA group, 25pg/ml IL-6+RA group, and 2 groups of normal natural cycle (20 each, including control group and the control group+IL -6 RA (100pg/ml group. Mice in normal control group conceived naturally while those in superovulation group conceived after superovulation. The zygotes were collected and cultured in vitro for 1 day till the formation of 2-cell embryos, then the rate of 2-cell formation was observed under microscope. Experiments of each group were repeated three times. c Immunofluorescence identification: 10 female ICR mice were divided into control group and superovulation group (5 each by random number table method. The expressions of IL -6 in zygotes were determined with confocal immunofluorescence method. Results  IL-6 addition experiment: the rate of 2-cell formation was significantly lower (P<0.05 in superovulated control group, 1pg/ml IL -6, 25pg/ml IL -6 and 50pg/ml IL-6 groups than in control group (P=0.023, P=0

  8. Grooming behavior in American cockroach is affected by novelty and odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovskaya, Marianna I

    2014-01-01

    The main features of grooming behavior are amazingly similar among arthropods and land vertebrates and serve the same needs. A particular pattern of cleaning movements in cockroaches shows cephalo-caudal progression. Grooming sequences become longer after adaptation to the new setting. Novelty related changes in grooming are recognized as a form of displacement behavior. Statistical analysis of behavior revealed that antennal grooming in American cockroach, Periplaneta americana L., was significantly enhanced in the presence of odor.

  9. Cockroaches (Insecta, Blattodea from caves of Polillo Island (Philippines, with description of a new species

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    Cristian C. Lucanas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches collected during a protracted series of fieldwork in several limestone caves in Polillo Island, Philippines were taxonomically studied. A new species of Nocticola (Nocticolidae, N. gonzalezi Lucañas & Lit, sp. n., is described. The male of Periplaneta banksi Hanitsch (Blattidae is described for the first time. Altogether, the present cave cockroach fauna of the island consists of six species.

  10. Microbial organisms carried by brown-banded cockroaches in relation to their spatial distribution in a hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Guyader, A.; Rivault, C.; Chaperon, J

    1989-01-01

    A simultaneous study of cockroach (Supella supellectilium) distribution and of associated carried bacterial flora has been made in the main hospital in Rennes (France). Wild cockroaches carry a high number of bacterial species that can be related to the normal environmental flora and a contaminant flora acquired from particular environments. The diversity of carried bacterial species reveals a proximity factor between continguous floors of the building which leads us to suppose that cockroach...

  11. [The yeast community associated with the digestive tract of the German cockroach Blattella germanica L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheltikova, T M; Glushakova, A M; Alesho, N A

    2011-01-01

    Data on the yeasts colonizing the digestive tract ofa German cockroach have been first obtained. Cockroach cultures are used in the commercial production of allergy vaccines to treat patients sensitized to cockroach allergens. The enteric microflora of the insects can bring nonshared antigens into the composition of the agents manufactured. An investigation established that out of 10 yeast species isolated from the digestive tract of the cockroaches fed sterile food, 6 species (Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus magnus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Metschikowia pulcherrima, Phodo-torula glutinis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa) were isolated from both the digestive tract and excrements and 4 (Candida oleophila, Candida shehatae, Cryptococcus albidus, Pichia membmnaefciens) were only from the digestive tract. It seems that the yeast is either digested or inactivated in the digestive tract of the insects and loses their capacity to grow When the cockroaches were fed sterile food for a long time (at least a month), all yeasts virtually disappeared from the digestive tract of the insects except for Candida glabrata, C.shehatae, and Rh.mucilaginosa. However, only C.glabrata achieved a great deal (10(7)-10(8) CFU/g) of cockroaches (both imagoes and larvae of 5-7 ages), which statistically significantly decreased by no less than three orders of magnitude in the excrements after passing through the digestive tract.

  12. A survey on species and prevalence rate of bacterial agents isolated from cockroaches in three hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarchi, Ali Akbar Karimi; Vatani, Hadi

    2009-04-01

    The presence of cockroaches has health implications, such as nosocomial infection, as the insects move freely from areas within and around hospitals that may harbor pathogenic organisms. The goals of the present study were to determine species of bacteria isolated from cockroaches found in three Tehran hospitals, and to determine distribution of potential vectors by species and sex. The study is descriptive laboratory research. A total of 305 cockroaches from three species were trapped and identified: Periplaneta americana (65.6%), Blatella germanica (12.1%), and Blatta orientalis (22.3%). From these potential vectors, 19 species of bacteria were isolated and identified. After transportation of cockroaches to the laboratory, separation of the whole-homogenized suspension of each species was carried out. Identification of the isolated bacteria was performed according to Burgey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th Edition. The most common species of bacteria isolated from cockroaches were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus Group D, Bacillus spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus vulgaris. No statistical significance was found between sex and species of cockroach carrying bacteria (p > 0.05), but significance was found for sex in Citrobacter freundii, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus non-group A&B (p < 0.05).

  13. Do Quiescence and Wasp Venom-Induced Lethargy Share Common Neuronal Mechanisms in Cockroaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Stav; Libersat, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    The escape behavior of a cockroach may not occur when it is either in a quiescent state or after being stung by the jewel wasp (Ampulex compressa). In the present paper, we show that quiescence is an innate lethargic state during which the cockroach is less responsive to external stimuli. The neuronal mechanism of such a state is poorly understood. In contrast to quiescence, the venom-induced lethargic state is not an innate state in cockroaches. The Jewel Wasp disables the escape behavior of cockroaches by injecting its venom directly in the head ganglia, inside a neuropile called the central complex a 'higher center' known to regulate motor behaviors. In this paper we show that the coxal slow motoneuron ongoing activity, known to be involved in posture, is reduced in quiescent animals, as compared to awake animals, and it is further reduced in stung animals. Moreover, the regular tonic firing of the slow motoneuron present in both awake and quiescent cockroaches is lost in stung cockroaches. Injection of procaine to prevent neuronal activity into the central complex to mimic the wasp venom injection produces a similar effect on the activity of the slow motoneuron. In conclusion, we speculate that the neuronal modulation during the quiescence and venom-induced lethargic states may occur in the central complex and that both states could share a common neuronal mechanism.

  14. Reducing LPS content in cockroach allergens increases pulmonary cytokine production without increasing inflammation: A randomized laboratory study

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    Cruikshank William

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endotoxins are ubiquitously present in the environment and constitute a significant component of ambient air. These substances have been shown to modulate the allergic response, however a consensus has yet to be reached whether they attenuate or exacerbate asthmatic responses. The current investigation examined whether reducing the concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS in a house dust extract (HDE containing high concentrations of both cockroach allergens 1 and LPS would attenuate asthma-like pulmonary inflammation. Methods Mice were sensitized with CRA and challenged with the intact HDE, containing 182 ng of LPS, or an LPS-reduced HDE containing 3 ng LPS, but an equivalent amount of CRA. Multiple parameters of asthma-like pulmonary inflammation were measured. Results Compared to HDE challenged mice, the LPS-reduced HDE challenged mice had significantly reduced TNFα levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Plasma levels of IgE and IgG1 were significantly reduced, however no change in CRA-specific IgE was detected. In HDE mice, plasma IgG2a levels were similar to naïve mice, while LPS-reduced HDE mice had significantly greater concentrations. Reduced levels of LPS in the HDE did not decrease eosinophil or neutrophil recruitment into the alveolar space. Equivalent inflammatory cell recruitment occurred despite having generally higher pulmonary concentrations of eotaxins and CXC chemokines in the LPS-reduced HDE group. LPS-reduced HDE challenge induced significantly higher concentrations of IFNγ, and IL-5 and IL-13 in the BAL fluid, but did not decrease airways hyperresponsiveness or airway resistance to methacholine challenge. Conclusion: These data show that reduction of LPS levels in the HDE does not significantly protect against the severity of asthma-like pulmonary inflammation.

  15. Alveolar macrophages play a key role in cockroach-induced allergic inflammation via TNF-α pathway.

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    Joo Young Kim

    Full Text Available The activity of the serine protease in the German cockroach allergen is important to the development of allergic disease. The protease-activated receptor (PAR-2, which is expressed in numerous cell types in lung tissue, is known to mediate the cellular events caused by inhaled serine protease. Alveolar macrophages express PAR-2 and produce considerable amounts of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. We determined whether the serine protease in German cockroach extract (GCE enhances TNF-α production by alveolar macrophages through the PAR-2 pathway and whether the TNF-α production affects GCE-induced pulmonary inflammation. Effects of GCE on alveolar macrophages and TNF-α production were evaluated using in vitro MH-S and RAW264.6 cells and in vivo GCE-induced asthma models of BALB/c mice. GCE contained a large amount of serine protease. In the MH-S and RAW264.7 cells, GCE activated PAR-2 and thereby produced TNF-α. In the GCE-induced asthma model, intranasal administration of GCE increased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR, inflammatory cell infiltration, productions of serum immunoglobulin E, interleukin (IL-5, IL-13 and TNF-α production in alveolar macrophages. Blockade of serine proteases prevented the development of GCE induced allergic pathologies. TNF-α blockade also prevented the development of such asthma-like lesions. Depletion of alveolar macrophages reduced AHR and intracellular TNF-α level in pulmonary cell populations in the GCE-induced asthma model. These results suggest that serine protease from GCE affects asthma through an alveolar macrophage and TNF-α dependent manner, reflecting the close relation of innate and adaptive immune response in allergic asthma model.

  16. Investigation on cockroach population distribution and its infestation situation in Yichun city in 2008%2008年宜春市蜚蠊种群分布及侵害状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴惠英; 龙海; 龙奇达; 何秋霞; 程小军; 高华兵

    2009-01-01

    目的 掌握宜春市蜚蠊种群分布、季节消长及侵害状况,为科学防治提供依据.方法 采用粘捕法调查,将捕获蜚蠊进行分类鉴定.结果 宜春市有2种蜚蠊分布,其中德国小蠊为优势种,占59.13%;黑胸大蠊占40.87%.6-8月为蜚蠊活动高峰期.以农贸市场密度最高,其他依次为餐饮店、居民区、宾馆、医院.结论 德国小蠊现已成为宜春市主要优势种,应将其列为今后防治的重点.%Objective To grasp the populatian distribution and seasonal fluctuation of cockroach and its infectation situation in Yichun. Methods Cockroach were collected by baits and traps, and then identified. Results There were 2 species of cockroaches. Blattella germanica was the dominant species, accounting for 59.13%. Periplaneta fuliginosa accounted for 40.87%. The activity peak of the cockroach was from June to August. The order of cockroach distributed in different areas was farm produce trade market, restaurant, residential area, hotel and hospital. Conclusion B. germanica was the dominant species in Yichun, which suggested that we should put the emphasis on the control of it in the future.

  17. OCT detection of neural activity in American cockroach nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyńska, Iwona; Wyszkowska, Joanna; Bukowska, Danuta; Ruminski, Daniel; Karnowski, Karol; Stankiewicz, Maria; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2013-03-01

    We show results of a project which focuses on detection of activity in neural tissue with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) methods. Experiments were performed in neural cords dissected from the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana L.). Functional OCT imaging was performed with ultrahigh resolution spectral / Fourier domain OCT system (axial resolution 2.5 μm). Electrical stimulation (voltage pulses) was applied to the sensory cercal nerve of the neural cord. Optical detection of functional activation of the sample was performed in the connective between the terminal abdominal ganglion and the fifth abdominal ganglion. Functional OCT data were collected over time with the OCT beam illuminating selected single point in the connectives (i.e. OCT M-scans were acquired). Phase changes of the OCT signal were analyzed to visualize occurrence of activation in the neural cord. Electrophysiology recordings (microelectrode method) were also performed as a reference method to demonstrate electrical response of the sample to stimulation.

  18. 天津市餐饮业蟑螂侵害状况调查%Survey of infestation of cockroaches in food and beverage industries in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴彤宇; 郝连义; 王伟; 张静; 秦娜; 李培羽; 李今越

    2011-01-01

    Objective To survey the infestation of cockroaches in food and beverage industries in Tianjin. Methods The infestation status of cockroaches was surveyed by choosing 10 eating houses selected from each district and counties of Tianjin in April,august and October,respectived. Results Totally 180 eating houses were surveyed and the average density of cockroasch was 3.57% ,The infestation rates of cockroach surveyed in April, August and October were 46.1% , 45.0% and 40.56% without significant difference (P>0.05). Blattella germanica was the predominat species. Conclusion Infestation rate of cockroaches in food and beverage industries in Tianjin is serious and effective measures be adopted to control the infestation of cockroach in Tianjin..%目的 调查天津市餐饮业蟑螂侵害状况,为餐饮业蟑螂防治提供依据.方法 分别于2009年4,8,10月三次在全市每区县随机抽取的10家餐馆采用粘捕法进行蟑螂侵害调查.结果 全市18区县共调查180家餐饮业,平均密度为3.57,三次调查的侵害分别为46.1%,45.0%,40.56%,统计学无显著意义(P=0.526);监测中捕获均为德国小蠊,为餐饮业的优势种群;农村与城市侵害比较无显著性差异(P=0.466);餐馆不同部位的侵害不同,操作间侵害最严重.结论 天津市餐饮业蟑螂侵害状况较严重,应采取有效的防治措施,防治中应注重重点部位的防治,以提高防治效果.

  19. Cockroaches Allergens Trigger Asthma Prevention Study%蟑螂过敏原引发哮喘的防治研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙金; 张锡平; 赵庆武

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解蟑螂过敏原引发哮喘的作用机制,探寻蟑螂引发哮喘的防治方法.方法:对全市8家医院的呼吸科,儿科的哮喘病例80例进行问卷调奁和蟑螂抗原皮肤点刺试验.结果:哮喘患者对蟑螂抗原的反应性的相关性是显著的,其与阳性也是显著相关的(P<0.001),其阳性比率为40.0%,成人阳性比率为45.0%,儿童阳性比率为35.0%.男性阳性比率为56.25%,女性阳性比率为47.5%.结论:蟑螂是哮喘患者主要变应原之一,一般成人的阳性比率比儿童高,男性比女性高.免疫治疗和灭蟑是蟑螂过敏原引发哮喘主要有效的防治方法.%Objective:Understand cockroach allergens trigger asthma mechanism of action,and explore cockeroach trigger astma and the control.Metheods:the 83 armour hospital,pediatrics and an allergy clinic asthma cases 80 cases of questionnaire and cockroach antigen skin prick test.Results:Asthma patients to cockroach antigen reactive correlation is remarkable, its and positive is also significant(P<0.001),its positive 40.0%,adult positive ratio fot ratio for accounting for 36.0%,children positive 35.0%,male ratio fot positive ratio for 56.25%,women postive ratio for 47.5%.Concusion:Cockroaches are asthma patients main allergens,one of the positive ratio than the average adult children high,high males than females.Immune therapy and destroy Zhang is a cockroach allergens trigger asthma main effective prevention methods.

  20. Liver suction-mediated transfection in mice using a pressure-controlled computer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazunori; Zhang, Guangyuan; Kawakami, Shigeru; Taniguchi, Yota; Hayashi, Kouji; Hashida, Mitsuru; Konishi, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    We previously developed an in vivo tissue suction-mediated transfection method (denoted as the tissue suction method) for naked nucleic acids, such as plasmid DNA (pDNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA), in mice. However, it remains unclear whether the suction pressure conditions affect the results of this method. Therefore, in the present study, we assembled a computer system to control the suction pressure and investigate the effects of the suction pressure conditions on the efficiency of the liver suction transfection of naked pDNA that encodes luciferase in mice. Using the developed system, we examined the effects of the minimum magnitude of the suction pressure, suction pressure waveform, and suction times of the luciferase expression level in mice livers. We determined that the liver suction method at 5 kPa was not only effective but also caused the lowest hepatic toxicity in mice. Additionally, the results indicated that the suction pressure waveform affects the luciferase expression levels, and a single period of suction on the targeted portion of the liver is sufficient for transfection. Thus, the developed system is useful for performing the tissue suction method with high accuracy and safety.

  1. Genetic control of ATGL-mediated lipolysis modulates adipose triglyceride stores in leptin-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelin, Genevieve; Liu, Shun-Mei; Li, Xiaosong; Schwartz, Gary J; Chua, Streamson

    2012-05-01

    Dissecting the genetics of complex traits such as obesity allows the identification of causal genes for disease. Here, we show that the BALB/c mouse strain carries genetic variants that confer resistance to obesity induced by leptin-deficiency or a high-fat diet (HFD). We set out to identify the physiological and genetic bases underlying this phenotype. When compared with C57BL6/J ob/ob mice (B6), BALB/c ob/ob mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased thermogenic capacity, and improved fat catabolism, each of which can potentially modify obesity. Interestingly, analysis of F1 ob/ob (progeny of B6 ob/+ × BALB/c ob+) mice revealed that obesity resistance in BALB/c ob/ob mice principally relied upon improved fat mobilization. This was mechanistically explained by increased adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) content in adipocytes, along with increased lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation. We conducted a genome-wide scan and defined a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 2. BALB/c alleles on chromosome 2 not only associated with the obesity resistance phenotype but also supported increased ATGL content in adipose tissue. In summary, our study provides evidence that leptin-independent control of adipocyte lipolysis rates directly modifies the balance of macronutrient handling and is sufficient to regulate fat mass in the absence of alterations in food intake and energy expenditure.-Marcelin, G., S-M. Liu, X. Li, G. J. Schwartz, and S. Chua.

  2. Expression of SV40 T antigen under control of rabbit uteroglobin promoter in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMayo, F J; Finegold, M J; Hansen, T N; Stanley, L A; Smith, B; Bullock, D W

    1991-08-01

    The rabbit uteroglobin gene is expressed in the lungs and reproductive tracts of male and female rabbits. To examine whether the promoter region of the uteroglobin gene could be used to target a heterologous gene to the lungs of transgenic mice, a fusion gene consisting of 3.3 kb of the 5'-flanking region of the rabbit uteroglobin gene and the large T antigen gene of the SV40 virus was constructed and microinjected into the pronuclei of one-cell mouse embryos. Eleven founder transgenic mice (5 female and 6 male) were generated. Seven of these mice developed bronchioalveolar neoplasms. Four of the founder males also developed primitive undifferentiated urogenital tract tumors. One founder female and one female offspring of a founder male developed glandular paraovarian tumors. Northern analysis revealed that the predominant site of expression of the transgene was the lung. Immunohistochemical staining showed T antigen predominantly in epithelial cells lining the bronchioles, the submucosal glands of the trachea, and the neoplasms. There appeared to be a high level of mosaicism for the transgene in the founder mice, with poor transmission of the transgene to subsequent generations. This suggests that, under the control of the uteroglobin promoter, the T antigen gene may be lethal to the fetus.

  3. Effect of DAPT, a gamma secretase inhibitor, on tumor angiogenesis in control mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira Kalantari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Notch signaling is a key factor for angiogenesis in physiological and pathological condition and γ-secretase is the regulator of Notch signaling. The main goal of this study was to assess the effect of (N-[N-(3,5-Diflurophenaacetyl-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-Butyl Ester DAPT, a γ-secretase inhibitor, on serum angiogenic biomarkers, and tumor angiogenesis in control mice. Materials and Methods: Tumor was induced by inoculation of colon adenocarcinoma cells (CT26 in 12 male Balb/C mice. When tumors size is reached to a 350 ± 50 mm 3 , the animals were randomly divided into two groups: control and DAPT (n = 6/group. DAPT was injected subcutaneously 10 mg/kg/day. After 14 days, blood samples were taken and the tumors were harvested for immunohistochemical staining. Results: Administration of DAPT significantly increased serum nitric oxide concentration and reduced vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-1 (VEGFR1 concentration without changes on serum VEGF concentration. DAPT reduced tumor vascular density in control mice (280.6 ± 81 vs. 386 ± 59.9 CD31 positive cells/mm 2 , although, it was not statistically significant. Conclusion: It seems that γ-secretase inhibitors can be considered for treatment of disorders with abnormal angiogenesis such as tumor angiogenesis.

  4. Sotagliflozin improves glycemic control in nonobese diabetes-prone mice with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powell DR

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available David R Powell, Deon Doree, Sabrina Jeter-Jones, Zhi-Ming Ding, Brian Zambrowicz, Arthur Sands Lexicon Pharmaceuticals, The Woodlands, TX, USA Purpose: Oral agents are needed that improve glycemic control without increasing hypoglycemic events in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D. Sotagliflozin may meet this need, because this compound lowers blood glucose through the insulin-independent mechanisms of inhibiting kidney SGLT2 and intestinal SGLT1. We examined the effect of sotagliflozin on glycemic control and rate of hypoglycemia measurements in T1D mice maintained on a low daily insulin dose, and compared these results to those from mice maintained in better glycemic control with a higher daily insulin dose alone. Materials and methods: Nonobese diabetes-prone mice with cyclophosphamide-induced T1D were randomized to receive one of four daily treatments: 0.2 U insulin/vehicle, 0.05 U insulin/vehicle, 0.05 U insulin/2 mg/kg sotagliflozin or 0.05 U insulin/30 mg/kg sotagliflozin. Insulin was delivered subcutaneously by micro-osmotic pump; the day after pump implantation, mice received their first of 22 once-daily oral doses of sotagliflozin or vehicle. Glycemic control was monitored by measuring fed blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels. Results: Blood glucose levels decreased rapidly and comparably in the 0.05 U insulin/sotagliflozin-treated groups and the 0.2 U insulin/vehicle group compared to the 0.05 U insulin/vehicle group, which had significantly higher levels than the other three groups from day 2 through day 23. A1c levels were also significantly higher in the 0.05 U insulin/vehicle group compared to the other three groups on day 23. Importantly, the 0.2 U insulin/vehicle group had, out of 100 blood glucose measurements, 13 that were <70 mg/dL compared to one of 290 for the other three groups combined. Conclusion: Sotagliflozin significantly improved glycemic control, without increasing the rate of hypoglycemia measurements, in

  5. Glycemic control promotes pancreatic beta-cell regeneration in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

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    Eric J Grossman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic beta-cells proliferate following administration of the beta-cell toxin streptozotocin. Defining the conditions that promote beta-cell proliferation could benefit patients with diabetes. We have investigated the effect of insulin treatment on pancreatic beta-cell regeneration in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, and, in addition, report on a new approach to quantify beta-cell regeneration in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic were treated with either syngeneic islets transplanted under the kidney capsule or subcutaneous insulin implants. After either 60 or 120 days of insulin treatment, the islet transplant or insulin implant were removed and blood glucose levels monitored for 30 days. The results showed that both islet transplants and insulin implants restored normoglycemia in the 60 and 120 day treated animals. However, only the 120-day islet and insulin implant groups maintained euglycemia (<200 mg/dl following discontinuation of insulin treatment. The beta-cell was significantly increased in all the 120 day insulin-treated groups (insulin implant, 0.69+/-0.23 mg; and islet transplant, 0.91+/-0.23 mg compared non-diabetic control mice (1.54+/-0.25 mg. We also show that we can use bioluminescent imaging to monitor beta-cell regeneration in living MIP-luc transgenic mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results show that insulin treatment can promote beta-cell regeneration. Moreover, the extent of restoration of beta-cell function and mass depend on the length of treatment period and overall level of glycemic control with better control being associated with improved recovery. Finally, real-time bioluminescent imaging can be used to monitor beta-cell recovery in living MIP-luc transgenic mice.

  6. Investigation on the population construction and infestation of cockroach in the hospital%医院蟑螂种群构成及侵害状况调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝顶; 姜海; 孙恩涛

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查芜湖市医院内蟑螂种群构成及侵害状况,为蟑螂的有效防治提供科学依据. 方法 用诱捕法和药激法捕获蟑螂,并进行种类鉴定、计数及数据分析.结果 共捕获蟑螂574只,分类鉴定为美洲大蠊、黑胸大蠊、澳洲大蠊和德国小蠊;医院内各生境类型均有蟑螂孳生繁衍,其中门诊部、住院部和食堂内蟑螂以德国小蠊为优势种,行政办公室以美洲大蠊为优势种.医院蟑螂平均侵害率为80.33%( 294/366),平均孳生密度为1.57只/间;其中医院食堂蟑螂侵害最严重,侵害率为100% (54/54),与门诊部、住院部和行政办公室相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),且蟑螂平均孳生密度为4.74只/间;住院部普通病房受嫜螂侵害最严重,侵害率为93.65%(59/63),与高干病房、值班室、ICU和手术室相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),且蟑螂平均孳生密度为1.71只/间.结论 芜湖市医院蟑螂侵害状况较为普遍,其中医院食堂和住院部普通病房内蟑螂侵害严重,蟑螂防治工作十分紧迫.%Objective To survey the population construction and infestations of cockroaches in different habitat, so as to provide evidences for cockroaches control in the hospital. Methods To catch cockroaches by the sticky traps method and the medicine stir up method, and the cockroaches were isolated, identified and counted. Results 574 cockroaches were caught. They were resided respectively in 2 families, 2 genera and 4 species, namely Periplaneta. americana, P. fuliginosa, P. australariae and Blattella germanica. Cockroaches were caught in different habits. In the outpatient department, inpaticnt department and canteen, the preponderant species of species composing was B. germanica. With the difference, P. americana was the predominant cockroach breed in the office of hospital administration. The average infestation rate reached 80. 33 % (294/366) , and the average density of cockroaches was 1. 57

  7. Polymorphisms in IL12A and cockroach allergy in children with asthma

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    Murphy Amy

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IL12A has been implicated in T-cell development and may thus influence the development of atopy and allergic diseases. Methods We tested for association between four linkage disequilibrium (LD-tagging SNPs (rs2243123, rs2243151, rs668998, and rs17826053 in IL12A and asthma and allergy-related (serum total and allergen-specific IgE, and skin test reactivity [STR] to two common allergens phenotypes in two samples: 417 Costa Rican children with asthma and their parents, and 470 families of 503 white children in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP. The analysis was conducted using the family-based association test (FBAT statistic implemented in the PBAT program. Results Among Costa Rican children with asthma, homozygosity for the minor allele of each of two SNPs in IL12A (rs2243123 and rs2243151 was associated with increased risks of STR to American cockroach (P ≤ 0.03 for both SNPs, STR to German cockroach (P ≤ 0.01 for both SNPs, and having a positive IgE to German cockroach (P IL12A was inversely associated with STR to German cockroach (P = 0.03 and homozygosity for the minor allele of SNP rs17826053 in IL12A was associated with increased risks of STR to American cockroach (P = 0.01 and STR to German cockroach (P = 0.007. There was no significant association between any SNP in IL12A and asthma, STR to dust mite, or total IgE in Costa Rica or CAMP. Conclusion Our findings suggest that variants in IL12A influence cockroach allergy among children with asthma.

  8. Identification of cuticular lipids eliciting interspecific courtship in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyahu, Dorit; Nojima, Satoshi; Capracotta, Sonja S.; Comins, Daniel L.; Schal, Coby

    2008-05-01

    The cuticular surface of sexually mature females of the German cockroach contains a sex pheromone that, upon contact with the male’s antennae, elicits a characteristic species-specific courtship behavior. This female-specific pheromone is a blend of several long-chain methyl ketones, alcohols and aldehydes, all derived from prominent cuticular hydrocarbons found in all life stages of this cockroach. We found that contact with the antennae of 5 out of 20 assayed cockroach species elicited courtship behavior in German cockroach males. The heterospecific courtship-eliciting compounds were isolated by behaviorally guided fractionation of the active crude extracts and compared to the native sex pheromone components. We identified two active compounds from the cuticular extract of the Oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis—11-methylheptacosan-2-one and 27-oxo-11-methylheptacosan-2-one; the former compound was confirmed by synthesis and proved to independently stimulate courtship in German cockroach males. These compounds share common features with, but are distinct from, any of the known contact sex pheromone components. This suggests that sex pheromone reception in the male German cockroach is unusually promiscuous, accepting a wide range of compounds that share certain features with its native pheromone, thus resulting in a broad spectrum of behavioral response to other species. We propose that several characteristics of their mating system—chiefly, absence of closely related species in the anthropogenic environment, resulting in relaxation of selection on sexual communication, and a highly male-biased operational sex ratio—have driven males to respond with extremely low thresholds to a wide spectrum of related compounds.

  9. CTLA-4 (CD152) controls homeostasis and suppressive capacity of regulatory T cells in mice.

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    Kolar, Paula; Knieke, Karin; Hegel, J Kolja E; Quandt, Dagmar; Burmester, Gerd-R; Hoff, Holger; Brunner-Weinzierl, Monika C

    2009-01-01

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (known as Treg cells) suppress unwanted and autoreactive T cell responses. Treg cells express the costimulatory molecule CTLA-4 intracellularly, but the mechanisms by which Treg cells exploit CTLA-4 signaling remain unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of CTLA-4 in controlling the homeostasis and suppressive function of Treg cells. Murine Treg cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for coexpression of CTLA-4 and typical Treg cell-expressed molecules, and the influence of CTLA-4 on T cell proliferation, suppression, and apoptosis was investigated by in vitro assays. To analyze the importance of CTLA-4 in Treg cell-mediated suppression in vivo, wild-type Treg cells were transferred into CTLA-4-deficient mice displaying lymphoproliferation, and survival was monitored over time. A strong correlation between expression of forkhead box P3 and ex vivo expression of CTLA-4 in Treg cells was observed. Inhibition of CTLA-4 signaling in Treg cells during in vitro stimulation increased cell cycling and led to enhanced activation-induced cell death (AICD), which was mediated by CD95/CD95 ligand-induced activation of caspases. Blockade of CTLA-4 signaling resulted in impairment of the suppressive capacity of Treg cells. Despite these effects, high amounts of Treg cells persisted in CTLA-4-deficient mice. Results of transfer experiments in CTLA-4-deficient mice showed that the mice had a significantly prolonged lifespan when CTLA-4-competent Treg cells were injected. Expression of CTLA-4 on Treg cells serves to control T cell proliferation, to confer resistance against AICD, and to maintain the suppressive function of Treg cells.

  10. Control of postprandial hyperglycaemia by galactosyl maltobionolactone and its novel anti-amylase effect in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Atsushi; Iwamura, Koji; Takada, Masayasu; Ogawa, Koichi; Usui, Taichi; Okumura, Jun-ichi

    2002-08-09

    The ability to control carbohydrate digestion is useful in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and obesity. In the present study, we examined whether recently developed 4(2)-O-beta-D-galactosyl maltobionolactone (LG2O) having anti-amylase activity is able to control postprandial blood glucose concentration in mice. In addition, we tried to determine how LG2O regulates carbohydrate delivery in the gut lumen by conducting in vivo and in vitro studies. Male non-diabetic ddY mice and KK-A(y) mice, a spontaneously diabetic strain, had free access to a carbohydrate rich diet supplemented with LG2O (3 or 10 g/kg) for 0.5 hr, and blood glucose concentration was measured. LG2O suppressed any steep increase in postprandial blood glucose concentration in both ddY and KK-A(y) mice. Corresponding to the blood glucose response, LG2O also markedly suppressed any increase in postprandial plasma insulin concentration. After ingestion of the diet, LG2O produced a 1.5-3.5 fold increase in the gut contents and reducible sugar content in the small intestine but not in the stomach. Although alpha-amylase activity in the stomach was much lower compared with the activity in the small intestine, LG2O still strongly inhibited alpha-amylase activity in the stomach. In contrast, LG2O had little or no influence on alpha-amylase activity in the proximal intestine. From the in vitro carbohydrate digestion stimulation, LG2O at 7.5 mM decreased glucose production by 75% for dextrin, 25% for alpha-starch and 60% for raw starch. In conclusion, administration of LG2O inhibits carbohydrate digestion in the gut, and produces significant improvements in both blood glucose and insulin response following ingestion as part of the diet, and this evidence provides support for its therapeutic potential in treating diabetes mellitus and obesity.

  11. Genetic control of eosinophilia in mice: gene(s) expressed in bone marrow-derived cells control high responsiveness

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    Vadas, M.A.

    1982-02-01

    A heterogeneity in the capacity of strains of mice to mount eosinophilia is described. BALB/c and C3H are eosinophil high responder strains (EO-HR) and CBA and A/J are eosinophil low responder strains (EO-LR), judged by the response of blood eosinophils to Ascaris suum, and the response of blood, bone marrow, and spleen eosinophils to keyhole limpet hemocyanin given 2 days after 150 mg/kg cyclophosphamide. Some of the gene(s) for high responsiveness appear to be dominant because (EO-HR x EO-LR)F/sub 1/ mice were intermediate to high responders. This gene is expressed in bone marrow-derived cells because radiation chimeras of the type EO-HR..-->..F/sub 1/ were high responders and EO-LR..-->..F/sub 1/ were low responders. This description of a genetic control of eosinophilia in mice may be useful in understanding the role of this cell in parasite immunity and allergy.

  12. The prevalence of protozoa in the gut of German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) with special reference to Lophomonas blattarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Girón, Rafael; Martínez-Torre, Cristina; van Woerden, Hugo Cornelis

    2017-10-07

    The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a common domestic pest, which produces allergens that have been associated with broncho-pulmonary disease. Various protozoan species have been identified in the intestine of this cockroach and it has been hypothesised that these protozoa, or their proteases, may contribute to the burden of cockroach-associated allergens and adjuvants present in domestic dust. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of protozoan species in the intestine of Blattella germanica. German cockroaches were anesthetised and dissected and gut contents are used to produce wet slides for microscopy. Both, Giemsa and Papanicolaou stains were used to confirm correct identification of Lophomonas blattarum. Representatives of four genera of protozoa were identified in 110 cockroaches: Nyctoterus sp. was observed in 91.8% of cases, Gregarina sp. in 64.5%, Amoeba sp. in 25.4% and Lophomonas blattarum in 13.6%. Nyctoterus and Gregarina were statistically significantly more likely to be found in diseased cockroaches compared to Amoeba or Lophomonas. The prevalence of Lophomonas blattarum was similar to that in published studies of a different species of cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Further work is needed to assess the interplay between protozoa, cockroaches and broncho-pulmonary diseases.

  13. Effect of pre-existing Schistosoma haematobium infection on Plasmodium berghei multiplications in imprinting control region mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin; Amoani; Elvis; Ofori; Ameyaw; Du-Bois; Asante; Francis; Ackah; Armah; James; Prah; Collins; Paa; Kwesi; Botchey; Johnson; Nyarko; Boampong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of pre-existing Schistosoma haematobium(S. haematobium) infection on malaria disease severity.Methods: The study involved the use of twenty-i ve imprinting control region mice, i fteen of which were initially infected with S. haematobium. Five of the remaining ten schistouninfected mice together with i ve schisto-infected mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei(P. berghei) after four weeks(acute stage) of schistosoma infection. The remaining i ve schisto-uninfected mice together with i ve schisto-infected mice were also infected with P. berghei after seven weeks(chronic stage) of schistosoma infection. The last i ve schistoinfected mice were used as control group. They were then monitored for changes in P. berghei parasitaemia on Days 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 post-infection. Records on their survivability were also taken.Results: The co-infected mice had signii cantly higher malaria parasitaemia, compared with the mono-infected mice during acute S. haematobium infection. In contrast, the co-infected mice had signii cantly lower malaria parasitaemia during chronic S. haematobium infection and a higher survival rate.Conclusions: Co-infection of mice with P. berghei during acute S. haematobium infection resulted in rapid P. berghei development and increased malaria parasitaemia. However, the co-infection resulted in slower P. berghei development and decreased malaria parasitaemia with enhanced survivability of the mice during chronic S. haematobium infection. Therefore, pre-existing chronic S. haematobium infection may provide some protection to the host by reducing parasitaemia.

  14. Infestation of cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria) in the human dwelling environments: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirian, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Periplaneta americana, Blatta orientalis, Blattella germanica and Supella longipalpa are the most common worldwide cockroaches that mentioned in the "22 common pest" or "22 dirty" species named as "group I". They are able to infest any type of buildings. A meta-analysis review was conducted between January 2015 and July 2016 on any literature published about infestation of cockroaches. Scientific reports and papers about infestation of cockroaches and relevant topics were collected from various specific scientific websites such as PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Springer, Elsevier, Scopus, and Google Scholar. About 271 scientific reports and papers were collected and after a preliminary review, 63 were selected to become part of the detailed synthesis review and meta-analysis. Results showed that the global world mean infestation trend of cockroaches, and B. germanica and P. americana cockroach species ranged 49.0-55.0, 40.0-70.0 and 60.0-70.0%, respectively suggests that their infestation trend are increasing. The global world mean infestation of cockroaches, and B. germanica and P. americana cockroach species were 52.3, 55.2 and 65.4, respectively. There was a significant difference between the global world mean infestation of cockroaches and P. americana cockroach species (P=0.019). The global mean infestation trend of cockroaches in the human dwelling environments and world ranged 55.0-65.0 and 50.0-70.0%, respectively suggests that their infestation trend are increasing. The global world mean infestation of cockroaches in the human dwelling environments and world were 60.4 and 57.7%, respectively. Although some factors affect the infestation of cockroaches and the sanitation and quality structure of the buildings are also being improved. While as present study reveal that the globally the world infestation trend of cockroaches are being increased and recent studies also indicate that the prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the decades

  15. Habitat influences on diversity of bacteria found on German cockroach in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xue; YE Lefu; GE Feng

    2009-01-01

    Cockroaches are worldwide indoor pests carrying microorganisms of medical importance.German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) were sampled in five habitats (hospital, restaurant, office home, and market) in Beijing, and the bacteria were isolated from their external surface and alimentary tract and identified using a Biolog identification system.Cockroach densities significantly differed among habitats (market > home > office > restaurant > hospital).However, no significant differences in bacterial abundance carried by individual German cockroaches (of either sex) were found among habitats.The bacterial abundance in the gut was significantly higher than that on the surface.There were no significant differences in bacterial species richness observed among habitats, sex, carrying position or their interaction.Cluster analysis showed that cockroach densities and bacterial abundance found in the market differed significantly from the other four habitats.The bacterial diversity was not significantly reduced in sensitive facilities such as hospital and restaurant, even though pesticide and bactericide were more frequently applied there.The implications of these findings were discussed in this article.

  16. Persistence of a sugar-rejecting cockroach genotype under various dietary regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kim; Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules

    2017-04-01

    Glucose-aversion is a heritable trait that evolved in a number of German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) populations in response to strong selection with glucose-containing insecticide baits. However, in the absence of glucose-containing bait, glucose-averse (GA) cockroaches have lower performance than wild-type (WT) cockroaches in several fitness-determining traits. We allocated 48 caged populations initiated with homozygous GA and WT adults to four dietary treatments consisting of either pure rodent chow, rodent chow mixed to yield a content of either 20% glucose or 20% fructose, or a treatment consisting of choice between the 20% glucose- and the 20% fructose-containing food. After 6 months we found significantly higher frequency of WT individuals in populations restricted to the 20% glucose food, and after 12 months all dietary treatments contained significantly more WT individuals than expected. In accompanying experiments, we found lower survival and longer development time of GA nymphs restricted to glucose-containing food. We furthermore found evidence for assortative mating of females with males from their own genotype, with significant differences within WT cockroaches. Our study shows experimental evidence that within heterogeneous populations, WT German cockroaches will over time prevail in abundance over GA individuals, even when glucose is not a dietary component.

  17. Bacterial load of German cockroach (Blattella germanica) found in hospital environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menasria, Taha; Moussa, Fatima; El-Hamza, Souad; Tine, Samir; Megri, Rochdi; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2014-01-01

    Background Cockroaches are among the most common pests in public dwellings and health facilities. Their presence can raise safety concerns, especially as they maybe carriers of pathogenic organisms. Methods This study was carried out to isolate and identify the bacterial flora from German cockroaches (Blattella germanica). Cockroaches collected by hand catches from two public hospital environments in Tebessa city (northeast Algeria) were screened for microbial load from their external surfaces and alimentary tract using standard bacterial protocols. Results A total of 174 bacterial isolates were isolated from 39 German cockroach specimens. The most common and abundant bacterial species belonged to the Pseudomonas group (23.5%) and Serratia (13.2%). Pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus were also isolated, as well as opportunistic pathogens like Klebsiella species and food spoilage bacteria such as Enterobacter and Citrobacter species were isolated from both external surface and digestive tract of the insect. Generalized linear models (GLM) were performed to analyze the variation of abundances and occurrences of bacterial isolates harboured by B. germanica. The GLMs revealed that the main factors affecting variation of bacterial diversity and abundance were sex and hospital (P cockroach acts as reservoir and potential vector of some bacterial pathogens. PMID:24766338

  18. Design and Implementation of Markerless Augmented Reality Application for Cockroach Phobia Therapy Using Adaptive Threshold

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    Fiandra Fatharany

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality (AR technology is useful for treating several psychological problems, including phobias such as fear of flying, agoraphobia, claustrophobia, and phobia to insects and small animals. However, the currently existing applications for therapy of cockroach phobia that uses AR technology are still very dependent towards the presence of markers, which might lessen the feeling of being in an actual scenario from everyday lives. In this paper, we created a system that is able to use everyday things as a replacement for markers for phobia therapy for cockroach. There are five main processes: getting the live streaming feed from camera, preprocessing, extracting the center point of the objects, tracking the marker-substitute objects, and lastly, instantiating cockroaches randomly after user lifts the objects according to the number and mode of the cockroaches, whether it is moving or not, that are predetermined by the user. The evaluation in this paper includes eight participants that are carefully selected based on their Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (FSQ score that is translated into Indonesian and modified to accommodate cockroaches instead of spiders. The results is that the system can induce anxiety level on participants with the highest score of 10, which is the highest score in Standard Unit of Discomfort scale (SUDs. While the presence and reality judgment of this paper has the highest score of 7 which is also the highest score in Slater-Usoh-Steed Questionnaire (SUS.

