WorldWideScience

Sample records for controlling air supply

  1. Demand control on room level of the supply air temperature in an air heating and ventilation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polak, Joanna; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2017-01-01

    air heating and ventilation system in a high performance single family house using BSim simulation software. The provision of the desired thermal conditions in different rooms was examined. Results show that the new control strategy can facilitate maintaining of desired temperatures in various rooms......The aim of this study was to investigate a new strategy for control of supply air temperature in an integrated air heating and ventilation system. The new strategy enables demand control of supply air temperature in individual rooms. The study is based on detailed dynamic simulations of a combined....... Moreover, this control strategy enables controlled temperature differentiation between rooms within the house and therefore provides flexibility and better balance in heat delivery. Consequently, the thermal conditions in the building can be improved....

  2. A novel complex air supply model for indoor air quality control via the occupant micro-environment demand ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jie; Zhou, Bo; Jin, Maozhu; Wang, Jun; Xiong, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Protection of indoor air quality and human health can be achieved via ventilation, which has becomes one of the most important tasks for sustainable buildings. This approach also requires highly efficient and energy saving methods for modern building ventilations consisting of a set of parameters of the complex indoor system. Therefore, the advancement in understanding the characteristics of various ventilation methods is highly necessary. This study presents one novel air supply model for the complex occupant micro-environment demand control ventilations, to analyze the efficiency of various ventilation types. This model is established primarily according to the momentum and mass conservations, and goal of occupant micro-environment demand, which is a complex system with the characteristics of diversity and dynamic variation. As for different occupant densities, characteristics of outdoor air supply for controlling gaseous pollutant and three basic features of outdoor airflow supply reaching occupant micro-environment were obtained. This research shows that for various types of occupant density and storey height, the rising and descending rates of the demand outdoor airflow in mixing ventilation are higher than those under displacement ventilation conditions. In addition, since the structure is better designed and sewage flow is more efficient, the mixing ventilation also requires a much higher peak demand outdoor airflow than its counterpart. The increase of storey height will lead to a decline of pollutants in the breathing zone and the demand outdoor airflow. Fluctuations of air flow diffusion caused by the change of occupant density in architectural space, will lead to variations of outdoor airflow reaching occupant micro-environment. Accordingly, it would lead to the different peak values of demand outdoor airflow, and the difference becomes even significant if the occupant density increases. The variations of the air supply and fraction of air reaching the

  3. Control of the Air Supply Subsystem in a PEMFC with Balance of Plant Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cruz Rojas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design of a control scheme for improving the air supply subsystem of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC with maximum power of 65 kW. The control scheme is evaluated in a plant simulator which incorporates the balance of plant (BOP components and is built in the aspenONE® platform. The aspenONE® libraries and tools allows introducing the compressor map and sizing the heat exchangers used to conduct the reactants temperature to the operating value. The PEMFC model and an adaptive controller were programmed to create customized libraries used in the simulator. The structure of the plant control is as follows: the stoichiometric oxygen excess ratio is regulated by manipulating the compressor power, the equilibrium of the anode-cathode pressures is achieved by tracking the anode pressure with hydrogen flow manipulation; the oxygen and hydrogen temperatures are regulated in the heat exchangers, and the gas humidity control is obtained with a simplified model of the humidifier. The control scheme performance is evaluated for load changes, perturbations and parametric variations, introducing a growing current profile covering a large span of power, and a current profile derived from a standard driving speed cycle. The impact of the control scheme is advantageous, since the control objectives are accomplished and the PEMFC tolerates reasonably membrane damage that can produce active surface reduction. The simulation analysis aids to identify the safe Voltage-Current region, where the compressor works with mechanical stability.

  4. Supply Inventory Management: Accountability and Control of Materiel at the Naval Air Depot, North Island

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... of the $6.8 billion was for operation of three Naval Air Depots. A significant portion of the $1.5 billion was for purchasing materiel used in repair and overhaul processes at the depot maintenance facilities...

  5. Supply Inventory Managment: Accountability and Control of Materiel at the Naval Air Depot, North Island

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    2002-01-01

    ... of the $6.8 billion was for operation of three Naval Air Depots. A significant portion of the $1.5 billion was for purchasing materiel used in repair and overhaul processes at the depot maintenance facilities...

  6. Control of supply temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, H; Nielsen, T S; Soegaard, H T

    1996-09-01

    For many district heating systems, e.g. the system in Hoeje Taastrup, it is desirable to minimize the supply temperature from the heat production unit(s). Lower supply temperature implies lower costs in connection with the production and distribution of heat. Factors having impact on the heat demand are for instance solar radiation, wind speed, wind direction and a climate independent part, which is a function of the time of the day/week/year. By applying an optimization strategy, which minimizes the supply temperature, it is assumed that optimal economical operation can be obtained by minimizing the supply temperature and thereby the heat losses in the system. The models and methods described in this report take such aspects into account, and can therefore be used as elements in a more efficient minimization of the supply temperature. The theoretical part of this report describes models and methods for optimal on-line control of the supply temperature in district heating systems. Some of the models and methods have been implemented - or are going to be implemented - in the computer program PRESS which is a tool for optimal control of supply temperature and forecasting of heat demand in district heating systems. The principles for using transfer function models are briefly described. The ordinary generalized predictive control (OGPC) method is reviewed, and several extensions of this method are suggested. New controller, which is called the extended generalized predictive controller (XGPC), is described. (EG) 57 refs.

  7. Intelligent power supply controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumrill, R.S.; Reinagel, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have developed a new power supply controller which would combine 20-bit precision, simple interfacing, and versatile software control. It performs many tasks internal to the power supply and also communicates with an external host computer. Parameters can be entered and/or read over a serial link using one of the 82 command words. In addition, an optional remote control panel can be located up to thousands of feet away. This new controller will reduce the software development time normally spent by the user, while increasing the reliability of the system. The cost is less than buying the equivalent separate CAMAC system. Nonvolatile memory remembers all configuration data; one generic controller can thus be programmed to use anywhere from the smallest power supply to the largest. The controllers will be used at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Facility at Los Alamos

  8. APS power supply controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, C.W.; Despe, O.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide comprehensive coverage of the APS power supply control design. This includes application software, embedded controller software, networks, and hardware. The basic components will be introduced first, followed by the requirements driving the overall design. Subsequent sections will address each component of the design one by one. Latter sections will address specific applications

  9. Study on the Development of an Optimal Heat Supply Control Algorithm for Group Energy Apartment Buildings According to the Variation of Outdoor Air Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kurl Kwak

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have developed an optimal heat supply algorithm which minimizes the heat loss through the distribution pipe line in a group energy apartment. Heating load variation of a group energy apartment building according to the outdoor air temperature was predicted by a correlation obtained from calorimetry measurements of all households in the apartment building. Supply water temperature and mass flow rate were simultaneously controlled to minimize the heat loss rate through the distribution pipe line. A group heating apartment building located in Hwaseong city, Korea, which has 1473 households, was selected as the object building to test the present heat supply algorithm. Compared to the original heat supply system, the present system adopting the proposed control algorithm reduced the heat loss rate by 10.4%.

  10. Rational use of supply air in residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Svendsen, Svend

    2009-01-01

    The ventilation rate influences the air quality by determining the intensity of pollution sources. This paper compared the intensity of the sensory pollution during occupied hours in an apartment ventilated by a constant air volume system and demand controlled ventilation systems controlled by oc...... by occupancy. The systems supplied the same total volume of air daily. It was found that the supply air could be used more rationally by redistributing it according to occupancy compared to maintaining a constant ventilation rate during all hours....

  11. Optimisation of compressed-air supply for control purposes at Valorec Services AG; Optimierung der Steuerluft - Versorgung bei der Valorec Services AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dott, R.; Afjei, T.

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that looked at the possibilities of optimising the supply of compressed air provided around the clock by four compressor systems of varying ages in a facility in Basle, Switzerland. The initial situation is analysed and the potential for making savings is estimated. Various possibilities for improvement are considered including changing the topology of the compressed-air network, the replacement of certain compressors and a new control system. Appropriate measures are proposed and compared with new installations.

  12. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

  13. Optimization of the air cargo supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pérez Bernal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate and optimize the various operations within the air cargo chain. It pursues to improve the efficiency of the air cargo supply chain and to provide more information to the decision-makers to optimize their fields.Design/methodology/approach: The method used is a process simulation modelling software, WITNESS, which provides information to the decision-makers about the most relevant parameters subject to optimization. The input for the simulation is obtained from a qualitative analysis of the air cargo supply chain with the involved agents and from a study of the external trade by air mode, given that their behaviour depend on the location. The case study is focused on a particular location, the Case of Zaragoza Airport (Spain.Findings: This paper demonstrates that efficiency of the air cargo supply chain can increase by leveraging several parameters such as bottlenecks, resources or warehouses.Originality/value: It explores the use of a simulation modeling software originally intended for manufacturing processes and extended to support decision making processes in the area of air cargo.

  14. Air ventilation/controlling facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1997-12-12

    When all electricity supply from the outside of a power plant are lost, a power generator directly connected to an emergency steam turbine which is driven by steams introduced from a nuclear reactor is driven to supply electricity required in the power plant. Cool water prepared by a refrigerator is used as cooling water in an air ventilation/controlling facility of a room equipped with the power generating facility. As the refrigerator, a refrigerator of an existent emergency air cooling water system for an auxiliary air ventilation/controlling equipment is used. This can extend the period of time till the temperature of the room where the power generator is disposed exceeds the temperature range capable of keeping the integrity of the power generator even when all the AC power supply are lost to inactivate the function of the air ventilation/controlling system. (I.S.)

  15. Safety-related control air systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This Standard applies to those portions of the control air system that furnish air required to support, control, or operate systems or portions of systems that are safety related in nuclear power plants. This Standard relates only to the air supply system(s) for safety-related air operated devices and does not apply to the safety-related air operated device or to air operated actuators for such devices. The objectives of this Standard are to provide (1) minimum system design requirements for equipment, piping, instruments, controls, and wiring that constitute the air supply system; and (2) the system and component testing and maintenance requirements

  16. Air-drop blood supply in the French Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaudin, Olivier; Baillon, A; Varin, N; Martinaud, C; Pouget, T; Civadier, C; Clavier, B; Sailliol, A

    2018-02-12

    Haemorrhagic shock remains the leading cause of preventable death in overseas and austere settings. Transfusion of blood components is critical in the management of this kind of injury. For French naval and ground military units, this supply often takes too long considering the short shelf-life of red blood cell concentrates (RBCs) and the limited duration of transport in cooling containers (five to six days). Air-drop supply could be an alternative to overcome these difficulties on the condition that air-drop does not cause damage to blood units. After a period of study and technical development of packaging, four air-drops at medium and high altitudes were performed with an aircraft of the French Air Force. After this, one air-drop was carried out at medium altitude with 10 RBCs and 10 French lyophilised plasma (FLYP). A second air-drop was performed with a soldier carrying one FLYP unit at 12 000 feet. For these air-drops real blood products were used, and quality control testing and temperature monitoring were performed. The temperatures inside the containers were within the normal ranges. Visual inspection indicated that transfusion packaging and dumped products did not undergo deterioration. The quality control data on RBCs and FLYP, including haemostasis, suggested no difference before and after air-drop. The operational implementation of the air-drop of blood products seems to be one of the solutions for the supply of blood products in military austere settings or far forward on battlefield, allowing safe and early transfusion. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Discussion: the supply price control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlechild, S.