  19. Repellent Activity of Apiaceae Plant Essential Oils and their Constituents Against Adult German Cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Rim; Kim, Gil-Hah; Choi, Won-Sil; Park, Il-Kwon

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the repellent activity of 12 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their components against male and female adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica L., to find new natural repellents. Of all the plant essential oils tested, ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague) and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oils showed the most potent repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches. Repellent activities of chemicals already identified in active oils were also investigated. Of the compounds identified, carvacrol, thymol, and R-(-)-carvone showed >80% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 2.5 µg/cm2. S-(+)-Carvone, (+)-dihydrocarvone, and terpinen-4-ol showed >70% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 10 µg/cm2. Our results indicated that Apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents have good potential as natural repellents against adult German cockroaches. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Hepatic SIRT1 attenuates hepatic steatosis and controls energy balance in mice by inducing fibroblast growth factor 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Wong, Kimberly; Giles, Amber; Jiang, Jianwei; Lee, Jong Woo; Adams, Andrew C; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Yang, Qin; Gao, Bin; Guarente, Leonard; Zang, Mengwei

    2014-02-01

    The hepatocyte-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone-like regulator of metabolism. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 regulates fatty acid metabolism through multiple nutrient sensors. Hepatic overexpression of SIRT1 reduces steatosis and glucose intolerance in obese mice. We investigated mechanisms by which SIRT1 controls hepatic steatosis in mice. Liver-specific SIRT1 knockout (SIRT1 LKO) mice and their wild-type littermates (controls) were divided into groups that were placed on a normal chow diet, fasted for 24 hours, or fasted for 24 hours and then fed for 6 hours. Liver tissues were collected and analyzed by histologic examination, gene expression profiling, and real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. Human HepG2 cells were incubated with pharmacologic activators of SIRT1 (resveratrol or SRT1720) and mitochondrion oxidation consumption rate and immunoblot analyses were performed. FGF21 was overexpressed in SIRT1 LKO mice using an adenoviral vector. Energy expenditure was assessed by indirect calorimetry. Prolonged fasting induced lipid deposition in livers of control mice, but severe hepatic steatosis in SIRT1 LKO mice. Gene expression analysis showed that fasting up-regulated FGF21 in livers of control mice but not in SIRT1 LKO mice. Decreased hepatic and circulating levels of FGF21 in fasted SIRT1 LKO mice were associated with reduced hepatic expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, and increased expression of genes that control lipogenesis, compared with fasted control mice. Resveratrol or SRT1720 each increased the transcriptional activity of the FGF21 promoter (-2070/+117) and levels of FGF21 messenger RNA and protein in HepG2 cells. Surprisingly, SIRT1 LKO mice developed late-onset obesity with impaired whole-body energy expenditure. Hepatic overexpression of FGF21 in SIRT1 LKO mice increased the expression of genes that regulate fatty acid oxidation, decreased

  1. Physiological Costs of Repetitive Courtship Displays in Cockroaches Handicap Locomotor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowles, Sophie L; Jepson, Natalie M

    2015-01-01

    Courtship displays are typically thought to have evolved via female choice, whereby females select mates based on the characteristics of a display that is expected to honestly reflect some aspect of the male's quality. Honesty is typically enforced by mechanistic costs and constraints that limit the level at which a display can be performed. It is becoming increasingly apparent that these costs may be energetic costs involved in the production of dynamic, often repetitive displays. A female attending to such a display may thus be assessing the physical fitness of a male as an index of his quality. Such assessment would provide information on his current physical quality as well as his ability to carry out other demanding activities, qualities with which a choosy female should want to provision her offspring. In the current study we use courtship interactions in the Cuban burrowing cockroach, Byrsotria fumigata to directly test whether courtship is associated with a signaler's performance capacity. Males that had produced courtship displays achieved significantly lower speeds and distances in locomotor trials than non-courting control males. We also found that females mated more readily with males that produced a more vigorous display. Thus, males of this species have developed a strategy where they produce a demanding courtship display, while females choose males based on their ability to produce this display. Courtship displays in many taxa often involve dynamic repetitive actions and as such, signals of stamina in courtship may be more widespread than previously thought.

  2. Effect of Echinacea purpurea on Control of Leishmania major Induced Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Mice

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    MS Sadati

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by intracellular protozoa parasites of the genus Leishmania and is endemic in some areas of Iran. Echinacea purpurea is a native plant from North America which is one of the most important medical herbs known with immuno-stimulant properties. This study was performed to determine the effect of alcoholic extract of Echinacea purpurea on prophylaxis and treatment of Leishmania cutaneous lesions. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study which was conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2009, eighteen mice were divided into 3 groups. Group one received Echinacea purpurea extract (200 mg/ml in their water, for 2 weeks before parasite injection, while group two were first injected with parasite amastigotes, followed by administration of Echinacea purpurea extract for 2 weeks. Group three was the control group, which received parasites, but not the extract. The size of Leishmania lesions in the tail base, right and left foot were measured with vernier caliper. The lesion areas were calculated and the collected data were analyzed with SPSS software. Results: The mean of lesion size in each group of mice were compared and analyzed. No significant differences in the lesions size were found between the three mice groups. Therefore, Echinacea purpurea extract was not effective against Leishmania major based on the findings of this study. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that Echinacea extract is not effective in treatment or prophylaxis of leishmaniasis in mice. Yet, further studies are needed to determine the effects of other extracts of this plant.

  3. A Checklist of Iranian Cockroaches (Blattodea with Description of Polyphaga sp as a New Species in Iran

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    SaedehSadat Hashemi-Aghdam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cockroaches are of vital importance medically and hygienically. They are able to contaminate foods and act as vectors of pathogenic agents such as bacteria, protozoa, and parasites to human environment either mechanically or through their digestive system. Cockroaches belong to the phylum Arthropoda, class Insecta, and orderBlattodea or Blattaria. To date, over 4,500 cockroach species have been reported from different parts of the world. We overviewed the documents involved Iranian cockroaches to up-to-date checklist of cockroach species distributed in various provinces of Iran.Methods: An extensive literature review was performed in 2013 on Iranian handbooks, reports and published data available since 1986 to obtain a comprehensive list of Iranian cockroaches. Furthermore, in an entomological survey in Tehran, cockroach specimens were collected and identified based on morphological and the DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII gene (mt-DNA COII characteristics.Results: Morphological characterization revealed presence of an un-described species very similar to Polyphaga aegyptiaca, P. indica and somehow to Pycnoscelus surinamensis, however, supplementary molecularanalysis revealed the species was associated with Polyphaga of Corydiidae (Polyphagidae. With regards to the report of the un-described species, the cockroach fauna of Iran includes three families, 14 genera, and 26 species.Conclusion: Some species has not been collected or reported recently and also many geographical regions of the country have not been studied yet, hence a systematic research is required to reveal the real cockroach list of the country. Geographical distributions, nomination changes, and synonyms of cockroach species are presented.

  4. Cockroaches (Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica) as potential vectors of the pathogenic bacteria found in nosocomial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakoorziba, M R; Eghbal, F; Hassanzadeh, J; Moemenbellah-Fard, M D

    2010-09-01

    Although it has been difficult to prove the direct involvement of cockroaches (i.e. insects of the order Blattaria) in the transmission of pathogenic agents to humans, such insects often carry microorganisms that are important in nosocomial infections, and their medical importance in the spread of bacteria cannot be ruled out. In houses and institutions with poor standards of hygiene, heavy infestations with cockroaches, such as the peridomestic American cockroach (Periplaneta americana L.) and the domestic German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.), can occur. In the present study, cockroaches (126 B. germanica and 69 P. americana) were collected from four buildings (three public training hospitals and one house) in central Tehran, Iran. Each insect was processed, under sterile conditions, so that the bacteria on its external surfaces and in its alimentary tract and faecal pellets could be isolated and identified. The oldest and largest of the three hospitals sampled (a 1400-bed unit built 80 years ago) appeared to be the one most heavily infested with cockroaches, and cockroaches from this hospital accounted for most (65.4%) of the isolates of medically important bacteria made during the study. No significant difference was found between the percentages of P. americana and B. germanica carrying medically important bacteria (96.8% v. 93.6%; P>0.05). At least 25 different species of medically important bacteria were isolated and identified, and at least 22 were Gramnegative. The genus of enteric bacteria most frequently isolated from both cockroach species, at all four collection sites, was Klebsiella. The cockroaches from each hospital were much more likely to be found contaminated with medically important bacteria than those from the house. The hospital cockroaches were also more likely to be carrying medically important bacteria internally than externally (84.3% v. 64.1%; Pcockroaches and nosocomial infections, are discussed.

  5. A Checklist of Iranian Cockroaches (Blattodea) with Description of Polyphaga sp as a New Species in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi-Aghdam, Saedeh Sadat; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cockroaches are of vital importance medically and hygienically. They are able to contaminate foods and act as vectors of pathogenic agents such as bacteria, protozoa, and parasites to human environment either mechanically or through their digestive system. Cockroaches belong to the phylum Arthropoda, class Insecta, and order Blattodea or Blattaria. To date, over 4,500 cockroach species have been reported from different parts of the world. We overviewed the documents involved Iranian cockroaches to up-to-date checklist of cockroach species distributed in various provinces of Iran. Methods: An extensive literature review was performed in 2013 on Iranian handbooks, reports and published data available since 1986 to obtain a comprehensive list of Iranian cockroaches. Furthermore, in an entomological survey in Tehran, cockroach specimens were collected and identified based on morphological and the DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) gene (mt-DNA COII) characteristics. Results: Morphological characterization revealed presence of an un-described species very similar to Polyphaga aegyptiaca, P. indica and somehow to Pycnoscelus surinamensis, however, supplementary molecular analysis revealed the species was associated with Polyphaga of Corydiidae (Polyphagidae). With regards to the report of the un-described species, the cockroach fauna of Iran includes three families, 14 genera, and 26 species. Conclusion: Some species has not been collected or reported recently and also many geographical regions of the country have not been studied yet, hence a systematic research is required to reveal the real cockroach list of the country. Geographical distributions, nomination changes, and synonyms of cockroach species are presented. PMID:26623428

  6. A novel instrumented multipeg running wheel system, Step-Wheel, for monitoring and controlling complex sequential stepping in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsukawa, Takashi; Nagata, Masatoshi; Yanagihara, Dai; Tomioka, Ryohei; Utsumi, Hideko; Kubota, Yasuo; Yagi, Takeshi; Graybiel, Ann M; Yamamori, Tetsuo

    2011-07-01

    Motor control is critical in daily life as well as in artistic and athletic performance and thus is the subject of intense interest in neuroscience. Mouse models of movement disorders have proven valuable for many aspects of investigation, but adequate methods for analyzing complex motor control in mouse models have not been fully established. Here, we report the development of a novel running-wheel system that can be used to evoke simple and complex stepping patterns in mice. The stepping patterns are controlled by spatially organized pegs, which serve as footholds that can be arranged in adjustable, ladder-like configurations. The mice run as they drink water from a spout, providing reward, while the wheel turns at a constant speed. The stepping patterns of the mice can thus be controlled not only spatially, but also temporally. A voltage sensor to detect paw touches is attached to each peg, allowing precise registration of footfalls. We show that this device can be used to analyze patterns of complex motor coordination in mice. We further demonstrate that it is possible to measure patterns of neural activity with chronically implanted tetrodes as the mice engage in vigorous running bouts. We suggest that this instrumented multipeg running wheel (which we name the Step-Wheel System) can serve as an important tool in analyzing motor control and motor learning in mice.

  7. Genetic and hormonal control of bone volume, architecture, and remodeling in XXY mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peter Y; Kalak, Robert; Lue, Yanhe; Jia, Yue; Erkkila, Krista; Zhou, Hong; Seibel, Markus J; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Dunstan, Colin R

    2010-10-01

    Klinefelter syndrome is the most common chromosomal aneuploidy in men (XXY karyotype, 1 in 600 live births) and results in testicular (infertility and androgen deficiency) and nontesticular (cognitive impairment and osteoporosis) deficits. The extent to which skeletal changes are due to testosterone deficiency or arise directly from gene overdosage cannot be determined easily in humans. To answer this, we generated XXY mice through a four-generation breeding scheme. Eight intact XXY and 9 XY littermate controls and 8 castrated XXY mice and 8 castrated XY littermate controls were euthanized at 1 year of age. Castration occurred 6 months prior to killing. A third group of 9 XXY and 11 XY littermates were castrated and simultaneously implanted with a 1-cm Silastic testosterone capsule 8 weeks prior to sacrifice. Tibias were harvested from all three groups and examined by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry. Blood testosterone concentration was assayed by radioimmunoassay. Compared with intact XY controls, intact androgen-deficient XXY mice had lower bone volume (6.8% +/- 1.2% versus 8.8% +/- 1.7%, mean +/- SD, p = .01) and thinner trabeculae (50 +/- 4 µm versus 57 +/- 5 µm, p = .007). Trabecular separation (270 +/- 20 µm versus 270 +/- 20 µm) or osteoclast number relative to bone surface (2.4 +/- 1.0/mm2 versus 2.7 +/- 1.5/mm2) did not differ significantly. Testosterone-replaced XXY mice continued to show lower bone volume (5.5% +/- 2.4% versus 8.1% +/- 3.5%, p = .026). They also exhibited greater trabecular separation (380 +/- 69 µm versus 324 +/- 62 µm, p = .040) but equivalent blood testosterone concentrations (6.3 +/- 1.8 ng/mL versus 8.2 +/- 4.2 ng/mL, p = .28) compared with testosterone-replaced XY littermates. In contrast, castration alone drastically decreased bone volume (p < .001), trabecular thickness (p = .05), and trabecular separation (p

  8. Mitochondrial quality-control dysregulation in conditional HO-1–/– mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Hagir B.; Keenan, Jeffrey E.; Piantadosi, Claude A.

    2017-01-01

    The heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox1; HO-1) pathway was tested for defense of mitochondrial quality control in cardiomyocyte-specific Hmox1 KO mice (HO-1[CM]–/–) exposed to oxidative stress (100% O2). After 48 hours of exposure, these mice showed persistent cardiac inflammation and oxidative tissue damage that caused sarcomeric disruption, cardiomyocyte death, left ventricular dysfunction, and cardiomyopathy, while control hearts showed minimal damage. After hyperoxia, HO-1(CM)–/– hearts showed suppression of the Pgc-1α/nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) axis, swelling, low electron density mitochondria by electron microscopy (EM), increased cell death, and extensive collagen deposition. The damage mechanism involves structurally deficient autophagy/mitophagy, impaired LC3II processing, and failure to upregulate Pink1- and Park2-mediated mitophagy. The mitophagy pathway was suppressed through loss of NRF-1 binding to proximal promoter sites on both genes. These results indicate that cardiac Hmox1 induction not only prevents heme toxicity, but also regulates the timing and registration of genetic programs for mitochondrial quality control that limit cell death, pathological remodeling, and cardiac fibrosis.

  9. Duration-controlled swimming exercise training induces cardiac hypertrophy in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Evangelista

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training associated with robust conditioning can be useful for the study of molecular mechanisms underlying exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy. A swimming apparatus is described to control training regimens in terms of duration, load, and frequency of exercise. Mice were submitted to 60- vs 90-min session/day, once vs twice a day, with 2 or 4% of the weight of the mouse or no workload attached to the tail, for 4 vs 6 weeks of exercise training. Blood pressure was unchanged in all groups while resting heart rate decreased in the trained groups (8-18%. Skeletal muscle citrate synthase activity, measured spectrophotometrically, increased (45-58% only as a result of duration and frequency-controlled exercise training, indicating that endurance conditioning was obtained. In groups which received duration and endurance conditioning, cardiac weight (14-25% and myocyte dimension (13-20% increased. The best conditioning protocol to promote physiological hypertrophy, our primary goal in the present study, was 90 min, twice a day, 5 days a week for 4 weeks with no overload attached to the body. Thus, duration- and frequency-controlled exercise training in mice induces a significant conditioning response qualitatively similar to that observed in humans.

  10. Conservation of fruitless' role as master regulator of male courtship behaviour from cockroaches to flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynen, Elke; Ciudad, Laura; Bellés, Xavier; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors

    2011-05-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, male courtship behaviour is regulated by the fruitless gene. In D. melanogaster, fruitless encodes a set of putative transcription factors that are sex-specifically spliced. Male-specific variants are necessary and sufficient to elicit male courtship behaviour. Fruitless sequences have been reported in other insect species, but there are no data available on their functional role. In the present work, we cloned and sequenced fruitless in males of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, and we studied its expression in male brain and testes. B. germanica fruitless encodes a 350-amino acid protein with BTB and Zinc finger domains typical of fruitless sequences. Upon RNAi-mediated knockdown of fruitless in B. germanica, males no longer exhibit courtship behaviour, thus implying that fruitless is necessary for male sexual behaviour in our cockroach model. This suggests that the role of fruitless as master regulator of male sexual behaviour has been conserved along insect evolution, at least from cockroaches to flies.

  11. Stimulus control by 5methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine in wild-type and CYP2D6-humanized mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J. C.; Amorosi, D. J.; Rice, Kenner C.; Cheng, Kejun; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies we have observed that, in comparison with wild type mice, Tg-CYP2D6 mice have increased serum levels of bufotenine [5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine] following the administration of 5-MeO-DMT. Furthermore, following the injection of 5-MeO-DMT, harmaline was observed to increase serum levels of bufotenine and 5-MeO-DMT in both wild-type and Tg-CYP2D6 mice. In the present investigation, 5-MeO-DMT-induced stimulus control was established in wild-type and Tg-CYP2D6 mice. The two groups did not differ in their rate of acquisition of stimulus control. When tested with bufotenine, no 5-MeO-DMT-appropriate responding was observed. In contrast, the more lipid soluble analog of bufotenine, acetylbufotenine, was followed by an intermediate level of responding. The combination of harmaline with 5-MeO-DMT yielded a statistically significant increase in 5-MeO-DMT-appropriate responding in Tg-CYP2D6 mice; a comparable increase occurred in wild-type mice. In addition, it was noted that harmaline alone was followed by a significant degree of 5-MeO-DMT-appropriate responding in Tg-CYP2D6 mice. It is concluded that wild-type and Tg-CYPD2D6 mice do not differ in terms of acquisition of stimulus control by 5-MeO-DMT or in their response to bufotenine and acetylbufotenine. In both groups of mice, harmaline was found to enhance the stimulus effects of 5-MeO-DMT. PMID:21624387

  12. Stimulus control by 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine in wild-type and CYP2D6-humanized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J C; Amorosi, D J; Rice, Kenner C; Cheng, Kejun; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2011-09-01

    In previous studies we have observed that, in comparison with wild type mice, Tg-CYP2D6 mice have increased serum levels of bufotenine [5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine] following the administration of 5-MeO-DMT. Furthermore, following the injection of 5-MeO-DMT, harmaline was observed to increase serum levels of bufotenine and 5-MeO-DMT in both wild-type and Tg-CYP2D6 mice. In the present investigation, 5-MeO-DMT-induced stimulus control was established in wild-type and Tg-CYP2D6 mice. The two groups did not differ in their rate of acquisition of stimulus control. When tested with bufotenine, no 5-MeO-DMT-appropriate responding was observed. In contrast, the more lipid soluble analog of bufotenine, acetylbufotenine, was followed by an intermediate level of responding. The combination of harmaline with 5-MeO-DMT yielded a statistically significant increase in 5-MeO-DMT-appropriate responding in Tg-CYP2D6 mice; a comparable increase occurred in wild-type mice. In addition, it was noted that harmaline alone was followed by a significant degree of 5-MeO-DMT-appropriate responding in Tg-CYP2D6 mice. It is concluded that wild-type and Tg-CYPD2D6 mice do not differ in terms of acquisition of stimulus control by 5-MeO-DMT or in their response to bufotenine and acetylbufotenine. In both groups of mice, harmaline was found to enhance the stimulus effects of 5-MeO-DMT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxygen Affects Gut Bacterial Colonization and Metabolic Activities in a Gnotobiotic Cockroach Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegtmeier, Dorothee; Thompson, Claire L.; Schauer, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota of termites and cockroaches represents complex metabolic networks of many diverse microbial populations. The distinct microenvironmental conditions within the gut and possible interactions among the microorganisms make it essential to investigate how far the metabolic properties of pure cultures reflect their activities in their natural environment. We established the cockroach Shelfordella lateralis as a gnotobiotic model and inoculated germfree nymphs with two bacterial strains isolated from the guts of conventional cockroaches. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that both strains specifically colonized the germfree hindgut. In diassociated cockroaches, the facultatively anaerobic strain EbSL (a new species of Enterobacteriaceae) always outnumbered the obligately anaerobic strain FuSL (a close relative of Fusobacterium varium), irrespective of the sequence of inoculation, which showed that precolonization by facultatively anaerobic bacteria does not necessarily favor colonization by obligate anaerobes. Comparison of the fermentation products of the cultures formed in vitro with those accumulated in situ indicated that the gut environment strongly affected the metabolic activities of both strains. The pure cultures formed the typical products of mixed-acid or butyrate fermentation, whereas the guts of gnotobiotic cockroaches accumulated mostly lactate and acetate. Similar shifts toward more-oxidized products were observed when the pure cultures were exposed to oxygen, which corroborated the strong effects of oxygen on the metabolic fluxes previously observed in termite guts. Oxygen microsensor profiles of the guts of germfree, gnotobiotic, and conventional cockroaches indicated that both gut tissue and microbiota contribute to oxygen consumption and suggest that the oxygen status influences the colonization success. PMID:26637604

  14. A controlled-release mitochondrial protonophore reverses hypertriglyceridemia, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and diabetes in lipodystrophic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulizi, Abudukadier; Perry, Rachel J; Camporez, João Paulo G; Jurczak, Michael J; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Aspichueta, Patricia; Shulman, Gerald I

    2017-07-01

    Lipodystrophy is a rare disorder characterized by complete or partial loss of adipose tissue. Patients with lipodystrophy exhibit hypertriglyceridemia, severe insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Efforts to ameliorate NASH in lipodystrophies with pharmacologic agents have met with limited success. We examined whether a controlled-release mitochondrial protonophore (CRMP) that produces mild liver-targeted mitochondrial uncoupling could decrease hypertriglyceridemia and reverse NASH and diabetes in a mouse model (fatless AZIP/F-1 mice) of severe lipodystrophy and diabetes. After 4 wk of oral CRMP (2 mg/kg body weight per day) or vehicle treatment, mice underwent hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps combined with radiolabeled glucose to assess liver and muscle insulin responsiveness and tissue lipid measurements. CRMP treatment reversed hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance in liver and skeletal muscle. Reversal of insulin resistance could be attributed to reductions in diacylglycerol content and reduced PKC-ε and PKC-θ activity in liver and muscle respectively. CRMP treatment also reversed NASH as reflected by reductions in plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase concentrations; hepatic steatosis; and hepatic expression of IL-1α, -β, -2, -4, -6, -10, -12, CD69, and caspase 3 and attenuated activation of the IRE-1α branch of the unfolded protein response. Taken together, these results provide proof of concept for the development of liver-targeted mitochondrial uncoupling agents as a potential novel therapy for lipodystrophy-associated hypertriglyceridemia, NASH and diabetes.-Abulizi, A., Perry, R. J., Camporez, J. P. G., Jurczak, M. J., Petersen, K. F., Aspichueta, P., Shulman, G. I. A controlled-release mitochondrial protonophore reverses hypertriglyceridemia, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and diabetes in lipodystrophic mice. © FASEB.

  15. Intersegmental coupling and recovery from perturbations in freely running cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzin-Fuchs, Einat; Kiemel, Tim; Gal, Omer; Ayali, Amir; Holmes, Philip

    2015-01-15

    Cockroaches are remarkably stable runners, exhibiting rapid recovery from external perturbations. To uncover the mechanisms behind this important behavioral trait, we recorded leg kinematics of freely running animals in both undisturbed and perturbed trials. Functional coupling underlying inter-leg coordination was monitored before and during localized perturbations, which were applied to single legs via magnetic impulses. The resulting transient effects on all legs and the recovery times to normal pre-perturbation kinematics were studied. We estimated coupling architecture and strength by fitting experimental data to a six-leg-unit phase oscillator model. Using maximum-likelihood techniques, we found that a network with nearest-neighbor inter-leg coupling best fitted the data and that, although coupling strengths vary among preparations, the overall inputs entering each leg are approximately balanced and consistent. Simulations of models with different coupling strengths encountering perturbations suggest that the coupling schemes estimated from our experiments allow animals relatively fast and uniform recoveries from perturbations. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Metalloproteinases control brain inflammation induced by pertussis toxin in mice overexpressing the chemokine CCL2 in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Buist, Richard; Sun, Xue-Jun

    2006-01-01

    symptoms. Metalloproteinase (MPs) enzymes are implicated in leukocyte infiltration in neuroinflammation. Unmanipulated Tg mice had elevated expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-10, and -12 mRNA in the brain. PTx further induced expression of tissue inhibitor...... of metalloproteinase-1, metalloproteinase disintegrins-12, MMP-8, and -10 in brains of Tg mice. Levels of the microglial-associated MP MMP-15 were not affected in control or PTx-treated Tg mice. PTx also up-regulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and TNF-alpha mRNA in Tg CNS. Weight loss...

  17. A bioassay for cobra cardiotoxin activity using semi-isolated cockroach heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klowden, M J; Vitale, A J; Trumble, M J; Wesson, C R; Trumble, W R

    1992-03-01

    A semi-isolated cockroach heart preparation was used to rapidly determine the activity of cobra cardiotoxin, monitored as a direct response on heart rate. This preparation produced a dose-response curve in the presence of active cardiotoxin and demonstrated that cardiotoxin retained its biological activity after boiling, although cardiotoxin activity was destroyed by heating in the presence of dithiothreitol. Experiments that cross-linked radiolabeled cardiotoxin to solubilized cockroach heart membranes suggested that cardiotoxin bound specifically to a 59,000 mol. wt membrane protein in this tissue.

  18. Parallel pathways from motor and somatosensory cortex for controlling whisker movements in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Varun; Karmakar, Kajari; Rijli, Filippo M; Petersen, Carl C H

    2015-02-01

    Mice can gather tactile sensory information by actively moving their whiskers to palpate objects in their immediate surroundings. Whisker sensory perception therefore requires integration of sensory and motor information, which occurs prominently in the neocortex. The signalling pathways from the neocortex for controlling whisker movements are currently poorly understood in mice. Here, we delineate two pathways, one originating from primary whisker somatosensory cortex (wS1) and the other from whisker motor cortex (wM1), that control qualitatively distinct movements of contralateral whiskers. Optogenetic stimulation of wS1 drove retraction of contralateral whiskers while stimulation of wM1 drove rhythmic whisker protraction. To map brainstem pathways connecting these cortical areas to whisker motor neurons, we used a combination of anterograde tracing using adenoassociated virus injected into neocortex and retrograde tracing using monosynaptic rabies virus injected into whisker muscles. Our data are consistent with wS1 driving whisker retraction by exciting glutamatergic premotor neurons in the rostral spinal trigeminal interpolaris nucleus, which in turn activate the motor neurons innervating the extrinsic retractor muscle nasolabialis. The rhythmic whisker protraction evoked by wM1 stimulation might be driven by excitation of excitatory and inhibitory premotor neurons in the brainstem reticular formation innervating both intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. Our data therefore begin to unravel the neuronal circuits linking the neocortex to whisker motor neurons. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Cosmetics-triggered percutaneous remote control of transgene expression in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Ye, Haifeng; Xie, Mingqi; Daoud El-Baba, Marie; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the rational design of trigger-inducible gene switches that program cellular behavior in a reliable and predictable manner. Capitalizing on genetic componentry, including the repressor PmeR and its cognate operator OPmeR, that has evolved in Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato DC3000 to sense and resist plant-defence metabolites of the paraben class, we have designed a set of inducible and repressible mammalian transcription-control devices that could dose-dependently fine-tune transgene expression in mammalian cells and mice in response to paraben derivatives. With an over 60-years track record as licensed preservatives in the cosmetics industry, paraben derivatives have become a commonplace ingredient of most skin-care products including shower gels, cleansing toners and hand creams. As parabens can rapidly reach the bloodstream of mice following topical application, we used this feature to percutaneously program transgene expression of subcutaneous designer cell implants using off-the-shelf commercial paraben-containing skin-care cosmetics. The combination of non-invasive, transdermal and orthogonal trigger-inducible remote control of transgene expression may provide novel opportunities for dynamic interventions in future gene and cell-based therapies. PMID:25943548

  20. Cosmetics-triggered percutaneous remote control of transgene expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Ye, Haifeng; Xie, Mingqi; Daoud El-Baba, Marie; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-08-18

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the rational design of trigger-inducible gene switches that program cellular behavior in a reliable and predictable manner. Capitalizing on genetic componentry, including the repressor PmeR and its cognate operator OPmeR, that has evolved in Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato DC3000 to sense and resist plant-defence metabolites of the paraben class, we have designed a set of inducible and repressible mammalian transcription-control devices that could dose-dependently fine-tune transgene expression in mammalian cells and mice in response to paraben derivatives. With an over 60-years track record as licensed preservatives in the cosmetics industry, paraben derivatives have become a commonplace ingredient of most skin-care products including shower gels, cleansing toners and hand creams. As parabens can rapidly reach the bloodstream of mice following topical application, we used this feature to percutaneously program transgene expression of subcutaneous designer cell implants using off-the-shelf commercial paraben-containing skin-care cosmetics. The combination of non-invasive, transdermal and orthogonal trigger-inducible remote control of transgene expression may provide novel opportunities for dynamic interventions in future gene and cell-based therapies.

  1. Epidemiological investigation on invasion situation of cockroaches in civil aircraft%民航客机蜚蠊侵害状况的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁朝晖; 王锦平; 冯显炘; 彭伟年; 卢江民; 王晓雨; 林国川

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide scientific evidence for studying biological characteristic of cockroaches and control countermeasures by investigating the species distribution and inroads situation of cockroaches in civil aircraft.Methods In August 2015,the onsite investigations were done for 19 A320 and A321 aircrafts harbored at Sanya airport and Haikou airport for getting the cockroach density.The difference of cockroache density was compared by aircraft type,aircraft age and the 4 areas of the aircraft.Results The total invasion rate was 84.21% on 19 aircrafts.Blauella germanica is the dominant specie.The invasion rates of cockroaches was not statistically significant neither by the comparison of aircraft type (x2 =1.362,P>0.05) nor by the comparison of aircraft age (x2=0.281,P > 0.05).But statistical significance on cockroaches density was found in the comparison of 4 areas of aircrafts (x2=14.629,P<0.01).Conclusions The comprehensive countermeasures,including environmental,physical and chemical controls,should be adopted according to the aircraft structure,operation and safety requirements.%目的 通过对民航客机蜚蠊种群分布及侵害情况的调查,为研究客机蜚蠊的生态特性及防治对策提供依据. 方法 2015年8月,采用现况调查的方法对三亚及海口机场的19架A320及A321客机进行蜚蠊密度监测;比较两种不同机型、不同机龄以及客机4个不同部位蜚蠊侵害情况. 结果 共调查19架客机,蜚蠊总侵害率为84.21%;客机蜚蠊以德国小蠊为优势种群.不同机型客机的蜚蠊侵害率差异无统计学意义(x2=1.362,P>0.05);不同机龄客机蜚蠊侵害率差异无统计学意义(x2 =0.281,P>0.05);客机不同部位蜚蠊密度差异有统计学意义(x2=14.629,P<0.01). 结论 应根据客机特殊的结构、运行特点、安全要求,并结合德国小蠊在客机上的分布特点,采取环境治理、物理防治、化学防治等综合防治措施.

  2. [STUDY RELATIVE EXPRESSION OF GENES THAT CONTROL GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN THE LIVER IN MICE WITH DEVELOPMENT OF MELANOCORTIN OBESITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, A V; Bazhan, N M

    2015-06-01

    The relative gene expressions of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P), phosphoenolpyruvate carbo- xykinase (PEPCK)--markers of gluconeogenesis, glucokinase (GK)--a marker of glycolysis, glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2)--a marker of input and output of glucose in the liver were measured during the development of melanocortin (MC) obesity in male mice of C57BL/6J strain with mutation yellow in the Agouti locus (Ay/a mice). The mutation decreases MC receptor activity and induces hyperphagia and MC obesity. The males of the same line with mutation nonagouti were used as control. Tissue samples were taken at age 10 (before obesity), 15 (moderate obesity) and 30 (developed obesity) weeks. It has been shown that Ay/a mice had decreased glucose tolerance since 10-week age. There were age-related changes in mRNA levels in the liver of Ay/a mice, unlike a/a mice. In Ay/a mice the mRNA GLUT2 levels at the age of 10 weeks, mRNA GK levels at the age of 15 weeks, and mRNA G6P levels at the age of 3O weeks were higher than those in Ada mice of other ages. InAYfa mice the mRNA GK levels at the age of 15 weeks and mRNA G6F levels at the age of 30 weeks were increased relatively to those in a/a mice. Thus, Ay/a mice before the development of MK obesity had changes in the mRNA levels genes of proteins that regulate hepatic glucose metabolism, which may contribute to the compensation of glucose metabolism disorders caused by a hereditary decrease of MK system activity

  3. A beta cell ATGL-lipolysis/adipose tissue axis controls energy homeostasis and body weight via insulin secretion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attané, Camille; Peyot, Marie-Line; Lussier, Roxane; Poursharifi, Pegah; Zhao, Shangang; Zhang, Dongwei; Morin, Johane; Pineda, Marco; Wang, Shupei; Dumortier, Olivier; Ruderman, Neil B; Mitchell, Grant A; Simons, Brigitte; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Joly, Erik; Prentki, Marc

    2016-12-01

    To directly assess the role of beta cell lipolysis in insulin secretion and whole-body energy homeostasis, inducible beta cell-specific adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)-deficient (B-Atgl-KO) mice were studied under normal diet (ND) and high-fat diet (HFD) conditions. Atgl (flox/flox) mice were cross-bred with Mip-Cre-ERT mice to generate Mip-Cre-ERT(/+);Atgl (flox/flox) mice. At 8 weeks of age, these mice were injected with tamoxifen to induce deletion of beta cell-specific Atgl (also known as Pnpla2), and the mice were fed an ND or HFD. ND-fed male B-Atgl-KO mice showed decreased insulinaemia and glucose-induced insulin secretion (GSIS) in vivo. Changes in GSIS correlated with the islet content of long-chain saturated monoacylglycerol (MAG) species that have been proposed to be metabolic coupling factors for insulin secretion. Exogenous MAGs restored GSIS in B-Atgl-KO islets. B-Atgl-KO male mice fed an HFD showed reduced insulinaemia, glycaemia in the fasted and fed states and after glucose challenge, as well as enhanced insulin sensitivity. Moreover, decreased insulinaemia in B-Atgl-KO mice was associated with increased energy expenditure, and lipid metabolism in brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues, leading to reduced fat mass and body weight. ATGL in beta cells regulates insulin secretion via the production of signalling MAGs. Decreased insulinaemia due to lowered GSIS protects B-Atgl-KO mice from diet-induced obesity, improves insulin sensitivity, increases lipid mobilisation from WAT and causes BAT activation. The results support the concept that fuel excess can drive obesity and diabetes via hyperinsulinaemia, and that an islet beta cell ATGL-lipolysis/adipose tissue axis controls energy homeostasis and body weight via insulin secretion.

  4. Control of Both Myeloid Cell Infiltration and Angiogenesis by CCR1 Promotes Liver Cancer Metastasis Development in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Paul Rodero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Expression of the CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1 by tumor cells has been associated with protumoral activity; however, its role in nontumoral cells during tumor development remains elusive. Here, we investigated the role of CCR1 deletion on stromal and hematopoietic cells in a liver metastasis tumor model. Metastasis development was strongly impaired in CCR1-deficient mice compared to control mice and was associated with reduced liver monocyte infiltration. To decipher the role of myeloid cells, sublethally irradiated mice were reconstituted with CCR1-deficient bone marrow (BM and showed better survival rates than the control reconstituted mice. These results point toward the involvement of CCR1 myeloid cell infiltration in the promotion of tumor burden. In addition, survival rates were extended in CCR1-deficient mice receiving either control or CCR1-deficient BM, indicating that host CCR1 expression on nonhematopoietic cells also supports tumor growth. Finally, we found defective tumor-induced neoangiogenesis (in vitro and in vivo in CCR1-deficient mice. Overall, our results indicate that CCR1 expression by both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells favors tumor aggressiveness. We propose CCR1 as a potential therapeutical target for liver metastasis therapy.

  5. Oral tolerance inhibits pulmonary eosinophilia in a cockroach allergen induced model of asthma: a randomized laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Sudha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antigen desensitization through oral tolerance is becoming an increasingly attractive treatment option for allergic diseases. However, the mechanism(s by which tolerization is achieved remain poorly defined. In this study we endeavored to induce oral tolerance to cockroach allergen (CRA: a complex mixture of insect components in order to ameliorate asthma-like, allergic pulmonary inflammation. Methods We compared the pulmonary inflammation of mice which had received four CRA feedings prior to intratracheal allergen sensitization and challenge to mice fed PBS on the same time course. Respiratory parameters were assessed by whole body unrestrained plethysmography and mechanical ventilation with forced oscillation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL and lung homogenate (LH were assessed for cytokines and chemokines by ELISA. BAL inflammatory cells were also collected and examined by light microscopy. Results CRA feeding prior to allergen sensitization and challenge led to a significant improvement in respiratory health. Airways hyperreactivity measured indirectly via enhanced pause (Penh was meaningfully reduced in the CRA-fed mice compared to the PBS fed mice (2.3 ± 0.4 vs 3.9 ± 0.6; p = 0.03. Directly measured airways resistance confirmed this trend when comparing the CRA-fed to the PBS-fed animals (2.97 ± 0.98 vs 4.95 ± 1.41. This effect was not due to reduced traditional inflammatory cell chemotactic factors, Th2 or other cytokines and chemokines. The mechanism of improved respiratory health in the tolerized mice was due to significantly reduced eosinophil numbers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (43300 ± 11445 vs 158786 ± 38908; p = 0.007 and eosinophil specific peroxidase activity in the lung homogenate (0.59 ± 0.13 vs 1.19 ± 0.19; p = 0.017. The decreased eosinophilia was likely the result of increased IL-10 in the lung homogenate of the tolerized mice (6320 ± 354 ng/mL vs 5190 ± 404 ng/mL, p = 0

  6. Detection of Bendiocarb and Carbaryl Resistance Mechanisms among German Cockroach Blattella germanica (Blattaria: Blattellidae Collected from Tabriz Hospitals, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran in 2013

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    Afshin Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insecticide resistance is one of the serious problems for German cockroach control program. This study was conducted to determine the bendiocarb and Carbaryl resistance mechanisms in German cockroaches using the piperonyl butoxide (PBO.Methods: Bioassay tests were conducted with 4 to 6 different concentrations of both insecticides with four replicates of 10 susceptible strain cockroaches per concentration to determine of discriminative concentration. After determining discriminative concentration, the result was compared to wild strain. The levels of susceptibility and resistance ratio (RR and synergism ratio (SR were calculated for each five wild strains. Moreover resistance mechanisms in wild strains were determined using PBO synergist in vivo.Results: Hospital strains showed different levels of resistance to bendiocarb and carbaryl compared to susceptible strain. The bendiocarb and carbaryl resistance ratios ranged from 2.11 to 7.97 and 1.67 to 2 at LD50 levels, respec­tively. The synergist PBO significantly enhanced the toxicity of bendiocarb and carbaryl to all strains with different degrees of synergist ratio, 1.31, 1.39, 3.61, 1.78, 1.62 and 2.1 fold for bendiocarb, 1.19, 1.18, 1.12. 1.29, 1.45 and 1.11- fold for carbaryl, suggesting monooxygenase involvement in bendiocarb and carbaryl resistance.Conclusion: The synergetic effect of PBO had the highest effect on bendiocarb and resistance level was significantly reduced, which indicates the important role of monoxidase enzyme in creating resistance to Bendiocarb. Piperonyl butoxide did not have a significant synergistic effect on carbaryl and did not significantly break the resistance.