    1993-01-01

    Following the paper given by the Director General of the Office of Electricity Regulation (OFFER) at the Centre for the Study of Regulated Industries (CRI) seminar on Regulatory Policy and the Energy Sector held in November 1992, the issue of Supply Price Controls is debated. The role of OFFER as standing between Government and the Regional Electricity Companies is explored in a question and answer session, covering areas such as pool versus, contract prices, market forces, regulatory arrangements for the electricity supply, price discrimination and franchise markets. (UK)

  18. Method for reducing excess heat supply experienced in typical Chinese district heating systems by achieving hydraulic balance and improving indoor air temperature control at the building level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir; Thorsen, Jan Eric

    2016-01-01

    A common problem with Chinese district heating systems is that they supply more heat than the actual heat demand. The reason for this excess heat supply is the general failure to use control devices to adjust the indoor temperature and flow in the building heating systems in accordance with the a......A common problem with Chinese district heating systems is that they supply more heat than the actual heat demand. The reason for this excess heat supply is the general failure to use control devices to adjust the indoor temperature and flow in the building heating systems in accordance...... with the actual heat demand. This results in 15-30% of the total supplied heat being lost. This paper proposes an integrated approach that aims to reduce the excess heat loss by introducing pre-set thermostatic radiator valves combined with automatic balancing valves. Those devices establish hydraulic balance...... that once the hydraulic balance is achieved and indoor temperatures are controlled with this integrated approach, 17% heat savings and 42.8% pump electricity savings can be achieved. The energy savings will also have a positive environmental effect with seasonal reductions of 11 kg CO2, 0.1 kg SO2, and 0...

  19. Advance planning for air pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, G L

    1972-11-01

    An air quality management program for nitric acid plants emitting pollutants which include nitrogen oxides is proposed. The program consists of the following five phases: an inventory of the handling equipment within the plant, including the identification of potential emission sources in terms of process material balances; source testing (if required); ambient air quality measurements; emission control analysis; and the development of a complete air management plan which includes a balance between air exhausted from buildups and processes and air supplied in a controlled economical manner. Typical NOx air pollution problems associated with nitric acid plants are reviewed along with various approaches to control and by-product recovery.

  20. Power supply control protocol used at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prome, M.; Baumgarten, R.; Luong, T.T.

    1986-01-01

    This document intends to establish specifications for power supply control so that, if complied with by power supply manufacturers, power supplies from any manufacturer can be linked at once to the Ganil Control system. The only points to take care of are reduced to physical link and filling of the data base

  1. Effect of warm air supplied facially on occupants' comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczmarczyk, J. [Department of Heating, Ventilation and Dust Removal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 20, PL-44-101 Gliwice (Poland); Melikov, A.; Sliva, D. [Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Nils Koppels Alle, DTU, Building 402, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2010-04-15

    Human response to air movement supplied locally towards the face was studied in a room with an air temperature of 20 C and a relative humidity of 30%. Thirty-two human subjects were exposed to three conditions: calm environment and facially supplied airflow at 21 C and at 26 C. The air was supplied with a constant velocity of 0.4 m/s by means of personalized ventilation towards the face of the subjects. The airflow at 21 C decreased the subjects' thermal sensation and increased draught discomfort, but improved slightly the perceived air quality. Heating of the supplied air by 6 K (temperature increase by 4 K at the target area) above the room air temperature decreased the draught discomfort, improved subjects' thermal comfort and only slightly decreased the perceived air quality. Elevated velocity and temperature of the localized airflow caused an increase of nose dryness intensity and number of eye irritation reports. Results suggest that increasing the temperature of the air locally supplied to the breathing zone by only a few degrees above the room air temperature will improve occupants' thermal comfort and will diminish draught discomfort. This strategy will extend the applicability of personalized ventilation aiming to supply clean air for breathing at the lower end of the temperature range recommended in the standards. Providing individual control is essential in order to avoid discomfort for the most sensitive occupants. (author)

  2. Effect of warm air supplied facially on occupants' comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, J.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sliva,, D.

    2010-01-01

    was supplied with a constant velocity of 0.4 m/s by means of personalized ventilation towards the face of the subjects. The airflow at 21 °C decreased the subjects' thermal sensation and increased draught discomfort, but improved slightly the perceived air quality. Heating of the supplied air by 6 K...... (temperature increase by 4 K at the target area) above the room air temperature decreased the draught discomfort, improved subjects' thermal comfort and only slightly decreased the perceived air quality. Elevated velocity and temperature of the localized airflow caused an increase of nose dryness intensity...... and number of eye irritation reports. Results suggest that increasing the temperature of the air locally supplied to the breathing zone by only a few degrees above the room air temperature will improve occupants' thermal comfort and will diminish draught discomfort. This strategy will extend...

  3. Method for reducing excess heat supply experienced in typical Chinese district heating systems by achieving hydraulic balance and improving indoor air temperature control at the building level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir; Thorsen, Jan Eric; Li, Hongwei; Li, Xiaopeng; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    A common problem with Chinese district heating systems is that they supply more heat than the actual heat demand. The reason for this excess heat supply is the general failure to use control devices to adjust the indoor temperature and flow in the building heating systems in accordance with the actual heat demand. This results in 15–30% of the total supplied heat being lost. This paper proposes an integrated approach that aims to reduce the excess heat loss by introducing pre-set thermostatic radiator valves combined with automatic balancing valves. Those devices establish hydraulic balance, and stabilize indoor temperatures. The feasibility and the energy consumption reduction of this approach were verified by means of simulation and a field test. By moving the system from centrally planned heat delivery to demand-driven heat delivery, excess heat loss can be significantly reduced. Results show that once the hydraulic balance is achieved and indoor temperatures are controlled with this integrated approach, 17% heat savings and 42.8% pump electricity savings can be achieved. The energy savings will also have a positive environmental effect with seasonal reductions of 11 kg CO_2, 0.1 kg SO_2, and 0.03 kg NO_x per heating square meter for a typical case in Harbin. - Highlights: • Two real cases reflect the temperature and flow control situation of heating systems in China. • Pre-set radiator valves with automatic balancing valves create dynamic hydraulic balance. • IDA-ICE simulation shows 17% heat saving and 48% pump electricity saving. • This approach can improve the comfort level of multi-storey/high-rise residential buildings. • This approach can reduce excess heat supply and bring out positive environmental impacts.

  4. INTERACTION OF AIR TRANSPORTATION AND FUEL-SUPPLY COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Zheleznaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the role of aviation fuel in the life of air transport. Fueling industry worldwide solves two main tasks - ensuring the safety and economy of air traffic. In Russia, there is one more task of airlines fuel supply. The article deals with fuel pricing taking into consideration today's realities.

  5. Controlled power supply for isotopes separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavaitte, A.; Pottier, J.

    1953-01-01

    This equipment is destined to equip the separator of isotopes who is the subject of the CEA report n 138. It includes: - a controlled power supply in voltage. - a controlled power supply in current. The spectra of fluctuations of these assembly is different in the two cases. (authors) [fr

  6. Logistics Supply of the Distributed Air Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Event Graph The Consumption Process first instantiates the variables . The model follows a conveyor belt pattern, whereby after processing an event...the following problem statement: Design a system of systems and the concept of operations to employ naval air assets in a range of missions to augment...airbases are designed to be set up within three days, utilizing highways as short runways for the Short Take Off Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft F

  7. Controlled air incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    From 1960 to 1970, incineration was recognized as an economical method of solid waste disposal with many incinerators in operation through the country. During this period a number of legislation acts began to influence the solid waste disposal industry, namely, the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965; Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1968; Resource Recovery Act of 1970; and Clean Air Act of 1970. This period of increased environmental awareness and newly created regulations began the closure of many excess air incineration facilities and encouraged the development of new controlled air, also known as Starved-Air incinerator systems which could meet the more stringent air emission standards without additional emission control equipment. The Starved-Air technology initially received little recognition because it was considered unproven and radically different from the established and accepted I.I.A. standards. However, there have been many improvements and developments in the starved-air incineration systems since the technology was first introduced and marketed, and now these systems are considered the proven technology standard

  8. Safety-related control air systems - approved 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    This standard applies to those portions of the control air system that furnish air required to support, control, or operate systems or portions of systems that are safety related in nuclear power plants. This standard relates only to the air supply system(s) for safety-related air operated devices and does not apply to the safety-related air operated device or to air operated actuators for such devices. The objectives of this standard are to provide (1) minimum system design requirements for equipment, piping, instruments, controls, and wiring that constitute the air supply system; and (2) the system and component testing and maintenance requirements

  9. Control units for APS power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despe, O.D.; Saunders, C.; McGhee, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) accelerator facility is made up of five major subsystems in addition to the linac: the positron accumulator ring (PAR), low energy transport (LET), booster synchrotron (SYNCH), high energy transport (HET), the storage ring (SR). Each subsystem has multiple magnet power supply combinations, some requiring multiple of operation. These magnet and power supply combinations computer controlled and monitored. The power supply control unit (PSCU) is the first layer of hardware and software above the power supply itself and is described in this paper. The description includes the basic philosophy for each of operation and how it influences the topology and of implementing control. The design of the analog reference blocks (ARBs) influenced the design of other custom functions well as the feedback controls for vibration and other dynamic corrections. The command set supported by the PSCU is discussed

  10. Control of air toxics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livengood, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    For more than 10 years, Argonne National Laboratory has supported the US DOE's Flue Gas Cleanup Program objective by developing new or improved environmental controls for industries that use fossil fuels. Argonne's pollutant emissions research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing, to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. The work on air toxics is currently divided into two components: Investigating measures to improve the removal of mercury in existing pollution-control systems applied to coal combustion; and, Developing sensors and control techniques for emissions found in the textile industry

  11. Electricity supply. Older plants' impact on reliability and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England-Joseph, Judy A.; Adams, Charles M.; Wood, David G.; Feehan, Daniel J.; Veal, Howard F.; Skeen, John H. III; Koenigs, Melvin J.; Lichtenfeld, David I.; Seretakis, Pauline J.

    1990-09-01

    Life extension of fossil fuel plants is a relatively recent phenomenon; thus, utilities have little experience to demonstrate the longer-term operating reliability of plants with an extended service life. While utility industry officials and government and industry studies express optimism that these plants will continue to operate reliably, the officials and the studies also caution that it is too soon to determine how pursuing life extension will affect the reliability of the nation's electricity supply. According to DOE, the number of fossil fuel generating units' 30 years old or older is expected to increase from about 2,500 in 1989 to roughly 3,700 in 1998, increasing such plants' share of overall generating capacity from 13 percent in 1989 to 27 percent in 1998. EPA estimates that with existing air quality requirements, fossil fuel plant emissions will increase steadily during the coming decade. Proposed acid rain control legislation, which would affect many plants that may have their service life extended, would require utilities to significantly reduce emissions by the year 2000 but would allow utilities flexibility in deciding how and where to achieve the reductions. If such legislation is enacted, utilities generally are expected to find reducing emissions from existing plants more cost-effective than replacing them and to continue extending plants' service life. Officials of DOE and utility organizations expressed concern, however, that EPA could decide, as it did for one plant in 1988, that alterations made in extending the service life of plants exempted from the Clean Air Act would result in increased emissions and thus cause the altered plants to lose their exemption. According to the officials, the additional costs of achieving the Clean Air Act's standards could discourage some life extension projects. However, such decisions by EPA could also reduce the nation's total power plant emissions by eliminating an existing incentive to retain exempt

  12. Power supply trip control for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hager, R.E.; Gutman, Jerzy.

    1987-01-01

    A control system for a trip coil in a switchgear mechanism controls the supply of electrical power to a process control device and ensures de-energization of the trip coil shortly after the trip coil is energized. The trip coil is energized not by an independent dc source as in prior art, but from rectified power from a step down transformer supplied from the switchgear output side. The transformer feeds a rectifier which is connected to the trip coil via a trip activation device. The output of the rectifier can be monitored using an optical converter to determine the ability of the control system to activate the trip coil and the condition of the power supplied to the process control device. The control device may be a rod positioner in a pressurised water nuclear reactor. (author)

  13. Developing a dynamic control system for mine compressed air networks

    OpenAIRE

    Van Heerden, S.W.; Pelzer, R.; Marais, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Mines in general, make use of compressed air systems for daily operational activities. Compressed air on mines is traditionally distributed via compressed air ring networks where multiple shafts are supplied with compressed air from an integral system. These compressed air networks make use of a number of compressors feeding the ring from various locations in the network. While these mines have sophisticated control systems to control these compressors, they are not dynamic systems. Compresso...

  14. Controlled air pyrolysis incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufrane, K.H.; Wilke, M.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced controlled air pyrolysis incinerator has been researched, developed and placed into commercial operation for both radioactive and other combustible wastes. Engineering efforts cocentrated on providing an incinerator which emitted a clean, easily treatable off-gas and which produced a minimum amount of secondary waste. Feed material is continuously fed by gravity into the system's pyrolysis chamber without sorting, shredding, or other such pretreatment. Metal objects, liquids such as oil and gasoline, or solid products such as resins, blocks of plastic, tire, animal carcasses, or compacted trash may be included along with normal processed waste. The temperature of the waste is very gradually increased in a reduced oxygen atmosphere. Volatile pyrolysis gases are produced, tar-like substances are cracked and the resulting product, a relatively uniform, easily burnable material, is introduced into the combustion chamber. Steady burning is thus accomplished under easily controlled excess air conditions with the off-gasthen passing through a simple dry clean-up system. Gas temperatures are then reduced by air dilution before passing through final HEPA filters. Both commercial and nuclear installations have been operated with the most recent application being the central incinerator to service West Germany's nuclear reactors

  15. An innovational application of digital power supply controller on SSRF dynamic power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huanguang; Li Rui; Guo Chunlong; Shen Tianjian; Li Deming

    2008-01-01

    Control structure of dynamic power supply using PSI controller in SLS and Diamond is introduced. For designing dynamic power supply using PSI controller in the booster of SSRF, an innovative application of PSI digital power supply controller has been developed. In the commissioning of SSRF, the dynamic power supplies performed perfectly. (authors)

  16. Supply air filters after the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonka, H.

    1989-01-01

    In the case of increased activity concentration in the air supply air filters are the facility compounds where enhanced activity is collected. Therefore, it was understandable that the people put questions about the doses caused by supply air filters after the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. When comparing the local dose rate at a distance of 1 m in front of filters with the outdoor local dose rate due to dry deposited radionuclides, nearly the same local dose rate results assuming an air flow rate of approx. 60 m 3 /h. Supposing a 10 hours stay at a distance of 1 m in front of filters and an air flow rate of approx. 5000 m 3 /h the same dose is obtained after a 10 days delay as the dose due to outdoor inhalation. At Aachen, the local dose rate near to filters increased up to approx. 10 μSv/h. After a suitable time delay of one month filters could be rejected like normal waste. A review is given on individual measured values

  17. MPC control of water supply networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baunsgaard, Kenneth Marx Hoe; Ravn, Ole; Kallesoe, Carsten Skovmose

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the modelling and predictive control of a drinking water supply network with the aim of minimising the energy and economic cost. A model predictive controller, MPC, is applied to a nonlinear model of a drinking water network that follows certain constraints to maintain......, controlling the drinking water supply network with the MPC showed reduction of the energy and the economic cost of running the system. This has been achieved by minimising actuator control effort and by shifting the actuator use towards the night time, where energy prices are lower. Along with energy cost...... consumer pressure desire. A model predictive controller, MPC, is based on a simple model that models the main characteristics of a water distribution network, optimizes a desired cost minimisation, and keeps the system inside specified constraints. In comparison to a logic (on/off) control design...

  18. Description of Supply Openings in Numerical Models for Room Air Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses various possibilities for describing supply openings in numerical models of room air distribution.......This paper discusses various possibilities for describing supply openings in numerical models of room air distribution....

  19. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarczynski, M.A. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering, Department of Indoor Environment Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland); International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Melikov, A.K.; Lyubenova, V. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kaczmarczyk, J. [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Department of Heating, Ventilation and Dust Removal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality at the room air temperature of 26 C and relative humidity of 70%. (author)

  20. The supply price control: issues for review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlechild, S.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, the Director General of the Office of Electricity Regulation (OFFER) sets out the issues involved in the current review of supply price controls for the twelve regional electricity companies (RECs) in the United Kingdom. The Government's current energy policy is outlined, drawing a distinction between electricity from fossil and non-fossil fuel sources. RECs are obliged by the licencees to purchase economically and OFFER seeks to monitor this process, both within Government limits. This history of price controls is outlined and the author considers what form the next supply control should take, bearing in mind generation costs and aims towards energy efficiency. The OFFER consultative document has now been published and public debate of these issues will follow. (UK)

  1. Improved airline-type supplied-air plastic suit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, L. Jr.; Zippler, D.B.; Cofer, C.H.; Harper, J.A.

    1978-06-01

    Two piece supplied-air plastic suits are used extensively at the Savannah River Plant for personnel protection against inhalation of airborne plutonium and tritium. Worker comfort and noise level problems gave impetus to development of an improved suit and aid distribution system. The resulting plastic suit and development work are discussed. The plastic suit unit cost is less than $20, the hearing zone noise level is less than 75 dBA, protection factors exceed 10,000, and user comfort is approved. This suit is expected to meet performance requirements for unrestricted use

  2. Air Traffic Control Tools Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Noskievič

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly air transport in today’s world wouldn’t be able to exist without any air traffic control service. As the air transport has been coming through major changes and it has been expanding, it is assumed that its volume will be doubled in the next 15 years. Air traffic control uses strictly organised procedures to ensure safe course of air operations. With the skies covered with more airplanes every year, new tools must be introduced to allow the controllers to manage this rising amount of flying aircraft and to keep the air transport safe. This paper provides a comprehensive and organized material, which describes the newest tools and systems used by air traffic control officers. It proposes improvements for further research and development of ATC tools.

  3. Reduced heat stress in offices in the tropics using solar powered drying of the supply air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars; Santos, A M B

    2002-01-01

    air may facilitate personal cooling by increased evaporation of sweat. Heat acclimatized people with efficient sweating may in particular benefit from this cooling. A prototype solar powered supply system for dried-only air was made. Air from the system was mixed with room air, heated to six different...... content of room air, temperature of supply air and moisture content of supply air was developed based on the experiments. Reduction of moisture content in the supply air by 1.6 g/kg had the same effect as lowering the operative temperature by 1 degree C. The solar-powered system for supplying dry air...... is a low-cost alternative to traditional air conditioning in hot and humid regions....

  4. Calculation methods for air supply design in industrial facilities. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagstroem, K; Siren, K; Zhivov, A M

    1999-09-01

    The objectives of air distribution systems for warm air heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning are to create the proper thermal environment conditions in the occupied zone (combination of temperature, humidity, and air movement), and to control vapor and air born particle concentration within the target levels set by the process requirements and/or threshold limit values based on health effects, fire and explosion prevention, or other considerations. HVAC systems designs are constrained by existing codes, standards, and guidelines, which specify some minimum requirements for the HVAC system elements, occupant`s and process environmental quality and safety. There is a variety of different methods consulting engineers use to design room air diffusion and to select and size air diffusers, such as assumption of perfect mixing, design methods employing the empirical relations determined through research, such as the air diffusion performance index (ADPI), air jet theory and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. Air supplied into the room through the various types of outlets (grills, ceiling mounted air diffusers, perforated panels etc.), is distributed by turbulent air jets. In mixing type air distribution systems, these air jets are the primary factor affecting room air motion. Numerous theoretical and experimental studies that developed a solid base for turbulent air jets theory were conducted concurrently in different countries (Germany, Sweden, Russia, U.K., USA) from the 1930`s through the 1980`s. Design methods based on air jet theory allows for the prediction of extreme values of air velocities and air temperatures in the occupied zone of empty spaces. Current air jet theory techniques account for the effects of buoyancy, confinement, jets interaction. For many conditions of jet discharge, it is possible to analyze jet performance and determine: the angle of divergence of the jet boundary; the velocity patterns along heated or chilled the jet axis; the

  5. HIGH RESOLUTION ANALOG / DIGITAL POWER SUPPLY CONTROLLER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedko, Evgeny A

    2003-01-01

    Corrector magnets for the SPEAR-3 synchrotron radiation source require precision, high-speed control for use with beam-based orbit feedback. A new Controller Analog/Digital Interface card (CANDI) has been developed for these purposes. The CANDI has a 24-bit DAC for current control and three 24-bit Δ-Σ ADCs to monitor current and voltages. The ADCs can be read and the DAC updated at the 4 kHz rate needed for feedback control. A precision 16-bit DAC provides on-board calibration. Programmable multiplexers control internal signal routing for calibration, testing, and measurement. Feedback can be closed internally on current setpoint, externally on supply current, or beam position. Prototype and production tests are reported in this paper. Noise is better than 17 effective bits in a 10 mHz to 2 kHz bandwidth. Linearity and temperature stability are excellent

  6. Air pollution control in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    Prior to rapid spurt in industrialization in India, people were used to inhale pure air containing about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and some carbon dioxide. But afterwards this composition of pure air was disturbed as a result of increased economic activities. Air, now a days also contains sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides etc., etc. which are extremely harmful for human health. Virulence of air pollution was realised in late eighties after Bhopal Gas Tragedy (BGT) and an effective air quality management started taking shape in India afterwards. The basic components of air quality management are legislation and regulations, emission inventory, air quality standards and monitoring, air dispersion models and installation of pollution control equipment which are being discussed in this paper. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  7. Research review: Indoor air quality control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, W.J.

    1986-10-01

    Techniques for controlling the concentration of radon, formaldehyde, and combustion products in the indoor air are reviewed. The most effective techniques, which are generally based on limiting or reducing indoor pollutant source strengths, can decrease indoor pollutant concentrations by a factor of 3 to 10. Unless the initial ventilation rate is unusually low, it is difficult to reduce indoor pollutant concentrations more than approximately 50% by increasing the ventilation rate of an entire building. However, the efficiency of indoor pollutant control by ventilation can be enhanced through the use of local exhaust ventilation near concentrated sources of pollutants, by minimizing short circuiting of air from supply to exhaust when pollutant sources are dispersed and, in some situations, by promoting a displacement flow of air and pollutants toward the exhaust. Active air cleaning is also examined briefly. Filtration and electrostatic air cleaning for removal of particles from the indoor air are the most practical and effective currently available techniques of air cleaning. 49 refs., 7 figs

  8. Energy and air emission effects of water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-15

    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process.

  9. Portland Energy Centre: Securing supply and clearing the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    The rationale for, and benefits derivable from the proposed Portland natural gas-fired cogeneration plant, to be located beside the former Hearn power station near the Leslie Street Spit in Toronto, are discussed. The justification for and the single most important benefit promised by the proposed plant is that it could help Ontario achieve its coal phase-out target by displacing 100 per cent of the annual output of the Lakeview coal--fired power plant in Mississauga, as well as six per cent of the annual output of the Nanticoke coal-fired power plant, in total supplying about 10 per cent of Toronto's electricity needs and providing steam to heat several office towers in downtown Toronto. Other benefits discussed include substantially improved air quality, reduced incidence of asthma and heart attacks, a more reliable power supply for Toronto, some 500 new jobs during construction, and 25 to 35 permanent jobs to operate the plant. The Fact Sheet also offers suggestions on how to generate political support for this project in particular and for renewable power sources in general

  10. PSC/PSI power supply control prototype based on RTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Haoli; Wang Chunhong; Tang Jingyu

    2010-01-01

    A PSC/PSI power supply control prototype was developed by using an open-source real-time operating system RTEMS and PSC/PSI power supply controller developed by BNL. The structure of the prototype, development procedures as well as testing result with a power supply of a corrector magnet were described. It can switch on/off the power supply, ramp up/down the current, and monitor the real-time states of the power supply. (authors)

  11. Air Force Supply Management Analysis of Activity Groups Financial Reports, Prices, and Cash Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    The Air Force supply management activity group provides about two million types of inventory items, including weapon system spare parts, fuels, and medical-dental supplies, to customers which consist...

  12. The performance and subjective responses of call-center operators with new and used supply air filters at two outdoor air supply rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2004-01-01

    A 2X2 replicated field intervention experiment was conducted in a call-center providing a telephone directory service: outdoor air supply rate was adjusted to be 8% of the total airflow of 430 l/s (3.5/h)and the supply air filters were either new or had been in place for 6 months. One of these in......A 2X2 replicated field intervention experiment was conducted in a call-center providing a telephone directory service: outdoor air supply rate was adjusted to be 8% of the total airflow of 430 l/s (3.5/h)and the supply air filters were either new or had been in place for 6 months. One...