  7. Sodium pump α2 subunits control myogenic tone and blood pressure in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Lee, Moo Yeol; Cavalli, Maurizio; Chen, Ling; Berra-Romani, Roberto; Balke, C William; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Patrizia; Hamlyn, John M; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Lingrel, Jerry B; Matteson, Donald R; Wier, W Gil; Blaustein, Mordecai P

    2005-01-01

    A key question in hypertension is: How is long-term blood pressure controlled? A clue is that chronic salt retention elevates an endogenous ouabain-like compound (EOLC) and induces salt-dependent hypertension mediated by Na+/Ca2+ exchange (NCX). The precise mechanism, however, is unresolved. Here we study blood pressure and isolated small arteries of mice with reduced expression of Na+ pump α1 (α1+/−) or α2 (α2+/−) catalytic subunits. Both low-dose ouabain (1–100 nm; inhibits only α2) and high-dose ouabain (≥1 μm; inhibits α1) elevate myocyte Ca2+ and constrict arteries from α1+/−, as well as α2+/− and wild-type mice. Nevertheless, only mice with reduced α2 Na+ pump activity (α2+/−), and not α1 (α1+/−), have elevated blood pressure. Also, isolated, pressurized arteries from α2+/−, but not α1+/−, have increased myogenic tone. Ouabain antagonists (PST 2238 and canrenone) and NCX blockers (SEA0400 and KB-R7943) normalize myogenic tone in ouabain-treated arteries. Only the NCX blockers normalize the elevated myogenic tone in α2+/− arteries because this tone is ouabain independent. All four agents are known to lower blood pressure in salt-dependent and ouabain-induced hypertension. Thus, chronically reduced α2 activity (α2+/− or chronic ouabain) apparently regulates myogenic tone and long-term blood pressure whereas reduced α1 activity (α1+/−) plays no persistent role: the in vivo changes in blood pressure reflect the in vitro changes in myogenic tone. Accordingly, in salt-dependent hypertension, EOLC probably increases vascular resistance and blood pressure by reducing α2 Na+ pump activity and promoting Ca2+ entry via NCX in myocytes. PMID:16166162

  8. Dimerized Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein-Binding Peptide Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Hai Jin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study showed that dimerized translationally controlled tumor protein (dTCTP plays a role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. A 7-mer peptide, called dTCTP-binding peptide 2 (dTBP2, binds to dTCTP and inhibits its cytokine-like effects. We therefore examined the protective effects of dTBP2 in house dust mite-induced atopic dermatitis (AD-like skin lesions in Nishiki-nezumi Cinnamon/Nagoya (NC/Nga mice. We found that topical administration of dTBP2 significantly reduced the AD-like skin lesions formation and mast cell infiltration in NC/Nga mice, similarly to the response seen in the Protopic (tacrolimus-treated group. Treatment with dTBP2 also decreased the serum levels of IgE and reduced IL-17A content in skin lesions and inhibited the expression of mRNAs of interleukin IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP. These findings indicate that dTBP2 not only inhibits the release of Th2 cytokine but also suppresses the production of proinflammatory cytokines in AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice, by inhibiting TCTP dimer, in allergic responses. Therefore, dTCTP is a therapeutic target for AD and dTBP2 appears to have a potential role in the treatment of AD.

  9. 某部蟑螂种群密度与侵害状况调查分析%Investigation of the density and infestation of the cockroach in one certain troops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝海水; 第五进学; 唐裕杰

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解某部蟑螂侵害率和密度水平,为蟑螂防治提供依据.方法 采用粘蟑纸粘捕法调查餐饮区、疗养区、体检中心、居住区、附属医院蟑螂侵害率和密度水平.结果 在各类环境中共捕获蟑螂1173只,均为德国小蠊,平均侵害率为13.33%,密度为1.96只/张.侵害率及密度:餐饮区>疗养区>体检中心>居住区>附属医院.结论 德国小蠊为优势种群,餐饮区、疗养区密度较高,应加强该区域蟑螂监测和防治工作.%Objective To investigate the density and infestation rate of cockroach and provide evidence for preventing and controlling cockroach in one certain troops. Methods The density and infestation rate, of dinning area, sanitarium area,physical examination center, residential area and affiliated hospital were monitored by sticky traps. Results All traped 1 173 cockroaches were Blattella germanica. The average infestation rate was 13. 33 % and the average index of density was 1. 96 pieces. The infestation rate and density was as follows: dinning area > sanitarium area > physical examination center > residential area > affiliated hospital. Conclusion Blallella germanica is the dominant species in this troops. The density and infestation rate of dining area and sanitarium area is higher and the investigation,prevention and control of regional cockroach should be improved.

  10. Site-specific dephosphorylation of tau of apolipoprotein E-deficient and control mice by M1 muscarinic agonist treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genis, I; Fisher, A; Michaelson, D M

    1999-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice have memory deficits that are associated with synaptic loss of basal forebrain cholinergic projections and with hyperphosphorylation of distinct epitopes of the microtubule-associated protein tau. Furthermore, treatment of apoE-deficient mice with the M1 selective agonist 1-methylpiperidine-4-spiro-(2'-methylthiazoline) [AF150(S)] abolishes their memory deficits and results in recovery of their brain cholinergic markers. In the present study, we used a panel of anti-tau monoclonal antibodies to further map the tau epitopes that are hyperphosphorylated in apoE-deficient mice and examined the effects of prolonged treatment with AF150(S). This revealed that tau of apoE-deficient mice contains a distinct, hyperphosphorylated "hot spot" domain which is localized N-terminally to the microtubule binding domain of tau, and that AF150(S) has an epitope-specific tau dephosphorylating effect whose magnitude is affected by apoE deficiency. Accordingly, epitopes which reside in the hyperphosphorylated "hot spot" are dephosphorylated by AF150(S) in apoE-deficient mice but are almost unaffected in the controls, whereas epitopes which flank this tau domain are dephosphorylated by AF150(S) in both mice groups. In contrast, epitopes located at the N and C terminals of tau are unaffected by AF150(S) in both groups of mice. These findings suggest that apoE deficiency results in hyperphosphorylation of a distinct tau domain whose excess phosphorylation can be reduced by muscarinic treatment.

  11. X-Chromosome Control of Genome-Scale Recombination Rates in House Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Beth L

    2017-02-03

    Sex differences in recombination are widespread in mammals, but the causes of this pattern are poorly understood. Previously, males from two interfertile subspecies of house mice, Mus musculus musculus and M. m. castaneus, were shown to exhibit a ~30% difference in their global crossover frequencies. Much of this crossover rate divergence is explained by six autosomal loci and a large-effect locus on the X chromosome. Intriguingly, the allelic effects at this X-linked locus are transgressive, with the allele conferring increased crossover rate transmitted by the low crossover rate M. m. castaneus parent. Despite the pronounced divergence between males, females from these subspecies exhibit similar crossover rates, raising the question of how recombination is genetically controlled in this sex. Here, I analyze publicly available genotype data from early generations of the Collaborative Cross, an 8-way panel of recombinant inbred strains, to estimate crossover frequencies in female mice with sex chromosome genotypes of diverse sub-specific origins. Consistent with the transgressive influence of the X chromosome in males, I show that females inheriting a M. m. castaneus X possess higher average crossover rates than females lacking the M. m. castaneus X chromosome. The differential inheritance of the X chromosome in males and females provides a simple genetic explanation for sex-limited evolution of this trait. Further, the presence of X-linked and autosomal crossover rate modifiers with antagonistic effects hints at an underlying genetic conflict fueled by selection for distinct crossover rate optima in males and females.

  12. Green Tea Polyphenols Control Dysregulated Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Transgenic Mice by Hijacking the ADP Activation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Changhong; Li, Ming; Chen, Pan; Narayan, Srinivas; Matschinsky, Franz M.; Bennett, Michael J.; Stanley, Charles A.; Smith, Thomas J. (CH-PA); (UPENN); (Danforth)

    2012-05-09

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate and, in animals, is extensively regulated by a number of metabolites. Gain of function mutations in GDH that abrogate GTP inhibition cause the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome (HHS), resulting in increased pancreatic {beta}-cell responsiveness to leucine and susceptibility to hypoglycemia following high protein meals. We have previously shown that two of the polyphenols from green tea (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG)) inhibit GDH in vitro and that EGCG blocks GDH-mediated insulin secretion in wild type rat islets. Using structural and site-directed mutagenesis studies, we demonstrate that ECG binds to the same site as the allosteric regulator, ADP. Perifusion assays using pancreatic islets from transgenic mice expressing a human HHS form of GDH demonstrate that the hyperresponse to glutamine caused by dysregulated GDH is blocked by the addition of EGCG. As observed in HHS patients, these transgenic mice are hypersensitive to amino acid feeding, and this is abrogated by oral administration of EGCG prior to challenge. Finally, the low basal blood glucose level in the HHS mouse model is improved upon chronic administration of EGCG. These results suggest that this common natural product or some derivative thereof may prove useful in controlling this genetic disorder. Of broader clinical implication is that other groups have shown that restriction of glutamine catabolism via these GDH inhibitors can be useful in treating various tumors. This HHS transgenic mouse model offers a highly useful means to test these agents in vivo.

  13. Green tea polyphenols control dysregulated glutamate dehydrogenase in transgenic mice by hijacking the ADP activation site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changhong; Li, Ming; Chen, Pan; Narayan, Srinivas; Matschinsky, Franz M; Bennett, Michael J; Stanley, Charles A; Smith, Thomas J

    2011-09-30

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate and, in animals, is extensively regulated by a number of metabolites. Gain of function mutations in GDH that abrogate GTP inhibition cause the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome (HHS), resulting in increased pancreatic β-cell responsiveness to leucine and susceptibility to hypoglycemia following high protein meals. We have previously shown that two of the polyphenols from green tea (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG)) inhibit GDH in vitro and that EGCG blocks GDH-mediated insulin secretion in wild type rat islets. Using structural and site-directed mutagenesis studies, we demonstrate that ECG binds to the same site as the allosteric regulator, ADP. Perifusion assays using pancreatic islets from transgenic mice expressing a human HHS form of GDH demonstrate that the hyperresponse to glutamine caused by dysregulated GDH is blocked by the addition of EGCG. As observed in HHS patients, these transgenic mice are hypersensitive to amino acid feeding, and this is abrogated by oral administration of EGCG prior to challenge. Finally, the low basal blood glucose level in the HHS mouse model is improved upon chronic administration of EGCG. These results suggest that this common natural product or some derivative thereof may prove useful in controlling this genetic disorder. Of broader clinical implication is that other groups have shown that restriction of glutamine catabolism via these GDH inhibitors can be useful in treating various tumors. This HHS transgenic mouse model offers a highly useful means to test these agents in vivo.

  14. Sustained attention in mice: expanding the translational utility of the SAT by incorporating the Michigan Controlled Access Response Port (MICARP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Peters, Megan; Cherian, Ajeesh Koshy; Bradshaw, Marc; Sarter, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Advances in mouse genetic technology have spurred increasing interest in the development of cognitive tasks for mice. Here, we describe and discuss the modifications necessary to adapt a task for the assessment of sustained attention performance for use in mice, including for taxing the top-down control of such performance. The validity of the Sustained Attention Task (SAT), including the distractor version (dSAT), has previously been demonstrated in rats and humans. This task requires moveable or retractable operanda; insertion of operanda into the operant chambers cues animals to respond to a prior signal or non-signal event, reporting either a hit or a miss, or a correct rejection or false alarm, respectively. Retractable levers did not support sufficiently high and stable levels of performance in mice. Given the widespread use of static nose-poke devices for testing operant performance in mice, we therefore designed and fabricated a retractable nose-poke device. As this device extends into chambers, a hole for nose-poking is slowly opened and closed again as the device retracts (termed the "Michigan Controlled Access Response Port", MICARP). Results describe the effects of variation of signal duration and event rate, trial outcome and trial type probability, effects of mice deprivation levels, and the reliability of SAT and dSAT performance. Mice perform the SAT and dSAT at levels comparable to those observed in rats. This task will be of assistance in expanding the translational usefulness of the SAT and dSAT.

  15. Acceleration of biliary cholesterol secretion restores glycemic control and alleviates hypertriglyceridemia in obese db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kai; Sabeva, Nadezhda S; Wang, Yuhuan; Liu, Xiaoxi; Lester, Joshua D; Liu, Jingjing; Liang, Shuang; Graf, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies support a role for cholesterol in the development of obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Mice lacking the ABCG5 ABCG8 (G5G8) sterol transporter have reduced biliary cholesterol secretion and are more susceptible to steatosis, hepatic insulin resistance, and loss of glycemic control when challenged with a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that accelerating G5G8-mediated biliary cholesterol secretion would correct these phenotypes in obese mice. Obese (db/db) male and their lean littermates were administered a cocktail of control adenovirus or adenoviral vectors encoding ABCG5 and ABCG8 (AdG5G8). Three days after viral administration, measures of lipid and glucose homeostasis were determined, and tissues were collected for biochemical analyses. AdG5G8 increased biliary cholesterol and fecal sterol elimination. Fasting glucose and triglycerides declined, and glucose tolerance improved in obese mice expressing G5G8 compared with mice receiving control adenovirus. These changes were associated with a reduction in phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in liver, suggesting alleviation of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Phosphorylated insulin receptor and protein kinase B were increased, indicating restored hepatic insulin signaling. However, there was no reduction in hepatic triglycerides after the 3-day treatment period. Accelerating biliary cholesterol secretion restores glycemic control and reduces plasma triglycerides in obese db/db mice.

  16. Taxonomic diversity of cockroach assemblages (Blattaria, Insecta of the Aptian Crato Formation (Cretaceous, NE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shih-Wei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive revision of 981 specimens of fossil cockroaches from the Lower Cretaceous laminated limestones of the Crato Formation of Northeast Brazil shows that they belong to eleven taxa, including Piniblattella limai, P. magna sp. n., Perlucipecta santanensis. sp. n., Raptoblatta waddingtonae; Ocelloblattula santanensis sp. n., Elisama brevis (= E. americana, syn.n., E. hindwingnii sp. n., Ponopterix axelrodi (= P. maxima syn.n., Umenopterix burkhardi comb. n., and Cratovitisma oldreadi (Umenocoleidae = Cratovitismidae syn.n. = Ponopterixidae syn.n.. The family Ectobiidae is numerically most abundant in the assemblage of cockroaches of the Crato Formation (83 % of cockroaches, followed by Blattulidae (13 % and Umenocoleidae (4 %. 79.2 % of specimens are complete and fully articulated. Members of the family Alienopteridae are probably also present. Representatives of a relatively common Mesozoic superfamily Caloblattinoidea are missing. With the exception of the endemic genera Cratovitisma and Raptoblatta and the exclusively Gondwanan genus Ocelloblattula, all other genera were cosmopolitan. Taxonomic richness of cockroaches of the Crato Formation is thus rather low, and consists of geologically long-ranging and geographically-widespread genera, genera restricted to Gondwana, and short-ranging endemic genera found in the Crato Formation only.

  17. Baygon-A New Carbamate Insecticide and its Evaluation Against Cockroaches by a Simple New Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Varma

    1969-10-01

    Full Text Available Baygon a new carbamate insecticide has been tested for its efficacy against cockroaches, Periplanta americana Linn. in relation to Sumithion and Malathion by a simple technique developed by the authors. It has been found to be much superior in producing Knock-down and kill of the insects as compared to Sumithion and Malathion.

  18. Ecological niche models for four native cockroach species (Blattaria: Blattellidae: Ectobiinae) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciliberti, P.; Jong, de H.; Schouten, M.A.; Verweij, P.A.; Heitmans, W.R.B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims at modelling the spatial distribution of the cockroach species Capraiellus panzeri, Ectobius lapponicus, Ectobius pallidus and Ectobius sylvestris within the Netherlands and comparing the habitat preferences of these species. Maxent was used to calculate habitat suitability and to id

  19. The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone: An Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Patty L.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and uses…

  20. The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone: An Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Patty L.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and uses…

  1. Ecological niche models for four native cockroach species (Blattaria: Blattellidae:Ectobiinae) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciliberti, P.; de Jong, Herman; Schouten, M.A.; Verweij, P.A.; Heitmans, W.R.B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims at modelling the spatial distribution of the cockroach species Capraiellus panzeri, Ectobius lapponicus, Ectobius pallidus and Ectobius sylvestris within the Netherlands and comparing the habitat preferences of these species. Maxent was used to calculate habitat suitability and to id

  2. Serine phosphorylation of CAPA pyrokinin in cockroaches-a taxon-specific posttranslational modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Sebastian; Predel, Reinhard

    2014-07-01

    In insects, posttranslational modifications of neuropeptides are largely restricted to C- and N-terminal amino acids. The most common modifications, N-terminal pyroglutamate formation and C-terminal α-amidation, may prevent a fast degradation of these messenger molecules. This is particularly important for peptide hormones. Other common posttranslational modifications of proteins such as glycosylation and phosphorylation seem to be very rare in insect neuropeptides. To check this assumption, we used a computer algorithm to search an extensive data set of MALDI-TOF mass spectra from cockroach tissues for ion signal patterns indicating peptide phosphorylation. The results verify that phosphorylation is indeed very rare. However, a candidate was found and experimentally verified as phosphorylated CAPA pyrokinin (GGGGpSGETSGMWFGPRL-NH2) in the cockroach Lamproblatta albipalpus (Blattidae, Lamproblattinae). Tandem mass spectrometry revealed the phosphorylation site as Ser(5). Phosphorylated CAPA pyrokinin was then also detected in most other cockroach lineages (e.g. Blaberidae, Polyphagidae) but not in closely related blattid species such as Periplaneta americana. This is remarkable since the sequence of CAPA pyrokinin is identical in Lamproblatta and Periplaneta. A consensus sequence of CAPA pyrokinins of cockroaches revealed a conserved motif that suggests phosphorylation by a Four-jointed/FAM20C related kinase.

  3. Diet shapes the gut microbiota of the omnivorous cockroach Blattella germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cobas, Ana Elena; Maiques, Elisa; Angelova, Alexandra; Carrasco, Purificación; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The gut microbiota of insects contributes positively to the physiology of its host mainly by participating in food digestion, protecting against pathogens, or provisioning vitamins or amino acids, but the dynamics of this complex ecosystem is not well understood so far. In this study, we have characterized the gut microbiota of the omnivorous cockroach Blattella germanica by pyrosequencing the hypervariable regions V1-V3 of the 16S rRNA gene of the whole bacterial community. Three diets differing in the protein content (0, 24 and 50%) were tested at two time points in lab-reared individuals. In addition, the gut microbiota of wild adult cockroaches was also analyzed. In contrast to the high microbial richness described on the studied samples, only few species are shared by wild and lab-reared cockroaches, constituting the bacterial core in the gut of B. germanica. Overall, we found that the gut microbiota of B. germanica is highly dynamic as the bacterial composition was reassembled in a diet-specific manner over a short time span, with no-protein diet promoting high diversity, although the highest diversity was found in the wild cockroaches analyzed. We discuss how the flexibility of the gut microbiota is probably due to its omnivorous life style and varied diets.

  4. Some Guides to Discovery About Elm Trees, Owls, Cockroaches, Earthworms, Cement and Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    The introduction emphasizes the need for environmental and conservation education, and advocates an inquiry approach. Outdoor resources available to every school are listed. Detailed suggestions are made for investigating cement and concrete, cockroaches, earthworms, elm trees, and owls. In each case general background information and a list of…

  5. Ecological niche models for four native cockroach species (Blattaria: Blattellidae:Ectobiinae) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciliberti, P.; de Jong, Herman; Schouten, M.A.; Verweij, P.A.; Heitmans, W.R.B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims at modelling the spatial distribution of the cockroach species Capraiellus panzeri, Ectobius lapponicus, Ectobius pallidus and Ectobius sylvestris within the Netherlands and comparing the habitat preferences of these species. Maxent was used to calculate habitat suitability and to

  6. Ecological niche models for four native cockroach species (Blattaria: Blattellidae: Ectobiinae) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciliberti, P.; Jong, de H.; Schouten, M.A.; Verweij, P.A.; Heitmans, W.R.B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims at modelling the spatial distribution of the cockroach species Capraiellus panzeri, Ectobius lapponicus, Ectobius pallidus and Ectobius sylvestris within the Netherlands and comparing the habitat preferences of these species. Maxent was used to calculate habitat suitability and to

  7. Cross-reaction between Formosan Termite(Coptotermes formosanus) Proteins and Cockroach Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible insects, such as cockroaches and termites, are beginning to be popularized as an alternate source of protein and have high nutritional value. Identification of cross-reactivity between commonly consumed food proteins and edible insects is important for food safety and to enable improvements ...

  8. COCKROACHES, PESTICIDE USE, AND CHILDREN'S PULMONARY FUNCTION IN AN ARID COMMUNITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockroaches, pesticide use, and children's pulmonary function in an arid communityErik Svendsen1, Mary Ross1, Melissa Gonzales2, Debra Walsh1, Scott Rhoney1, Gina Terrill1, Lucas Neas11US EPA, Chapel Hill, NC; 2University of New MexicoThe El Paso Children's He...

  9. Afro-Asian cockroach from Chiapas amber and the lost Tertiary American entomofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vršanský, Peter; Cifuentes-Ruiz, Paulina; Vidlička, Ľubomír; Čiampor, Fedor; Vega, Francisco J.

    2011-10-01

    Cockroach genera with synanthropic species (Blattella, Ectobius, Supella, Periplaneta, Diploptera and ?Blatta), as well as other insects such as honeybees, although natively limited to certain continents nowadays, had circumtropic distribution in the past. The ease of their reintroduction into their former range suggests a post-Early Miocene environmental stress which led to the extinction of cosmopolitan Tertiary entomofauna in the Americas, whilst in Eurasia, Africa and Australia this fauna survived. This phenomenon is demonstrated here on a low diversity (10 spp.) living cockroach genus Supella, which is peculiar for the circumtropical synanthropic brownbanded cockroach S. longipalpa and also for its exclusively free-living cavicolous species restricted to Africa. S. (Nemosupella) miocenica sp. nov. from the Miocene amber of Chiapas in Mexico is a sister species to the living S. mirabilis from the Lower Guinea forests and adjacent savannas. The difference is restricted to the shape of the central macula on the pronotum, and size, which may indicate the around-Miocene origin of the living, extremely polymorphic Supella species and possibly also the isochronic invasion into the Americas. The species also has a number of characteristics of the Asian (and possibly also Australian) uniform genus Allacta (falling within the generic variability of Supella) suggesting Supella is a direct ancestor of the former. The present species is the first significant evidence for incomplete hiati between well defined cockroach genera — a result of the extensive fossil record of the group. The reported specimen is covered by a mycelium of a parasitic fungus Cordyceps or Entomophthora.

  10. Oxygen-induced plasticity in tracheal morphology and discontinuous gas exchange cycles in cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrim, Hamish; Matthews, Philip G D; Lemon, Sussan; White, Craig R

    2014-12-01

    The function and mechanism underlying discontinuous gas exchange in terrestrial arthropods continues to be debated. Three adaptive hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolutionary origin or maintenance of discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs), which may have evolved to reduce respiratory water loss, facilitate gas exchange in high CO2 and low O2 micro-environments, or to ameliorate potential damage as a result of oversupply of O2. None of these hypotheses have unequivocal support, and several non-adaptive hypotheses have also been proposed. In the present study, we reared cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea in selected levels of O2 throughout development, and examined how this affected growth rate, tracheal morphology and patterns of gas exchange. O2 level in the rearing environment caused significant changes in tracheal morphology and the exhibition of DGCs, but the direction of these effects was inconsistent with all three adaptive hypotheses: water loss was not associated with DGC length, cockroaches grew fastest in hyperoxia, and DGCs exhibited by cockroaches reared in normoxia were shorter than those exhibited by cockroaches reared in hypoxia or hyperoxia.

  11. Context-dependent olfactory learning monitored by activities of salivary neurons in cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Chihiro Sato; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Nishino, Hiroshi; Mizunami, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Context-dependent discrimination learning, a sophisticated form of nonelemental associative learning, has been found in many animals, including insects. The major purpose of this research is to establish a method for monitoring this form of nonelemental learning in rigidly restrained insects for investigation of underlying neural mechanisms. We report context-dependent olfactory learning (occasion-setting problem solving) of salivation, which can be monitored as activity changes of salivary neurons in immobilized cockroaches, Periplaneta americana. A group of cockroaches was trained to associate peppermint odor (conditioned stimulus, CS) with sucrose solution reward (unconditioned stimulus, US) while vanilla odor was presented alone without pairing with the US under a flickering light condition (1.0 Hz) and also trained to associate vanilla odor with sucrose reward while peppermint odor was presented alone under a steady light condition. After training, the responses of salivary neurons to the rewarded peppermint odor were significantly greater than those to the unrewarded vanilla odor under steady illumination and those to the rewarded vanilla odor was significantly greater than those to the unrewarded peppermint odor in the presence of flickering light. Similar context-dependent responses were observed in another group of cockroaches trained with the opposite stimulus arrangement. This study demonstrates context-dependent olfactory learning of salivation for the first time in any vertebrate and invertebrate species, which can be monitored by activity changes of salivary neurons in restrained cockroaches. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Macrostylopyga gen. nov., a new genus of cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattidae), with descriptions of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisyutkin, Leonid N; Anichkin, Alexandr E; Thinh, Nguyen Van

    2013-01-01

    The genus Macrostylopyga gen. nov. and two species (M. grandis sp. nov. and M. bidupi sp. nov.) are described. A detailed morphological description with special attention to the male genitalic structures is provided. Some aspects of the evolution of wingless cockroaches are briefly discussed.

  13. Taxonomic diversity of cockroach assemblages (Blattaria, Insecta) of the Aptian Crato Formation (Cretaceous, NE Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shih-Wei

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive revision of 981 specimens of fossil cockroaches from the Lower Cretaceous laminated limestones of the Crato Formation of Northeast Brazil shows that they belong to eleven taxa, including Piniblattella limai, P. magna sp. n., Perlucipecta santanensis. sp. n., Raptoblatta waddingtonae; Ocelloblattula santanensis sp. n., Elisama brevis (= E. americana, syn.n.), E. hindwingnii sp. n., Ponopterix axelrodi (= P. maxima syn.n.), Umenopterix burkhardi comb. n., and Cratovitisma oldreadi (Umenocoleidae = Cratovitismidae syn.n. = Ponopterixidae syn.n.). The family Ectobiidae is numerically most abundant in the assemblage of cockroaches of the Crato Formation (83 % of cockroaches), followed by Blattulidae (13 %) and Umenocoleidae (4 %). 79.2 % of specimens are complete and fully articulated. Members of the family Alienopteridae are probably also present. Representatives of a relatively common Mesozoic superfamily Caloblattinoidea are missing. With the exception of the endemic genera Cratovitisma and Raptoblatta and the exclusively Gondwanan genus Ocelloblattula, all other genera were cosmopolitan. Taxonomic richness of cockroaches of the Crato Formation is thus rather low, and consists of geologically long-ranging and geographically-widespread genera, genera restricted to Gondwana, and short-ranging endemic genera found in the Crato Formation only.

  14. Controlling gene expression in mice with tetracycline: application in pigment cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, M K

    2000-10-01

    Genetic manipulation techniques are widely used in mice to study the functions of genes. The most common strategy for assessing in vivo function involves making irreversible changes in the genome by homologous recombination. To complement this approach, a number of systems have been developed that allow specific and controlled expression of a gene. One of the more versatile and promising systems is based on the tetracycline (tet) responsive bacterial tetracycline repressor (TetR). In recent years, the tet system has proven to be a valuable method for understanding the function of genes involved in a number of physiological processes, including mouse models for human diseases such as cancer and neurological and pigment disorders. This review will highlight the power and elegance of the tet system by focusing on its utility in the study of two pigment cell-related biological problems, the pathogenesis of melanomas and melanocyte development in the embryo.

  15. Addition of rapamycin to anti-CD3 antibody improves long-term glycaemia control in diabetic NOD mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira Perl

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Non-Fc-binding Anti CD3 antibody has proven successful in reverting diabetes in the non-obese diabetes mouse model of type 1 diabetes and limited efficacy has been observed in human clinical trials. We hypothesized that addition of rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor capable of inducing operational tolerance in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, would result in improved diabetes reversal rates and overall glycemia. METHODS: Seventy hyperglycemic non-obese diabetic mice were randomized to either a single injection of anti CD3 alone or a single injection of anti CD3 followed by 14 days of intra-peritoneal rapamycin. Mice were monitored for hyperglycemia and metabolic control. RESULTS: Mice treated with the combination of anti CD3 and rapamycin had similar rates of diabetes reversal compared to anti CD3 alone (25/35 vs. 22/35. Mice treated with anti CD3 plus rapamycin had a significant improvement in glycemia control as exhibited by lower blood glucose levels in response to an intra-peritoneal glucose challenge; average peak blood glucose levels 30 min post intra-peritoneal injection of 2 gr/kg glucose were 6.9 mmol/L in the anti CD3 plus rapamycin group vs. 10 mmo/L in the anti CD3 alone (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The addition of rapamycin to anti CD3 results in significant improvement in glycaemia control in diabetic NOD mice.

  16. [Frequency of sensitization to mites, cockroach and shrimp in adults with respiratory allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rocha, Eunice; Rodríguez-Mireles, Karen; Gaspar-López, Arturo; Del Rivero-Hernández, Leonel; Segura-Méndez, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Sensitization to mites and cockroach are a common cause of respiratory allergy, especially in children. There is little information about its cross-reactivity with shrimp, which is common in adult patients. To determine the frequency of sensitization to house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae) and cockroach species Periplaneta americana, in adult patients attending to a third level hospital and to determine the frequency of sensitization to shrimp in patients with positive skin test to house dust mite and/or cockroach, in patients with clinical manifestations suggestive of allergy to shrimp. A retrospective study was done in which results were reviewed of 672 patients clinical records, attending to the Allergy and Clinical Immunology department in a third level hospital, those patients with positive skin test results to Dermatophagoides and/or Periplaneta americana were investigated for sensitization to shrimp through Prick-to-Prick test. Data from 672 patients were obtained, 69.8% (469) males, with a mean age of 33.5 years. Dermatophagoides positivity was 72.2% (486/672), and its relationship with other invertebrates that also have tropomyosin was 5.6% (4.9% with cockroach and 0.74% with shrimp). In our population, house dust mite sensitization was similar to that reported in the international literature. There was low positivity to cockroach, probably due to geographical conditions. There is very little information about shrimp's cross-reactivity with Dermatophagoides, despite its clinical significance, which requires more specific studies such as measurement of specific IgE to tropomyosin.

  17. Cockroaches traverse crevices, crawl rapidly in confined spaces, and inspire a soft, legged robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Kaushik; Full, Robert J

    2016-02-23

    Jointed exoskeletons permit rapid appendage-driven locomotion but retain the soft-bodied, shape-changing ability to explore confined environments. We challenged cockroaches with horizontal crevices smaller than a quarter of their standing body height. Cockroaches rapidly traversed crevices in 300-800 ms by compressing their body 40-60%. High-speed videography revealed crevice negotiation to be a complex, discontinuous maneuver. After traversing horizontal crevices to enter a vertically confined space, cockroaches crawled at velocities approaching 60 cm⋅s(-1), despite body compression and postural changes. Running velocity, stride length, and stride period only decreased at the smallest crevice height (4 mm), whereas slipping and the probability of zigzag paths increased. To explain confined-space running performance limits, we altered ceiling and ground friction. Increased ceiling friction decreased velocity by decreasing stride length and increasing slipping. Increased ground friction resulted in velocity and stride length attaining a maximum at intermediate friction levels. These data support a model of an unexplored mode of locomotion--"body-friction legged crawling" with body drag, friction-dominated leg thrust, but no media flow as in air, water, or sand. To define the limits of body compression in confined spaces, we conducted dynamic compressive cycle tests on living animals. Exoskeletal strength allowed cockroaches to withstand forces 300 times body weight when traversing the smallest crevices and up to nearly 900 times body weight without injury. Cockroach exoskeletons provided biological inspiration for the manufacture of an origami-style, soft, legged robot that can locomote rapidly in both open and confined spaces.

  18. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus under various dietary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Ayayee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host’s demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana, fed low-quality (LQD and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ13CEAA. We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ13C between cockroach (δ13CCockroach EAA and dietary (δ13CDietary EAA EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using 13C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ13CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency.

  19. EFFECT OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE ON ATRIUM CONTRACTILITY IN CONTROL AND DIABETHIC MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Lifanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is endogenously synthesized gasotransmitter that has a regulatory effect in cardiovascular system. Diabetes mellitus leads to an increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, so the purpose of the study was to analyze the contractility of the atria mice after application of L-cysteine and H2S. Contractile activity of the myocardium was investigated in the experiment on isolated mouse atria. Alloxan was used for modeling diabetes. Intraperitoneal injection of alloxan resulted in a significant increase of glucose concentration in blood, whereas the concentration of glucose didn’t change at the injection of physiological solution. In control, the addition of NaHS resulted in a significant dose-dependent decrease of the amplitude of contraction of the myocardium, whereas the negative inotropic effect of NaHS was significantly lower in terms of modeling diabetes compare to control conditions. In the control, L-cysteine reduced the amplitude contractions significantly, whereas L-cysteine did not lead to significant changes in the amplitude of contractions in terms of modeling diabetes. These data indicate that the sensitivity of mice’s atria reduced for H2S and L-cysteine in diabetes mellitus.

  20. Nucleotide-Binding Oligomerization Domain-1 and -2 Play No Role in Controlling Brucella abortus Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S. Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins (NODs are modular cytoplasmic proteins implicated in the recognition of peptidoglycan-derived molecules. Further, several in vivo studies have demonstrated a role for Nod1 and Nod2 in host defense against bacterial pathogens. Here, we demonstrated that macrophages from NOD1-, NOD2-, and Rip2-deficient mice produced lower levels of TNF-α following infection with live Brucella abortus compared to wild-type mice. Similar reduction on cytokine synthesis was not observed for IL-12 and IL-6. However, NOD1, NOD2, and Rip2 knockout mice were no more susceptible to infection with virulent B. abortus than wild-type mice. Additionally, spleen cells from NOD1-, NOD2-, and Rip2-deficient mice showed unaltered production of IFN-γ compared to C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, this study demonstrates that NOD1, NOD2 and Rip2 are dispensable for the control of B. abortus during in vivo infection.

  1. Instantaneous kinematic phase reflects neuromechanical response to lateral perturbations of running cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revzen, Shai; Burden, Samuel A; Moore, Talia Y; Mongeau, Jean-Michel; Full, Robert J

    2013-04-01

    Instantaneous kinematic phase calculation allows the development of reduced-order oscillator models useful in generating hypotheses of neuromechanical control. When perturbed, changes in instantaneous kinematic phase and frequency of rhythmic movements can provide details of movement and evidence for neural feedback to a system-level neural oscillator with a time resolution not possible with traditional approaches. We elicited an escape response in cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) that ran onto a movable cart accelerated laterally with respect to the animals' motion causing a perturbation. The specific impulse imposed on animals (0.50 [Formula: see text] 0.04 m s[Formula: see text]; mean, SD) was nearly twice their forward speed (0.25 [Formula: see text] 0.06 m s[Formula: see text]. Instantaneous residual phase computed from kinematic phase remained constant for 110 ms after the onset of perturbation, but then decreased representing a decrease in stride frequency. Results from direct muscle action potential recordings supported kinematic phase results in showing that recovery begins with self-stabilizing mechanical feedback followed by neural feedback to an abstracted neural oscillator or central pattern generator. Trials fell into two classes of forward velocity changes, while exhibiting statistically indistinguishable frequency changes. Animals pulled away from the side with front and hind legs of the tripod in stance recovered heading within 300 ms, whereas animals that only had a middle leg of the tripod resisting the pull did not recover within this period. Animals with eight or more legs might be more robust to lateral perturbations than hexapods.

  2. Functional analysis of Scr during embryonic and post-embryonic development in the cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrycaj, Steven; Chesebro, John; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2010-05-01

    The cockroach, Periplaneta americana represents a basal insect lineage that undergoes the ancestral hemimetabolous mode of development. Here, we examine the embryonic and post-embryonic functions of the hox gene Scr in Periplaneta as a way of better understanding the roles of this gene in the evolution of insect body plans. During embryogenesis, Scr function is strictly limited to the head with no role in the prothorax. This indicates that the ancestral embryonic function of Scr was likely restricted to the head, and that the posterior expansion of expression in the T1 legs may have preceded any apparent gain of function during evolution. In addition, Scr plays a pivotal role in the formation of the dorsal ridge, a structure that separates the head and thorax in all insects. This is evidenced by the presence of a supernumerary segment that occurs between the labial and T1 segments of RNAiScr first nymphs and is attributed to an alteration in engrailed (en) expression. The fact that similar Scr phenotypes are observed in Tribolium but not in Drosophila or Oncopeltus reveals the presence of lineage-specific variation in the genetic architecture that controls the formation of the dorsal ridge. In direct contrast to the embryonic roles, Scr has no function in the head region during post-embryogenesis in Periplaneta, and instead, strictly acts to provide identity to the T1 segment. Furthermore, the strongest Periplaneta RNAiScr phenotypes develop ectopic wing-like tissue that originates from the posterior region of the prothoracic segment. This finding provides a novel insight into the current debate on the morphological origin of insect wings.

  3. Phylogeny of cockroaches (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Blattodea), with placement of aberrant taxa and exploration of out-group sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djernæs, Marie; Klass, Klaus-Dieter; Picker, Mike D.

    2012-01-01

    We addressed the phylogeny of cockroaches using DNA sequence data from a broad taxon sample of Dictyoptera and other non-endopterygotan insect orders. We paid special attention to several taxa in which relationships are controversial, or where no molecular evidence has been used previously......: Nocticolidae, a family of small, often cave-dwelling cockroaches, has been suggested to be the sister group of the predaceous Mantodea or of the cockroach family Polyphagidae; Lamproblatta, traditionally placed in Blattidae, has recently been given family status and placed as sister to Polyphagidae......; and Saltoblattella montistabularis Bohn, Picker, Klass & Colville, a jumping cockroach, which has not yet been included in any phylogenetic studies. We used mitochondrial (COI + COII and 16S) and nuclear (18S and 28S) genes, and analysed the data using Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood (ML...

  4. Cockroaches of genus Muzoa: morphology of the male genital sclerites and description of one new species (Dictyoptera, Blattodea, Ectobiidae, Nyctiborinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez-Bravo, Andrés H

    2013-01-01

    The male genital sclerites of cockroaches of genus Muzoa Hebard 1921 are described for first time and the new species Muzoa curtalata sp. n. is described and ilustrated. A dichotomous key to identify the species of genus Muzoa is given.

  5. GABAergic control of critical developmental periods for anxiety- and depression-related behavior in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuying Shen

    Full Text Available Vulnerability for anxiety and depressive disorders is thought to have origins in early life and is increasingly recognized to involve deficits in GABAergic neurotransmission. Mice that were rendered heterozygous for the γ2 subunit gene of GABA(A receptors (GABA(ARs show behavioral, cognitive, neuroendocrine and pharmacologic features expected of a mouse model of melancholic anxious depression, including reduced survival of adult-born hippocampal neurons. Here we embarked on elucidating the developmental substrate underlying this phenotype, focusing on the Elevated Plus Maze and Forced Swim Test as relevant behavioral paradigms. In a first series of experiments using hemizygous tamoxifen-induced genetic inactivation of a floxed γ2 genomic locus we show that reducing the gene dosage at postnatal days (P13/14 but not P27/28 results in altered behavior in both of these tests in adulthood, reminiscent of the anxious-depressive phenotype previously described for global heterozygous mice. However, in contrast to global heterozygous mice, the behavioral changes induced by γ2 subunit knockdown at P13/14 occurred without changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, indicating that altered neurogenesis is not an absolute prerequisite for anxiety- and depression-related behavior in this model. In a separate series of experiments using a pharmacological approach, acute but transient potentiation of GABA(ARs with diazepam uncovered distinct developmental vulnerabilities for altered behavior in the Elevated Plus Maze and Forced Swim Test, respectively. Specifically, diazepam given during P10-16 but not during later weeks resulted in increased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood, while diazepam administered during P29-35 but not earlier nor later resulted in increased immobility behavior in adulthood. We conclude that anxiety-like behavior in the Elevated Plus Maze and behavioral despair-like immobility in the Forced Swim Test are controlled by separate

  6. Immunological and nonimmunological control of severity of Trypanosoma musculi infections in C3H and C57BL/6 inbred mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, J.W.; Albright, J.F.

    1989-06-01

    Studies concerned with the mechanisms responsible for relative resistance or susceptibility of strains of inbred mice to Trypanosoma musculi infections are presented. Treatment with 400 rads of ionizing radiation, silica dust, or trypan blue (reticuloendothelial blocking agents) rendered C3H mice unable to control the initial maximum level of parasite growth, and the mice died of overwhelming infections. In contrast, similarly treated C57BL/6 (relatively resistant) mice controlled initial trypanosome growth as well as controls; however, the duration of infection, preceding eventual cure, was approximately doubled. Combined treatment with trypan blue and 400 rads of radiation resulted in much higher initial levels of infection in C57BL/6 mice, and about half of the mice died; the remaining mice eventually recovered after a prolonged course of infection. These results indicate that a nonimmunological mechanism, which controls initial infection, and an immunological mechanism cooperate to limit T. musculi infections in normal mice. We present results that suggest that both mechanisms are less effective in C3H than in C57BL/6 mice. The initial control of infection presumably reflects the activity of some type(s) of phagocytic effector cell; we show, however, that the initial control of infection is not an attribute of the liver Kupffer cells. Identification and characterization of the cells capable of controlling initial infection could lead to procedures for enhancing their function and, thus, to enhanced resistance to, and elimination of, trypanosome infections.

  7. A sodium channel mutation identified in Aedes aegypti selectively reduces cockroach sodium channel sensitivity to type I, but not type II pyrethroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaonong; Du, Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Dong, Ke

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are the primary target of pyrethroid insecticides. Numerous point mutations in sodium channel genes have been identified in pyrethroid-resistant insect species, and many have been confirmed to reduce or abolish sensitivity of channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes to pyrethroids. Recently, several novel mutations were reported in sodium channel genes of pyrethroid-resistant Aedes mosquito populations. One of the mutations is a phenylalanine (F) to cysteine (C) change in segment 6 of domain III (IIIS6) of the Aedes mosquito sodium channel. Curiously, a previous study showed that alanine substitution of this F did not alter the action of deltamethrin, a type II pyrethroid, on a cockroach sodium channel. In this study, we changed this F to C in a pyrethroid-sensitive cockroach sodium channel and examined mutant channel sensitivity to permethrin as well as five other type I or type II pyrethroids in Xenopus oocytes. Interestingly, the F to C mutation drastically reduced channel sensitivity to three type I pyrethroids, permethrin, NRDC 157 (a deltamethrin analogue lacking the α-cyano group) and bioresemthrin, but not to three type II pyrethroids, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and cyhalothrin. These results confirm the involvement of the F to C mutation in permethrin resistance, and raise the possibility that rotation of type I and type II pyrethroids might be considered in the control of insect pest populations where this particular mutation is present.

  8. MICROBIAL LOAD AND MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANCE OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM FEACES AND BODY SURFACES OF COCKROACHES IN AN URBAN AREA OF SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monsuru Adebayo Adeleke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of pathogenic bacteria isolated from the faeces and body surfaces of cockroaches in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria. The cockroaches collected from residential areas and hospital vicinities were screened for microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern using standard protocols. A total of twenty- three microorganisms namely Klebsiella aerogenes, Bacillius cereus, Proteus spp, Staphyloccocus aureus, S. saprophyticus, Enteroccocus faecalis, Staphylococus epididermis, E. coli, Listeria monoctogene, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Psuedomonas species, Seretia mensence, Candida albicans, Candida spp., Aspergilius spp., A. flavus, A. fumigates, Mucor species and Penicilium species were isolated. The microbial load of the microorganisms was significantly higher in the isolates from hospital as compared with the residential area (p<0.05 with the exception of Canidida species, Mucor and Penicillium which had higher or equal microbial load at the residential areas. All the pathogenic bacteria isolated had multiple resistance to antibiotics most importantly, Ampicillin, Augumentin, Amoxicillin and Septrin (30μg. Efforts geared towards controlling the insects will be indispensable in curbing the wide spread of multi-drug resistant pathogens in the study area.

  9. Genetic control of resistance to Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in mice.

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    Matyáš Síma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma brucei brucei infects livestock, with severe effects in horses and dogs. Mouse strains differ greatly in susceptibility to this parasite. However, no genes controlling these differences were mapped. METHODS: We studied the genetic control of survival after T. b. brucei infection using recombinant congenic (RC strains, which have a high mapping power. Each RC strain of BALB/c-c-STS/A (CcS/Dem series contains a different random subset of 12.5% genes from the parental "donor" strain STS/A and 87.5% genes from the "background" strain BALB/c. Although BALB/c and STS/A mice are similarly susceptible to T. b. brucei, the RC strain CcS-11 is more susceptible than either of them. We analyzed genetics of survival in T. b. brucei-infected F(2 hybrids between BALB/c and CcS-11. CcS-11 strain carries STS-derived segments on eight chromosomes. They were genotyped in the F(2 hybrid mice and their linkage with survival was tested by analysis of variance. RESULTS: We mapped four Tbbr (Trypanosoma brucei brucei response loci that influence survival after T. b. brucei infection. Tbbr1 (chromosome 3 and Tbbr2 (chromosome 12 have effects on survival independent of inter-genic interactions (main effects. Tbbr3 (chromosome 7 influences survival in interaction with Tbbr4 (chromosome 19. Tbbr2 is located on a segment 2.15 Mb short that contains only 26 genes. CONCLUSION: This study presents the first identification of chromosomal loci controlling susceptibility to T. b. brucei infection. While mapping in F(2 hybrids of inbred strains usually has a precision of 40-80 Mb, in RC strains we mapped Tbbr2 to a 2.15 Mb segment containing only 26 genes, which will enable an effective search for the candidate gene. Definition of susceptibility genes will improve the understanding of pathways and genetic diversity underlying the disease and may result in new strategies to overcome the active subversion of the immune system by T. b. brucei.

  10. Physicochemical conditions, metabolites and community structure of the bacterial microbiota in the gut of wood-feeding cockroaches (Blaberidae: Panesthiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Eugen; Lampert, Niclas; Mikaelyan, Aram; Köhler, Tim; Maekawa, Kiyoto; Brune, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    While the gut microbiota of termites and its role in symbiotic digestion have been studied for decades, little is known about the bacteria colonizing the intestinal tract of the distantly related wood-feeding cockroaches (Blaberidae: Panesthiinae). Here, we show that physicochemical gut conditions and microbial fermentation products in the gut of Panesthia angustipennis resemble that of other cockroaches. Microsensor measurements confirmed that all gut compartments were anoxic at the center and had a slightly acidic to neutral pH and a negative redox potential. While acetate dominated in all compartments, lactate and hydrogen accumulated only in the crop. The high, hydrogen-limited rates of methane emission from living cockroaches were in agreement with the restriction of F420-fluorescent methanogens to the hindgut. The gut microbiota of both P. angustipennis and Salganea esakii differed strongly between compartments, with the highest density and diversity in the hindgut, but similarities between homologous compartments of both cockroaches indicated a specificity of the microbiota for their respective habitats. While some lineages were most closely related to the gut microbiota of omnivorous cockroaches and wood- or litter-feeding termites, others have been encountered also in vertebrates, reinforcing the hypothesis that strong environmental selection drives community structure in the cockroach gut.

  11. Isolation of Intestinal Parasites of Public Health Importance from Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamu, Haji; Debalke, Serkadis; Zemene, Endalew; Birlie, Belay; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2014-01-01

    Cockroaches are claimed to be mechanical transmitters of disease causing microorganisms such as intestinal parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study assessed the potential of the German cockroach Blattella germanica in the mechanical transmission of intestinal parasites of public health importance. A total of 2010 cockroaches were collected from 404 households in Jimma Town, southwestern Ethiopia. All the collected cockroaches were identified to species as B. germanica. The contents of their gut and external body parts were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Overall, 152 (75.6%) of the 210 batches were found to harbor at least one species of human intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp, Strongyloides-like parasite, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovski, Giardia duodenalis and Balantidium coli were detected from gut contents. Moreover, parasites were also isolated from the external surface in 22 (10.95%) of the batches. There was significant difference in parasite carriage rate of the cockroaches among the study sites (P = 0.013). In conclusion, B. germanica was found to harbor intestinal parasites of public health importance. Hence, awareness on the potential role of cockroaches in the mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites needs to be created. Moreover, further identification of the Strongyloides-like worm is required using molecular diagnostics.

  12. Short-term food restriction followed by controlled refeeding promotes gorging behavior, enhances fat deposition, and diminishes insulin sensitivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Kara L; Ke, Jia-Yu; Lee, Hui-Young; Stout, Michael B; Cole, Rachel M; Samuel, Varman T; Shulman, Gerald I; Belury, Martha A

    2015-07-01

    Rodents are commonly used in food restriction refeeding studies to investigate weight regain. Mice that are rationed food every 24 h may consume all allocated food in a short time (gorge) and therefore undergo a brief well-fed period followed by an extended fasted period until the next day's food allotment. These exaggerated metabolic states are not typical in mice fed ad libitum (nibbling). The aim of the current study was to elucidate the intraday and cumulative metabolic consequences of gorging (induced by food restriction) in mice during controlled refeeding. Accordingly, following a temporary food restriction, mice were fed rations similar to intakes of controls fed ad libitum. Temporary food restriction initiated gorging behavior that persisted during refeeding; consequently, metabolism-related measurements were obtained in the gorging mice during their daily fed and fasted metabolic states. Robust differences in adipose tissue lipogenic and inflammatory gene expression were found in the gorging mice by metabolic state (fed versus fasted). Additionally, despite a reduced cumulative food intake compared to mice fed ad libitum, restriction-induced gorging mice had increased intraabdominal fat accumulation, diminished hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and a gene expression profile favoring lipid deposition. Our findings highlight the intraday differences in gene expression in gorging mice before and after feeding that confound comparisons with mice fed ad libitum, or nibbling. The present study also provides evidence that weight regain following food restriction is associated with cumulative metabolic and behavioral abnormalities in mice.

  13. [Mind control with optogenetic mice: exploring the causal relationships between brain activity and the mind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Ko

    2013-06-01

    Every scientific endeavor starts with observation. However, observation alone can only lead to an analysis of correlations. Experimental perturbations are required to understand the causal relationships between the components that constitute the system under study. Our current understanding of the function of the brain, which is a complex multicellular organ, suggests that communication between cells underlies the formation of the mind. This has been mainly deduced from studies of correlations between cell activity and animal behavior. Recently developed tools have enabled the specific control of cell activity. For example, light-sensitive proteins, such as channelrhodopsin-2, that are found in microorganisms can now be genetically expressed in mammalian brain cells, allowing experimenters to optically control cell activity at will. In this review, I introduce the recently established method, Knockin-mediated ENhanced Gene Expression by the improved tetracycline-controlled gene induction (KENGE-tet) method, which has generated a repertoire of transgenic mice that express levels of the highly light-sensitive channelrhodopsin-2 mutant that are sufficient to stimulate multiple cell types. In addition to neurons, manipulations of the activities of nonexcitable glial cells in vivo have also proved possible. A recent report that used the KENGE-tet has shown that the selective optogenetic stimulation of glia can lead to the release of glutamate as a gliotransmitter, synaptic plasticity, and the acceleration of cerebellar-modulated motor learning. These findings have suggested that glia also participate in brain information processing, a function once thought to be solely mediated by neuronal activity. These reports have demonstrated the use of optogenetic tools in exploring the causal relationships between brain activity and the mind.

  14. Compromised virus control and augmented perforin-mediated immunopathology in IFN-gamma-deficient mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nansen, A; Jensen, Teis; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard

    1999-01-01

    -specific TCR are adoptively transferred before virus challenge, indicating that the disease is the result of an unfortunate balance between virus replication in internal organs, e.g., liver and spleen, and the host response; resetting this balance by increasing host responsiveness will again lead to a rapidly...... in wild-type mice. Our results reveal that IFN-gamma is pivotal to T cell-mediated control of a rapidly invasive stain, whereas it is less important in the acute elimination of a slowly invasive strain. Moreover, the majority of mice infected with the rapidly invasive strain succumb to a wasting syndrome...... mediated by CD8+ effector cells. The primary effector mechanism underlying this disease is perforin-dependent lysis, but other mechanisms are also involved. Wasting disease can be prevented if naive CD8+ cells from mice transgenic for an MHC class I-restricted lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus...

  15. Fas-independent T-cell apoptosis by dendritic cells controls autoimmune arthritis in MRL/lpr mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Izawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although autoimmunity in MRL/lpr mice occurs due to a defect in Fas-mediated cell death of T cells, the role of Fas-independent apoptosis in pathogenesis has rarely been investigated. We have recently reported that receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF-κB ligand (RANKL-activated dendritic cells (DCs play a key role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA in MRL/lpr mice. We here attempted to establish a new therapeutic strategy with RANKL-activated DCs in RA by controlling apoptosis of peripheral T cells. Repeated transfer of RANKL-activated DCs into MRL/lpr mice was tested to determine whether this had a therapeutic effect on autoimmunity. METHODS AND FINDING: Cellular and molecular mechanisms of Fas-independent apoptosis of T cells induced by the DCs were investigated by in vitro and in vivo analyses. We demonstrated that repeated transfers of RANKL-activated DCs into MRL/lpr mice resulted in therapeutic effects on RA lesions and lymphoproliferation due to declines of CD4(+ T, B, and CD4(-CD8(- double negative (DN T cells. We also found that the Fas-independent T-cell apoptosis was induced by a direct interaction between tumor necrosis factor (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2 on T cells and TRAIL on Fas-deficient DCs in MRL/lpr mice. CONCLUSION: These results strongly suggest that a novel Fas-independent apoptosis pathway in T cells maintains peripheral tolerance and thus controls autoimmunity in MRL/lpr mice.

  16. Feedback controlled piezo-motor microdrive for accurate electrode positioning in chronic single unit recording in behaving mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sungwook; Cho, Jeiwon; Lee, Semin; Park, Kitae; Kim, Jinseok; Huh, Yeowool; Yoon, Eui-Sung; Shin, Hee-Sup

    2011-02-15

    The microdrive is one of the most essential tools for extracellular, single-unit recordings in freely behaving animals to detect and isolate the single-unit activities from brain regions of interest. Due to the increasing number of neuroscience research projects using genetically engineered mice, the demand for effective recording devices in freely moving mice is also increasing. Although manually and automatically operated microdrive devices are available, they are limited in terms of size, weight, accuracy, manipulability, and convenience for single-unit recording in mice. The present study proposed a novel microdrive that employs a small, lightweight piezo-motor and a magnetoresistive (MR) sensor with a closed-loop position feedback control system. The total weight of the device is 1.82 g, which is perfectly suitable for application to mice. Most importantly, the proposed microdrive is capable of monitoring and adjusting electrode movement on-line by integrating a closed-loop feedback control system, which enhances the accuracy of micro-advancement of the electrode by utilizing position feedback. The performance of this newly developed microdrive was extensively evaluated for both mechanical and physiological concerns at both free-loading and various-loading conditions, including agarose gel matrix and then the hippocampus and thalamus of mice. In summary, this proposed microdrive can enhance the quality of recording single unit activities in freely moving mice in terms of the size and weight of the device, the convenience and accuracy of manipulation, and, most of all, in isolating single neurons and recording stability by providing accurate positioning of an electrode.

  17. Excitation and inhibition compete to control spiking during hippocampal ripples: intracellular study in behaving mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Daniel F; Peyrache, Adrien; Stark, Eran; Roux, Lisa; Vallentin, Daniela; Long, Michael A; Buzsáki, György

    2014-12-01

    High-frequency ripple oscillations, observed most prominently in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal layer, are associated with memory consolidation. The cellular and network mechanisms underlying the generation of the rhythm and the recruitment of spikes from pyramidal neurons are still poorly understood. Using intracellular, sharp electrode recordings in freely moving, drug-free mice, we observed consistent large depolarizations in CA1 pyramidal cells during sharp wave ripples, which are associated with ripple frequency fluctuation of the membrane potential ("intracellular ripple"). Despite consistent depolarization, often exceeding pre-ripple spike threshold values, current pulse-induced spikes were strongly suppressed, indicating that spiking was under the control of concurrent shunting inhibition. Ripple events were followed by a prominent afterhyperpolarization and spike suppression. Action potentials during and outside ripples were orthodromic, arguing against ectopic spike generation, which has been postulated by computational models of ripple generation. These findings indicate that dendritic excitation of pyramidal neurons during ripples is countered by shunting of the membrane and postripple silence is mediated by hyperpolarizing inhibition.

  18. Controlled cortical impact before or after fear conditioning does not affect fear extinction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Mercado, Demetrio; McAllister, Lauren M; Lee, Christopher C H; Milad, Mohammed R; Eskandar, Emad N; Whalen, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized in part by impaired extinction of conditioned fear. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is thought to be a risk factor for development of PTSD. We tested the hypothesis that controlled cortical impact (CCI) would impair extinction of fear learned by Pavlovian conditioning, in mice. To mimic the scenarios in which TBI occurs prior to or after exposure to an aversive event, severe CCI was delivered to the left parietal cortex at one of two time points: (1) Prior to fear conditioning, or (2) after conditioning. Delay auditory conditioning was achieved by pairing a tone with a foot shock in "context A". Extinction training involved the presentation of tones in a different context (context B) in the absence of foot shock. Test for extinction memory was achieved by presentation of additional tones alone in context B over the following two days. In pre- or post-injury paradigms, CCI did not influence fear learning and extinction. Furthermore, CCI did not affect locomotor activity or elevated plus maze testing. Our results demonstrate that, within the time frame studied, CCI does not impair the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear or extinction memory.

  19. ANALYSIS ON THE COCKROACH FAUNA TRAITS OF WUXI FROM 2006 TO 2009%无锡市2006~2009年蜚蠊群落特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈元; 陈继平; 兰策介; 杨维芳

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解无锡市蜚蠊群落的动态特征.为灭蟑工作控制提供依据.[方法]采用粘蟑纸法从2006-2009年对全市5种环境类型中的蜚蠊进行连续监测,并对监测结果进行统计分析.[结果]2006-2009年无锡市蜚蠊密度和侵害率的平均值分别为1.44只/张和23.75%,种类主要为德国小蠊、美洲大蠊和黑胸大蠊,其中德国小蠊为绝对优势种.蜚蠊常年都有发生,其中7-10月为密度高、活动频繁,密度、侵害率与气温显著相关(P<0.01).经群落相似性分析(Similarity=-85%,Stress=0.06),5种环境类型分为两组,第1组为农贸市场、餐饮店和宾馆,蜚蠊密度与侵害率都较高;第2组为医院和居民住房,蜚蠊密度与侵害率都较低.[结论]德国小蠊是无锡市灭蟑的主要种类,农贸市场、餐饮店和宾馆是开展灭蟑工作的主要环境类型.%[Objective] To know the changing traits of cockroach in Wuxi, and get information for cockroach control.[Methods ] Sticky trap method was used to monitor the cockroach in 5 habitat types from 2006 to 2009, and analyzed monitoring data. [ Results] From 2006 to 2009, the mean value of cockroach density and infestation rate was 1.44 (ind/p) and 23.75% , respecitvely. Cockroach fauna was composed of Blattella germaruca, Periplaneta amencana and P. fuliginosa. B. germanica was the absolutely dominant species. Cockroach could be trapped every month. The high density and frequent movement period was from July to October. Density and infertation rate had significant association with air temperature (P < 0.01). 5 habitat types were divided into 2 groups by fauna similarity analysis ( Similarity=85% , Stress=0.06). The first group was composed of farm produce market, eating house and hotel, and had high density and infestation rate. The second group contained hospital and houses, and had low density and infestation rate. [Conclusion] B. germanica was the firstly species to control. The farm produce market

  20. Cockroach density and invasion situation in 2010 of Mianyang City%绵阳市2010年蜚蠊种群密度及侵害现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒亚; 谭刚; 郑幸福; 史映红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the cockroaches invasion situation in Mianyang City, and provide scientific basis for cockroaches control. Method According to Vector biological monitoring scheme in China and 2010 vector biological monitoring implementation scheme of Mianyang. Selecting Daximen district, Youxian district and Gaoshui district as monitoring points, and cockroaches densities were detected by sticky traps method. Results They were 3 kinds of cockroaches in Mianyang, they were Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana and smoky brown cockroach, the proportions of them were 96. 18, 2.09% and 1. 73% , respectively. Blattella germanica was the dominant species. The density of cockroaches in farm products markets was 0. 85, in repast was 0. 87, hospital was 0. 11, hotel was 0. 23, dweller house was 0. 28. The repasts density was the highest The infestation rate in farm products markets was 16. 36% , catering trade was 9. 30% , hospital was 6. 38% , hotel was 4. 72% , dweller houses was 2. 62% , the infestation rate of farm products markets was the highest Conclusions Grasping the cockroaches density in Mianyang could provide scientific basis for developing comprehensiveness prevention control measures.%目的 通过了解绵阳市蜚蠊侵害情况,为防治蜚蠊提供科学的方法.方法 按照《全国病媒生物监测方案》和《绵阳市2010年病媒生物监测实施方案》,选取大西门片区、游仙片区和高水片区设置监测点,采用粘捕法测定蜚蠊密度.结果 绵阳市蜚蠊主要有德国小蠊、美洲大蠊和黑胸大蠊,分别占96.18%、2.09%和1.73%,德国小蠊为优势种.各类生境蜚蠊密度分别为农贸市场0.85只/张、餐饮0.87只/张、医院0.11只/张、宾馆0.23只/张、居民区0.28只/张,餐饮密度最高.各类生境蜚蠊侵害率分别为农贸市场的16.36%、餐饮占9.30%、医院占6.38%、宾馆占4.72%、居民区占2.62%,农贸市场侵害率最高.结论 掌握绵阳市

  1. The homeodomain-containing transcription factors Arx and Pax4 control enteroendocrine subtype specification in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Beucher

    Full Text Available Intestinal hormones are key regulators of digestion and energy homeostasis secreted by rare enteroendocrine cells. These cells produce over ten different hormones including GLP-1 and GIP peptides known to promote insulin secretion. To date, the molecular mechanisms controlling the specification of the various enteroendocrine subtypes from multipotent Neurog3(+ endocrine progenitor cells, as well as their number, remain largely unknown. In contrast, in the embryonic pancreas, the opposite activities of Arx and Pax4 homeodomain transcription factors promote islet progenitor cells towards the different endocrine cell fates. In this study, we thus investigated the role of Arx and Pax4 in enteroendocrine subtype specification. The small intestine and colon of Arx- and Pax4-deficient mice were analyzed using histological, molecular, and lineage tracing approaches. We show that Arx is expressed in endocrine progenitors (Neurog3(+ and in early differentiating (ChromograninA(- GLP-1-, GIP-, CCK-, Sct- Gastrin- and Ghrelin-producing cells. We noted a dramatic reduction or a complete loss of all these enteroendocrine cell types in Arx mutants. Serotonin- and Somatostatin-secreting cells do not express Arx and, accordingly, the differentiation of Serotonin cells was not affected in Arx mutants. However, the number of Somatostatin-expressing D-cells is increased as Arx-deficient progenitor cells are redirected to the D-cell lineage. In Pax4-deficient mice, the differentiation of Serotonin and Somatostatin cells is impaired, as well as of GIP and Gastrin cells. In contrast, the number of GLP-1 producing L-cells is increased concomitantly with an upregulation of Arx. Thus, while Arx and Pax4 are necessary for the development of L- and D-cells respectively, they conversely restrict D- and L-cells fates suggesting antagonistic functions in D/L cell allocation. In conclusion, these finding demonstrate that, downstream of Neurog3, the specification of a subset of

  2. Dietary cystine level affects metabolic rate and glycaemic control in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshorbagy, Amany K; Church, Chris; Valdivia-Garcia, Maria; Smith, A David; Refsum, Helga; Cox, Roger

    2012-04-01

    Plasma total cysteine (tCys) is strongly and independently associated with obesity in large human cohorts, but whether the association is causal is unknown. Dietary cyst(e)ine increases weight gain in some rodent models. We investigated the body composition, metabolic rate and metabolic phenotype of mature C3H/HeH mice assigned to low-cystine (LC) or high-cystine (HC) diets for 12 weeks. Compared to LC mice, HC mice gained more weight (P=.004 for 12-week weight gain %), with increased fat mass and lean mass, and lowered O₂ consumption and CO₂ production by calorimetry. The HC mice had 30% increase in intestinal fat/body weight % (P=.003) and ∼twofold elevated hepatic triglycerides (P=.046), with increased expression of hepatic lipogenic factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1. Gene expression of both basal and catecholamine-stimulated lipolytic enzymes, adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase was inhibited in HC mice adipose tissue. The HC mice also had elevated fasting glucose (7.0 vs. 4.5 mmol/L, Pcystine intake promotes adiposity and an adverse metabolic phenotype in mice, indicating that the positive association of plasma tCys with obesity in humans may be causal.

  3. Characterization of the juvenile hormone pathway in the viviparous cockroach, Diploptera punctata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Huang

    Full Text Available Juvenile hormones (JHs are key regulators of insect development and reproduction. The JH biosynthetic pathway is known to involve 13 discrete enzymatic steps. In the present study, we have characterized the JH biosynthetic pathway in the cockroach Diploptera punctata. The effect of exogenous JH precursors on JH biosynthesis was also determined. Based on sequence similarity, orthologs for the genes directly involved in the pathway were cloned, and their spatial and temporal transcript profiles were determined. The effect of shutting down the JH pathway in adult female cockroaches was studied by knocking down genes encoding HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR and Juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT. As a result, oocyte development slowed as a consequence of reduction in JH biosynthesis. Oocyte length, fat body transcription of Vg and ovarian vitellin content significantly decreased. In addition, silencing HMGR and JHAMT resulted in a decrease in the transcript levels of other genes in the pathway.

  4. Ovicidal activity of noviflumuron when fed to adult German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J Edward

    2005-06-01

    Ovicidal activity of the benzoylphenylurea noviflumuron was evaluated in the laboratory on three adult groups (virgin females, virgin males, and fertilized, nongravid females) of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), through ingestion of treated bait. Novifumuron caused significant ovicidal effects at concentrations ranging from 10 to 5000 ppm after 5-d feeding exposure to virgin and fertilized females. Untreated females produced little or no viable oothecae when mated with virgin males that had previously ingested bait (5-d exposure) with 1000 ppm or 5000 ppm noviflumuron. The highest tested concentration of noviflumuron (5000 ppm) caused 100% ovicidal activity through two ovarian cycles for all three adult groups. Noviflumuron seems to have broader ovicidal activity against B. germanica than reported for other benzoylphenylurea insecticides and can potentially impact cockroach populations through a combination of nymphal mortality and ovicidal activity.

  5. Energetic Cost of Subacute Chlorpyrifos Intoxication in the German Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Kristensen, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The energetic cost of a sublethal treatment with chlorpyrifos was estimated by use of direct microcalorimetry to measure metabolic heat in susceptible and resistant strains of the German cockroach Blattella germanica L. Moreover, one of the detoxifcation enzyme systems known to be involved...... in detoxifcation of chlorpyrifos, glutathione-S-transferase, was measured. Individual cockroaches were exposed for 20 min on a glass-surfaces treated with 1.14 ...  g/cm2 of chlorpyrifos. There was no difference in glutathione-S-transferase activity of susceptible or resistant strains after the treatment. The heat...... production increased in the susceptible strain ...  30 min after exposure and declined again after ... 120 min to the basal level. The energetic cost of the exposure to the insecticide corresponds ... 5 h of normal metabolism. There were no signifcant differences in heat production after toxic treatment...

  6. [Characteristics of bacteria isolated from body surface of German cockroaches caught in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajka, Ewa; Pancer, Katarzyna; Kochman, Maria; Gliniewicz, Aleksandra; Sawicka, Bozena; Rabczenko, Daniel; Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify bacterial flora from external parts of German cockroaches caught in hospitals. The susceptibility of the bacteria to the most important groups of antimicrobial agents was also examined. 80 strains of bacteria were isolated, among them 34 strains of Gram-positive cocci and 31 strains of Gram-negative rods. One of isolated strains of Citrobacter freundii and two strains of Serratia liquefaciens showed ESBL mechanism of resistance and extended level of AmpC--type beta-lactamases. Two Staphylococcus strains (S. epidermidis and S. equorum) were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin (MLSB mechanism of resistance). Such strains, resistant to antibiotics and chemiotherapeutics may be reservoirs of resistance genes which can be transmitted into other bacteria. Presence of such pathogens on the body surface of German cockroaches, very mobile insects, might create conditions for easy dissemination of them in hospital environment.

  7. Domiciliary cockroaches found in restaurants in five zones of Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory, peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, J; Sulaiman, S; Oothuman, P; Vellayan, S; Zainol-Ariffin, P; Paramaswaran, S; Razak, A; Muslimin, M; Kamil-Ali, O B; Rohela, M; Abdul-Aziz, N M

    2012-03-01

    The following domiciliary cockroaches were collected from restaurants in five zones of Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory, Malaysia using 1L glass beaker traps baited with ground mouse-pellets: Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) (n = 820), Periplaneta brunnea Burmeister (n = 46), Blattella germanica (Linnaeus) (n = 12504), Supella longipalpa (Fabricius) (n = 321), Symploce pallens Stephens (n = 29) and Neostylopyga rhombifolia (Stoll) (n = 5). The following bacteria were isolated from 10 cockroach specimens: Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. rhinoscleromatis and Serratia liquefaciens from 5 B. germanica; Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, Citrobacter diversus/amalonaticus, Escherichia vulneris and K.p. pneumoniae from 3 P. brunnea; and Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans 4, Escherichia adecarboxylate, E. vulneris, K. p. pneumonia, K. p. rhinoscleromatis and Proteus vulgeris from 2 P. americana.

  8. Diversity of Trypanosomatids in Cockroaches and the Description of Herpetomonas tarakana sp. n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Vyacheslav; Kostygov, Alexei; Havlová, Jolana; Grybchuk-Ieremenko, Anastasiia; Ševčíková, Tereza; Lukeš, Julius; Ševčík, Jan; Votýpka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we surveyed six species of cockroaches, two synanthropic (i.e. ecologically associated with humans) and four wild, for intestinal trypanosomatid infections. Only the wild cockroach species were found to be infected, with flagellates of the genus Herpetomonas. Two distinct genotypes were documented, one of which was described as a new species, Herpetomonas tarakana sp. n. We also propose a revision of the genus Herpetomonas and creation of a new subfamily, Phytomonadinae, to include Herpetomonas, Phytomonas, and a newly described genus Lafontella n. gen. (type species Lafontella mariadeanei comb. n.), which can be distinguished from others by morphological and molecular traits. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  9. Genetic control of responses to Trypanosoma cruzi in mice: multiple genes influencing parasitemia and survival.

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    Inbred strains of mice can be divided into two groups based on the level of parasitemia which develops after injection with 10(3) trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (Peru). Strains which developed parasitemias of greater than 10(7) trypomastigotes per ml by day 17, including C3H/HeJ, BALB/c, and CBA/N mice, were termed high parasitemia strains. Low parasitemia strains, including C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice, developed parasitemias of less than 5 x 10(6) trypomastigotes per ml by day 17 of infec...

  10. Cross-reactivity between cockroach and ladybug using the radioallergosorbent test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Matthew T; Levin, Todd; Dolen, William

    2009-11-01

    Home infestations from Harmonia axyridis (ladybug) occur throughout the United States. IgE-mediated sensitization with allergic disease has been reported. The prevalence of ladybug sensitization has been studied by questionnaire and allergy testing in patients diagnosed as having allergic disease. Cross-reactivity with cockroach exists. To determine the prevalence of ladybug specific IgE in the general population by specific IgE immunoassay and to examine cross-reactivity to cockroach. An experimental solid phase for use in immunoassay was prepared using a ladybug extract, and performance characteristics were determined. Serum samples from 100 adult blood bank donors were tested using the ladybug specific IgE immunoassay. Known ladybug IgE-positive serum samples obtained from symptomatic patients were used to study crossreactivity with German cockroach by specific IgE immunoassay inhibition. The mean background response of the assay solid phase was 51 fluorescent units with an analytical cutoff of 59 fluorescent units. It was estimated that a response of 88 fluorescent units corresponds to a specific IgE concentration of 0.1 kUa/L. The extinction dilution curve was linear to 0.1 kUa/L. The assay cutoff was set at 0.1 kUa/L. Of the 100 blood donor serum samples, 10 were positive for ladybug specific IgE. Inhibition assays revealed partial cross-reactivity with German cockroach. Although an immunoassay solid phase prepared with ladybug whole body extract will identify persons in a general population sensitized to epitopes found in the extract, clinicians performing allergy testing using whole body ladybug extract should be aware that a positive result may or may not indicate that exposure to actual ladybug allergens is causing sensitization.

  11. "I Go to Get Away from the Cockroaches:" Educentricity and the Politics of Education in Prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Talking to young men in an Irish prison we discover that cockroaches are a day to day fact of life. We discuss how best to deal with them and someone says that while in [name of prison] he used to put his socks over the bottom of his jeans so that they wouldn't be able to run up his trousers while he was asleep. Someone else tells me he used to…

  12. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis and Detection of Antimicrobial Peptides of the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Woo Kim

    Full Text Available Cockroaches are surrogate hosts for microbes that cause many human diseases. In spite of their generally destructive nature, cockroaches have recently been found to harbor potentially beneficial and medically useful substances such as drugs and allergens. However, genomic information for the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana is currently unavailable; therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling is needed as an important resource to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms of this species, which would be particularly useful for the selection of novel antimicrobial peptides. Thus, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of P. americana that were or were not immunized with Escherichia coli. Using an Illumina HiSeq sequencer, we generated a total of 9.5 Gb of sequences, which were assembled into 85,984 contigs and functionally annotated using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST, Gene Ontology (GO, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database terms. Finally, using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method, 86 antimicrobial peptide candidates were predicted from the transcriptome, and 21 of these peptides were experimentally validated for their antimicrobial activity against yeast and gram positive and -negative bacteria by a radial diffusion assay. Notably, 11 peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against these organisms and displayed little or no cytotoxic effects in the hemolysis and cell viability assay. This work provides prerequisite baseline data for the identification and development of novel antimicrobial peptides, which is expected to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of innate immunity in similar species.

  13. Lack of repellency of three commercial ultrasonic devices to the German cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANGNENG HUANG; BHADRIRAJU SUBRAMANYAM

    2006-01-01

    Three commercial ultrasonic devices (A, B, and C) were tested for their ability to repel the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), in Plexiglas(R) enclosures. Device A generated peak frequencies at 26 kHz and 34 kHz, and produced a 95 ± 1 dB sound pressure level (SPL) at 50 cm distance (0 dB = 20 log10[20 μPa/20μPa]). Device B generated peak frequencies at 27 kHz and 35 kHz, and produced a 92 ±4 dB SPL. Device C generated a wide range of frequencies between 28-42 kHz and produced an 88 ± 2 dB SPL. Ultrasound from any of the three devices did not demonstrate sufficient repelling ability against the German cockroach in the tests. The result failed to provide evidence that ultrasonic technology could be used as an effective pest management tool to repel or eliminate the German cockroach.

  14. Analysis of Cockroach Fauna and Frequency in Human Residential Habitats of North of Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani R.1 PhD,

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims Considering the medical significance of cockroaches as insect vectors of food toxicities, and triggering allergy in respiratory system and skin, this survey was conducted to study the frequency of infestation and their effective factors in Shahin Shahr, Iran. Materials & Methods This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in 2010 in Shahin Shahr, Isfahan, Iran. Data gathering instrument was a researcher-made questionnaire regarding to the research aims. Data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5 software using Chi square and Fisher exact tests. Findings 675 of 1000 studied houses (67.5% were infested by all life stages of the cockroaches and 32.5% had no infestation. 46% of infested houses had few, 30% had medium and 24% had high infestation. the bathrooms and toilets were recognized as the most infested places (41%. There were significant relationships between infestation of houses and the age of building (p<0.001, the type of building (p=0.009 and the education level of the family (p<0.001. Significant difference was found between houses equipped their doors and windows by tulles and without tulles (p=0.03. Most infection was found in houses sheltering 5 and more people (72.3%. Significant correlation was found between the infection and the number of family members (p=0.0012. Conclusion Infestation rate of cockroaches in Shahin Shahr houses is high and is mostly of P. americana species.

  15. Evolutionary convergence and nitrogen metabolism in Blattabacterium strain Bge, primary endosymbiont of the cockroach Blattella germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, Maria J; Neef, Alexander; Peretó, Juli; Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Pignatelli, Miguel; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

    2009-11-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts of insects play a central role in upgrading the diet of their hosts. In certain cases, such as aphids and tsetse flies, endosymbionts complement the metabolic capacity of hosts living on nutrient-deficient diets, while the bacteria harbored by omnivorous carpenter ants are involved in nitrogen recycling. In this study, we describe the genome sequence and inferred metabolism of Blattabacterium strain Bge, the primary Flavobacteria endosymbiont of the omnivorous German cockroach Blattella germanica. Through comparative genomics with other insect endosymbionts and free-living Flavobacteria we reveal that Blattabacterium strain Bge shares the same distribution of functional gene categories only with Blochmannia strains, the primary Gamma-Proteobacteria endosymbiont of carpenter ants. This is a remarkable example of evolutionary convergence during the symbiotic process, involving very distant phylogenetic bacterial taxa within hosts feeding on similar diets. Despite this similarity, different nitrogen economy strategies have emerged in each case. Both bacterial endosymbionts code for urease but display different metabolic functions: Blochmannia strains produce ammonia from dietary urea and then use it as a source of nitrogen, whereas Blattabacterium strain Bge codes for the complete urea cycle that, in combination with urease, produces ammonia as an end product. Not only does the cockroach endosymbiont play an essential role in nutrient supply to the host, but also in the catabolic use of amino acids and nitrogen excretion, as strongly suggested by the stoichiometric analysis of the inferred metabolic network. Here, we explain the metabolic reasons underlying the enigmatic return of cockroaches to the ancestral ammonotelic state.

  16. Computational optimization for S-type biological systems: cockroach genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shinq-Jen; Wu, Cheng-Tao

    2013-10-01

    S-type biological systems (S-systems) are demonstrated to be universal approximations of continuous biological systems. S-systems are easy to be generalized to large systems. The systems are identified through data-driven identification techniques (cluster-based algorithms or computational methods). However, S-systems' identification is challenging because multiple attractors exist in such highly nonlinear systems. Moreover, in some biological systems the interactive effect cannot be neglected even the interaction order is small. Therefore, learning should be focused on increasing the gap between the true and redundant interaction. In addition, a wide searching space is necessary because no prior information is provided. The used technologies should have the ability to achieve convergence enhancement and diversity preservation. Cockroaches live in nearly all habitats and survive for more than 300 million years. In this paper, we mimic cockroaches' competitive swarm behavior and integrated it with advanced evolutionary operations. The proposed cockroach genetic algorithm (CGA) possesses strong snatching-food ability to rush forward to a target and high migration ability to escape from local minimum. CGA was tested with three small-scale systems, a twenty-state medium-scale system and a thirty-state large-scale system. A wide search space ([0,100] for rate constants and [-100,100] for kinetic orders) with random or bad initial starts are used to show the high exploration performance.

  17. Parent and halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in farmed cockroaches and implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Lin; Wang, Yan-Bing; Zeng, Hui; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal insects have been widely used to cure human diseases for ages. Nevertheless, knowledge about the toxic chemicals accumulated in medicinal insects and their effects on human health was insufficient. In the present study, sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nine halogenated PAHs (HPAHs) were determined in farmed medicinal cockroaches to address this issue. Total concentrations of PAHs in young nymphs, old nymphs, and adults ranged from 162 to 1025, 252 to 967, and 267 to 1168 ng/g, respectively. Levels of the sum of HPAHs varied from 0.84 to 9.17, 1.86 to 5.21, and 1.01 to 8.60 ng/g for young nymphs, old nymphs, and adults, respectively. The daily intake and excess cancer risk of PAHs and HPAHs were calculated for people who take cockroach-related drugs. Our results indicated that females and children have slightly higher exposure levels from the perspectives of gender and age, respectively. The estimated excess cancer risk of PAHs and HPAHs were both lower than the priority risk level (10(-4)), indicating a low potential carcinogenic risk with the medicinal cockroach consumption.