  13. Supply-demand controls the futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the futures market of petroleum and explains how futures operate. The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate that oil futures markets does no determine energy prices - it merely reflects the prices recorded through trades made in an open marketplace. A futures contract is an agreement between a buyer and a seller at a price that seems fair to both. High demand from buyers can push prices up; low demand or a willingness to sell pushes prices down. As a result, supply and demand control the futures exchange and not vice-versa. The paper goes on to explain some basic principals of the futures market including the differences between hedging and speculating on prices and marketing strategy

  14. Design of digital logic control for accelerator magnet power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Fengli; Hu Wei; Cheng Jian

    2008-01-01

    For the accelerator magnet power supply, usually the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is used to server as the controller for logic protection and control. Along with the development of modern accelerator technology, it is a trend to use fully-digital control to the magnet power supply. It is possible to integrate the logic control part into the digital control component of the power supply, for example, the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The paper introduces to different methods which are designed for the logic protection and control for accelerator magnet power supplies with the FPGA as the control component. (authors)

  15. Air pollution control. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, G.; Baumann, K.; Droescher, F.; Gross, H.; Steisslinger, B.

    1994-01-01

    Controlling the pollution of the air is an interdisciplinary problem. This introduction reaches from the origin of hazardous substances via their extension and conversion in the atmosphere, their effects of men, animals, plants and goods up to reduction methods for the various sources. Measuring techniques are one of the main points of interest, as it plays a key role in detecting hazardous substances and monitoring reduction measures. A survey of the history shows the historical dimension of the subject. The prescriptions relating to air pollution control give an impression of the present situation of air pollution control. Currently existing problems such as waste gases from motor vehicles, SO 2 transports, ozone in the ambient air, newly detected sorts of damage to the forests, emission reduction in the burning of fossile fuels, polychloried dibenzodioxins and furanes are dealt with. (orig.). 232 figs [de

  16. Power supply controlled for plasma torch generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Z, S.

    1996-01-01

    The high density of energy furnished by thermal plasma is profited in a wide range of applications, such as those related with welding fusion, spray coating and at the present in waste destruction. The waste destruction by plasma is a very attractive process because the remaining products are formed by inert glassy grains and non-toxic gases. The main characteristics of thermal plasmas are presented in this work. Techniques based on power electronics are utilized to achieve a good performance in thermal plasma generation. This work shown the design and construction of three phase control system for electric supply of thermal plasma torch, with 250 kw of capacity, as a part of the project named 'Destruction of hazard wastes by thermal plasma' actually working in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The characteristics of thermal plasma and its generation are treated in the first chapter. The A C controllers by thyristors applied in three phase arrays are described in the chapter II, talking into account the power transformer, rectifiers bank and aliasing coil. The chapter III is dedicated in the design of the trigger module which controls the plasma current by varying the trigger angle of the SCR's; the protection and isolating unit are also presented in this chapter. The results and conclusions are discussed in chapter IV. (Author)

  17. Air pollution control regulation. [Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogabe, K

    1975-05-01

    The Basic Law for Environmental Pollution Control is reviewed. The fundamental ideology of pollution control, range of pollution control, environmental standards, and national policy concerning pollution control are discussed. The content of the Air Pollution Control Law is summarized. The purpose of the Air Pollution Control Law, a list of substances regulated by the law, the type of facilities regulated by the law, control standards, type of control means, and emission standards for flue gas (sulfur oxides, particulate matters, and toxic substances) are described. The environmental standard for each pollutant and the target date for achieving the environmental standard are also given. The list of cities where the 7-rank K value control regulation for SOx is enforced is given. The procedure for registration in compliance with the law is also described.

  18. Air/fuel supply system for use in a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Timothy A; Schilp, Reinhard; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2014-06-17

    A fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine combustor assembly. The fuel injector includes a main body and a fuel supply structure. The main body has an inlet end and an outlet end and defines a longitudinal axis extending between the outlet and inlet ends. The main body comprises a plurality of air/fuel passages extending therethrough, each air/fuel passage including an inlet that receives air from a source of air and an outlet. The fuel supply structure communicates with and supplies fuel to the air/fuel passages for providing an air/fuel mixture within each air/fuel passage. The air/fuel mixtures exit the main body through respective air/fuel passage outlets.

  19. Innovative Digitally Controlled Particle Accelerator Magnet Power Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Ørndrup; Bidoggia, Benoit; Maheshwari, Ram Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Particle accelerator magnet power supplies needs to be extremely precise. A new and innovative power supply for particle accelerator magnets is proposed. The topologies for the input and the output converter are shown and the control architecture is described.......Particle accelerator magnet power supplies needs to be extremely precise. A new and innovative power supply for particle accelerator magnets is proposed. The topologies for the input and the output converter are shown and the control architecture is described....

  20. Control Towers in Supply Chain Management - Past and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trzuskawska-Grzesińska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The global economy requires global supply chain management which relies on visibility and responsiveness. Determinants such as: information technology tools, process knowledge, sales and operations planning experiences, etc., enable the formation of theory and practice for the supply chain control tower concept. The goal of the research paper is to identify business examples of different approaches to the supply chain control tower in the past and initiate a discussion on their future. This paper synthesizes past control tower practices and identifies possible future trends. The author performed: literature analysis, three selected companies' case studies and comparative analyses. As the control towers evolve, while supply chains are transforming continuous, update from the market is needed. The research findings showed the selected companies, in the future, perceived control tower's activities as a potential source of revenue not just solely a source of cost and time optimization as well as a source of value added to customer. The researched control towers were built and still they are developed. The business frequently changes and requires control towers to be adjusted, reengineered and adaptive. The researched control towers are needed to keep control over supply chain while it is transforming. There is a differentiation between the supply chain control towers, logistic services control towers and reverse supply chain control towers. An integration mechanism between the control towers would be necessary to assure entire supply chain visibility and orchestration. The research also shows the knowledge gap regarding the control towers in supply chain, specially their possible configurations and future.

  1. Application of ground-to-air heat exchanger for preheating of supply air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokins, Juris; Borodinecs, Anatolijs; Zemitis, Jurgis

    2017-10-01

    This study focuses on assessing the contribution of the passive ground-coupled air heat exchanger system to decreasing the energy consumption of air conditioning and ventilation systems for office buildings in the Latvian climate conditions. The theoretical part of the thesis deals with methods of office building ventilation, supply air preheating and heat recovery as well as particularities of using ground-coupled air heat exchangers, their design parameters and their joint impact on the thermal performance. The engineering project part includes a ventilation system for an office building with an integrated ground-coupled air heat exchanger. By simulating energy consumption of the ventilation system for a duration of one year, the thesis analyzes the contribution of the heat exchanger to the overall energy consumption, which totals 9.53 MWh and 4.02 MWh a year, according to the desired parameters of the indoor climate. The possible alternative heat recovery solutions are investigated to reach by European Regional Development Fund project Nr.1.1.1.1/16/A/048 “NEARLY ZERO ENERGY SOLUTIONS FOR UNCLASSIFIED BUILDINGS”.

  2. Radon mitigation with mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation adjusted by a pressure control unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokotti, H.; Keskikuru, T.; Kalliokoski, P.

    1993-01-01

    Effective ventilation and positive or low negative pressure indoors are suggested to low indoor radon levels. The aim of this study is to develop and to test an equipment, which makes it possible to achieve simultaneously effective ventilation and minimum outdoor-pressure difference. The unit includes mechanical supply and exhaust air fans, a exchanger and a pressure control unit in direct digital control (DDC), which adjusts continuously air exchange based on the pressure difference transmitter information. (orig.). (8 refs., 6 figs.)

  3. Application of MATLAB in testing digital power supply controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Xinhua; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Lu Songlin; Shen Tianjian

    2008-01-01

    Based on introducing MATLAB SISOTOOL in MATLAB control box and the magnet power supply system in detail, this paper presented the application of MATLAB SISOTOOL in Testing Digital Power Supply controllers. This control tool should be popularized because of its characteristics of convenience and easy-to-use. (authors)

  4. EFFECT OF POWER SUPPLY AND DUTY CONTROL IN CRANKCASE FLOW (CRANKCASE PRESSURE PORT OF ECV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. IQBAL MAHMUD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic control valve (ECV operated by solenoid in the external variable compressor with the swash plate type is the rising phenomenon. ECV controls the air conditioning compressor for automobile on the basis of the input signal of the pulse width modulation (PWM that supplied from the external controller. PWM technique is used to encode the information for transmission; its main use is to allow the control of the power to be supplied to electrical devices, especially to inertial loads. The mechanism changes the swash plate angle inside the compressor by increasing or reducing the pressure of swash plate chamber by use of the functions of different pressure port within the ECV. Increasing and reducing the swash plate angle finally depends on the solenoid force acting on the rate of supply of current. This research paper investigates the effect of power supply and duty control during the crankcase flowing at Pc pressure port of ECV.

  5. Optimal Inventory Control with Advance Supply Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Jaksic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown in numerous situations that sharing information between the companies leads to improved performance of the supply chain. We study a positive lead time periodic-review inventory system of a retailer facing stochastic demand from his customer and stochastic limited supply capacity of the manufacturer supplying the products to him. The consequence of stochastic supply capacity is that the orders might not be delivered in full, and the exact size of the replenishment might not be known to the retailer. The manufacturer is willing to share the so-called advance supply information (ASI about the actual replenishment of the retailer's pipeline order with the retailer. ASI is provided at a certain time after the orders have been placed and the retailer can now use this information to decrease the uncertainty of the supply, and thus improve its inventory policy. For this model, we develop a dynamic programming formulation, and characterize the optimal ordering policy as a state-dependent base-stock policy. In addition, we show some properties of the base-stock level. While the optimal policy is highly complex, we obtain some additional insights by comparing it to the state-dependent myopic inventory policy. We conduct the numerical analysis to estimate the in uence of the system parameters on the value of ASI. While we show that the interaction between the parameters is relatively complex, the general insight is that due to increasing marginal returns, the majority of the benets are gained only in the case of full, or close to full, ASI visibility.

  6. Evaluation of simplified ventilation system with direct air supply through the facade in a school in a cold climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mysen, M. [Norwegian Building Research Institute, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Department of Energy and Process Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Schild, P. G.; Hellstrand, V.; Thunshelle, K. [Norwegian Building Research Institute, Blindern, Oslo (Norway)

    2004-07-01

    Many educational buildings in industrialised countries have poor indoor climate, according to today's knowledge about the impact of indoor climate on well-being and productivity. Budget restrictions and practical limitations such as lack of space for central air handling units and ventilation ducts, have motivated the application of simplified ventilation systems in some schools, such as taking unconditioned supply air directly from the facade. One such school was recently evaluated in Norway. On cold days, thermal comfort in the classroom deteriorated due to cold down draught from the supply outlet. In addition, moist and fertile conditions for microbiological growth were observed in the air supply ductwork. On the other hand the same pupils are more satisfied with the school and have less sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms during winter than summer. An improved control strategy with a temperature-compensated CO{sub 2} set-point for controlling the air flow is suggested. This could improve thermal comfort and reduce energy use without compromising perceived air quality (PAQ) during cold weather. Furthermore it could improve indoor air quality (IAQ) during warm weather with only a slight increase of energy use. Further evaluation of an improved solution is needed before such a ventilation concept can be recommended in cold climates. (author)

  7. Temperature and Humidity Control in Air-Conditioned Buildings with lower Energy Demand and increased Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim; Martos, E. T.

    2003-01-01

    Air-conditioning is not only a matter of temperature control. Thermal comfort and good indoor air quality are mainly a matter of humidity. Human health and well being may suffer seriously from inadequate humidity and/or too low temperatures in a room. A case study involving supermarket air......%. For indoor air temperature and humidity control, the use of an ice slurry (´Binary Ice´)was compared to conventional chilled water. The use of Binary Ice instead of chilled water makes the air handling and air distribution installation much simpler, recirculation of air becomes obsolete, and a higher portion...... of ambient air can be supplied, thus improving the indoor air quality still further. Reheating of air is not necessary when using Binary Ice. The introduction of chilled air into a room requires a different type of air outlet, however. When using Binary Ice, energy savings are high for climates with low...

  8. Managing Air Quality - Control Strategies to Achieve Air Pollution Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerations in designing an effective control strategy related to air quality, controlling pollution sources, need for regional or national controls, steps to developing a control strategy, and additional EPA resources.