  18. Cockroaches that exchange respiratory gases discontinuously survive food and water restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpf, Natalie G; Matthews, Philip G D; White, Craig R

    2012-02-01

    Metabolic rate and respiratory gas exchange patterns vary significantly both between and within species, even after a number of biotic and abiotic factors are taken into account. This suggests that such variation is of evolutionary importance, but the life history implications of this variation remain relatively poorly characterized. In the present study, we examine the effect of metabolic variation on starvation and desiccation resistance in the speckled cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea. We also compare the starvation and desiccation resistance of individuals that exchange respiratory gases continuously with those that breathe discontinuously. We show that metabolic rate has no effect on survival during food and water restriction, but cockroaches exhibiting discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) live longer than those that do not and those provisioned with water lived longer than those that were not. This finding represents the first demonstration that DGCs confer a fitness benefit, and supports the oldest hypothesis for the evolution of DGCs (which suggests that DGCs arose or are maintained to reduce respiratory water loss) as we also reveal reduced water loss (both respiratory and total) in cockroaches exhibiting discontinuous gas exchange. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Effect of shear forces and ageing on the compliance of adhesive pads in adult cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanmin; Robinson, Adam; Viney, Christine; Federle, Walter

    2015-09-01

    The flexibility of insect adhesive pads is crucial for their ability to attach on rough surfaces. Here, we used transparent substrates with micropillars to test in adult cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea) whether and how the stiffness of smooth adhesive pads changes when shear forces are applied, and whether the insect's age has any influence. We found that during pulls towards the body, the pad's ability to conform to the surface microstructures was improved in comparison to a contact without shear, suggesting that shear forces make the pad more compliant. The mechanism underlying this shear-dependent increase in compliance is still unclear. The effect was not explained by viscoelastic creep, changes in normal pressure, or shear-induced pad rolling, which brings new areas of cuticle into surface contact. Adhesive pads were significantly stiffer in older cockroaches. Stiffness increased most rapidly in cockroaches aged between 2.5 and 4 months. This increase is probably based on wear and repair of the delicate adhesive cuticle. Recent wear (visualised by Methylene Blue staining) was not age dependent, whereas permanent damage (visible as brown scars) accumulated with age, reducing the pads' flexibility. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. New predatory cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria: Manipulatoridae fam.n.) from the Upper Cretaceous Myanmar amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vršanský, Peter; Bechly, Günter

    2015-04-01

    We describe a new extinct lineage Manipulatoridae (new family) of cockroaches from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) amber of Myanmar. Manipulator modificaputis gen. et sp. n. is a morphologically unique extinct cockroach that represents the first (of a total of 29 known worldwide) cockroach family reported exclusively from the Myanmar amber. This family represents an early side branch of the stem group of Mantodea (most probably a sister group of Eadiidae within Blattaria/Corydioidea) because it has some synapomorphies with the Mantodea (including the stem group and Eadiidae). This family also retains symplesiomorphies that exclude a position in the crown group, and furthermore has unique autapomorphies that exclude a position as a direct ancestor of Mantodea. The unique adaptations such as strongly elongated extremities and freely movable head on a long neck suggest that these animals were pursuit predators. Five additional specimens (including two immatures) reported from the Myanmar amber suggest that this group was relatively rare but belonged to the indigenous and autochthonous inhabitants of the ancient amber forest of the Myanmar region.

  1. Functional symbiosis and communication in microbial ecosystems. The case of wood-eating termites and cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlanga, Mercedes

    2015-09-01

    Animal hosts typically have strong specificity for microbial symbionts and their functions. The symbiotic relationships have enhanced the limited metabolic networks of most eukaryotes by contributing several prokaryotic metabolic capabilities, such as methanogenesis, chemolithoautotrophy, nitrogen assimilation, etc. This review will examine the characteristics that determine bacterial "fidelity" to certain groups of animals (e.g., xylophagous insects, such as termites and cockroaches) over generations and throughout evolution. The hindgut bacteria of wood-feeding termites and cockroaches belong to several phyla, including Proteobacteria, especially Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinomycetes, Spirochetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Actinobacteria, as detected by 16S rRNA. Termites effectively feed on many types of lignocelluloses assisted by their gut microbial symbionts. Although the community structures differ between the hosts (termites and cockroaches), with changes in the relative abundances of particular bacterial taxa, the composition of the bacterial community could reflect at least in part the host evolution in that the microbiota may derive from the microbiota of a common ancestor. Therefore, factors other than host phylogeny, such as diet could have had strong influence in shaping the bacterial community structure. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  2. When males whistle at females: complex FM acoustic signals in cockroaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Jérôme; Aubin, Thierry

    2006-10-01

    Male cockroaches of the species Elliptorhina chopardi expel air through a pair of modified abdominal spiracles during courtship. This air expulsion simultaneously produces air and substrate-borne vibrations. We described and compared in details these two types of vibrations. Our analysis of the air-borne signals shows that males can produce three categories of signals with distinct temporal and frequency parameters. “Pure whistles” consist of two independent harmonic series fast frequency modulated with independent harmonics that can cross each other. “Noisy whistles” also possess two independent voices but include a noisy broad-band frequency part in the middle. Hiss sounds are more noise-like, being made of a broad-band frequency spectrum. All three call types are unusually high in dominant frequency (>5 kHz) for cockroaches. The substrate-borne signals are categorised similarly. Some harmonics of the substrate-borne signals were filtered out, however, making the acoustic energy centered on fewer frequency bands. Our analysis shows that cockroach signals are complex, with fast frequency modulations and two distinct voices. These results also readdress the question of what system could potentially receive and decode the information contained within such complex sounds.

  3. Pushing versus pulling: division of labour between tarsal attachment pads in cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Christofer J; Federle, Walter

    2008-06-07

    Adhesive organs on the legs of arthropods and vertebrates are strongly direction dependent, making contact only when pulled towards the body but detaching when pushed away from it. Here we show that the two types of attachment pads found in cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea), tarsal euplantulae and pretarsal arolium, serve fundamentally different functions. Video recordings of vertical climbing revealed that euplantulae are almost exclusively engaged with the substrate when legs are pushing, whereas arolia make contact when pulling. Thus, upward-climbing cockroaches used front leg arolia and hind leg euplantulae, whereas hind leg arolia and front leg euplantulae were engaged during downward climbing. Single-leg friction force measurements showed that the arolium and euplantulae have an opposite direction dependence. Euplantulae achieved maximum friction when pushed distally, whereas arolium forces were maximal during proximal pulls. This direction dependence was not explained by the variation of shear stress but by different contact areas during pushing or pulling. The changes in contact area result from the arrangement of the flexible tarsal chain, tending to detach the arolium when pushing and to peel off euplantulae when in tension. Our results suggest that the euplantulae in cockroaches are not adhesive organs but 'friction pads', mainly providing the necessary traction during locomotion.

  4. 不同车型旅客列车蜚蠊分布及密度调查%Cockroach distribution and density on different types of passenger trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 贺毅宏

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解新形势下不同车型旅客列车蜚蠊的生活习性及分布特点,为旅客列车更有效地进行蜚蠊综合防治提供依据.方法 采用药激法喷洒,10 min后检查爬出或击倒的蜚蠊数,计算蜚蠊侵害率及平均密度.结果 旅客列车蜚蠊侵害率平均为27.7%,其中22系列(45.5%)>25B(37.7%)>25G(24.2%)>SYZ25B(16.7%)>25K(7.4%),CA(90.0%)>YZ(32.3%)>YW(17.1%)>RW(5.0%).蜚蠊平均密度为2.51只/辆,其中22系列(4.58只/辆)>25B(3.75只/辆)>25G(2.01只/辆)>SYZ25B(1.17只/辆)>25K(0.43只/辆),CA(6.35只/辆)>YZ(3.51只/辆)>YW(1.30只/辆)>RW(0.15只/辆).蜚蠊栖息部位主要在车厢的四个角落、乘务室、储藏间、冰箱电机旁及灶底通风口和配电室等处,洗脸间灯箱、厢顶通气口出现蜚蠊并呈聚集状态.结论 旅客列车蜚蠊侵害严重,蜚蠊分布发生改变,洗脸间灯箱、厢顶通气口、中铺等高部位出现蜚蠊,不同车型有差别.灭蠊时需注意这些部位及配电室等隐蔽处,可采取喷雾、胶饵等方式.%Objective To determine the habits and distribution patterns of cockroaches on different types of passenger trains for effective cockroach prevention and control life in these environments. Methods The number of cockroaches crawling out or knocked off in 10 minutes after pesticide spray was recorded to calculate the infestation rate and average density. Results The average infestation rate was 27.7%, as shown in descending order as follows: Series 22 (45.5%)>25B (37.7%)>25G (24.2%) >SYZ25B (16.7%)>25K (7.4%) and CA (90.0%)>YZ (32.3%)>YW (17.1%)>RW (5.0%). The average density was 2.51 roach per compartment, as shown in descending order as follows: Series 22 (4.58)>25B (3.75)>25G (2.01)>SYZ25B (1.17)>25K (0.43) and CA (6.35)>YZ (3.51)>YW (1.30)>RW (0.15). The perching positions were mainly the four corners of a compartment,the crew room, the storage room, the electric motor of refrigerator

  5. IFNγ and perforin cooperate to control infection and prevent fatal pathology during persistent gammaherpesvirus infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Christina; Høgh-Petersen, Mette; Storm, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    Infection with murine gammaherpes virus 68 has become an accepted model for studying the virus/host interactions with regard to gammaherpes virus infections. Previous studies using gene deficient mice have revealed that neither IFNγ nor perforin are essential in controlling the course of infectio...... is tipped in favour of the virus causing chronic immune activation and fatal disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  6. Distinct temporal and anatomical distributions of amyloid-β and tau abnormalities following controlled cortical impact in transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hien T Tran

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major environmental risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Intracellular accumulations of amyloid-β and tau proteins have been observed within hours following severe TBI in humans. Similar abnormalities have been recapitulated in young 3xTg-AD mice subjected to the controlled cortical impact model (CCI of TBI and sacrificed at 24 h and 7 days post injury. This study investigated the temporal and anatomical distributions of amyloid-β and tau abnormalities from 1 h to 24 h post injury in the same model. Intra-axonal amyloid-β accumulation in the fimbria was detected as early as 1 hour and increased monotonically over 24 hours following injury. Tau immunoreactivity in the fimbria and amygdala had a biphasic time course with peaks at 1 hour and 24 hours, while tau immunoreactivity in the contralateral CA1 rose in a delayed fashion starting at 12 hours after injury. Furthermore, rapid intra-axonal amyloid-β accumulation was similarly observed post controlled cortical injury in APP/PS1 mice, another transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Acute increases in total and phospho-tau immunoreactivity were also evident in single transgenic Tau(P301L mice subjected to controlled cortical injury. These data provide further evidence for the causal effects of moderately severe contusional TBI on acceleration of acute Alzheimer-related abnormalities and the independent relationship between amyloid-β and tau in this setting.

  7. Identification and characterization of uncoupling protein 4 in fat body and muscle mitochondria from the cockroach Gromphadorhina cocquereliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocinska, Malgorzata; Antos-Krzeminska, Nina; Rosinski, Grzegorz; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2011-12-01

    We have identified and characterized an uncoupling protein in mitochondria isolated from leg muscle and from fat body, an insect analogue tissue of mammalian liver and adipose tissue, of the cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana (GcUCP). This is the first functional characterization of UCP activity in isolated insect mitochondria. Bioenergetic studies clearly indicate UCP function in both insect tissues. In resting (non-phosphorylating) mitochondria, cockroach GcUCP activity was stimulated by the addition of micromolar concentrations of palmitic acid and inhibited by the purine nucleotide GTP. Moreover, in phosphorylating mitochondria, GcUCP activity was able to divert energy from oxidative phosphorylation. Functional studies indicate a higher activity of GcUCP-mediated uncoupling in cockroach muscle mitochondria compared to fat body mitochondria. GcUCP activation by palmitic acid resulted in a decrease in superoxide anion production, suggesting that protection against mitochondrial oxidative stress may be a physiological role of UCPs in insects. GcUCP protein was immunodetected using antibodies raised against human UCP4 as a single band of around 36 kDa. GcUCP protein expression in cockroach muscle mitochondria was significantly higher compared to mitochondria isolated from fat body. LC-MS/MS analyses revealed 100% sequence identities for peptides obtained from GcUCP to UCP4 isoforms from D. melanogaster (the highest homology), human, rat or other insect mitochondria. Therefore, it can be proposed that cockroach GcUCP corresponds to the UCP4 isoforms of other animals.

  8. Profile of antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from cockroaches (Periplaneta americana in a Brazilian health care institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinésia Aparecida Prado

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches carry microorganisms to sterilized materials, equipment and non-contaminated food in hospitals and in homes. Hence, they are regarded as major microbial vectors. We isolated and identified microorganisms from living cockroaches captured from a Brazilian health care institution and we determined the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates. Following collection, cockroaches were immobilized at 4ºC for 10 to 20 minutes, immersed in 0.8% saline solution and then homogenized. Next, the suspension was seeded in culture media: brain and heart agar infusion, MacConkey agar, Naito agar, and they were incubated for up to 48 hours at 37ºC. Sabouraud agar cultures were incubated at ambient temperature. The microbial colonies were analyzed with a stereomicroscope to count and phenotypically identify the colony-forming units (cfu. The discdiffusion method was used to determine the profile of susceptibility to antimicrobials. Among the 103 cockroaches analyzed, fungi were found in 97%, enterobacteria in 74.6% and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS in 25.40%. Among the enterobacteria, 96% were resistant to gentamicin, 84% to ampicillin, 75.3% to caphalothin, 66.7% to ampicillin-sulbactam, 50% to aztreonam and 30% to chloramphenicol. Among the CNS, 61% were resistant to oxacillin. We concluded that cockroaches carry organisms associated with nosocomial infections and that are resistant to antimicrobials. This fact contributes to the epidemiological chain, complicating therapeutics, and consequently, medical costs are increased.

  9. Enzymatic activities of allergen extracts from three species of dust mites and cockroaches commonly found in Korean home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Kim, Chungryul; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2010-06-01

    Allergen extracts from dust mites and cockroaches commonly found in Korean homes were used to evaluate their enzymatic activity as they are believed to influence allergenicity. Allergen extracts were prepared from 3 dust mite species (Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and 3 cockroach species (Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and P. fuliginosa) maintained in the Korea National Arthropods of Medical Importance Resource Bank. Proteins were extracted in PBS after homogenization using liquid nitrogen. The activities of various enzymes were investigated using the API Zym system. No significant difference in phosphatase, lipase, or glycosidase activity was observed among the 6 allergen extracts, but much difference was observed in protease activity. Protease activity was assessed in more detail by gelatin zymography and the EnzChek assay. Extract from T. putrescentiae showed the highest protease activity, followed by those of the cockroach extracts. Extracts from D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus showed only weak protease activity. Gelatinolytic activity was detected mainly in a 30-kDa protein in D. farinae, a 28-kDa protein in D. pteronyssinus, a > 26-kDa protein in T. putrescentiae, a > 20-kDa protein in B. germanica, and a > 23-kDa protein in P. americana and P. fuliginosa. The information on various enzymatic activities obtained in this study may be useful for future studies. In particular, the strong protease activity found in cockroach extracts could contribute to sensitization to cockroach allergens, which is known to be associated with the development of asthma.

  10. Profile of antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from cockroaches (Periplaneta americana in a Brazilian health care institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinésia Aparecida Prado

    Full Text Available Cockroaches carry microorganisms to sterilized materials, equipment and non-contaminated food in hospitals and in homes. Hence, they are regarded as major microbial vectors. We isolated and identified microorganisms from living cockroaches captured from a Brazilian health care institution and we determined the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates. Following collection, cockroaches were immobilized at 4ºC for 10 to 20 minutes, immersed in 0.8% saline solution and then homogenized. Next, the suspension was seeded in culture media: brain and heart agar infusion, MacConkey agar, Naito agar, and they were incubated for up to 48 hours at 37ºC. Sabouraud agar cultures were incubated at ambient temperature. The microbial colonies were analyzed with a stereomicroscope to count and phenotypically identify the colony-forming units (cfu. The discdiffusion method was used to determine the profile of susceptibility to antimicrobials. Among the 103 cockroaches analyzed, fungi were found in 97%, enterobacteria in 74.6% and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS in 25.40%. Among the enterobacteria, 96% were resistant to gentamicin, 84% to ampicillin, 75.3% to caphalothin, 66.7% to ampicillin-sulbactam, 50% to aztreonam and 30% to chloramphenicol. Among the CNS, 61% were resistant to oxacillin. We concluded that cockroaches carry organisms associated with nosocomial infections and that are resistant to antimicrobials. This fact contributes to the epidemiological chain, complicating therapeutics, and consequently, medical costs are increased.

  11. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two cockroaches, Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana, and the phylogenetic position of termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bo; Chen, Ai-Hui; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Jiang, Guo-Fang; Hu, Chao-Chao; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2012-04-01

    The mitochondrial genomes are one of the most information-rich markers in phylogenetics. The relationships within superorder Dictyoptera have been debated in the literature. However, the closely related termites (Isoptera) are retained as unranked taxon within the order Blattaria (cockroaches). In this work, we sequenced the complete mitogenomes of two cockroaches, reconstructed the molecular phylogeny and attempted to infer the phylogenetic position of termites in Blattaria more reliably. The complete mtDNA nucleotide sequences of the peridomestic American cockroach (Periplaneta americana L.) and the domestic German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) are 15,025 and 15,584 bp in size, respectively. The genome shares the gene order and orientation with previously known Blattaria mitogenomes. Most tRNAs could be folded into the typical cloverleaf secondary structure, but the tRNA-Ser (AGN) of P. americana appears to be missing the dihydrouridine arm. Using nucleotide and amino acid sequences as phylogenetic markers, we proposed that termites should be treated as a superfamily (Termitoidea) of cockroaches. We suggested that Polyphagoidea was the sister group of Termitoidea in Blattaria and supported that the suborder Caelifera is more closely related to the Phasmatodea than to the suborder Ensifera of Orthoptera.

  12. Comparative mites and cockroaches sensitization study in three cities of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos Galván, Mario; Guerrero Núñez, Belinda; Ramírez Aragón, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    In Mexico there are few research papers dealing with mites and cockroaches sensibilizing in patients suffering from respiratory allergies and even less susceptibility comparative studies to the same between cities having different climatic and geographic characteristics. To research in a prospective study skin sensibilizing to eighy different mites and two cockroaches species in patients with respiratory allergies in three cities of Mexico: Monterrey, NL, Tampico, Tamps., and Irapuato, Gto., in order to determine if there are sensibilizing differences due to climatic and geographic conditions. Skin tests were performed by scarification in 58 patients suffering diverse respiratory allergies such as bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and combinations of the same. Tests were performed on 18 patients from Monterrey, 20 from Tampico and 20 from Irapuato. Mites used were: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescientiae, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Euroglyphus maynei, Acarus siro, Dermatophagoides microceras and 2 cockroaches species, Periplaneta americana and Blatella germanica. Of the total 58 patients, the most important and frequent reactions were produced by D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and E. maynei, which were found in 40, 33 and 32 patients respectively, then D. microceras in 21 patients, A. siro in 18, and B. tropicalis in 13 patients. In Tampico, the mite with the most frequent susceptibility was E. maynei, in Monterrey and Irapuato the most relevant were D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus, respectively. In Tampico, B. tropicalis was positive in 8 patients vs only 4 in Monterrey and 1 in Irapuato. The skin response to cockroaches was not important and the city with most positives was Irapuato with 6 patients responding to B. germanica, and 3 to P. americana; in Tampico 5 patients reacted to P. americana and 3 to B. germanica, and in Monterrey skin reactivity was slight and only 2

  13. Rheumatoid Arthritis Exacerbates the Severity of Osteonecrosis of the Jaws (ONJ) in Mice. A Randomized, Prospective, Controlled Animal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Molon, Rafael Scaf; Hsu, Chingyun; Bezouglaia, Olga; Dry, Sarah M; Pirih, Flavia Q; Soundia, Akrivoula; Cunha, Fernando Queiroz; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Aghaloo, Tara L; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2016-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune inflammatory disorder, results in persistent synovitis with severe bone and cartilage destruction. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are often utilized in RA patients to reduce bone destruction and manage osteoporosis. However, BPs, especially at high doses, are associated with osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). Here, utilizing previously published ONJ animal models, we are exploring interactions between RA and ONJ incidence and severity. DBA1/J mice were divided into four groups: control, zoledronic acid (ZA), collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), and CIA-ZA. Animals were pretreated with vehicle or ZA. Bovine collagen II emulsified in Freund's adjuvant was injected to induce arthritis (CIA) and the mandibular molar crowns were drilled to induce periapical disease. Vehicle or ZA treatment continued for 8 weeks. ONJ indices were measured by micro-CT (µCT) and histological examination of maxillae and mandibles. Arthritis development was assessed by visual scoring of paw swelling, and by µCT and histology of interphalangeal and knee joints. Maxillae and mandibles of control and CIA mice showed bone loss, periodontal ligament (PDL) space widening, lamina dura loss, and cortex thinning. ZA prevented these changes in both ZA and CIA-ZA groups. Epithelial to alveolar crest distance was increased in the control and CIA mice. This distance was preserved in ZA and CIA-ZA animals. Empty osteocytic lacunae and areas of osteonecrosis were present in ZA and CIA-ZA but more extensively in CIA-ZA animals, indicating more severe ONJ. CIA and CIA-ZA groups developed severe arthritis in the paws and knees. Interphalangeal and knee joints of CIA mice showed advanced bone destruction with cortical erosions and trabecular bone loss, and ZA treatment reduced these effects. Importantly, no osteonecrosis was noted adjacent to areas of articular inflammation in CIA-ZA mice. Our data suggest that ONJ burden was more pronounced in ZA treated CIA mice and that RA could

  14. The physiological role of fat body and muscle tissues in response to cold stress in the tropical cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana.

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    Chowański, Szymon; Lubawy, Jan; Paluch-Lubawa, Ewelina; Spochacz, Marta; Rosiński, Grzegorz; Słocińska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Protective mechanisms against cold stress are well studied in terrestrial and polar insects; however, little is known about these mechanisms in tropical insects. In our study, we tested if a tropical cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana, possesses any protective mechanisms against cold stress. Based on the results of earlier studies, we examined how short-term (3 h) cold (4°C) influences biochemical parameters, mitochondrial respiration activity, and the level of HSPs and aquaporins expression in the fat body and leg muscles of G. coquereliana. Following cold exposure, we found that the level of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins did not change significantly. Nevertheless, we observed significant changes in mitochondrial respiration activity. The oxygen consumption of resting (state 4) and phosphorylating (state 3) mitochondria was altered following cold exposure. The increase in respiratory rate in state 4 respiration was observed in both tissues. In state 3, oxygen consumption by mitochondria in fat body was significantly lower compared to control insects, whereas there were no changes observed for mitochondria in muscle tissue. Moreover, there were cold-induced changes in UCP protein activity, but the changes in activity differed in fat body and in muscles. Additionally, we detected changes in the level of HSP70 and aquaporins expression. Insects treated with cold had significantly higher levels of HSP70 in fat body and muscles. On the other hand, there were lower levels of aquaporins in both tissues following exposure to cold. These results suggest that fat body play an important role in protecting tropical insects from cold stress.

  15. Tuning posture to body load: decreases in load produce discrete sensory signals in the legs of freely standing cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Bridget R; Duke, Elizabeth R; Amer, Ayman S; Zill, Sasha N

    2007-08-01

    Decreases in load are important cues in the control of posture and walking. We recorded activities of the tibial campaniform sensilla, receptors that monitor forces as strains in the exoskeleton, in the middle legs of freely moving cockroaches. Small magnets were attached to the thorax and body load was changed by applying currents to a coil below the substrate. Body position was monitored by video recording. The tibial sensilla are organized into proximal and distal subgroups that have different response properties and reflex effects: proximal sensilla excite extensor motoneurons while distal receptors inhibit extensor firing. Sudden load decreases elicited bursts from distal sensilla, while increased load excited proximal receptors. The onset of sensory discharges closely approximated the time of peak velocity of body movement in both load decreases and increases. Firing of distal sensilla rapidly adapted to sustained unloading, while proximal sensilla discharged tonically to load increases. Load decreases of small amplitude or at low rates produced only inhibition of proximal activity while decrements of larger size or rate elicited distal firing. These response properties may provide discrete signals that either modulate excitatory extensor drive during small load variations or inhibit support prior to compensatory stepping or initiation of swing.

  16. HIV Replication Is Not Controlled by CD8+ T Cells during the Acute Phase of the Infection in Humanized Mice.

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    Nicolas Y Petit

    Full Text Available HIV replication follows a well-defined pattern during the acute phase of the infection in humans. After reaching a peak during the first few weeks after infection, viral replication resolves to a set-point thereafter. There are still uncertainties regarding the contribution of CD8(+ T cells in establishing this set-point. An alternative explanation, supported by in silico modeling, would imply that viral replication is limited by the number of available targets for infection, i.e. CD4(+CCR5(+ T cells. Here, we used NOD.SCID.gc(-/- mice bearing human CD4(+CCR5(+ and CD8(+ T cells derived from CD34(+ progenitors to investigate the relative contribution of both in viral control after the peak. Using low dose of a CCR5-tropic HIV virus, we observed an increase in viral replication followed by "spontaneous" resolution of the peak, similar to humans. To rule out any possible role for CD8(+ T cells in viral control, we infected mice in which CD8(+ T cells had been removed by a depleting antibody. Globally, viral replication was not affected by the absence of CD8(+ T cells. Strikingly, resolution of the viral peak was equally observed in mice with or without CD8(+ T cells, showing that CD8(+ T cells were not involved in viral control in the early phase of the infection. In contrast, a marked and specific loss of CCR5-expressing CD4(+ T cells was observed in the spleen and in the bone marrow, but not in the blood, of infected animals. Our results strongly suggest that viral replication during the acute phase of the infection in humanized mice is mainly constrained by the number of available targets in lymphoid tissues rather than by CD8(+ T cells.

  17. HIV Replication Is Not Controlled by CD8+ T Cells during the Acute Phase of the Infection in Humanized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Nicolas Y; Lambert-Niclot, Sidonie; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Garcia, Sylvie; Marodon, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    HIV replication follows a well-defined pattern during the acute phase of the infection in humans. After reaching a peak during the first few weeks after infection, viral replication resolves to a set-point thereafter. There are still uncertainties regarding the contribution of CD8(+) T cells in establishing this set-point. An alternative explanation, supported by in silico modeling, would imply that viral replication is limited by the number of available targets for infection, i.e. CD4(+)CCR5(+) T cells. Here, we used NOD.SCID.gc(-/-) mice bearing human CD4(+)CCR5(+) and CD8(+) T cells derived from CD34(+) progenitors to investigate the relative contribution of both in viral control after the peak. Using low dose of a CCR5-tropic HIV virus, we observed an increase in viral replication followed by "spontaneous" resolution of the peak, similar to humans. To rule out any possible role for CD8(+) T cells in viral control, we infected mice in which CD8(+) T cells had been removed by a depleting antibody. Globally, viral replication was not affected by the absence of CD8(+) T cells. Strikingly, resolution of the viral peak was equally observed in mice with or without CD8(+) T cells, showing that CD8(+) T cells were not involved in viral control in the early phase of the infection. In contrast, a marked and specific loss of CCR5-expressing CD4(+) T cells was observed in the spleen and in the bone marrow, but not in the blood, of infected animals. Our results strongly suggest that viral replication during the acute phase of the infection in humanized mice is mainly constrained by the number of available targets in lymphoid tissues rather than by CD8(+) T cells.

  18. Exercise is more effective than diet control in preventing high fat diet-induced β-amyloid deposition and memory deficit in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesako, Masato; Uemura, Kengo; Kubota, Masakazu; Kuzuya, Akira; Sasaki, Kazuki; Hayashida, Naoko; Asada-Utsugi, Megumi; Watanabe, Kiwamu; Uemura, Maiko; Kihara, Takeshi; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Shimohama, Shun; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2012-06-29

    Accumulating evidence suggests that some dietary patterns, specifically high fat diet (HFD), increase the risk of developing sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD). Thus, interventions targeting HFD-induced metabolic dysfunctions may be effective in preventing the development of AD. We previously demonstrated that amyloid precursor protein (APP)-overexpressing transgenic mice fed HFD showed worsening of cognitive function when compared with control APP mice on normal diet. Moreover, we reported that voluntary exercise ameliorates HFD-induced memory impairment and β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition. In the present study, we conducted diet control to ameliorate the metabolic abnormality caused by HFD on APP transgenic mice and compared the effect of diet control on cognitive function with that of voluntary exercise as well as that of combined (diet control plus exercise) treatment. Surprisingly, we found that exercise was more effective than diet control, although both exercise and diet control ameliorated HFD-induced memory deficit and Aβ deposition. The production of Aβ was not different between the exercise- and the diet control-treated mice. On the other hand, exercise specifically strengthened the activity of neprilysin, the Aβ-degrading enzyme, the level of which was significantly correlated with that of deposited Aβ in our mice. Notably, the effect of the combination treatment (exercise and diet control) on memory and amyloid pathology was not significantly different from that of exercise alone. These studies provide solid evidence that exercise is a useful intervention to rescue HFD-induced aggravation of cognitive decline in transgenic model mice of AD.

  19. Genetic control of responses to Trypanosoma cruzi in mice: multiple genes influencing parasitemia and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrightsman, R; Krassner, S; Watson, J

    1982-05-01

    Inbred strains of mice can be divided into two groups based on the level of parasitemia which develops after injection with 10(3) trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (Peru). Strains which developed parasitemias of greater than 10(7) trypomastigotes per ml by day 17, including C3H/HeJ, BALB/c, and CBA/N mice, were termed high parasitemia strains. Low parasitemia strains, including C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice, developed parasitemias of less than 5 x 10(6) trypomastigotes per ml by day 17 of infection. Congenic mice from C57BL/10J, C57BL/6J, and BALB/c backgrounds which differed at the H-2 region were injected with 10(3) trypomastigotes to determine the effect of the H-2 locus on response to infection. The H-2 locus had no effect on the level of parasitemia attained during infection. However, one strain, B10.S (H-2s), was unusual in that most of the mice survived infection. The results of infection of F1 hybrid progeny with T. cruzi (Peru) suggest that the low parasitemia response in inherited in a dominant manner and that survival may be influenced by several other genes. The response to T. cruzi infection in inbred mice, as measured by parasitemia and survival time, was influenced by several genes. One or more genes, located outside the H-2 region, were involved in regulating the level of parasitemia reached during infection. Another H-2-linked gene(s) was involved in survival of the infection and appeared to be unique to the H-2s haplotype.

  20. Effect of spaceflight hardware on the skeletal properties of ground control mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Ted; Lloyd, Shane; Dunlap, Alex; Ferguson, Virginia; Simske, Steven; Stodieck, Louis; Livingston, Eric

    Introduction: Spaceflight experiments using mouse or rat models require habitats that are specifically designed for the microgravity environment. During spaceflight, rodents are housed in a specially designed stainless steel meshed cage with gravity-independent food and water delivery systems and constant airflow to push floating urine and feces towards a waste filter. Differences in the housing environment alone, not even considering the spaceflight environment itself, may lead to physiological changes in the animals contained within. It is important to characterize these cage differences so that results from spaceflight experiments can be more reliably compared to studies from other laboratories. Methods: For this study, we examined the effect of NASA's Animal Enclosure Module (AEM) spaceflight hardware on the skeletal properties of 8-week-old female C57BL/6J mice. This 13-day experiment, conducted on the ground, modeled the flight experiment profile of the CBTM-01 payload on STS-108, with standard vivarium-housed mice being compared to AEM-housed mice (n = 12/group). Functional differences were compared via mechanical testing, micro-hardness indentation, microcomputed tomography, and mineral/matrix composition. Cellular changes were examined by serum chemistry, histology, quantitative histomorphometry, and RT-PCR. A Student's t-test was utilized, with the level of Type I error set at 95 Results: There was no change in elastic, maximum, or fracture force mechanical properties at the femur mid-diaphysis, however, structural stiffness was -17.5 Conclusions: Housing mice in the AEM spaceflight hardware had minimal effects on femur cortical bone properties. However, trabecular bone at the proximal tibia in AEM mice experi-enced large increases in microarchitecture and mineral composition. Increases in bone density were accompanied by reductions in bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts, representing a general decline in bone turnover at this site

  1. Inhibition of lung serine proteases in mice: a potentially new approach to control influenza infection

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    Błazejewska Paulina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host serine proteases are essential for the influenza virus life cycle because the viral haemagglutinin is synthesized as a precursor which requires proteolytic maturation. Therefore, we studied the activity and expression of serine proteases in lungs from mice infected with influenza and evaluated the effect of serine protease inhibitors on virus replication both in cell culture and in infected mice. Results Two different inbred mouse strains were investigated: DBA/2J as a highly susceptible and C57Bl/6J as a more resistant strain to influenza virus infection. The serine proteases from lung homogenates of mice exhibited pH optima of 10.00. Using the substrate Bz-Val-Gly-Arg-p-nitroanilide or in zymograms, the intensities of proteolysis increased in homogenates from both mouse strains with time post infection (p.i. with the mouse-adapted influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1; PR8. In zymograms at day 7 p.i., proteolytic bands were stronger and numerous in lung homogenates from DBA/2J than C57Bl/6J mice. Real-time PCR results confirmed differential expression of several lung proteases before and after infecting mice with the H1N1 virus. The most strongly up-regulated proteases were Gzma, Tmprss4, Elane, Ctrl, Gzmc and Gzmb. Pretreatment of mouse and human lung cell lines with the serine protease inhibitors AEBSF or pAB or a cocktail of both prior to infection with the H1N1 or the A/Seal/Massachusetts/1/80 (H7N7; SC35M virus resulted in a decrease in virus replication. Pretreatment of C57Bl/6J mice with either AEBSF or a cocktail of AEBSF and pAB prior to infection with the H1N1 virus significantly reduced weight loss and led to a faster recovery of treated versus untreated mice while pAB alone exerted a very poor effect. After infection with the H7N7 virus, the most significant reduction of weight loss was obtained upon pretreatment with either the protease inhibitor cocktail or pAB. Furthermore, pretreatment of C57BL/6J

  2. Evaluation of Some Plant Essential Oils against the Brown-Banded Cockroach, Supella longipalpa (Blattaria: Ectobiidae): A Mechanical Vector of Human Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharififard, Mona; Safdari, Farhad; Siahpoush, Amir; Kassiri, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Essential oils, as secondary plant compounds, present a safer alternative to conventional insecticides in insect control programs. So five essential oils including eucalyptus, mint, yarrow, oregano and rosemary oils were evaluated against the brown-banded cockroach Supella longipalpa. Methods: Evaluation was done against the 3rd and 4th instar nymphs using three bioassay methods; continuous contact toxicity, fumigant toxicity and repellent activity. The study was done in the laboratory of medical entomology, during April 2012 to September 2013. Results: Mortality rates by the lowest concentration (2.5%) of rosemary, oregano, yarrow, eucalyptus and mint oils were 100%, 62.2%, 45 %, 36.2% and 5.2% at 24 h after exposure respectively. Rosemary oil was determined as the most toxic oil because of 100 % mortality rate at the concentration range of 2.5% to 30%. The lowest fumigation effect using 50 μl/L air was recorded from mint oil with 97.2 % mortality after 24 h, while the other oils caused 100% mortality. The most repel activity was related to oregano oil which showed 96.5–99.1% repellency at the concentration range of 2.5–30% with a residual effect lasting at least a week after treatment. Conclusion: Oregano oil could be used as a potential repellent against S. longipalpa. Also, all five essential oils could be used as the safe compounds for surface treating or fumigation in cockroach control programs while rosmary and oregano oils exhibited the most toxicity. PMID:28032105

  3. Evaluation of Some Plant Essential Oils against the Brown-banded Cock-roach, Supella longipalpa (Blattaria: Ectobiidae, A Mechanical Vector of Human Pathogens

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    Mona Sharififard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Essential oils, as secondary plant compounds, present a safer alternative to conventional insecticides in insect control programs. So five essential oils including eucalyptus, mint, yarrow, oregano and rosemary oils were evaluated against the brown-banded cockroach Supella longipalpa.Methods: Evaluation was done against the 3rd and 4th instar nymphs using three bioassay methods; continuous con­tact toxicity, fumigant toxicity and repellent activity. The study was done in the laboratory of medical entomology, during April 2012 to September 2013.Results: Mortality rates by the lowest concentration (2.5% of rosemary, oregano, yarrow, eucalyptus and mint oils were 100%, 62.2%, 45 %, 36.2% and 5.2% at 24 h after exposure respectively. Rosemary oil was determined as the most toxic oil because of 100 % mortality rate at the concentration range of 2.5% to 30%. The lowest fumigation effect using 50 µl /L air was recorded from mint oil with 97.2 % mortality after 24 h, while the other oils caused 100% mortality. The most repel activity was related to oregano oil which showed 96.5–99.1% repellency at the con­centration range of 2.5–30% with a residual effect lasting at least a week after treatment.Conclusion: Oregano oil could be used as a potential repellent against S. longipalpa. Also, all five essential oils could be used as the safe compounds for surface treating or fumigation in cockroach control programs while rosmary and oregano oils exhibited the most toxicity.

  4. Derived, still living cockroach genus Cariblattoides (Blattida: Blattellidae) from the Eocene sediments of Green River in Colorado, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Vr(s)ansk(y); Lubomir Vidli(c)ka; Fedor (C)iampor Jr; Finnegan Marsh

    2012-01-01

    Cariblattoides labandeirai sp.n.from the Eocene sediments of Green River in Colorado,USA bear only two plesiomorphies,but also several significant autapomorphies within the advanced and highly derived living cockroach genus.Thus,Cariblattoides with extant occurrence in the Caribbean and South America was historically common in the Nearctic,and represents important evidence for the occurrence of derived living genera of cockroaches ~50 Ma ago.Generally,the vast majority of living genera were absent during the Palaeocene,thus the diversification of most living cockroach lineages near the Palaeocene/Eocene boundary must have been extremely rapid.Females of living C.suave,the type species,have identical (sophisticated) coloration of pronotum,but the most related living taxa are C.piraiensis and C.fontesi from Brazil (supported by phylogenetical analysis).

  5. Different transcriptional control of metabolism and extracellular matrix in visceral and subcutaneous fat of obese and rimonabant treated mice.

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    Carine Poussin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The visceral (VAT and subcutaneous (SCAT adipose tissues play different roles in physiology and obesity. The molecular mechanisms underlying their expansion in obesity and following body weight reduction are poorly defined. METHODOLOGY: C57Bl/6 mice fed a high fat diet (HFD for 6 months developed low, medium, or high body weight as compared to normal chow fed mice. Mice from each groups were then treated with the cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist rimonabant or vehicle for 24 days to normalize their body weight. Transcriptomic data for visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues from each group of mice were obtained and analyzed to identify: i genes regulated by HFD irrespective of body weight, ii genes whose expression correlated with body weight, iii the biological processes activated in each tissue using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA, iv the transcriptional programs affected by rimonabant. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In VAT, "metabolic" genes encoding enzymes for lipid and steroid biosynthesis and glucose catabolism were down-regulated irrespective of body weight whereas "structure" genes controlling cell architecture and tissue remodeling had expression levels correlated with body weight. In SCAT, the identified "metabolic" and "structure" genes were mostly different from those identified in VAT and were regulated irrespective of body weight. GSEA indicated active adipogenesis in both tissues but a more prominent involvement of tissue stroma in VAT than in SCAT. Rimonabant treatment normalized most gene expression but further reduced oxidative phosphorylation gene expression in SCAT but not in VAT. CONCLUSION: VAT and SCAT show strikingly different gene expression programs in response to high fat diet and rimonabant treatment. Our results may lead to identification of therapeutic targets acting on specific fat depots to control obesity.

  6. The circadian clock controls fluctuations of colonic cell proliferation during the light/dark cycle via feeding behavior in mice.