  9. Supply system with microprocessor control for electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplin, N.I.; Sergeev, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Precision supply system for electron gun used in Auger-spectrometer is described. The supply system consists of control and high-voltage parts, made as separate units. Supply high-voltage unit includes system supply module, filament module to supply electron gun cathode and 6 high-volt modules to supply accelerating, modulating and three focusing electrodes of the gun. High-voltage modules have the following characteristics: U-(100-1000)V output voltage, 5x10 -5 U stability, 10 -5 xU pulsation amplitude, J-(0-5)A filament current change range at 10 -4 xJ stability. Control unit including microprocessor, timer and storage devices forms control voltage for all modules and regulates voltage and current of filament at electrodes

  10. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements. 84.149 Section 84.149 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.149 Type C supplied-air respirator...

  11. Development of a model for activated sludge aeration systems: linking air supply, distribution, and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraa, Oliver; Rieger, Leiv; Alex, Jens

    2017-02-01

    During the design of a water resource recovery facility, it is becoming industry practice to use simulation software to assist with process design. Aeration is one of the key components of the activated sludge process, and is one of the most important aspects of modelling wastewater treatment systems. However, aeration systems are typically not modelled in detail in most wastewater treatment process modelling studies. A comprehensive dynamic aeration system model has been developed that captures both air supply and demand. The model includes sub-models for blowers, pipes, fittings, and valves. An extended diffuser model predicts both oxygen transfer efficiency within an aeration basin and pressure drop across the diffusers. The aeration system model allows engineers to analyse aeration systems as a whole to determine biological air requirements, blower performance, air distribution, control valve impacts, controller design and tuning, and energy costs. This enables engineers to trouble-shoot the entire aeration system including process, equipment and controls. It also allows much more realistic design of these highly complex systems.

  12. Optimized control strategy for crowbarless solid state modular power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, R.; Badapanda, M.K.; Tripathi, A.; Hannurkar, P.R.; Pithawa, C.K.

    2009-01-01

    Solid state modular power supply with series connected IGBT based power modules have been employed as high voltage bias power supply of klystron amplifier. Auxiliary compensation of full wave inverter bridge with ZVS/ZCS operations of all IGBTs over entire operating range is incorporated. An optimized control strategy has been adopted for this power supply needing no output filter, making this scheme crowbarless and is presented in this paper. DSP based fully digital control with same duty cycle for all power modules, have been incorporated for regulating this power supply along with adequate protection features. Input to this power supply is taken directly from 11 kV line and the input system is intentionally made 24 pulsed to reduce the input harmonics, improve the input power factor significantly, there by requiring no line filters. Various steps have been taken to increase the efficiency of major subsystems, so as to improve the overall efficiency of this power supply significantly. (author)

  13. Advanced control of a water supply system : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional automatic production flow control and pump pressure control of water supply systems are robust and simple: production flow is controlled based on the level in the clear water reservoir and pump pressure is controlled on a static set-point. Recently, more advanced computer-based control

  14. Impact Analysis of Air Pollutant Emission Policies on Thermal Coal Supply Chain Enterprises in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Guo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spurred by the increasingly serious air pollution problem, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies to put forward specific measures of power structure adjustment and the control objectives of air pollution and coal consumption. Other policies pointed out that the coal resources regional blockades will be broken by improving transportation networks and constructing new logistics nodes. Thermal power takes the largest part of China’s total installed power generation capacity, so these policies will undoubtedly impact thermal coal supply chain member enterprises. Based on the actual situation in China, this paper figures out how the member enterprises adjust their business decisions to satisfy the requirements of air pollution prevention and control policies by establishing system dynamic models of policy impact transfer. These dynamic analyses can help coal enterprises and thermal power enterprises do strategic environmental assessments and find directions of sustainable development. Furthermore, the policy simulated results of this paper provide the Chinese government with suggestions for policy-making to make sure that the energy conservation and emission reduction policies and sustainable energy policies can work more efficiently.

  15. How to control water supply costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornby, D M

    1965-05-17

    Exploring for water can be as expensive as exploring for oil, a factor which is likely to become increasingly clear. Basic essentials of any water-supply study require an understanding and knowledge of the limiting conditions of quality, quantity, cost, and reliability. A logical 10-step program is outlined. The initial steps are as follows: (1) analyze the acutal water demand for flood requirements; (2) select the logical and apparent sources of supply; (3) collect and assess all availabe pertinent information; and (4) formulate a plan of analysis and attack for the study. The intermediate steps are as follows: (5) use this plan in making field and office investigations: (6) having determined the alternatives and preliminary costs, prepare a written assessment; and (7) using the brain-storming technique within the company or unit, utilize the assessment to devise a master action plan and budget for anticipated expenditures. The final steps are as follows: (8) complete other required investigations based upon the master plan and budget; (9) prepare detailed design, specifications and estimates; and (10) call tenders or negotiate the most favorable arrangements with respect to construction time and price.

  16. Extending the enterprise through multi-level supply control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlist, van der P.; Hoppenbrouwers, J.J.E.M.; Hegge, H.M.H.

    1997-01-01

    Demands for flexibility require larger parts of the supply chain to become customer driven. This article describes multi-level supply control (MLSC) as a mechanism to facilitate that; it allows to specify gradually and thus to shift the customer order decoupling point well across the boundary to the

  17. Design and control of carbon aware supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, K.M.R.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation the impact of carbon emissions on the design and control of supply chains is studied. Increasing awareness for global warming and the role of greenhouse gasses in this has made companies more aware of carbon dioxide emissions caused by supply chains. As a result of this

  18. Power supply control units for APS ring magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despe, O.D.

    1990-01-01

    The APS storage ring (1104 meters) is divided into 40 sectors. Each sector has 38 magnet coils in five magnet bases. Every alternate sector has an additional quadrupole magnet for skew correction. AR the main dipole magnets, two in each sector are connected in series and fed from one power supply unit. A base is controlled by one power supply control unit (PSCU). Each PSCU is connected to the host computer via a local area network (LAN). This note discusses the hardware configuration of the typical power supply control system used by the APS magnets and the software commands supported by the PSCU

  19. Automation of Aditya tokamak plasma position control DC power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arambhadiya, Bharat, E-mail: bharat@ipr.res.in; Raj, Harshita; Tanna, R.L.; Edappala, Praveenlal; Rajpal, Rachana; Ghosh, Joydeep; Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Kalal, M.B.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Plasma position control is very essential for obtaining repeatable high temperature, high-density discharges of longer durations in tokomak. • The present capacitor bank has limitations of maximum current capacity and position control beyond 200 ms. • The installation of a separate set of coils and a DC power supply can control the plasma position beyond 200 ms. • A high power thyristor (T588N1200) triggers for DC current pulse of 300 A fires precisely at required positions to modify plasma position. • The commissioning is done for the automated in-house, quick and reliable solution. - Abstract: Plasma position control is essential for obtaining repeatable high temperature, high-density discharges of longer duration in tokamaks. Recently, a set of external coils is installed in the vertical field mode configuration to control the radial plasma position in ADITYA tokamak. The existing capacitor bank cannot provide the required current pulse beyond 200 ms for position control. This motivated to have a DC power supply of 500 A to provide current pulse beyond 200 ms for the position control. The automatization of the DC power supply mandated interfaces with the plasma control system, Aditya Pulse Power supply, and Data acquisition system for coordinated discharge operation. A high current thyristor circuit and a timer circuit have been developed for controlling the power supply automatically for charging vertical field coils of Aditya tokamak. Key protection interlocks implemented in the development ensure machine and occupational safety. Fiber-optic trans-receiver isolates the power supply with other subsystems, while analog channel is optically isolated. Commissioning and testing established proper synchronization of the power supply with tokamak operation. The paper discusses the automation of the DC power supply with main circuit components, timing control, and testing results.

  20. Accelerator-control-system interface for intelligent power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.

    1992-01-01

    A number of high-current high-precision magnet power supplies have been installed at the proton storage ring at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Accelerator Complex. The units replace existing supplies, powering large dipole magnets in the ring. These bending magnets require a high-current supply that is precise and stable. The control and interface design for these power supplies represents a departure from all others on-site. The supplies have sophisticated microprocessor control on-board and communicate with the accelerator control system via RS-422 (serial communications). The units, built by Alpha Scientific Electronics, Hayward, CA use a high-level ASCII control protocol. The low-level ''front-end'' software used by the accelerator control system has been written to accommodate these new devices. They communicate with the control system through a terminal server port connected to the site-wide ethernet backbone. Details of the software implementation for the analog and digital control of the supplies through the accelerator control system will be presented

  1. Control of the superconducting magnet power supply for SECRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wenxiong; Wang Yanyu; Zhou Detai; Lu Wang; Feng Yucheng; Su Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    The control of the superconducting magnet power supply (SMPS) is very important for Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL). In order to improve the safety and the reliability of the SMPS, a remote control system was designed and implemented. There are four power supplies needed to be controlled with suitable strategy to avoid the quench of the superconducting magnet. These four power supplies are used to supply four superconducting solenoids. Because the value and the changing rates of the current for these four solenoids are different, the power supplies must be operated synchronously to keep the current of the solenoids balanced. In this paper, we provide a detailed description for the control strategy of the four power supplies and the architecture of the hardware and the software. A serial switch is used for protocol conversion between TCP/IP and RS232 in firmware. And the software is implemented using VC++. The system can operate the four power supplies automatically after it is triggered. With the help of the control system, operation of the SMPS gets easier and safer. (authors)

  2. Call-centre occupant response to new and used filters at two outdoor air supply rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David; Nielsen, J.

    2002-01-01

    A 2x2 replicaterd field intervention experiment was conducted in a call-centre providing a public telephone directory service: outdoor air supply rate was 8% or 80% of the total airflow of 430 L/s providing 3.5 h-1; and the supply air filters were either new or used (i.e. used in place for 6 mont......). Each of these 4 conditions was maintained for a full working week at a time. Room temperature and humidity averaged 24 deg.C and 27% RH. The 26 operators were blind to conditions and assessed perceived air quality (PAQ), the intensity of Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symnptoms and self...

  3. A multi-channel AC power supply controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Hong; Li Xiaogang; Ma Xiaoli; Zhou Bo; Yin Weiwei

    2003-01-01

    A multi-channel ac power supply controller developed recently by authors is introduced briefly in this paper. This controller is a computer controlled multi-electronic-switch device. This controller was developed for the automatic control and monitoring system of a 220 V ac power supply system, it is a key front-end device of the automatic control and monitoring system. There is an electronic switch in each channel, the rated load power is ≤1 kW/each channel. Another function is to sample the 220 V ac output voltage so that computer can monitor the operation state of each electronic switch. Through these switches, the 220 V ac power supply is applied to some device or apparatus that need to be powered by 220 V ac power supply. In the design, a solid-state relay was employed as an electronic switch. This controller can be connected in cascade mode. There are 8 boxes at most can be connected in cascade mode. The length of control word is 8 bit, which contains addressing information and electronic switch state setting information. The sampling output of the controller is multiplexed. It is only one bit that indicates the operating state of an electronic switch. This controller has been used in an automatic control and monitoring system for 220 V ac power supply system

  4. Optimizing clinical trial supply requirements: simulation of computer-controlled supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Magnus; Byrom, Bill; Dowlman, Nikki; McEntegart, Damian

    2004-01-01

    Computer-controlled systems are commonly used in clinical trials to control dispensing and manage site inventories of trial supplies. Typically such systems are used with an interactive telephone or web system that provide an interface with the study site. Realizing the maximum savings in medication associated with this approach has, in the past, been problematic as it has been difficult to fully estimate medication requirements due to the complexities of these algorithms and the inherent variation in the clinical trial recruitment process. We describe the traditional and automated methods of supplying sites. We detail a simulation approach that models the automated system. We design a number of simulation experiments using this model to investigate the supply strategy properties that influence medication overage and other strategy performance metrics. The computer-controlled medication system gave superior performance to the traditional method. In one example, a 75% overage of wasted medication in the traditional system was associated with higher supply failure than an automated system strategy with an overage of 47%. In a further example, we demonstrate that the impact of using a country stratified as opposed to site stratified scheme affects the number of deliveries and probability of supply failures more than the amount of drug wasted with respective increases of 20, 2300 and 4%. Medication savings with automated systems are particularly significant in repeat dispensing designs. We show that the number of packs required can fall by as much as 50% if one uses a predictive medication algorithm. We conclude that a computer-controlled supply chain enables medication savings to be realized and that it is possible to quantify the distribution of these savings using a simulation model. The simulation model can be used to optimize the prestudy medication supply strategy and for midstudy monitoring using real-time data contained in the study database.