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    Yoshida, Daisuke; Aoki, Natsumi; Tanaka, Mizuho; Aoyama, Shinya; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian circadian system is controlled not only by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), but also by the peripheral clocks located in tissues such as liver, kidney, small intestine, and colon, mediated through signals such as hormones. Peripheral clocks, but not the SCN, can be entrained by food intake schedules. While it is known that cell proliferation exhibits a circadian rhythm in the colon epithelium, it is unclear how this rhythm is influenced by food intake schedules. Here, we aimed to determine the relationships between feeding schedules and cell proliferation in the colon epithelium by means of immunochemical analysis, using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), as well as to elucidate how feeding schedules influence the colonic expression of clock and cell cycle genes, using real-time reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Cell proliferation in the colonic epithelium of normal mice exhibited a daily fluctuation, which was abrogated in Clock mutant mice. The day/night pattern of cellular proliferation and clock gene expression under daytime and nighttime restricted feeding (RF) schedules showed opposite tendencies. While daytime RF for every 4 h attenuated the day/night pattern of cell proliferation, this was restored to normal in the Clock mutant mice under the nighttime RF schedule. These results suggest that feeding schedules contribute to the establishment of a daily fluctuation of cell proliferation and RF can recover it in Clock mutant mice. Thus, this study demonstrates that the daily fluctuation of cell proliferation in the murine colon is controlled by a circadian feeding rhythm, suggesting that feeding schedules are important for rhythmicity in the proliferation of colon cells.

  7. Sensory arsenal on the stinger of the parasitoid jewel wasp and its possible role in identifying cockroach brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Ram; Kaiser, Maayan; Haspel, Gal; Libersat, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The parasitoid jewel wasp uses cockroaches as live food supply for its developing larva. To this end, the adult wasp stings a cockroach and injects venom directly inside its brain, turning the prey into a submissive 'zombie'. Here, we characterize the sensory arsenal on the wasp's stinger that enables the wasp to identify the brain target inside the cockroach's head. An electron microscopy study of the stinger reveals (a) cuticular depressions innervated by a single mechanosensory neuron, which are presumably campaniform sensilla; and (b) dome-shaped structures innervated by a single mechanosensory neuron and 4-5 chemosensory neurons, which are presumably contact-chemoreceptive sensilla. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings from stinger afferents show increased firing rate in response to mechanical stimulation with agarose. This response is direction-selective and depends upon the concentration (density) of the agarose, such that the most robust response is evoked when the stinger is stimulated in the distal-to-proximal direction (concomitant with the penetration during the natural stinging behavior) and penetrating into relatively hard (0.75%-2.5%) agarose pellets. Accordingly, wasps demonstrate a normal stinging behavior when presented with cockroaches in which the brain was replaced with a hard (2.5%) agarose pellet. Conversely, wasps demonstrate a prolonged stinging behavior when the cockroach brain was either removed or replaced by a soft (0.5%) agarose pellet, or when stinger sensory organs were ablated prior to stinging. We conclude that the parasitoid jewel wasp uses at least mechanosensory inputs from its stinger to identify the brain within the head capsule of the cockroach prey.

  8. Observation on the host parasitoid interaction between Periplaneta americana, the American cockroach and Tetrastichus hagenowii, an oothecal parasitoid

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    R. Srinivasan

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out on the host parasitoid interaction between Periplaneta americana, the American cockroach and Tetrastichus hagenowii, an oothecal parasitoid. This gregarious female parasitoid infected and or oviposited in only one host and caused 100 por cento mortality of the infected host. However, increase in parasitoid density decreased the progeny production and influenced the sex ratio. The progenies produced were male biased. When host preference was tested by offering oothecae of different species of cockroaches, T. hagenowii showed a predilection towards the oothecae of P. americana, suggestings its host specificity.

  9. Observation on the host parasitoid interaction between Periplaneta americana, the American cockroach and Tetrastichus hagenowii, an oothecal parasitoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R; Panicker, K N

    1994-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on the host parasitoid interaction between Periplaneta americana, the American cockroach and Tetrastichus hagenowii, an oothecal parasitoid. This gregarious female parasitoid infected and or oviposited in only one host and caused 100% mortality of the infected host. However, increase in parasitoid density decreased the progeny production and influenced the sex ratio. The progenies produced were male biased. When host preference was tested by offering oothecae of different species of cockroaches. T. hagenowii showed a predilection towards the oothecae of P. americana, suggesting its host specificity.

  10. Evolutionary convergence and nitrogen metabolism in Blattabacterium strain Bge, primary endosymbiont of the cockroach Blattella germanica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J López-Sánchez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endosymbionts of insects play a central role in upgrading the diet of their hosts. In certain cases, such as aphids and tsetse flies, endosymbionts complement the metabolic capacity of hosts living on nutrient-deficient diets, while the bacteria harbored by omnivorous carpenter ants are involved in nitrogen recycling. In this study, we describe the genome sequence and inferred metabolism of Blattabacterium strain Bge, the primary Flavobacteria endosymbiont of the omnivorous German cockroach Blattella germanica. Through comparative genomics with other insect endosymbionts and free-living Flavobacteria we reveal that Blattabacterium strain Bge shares the same distribution of functional gene categories only with Blochmannia strains, the primary Gamma-Proteobacteria endosymbiont of carpenter ants. This is a remarkable example of evolutionary convergence during the symbiotic process, involving very distant phylogenetic bacterial taxa within hosts feeding on similar diets. Despite this similarity, different nitrogen economy strategies have emerged in each case. Both bacterial endosymbionts code for urease but display different metabolic functions: Blochmannia strains produce ammonia from dietary urea and then use it as a source of nitrogen, whereas Blattabacterium strain Bge codes for the complete urea cycle that, in combination with urease, produces ammonia as an end product. Not only does the cockroach endosymbiont play an essential role in nutrient supply to the host, but also in the catabolic use of amino acids and nitrogen excretion, as strongly suggested by the stoichiometric analysis of the inferred metabolic network. Here, we explain the metabolic reasons underlying the enigmatic return of cockroaches to the ancestral ammonotelic state.

  11. Wood-feeding cockroaches as models for termite evolution (Insecta: Dictyoptera): Cryptocercus vs. Parasphaeria boleiriana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, Klaus-Dieter; Nalepa, Christine; Lo, Nathan

    2008-03-01

    Isoptera are highly specialized cockroaches and are one of the few eusocial insect lineages. Cryptocercus cockroaches have appeared to many as ideal models for inference on the early evolution of termites, due to their possible phylogenetic relationship and several shared key attributes in life history. Recently, Pellens, Grandcolas, and colleagues have proposed the blaberid cockroach Parasphaeria boleiriana to be an alternative model for the early evolution in termites. We compare the usefulness of Cryptocercus and P. boleiriana as models for termite evolution. Cryptocercus and lower Isoptera (1) can both feed on comparatively recalcitrant wood, (2) have an obligate, rich and unique hypermastigid and oxymonadid fauna in the hindgut, (3) transfer these flagellates to the next generation by anal trophallaxis, (4) have social systems that involve long-lasting biparental care, and, finally, (5) are strongly suggested to be sister groups, so that the key attributes (1)-(4) appear to be homologous between the two taxa. On the other hand, P. boleiriana (1) feeds on soft, ephemeral wood sources, (2) shows no trace of the oxymonadid and hypermastigid hindgut fauna unique to Cryptocercus and lower Isoptera, nor does it have any other demonstrated obligate relationship with hindgut flagellates, (3) is likely to lack anal trophallaxis, (4) has only a short period of uniparental brood care, and (5) is phylogenetically remote from the Cryptocercus+Isoptera clade. These facts would argue against any reasonable usage of P. boleiriana as a model for the early evolution of Isoptera or even of the clade Cryptocercus+Isoptera. Cryptocercus thus remains an appropriate model-taxon-by-homology for early termite evolution. As compared to P. boleiriana, some other Blaberidae (such as the Panesthiinae Salganea) appear more useful as model-taxa-by-homoplasy for the early evolution of the Cryptocercus+Isoptera clade, as their brooding behavior is more elaborate than in P. boleiriana.

  12. Differential actions of fipronil and dieldrin insecticides on GABA-gated chloride channels in cockroach neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xilong; Salgado, Vincent L; Yeh, Jay Z; Narahashi, Toshio

    2003-09-01

    Fipronil and dieldrin are known to inhibit GABA receptors in both mammals and insects. However, the mechanism of selective toxicity of these insecticides between mammals and insects remains to be seen. One possible mechanism is that insect GABA receptors are more sensitive than mammalian GABAA receptors to fipronil and dieldrin. We examined differential actions of fipronil and dieldrin on GABA-gated chloride channels in insects and compared them with the data on mammalian GABAA receptors. Neurons were acutely dissociated from the American cockroach thoracic ganglia, and currents evoked by GABA were recorded by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. GABA-evoked currents were carried by chloride ions, blocked by picrotoxinin, but not by bicuculline. Fipronil inhibited GABA currents with an IC50 value of 28 nM, whereas dieldrin exhibited a dual action potentiation with an EC50 value of 4 nM followed by inhibition with an IC50 value of 16 nM. Fipronil and dieldrin acted on the resting receptor at comparable rates, whereas fipronil blocked the activated receptor 10 times faster than dieldrin. Fipronil inhibition was partially reversible, whereas dieldrin inhibition was irreversible. Fipronil was 59 times more potent on cockroach GABA receptors than on rat GABAA receptors. However, the potentiating and inhibitory potencies of dieldrin in cockroach GABA receptors were comparable with those in rat GABAA receptors. It was concluded that the higher toxicity of fipronil in insects than in mammals is due partially to the higher sensitivity of GABA receptors. The mechanism of dieldrin's selective toxicity must lie in factors other than the sensitivity of GABA receptors.

  13. GABAergic Control of Critical Developmental Periods for Anxiety- and Depression-Related Behavior in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability for anxiety and depressive disorders is thought to have origins in early life and is increasingly recognized to involve deficits in GABAergic neurotransmission. Mice that were rendered heterozygous for the γ2 subunit gene of GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) show behavioral, cognitive, neuroendocrine and pharmacologic features expected of a mouse model of melancholic anxious depression, including reduced survival of adult-born hippocampal neurons. Here we embarked on elucidating the...

  14. Insulin-producing cells from adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells control streptozotocin-induced diabetes in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Mahmoud M; Zakaria, Mahmoud M; Refaie, Ayman F; Ismail, Amani M; Abou-El-Mahasen, Mona A; Ashamallah, Sylvia A; Khater, Sherry M; El-Halawani, Sawsan M; Ibrahim, Rana Y; Uin, Gan Shu; Kloc, Malgorzata; Calne, Roy Y; Ghoneim, Mohamed A

    2013-01-01

    Harvesting, expansion, and directed differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) could provide an autologous source of surrogate β-cells that would alleviate the limitations of availability and/or allogenic rejection following pancreatic or islet transplantation. Bone marrow cells were obtained from three adult type 2 diabetic volunteers and three nondiabetic donors. After 3 days in culture, adherent MSCs were expanded for two passages. At passage 3, differentiation was carried out in a three-staged procedure. Cells were cultured in a glucose-rich medium containing several activation and growth factors. Cells were evaluated in vitro by flow cytometry, immunolabeling, RT-PCR, and human insulin and c-peptide release in responses to increasing glucose concentrations. One thousand cell clusters were inserted under the renal capsule of diabetic nude mice followed by monitoring of their diabetic status. At the end of differentiation, ∼5-10% of cells were immunofluorescent for insulin, c-peptide or glucagon; insulin, and c-peptide were coexpressed. Nanogold immunolabeling for electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of c-peptide in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Insulin-producing cells (IPCs) expressed transcription factors and genes of pancreatic hormones similar to those expressed by pancreatic islets. There was a stepwise increase in human insulin and c-peptide release by IPCs in response to increasing glucose concentrations. Transplantation of IPCs into nude diabetic mice resulted in control of their diabetic status for 3 months. The sera of IPC-transplanted mice contained human insulin and c-peptide but negligible levels of mouse insulin. When the IPC-bearing kidneys were removed, rapid return of diabetic state was noted. BM-MSCs from diabetic and nondiabetic human subjects could be differentiated without genetic manipulation to form IPCs that, when transplanted, could maintain euglycemia in diabetic mice for 3 months

  15. High beta-palmitate fat controls the intestinal inflammatory response and limits intestinal damage in mucin Muc2 deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Palmitic-acid esterified to the sn-1,3 positions of the glycerol backbone (alpha, alpha'-palmitate, the predominant palmitate conformation in regular infant formula fat, is poorly absorbed and might cause abdominal discomfort. In contrast, palmitic-acid esterified to the sn-2 position (beta-palmitate, the main palmitate conformation in human milk fat, is well absorbed. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of high alpha, alpha'-palmitate fat (HAPF diet and high beta-palmitate fat (HBPF diet on colitis development in Muc2 deficient (Muc2(-/- mice, a well-described animal model for spontaneous enterocolitis due to the lack of a protective mucus layer. METHODS: Muc2(-/- mice received AIN-93G reference diet, HAPF diet or HBPF diet for 5 weeks after weaning. Clinical symptoms, intestinal morphology and inflammation in the distal colon were analyzed. RESULTS: Both HBPF diet and AIN-93G diet limited the extent of intestinal erosions and morphological damage in Muc2(-/- mice compared with HAPF diet. In addition, the immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg cell response as demonstrated by the up-regulation of Foxp3, Tgfb1 and Ebi3 gene expression levels was enhanced by HBPF diet compared with AIN-93G and HAPF diets. HBPF diet also increased the gene expression of Pparg and enzymatic antioxidants (Sod1, Sod3 and Gpx1, genes all reported to be involved in promoting an immunosuppressive Treg cell response and to protect against colitis. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time that HBPF diet limits the intestinal mucosal damage and controls the inflammatory response in Muc2(-/- mice by inducing an immunosuppressive Treg cell response.

  16. Biogeography and Phylogeny of Wood-feeding Cockroaches in the Genus Cryptocercus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoto Maekawa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Subsocial, xylophagous cockroaches of the genus Cryptocercus exhibit a disjunct distribution, with representatives in mature montane forests of North America, China, Korea and the Russian Far East. All described species are wingless and dependent on rotting wood for food and shelter at all stages of their life cycle; consequently, their distribution is tied to that of forests and strongly influenced by palaeogeographical events. Asian and American lineages form distinct monophyletic groups, comprised of populations with complex geographic substructuring. We review the phylogeny and distribution of Cryptocercus, and discuss splitting events inferred from molecular data.

  17. [Severianoia blapticola sp. n. (Oxyurida: Thelastomatidae): a new nematode species from blaberid cockroaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzeeva, E A

    2009-01-01

    A new nematode species of the genus Severianoia (Schwenk, 1926) Travassos, 1929, S. blapticola sp. n., is described from the hind gut of cockroach Blaptica dubia (Serville, 1839) from laboratory culture. The main morphological feature of S. blapticola sp. n. is the presence of columnar cuticular structures of different height on the ventral side of male posterior end. In the gut of B. dubia these nematodes coexist with another thelastomatid genus, Cranifera Kloss, 1960 [C. cranifera (Chitwood, 1932) Kloss, 1960]. Males of C. cranifera are characterized by the presence of cloacal projection and columnar structures on both dorsal and ventral sides of male posterior end.

  18. 嘉峪关铁路地区蟑螂侵害状况调查分析%Investigation on the invasion situation of cockroaches in railway area of Jiayuguan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢生善; 蒲瑞平; 钱红芬; 陈国品

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解和掌握嘉峪关铁路地区各部门和居民区蟑螂侵害情况,探寻蟑螂侵害途径,为蟑螂防治提供科学依据.方法 采用直接询问方式、药激法和问卷方式.结果 嘉峪关铁路地区各部门蟑螂侵害率为21.74%,其中以客运、旅店业和行车公寓等部门蟑螂侵害最为严重;家庭蟑螂侵害率为16.82%,其中以客运部门职工家庭蟑螂侵害最为严重,侵害率高达46.46%,客运部门职工家庭蟑螂受侵害数占总受害侵家庭数的52.68%.结论 嘉峪关铁路地区蟑螂侵害严重,有向周边地区蔓延的趋势,以旅店业、客运、行车公寓等直接为旅客运输服务为主的部门蟑螂侵害较为严重,家庭以直接从事旅客运输服务的家庭蟑螂侵害最为严重,嘉峪关铁路地区蟑螂的侵害与旅客运输服务人员呈正相关,与旅客列车的蟑螂具有同源性.%Objective To understand and grasp the invasion situation of cockroaches in railway area of Jiayuguan, seek the inroads way and provide scientific basis for cockroaches prevention and control Method Adopted directing inquiry way, drug stimulating method and questionnaire way to carry out detection. Results The invasion rate was 21. 74% in railway area of Jiayuguan, and cockroaches harmfulness were serious in passenger transport units, hotels and transport flats. The invasion rate was 16. 82% in family, the harmfulness of cockroaches was very serious in family which members worked in passenger transport units, and its invasion rate was 46.4% , accounted for 52.68% of total invasion family. Conclusions The invasion situation was serious in railway area of Jiayuguan, and the invasion extend around the areas. Cockroaches harmfulness were serious in passenger transport units, hotels and transport flats, especially in family which members worked for passenger transport The invasion correlated with carriage of passenger works, and a lot of cockroaches came from passenger train.

  19. 北京市朝阳区德国小蠊对杀虫剂抗性分布情况调查%Study on geographic distribution of insecticides resistance of German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in Chaoyang district, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛军旗; 张洪江; 张政; 王仲华; 孟凤霞

    2009-01-01

    Objective To know the resistance situation and its geographic distribution of German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in Chaoyang district. Methods German cockroaches were trapped from eight sites belonging to different geographic zone. The insecticides film contact method was used to the detection of resistance. The resistance level of German cockroach from different sites was analyzed by average linkage method. Results There was significant difference among the resistance level of cockroach to seven insecticides (X~2=26.880, P=0.000). It had the highest resistance to organophosphorus insecticides (X~2=20.494, P=0.000). The resistance levels of cockroach from 8 sites were also significantly different (X~2=29.143, P=0.000), which could be classified into four groups by duster analysis. Conclusion The resistance of cockroach to insecticides was different in different areas in Chaoyang district, so the same control method.%目的 了解朝阳区不同区域德国小蠊对杀虫剂的抗性水平及分布情况.方法 按行政区划选定8个取样点,采集每个取样点的德国小蠊自然种群,带回实验室繁育,用药膜接触法测定其对7种杀虫剂的抗性系数.比较德国小蠊对7种杀虫剂的抗性程度差别;比较8个取样点德国小蠊种群的抗性差别,并以类平均法做聚类分析.结果 德国小蠊对7种杀虫剂的抗性程度差异具有统计学意义(X~2=26.880,P=0.000),对有机磷类杀虫剂的抗性最高(X~2=20.494,P=0.000);8个取样点德国小蠊种群对杀虫剂抗性水平差异亦有统计学意义(X~2=29.143,P=0.000),根据聚类分析结果和专业知识可将其划分为4类.结论 朝阳区德国小蠊对杀虫剂存在地理位置差别,抗性监测和指导用药时"以点代面"做法不可取.

  20. Tomaculocystis corpulenta n. gen., n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinorida) parasitizing the little yellow cockroach, Cariblatta lutea (Blattodea: Ectobiidae), in Alabama and Florida with recognition of Tomaculocystis cylindrosa n. comb. and Tomaculocystis mukundai n. comb. parasitizing ectobiid cockroaches in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopton, Richard E

    2015-02-01

    Tomaculocystis corpulenta n. gen., n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinorida: Septatorina: Gregarinidae) is described from populations of the little yellow cockroach, Cariblatta lutea (Blattodea: Ectobiidae), established in laboratory culture from samples collected in Alabama and Florida. Tomaculocystis n. gen. are differentiated from other members of Gregarina by a markedly elliptoid gametocyst inside a persistent, lomentiform hyaline epicyst; developmental organization and growth of the spore tubes from gametocyst surface tumidi; and dehiscence by extrusion of non-chain forming oocysts through spore tubes that barely extend beyond the epicyst wall. Gregarina cylindrosa, Gregarina discocephala, and Gregarina mukundai are recognized as members of Tomaculocystis, and G. cylindrosa is recognized as the senior synonym of G. discocephala. Thus, Tomaculocystis cylindrosa n. comb. and Tomaculocystis mukundai n. comb. are formed. Species of Tomaculocystis are distinguished based on gamont deutomerite and oocyst shape and size. The oocysts of T. corpulenta are broadly dolioform, lack 4 polar knobs, and possess distinct, unique polar plates. Oocysts of all other known species in the genus are more oblong in shape, possess 4 polar knobs, and lack the distinct polar plates observed in the oocysts of T. corpulenta. Host utilization and geographic distribution among gregarine genera parasitizing the cockroach family Ectobiidae reveal a pattern of host-parasite specificity linking gregarine genera with ectobiidid subfamilies. Overall patterns suggest a hypothesis of European endemicy for Gamocystis, but hypotheses for the origin and radiation of Tomaculocystis or species of Gregarina infecting cockroaches are confounded by the cosmopolitan spread of pest cockroach species among humans.

  1. A search for quantitative trait loci controlling within-individual variation of physical activity traits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leamy, Larry J; Pomp, Daniel; Lightfoot, J Timothy

    2010-09-21

    In recent years it has become increasingly apparent that physical inactivity can predispose individuals to a host of health problems. While many studies have analyzed the effect of various environmental factors on activity, we know much less about the genetic control of physical activity. Some studies in mice have discovered quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing various physical activity traits, but mostly have analyzed inter-individual variation rather than variation in activity within individuals over time. We conducted a genome scan to identify QTLs controlling the distance, duration, and time run by mice over seven consecutive three-day intervals in an F2 population created by crossing two inbred strains (C57L/J and C3H/HeJ) that differed widely (average of nearly 300%) in their activity levels. Our objectives were (a) to see if we would find QTLs not originally discovered in a previous investigation that assessed these traits over the entire 21-day period and (b) to see if some of these QTLs discovered might affect the activity traits only in the early or in the late time intervals. This analysis uncovered 39 different QTLs, over half of which were new. Some QTLs affected the activity traits only in the early time intervals and typically exhibited significant dominance effects whereas others affected activity only in the later age intervals and exhibited less dominance. We also analyzed the regression slopes of the activity traits over the intervals, and found several QTLs affecting these traits that generally mapped to unique genomic locations. It was concluded that the genetic architecture of physical activity in mice is much more complicated than has previously been recognized, and may change considerably depending on the age at which various activity measures are assessed.

  2. Pancreatic GLP-1 receptor activation is sufficient for incretin control of glucose metabolism in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lamont, Benjamin J.; Li, Yazhou; Kwan, Edwin; Brown, Theodore J.; Gaisano, Herbert; Drucker, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) circulates at low levels and acts as an incretin hormone, potentiating glucose-dependent insulin secretion from islet β cells. GLP-1 also modulates gastric emptying and engages neural circuits in the portal region and CNS that contribute to GLP-1 receptor–dependent (GLP-1R–dependent) regulation of glucose homeostasis. To elucidate the importance of pancreatic GLP-1R signaling for glucose homeostasis, we generated transgenic mice that expressed the human GLP-1R ...

  3. The cockroach Blattella germanica obtains nitrogen from uric acid through a metabolic pathway shared with its bacterial endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Belles, Xavier; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo; Peretó, Juli

    2014-07-01

    Uric acid stored in the fat body of cockroaches is a nitrogen reservoir mobilized in times of scarcity. The discovery of urease in Blattabacterium cuenoti, the primary endosymbiont of cockroaches, suggests that the endosymbiont may participate in cockroach nitrogen economy. However, bacterial urease may only be one piece in the entire nitrogen recycling process from insect uric acid. Thus, in addition to the uricolytic pathway to urea, there must be glutamine synthetase assimilating the released ammonia by the urease reaction to enable the stored nitrogen to be metabolically usable. None of the Blattabacterium genomes sequenced to date possess genes encoding for those enzymes. To test the host's contribution to the process, we have sequenced and analysed Blattella germanica transcriptomes from the fat body. We identified transcripts corresponding to all genes necessary for the synthesis of uric acid and its catabolism to urea, as well as for the synthesis of glutamine, asparagine, proline and glycine, i.e. the amino acids required by the endosymbiont. We also explored the changes in gene expression with different dietary protein levels. It appears that the ability to use uric acid as a nitrogen reservoir emerged in cockroaches after its age-old symbiotic association with bacteria.

  4. Aromatic hexamerin subunit from adult female cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) : Molecular cloning, suppression by juvenile hormone, and evolutionary perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamroz, RC; Beintema, JJ; Stam, WT; Bradfield, JY

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to identify several polypeptides that are strongly suppressed by juvenile hormone (JH) in fat body of adult female Blaberus discoidalis cockroaches, we have cloned a cDNA representing a polypeptide member of the hexamerin family of arthropod serum proteins. The deduced primary translati

  5. Cuticle Fatty Acid Composition and Differential Susceptibility of Three Species of Cockroaches to the Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota, Hypocreales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Alejandra C; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pennisi, Mariana; Peterson, Graciela; García, Juan J; Manfrino, Romina G; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2015-04-01

    Differences in free fatty acids (FFAs) chemical composition of insects may be responsible for susceptibility or resistance to fungal infection. Determination of FFAs found in cuticular lipids can effectively contribute to the knowledge concerning insect defense mechanisms. In this study, we have evaluated the susceptibility of three species of cockroaches to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin by topical application. Mortality due to M. anisopliae was highly significant on adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). However, mortality was faster in adults than in nymphs. Adults of Blatta orientalis L. (Blattodea: Blattidae) were not susceptible to the fungus, and nymphs of Blaptica dubia Serville (Blattodea: Blaberidae) were more susceptible to the fungus than adults. The composition of cuticular FFAs in the three species of cockroaches was also studied. The analysis indicated that all of the fatty acids were mostly straight-chain, long-chain, saturated or unsaturated. Cuticular lipids of three species of cockroaches contained 19 FFAs, ranging from C14:0 to C24:0. The predominant fatty acids found in the three studied species of cockroaches were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Only in adults of Bl. orientalis, myristoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidic acid, dihomolinoleic acid, and behenic acid were identified. Lignoceric acid was detected only in nymphs of Bl. orientalis. Heneicosylic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were identified in adults of Ba. dubia.

  6. Cockroaches of genus Muzoa: morphology of the male genital sclerites and description of one new species (Dictyoptera, Blattodea, Ectobiidae, Nyctiborinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Velez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The male genital sclerites of cockroaches of genus Muzoa Hebard, 1921 are described for first time and the new species Muzoa curtalata sp. n. is described and ilustrated. A dichotomous key to identify the species of genus Muzoa is given.

  7. Molecular mimicry between cockroach and helminth glutathione S-transferases promotes cross-reactivity and cross-sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extensive similarities between helminth proteins and allergens are thought to contribute to helminth-driven allergic sensitization. We investigated the molecular and structural similarities between Bla g 5, a major glutathione-S transferase (GST) allergen of cockroaches, and the GST of Wucherer...

  8. The Cockroach Origin of the Termite Gut Microbiota: Patterns in Bacterial Community Structure Reflect Major Evolutionary Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Carsten; Köhler, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Termites digest wood and other lignocellulosic substrates with the help of their intestinal microbiota. While the functions of the symbionts in the digestive process are slowly emerging, the origin of the bacteria colonizing the hindgut bioreactor is entirely unknown. Recently, our group discovered numerous representatives of bacterial lineages specific to termite guts in a closely related omnivorous cockroach, but it remains unclear whether they derive from the microbiota of a common ancestor or were independently selected by the gut environment. Here, we studied the bacterial gut microbiota in 34 species of termites and cockroaches using pyrotag analysis of the 16S rRNA genes. Although the community structures differed greatly between the major host groups, with dramatic changes in the relative abundances of particular bacterial taxa, we found that the majority of sequence reads belonged to bacterial lineages that were shared among most host species. When mapped onto the host tree, the changes in community structure coincided with major events in termite evolution, such as acquisition and loss of cellulolytic protists and the ensuing dietary diversification. UniFrac analysis of the core microbiota of termites and cockroaches and construction of phylogenetic tree of individual genus level lineages revealed a general host signal, whereas the branching order often did not match the detailed phylogeny of the host. It remains unclear whether the lineages in question have been associated with the ancestral cockroach since the early Cretaceous (cospeciation) or are diet-specific lineages that were independently acquired from the environment (host selection). PMID:24487532

  9. 菏泽市蜚蠊侵害现状调查%Heze City cockroach invasion situation investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维英; 刘素芬

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解菏泽市城区蜚蠊的侵害状况,分析蜚蠊传播的影响因素,防止与蜚蠊相关的虫媒传染病的发生流行.方法 选择农贸市场1处、餐饮2处、宾馆1处、医院1家和居民区1个,应用粘捕法进行密度监测,统计数量并分类鉴定.结果 菏泽市蜚蠊以德国小蠊为优势种群,没有发现其它种类的蜚蠊.在调查的165个监测点中,134个监测点有蜚蠊滋生,阳性率81.2%,虫密度8.75只/间.结论 菏泽市的蜚蠊侵害以医院、宾馆、居民住宅为主,餐饮行业侵害率较低,农贸市场没有发现蜚蠊侵害.%Objective About Heze City cockroach invasion situation and analysis of factors influencing the spread of cockroaches, prevent the occurrence of epidemic associated with cockroach insect borne infectious diseases.Method 1 farmers'markets, 2 restaurants, 1 hotels, 1 hospitals and 1 residential areas, the application of sticky trap method for density monitoring, statistics and classification of identification.Result Heze City cockroach Blattella germanica was the dominant species, no other species was found. In a survey of 165 monitoring points, 134 monitoring points,there are cockroaches breeding,the positive rate was 81.2%, 8.75/insect density.Conclusion Heze City of cockroaches in hospitals,hotels,residential based,catering industry infestation rate is low,farmers market found no cockroaches.

  10. Mineral oil and aliphatic alcohols: toxicity and analysis of synergistic effects on German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, S R; O'Brien, T E

    2011-10-01

    Two mineral oils and 12 linear primary alcohols were studied, alone and in combination, to determine their contact toxicity to adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). The more toxic oil, PD23 (LD50 = 1.45 mg per cockroach) was used for combination studies. Alcohols with carbon chain lengths of C3 and C8 through C12 were the most toxic, with LD50 values ranging from 0.3 to 0.6 mg. C1 (methanol) and C14 (1-tetradecanol) were least toxic, with LD50 values of 2.35 and 1.75 mg, respectively. Eight of the 12 combinations of a nonlethal dose of PD23 oil with an LD10 dose of alcohol produced significantly greater mortality than predicted under the assumption of additive effects. A sample of five synergistic oil + alcohol combinations, covering most of the alcohol carbon chain length range over which synergy occurred, was further studied by calculating LD50 values for three fixed mixture ratios (80:20, 50:50, and 20:80) of each combination. Results were analyzed using both graphical techniques (isobole analysis) and by nonlinear regression. At least one, but not necessarily all, of the three fixed ratio combinations of each oil + alcohol pairing indicated synergy. The conclusions drawn from the isobole and regression analyses were consistent.

  11. Fast and Powerful: Biomechanics and Bite Forces of the Mandibles in the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana.

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    Tom Weihmann

    Full Text Available Knowing the functionality and capabilities of masticatory apparatuses is essential for the ecological classification of jawed organisms. Nevertheless insects, especially with their outstanding high species number providing an overwhelming morphological diversity, are notoriously underexplored with respect to maximum bite forces and their dependency on the mandible opening angles. Aiming for a general understanding of insect biting, we examined the generalist feeding cockroach Periplaneta americana, characterized by its primitive chewing mouth parts. We measured active isometric bite forces and passive forces caused by joint resistance over the entire mandibular range with a custom-built 2D force transducer. The opening angle of the mandibles was quantified by using a video system. With respect to the effective mechanical advantage of the mandibles and the cross-section areas, we calculated the forces exerted by the mandible closer muscles and the corresponding muscle stress values. Comparisons with the scarce data available revealed close similarities of the cockroaches' mandible closer stress values (58 N/cm2 to that of smaller specialist carnivorous ground beetles, but strikingly higher values than in larger stag beetles. In contrast to available datasets our results imply the activity of faster and slower muscle fibres, with the latter becoming active only when the animals chew on tough material which requires repetitive, hard biting. Under such circumstances the coactivity of fast and slow fibres provides a force boost which is not available during short-term activities, since long latencies prevent a specific effective employment of the slow fibres in this case.

  12. Foot Morphology and Substrate Adhesion in the Madagascan Hissing Cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Casteren, Adam; Codd, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    Insects are successful terrestrial organisms able to locomote over a wide range of obstacles and substrates. This study investigated how foot morphology (tarsal structure) correlates with substrate adhesion and ecological niche in the Madagascan hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa Schaum (Blattaria: Blaberidae). Using light and scanning electron microscopy, the morphology of the different structures of the tarsus of G. portentosa was analysed. Using an Instron® universal testing machine, a series of peak force experiments were then conducted to record the force required to lift the cockroaches off different substrates. G. portentosa was pulled off 10 different substrates, which consisted of smooth Perspex; Perspex scored at 1cm intervals; Perspex hatched at 1 cm, 0.5 cm, and 1 mm intervals; Perspex abraded with fine grade sandpaper; Perspex abraded with coarse grade sandpaper; wood; glass; and Teflon. A clear relationship was seen where an increase in scoring on the Perspex caused a decrease in adhesive ability of G. portentosa. This may be due to there being adequate contact area for the attachment of the pads and to allow the claws to engage. The results obtained suggest that to achieve the greatest adhesion to substrates, G. portentosa uses a combined effect of both adhesive pads and pretarsal claws. Adhesion to a wide range of substrates appears to be an adaptation to life as a wingless forest floor dweller. PMID:20575737

  13. The Effects of Maekmoondong-Tang on Cockroach Extract-Induced Allergic Asthma

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    Soojin Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maekmoondong-tang (MMDT has long been used in Asian countries to treat respiratory diseases. However, the precise mechanisms underlying its effects on asthma are unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of MMDT in a cockroach allergen (CKA-induced animal model of allergic asthma. After being challenged with CKA, the number of macrophages, eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and total cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was evaluated. The Th2 specific cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 were also analyzed in BALF along with IgE levels in serum. For histological analysis, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS staining, and immunohistochemical staining were performed. In addition, airway hyperresponsiveness was assessed by noninvasive plethysmography. The cellular profiles and histopathologic analysis demonstrated that peribronchial and perivascular inflammatory cell infiltrates were significantly decreased in the MMDT-treated groups compared with the cockroach extract-injected (CKA groups. In addition, the IgE, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 levels were significantly decreased in the MMDT group. MMDT treatment also significantly attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness. These results demonstrated that MMDT significantly reduced the hallmark signs of asthma: elevated serum IgE, airway eosinophilia, airway remodeling, mucus hypersecretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness. The remarkable antiasthmatic effects of MMDT suggest its therapeutic potential in allergic asthma treatment.

  14. Cellular elements for seeing in the dark: voltage-dependent conductances in cockroach photoreceptors

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    Salmela Iikka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of voltage-dependent conductances in sensory information processing is well-established in insect photoreceptors. Here we present the characterization of electrical properties in photoreceptors of the cockroach (Periplaneta americana, a nocturnal insect with a visual system adapted for dim light. Results Whole-cell patch-clamped photoreceptors had high capacitances and input resistances, indicating large photosensitive rhabdomeres suitable for efficient photon capture and amplification of small photocurrents at low light levels. Two voltage-dependent potassium conductances were found in the photoreceptors: a delayed rectifier type (KDR and a fast transient inactivating type (KA. Activation of KDR occurred during physiological voltage responses induced by light stimulation, whereas KA was nearly fully inactivated already at the dark resting potential. In addition, hyperpolarization of photoreceptors activated a small-amplitude inward-rectifying (IR current mediated at least partially by chloride. Computer simulations showed that KDR shapes light responses by opposing the light-induced depolarization and speeding up the membrane time constant, whereas KA and IR have a negligible role in the majority of cells. However, larger KA conductances were found in smaller and rapidly adapting photoreceptors, where KA could have a functional role. Conclusions The relative expression of KA and KDR in cockroach photoreceptors was opposite to the previously hypothesized framework for dark-active insects, necessitating further comparative work on the conductances. In general, the varying deployment of stereotypical K+ conductances in insect photoreceptors highlights their functional flexibility in neural coding.

  15. Linear alcohol ethoxylates: insecticidal and synergistic effects on German cockroaches (Blattodea: Blattellidae) and other insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Steven R; Appel, Arthur G

    2007-06-01

    Sixteen linear ethoxylated alcohol surfactants (AEOs) were studied to determine their contact insecticidal activity to adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae). Within groups of AEOs of equal carbon chain length, insecticidal activity, measured as LT50 values (in minutes) and 24-h mortality after treatment, was inversely related to the amount of ethoxylation. There was a highly significant negative relationship between the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) value of the AEO and contact toxicity. The AEO with the lowest HLB value, Tomadol 23-1 (HLB = 3.7), produced the greatest 24-h cockroach mortality. The contact activity of Tomadol 23-1 was evaluated against a wide range of other insect species. Most species were killed within 24 h by direct exposure (1-4 microl of a 50% ethanol solution) to Tomadol 23-1 or by spray exposure to an aqueous solution. Tomadol 23-1, at a sublethal concentration, was tested in combination with representative members of the carbamate, nicotinoid, organophosphate, pyrethrum, pyrethroid, and pyrrole insecticide classes. Significant synergism was demonstrated in combinations of Tomadol 23-1 and chlorfenapyr, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and pyrethrum. Tomadol 23-1 significantly reduced the insecticidal activity of propoxur, suggesting antagonism. The insecticidal activity of Tomadol 23-1 was synergized by coapplication with a sublethal amount of piperonyl butoxide, indicating the involvement of cytochrome P450 microsomal monooxygenases in insect metabolism of AEO surfactants.

  16. Central and peripheral neurotoxicity induced by the Jack Bean Urease (JBU) in Nauphoeta cinerea cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrazoni, Thiago; de Avila Heberle, Marines; Perin, Ana Paula Artusi; Zanatta, Ana Paula; Rodrigues, Polyana Veloso; Dos Santos, Fabiola Duarte Machado; de Almeida, Carlos Gabriel Moreira; Vaz Breda, Ricardo; Dos Santos, Douglas Silva; Pinto, Paulo Marcos; da Costa, Jaderson Costa; Carlini, Celia Regina; Dal Belo, Cháriston André

    2016-08-10

    Ureases of Canavalia ensiformis are natural insecticides with a still elusive entomotoxic mode of action. We have investigated the mechanisms involved in the neurotoxicity induced by Jack Bean Urease (JBU) in Nauphoeta cinerea (Olivier). To carry out this study we have employed biochemical and neurophysiological analysis of different cockroach organ systems. The injection of the insects with JBU (0.75-6μg/g animal), although not lethal within 24h, caused significant inhibition of the brain acetylcholinesterase activity (60±5%, pcockroaches (pcockroaches, an effect prevented by bicuculline (5μg/g) (pcockroaches probably by interfering with the cholinergic neurotransmission. The neuromuscular blocking activity of JBU suggests an interplay between acetylcholine and GABA signaling. The search for novel natural molecules with insecticide potential has become a necessity more than an alternative. Understanding the mode of action of candidate molecules is a crucial step towards the development of new bioinsecticides. The present study focused on the neurotoxicity of Canavalia ensiformis urease, a natural insecticide, in cockroaches and revealed interferences on the cholinergic, octopaminergic and GABA-ergic pathways as part of its entomotoxic mode of action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Transplantation immunity in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana: the rejection of integumentary grafts from Blatta orientalis.

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    Karp, R D; Meade, C C

    1993-01-01

    The results from several previous studies have indicated that the American cockroach is able to respond to integumentary xenografts, but doubt remained as to whether cockroaches could effectively discriminate between self and allogeneic differences. This was emphasized by the fact that while one study reported that Periplaneta americana responded to grafts donated by the closely related genus Blatta orientalis, the data reported elsewhere, using a different assay system, found no such reactivity. Since we have subsequently reported, using a direct histological assay, that Periplaneta can in fact recognize and destroy integumentary allografts, we initiated a study to hopefully sort out the enigma presented by previous data using Blatta as a transplant donor. Integument from Blatta orientalis was transplanted orthotopically onto Periplaneta americana, and at various time points post-transplant, scored histologically for the survival of the subcuticular epidermal layer. The results clearly demonstrated that Periplaneta reacted to the Blatta tissue, because approximately 82% of the grafts had the epidermal layer destroyed by day 7 posttransplant. The kinetics of the response to Blatta was more in line with our allograft data, which would be in agreement with other work indicating that the closer the donor and recipient are on the phylogenetic tree, the less intense the reactivity to the foreign transplant.

  18. Help Your Child Gain Control Over Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a pet inside, keep it out of your child’s bedroom. • Keep pets off of your furniture. • Vacuum carpets and furniture when your child is not around. Vacuum every week to help control pet hair and dust. 23 Cockroaches (“roaches” or other “ ...

  19. Advanced glycation end products receptor RAGE controls myocardial dysfunction and oxidative stress in high-fat fed mice by sustaining mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy-lysosome pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yichi; Wang, Lei; Delguste, Florian; Durand, Arthur; Guilbaud, Axel; Rousselin, Clementine; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Tessier, Frédéric; Boulanger, Eric; Neviere, Remi

    2017-08-19

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are recognized as major contributors of cardiovascular damage in diabetes and high fat diet (HFD) fed mice. Blockade of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) attenuates vascular oxidative stress and development of atherosclerosis. We tested whether HFD-induced myocardial dysfunction would be reversed in RAGE deficiency mice, in association with changes in oxidative stress damage, mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial fission and autophagy-lysosomal pathway. Cardiac antioxidant capacity was upregulated in RAGE(-)/(-) mice under normal diet as evidenced by increased superoxide dismutase and sirtuin mRNA expressions. Mitochondrial fragmentation and mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 and Fis1 expressions were increased in RAGE(-)/(-) mice. Autophagy-related protein expressions and cathepsin-L activity were increased in RAGE(-)/(-) mice suggesting sustained autophagy-lysosomal flux. HFD induced mitochondrial respiration defects, cardiac contractile dysfunction, disrupted mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy inhibition, which were partially prevented in RAGE(-)/(-) mice. Our results suggest that cardioprotection against HFD in RAGE(-)/(-) mice include reactivation of autophagy, as inhibition of autophagic flux by chloroquine fully abrogated beneficial myocardial effects and its stimulation by rapamycin improved myocardial function in HFD wild type mice. As mitochondrial fission is necessary to mitophagy, increased fragmentation of mitochondrial network in HFD RAGE(-)/(-) mice may have facilitated removal of damaged mitochondria leading to better mitochondrial quality control. In conclusion, modulation of RAGE pathway may improve mitochondrial damage and myocardial dysfunction in HFD mice. Attenuation of cardiac oxidative stress and maintenance of healthy mitochondria population ensuring adequate energy supply may be involved in myocardial protection against HFD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Exendin-4 improves blood glucose control in both young and aging normal non-diabetic mice, possible contribution of beta cell independent effects.

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    Rongrong Fan

    Full Text Available AIMS: Type 2 diabetes is highly prevalent in the elderly population. Glucagon like Peptide-1 mimetic such as exendin-4 augments post-prandial insulin secretion. However, the potential influence of aging on the therapeutic effects of this peptide has not been well studied. In this study, we examined the glucose regulatory effects of exendin-4 in mice with different ages. METHODS: We treated 3-month and 20 to 22-month old C57/DBA mice with 10 nM/kg exendin-4 for 10 days with measurements of blood glucose and body weight. We performed OGTT and ITT to evaluate the glucose response and insulin sensitivity. Islet morphology and beta cell mass were measured by immuno-staining and beta cell proliferation was evaluated by BrdU incorporation and PCNA staining. Real-time PCR and western blot were used to measure protein changes in the liver tissue after exendin-4 treatment. RESULTS: Exendin-4 treatment improved glycemic control in both 3-month and 20 to 22-month old mice. In both groups of mice, the blood glucose lowering effect was independent of beta cell function as indicated by unchanged beta cell proliferation, insulin secretion or beta cell mass. Moreover, we found that exendin-4 treatment increased hepatic AKT and FOXO1 phosphorylation and inhibited glucose-6-phosphotase (G6P and Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK expression in young mice, but this effect was attenuated in aging mice while the insulin sensitivity showed no change in the young group but significantly improved in aging mice. CONCLUSION: Based on these data, we conclude that the glucose lowering effect of exendin-4 in normal non-diabetic mice was not blunted by aging. We further showed that although there was slight difference in the glucose modulating mechanism of exendin-4 therapy in young and aged mice, the improved glucose control seemed uncorrelated with increased beta cell mass or insulin secretion.

  1. Research Advance of Glycobiology of Cockroach%蟑螂糖生物学的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何旭; 彭丽

    2011-01-01

    With the development of molecular biology and related science and technology, glycobiology taken sugar chain as the main study subject is accelerating it development, and the amazing secret of many sugar chains has been revealed.Human is no longer just understand carbohydrate as the body's structure and energy soerce.Cockroaches is one of the oldest and the most vital insect groups on earth.In recent years,by taken amino acids and mucopolysaccharides of cockroaches as the main raw materials, a series of insects'medicine have been developed successfully.This has changed the traditional view of human on cockroaches, and also increased the value of cockroaches glycobiology.International advances of the research on cockroach glycobiology are reviewed in this paper.%随着分子生物学的兴起和科学技术的发展,以糖链为主要研究对象的糖生物学时代正在加速到来,并揭示出许多糖链的惊人奥秘,人类已不再把糖类仅仅作为机体的结构和能源物质来认识.蟑螂是地球上最古老、生命力最强的昆虫类群之一.近年来,以蟑螂体内氨基酸和黏多糖为主要原料的系列昆虫药先后研制成功,改变了人类对蟑螂的传统看法,也提高了蟑螂糖生物学的研究价值.

  2. Arthromitus (Bacillus cereus) symbionts in the cockroach Blaberus giganteus: dietary influences on bacterial development and population density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, L.; Jorgensen, J.; Haselton, A.; Pitt, A.; Rudner, R.; Margulis, L.

    1999-01-01

    The filamentous spore-forming bacterium Arthromitus, discovered in termites, millipedes, sow bugs and other soil-dwelling arthropods by Leidy (1850), is the intestinal stage of Bacillus cereus. We extend the range of Arthromitus habitats to include the hindgut of Blaberus giganteus, the large tropical American cockroach. The occurrence and morphology of the intestinal form of the bacillus were compared in individual cockroaches (n=24) placed on four different diet regimes: diurnally maintained insects fed (1) dog food, (2) soy protein only, (3)purified cellulose only, and (4) a dog food-fed group maintained in continuous darkness. Food quality exerted strong influence on population densities and developmental stages of the filamentous bacterium and on fecal pellet composition. The most dramatic rise in Arthromitus populations, defined as the spore-forming filament intestinal stage, occurred in adult cockroaches kept in the dark on a dog food diet. Limited intake of cellulose or protein alone reduced both the frequency of Arthromitus filaments and the rate of weight gain of the insects. Spores isolated from termites, sow bugs, cockroaches and moths, grown on various hard surfaces display a branching mobility and resistance to antibiotics characteristic to group I Bacilli whose members include B. cereus, B. circulans, B. alvei and B. macerans. DNA isolated from pure cultures of these bacilli taken from the guts of Blaberus giganteus (cockroach), Junonia coenia (moth), Porcellio scaber (sow bug) and Cryptotermes brevis (termite) and subjected to Southern hybridization with a 23S-5S B. subtilis ribosomal sequence probe verified that they are indistinguishable from laboratory strains of Bacillus cereus.

  3. Distribution of Thelastomatoid Nematodes (Nematoda: Oxyurida) in Endemic and Introduced Cockroaches on the Galápagos Island Archipelago, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Devinn; Carreno, Ramon A; Herrera, Henri

    2015-08-01

    The thelastomatoid pinworm fauna (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) was surveyed in 3 endemic species and 6 introduced species of cockroach hosts (Insecta: Blattaria) in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. A total of 658 host specimens were examined from preserved collections that had been collected between 1966 and 2003 from 7 islands in the archipelago. Eight species of pinworms were identified from these cockroach hosts, including the dominant species Cephalobellus ovumglutinosus and a Severianoia sp. as well as Leidynema appendiculata, Hammerschmidtiella diesingi, an unidentified Cephalobellus species resembling Cephalobellus magalhaesi, an unidentified Protrellus species closely resembling Protrellus shamimi, and an undescribed Blattophila sp. Five new host records are identified for C. ovumglutinosus including the endemic Galápagos cockroaches Chorisoneura carpenteri, Ischnoptera snodgrassii, and Ischnoptera santacruzensis. These endemics were also infected with an undescribed Blatticola sp. Other species recorded resemble known pinworms from other hosts around the world. Prevalence between islands and between host species was variable, but total prevalence for individual pinworm species was consistently low (<10%). A single host specimen examined was infected with more than 1 pinworm species; otherwise only a single species was observed in each infected host. At least 1 introduced pinworm species carried to the islands via invasive cockroach hosts was present in endemic host species, but several globally widespread introduced pinworm species were absent from endemic cockroaches. Santa Cruz was inhabited by the greatest number of pinworm species, likely due to a higher rate of invasive host introduction. This survey, the first from this region, showed that the distribution and transmission of pinworms in the Galápagos Islands is complex and may provide future models of invertebrate dispersal and speciation in an ecosystem already rich with examples of

  4. Molecular cloning of Per a 1 and definition of the cross-reactive Group 1 cockroach allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melén, E; Pomés, A; Vailes, L D; Arruda, L K; Chapman, M D

    1999-05-01

    Sensitization to allergens produced by German and American cockroaches is strongly associated with the cause of asthma. Most of the cockroach allergens identified to date have been species specific. The aim of this study was to identify and sequence cross-reactive cockroach allergens. A Periplaneta americana cDNA library was screened with IgE antibody from patients in the United States who were allergic to cockroach and who were sensitized to Blattella germanica. A cDNA clone was isolated that contained an 870-bp sequence with a 695-bp open reading frame, encoding a 231 amino acid protein, molecular weight 26.2 kd. Plaque immunoassays using anti-Bla g 1 and anti-Per a 1 mAbs and a panel of human IgE antibodies showed that the protein expressed by these clones was Per a 1. Sequence homology searches showed that Per a 1 was homologous to 5 previously reported, but unidentified, sequences from B germanica and P americana. These sequences encoded proteins with multiple molecular sizes containing approximately 100 amino acid repeats. The Per a 1 sequence also showed 31% identity to a mosquito precursor protein, ANG12, which may be involved in digestion. The Per a 1 cDNA was expressed in Pichia pastoris to produce purified recombinant allergen (yield, 14 mg/L). The results define the molecular structure and antigenic relationships between a new family of cross-reactive "Group 1" allergens produced by both P americana and B germanica. These recombinant allergens and specific mAbs will provide tools to improve the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases caused by cockroaches.

  5. Distribution of serotonergic and dopaminergic nerve fibers in the salivary gland complex of the cockroach Periplaneta americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kühnel Dana

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cockroach salivary gland consists of secretory acini with peripheral ion-transporting cells and central protein-producing cells, an extensive duct system, and a pair of reservoirs. Salivation is controled by serotonergic and dopaminergic innervation. Serotonin stimulates the secretion of a protein-rich saliva, dopamine causes the production of a saliva without proteins. These findings suggest a model in which serotonin acts on the central cells and possibly other cell types, and dopamine acts selectively on the ion-transporting cells. To examine this model, we have analyzed the spatial relationship of dopaminergic and serotonergic nerve fibers to the various cell types. Results The acinar tissue is entangled in a meshwork of serotonergic and dopaminergic varicose fibers. Dopaminergic fibers reside only at the surface of the acini next to the peripheral cells. Serotonergic fibers invade the acini and form a dense network between central cells. Salivary duct segments close to the acini are locally associated with dopaminergic and serotonergic fibers, whereas duct segments further downstream have only dopaminergic fibers on their surface and within the epithelium. In addition, the reservoirs have both a dopaminergic and a serotonergic innervation. Conclusion Our results suggest that dopamine is released on the acinar surface, close to peripheral cells, and along the entire duct system. Serotonin is probably released close to peripheral and central cells, and at initial segments of the duct system. Moreover, the presence of serotonergic and dopaminergic fiber terminals on the reservoir indicates that the functions of this structure are also regulated by dopamine and serotonin.

  6. Long-term ketogenic diet contributes to glycemic control but promotes lipid accumulation and hepatic steatosis in type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Qin, Juliang; Zhao, Yihan; Shi, Jueping; Lan, Rong; Gan, Yunqiu; Ren, Hua; Zhu, Bing; Qian, Min; Du, Bing

    2016-04-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) has been widely used in weight and glycemic control, although potential side effects of long-term KD treatment have caused persistent concern. In this study, we hypothesized that the KD would ameliorate the progression of diabetes but lead to disruptions in lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of diabetes. In type 2 diabetic mouse model, mice were fed a high-fat diet and administered streptozotocin treatment before given the test diets for 8 weeks. Subsequently, ameliorated glucose and insulin tolerance in KD-fed diabetic mice was found, although the body weight of high-fat diet- and KD-fed mice was similar. Interestingly, the weight of adipose tissue in KD mice was greater than in the other groups. The KD diet resulted in higher serum triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels in diabetic mice. Moreover, the KD-fed mice showed greater hepatic lipid accumulation. Mice fed the KD showed significant changes in several key genes such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein, fibroblast growth factor 21, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, which are all important in metabolism. In summary, KD ameliorates glucose and insulin tolerance in a mouse model of diabetes, but severe hepatic lipid accumulation and hepatic steatosis were observed, which should be considered carefully in the long-term application of KD.

  7. Transcriptomic Insights into the Response of Placenta and Decidua Basalis to the CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide Stimulation in Non-Obese Diabetic Mice and Wild-Type Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Rui Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine infection is one of the most frequent causes of miscarriage. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN can mimic intrauterine infection. CpG ODN-induced embryo-resorption was observed consistently in the NK-cell deficient non-obese diabetic (NOD mice but not in the wild-type (WT mice. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of differential pregnancy outcomes, differentially expressed genes (DEGs in the placenta and decidua basalis was revealed by RNA-Seq with CpG ODN or control ODN treatment. Common DEGs in the WT and NOD mice were enriched in antimicrobial/antibacterial humoral responses that may be activated as a primary response to bacterial infection. The susceptibility to CpG ODN-induced embryo-resorption in the NOD mice might mainly be attributed to M1 macrophage polarization and the immunodeficient status, such as the down-regulation in antigen processing and presentation, allograft rejection, and natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity. In contrast, the WT mice with normal immune systems could activate multiple immune responses and be resistant to CpG ODN-induced embryo-resorption, such as M2 macrophage differentiation and activation regulated by complement component C1q and peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor (PPAR signaling pathways. Collectively, this study suggests that the immunodeficient status of NOD mice and the macrophage polarization regulated by C1q and PPAR signaling might be the basis for differential pregnancy outcomes between the NOD and WT mice.

  8. The fine structure of colleterial glands in two cockroaches and three termites, including a detailed study of Cryptocercus punctulatus (Blattaria, Cryptocercidae) and Mastotermes darwiniensis (Isoptera, Mastotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courrent, Annie; Quennedey, André; Nalepa, Christine A; Robert, Alain; Lenz, Michael; Bordereau, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The colleterial glands of insects are organs associated with the female genital apparatus. In cockroaches, these glands produce secretions that cover two parallel rows of eggs during oviposition, and in oviparous species, these secretions become the tanned, sculpted, rigid outer casing of the ootheca. The goal of this study was to compare the gross anatomy of the colleterial glands and the ultrastructure of their component tubules in the phylogenetically significant genera Cryptocercus (Blattaria) and Mastotermes (Isoptera). Recent studies indicate that cockroaches in the genus Cryptocercus are the sister group of termites, and Mastotermes is the only termite known to produce a cockroach-like ootheca. One additional oviparous cockroach, Therea, and two additional termites, Zootermopsis and Pseudacanthotermes, were also examined. As in other cockroaches, the colleterial glands of Cryptocercus and Therea are asymmetrical, with a well developed bipartite left gland and a smaller right gland. In the termites Mastotermes, Zootermopsis, and Pseudacanthotermes, the colleterial glands are composed of a well-developed, paired, anterior gland and a small posterior gland; histological staining and cytological evidence suggest that these are homologues of the left and the right colleterial glands of cockroaches, respectively. At the ultrastructural level, colleterial gland tubules are made of cells belonging to a modified class 1 type cell in the cockroaches, in Mastotermes, and in Zootermopsis; the latter lays its eggs singly, without a surrounding ootheca-like structure. In the advanced termite Pseudacanthotermes, the tubules are made of secretory units belonging to the class 3 cell type. This study demonstrates that the cytological characteristics of colleterial glands in basal termites are similar to those of cockroaches, whether the termite secretes an oothecal casing that covers two parallel rows of eggs, as in Mastotermes, or lays its eggs singly, as in Zootermopsis

  9. Control of Trypanosoma cruzi infection and changes in T-cell populations induced by a therapeutic DNA vaccine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Estrella, Hiatzy; Hummel-Newell, Caroline; Sanchez-Burgos, Gilma; Escobedo-Ortegon, Javier; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Arjona-Torres, Arletty; Dumonteil, Eric

    2006-03-15

    Previous work showed that immunotherapy with a DNA vaccine encoding Trypanosoma cruzi antigen TSA-1 reduced cardiac tissue damage and improved survival in mice when administered during the acute or chronic phases of T. cruzi infection. In the present study, we investigated changes in T-cell populations induced by DNA vaccine immunotherapy. ICR mice were infected with 500 T. cruzi blood trypomastigotes and treated during the acute or chronic phases with two 100 microg doses of DNA vaccine. Analysis of stained splenocytes by flow cytometry indicated that the therapeutic vaccine induced a rapid increase in the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in both the acute and chronic phases. Also, there was a rapid increase in T. cruzi-specific IFNgamma-producing CD8+ T cells following treatment during the chronic phase. The effects of these changes on the control of infection required longer time periods to be detectable but resulted in a reduction in myocarditis and T. cruzi parasite burden in both phases of the infection, as assessed by histopathologic analysis and semi-quantitative PCR detection of T. cruzi in cardiac tissue. These results suggest that DNA vaccines that induce CD8+ T-cells activity and IFNgamma production, would be good candidates for effective therapeutic vaccination against T. cruzi infection.

  10. Interleukin-1 receptor is a target for adjunctive control of diazepam-refractory status epilepticus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng-Hao; Wang, Yi; Tao, An-Feng; Yu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Zu, Yun-Yun; Zhang, Shi-Hong; Chen, Zhong

    2016-07-22

    Proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) may accumulate in the brain during status epilepticus, but whether it contributes to the progressive refractoriness of SE remains unclear. By using a kainic acid-induced SE mice model, we tested whether pharmacological blockade or knock-out of interleukin-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) could influence the diazepam-refractory phenomenon of prolonged SE. We confirmed diazepam failed to terminate prolonged SE (allowed to continue for 40min before diazepam administration). The expression level of IL-1β in the hippocampus during prolonged SE was significantly higher than that of baseline. Interestingly, prolonged SE was not diazepam-refractory in IL-1R1 knock-out mice. Moreover, administration of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) combined with diazepam terminated established prolonged SE, while IL-1RA alone is not capable to terminate prolonged SE. On the contrary, administration of recombinant human IL-1β weakens the efficacy of diazepam by prolonging its latency to terminate non-prolonged SE. Thus, the present study provides direct evidence that accumulated IL-1β contributed to the diazepam refractoriness of prolonged SE, and suggests that interleukin-1 receptor is a target for adjunctive control of diazepam-refractory SE.

  11. The First Report of Drug Resistant Bacteria Isolated from the Brown-Banded Cockroach, Supella longipalpa, in Ahvaz, South-western Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Vazirianzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa is known as a carrier of pathogenic bacteria in urban environments, but its role is not well documented regarding the carriage of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance bacteria isolated from the brown-banded cockroach in Ahvaz, south west of Iran.Totally 39 cockroaches were collected from kitchen area of houses and identified. All specimens were cultured to isolate the bacterial agents on blood agar and MacConky agar media. The microorganisms were identified using necessary differential and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed for isolated organisms by Kirby-Bauer's disk diffusion according to NCLI guideline, using 18 antibiotics.From the 39 collected S. langipalpa, 179 bacterial agents were isolated, 92 of alimentary ducts and 87 of external body surfaces. Isolated bacteria from cockroaches were identified as Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Proteus spp., coagulase negative staphylococci, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus species. The pattern resistance rates were determined for gram negative bacilli and gram positive cocci regarding 18 antibiotics.The brown-banded cockroach can be involved in the spread of drug resistant bacteria and increases the possibility of contacting human environment to drug resistant bacteria. Therefore, the potential of removing this insect should be improved. This is the first original report of drug resistant bacteria isolated from the brown-banded cockroach of Iran.

  12. Liver Suction-Mediated Transfection in Mice Using a Pressure-Controlled Computer System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shimizu, Kazunori; Zhang, Guangyuan; Kawakami, Shigeru; Taniguchi, Yota; Hayashi, Kouji; Hashida, Mitsuru; Konishi, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    .... Therefore, in the present study, we assembled a computer system to control the suction pressure and investigate the effects of the suction pressure conditions on the efficiency of the liver suction...

  13. Oral toxicity, formulation effects, and field performance of flufenoxuron against the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, B L; Appel, A G; Demark, J J; Bennett, G W

    1992-08-01

    Laboratory and field studies on the benzoylphenyl urea (BPU) chitin synthetase inhibitor flufenoxuron (DPX EY-059) showed great potential for its use in suppressing infestations of German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). When fed continuously to fifth (last) instars, the LC50 of flufenoxuron was estimated at 0.82 ppm (95% FL, 0.76-0.87 ppm). A rating scale specific for BPU effects was developed and shown to be positively correlated with the insect's exposure to concentration of flufenoxuron. Manipulating the particle size of wettable powder formulations of flufenoxuron significantly altered their activity in contact bioassays. Larger particles (volume mean diameter, 12.2 mu; range, 10-20 mu) were more active. Field trials in multifamily housing with this wettable powder formulation at 0.033 and 0.066% (AI) achieved high level (greater than 80%) population suppression within 8 wk of treatment. The potential for the use of flufenoxuron in B. germanica management programs is discussed.

  14. Establishing health standards for indoor foreign proteins related to asthma: Dust mite, cat and cockroach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platts-Mills, T.A.E.; Chapman, M.D.; Pollart, S.M.; Heymann, P.W.; Luczynska, C.M. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (United States))

    1990-01-01

    There is no doubt that a large number of individuals become allergic to foreign proteins that are predominantly or exclusively present indoors. In each case this immune response can be demonstrated either by immediate skin test responses or by measuring serum IgE antibodies. It has also been obvious for some time that patients presenting with asthma, perennial rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have an increased prevalence of IgE antibodies to these indoor allergens. More recently several epidemiological surveys have suggested that both mite exposure and IgE antibodies are important risk factors for asthma. The present situation is that assays have been developed capable of measuring the presence of mite, cockroach and cat allergens in house dust. Further clinical studies will be necessary to test the proposed standards for mite allergens and to define risk levels for other allergens.

  15. Energetic Cost of Subacute Chlorpyrifos Intoxication in the German Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Kristensen, Michael

    2006-01-01

    production increased in the susceptible strain ...  30 min after exposure and declined again after ... 120 min to the basal level. The energetic cost of the exposure to the insecticide corresponds ... 5 h of normal metabolism. There were no signifcant differences in heat production after toxic treatment......The energetic cost of a sublethal treatment with chlorpyrifos was estimated by use of direct microcalorimetry to measure metabolic heat in susceptible and resistant strains of the German cockroach Blattella germanica L. Moreover, one of the detoxifcation enzyme systems known to be involved...... in any of the resistant strains. It was shown that measurement of heat production is a sensitive method to prove toxic reactions after exposure to a low dose of insecticide. The use of microcalorimetry as a promising biomarker technology was shown....

  16. Tergal and pleural structures contribute to the formation of ectopic prothoracic wings in cockroaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias-Neto, Moysés

    2016-01-01

    Wings were a fundamental morphological innovation for the adaptive radiation of insects, the most diversified group among all animals. Pterygote insects have two pairs of wings, the mesothoracic (T2) forewings and the metathoracic (T3) hindwings, whereas the prothorax (T1) is wingless. Using RNA interference approaches, we have found that the gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) determines the wingless identity of T1 in the cockroach Blattella germanica. Interference of Scr triggers the formation of ectopic wing structures in T1, which are formed from the expansion of the latero-posterior region of the pronotum, along with a contribution of the epimeron, a pleurite of T1. These data support the theory of a dual origin for insect wings, from pronotal (tergal origin theory) and pleural (pleural origin theory) structures and genes. PMID:27853616

  17. Impact of deltamethrin on cockroaches (Periplaneta americana and its residue on environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Puji Astuti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Penggunaan insektisida secara intensif tidak hanya memberikan dampak pada spesies target, namun juga pada spesies non-target dan lingkungan. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan penilaian pengaruh residu deltametrin terhadap kecoa (Periplanetaamericana, ikan lele (Clarias batrachus, dan nila (Oreochromis niloticus. Selain itu laju infiltrasi residu pada tipe tanah dengan komposisi tanah yang berbeda juga diukur. Metode: Percobaan dilakukan terhadap kecoa yang dikembangbiakan  di laboratorium di Institut Pertanian Bogor. Perlakuan dengan tiga ulangan dan lima taraf konsentrasi deltamethrin: 0.8%, 0.4%, 0.2%, 0.1% and 0.05% (v/v dilakukan untuk mengukur pengaruh residu terhadap kecoa selama 24 dan 48 jam. Penentuan LC  dilakukan dengan analisis Probit. Konsentrasi letal yang didapatkan kemudiandiujikan kepada ikan lele dan nila dengan metode semprot. Untuk perbandingan, uji efek organofosfat dengan konsentrasi 1 ppm dan 10 ppm dilakukan melalui metode soaking kepada dua jenis ikan tersebut. Laju infiltrasi residu pada tiga tipe komposisi tanah diukur menggunakan lysimeter. Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa LC50 residu deltamethrin terhadap kecoa tercapai pada konsentrasi 0,2% pada 24-jam perlakuan. Lima puluh persen ikan nila mati pada perlakuan deltamethrin0,2% selama 24 jam. Laju infiltrasi residu lebih tinggi pada jenis tanah berpasir (5 ml/menit dibandingkan jenis tanah yang didominasi tanah liat. Kesimpulan: Selain memiliki efek mematikan pada kecoa, Deltamethrin 0,2% mencemari tanah dan air, serta membunuh ikan nila (O. niloticus. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:94-9Kata kunci: deltamethrin, efek residu, P. americana, O. niloticus, tanahAbstractBackground: Intensive use of chemical insecticides not only affect the targetspecies, but also non-target species and environment. In this study, we examined residual effect of deltamethrin on cockroaches (Periplaneta americana, catfishes (Clarias batrachus and nile

  18. Light-mimicking cockroaches indicate Tertiary origin of recent terrestrial luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vršanský, Peter; Chorvát, Dušan; Fritzsche, Ingo; Hain, Miroslav; Ševčík, Robert

    2012-09-01

    Bioluminescence is a common feature of the communication and defence of marine organisms, but this phenomenon is highly restricted in the terrestrial biota. Here, we present a geographical distribution of only the third order of luminescent insects—luminescent cockroaches, with all 13 known and/or herein reported new living species (based on deposited specimens). We show that, for the first time, photo-characteristics of three examined species are nearly identical with those of toxic luminescent click beetles, which they mimic. These observations are the evidence for the mimicry by light—a new type of defensive, Batesian and interordinal mimicry. Our analysis surprisingly reveals an evolutionary novelty of all living luminescent insects, while in the sea (and possibly in the soil) luminescence is present also phylogenetically in very primitive organisms.

  19. Impact of deltamethrin on cockroaches (Periplaneta americana and its residue on environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Puji Astuti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Penggunaan insektisida secara intensif tidak hanya memberikan dampak pada spesies target, namun juga pada spesies non-target dan lingkungan. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan penilaian pengaruh residu deltametrin terhadap kecoa (Periplanetaamericana, ikan lele (Clarias batrachus, dan nila (Oreochromis niloticus. Selain itu laju infiltrasi residu pada tipe tanah dengan komposisi tanah yang berbeda juga diukur. Metode: Percobaan dilakukan terhadap kecoa yang dikembangbiakan  di laboratorium di Institut Pertanian Bogor. Perlakuan dengan tiga ulangan dan lima taraf konsentrasi deltamethrin: 0.8%, 0.4%, 0.2%, 0.1% and 0.05% (v/v dilakukan untuk mengukur pengaruh residu terhadap kecoa selama 24 dan 48 jam. Penentuan LC  dilakukan dengan analisis Probit. Konsentrasi letal yang didapatkan kemudiandiujikan kepada ikan lele dan nila dengan metode semprot. Untuk perbandingan, uji efek organofosfat dengan konsentrasi 1 ppm dan 10 ppm dilakukan melalui metode soaking kepada dua jenis ikan tersebut. Laju infiltrasi residu pada tiga tipe komposisi tanah diukur menggunakan lysimeter. Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa LC50 residu deltamethrin terhadap kecoa tercapai pada konsentrasi 0,2% pada 24-jam perlakuan. Lima puluh persen ikan nila mati pada perlakuan deltamethrin0,2% selama 24 jam. Laju infiltrasi residu lebih tinggi pada jenis tanah berpasir (5 ml/menit dibandingkan jenis tanah yang didominasi tanah liat. Kesimpulan: Selain memiliki efek mematikan pada kecoa, Deltamethrin 0,2% mencemari tanah dan air, serta membunuh ikan nila (O. niloticus. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:94-9Kata kunci: deltamethrin, efek residu, P. americana, O. niloticus, tanahAbstractBackground: Intensive use of chemical insecticides not only affect the targetspecies, but also non-target species and environment. In this study, we examined residual effect of deltamethrin on cockroaches (Periplaneta americana, catfishes (Clarias batrachus and nile

  20. Isolation and Characterization of α-Endosulfan Degrading Bacteria from the Microflora of Cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdal, Murat; Ozdal, Ozlem Gur; Alguri, Omer Faruk

    2016-01-01

    Extensive applications of organochlorine pesticides like endosulfan have led to the contamination of soil and environments. Five different bacteria were isolated from cockroaches living in pesticide contaminated environments. According to morphological, physiological, biochemical properties, and total cellular fatty acid profile by Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs), the isolates were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa G1, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia G2, Bacillus atrophaeus G3, Citrobacter amolonaticus G4 and Acinetobacter lwoffii G5. This is the first study on the bacterial flora of Blatta orientalis evaluated for the biodegradation of α-endosulfan. After 10 days of incubation, the biodegradation yields obtained from P. aeruginosa G1, S. maltophilia G2, B. atrophaeus G3, C. amolonaticus G4 and A. lwoffii G5 were 88.5% , 85.5%, 64.4%, 56.7% and 80.2%, respectively. As a result, these bacterial strains may be utilized for biodegradation of endosulfan polluted soil and environments.

  1. Testing decreasing variabililty of cockroach forewings through time using four Recent species: Blattella germanica,Polyphaga aegyptiaca, Shelfordella lateralis and Blaberus craniifer, with implications for the study of fossil cockroach forewings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew J. Ross

    2012-01-01

    Vr(s)ansk(y) (2000) considered there is decreasing variability in the forewings of cockroaches through time,based on a study of fossil and Recent species.This study tests his theory,based on a study of four Recent species of cockroaches:Blattella germanica (Blattellidae),Polyphaga aegyptiaca (Polyphagidae),Shelfordella lateralis (Blattidae) and Blaberus craniifer (Blaberidae).The new results,based on the coefficient of variation (CV) of the number of veins,indicate that Recent species can be more variable than fossil species and therefore do not support the theory.The results also show that at least 30 complete wings of the same species are required for a reliable CV value that is comparable between species.

  2. Environmental assessment and exposure reduction of cockroaches: a practice parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Jay; Chew, Ginger L; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Williams, P Brock; Grimes, Carl; Kennedy, Kevin; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Miller, J David; Bernstein, David; Blessing-Moore, Joann; Cox, Linda; Khan, David; Lang, David; Nicklas, Richard; Oppenheimer, John; Randolph, Christopher; Schuller, Diane; Spector, Sheldon; Tilles, Stephen A; Wallace, Dana; Seltzer, James; Sublett, James

    2013-10-01

    This parameter was developed by the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI); the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI); and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. The AAAAI and the ACAAI have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing "Environmental assessment and remediation: a practice parameter." This is a complete and comprehensive document at the current time. The medical environment is a changing environment, and not all recommendations will be appropriate for all patients. Because this document incorporated the efforts of many participants, no single person, including those who served on the Joint Task Force, is authorized to provide an official AAAAI or ACAAI interpretation of these practice parameters. Any request for information about or an interpretation of these practice parameters by the AAAAI or ACAAI should be directed to the Executive Offices of the AAAAI, the ACAAI, and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. These parameters are not designed for use by pharmaceutical companies in drug promotion. The findings and conclusions in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Published by Mosby, Inc.

  3. Hypersensitivity to house dust mite and cockroach is the most common allergy in north of iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Javad; Khademloo, Mohammad; Saffar, Mohammad Jafar; Rafiei, Alireza; Masiha, Farzad

    2010-12-01

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis are among the most common diseases in the world. The aim of this study was to detect, by skin prick test, aeroallergens in allergic patients in Sari, Mazandaran in north of Iran. This is a prospective study of skin prick test of aeroallergens in asthma, allergic rhinitis and their combination with clinical diagnosis. Three hundred and seventy five cases aged between 5 to 50 years, were referred to Tooba and Boo-Ali allergic centers of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences between December 2006 and July 2009. The aeroallergens studied included house dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), cockroaches, feather, aspergillus, Alternaria, pigweed, nettle, oak and maple. Of the studied individuals, 175 cases were males (46.7%) and 200 were females (53.3%), of which 156 (n=41.5%) reacted to allergen extracts. In asthma, allergic rhinitis and their combination, the respective positive percentages were 26.6%, 22.9%, and 32.6% for Dermatophagoides farinae; 26.6%, 25.3%, and 23.3% for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; 12.7%, 17.4%, and 11.6% for cockroaches and 16.5%, 4.7%, and 7.0% for the feather. Other allergens were positive up to 5 percent. Total IgE levels were elevated in 56.4%, 53% and 60.5% of asthmatic, allergic rhinitis and the combination group, respectively. Eosinophils count was elevated in 40.5%, 33.2% and 37.2% of the same groups, respectively. The hypersensitivity to house dust mites is very common in north of Iran which may be attributed to the warm and humid weather of this area.

  4. Identification and characterization of antibacterial compound(s) of cockroaches (Periplaneta americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Salwa Mansur; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Ong, Seng-Kai; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Anwar, Ayaz; Heard, Peter J; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain a significant threat to human health, contributing to more than 17 million deaths, annually. With the worsening trends of drug resistance, there is a need for newer and more powerful antimicrobial agents. We hypothesized that animals living in polluted environments are potential sources of antimicrobials. Under polluted milieus, organisms such as cockroaches encounter different types of microbes, including superbugs. Such creatures survive the onslaught of superbugs and are able to ward off disease by producing antimicrobial substances. Here, we characterized antibacterial properties in extracts of various body organs of cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) and showed potent antibacterial activity in crude brain extract against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1. The size-exclusion spin columns revealed that the active compound(s) are less than 10 kDa in molecular mass. Using cytotoxicity assays, it was observed that pre-treatment of bacteria with lysates inhibited bacteria-mediated host cell cytotoxicity. Using spectra obtained with LC-MS on Agilent 1290 infinity liquid chromatograph, coupled with an Agilent 6460 triple quadruple mass spectrometer, tissues lysates were analysed. Among hundreds of compounds, only a few homologous compounds were identified that contained the isoquinoline group, chromene derivatives, thiazine groups, imidazoles, pyrrole-containing analogs, sulfonamides, furanones, and flavanones and known to possess broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties and anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour, and analgesic properties. Further identification, characterization, and functional studies using individual compounds can act as a breakthrough in developing novel therapeutics against various pathogens including superbugs.

  5. Methoprene-tolerant (Met knockdown in the adult female cockroach, Diploptera punctata completely inhibits ovarian development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Marchal

    Full Text Available Independent of the design of the life cycle of any insect, their growth and reproduction are highly choreographed through the action of two versatile hormones: ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JH. However, the means by which JH can target tissues and exert its pleiotropic physiological effects is currently still not completely elucidated. Although the identity of the one JH receptor is currently still elusive, recent evidence seems to point to the product of the Methoprene-tolerant gene (Met as the most likely contender in transducing the action of JH. Studies on the role of this transcription factor have mostly been focused on immature insect stages. In this study we used the viviparous cockroach Diploptera punctata, a favorite model in studying JH endocrinology, to examine the role of Met during reproduction. A tissue distribution and developmental profile of transcript levels was determined for Met and its downstream partners during the first gonadotropic cycle of this cockroach. Using RNA interference, our study shows that silencing Met results in an arrest of basal oocyte development; vitellogenin is no longer transcribed in the fat body and no longer taken up by the ovary. Patency is not induced in these animals which fail to produce the characteristic profile of JH biosynthesis typical of the first gonadotropic cycle. Moreover, the ultrastructure of the follicle cells showed conspicuous whorls of rough endoplasmic reticulum and a failure to form chorion. Our study describes the role of Met on a cellular and physiological level during insect reproduction, and confirms the role of Met as a key factor in the JH signaling pathway.

  6. The effectiveness of the controlled release of simvastatin from β-TCP macrosphere in the treatment of OVX mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Joshua; Ito, Tomoko; Otsuka, Makoto; Ben-Nissan, Besim; Milthorpe, Bruce

    2016-03-01

    Simvastatin, a cholesterol treatment drug, has been shown to stimulate bone regeneration. As such, there has been an increase interest in the development of suitable materials and systems for the delivery of simvastatin. Without the appropriate dosage of simvastatin, the therapeutic effects on bone growth will be significantly reduced. Furthermore, similar to many pharmaceutical compounds, at high concentration simvastatin can cause various adverse side-effects. Given the associated side-effects with the usage of simvastatin, the development of suitable controlled drug release system is pertinent. Calcium phosphate in particularly beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) has been extensively studied and used as a carrier material for drug delivery system. In this study, Foraminifera exoskeletons were used as calcium carbonate precursor materials, which were hydrothermally converted to β-TCP as a carrier material for simvastatin. Natural marine exoskeletons posses interconnected and uniformly porous network capable of improving drug loading and release rate. To prolong the release of simvastatin, an apatite coating was made around the β-TCP sample and in vitro release studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed a significant decrease in release rate. Osteoporotic mice were used to examine the compare therapeutic effectiveness of β-TCP, β-TCP with simvastatin, apatite-coated β-TCP with simvastatin and direct injection of simvastatin near the right femur of the mice. Localized and systemic effect were compared with the femur of the non-implanted side (left) and showed that β-TCP with or without simvastatin was able to induce significant bone formation over 6 weeks. Mechanical analysis showed that apatite-coated β-TCP with simvastatin produced significantly stronger bones compared with other experimental groups. This study shows that natural exoskeletons with the appropriate structure can be successfully used as a drug delivery system for simvastatin and can its

  7. FGF9-Pitx2-FGF10 signaling controls cecal formation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Alam, Denise; Sala, Frederic G; Baptista, Sheryl; Galzote, Rosanna; Danopoulos, Soula; Tiozzo, Caterina; Gage, Philip; Grikscheit, Tracy; Warburton, David; Frey, Mark R; Bellusci, Saverio

    2012-09-15

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling to the epithelium and mesenchyme mediated by FGF10 and FGF9, respectively, controls cecal formation during embryonic development. In particular, mesenchymal FGF10 signals to the epithelium via FGFR2b to induce epithelial cecal progenitor cell proliferation. Yet the precise upstream mechanisms controlling mesenchymal FGF10 signaling are unknown. Complete deletion of Fgf9 as well as of Pitx2, a gene encoding a homeobox transcription factor, both lead to cecal agenesis. Herein, we used mouse genetic approaches to determine the precise contribution of the epithelium and/or mesenchyme tissue compartments in this process. Using tissue compartment specific Fgf9 versus Pitx2 loss of function approaches in the gut epithelium and/or mesenchyme, we determined that FGF9 signals to the mesenchyme via Pitx2 to induce mesenchymal Fgf10 expression, which in turn leads to epithelial cecal bud formation.

  8. Classifying the bacterial gut microbiota of termites and cockroaches: A curated phylogenetic reference database (DictDb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaelyan, Aram; Köhler, Tim; Lampert, Niclas; Rohland, Jeffrey; Boga, Hamadi; Meuser, Katja; Brune, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Recent developments in sequencing technology have given rise to a large number of studies that assess bacterial diversity and community structure in termite and cockroach guts based on large amplicon libraries of 16S rRNA genes. Although these studies have revealed important ecological and evolutionary patterns in the gut microbiota, classification of the short sequence reads is limited by the taxonomic depth and resolution of the reference databases used in the respective studies. Here, we present a curated reference database for accurate taxonomic analysis of the bacterial gut microbiota of dictyopteran insects. The Dictyopteran gut microbiota reference Database (DictDb) is based on the Silva database but was significantly expanded by the addition of clones from 11 mostly unexplored termite and cockroach groups, which increased the inventory of bacterial sequences from dictyopteran guts by 26%. The taxonomic depth and resolution of DictDb was significantly improved by a general revision of the taxonomic guide tree for all important lineages, including a detailed phylogenetic analysis of the Treponema and Alistipes complexes, the Fibrobacteres, and the TG3 phylum. The performance of this first documented version of DictDb (v. 3.0) using the revised taxonomic guide tree in the classification of short-read libraries obtained from termites and cockroaches was highly superior to that of the current Silva and RDP databases. DictDb uses an informative nomenclature that is consistent with the literature also for clades of uncultured bacteria and provides an invaluable tool for anyone exploring the gut community structure of termites and cockroaches.