  5. Power supply control system for experimental physical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelepukin, S.A.; Osipov, Eh.V.; Petrov, V.S.; Sergeev, V.A.; Uglekov, V.Ya.

    1979-01-01

    A multichannel (to 1024 channels) system for control of power supply voltage is descrited. The system consists of an analog commulator, a digital voltmeter and a special controller. The controller serves at the same time as an interface for connecting the system as a ''unit'' of the VECTOR and SUMMA unified electronic systems. The system has been realized for control of the photomultiplier power supply voltage of the MARK multipurpose experimental device (256 channels, the measurement accuracy is 0.2%, the measuring time is 500 ms per point). Software devised for the HP-2100 computer permits automatical comparison of photomultiplier power supply voltages with sample ones in the mode of continuous control of a single voltage or in the mode of programmed selection of voltages to provide the control in arbitrary order or automatic scanning

  6. Device for controlling water supply to nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Toshio.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To smoothly control automatic water supply for realizing stable operation of a nuclear reactor by providing a flow rate limiting signal selection circuit and a preferential circuit in a water supply control device for a nuclear reactor wherein the speed of a recirculation pump may be changed in two-steps. Structure: Opening angle signals for a water supply regulating valve are controlled by a nuclear reactor water level signal, a vapor flow rate signal and a supplied water flow rate signal through an adder and an adjuster in response to a predetermined water level setting signal. When the water in the reactor is maintained at a predetermined level, a selection circuit receives a water pump condition signal for selecting one of the signals from a supplied water rate limiting signal generator generating signals for indicating whether one or two water supply pumps are operated. A low value preferential circuit passes the lower of the values generated from the selection circuit and the adder. The selection circuit receives a recirculation pump condition signal and selects either one of the signals from the supplied water flow rate limiting signal generator operated at high speed or low speed. A high value preferential circuit passes the higher value

  7. Advanced control of a water supply system : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2013-01-01

    WTP Gruszczyn supplies drinking water to a part of the city of Pozna?, in the Midwest of Poland. The conventional production flow control and pressure control of the facility was replaced by the advanced control software called OPIR. To assess the differences between conventional and advanced

  8. Feedback linearization based control of a variable air volume air conditioning system for cooling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thosar, Archana; Patra, Amit; Bhattacharyya, Souvik

    2008-07-01

    Design of a nonlinear control system for a Variable Air Volume Air Conditioning (VAVAC) plant through feedback linearization is presented in this article. VAVAC systems attempt to reduce building energy consumption while maintaining the primary role of air conditioning. The temperature of the space is maintained at a constant level by establishing a balance between the cooling load generated in the space and the air supply delivered to meet the load. The dynamic model of a VAVAC plant is derived and formulated as a MIMO bilinear system. Feedback linearization is applied for decoupling and linearization of the nonlinear model. Simulation results for a laboratory scale plant are presented to demonstrate the potential of keeping comfort and maintaining energy optimal performance by this methodology. Results obtained with a conventional PI controller and a feedback linearizing controller are compared and the superiority of the proposed approach is clearly established.

  9. Investigating the impact of noise incidence angle on the sound insulation of a supply air window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten B.; Tambo, Torben

    2015-01-01

    for the highest frequencies are less than the sound insulation of the same window measured in the laboratory. The aim of this paper is through simulations in the geometric acoustic simulation software ODEON, to investigate the impact of noise incidence angle on the sound insulation of the Supply Air Window......The Danish Environmental Agency introduced in 2007 a guideline “Noise from roads”, in which noise limits for open windows were introduced. This guideline has led to investigations of open windows with good sound insulation, and among one of these windows are the “Supply Air Window”. Prior sound...... insulation measurements of the Supply Air Window show a difference in the frequency range above 2 kHz, for field measurements carried out according to EN ISO 140-5 and laboratory measurements carried out according to EN ISO 10140-2. It is found that the sound insulation measured in the field setup...

  10. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2010-01-01

    and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 degrees C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front...

  11. Catalytic control of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, J.E.; Summers, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Improving the quality of our environment has become a growing concern in this country and around the globe. Research efforts in this field have recently been accelerated by the passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act. This book reports on a symposium that is part of a continuing series on the surface science of catalysis. Including stationary and mobile source chapters alike in one volume allows the reader to note the similarities and differences between the two fields and possibly to apply ideas from one area to the other. The coverage is not intended to be exhaustive but rather to serve as a survey of some of the most current topics of interest in this field. The intended audience for this book is the chemist or engineer interested in pollution control, or prevention, or both in the automotive, chemical, petroleum, and other industries, or otherwise involved in the environmental applications of catalysts

  12. Energy supplies and future engines for land, sea, and air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David Gordon

    2012-06-01

    The years 2012 and beyond seem likely to record major changes in energy use and power generation. The Japanese tsunami has resulted in large countries either scaling back or abolishing the future use of nuclear energy. The discovery of what seems like vast amounts of economically deliverable natural gas has many forecasting a rapid switch from coal- to gas-fired generating plants. On the other hand, environmentalists have strong objections to the production of natural gas and of petroleum by hydraulic fracturing from shale, or by extraction of heavy oil. They believe that global warming from the use of fossil fuels is now established beyond question. There has been rapid progress in the development of alternative energy supplies, particularly from on-shore and off-shore wind. Progress toward a viable future energy mix has been slowed by a U.S. energy policy that seems to many to be driven by politics. The author will review the history of power and energy to put all of the above in context and will look at possible future developments. He will propose what he believes to be an idealized energy policy that could result in an optimum system that would be arrived at democratically.

  13. Use of perforated acoustic panels as supply air diffusers in diffuse ceiling ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Kazemi, Seyed Hossein; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi

    Ventilation is needed for diluting and removing the contaminants, odour and excess heat from the building interior. It is important that the inhabitants perceive the ventilated spaces as comfortable. Therefore, the supply air should reach all parts of the occupied zones. Troldtekt has been...... manufacturing perforated acoustic panels for the last 13 years. The panels can be used not only in applications related to acoustics but also as low pressure drop supply air diffusers, particularly in diffuse ceiling ventilation systems. The present study verifies on a theoretically level the performance...

  14. Specifications and test procedures for airline-type supplied-air suits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revoir, W.H.; Pritchard, J.A.; Davis, T.O.; Richards, C.P.; Wheat, L.D.

    1975-05-01

    Procedures and requirements have been established to permit airline-type supplied-air suits needed by contractors of the Energy Research and Development Administration to be tested for performance by the Respirator Research and Development Section, Industrial Hygiene Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, and to have the adequacy of the performance of these devices evaluated by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Respirator Advisory Committee. Test equipment, test methods, and performance criteria for airline-type supplied-air suits are prescribed. (U.S.)

  15. Optimal Control and Optimization of Stochastic Supply Chain Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Dong-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control and Optimization of Stochastic Supply Chain Systems examines its subject in the context of the presence of a variety of uncertainties. Numerous examples with intuitive illustrations and tables are provided, to demonstrate the structural characteristics of the optimal control policies in various stochastic supply chains and to show how to make use of these characteristics to construct easy-to-operate sub-optimal policies.                 In Part I, a general introduction to stochastic supply chain systems is provided. Analytical models for various stochastic supply chain systems are formulated and analysed in Part II. In Part III the structural knowledge of the optimal control policies obtained in Part II is utilized to construct easy-to-operate sub-optimal control policies for various stochastic supply chain systems accordingly. Finally, Part IV discusses the optimisation of threshold-type control policies and their robustness. A key feature of the book is its tying together of ...

  16. Controlling the delivery of outsourced services in asymmetrical supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwaarden, van J.; Valk, van der W.; Aalders, L.; Brown, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    Services are increasingly outsourced. When outsourced services are directly delivered to the final customer by the supplier, the buying company lacks direct control over the delivery of the service. The purpose of this study is to expand theory on control over service delivery in supply chains. A

  17. A control model for object virtualization in supply chain management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdouw, C.N.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Reijers, H.A.; van der Vorst, J.G.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the emergence of the Internet of Things, supply chain control can increasingly be based on virtual objects instead of on the direct observation of physical objects. Object virtualization allows the decoupling of control activities from the handling and observing of physical products and

  18. Performance of Chilled Beam with Radial Swirl Jet and Diffuse Ceiling Air Supply in Heating Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Bård; Mustakallio, Panu; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2013-01-01

    ). The room air temperature was kept at 21 °C. Tracer gas was used to simulate pollution from floor and desk. The experimental conditions comprised: 1) night time without heat sources in the room; the room air conditioning system was used to heat up the room; 2) heat load generated by an occupant (simulated...... by dressed thermal manikin) and a laptop; 3) heating by convectors positioned under the window (convectors used alone and convector used together with CSW supplying isothermal air for ventilation). The heat distribution provided by the systems was not effective compare to the distribution provided......The performance of diffuse ceiling air supply and chilled beam with swirl jet (CSW) in heating mode (winter situation) was studied and compared with regard to the generated indoor environment. An office mock-up with one occupant was simulated in a test room (4.5 x 3.95 x 3.5 m3 (L x W x H...

  19. Building a new control system for the cyclotron power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormany, Z.; Lakatos, T.; Kovacs, P.; Szuecs, I.; Ander, I.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The MGC cyclotron of the ATOMKI is a multi-particle and variable-energy machine with a rather complicated beam transport system. As a consequence, the current or voltage value of numerous power supplies should be set and adjusted by the operators during a typical run. The original control system of the cyclotron provides a traditional control desk for this purpose where the requested values can be set by using selector switches and up/down tumblers. The adjustment process with this system is completely manual and rather slow - every power supply unit gets its starting value one after the other and it typically takes 10 to 20 minutes to change the whole setting. Another disadvantage of the present system is the poor reproducibility / the analogue panel meters of the control desk cannot provide the required precision to exactly repeat a former setting. To overcome the above difficulties and speed up the adjustment process of the cyclotron and the beam transport lines, a new control system for the power supplies has been designed and is under implementation within the framework of our modernization project. Supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency, Technical Assistance Program - Project Code Number: HUN/4/013. The control of the power supplies will be changed to digital - the analogue control signals of the power stages will be produced by the D/A, the current and voltage values will be read by the A/D conversion modules of a programmable logic controller (PLC). The transition to digital control requires the development of special interface units. To separate completely the control and measuring channels from each other, they are isolated from the PLC-ground by applying opto-isolators. A two-channel (control and measurement) linear interface circuit built around the TIL 300 optical isolators has been designed, assembled and tested. It has been verified that the linearity and the precision of this circuit fulfills the

  20. Air pollution control in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, F.

    1988-01-01

    The book offers a comprehensive treatment of the subject, from air pollution monitoring and effects on human and animal health, on plants and materials, to pollution reduction measures, practical applications, and legal regulations. It intends to give the air pollution expert a basis for developing practicable solutions. Apart from the 'classic' pollutants, also radioactive air pollution is gone into. (DG) With 366 figs., 190 tabs [de

  1. Control system of power supply for resistance welding machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Костянтинівна Поднебенна

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the existing methods of heat energy stabilizing, which are realized in thyristor power supplies for resistance welding machines. The advantages and features of thyristor power supplies have been described. A control system of power supply for resistance welding machine with stabilization of heat energy in a welding spot has been developed. Measurements are performed in primary winding of a welding transformer. Weld spot heating energy is calculated as the difference between the energy, consumed from the mains, and the energy losses in the primary and secondary circuits of the welding transformer as well as the energy losses in the transformer core. Algorithms of digital signal processing of the developed control system are described in the article. All measurements and calculations are preformed automatically in real-time. Input signals to the control system are: transformer primary voltage and current, temperature of the welding circuit. The designed control system ensures control of the welding heat energy and is not influenced by the supply voltage and impedance changes caused by insertion of the ferromagnetic mass in the welding circuit, the temperature change during the welding process. The developed control system for resistance welding machine makes it possible to improve the quality of welded joints, increase the efficiency of the resistance welding machine

  2. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Impinging Jet Ventilation at Different Cross Sectional Area of Supply Air Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala'a Abbas Mahdi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available  An experimental and computational analysis of temperature and velocity distribution in an office room have been studied. Office room of dimensions (3m x 1.75m x 3m with two cross sectional types of supply air duct in the experimental part and three different cross sectional types of supply air duct in the theoretical part is usual as a tested model. The RNG k-  turbulence model was employed to solve the governing equations numerically and validated by comparing the numerical results with experimental data. The impinging jet concept has been proposed as a new ventilation strategy for use in office and industrial buildings. The present work focuses on evaluating the performance of a new impinging jet ventilation. In a theoretical study three types of supply air duct are adopted which are square supply air duct (Type-I, semi-elliptic supply air duct (Type-II and rectangle supply air duct (Type-III for two cases of air outlet terminal height from room foot level, 0.14h (case-I & 0.1h (case-II. The third type (rectangle duct gives lowest effective and discomfort conditions when compared with the other two types. This study investigated a number of factors influencing draught discomfort and temperature stratification in an office environment equipped with impinging jet ventilation IJV. The factors considered to be: shape of the air supply device, supply airflow rate and supply air temperature. Acceptable Air Distribution Performance Index (ADPI, effective temperature, and ventilation efficiency obtained that the square cross sectional area of supply air duct at 0.1h (case-II height from foot level gives more acceptable indoor air quality and human thermal comfort when compared with the other types. Also, this type gives good air distribution system not only promotes a comfortable and healthy environment for occupants, but also contributes to energy conservation.