  9. Ontogeny of hemocyanin in the ovoviviparous cockroach Blaptica dubia suggests an embryo-specific role in oxygen supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Christian; Schneuer, Marco; Burmester, Thorsten

    2010-05-01

    For a long time it had been assumed that specific oxygen transport proteins are absent in insects. Only recently it has been demonstrated that hemocyanins occur in the hemolymph of many ametabolous and hemimetabolous insect taxa, but not in the Eumetabola (Hemiptera+Holometabola). Therefore, the loss of respiratory hemocyanin in insects is not correlated with the evolution of an efficient tracheal system. The specific contribution of hemocyanin to oxygen supply in insects, however, has remained uncertain. Here we investigate the stage-specific expression of hemocyanin in the ovoviviparous cockroach Blaptica dubia (Blattaria), which consists of two distinct subunit types (Hc1 and Hc2). Employing quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting, we showed that the expression of hemocyanin is restricted to late embryos, thus being detectable also in whole female extracts and oothecae. Hemocyanin protein is also present in 1st instar nymphs, but not in later developmental stages. The ontogeny of hemocyanin in cockroaches is distinct from that known from Zygentoma and Plecoptera, in which hemocyanin occurs in both nymphal and adult stages. Our findings suggest a specific role of hemocyanin in embryonic cockroaches, which may be related to an enhanced oxygen supply in the oothecae. For some reason, the fundamental physiological changes associated to the evolution of holometaboly have made hemocyanin unnecessary.

  10. Inhibition of the alternative complement activation pathway in traumatic brain injury by a monoclonal anti-factor B antibody: a randomized placebo-controlled study in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holers V Michael

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The posttraumatic response to traumatic brain injury (TBI is characterized, in part, by activation of the innate immune response, including the complement system. We have recently shown that mice devoid of a functional alternative pathway of complement activation (factor B-/- mice are protected from complement-mediated neuroinflammation and neuropathology after TBI. In the present study, we extrapolated this knowledge from studies in genetically engineered mice to a pharmacological approach using a monoclonal anti-factor B antibody. This neutralizing antibody represents a specific and potent inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway in mice. Methods A focal trauma was applied to the left hemisphere of C57BL/6 mice (n = 89 using a standardized electric weight-drop model. Animals were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: (1 Systemic injection of 1 mg monoclonal anti-factor B antibody (mAb 1379 in 400 μl phosphate-buffered saline (PBS at 1 hour and 24 hours after trauma; (2 Systemic injection of vehicle only (400 μl PBS, as placebo control, at identical time-points after trauma. Sham-operated and untreated mice served as additional negative controls. Evaluation of neurological scores and analysis of brain tissue specimens and serum samples was performed at defined time-points for up to 1 week. Complement activation in serum was assessed by zymosan assay and by murine C5a ELISA. Brain samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL histochemistry, and real-time RT-PCR. Results The mAb 1379 leads to a significant inhibition of alternative pathway complement activity and to significantly attenuated C5a levels in serum, as compared to head-injured placebo-treated control mice. TBI induced histomorphological signs of neuroinflammation and neuronal apoptosis in the injured brain hemisphere of placebo-treated control mice for up to 7 days. In contrast, the

  11. Poliomyelitis in transgenic mice expressing CD155 under the control of the Tage4 promoter after oral and parenteral poliovirus inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shaukat; Toyoda, Hidemi; Linehan, Melissa; Iwasaki, Akiko; Nomoto, Akio; Bernhardt, Günter; Cello, Jeronimo; Wimmer, Eckard

    2014-08-01

    An important step in poliovirus (PV) infection by the oral route in humans is replication of the virus in lymphatic tissues of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, thought to be mainly in the Peyer's patches of the small intestine. No immunocompetent transgenic (tg) mice that express human PV receptor (CD155) under the control of different promoters can be infected orally. The mouse orthologue of human CD155 is Tage4, a protein expressed at the surface of enterocytes and in the Peyer's patches. We describe here the generation of a tg mouse model in which the Tage4 promoter was used to drive expression of the human PV receptor-coding region (Tage4-CD155tg mice). In this model, CD155 expression was observed by immunostaining in different regions in the Peyer's patches but not in their germinal centres. Although a similar pattern of staining was observed between 3- and 6-week-old Tage4-CD155tg mice, poliomyelitis was only seen in the younger mice after PV infection by the oral route. When compared with TgPVR21 mice that expressed CD155 driven by its human promoter, 3-week-old Tage4-CD155tg mice were more susceptible to gut infection and paralysis following feeding with PV. Also, Tage4-CD155tg mice exhibited higher susceptibility to poliomyelitis after parenteral inoculation of PV. Remarkably, the LD50 after intracerebral inoculation of PV was similar in both CD155 tg mouse strains. The CD155 tg mouse model reported here, although moderately susceptible to oral infection, may be suitable to study mechanisms of PV replication in the gastrointestinal tract and to dissect important aspects of PV neuroinvasiveness.

  12. Cockroach Allergy

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  13. Functional fluorescent Ca2+ indicator proteins in transgenic mice under TET control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazahir T Hasan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetically encoded fluorescent calcium indicator proteins (FCIPs are promising tools to study calcium dynamics in many activity-dependent molecular and cellular processes. Great hopes-for the measurement of population activity, in particular-have therefore been placed on calcium indicators derived from the green fluorescent protein and their expression in (selected neuronal populations. Calcium transients can rise within milliseconds, making them suitable as reporters of fast neuronal activity. We here report the production of stable transgenic mouse lines with two different functional calcium indicators, inverse pericam and camgaroo-2, under the control of the tetracycline-inducible promoter. Using a variety of in vitro and in vivo assays, we find that stimuli known to increase intracellular calcium concentration (somatically triggered action potentials (APs and synaptic and sensory stimulation can cause substantial and rapid changes in FCIP fluorescence of inverse pericam and camgaroo-2.

  14. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 3 Controls Neural Stem Cell Activation in Mice and Humans

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    Jinah Han

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs continuously produce new neurons within the adult mammalian hippocampus. NSCs are typically quiescent but activated to self-renew or differentiate into neural progenitor cells. The molecular mechanisms of NSC activation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that adult hippocampal NSCs express vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR 3 and its ligand VEGF-C, which activates quiescent NSCs to enter the cell cycle and generate progenitor cells. Hippocampal NSC activation and neurogenesis are impaired by conditional deletion of Vegfr3 in NSCs. Functionally, this is associated with compromised NSC activation in response to VEGF-C and physical activity. In NSCs derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, VEGF-C/VEGFR3 mediates intracellular activation of AKT and ERK pathways that control cell fate and proliferation. These findings identify VEGF-C/VEGFR3 signaling as a specific regulator of NSC activation and neurogenesis in mammals.

  15. Baseline Tumor Growth and Immune Control in Laboraotry Mice are Significantly Influenced by Sub-Thermoneutral Housing Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    We show here that fundamental aspects of antitumor immunity in mice are significantly influenced by ambient housing temperature. Standard housing temperature for laboratory mice in research facilities is mandated to be between 20-26 •c; however, these subthermoneutral temperature...

  16. Insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adults of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Pil-Sun; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-03-04

    The fumigant and contact toxicities of 16 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adult male and female Blattella germanica were examined. In a fumigant toxicity test, tarragon oil exhibited 100% and 90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at 5 and 2.5 mg/filter paper, respectively. Fumigant toxicities of Artemisia arborescens and santolina oils against adult male German cockroaches were 100% at 20 mg/filter paper, but were reduced to 60% and 22.5% at 10 mg/filter paper, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, tarragon and santolina oils showed potent insecticidal activity against adult male German cockroaches. Components of active oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Among the identified compounds from active essential oils, estragole demonstrated potent fumigant and contact toxicity against adult German cockroaches. β-Phellandrene exhibited inhibition of male and female German cockroach acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values of 0.30 and 0.28 mg/mL, respectively.

  17. Non Digestible Oligosaccharides Modulate the Gut Microbiota to Control the Development of Leukemia and Associated Cachexia in Mice.

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    Laure B Bindels

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that changing the gut microbiota using pectic oligosaccharides (POS or inulin (INU differently modulates the progression of leukemia and related metabolic disorders. Mice were transplanted with Bcr-Abl-transfected proB lymphocytes mimicking leukemia and received either POS or INU in their diet (5% for 2 weeks. Combination of pyrosequencing, PCR-DGGE and qPCR analyses of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that POS decreased microbial diversity and richness of caecal microbiota whereas it increased Bifidobacterium spp., Roseburia spp. and Bacteroides spp. (affecting specifically B. dorei to a higher extent than INU. INU supplementation increased the portal SCFA propionate and butyrate, and decreased cancer cell invasion in the liver. POS treatment did not affect hepatic cancer cell invasion, but was more efficient than INU to decrease the metabolic alterations. Indeed, POS better than INU delayed anorexia linked to cancer progression. In addition, POS treatment increased acetate in the caecal content, changed the fatty acid profile inside adipose tissue and counteracted the induction of markers controlling β-oxidation, thereby hampering fat mass loss. Non digestible carbohydrates with prebiotic properties may constitute a new nutritional strategy to modulate gut microbiota with positive consequences on cancer progression and associated cachexia.

  18. MASTR: A Technique for Mosaic Mutant Analysis with Spatial and Temporal Control of Recombination Using Conditional Floxed Alleles in Mice

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    Zhimin Lao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mosaic mutant analysis, the study of cellular defects in scattered mutant cells in a wild-type environment, is a powerful approach for identifying critical functions of genes and has been applied extensively to invertebrate model organisms. A highly versatile technique has been developed in mouse: MASTR (mosaic mutant analysis with spatial and temporal control of recombination, which utilizes the increasing number of floxed alleles and simultaneously combines conditional gene mutagenesis and cell marking for fate analysis. A targeted allele (R26MASTR was engineered; the allele expresses a GFPcre fusion protein following FLP-mediated recombination, which serves the dual function of deleting floxed alleles and marking mutant cells with GFP. Within 24 hr of tamoxifen administration to R26MASTR mice carrying an inducible FlpoER transgene and a floxed allele, nearly all GFP-expressing cells have a mutant allele. The fate of single cells lacking FGF8 or SHH signaling in the developing hindbrain was analyzed using MASTR, and it was revealed that there is only a short time window when neural progenitors require FGFR1 for viability and that granule cell precursors differentiate rapidly when SMO is lost. MASTR is a powerful tool that provides cell-type-specific (spatial and temporal marking of mosaic mutant cells and is broadly applicable to developmental, cancer, and adult stem cell studies.

  19. Non Digestible Oligosaccharides Modulate the Gut Microbiota to Control the Development of Leukemia and Associated Cachexia in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindels, Laure B; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Salazar, Nuria; Taminiau, Bernard; Druart, Céline; Muccioli, Giulio G; François, Emmanuelle; Blecker, Christophe; Richel, Aurore; Daube, Georges; Mahillon, Jacques; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Cani, Patrice D; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that changing the gut microbiota using pectic oligosaccharides (POS) or inulin (INU) differently modulates the progression of leukemia and related metabolic disorders. Mice were transplanted with Bcr-Abl-transfected proB lymphocytes mimicking leukemia and received either POS or INU in their diet (5%) for 2 weeks. Combination of pyrosequencing, PCR-DGGE and qPCR analyses of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that POS decreased microbial diversity and richness of caecal microbiota whereas it increased Bifidobacterium spp., Roseburia spp. and Bacteroides spp. (affecting specifically B. dorei) to a higher extent than INU. INU supplementation increased the portal SCFA propionate and butyrate, and decreased cancer cell invasion in the liver. POS treatment did not affect hepatic cancer cell invasion, but was more efficient than INU to decrease the metabolic alterations. Indeed, POS better than INU delayed anorexia linked to cancer progression. In addition, POS treatment increased acetate in the caecal content, changed the fatty acid profile inside adipose tissue and counteracted the induction of markers controlling β-oxidation, thereby hampering fat mass loss. Non digestible carbohydrates with prebiotic properties may constitute a new nutritional strategy to modulate gut microbiota with positive consequences on cancer progression and associated cachexia.

  20. Are eavesdroppers multimodal?Sensory exploitation of floral signals by a non-native cockroach Blatta orientalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodrigo C.VERGARA; Alejandra TORRES-ARANEDA; Diego A.VILLAGRA; Robert A.RAGUSO; Mary T.K.ARROYO; Cristian A.BILLAGRA

    2011-01-01

    The study of multi-modal communication has only recently been extended to innate and learned interactions between flowers and their animal visitors,and usually only to pollinators.Here we studied the relevance of floral scent and visual display of a night blooming,putatively hawkmoth-poilinated plant Oenothera acaulis(Onagraceae)in the attraction of non-native cockroaches Blatta orientalis(Blattodea:Blattldae),which function as facultative floral lajrcenists in coastal habitats of central Chile.We experimentally decoupled visual(corolla)and olfactory(fragrance)stimuli by presentlng paper corollas and green mesh bags,with or without a freshly-picked natural flower inside.We then contrasted the behavioral responses of roaches in these treatments with those to the natural combination of traits in actual flowers and their respective control treatments,measuring the roaches'frequency of first visits,mean and total residence time spent in each treatment.The roaches primarily used olfactory cues when approaching O.acaulis flowers at two biologically relevant spatial scaies.In addition,the presence of conspecific roaches bad a strong influence on recruitment to the expenrnental arena,increasing the statlstical differences among treatments.Our results suggest a primacy of floral fragrance over visual stimuli in the foraging responses of B.orientalis.Olfactory cues were necessary and sufficient to attract the roaches,and the visual cues presented in our manipulations only marginally increased their attraction within a 20 cm diameter of the stimulus.The full spectrum of floral visitation behavior was not elicited by the artlficial flowers,suggesting the need for addltional tactile or contact chemosensory stimuli not provided by paper.Although the nitrogenous scent compounds that we found in O.acaulis flowers are almost exclusively found in hawkmoth-pollinated flowers,the attractiveness of these compounds to a non-native,facultative flower-visiting insect indicates that they

  1. Environmental Persistence and Infectivity of Oocysts of Two Species of Gregarines, Blabericola migrator and Blabericola cubensis (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida: Blabericolidae), Parasitizing Blaberid Cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blaberidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopton, Richard E; Steele, Shelby M; Clopton, Debra T

    2016-04-01

    For apicomplexan parasites using an oral-fecal transmission route with significant environmental exposure, the environmental persistence and infectivity of the oocyst has a direct impact on local infection dynamics, including the ability to withstand extended periods without readily available hosts. Herein we quantify the environmental persistence and infectivity of the oocysts of 2 septate gregarine species at controlled temperature and humidity and demonstrate that they can persist over multiple generational time spans. Species of Blabericola generally complete their endogenous life cycles from oocyst to oocyst within 10 days. The median residual environmental oocyst lifetime for Blabericola oocysts in this study is 21-28 days, but a significant number of oocysts of Blabericola migrator persisted and remained infective in the environment for up to 39 days while those of Blabericola cubensis persisted and remained infective for up to 92 days. Although long-lived relative to their own generational time, the oocysts of Blabericola species infecting cockroaches are short-lived relative to gregarines infecting tenebrionid beetles. For these gregarines, oocysts can persist in the environment and remain infective for up to 787 days. Mechanistically, environmental persistence and infectivity are probably energy-limited phenomena related to the amount of stored amylopectin and the basal metabolic rate of quiescent oocysts.

  2. Synergistic effect of some essential oils on toxicity and knockdown effects, against mosquitos, cockroaches and housefly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idin Zibaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity and knockdown effect of Eucalyptus globulus, Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils and their mixed formulation on Periplaneta Americana (L., Blattella germanica (L., Supella longipalpa, Culex pipiens, Anopheles stephensi and Musca domestica were evaluated in a series of laboratory experiments. In all bioassay five different doses (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10% were used by filter paper (cm2 and aerosol (cm3 bioassay methods, all essential oils was toxic to cockroaches, mosquitos and housefly species the lowest and the highest LC50 belong to mixed formulation on B. germanica (LC50 6.1 and E. globulus on P. americana (LC50 27.7 respectively. In continuous exposure experiments, Mortality (LT50 values for cockroaches ranged from 1403.3 min with 0.625% E. globulus (for P. americana to 2.2 min with 10% mixed formulation for A. stephensi. The KT50 values ranged from 0.1 to 1090.8 min for 10% and 0.625 for mixed formulation and R. officinalis respectively. The mortality after 24 h for mixed formulation was 100% but for single essential oils ranged from 81.5 to 98.3 for P. americana treated with R. officinalis and A. stephensi treated with E. globulus respectively. Studies on persistence of essential oils on impregnated paper revealed that it has more adulticidal activity for longer period at low storage temperature. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of essential oil showed 14 and 16 peaks for E. globules and R. officinalis respectively. α-Pinene (39.8%, 1, 8-Cineole (13.2%, Camphene (9.1% and Borneol (3.7% were present in major amounts for R. officinalis and 1,8-Cineole (31.4%, α-Pinene (15.3%, d-Limonene (9.7% and α-Terpinolen (5.3% were present in major amounts for E. globulus respectively. Our results showed that two surveyed essential oils has compatible with synergistic effect on various insect species, furthermore it is useful for applying as integrated pest management tool for studied insects management, especially in

  3. Diminished baroreflex control of heart rate responses in otoconia-deficient C57BL/6JEi head tilt mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Baojian; Skala, Karl; Jones, Timothy A; Hay, Meredith

    2004-08-01

    The maintenance of stable blood pressure during postural changes is known to involve integration of vestibular and cardiovascular central regulatory mechanisms. Sensory activity in the vestibular system plays an important role in cardiovascular regulation. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of vestibular gravity receptors in normal baroreflex function. Baroreflex heart rate (HR) responses to changes in blood pressure (BP) in otoconia-deficient head tilt (het) mice (n = 8) were compared with their wild-type littermates (n = 12). The study was carried out in conscious male mice chronically implanted with arterial and venous catheters for recording BP and HR and for the infusion of vasoactive drugs. Resting HR was higher in the het mice (661 +/- 13 beats/min) than in the wild-type mice (579 +/- 20 beats/min). BP was comparable in the het (113 +/- 4 mmHg) and wild-type mice (104 +/- 4 mmHg). The slopes of reflex decreases in HR in response to phenylephrine (PE) were blunted in the het mice (-5.5 +/- 1.5 beats x min(-1) x mmHg(-1)) compared with the wild-type mice (-8.5 +/- 0.9 beats x min(-1) x mmHg(-1)). Likewise, reflex tachycardic responses to decreases in BP with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were significantly blunted in the het mice (-0.8 +/- 0.3 beats x min(-1) x mmHg(-1)) versus the wild-type mice (-2.2 +/- 0.6 beats x min(-1) x mmHg(-1)). Frequency-domain analysis of the HR variability suggests that under resting conditions, parasympathetic contribution was lower in the het versus wild-type mice. Mapping of the expression of immediate-early gene product, c-Fos, in forebrain and brain stem nuclei in response to a BP challenge showed no differences between the wild-type and het mice. These results suggest that tonic activity of gravity receptors modulates and is required for normal function of the cardiac baroreflexes.

  4. Altered heart rate control in transgenic mice carrying the KCNJ6 gene of the human chromosome 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignon, Jacques M; Bichler, Zoë; Hivert, Bruno; Gannier, François E; Cosnay, Pierre; del Rio, José A; Migliore-Samour, Danièle; Malécot, Claire O

    2008-04-22

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are common in Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21). Recently, cardiac sympathetic-parasympathetic imbalance has also been documented in DS adults free of any CHD. The KCNJ6 gene located on human chromosome 21 encodes for the Kir3.2/GIRK2 protein subunits of G protein-regulated K(+) (K(G)) channels and could contribute to this altered cardiac regulation. To elucidate the role of its overexpression, we used homozygous transgenic (Tg(+/+)) mice carrying copies of human KCNJ6. These mice showed human Kir3.2 mRNA expression in the heart and a 2.5-fold increased translation in the atria. Phenotypic alterations were assessed by recording electrocardiogram of urethane anesthetized mice. Chronotropic responses to direct (carbachol) and indirect (methoxamine) muscarinic stimulation were enhanced in Tg(+/+) mice with respect to wild-type (WT) mice. Alternating periods of slow and fast rhythm induced by CCPA (2-chloro-N-cyclopentyl-adenosine) were amplified in Tg(+/+) mice, resulting in a reduced negative chronotropic effect. These drugs reduced the atrial P wave amplitude and area. P wave variations induced by methoxamine and CCPA were respectively increased and reduced in the Tg(+/+) mice, while PR interval and ventricular wave showed no difference between Tg(+/+) and WT. These results indicate that Tg(+/+) mice incorporating the human KCNJ6 exhibit altered Kir3.2 expression and responses to drugs that would activate K(G) channels. Moreover, these altered expression and responses are limited to sino-atrial node and atria that normally express large amounts of K(G) channels. These data suggest that KCNJ6 could play an important role in altered cardiac regulation in DS patients.

  5. 蜚蠊的防制研究%Investigation on Prevention and Control of Cockroaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴仕筠; 周卫华; 米长忠

    2008-01-01

    蜚蠊以其极强的适应力和繁殖力,广布世界,已成为世界性害虫.本文从其种类与生物学特性、危害与侵害、尤其从综合防制等方面进行论述,并提出了综合防制的策略及几个观点.

  6. Ratiometric dosing of anticancer drug combinations: controlling drug ratios after systemic administration regulates therapeutic activity in tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Lawrence D; Harasym, Troy O; Tardi, Paul G; Harasym, Natashia L; Shew, Clifford R; Johnstone, Sharon A; Ramsay, Euan C; Bally, Marcel B; Janoff, Andrew S

    2006-07-01

    Anticancer drug combinations can act synergistically or antagonistically against tumor cells in vitro depending on the ratios of the individual agents comprising the combination. The importance of drug ratios in vivo, however, has heretofore not been investigated, and combination chemotherapy treatment regimens continue to be developed based on the maximum tolerated dose of the individual agents. We systematically examined three different drug combinations representing a range of anticancer drug classes with distinct molecular mechanisms (irinotecan/floxuridine, cytarabine/daunorubicin, and cisplatin/daunorubicin) for drug ratio-dependent synergy. In each case, synergistic interactions were observed in vitro at certain drug/drug molar ratio ranges (1:1, 5:1, and 10:1, respectively), whereas other ratios were additive or antagonistic. We were able to maintain fixed drug ratios in plasma of mice for 24 hours after i.v. injection for all three combinations by controlling and overcoming the inherent dissimilar pharmacokinetics of individual drugs through encapsulation in liposomal carrier systems. The liposomes not only maintained drug ratios in the plasma after injection, but also delivered the formulated drug ratio directly to tumor tissue. In vivo maintenance of drug ratios shown to be synergistic in vitro provided increased efficacy in preclinical tumor models, whereas attenuated antitumor activity was observed when antagonistic drug ratios were maintained. Fixing synergistic drug ratios in pharmaceutical carriers provides an avenue by which anticancer drug combinations can be optimized prospectively for maximum therapeutic activity during preclinical development and differs from current practice in which dosing regimens are developed empirically in late-stage clinical trials based on tolerability.

  7. A review on emerging frontiers of house dust mite and cockroach allergy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S; Meher, B R

    Currently, mankind is afflicted with diversified health issues, allergies being a common, yet little understood malady. Allergies, the outcome of a baffled immune system encompasses myriad allergens and causes an array of health consequences, ranging from transient to recurrent and mild to fatal. Indoor allergy is a serious hypersensitivity in genetically-predisposed people, triggered by ingestion, inhalation or mere contact of allergens, of which mite and cockroaches are one of the most-represented constituents. Arduous to eliminate, these aeroallergens pose constant health challenges, mostly manifested as respiratory and dermatological inflammations, leading to further aggravations if unrestrained. Recent times have seen an unprecedented endeavour to understand the conformation of these allergens, their immune manipulative ploys and other underlying causes of pathogenesis, most importantly therapies. Yet a large section of vulnerable people is ignorant of these innocuous-looking immune irritants, prevailing around them, and continues to suffer. This review aims to expedite this field by a concise, informative account of seminal findings in the past few years, with particular emphasis on leading frontiers like genome-wide association studies (GWAS), epitope mapping, metabolomics etc. Drawbacks linked to current approaches and solutions to overcome them have been proposed. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Variation in the mechanical properties of tracheal tubes in the American cockroach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Winston R.; Webster, Matthew R.; Socha, John J.; De Vita, Raffaella

    2014-05-01

    The insect cuticle serves the protective role of skin and the supportive role of the skeleton while being lightweight and flexible to facilitate flight. The smart design of the cuticle confers camouflage, thermo-regulation, communication, self-cleaning, and anti-wetting properties to insects. The mechanical behavior of the internal cuticle of the insect in tracheae remains largely unexplored due to their small size. In order to characterize the material properties of insect tracheae and understand their role during insect respiration, we conducted tensile tests on ring sections of tracheal tubes of American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana). A total of 33 ring specimens collected from 14 tracheae from the upper thorax of the insects were successfully tested. The ultimate tensile strength (22.6 ± 13.3 MPa), ultimate strain (1.57 ± 0.68%), elastic modulus (1740 ± 840 MPa), and toughness (0.175 ± 0.156 MJ m-3) were measured. We examined the high variance in mechanical properties statistically and demonstrated that ring sections excised from the same trachea exhibit comparable mechanical properties. Our results will form the basis for future studies aimed at determining the structure-function relationship of insect tracheal tubes, ultimately inspiring the design of multi-functional materials and structures.

  9. Characterization of an Invertebrate-Type Dopamine Receptor of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Troppmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated a cDNA coding for a putative invertebrate-type dopamine receptor (Peadop2 from P. americana brain by using a PCR-based strategy. The mRNA is present in samples from brain and salivary glands. We analyzed the distribution of the PeaDOP2 receptor protein with specific affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies. On Western blots, PeaDOP2 was detected in protein samples from brain, subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglia, and salivary glands. In immunocytochemical experiments, we detected PeaDOP2 in neurons with their somata being located at the anterior edge of the medulla bilaterally innervating the optic lobes and projecting to the ventro-lateral protocerebrum. In order to determine the functional and pharmacological properties of the cloned receptor, we generated a cell line constitutively expressing PeaDOP2. Activation of PeaDOP2-expressing cells with dopamine induced an increase in intracellular cAMP. In contrast, a C-terminally truncated splice variant of this receptor did not exhibit any functional property by itself. The molecular and pharmacological characterization of the first dopamine receptor from P. americana provides the basis for forthcoming studies focusing on the significance of the dopaminergic system in cockroach behavior and physiology.

  10. Isolation and Purification of an Antibacterial Protein from Immune Induced Haemolymph of American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Basseri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial peptides play a role as effectors substances in the immunity of vertebrate and inverte­brate hosts. In the current study, antimicrobial peptide was isolated from the haemolymph of the American cock­roach, Periplaneta americana.Methods: Micrococcus luteus as Gram-positive bacteria and Escherichia coli as Gram-negative bacteria were candi­date for injection. Induction was done by injecting both bacteria into the abdominal cavity of two groups of cock­roaches separately. The haemolymphs were collected 24 hours after post injection and initially tested against both bacteria. Subsequently, the immune induced haemolymph was purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to separate the proteins responsible for the antibacterial activity.Results: The non-induced haemolymph did not show any activity against both bacteria whereas induced haemo­lymph exhibited high activity against M. luteus but did less against E. coli. Two fractions showed antibacterial activ­ity against M. luteus. Finally the molecular weight of the isolated antibacterial proteins were determined as 72 kDa and 62 kDa using SDS-PAGE.Conclusion: Induced haemolymph of American cockroaches has the ability to produce peptides to combat against Gram-positive bacteria when an immune challenge is mounted. Further work has to be done to sequence of the pro­tein, which it would be advantageous.

  11. Laboratory Evaluation of Toxicity of Insecticide Formulations from Different Classes against American Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhma Syed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the insecticidal efficacy of four different classes of insecticides: pyrethroids, organophosphates, phenyl-pyrazoles and neo-nicotenoids. One representative chemical from each class was selected to compare the toxicity: deltamethrin from pyrethroids, Dichlorovinyl Dimethyl Phosphate (DDVP from organophosphates, fipronil from phenyl-pyrazoles and imidacloprid from neo-nicotenoids. The objective of this study was to determine which of these insecticides were most effective against American cockroach.These insecticides were tested for their LC50 values against Periplaneta americana under topical bioassay method, using different concentrations for each chemical.Fipronil 2.5% EC was highly effective at all concentrations applied, while DDVP 50% EC was least toxic amongst all. One way analysis of variance confirmed significant differences between mortality of P. americana and different concentrations applied (P< 0.05.Locality differentiation is an important factor in determining the range of resistance between various localities, as all three localities behaved differently in terms of their levels of resistance.

  12. Fast and Powerful: Biomechanics and Bite Forces of the Mandibles in the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihmann, Tom; Reinhardt, Lars; Weißing, Kevin; Siebert, Tobias; Wipfler, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the functionality and capabilities of masticatory apparatuses is essential for the ecological classification of jawed organisms. Nevertheless insects, especially with their outstanding high species number providing an overwhelming morphological diversity, are notoriously underexplored with respect to maximum bite forces and their dependency on the mandible opening angles. Aiming for a general understanding of insect biting, we examined the generalist feeding cockroach Periplaneta americana, characterized by its primitive chewing mouth parts. We measured active isometric bite forces and passive forces caused by joint resistance over the entire mandibular range with a custom-built 2D force transducer. The opening angle of the mandibles was quantified by using a video system. With respect to the effective mechanical advantage of the mandibles and the cross-section areas, we calculated the forces exerted by the mandible closer muscles and the corresponding muscle stress values. Comparisons with the scarce data available revealed close similarities of the cockroaches’ mandible closer stress values (58 N/cm2) to that of smaller specialist carnivorous ground beetles, but strikingly higher values than in larger stag beetles. In contrast to available datasets our results imply the activity of faster and slower muscle fibres, with the latter becoming active only when the animals chew on tough material which requires repetitive, hard biting. Under such circumstances the coactivity of fast and slow fibres provides a force boost which is not available during short-term activities, since long latencies prevent a specific effective employment of the slow fibres in this case. PMID:26559671

  13. Preparation and identification of Per a 5 as a novel American cockroach allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ji-Fu; Yang, Haiwei; Li, Dongning; Gao, Peisong; He, Shaoheng

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) from various arthropods can elicit allergic reactions. In the present study, Per a 5, a GST, was cloned from American cockroach (CR) and expressed in both baculovirus-infected insect cell (iPer a 5) and E. coli expression (bPer a 5) systems. The secondary structures were predicted to be 45.93 and 8.69% of α-helix β-sheets in iPer a 5 and 42.54 and 8.49% of α-helix and β-sheets in bPer a 5, respectively. It is found that 4 out of 16 (25%) sera from American CR allergy patients reacted to both bPer a 9 and iPer a 9 as assessed by ELISA and Western blotting analysis, confirming that Per a 5 is not a major allergen of American CR. Induction of upregulated expression of CD63 and CCR3 on passively sensitized human basophils (sera from American CR allergy patients) by approximately up to 4.5- and 3.2-fold indicates that iPer a 5 and bPer a 5 are functionally active. Recombinant Per a 5 (rPer a 5) should be a useful tool for studying and understanding the role of Per a 5 in CR allergy.

  14. Origin of origami cockroach reveals long-lasting (11 Ma) phenotype instability following viviparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vršanský, Peter V.; Šmídová, Lucia; Valaška, Daniel; Barna, Peter; Vidlička, Ľubomír; Takáč, Peter; Pavlik, Lubomir; Kúdelová, Tatiana; Karim, Talia S.; Zelagin, David; Smith, Dena

    2016-10-01

    Viviparity evolved in bacteria, plants, ˃141 vertebrate lineages (ichthyosaurs, lizards, fishes, mammals, and others), and in 11 of 44 insect orders. Live-birth cockroaches preserved with brood sac (3D recovered two times optically) included Diploptera vladimir, Diploptera savba, Diploptera gemini spp.n., D. sp.1-2, and Stegoblatta irmgardgroehni from Green River, Colorado; Quilchena, Republic; McAbee, Canada; and Baltic amber, Russia (49, 54, and 45 Ma). They evolved from rare and newly evolved Blaberidae; they radiated circumtropically, later expanded into SE Asia, and have now spread to Hawaii and the SE USA. Association of autapomorphic characters that allow for passive and active protections from parasitic insects (unique wing origami pleating identical with its egg case-attacking wasp) suggest a response to high parasitic loads. Synchronized with global reorganization of the biota, morphotype destabilization in roaches lasted approximately 11-22 Ma, including both the adaptation of novel characters and the reduction of others. Thus, while viviparity can be disadvantageous, in association with new Bauplans and/or behaviors, it can contribute to the evolution of taxa with viviparous representatives that are slightly selectively preferred.

  15. Structure of tracheae and the functional implications for collapse in the American cockroach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Matthew R; Socha, John J; Teresi, Luciano; Nardinocchi, Paola; De Vita, Raffaella

    2015-12-01

    The tracheal tubes of insects are complex and heterogeneous composites with a microstructural organization that affects their function as pumps, valves, or static conduits within the respiratory system. In this study, we examined the microstructure of the primary thoracic tracheae of the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) using a combination of scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. The organization of the taenidia, which represents the primary source of structural reinforcement of the tracheae, was analyzed. We found that the taenidia were more disorganized in the regions of highest curvature of the tracheal tube. We also used a simple finite element model to explore the effect of cross-sectional shape and distribution of taenidia on the collapsibility of the tracheae. The eccentricity of the tracheal cross-section had a stronger effect on the collapse properties than did the distribution of taenidia. The combination of the macro-scale geometry, meso-scale heterogeneity, and microscale organization likely enables rhythmic tracheal compression during respiration, ultimately driving oxygen-rich air to cells and tissues throughout the insect body. The material design principles of these natural composites could potentially aid in the development of new bio-inspired microfluidic systems based on the differential collapse of tracheae-like networks.

  16. Origin of origami cockroach reveals long-lasting (11 Ma) phenotype instability following viviparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vršanský, Peter V; Šmídová, Lucia; Valaška, Daniel; Barna, Peter; Vidlička, Ľubomír; Takáč, Peter; Pavlik, Lubomir; Kúdelová, Tatiana; Karim, Talia S; Zelagin, David; Smith, Dena

    2016-10-01

    Viviparity evolved in bacteria, plants, ˃141 vertebrate lineages (ichthyosaurs, lizards, fishes, mammals, and others), and in 11 of 44 insect orders. Live-birth cockroaches preserved with brood sac (3D recovered two times optically) included Diploptera vladimir, Diploptera savba, Diploptera gemini spp.n., D. sp.1-2, and Stegoblatta irmgardgroehni from Green River, Colorado; Quilchena, Republic; McAbee, Canada; and Baltic amber, Russia (49, 54, and 45 Ma). They evolved from rare and newly evolved Blaberidae; they radiated circumtropically, later expanded into SE Asia, and have now spread to Hawaii and the SE USA. Association of autapomorphic characters that allow for passive and active protections from parasitic insects (unique wing origami pleating identical with its egg case-attacking wasp) suggest a response to high parasitic loads. Synchronized with global reorganization of the biota, morphotype destabilization in roaches lasted approximately 11-22 Ma, including both the adaptation of novel characters and the reduction of others. Thus, while viviparity can be disadvantageous, in association with new Bauplans and/or behaviors, it can contribute to the evolution of taxa with viviparous representatives that are slightly selectively preferred.

  17. Multiple evolutionary origins of Australian soil-burrowing cockroaches driven by climate change in the Neogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Nathan; Tong, K Jun; Rose, Harley A; Ho, Simon Y W; Beninati, Tiziana; Low, David L T; Matsumoto, Tadao; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-02-24

    Parallel evolution is the independent appearance of similar derived phenotypes from similar ancestral forms. It is of key importance in the debate over whether evolution is stochastic and unpredictable, or subject to constraints that limit available phenotypic options. Nevertheless, its occurrence has rarely been demonstrated above the species level. Climate change on the Australian landmass over the last approximately 20 Myr has provided conditions conducive to parallel evolution, as taxa at the edges of shrinking mesic habitats adapted to drier biomes. Here, we investigate the phylogeny and evolution of Australian soil-burrowing and wood-feeding blaberid cockroaches. Soil burrowers (subfamily Geoscapheinae) are found in relatively dry sclerophyllous and scrubland habits, whereas wood feeders (subfamily Panesthiinae) are found in rainforest and wet sclerophyll. We sequenced and analysed mitochondrial and nuclear markers from 142 specimens, and estimated the evolutionary time scale of the two subfamilies. We found evidence for the parallel evolution of soil-burrowing taxa from wood-feeding ancestors on up to nine occasions. These transitions appear to have been driven by periods of aridification during the Miocene and Pliocene across eastern Australia. Our results provide an illuminating example of climate-driven parallel evolution among species. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Discontinuous gas exchange exhibition is a heritable trait in speckled cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpf, N G; Matthews, P G D; White, C R

    2013-07-01

    The regulation of insect respiratory gas exchange has long been an area of interest. In particular, the reason why insects from at least five orders exhibit patterns of gas exchange that include regular periods of spiracular closure has been the source of much controversy. Three adaptive hypotheses propose that these discontinuous gas-exchange cycles (DGCs) evolved to either limit water loss across respiratory surfaces, facilitate gas exchange in underground environments or to limit oxidative damage. It is possible that DGCs evolved independently multiple times and for different reasons, but for DGCs to be a plausible target for natural selection, they must be heritable and confer a fitness benefit. In a previous study of cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea, we demonstrated that DGCs are repeatable and extend survival under food and water restriction. Here, we show for the first time that DGCs are heritable, suggesting that they are a plausible target for natural selection. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. An augmented reality system validation for the treatment of cockroach phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretón-López, Juani; Quero, Soledad; Botella, Cristina; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa Maria; Alcañiz, Mariano

    2010-12-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a new technology in which various virtual elements are incorporated into the user's perception of the real world. The most significant aspect of AR is that the virtual elements add relevant and helpful information to the real scene. AR shares some important characteristics with virtual reality as applied in clinical psychology. However, AR offers additional features that might be crucial for treating certain problems. An AR system designed to treat insect phobia has been used for treating phobia of small animals, and positive preliminary data about the global efficacy of the system have been obtained. However, it is necessary to determine the capacity of similar AR systems and their elements that are designed to evoke anxiety in participants; this is achieved by testing the correspondence between the inclusion of feared stimuli and the induction of anxiety. The objective of the present work is to validate whether the stimuli included in the AR-Insect Phobia system are capable of inducing anxiety in six participants diagnosed with cockroach phobia. Results support the adequacy of each element of the system in inducing anxiety in all participants.

  20. Immobilizing and lethal effects of spider venoms on the cockroach and the common mealbeetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, T; Nentwig, W

    1989-01-01

    Immobilizing and lethal effects of the venoms obtained from six spider species (Brachypelma albopilosum, Atrax robustus, Cupiennius salei, Selenops mexicanus, Tegenaria atrica, Argiope bruennichi) were tested on Blatta orientalis (cockroach) and Tenebrio molitor (common mealbeetle). The immobilizing effects were quantified by measuring insect locomotor activity in circle arenas observed over 72 hr after venom injection. Both insect species showed cramps, quivering and jerking of the limbs as well as flaccid paralysis after venom injection. Through relative toxicity of the venoms tested is the same in T. molitor and B. orientalis, T. molitor is absolutely less sensitive to spider venoms. The effects on locomotor activity show time characteristics specific for each venom. A dependence of the venom paralyzing effects on insect locomotor activity, low intensity of the initial excitatory phase of the venom effects and partial recovery of the insects was found with A. bruennichi and T. atrica venom. The maximal venom yields of A. bruennichi and S. mexicanus are not lethal to B. orientalis, indicating that the mere immobilizing effects of spider venoms are far more crucial to prey capture than their lethal effects. The contribution of a variety of differently acting neurotoxic components in spider venoms to the observed venom effects on insects and the significance of the venoms in spider nutrition, hunting behaviour and ecology are discussed.