  3. The control system of the RFX toroidal power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toigo, V.; Piovan, R.; Zanotto, L.; Perna, M.; Coffetti, A.; Freghieri, M.; Povolero, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the control system of the toroidal power supply of the RFX experiment and outlines its specific hardware and software structure, which allowed to cope with the numerous requirements of the application with a compact hardware arrangement. The active fault protection strategies, implemented in the control system, are also discussed; finally, a special part of the control, which greatly simplified the long and complex commissioning of the power section of the system, is described

  4. The effect of air supply on nitrogen removal using a biological filter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-02

    Oct 2, 2009 ... 0.04 m3∙m−2∙d−1) (Fig. 2). Air was supplied by means of a compressor (Model: Fini, ... effluent from a domestic wastewater treatment plant (COD was approx. .... The resultant ammonium was determined as men- tioned before ...

  5. The scope of inducing natural air supply via the façade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Engel, P.J.W.; Kurvers, S.R.

    2017-01-01

    An overview is given of recent developments in the use of a system of inducing natural air supply via the façade in the Netherlands. This is followed by a review of the results of measurements from climate chamber experiments of its inducing ventilation performance and detailed insights gained

  6. Test procedure for calibration, grooming and alignment of the LDUA Purge Air Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) is a remotely operated manipulator used to enter into underground waste tanks through one of the tank risers. National Electric Code requirements mandate that the in-tank portions of the LDUA be maintained at a positive pressure for entrance into a flammable atmosphere. The LDUA Purge Air Supply System (PASS) is a small, portable air compressor, which provides a constant low flow of instrument grade air for this purpose. This procedure is used to assure that the instrumentation and equipment comprising the PASS is properly adjusted in order to achieve its intended functions successfully

  7. Sediment Supply as a Control on Plant-Morphodynamic Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manners, R.; Wilcox, A. C.; Kui, L.; Stella, J. C.; Lightbody, A.; Sklar, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    The caliber and quantity of sediment delivered to a channel influences its size and shape, yet we know little about how the sediment supply affects rivers whose geomorphic form is influenced by riparian vegetation. We present results from flume experiments that test the impact of sediment supply on plant-morphodynamic interactions. We introduced two sediment supply conditions to a 28-meter long, sand bedded flume (60 cm wide and 71 cm deep) at the UC-Berkeley Richmond Field Station: equilibrium (balance between sediment transport and supply) and deficit (transport exceeds sediment supply). We conducted ten runs with different riparian seedling configurations (individual plants or patches) and species (tamarisk or cottonwood), and stem and leaf density (0.003-0.47 cm2/cm2), under both sediment supply conditions. Plant species, size, and configuration were important in predicting the topographic adjustments that occurred during our experiments. These influences may be attributed to differences in plant morphology; tamarisk is shrubby while cottonwood is more tree-like, with a single stem and leaves concentrated higher on the plant. The plant-morphodynamic relationship, however, differed for the two sediment supply conditions. During sediment equilibrium, only patches of cottonwood served as sediment sinks compared to an unvegetated bed, but tamarisk patches had no impact on the sediment mass balance. During sediment deficit, in contrast, tamarisk patches accumulated more sediment than unvegetated beds. Stem and leaf density also controlled changes in bed elevation. During equilibrium conditions, increasing the density of cottonwood stems and leaves resulted in greater bed degradation. Conversely, aggradation occurred with increases in the density of tamarisk. For sediment deficit conditions, the relationship between stem and leaf density and the rate of bed change was negative for both species (i.e., higher density resulted in faster rate of scour). The shifting

  8. A reduced energy supply strategy in active vibration control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichchou, M. N.; Loukil, T.; Bareille, O.; Chamberland, G.; Qiu, J.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a control strategy is presented and numerically tested. This strategy aims to achieve the potential performance of fully active systems with a reduced energy supply. These energy needs are expected to be comparable to the power demands of semi-active systems, while system performance is intended to be comparable to that of a fully active configuration. The underlying strategy is called 'global semi-active control'. This control approach results from an energy investigation based on management of the optimal control process. Energy management encompasses storage and convenient restitution. The proposed strategy monitors a given active law without any external energy supply by considering purely dissipative and energy-demanding phases. Such a control law is offered here along with an analysis of its properties. A suboptimal form, well adapted for practical implementation steps, is also given. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments are proposed in order to validate test findings.

  9. A reduced energy supply strategy in active vibration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichchou, M N; Loukil, T; Bareille, O; Chamberland, G; Qiu, J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a control strategy is presented and numerically tested. This strategy aims to achieve the potential performance of fully active systems with a reduced energy supply. These energy needs are expected to be comparable to the power demands of semi-active systems, while system performance is intended to be comparable to that of a fully active configuration. The underlying strategy is called 'global semi-active control'. This control approach results from an energy investigation based on management of the optimal control process. Energy management encompasses storage and convenient restitution. The proposed strategy monitors a given active law without any external energy supply by considering purely dissipative and energy-demanding phases. Such a control law is offered here along with an analysis of its properties. A suboptimal form, well adapted for practical implementation steps, is also given. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments are proposed in order to validate test findings

  10. Effect of supply air temperature on air distribution in a room with radiant heating and mechanical ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Zhao, Jianing; Fang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    and the horizontal distribution of containment concentration in the breathing zone were measured as the supply air temperature ranged from 15.0°C (59°F)to 19.0°C (66.2°F). The results showed that the vertical air temperature differences were less than 0.3°C (32.5°F) with FH+MV or CH+MV and between 1.9°C (35.4°F...

  11. Supply Inventory Management: Industrial Prime Vendor Program at the Air Force Air Logistics Centers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... in maintenance, repair, and overhaul facilities. The IPV Program is a customer-oriented, supply-chain management initiative that transfers complete responsibility for bench-stock material to a third-party vendor...

  12. Experimental study on airflow fluctuation characteristic of an underfloor air supply terminal unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jinping [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wu, Yanfang [Design Institute of Guangzhou Metro Corporation, Guangzhou 510010 (China)

    2010-11-15

    In order to investigate dynamic characteristic of underfloor air supply terminal unit, an IFV900A hot-wire anemometer was used to measure the corresponding velocity field. Turbulence intensity and power spectrum density exponent of air velocity signal were analyzed. The result showed that the outlet velocity distribution of underfloor air supply terminal unit was uniform. With increment of height, the velocity distribution trends to be uniform. Two velocity attenuation regions appear during airflow development. Turbulence intensity changes obviously with height. It is lower than that of mechanical wind. Turbulence intensity goes up with the increment of jetting distance. Power spectrum density exponent trends to the value of natural wind with increase of jetting distance and decrease of wind velocity. The exponent value approaches to the value of typical natural wind for the air velocity is 0.5 m/s under high supply air rate. With airflow diffusion, the fluctuation characteristic of airflow varies obviously with the jetting direction. The fluctuation characteristic of airflow changes to that of natural wind with the increase of height which can improve comfort of indoor environment. (author)

  13. Adaptive control of power supply for integrated circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a circuit arrangement and method for controlling power supply in an integrated circuit wherein at least one working parameter of at least one electrically isolated circuit region (10) is monitored, and the conductivity of a variable resistor means is locally

  14. High performance current controller for particle accelerator magnets supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Bidoggia, Benoit; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    The electromagnets in modern particle accelerators require high performance power supply whose output is required to track the current reference with a very high accuracy (down to 50 ppm). This demands very high bandwidth controller design. A converter based on buck converter topology is used...

  15. Progress in combating cigarette smuggling: controlling the supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    2008-12-01

    The illicit tobacco trade results in huge losses of revenue to governments, estimated at $US40-50 billion in 2006, and in increased consumption and thus health problems because it makes tobacco available more cheaply. On 20 October 2008 the second meeting of the International Negotiating Body (INB2) on the illicit trade protocol of WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) will discuss measures to tackle the illicit trade in tobacco products. This paper presents the experience over the last decade of three countries, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom, which shows that tobacco smuggling can be successfully tackled. The evidence strongly suggests that the key to controlling smuggling is controlling the supply chain, and that the supply chain is controlled to a great extent by the tobacco industry.

  16. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. (a) The static... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. 84.157 Section 84.157 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...

  17. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall not... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. 84.156 Section 84.156 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...

  18. Speed Control of Multiphase Cage Induction Motors Incorporating Supply Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdowski Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the control possibility of the multiphase cage induction motors having number of phases greater than 3. These motors have additional properties for speed control that distinguish them from the standard 3 phase motors: operation at various sequences of supplying voltages due to the inverter control and possible operation with few open-circuited phases. For each supply sequence different no load speeds at the same frequency can be obtained. This feature extends the motor application for miscellaneous drive demands including vector or scalar control. This depends mainly on the type of the stator winding for a given number of phases, since the principle of motor operation is based on co-operation of higher harmonics of magnetic field. Examples of operation are presented for a 9-phase motor, though general approach has been discussed. This motor was fed by a voltage source inverter at field oriented control with forced currents. The mathematical model of the motor was reduced to the form incorporating all most important physical features and appropriate for the control law formulation. The operation was illustrated for various supply sequences for “healthy” motor and for the motor operating at one phase broken. The obtained results have shown that parasitic influence of harmonic fields interaction has negligible influence on motor operation with respect to the useful coupling for properly designed stator winding.

  19. Planning and control in fresh food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Cecilie Maria; Chabada, Lukas; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2013-01-01

    directions. Design/methodology/approach The paper is based on a structured literature review of articles with the main focus on P&C of fresh food products. The review is based on a range of published works from main journals on supply chain management over the last 10 years. The gaps and challenges...... directions in this area. Practical implications The paper enhances the focus on P&C in FFSC in practice, and defines important implications for why and how P&C should be practiced from a supply chain perspective. Original/value The paper presents an overview of the literature on P&C issues of fresh food......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine the current state of research in the planning and control (P&C) literature in regards to fresh food supply chains (FFSC). Based on the literature review, important research areas are identified and serve as guidelines for defining future research...

  20. Buck supplies output voltage ripple reduction using fuzzy control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicu BIZON

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the PWM control for switching power supplies the peaks EMI noise appear at the switching frequency and its harmonics. Using randomize or chaotic PWM control techniques in these systems the power spectrum is spread out in all frequencies band spectral emissions, but with a bigger ripple in the output voltage. The proposed nonlinear feedback control method, which induces chaos, is based by fuzzy rules that minimize the output voltage ripple. The feasibility and effectiveness of this relative simple method is shown by simulation. A comparison with the previous control method is included, too.

  1. The Ontario Energy Board`s draft standard supply service code: effects on air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, J.; Bjorkquist, S. [Ontario Clean Air Alliance, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1999-06-29

    The Ontario Clean Air Alliance (OCAA), a coalition of 67 organizations, takes issue with the Ontario Energy Board`s draft document `Standard Supply Service Code`, particularly sections 2.2.2. and 2.5.2 which they claim are not in the public interest unless the Ontario government implements the OCAA`s recommended emission caps. The alliance is of the view that without strict new environmental regulations the proposed Code would encourage the use of coal for electricity generation. Public health, the environment, consumer interests, job creation and promotion of a competitive electricity market would all be jeopardized by this development, the alliance states. The argument is supported by extensive reference to the Final Report of the Ontario Market Design Committee (MDC) which also emphasized the importance of combining the introduction of competition with appropriate environmental regulations, singling out the emission cap and trade program, and recommending that it be launched concurrently with the electricity market opening for competition. The view of the MDC was that public support for restructuring would not be forthcoming in the absence of regulatory measures to control power plant emissions. 25 refs.

  2. Energy supply and conversion to hydrogen: how to improve the air quality in Buenos Aires city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, Nestor R.; Bergallo, Juan E.; Corso, Hugo L.; Bolcich, Juan C.

    1998-01-01

    The regional power distribution and the market free regulation, take the companies of this sector to an increasing competition by the supply. This situation induces conceptual and technical changes, that seem oriented to a greater complementation of power menu, with consequent structuring of power chains of better economic management. In the case of electrical park, they exist power stations nonsintonizables with the fluctuations of demand, those that noticeably alter the prices to which energy can be sold. In these cases, the strategy is oriented to accumulation, to supply energy deferred in time, or in the form and place that greater rent offers. Multinational programs that illustrate these situations, with long trajectory and important resources exist, like the EUROQUEBEC, that contemplates the hydroelectricity surplus export from Canada to Europe in hydrogen form. (author)

  3. Low-temperature baseboard heaters with integrated air supply - An analytical and numerical investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskic, Adnan; Holmberg, Sture [Fluid and Climate Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH, Marinens vaeg 30, SE-13640 Handen, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    The functioning of a hydronic baseboard heating system with integrated air supply was analyzed. The aim was to investigate thermal performance of the system when cold outdoor (ventilation) airflow was forced through the baseboard heater. The performance of the system was evaluated for different ventilation rates at typical outdoor temperatures during the Swedish winter season. Three different analytical models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) were used to predict the temperature rise of the airflow inside the baseboard heater. Good agreement between numerical (CFD) and analytical calculations was obtained. Calculations showed that it was fully possible to pre-heat the incoming airflow to the indoor temperature and to cover transmission losses, using 45 C supply water flow. The analytical calculations also showed that the airflow per supply opening in the baseboard heater needed to be limited to 7.0 l/s due to pressure losses inside the channel. At this ventilation rate, the integrated system with one air supply gave about 2.1 more heat output than a conventional baseboard heating system. CFD simulations also showed that the integrated system was capable of countering downdraught created by 2.0 m high glazed areas and a cold outdoor environment. Draught discomfort in the case with the conventional system was slightly above the recommended upper limit, but heat distribution across whole analyzed office space was uniform for both heating systems. It was concluded that low-temperature baseboard heating systems with integrated air supply can meet both international comfort requirements, and lead to energy savings in cold climates. (author)

  4. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality (IAQ control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, formaldehyde (HCHO, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs, airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10 and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5 during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy.

  5. Experimental investigation on a turbine compressor for air supply system of a fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Masayasu [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokosuka (Japan); Tsuchiyama, Syozo [Shipbuilding Research Association, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    This report covers part of a joint study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships, summarized in a presentation to this Seminar, entitled {open_quotes}Study on a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) Propulsion System for Surface Ships{close_quotes}, and which envisages application to a 1,500 DWT cargo vessel. The aspect treated here concerns a study on the air supply system for the PEFC, with particular reference to system components.

  6. Application of CPLD in CSR power supply control module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Caihong; Guo Yuhui; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Jing Lan; Qiao Weimin

    2005-01-01

    A realization of Single Chip Microcomputer peripheral interface in HIRFL-CSR power supply control module based on CPLD is presented in the paper. It integrates flip-latch, coding unit, data bus, frequency division unit, logical compare unit, counter and logic circuit into a single CPLD chip, and dramatically decreases the area of PCB and increase system reliability, at the same time the whole system's flexibility has been evidently improved because of the CPLD's in-system programmable characteristics. (authors)

  7. Pixel detector bias supply and control using embedded multicore processors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099144; Akram Alomainy

    The aim of the project is to create a software controlled, open source, low footprint and low power high voltage bias supply and current monitor for a pixelated radiation sensor. The solution is based on the LT3905 integrated circuit and the multi-core XMOS xCore 200 microcontroller and it is intended to be used in a battery powered, mobile platform for educational settings.

  8. The ITER poloidal field system: control and power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondino, P.L.; Benfatto, I.; Gribov, Y.; Matsukawa, M.; Odajima, K.; Portone, A.; Roshal, A.; Bareyt, B.; Bertolini, E.; Bottereau, J.M.; Huart, M.; Maschio, A.; Bulgakov, S.; Kuchinski, V.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reports the preliminary scenario of the ITER Poloidal Field (PF) system operation, the method used to evaluate the installed power, the basic structure of the circuits and finally the concepts of the preliminary design of control and power supply. The superconducting coils are energized from the HV Grid with conventional AC/DC converters. R and D is required for circuit breakers, make switches and resistors, the basic components of both the switching networks and the discharge circuits. (orig.)

  9. Air pollution and its control in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Jiming; HE Kebin; DUAN Lei; LI Junhua; WANG Litao

    2007-01-01

    The rapid growth of China's economy has led to severe air pollution characterized by acid rain,severe pollution in cities,and regional air pollution.High concentrations are found for various pollutants such as sulfur dioxides(SO2),nitrogen oxides(NOx),and fine particulates.Great efforts have thus been undertaken for the control of air pollution in the country.This paper discusses the development and application of appropriate technologies for reducing the major pollutants produced by coal and vehicles,and investi gates air quality modeling as an important support for policy-making.

  10. Experimental study on two-stage air supply downdraft gasifier and dual fuel engine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nhuchhen, Daya Ram; Salam, P.A. [Asian Institute of Technology, Energy Field of Study, School of Environment Resource and Development, P. O. Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani (Thailand)

    2012-06-15

    Biomass is a widely used renewable energy resource with net balanced carbon dioxide absorptions and emissions. An inefficient use of solid biomass in combustion process emits more gaseous pollutants, increasing the pollution level. Biomass gasification is one of the techniques to support efficient use of biomass. Multistage gasification is a method of gasification to improve quality of the producer gas in which two separate reactors are designed for separating gasification reactions. This study presents experimental results of gasification using Eucalyptus wood in a single long cylindrical reactor with two air supply ports, i.e., primary and secondary. The effect of different air supply rates on the heating values of the producer gas was studied. Optimum primary and secondary air supply rate of 100 and 80 l/min at equivalence ratio of 0.38 was observed with producer gas lower heating value of 4.72 MJ Nm{sup -3}. The performance of a diesel engine in the dual fuel mode was also evaluated. The overall gasifier engine system efficiency was 13.86 % at an electrical load of 10.54 kW{sub e} with specific energy consumption of 16.22 MJ kWh{sup -1}. The heat recovery system was designed and tested to recover heat from producer gas in the form of hot water. (orig.)

  11. Air Pollution Control and Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    This special issue addresses air pollution control and waste management, two environmental problems that are usually considered separately. Indeed, one of the challenges of environmental protection is that problems are addressed in 'media-specific' ways. In reality, these problem...

  12. LaGuardia air traffic control tower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    To celebrate FAA and its LaGuardia Airport employees past, : present, and future this booklet outlines the airports history and accomplishments and includes copies of some of the photographs in the : air traffic control towers history g...

  13. Study of an electrical heating system with ductless air supply and shape-stabilized PCM for thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Kunping; Zhang, Yinping; Di, Hongfa; Yang, Rui

    2007-01-01

    A kind of electrical floor heating system with a shape-stabilized phase change material (PCM) which has been studied at Tsinghua University in our previous studies, can provide space heating during the whole day and can be controlled conventionally. However, this is not suitable for office buildings where no space heating is needed at night. The effective control is very important for the heating system in such buildings. In this paper, we studied a kind of new electrical floor heating system with ductless air supply and shape-stabilized PCM for thermal storage in order to overcome the shortcomings of the passive under-floor electric heating system with thermal storage. In this paper, we investigated its thermal performance by experiments and simulation, calculated the effects of various factors and discussed the application feasibility in different climate regions. The results show that the total electrical energy consumption was shifted from the peak period to the off-peak period, which would provide significant economic benefits because of the different day and night electricity tariffs. The system can be designed by choosing PCM with proper melting temperature and be controlled by varying velocity of air supply in different conditions

  14. An Enhanced Control Scheme for Uninterruptible Power Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jinghang; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Wei, Baoze

    2017-01-01

    To address the active power feeding issue in the parallel Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) system, a DC-link Voltage Protection (DCVP) control strategy is proposed in this paper. The proposed control method only relies on local load information, which increases the system reliability...... and robustness. Moreover, virtual resistance based regulation strategies are proposed for solving the active power sharing imbalance caused by the active power feeding and harmonic power sharing imbalanced caused by the line resistance mismatching. In addition, an anti-windup based consensus distributed...

  15. A robust model predictive control strategy for improving the control performance of air-conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Gongsheng; Wang Shengwei; Xu Xinhua

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a robust model predictive control strategy for improving the supply air temperature control of air-handling units by dealing with the associated uncertainties and constraints directly. This strategy uses a first-order plus time-delay model with uncertain time-delay and system gain to describe air-conditioning process of an air-handling unit usually operating at various weather conditions. The uncertainties of the time-delay and system gain, which imply the nonlinearities and the variable dynamic characteristics, are formulated using an uncertainty polytope. Based on this uncertainty formulation, an offline LMI-based robust model predictive control algorithm is employed to design a robust controller for air-handling units which can guarantee a good robustness subject to uncertainties and constraints. The proposed robust strategy is evaluated in a dynamic simulation environment of a variable air volume air-conditioning system in various operation conditions by comparing with a conventional PI control strategy. The robustness analysis of both strategies under different weather conditions is also presented.

  16. Seismic assessment of air-cooled type emergency electric power supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    JNES initiated seismic assessment programs to develop seismic review criterions for the air-cooled system (diesel generator, gas turbine generator), which will be newly installed for enhancing the diversity of emergency electric power supply system. Five principal subjects are involved in the programs: two subjects for fiscal 2011 and three ones for fiscal 2012 and 2013. The summary of outcomes is as follows: 1) Past capacity test data and related technical issues (2011). Seismic capacity data obtained from past seismic shaking tests were investigated. 2) Test programs based on the investigation of system specification (2011). Design specifications for the air-cooled system were investigated. 3) Large Air Fin Cooler (AFC) one unit model seismic capacity test and quantitative seismic capacity evaluation. AFC one unit model seismic capacity tests were conducted and quantitative seismic capacities were evaluated. (author)

  17. Seismic assessment of air-cooled type emergency electric power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    JNES initiated seismic assessment programs to develop seismic review criterions for the air-cooled system (diesel generator, gas turbine generator), which will be newly installed for enhancing the diversity of emergency electric power supply system. Five principal subjects are involved in the programs: two subjects for fiscal 2011 and three ones for fiscal 2012 and 2013. The summary of outcomes is as follows: 1) Past capacity test data and related technical issues (2011). Seismic capacity data obtained from past seismic shaking tests were investigated. 2) Test programs based on the investigation of system specification (2011). Design specifications for the air-cooled system were investigated. 3) Large Air Fin Cooler (AFC) one unit model seismic capacity test and quantitative seismic capacity evaluation. AFC one unit model seismic capacity tests were conducted and quantitative seismic capacities were evaluated. (author)

  18. The Power Supply And Control Unit For The HEMP Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brag, Rafael; Lenz, Werner; Huther, Andreas; Herty, Frank

    2011-10-01

    In the recent years, Astrium GmbH started to develop electronics to control and supply Electric Propulsion systems or corresponding components. One of the developments is a Power Supply and Control Unit (PSCU) for the Thales Electron Devices development "High Efficiency Multistage Plasma Thruster" (HEMP- T). The PSCU is developed, manufactured and tested on the Astrium southern Germany site in Friedrichshafen. The first application is the SGEO Satellite (HISPASAT- 1), where the In-Orbit Demonstration (IOD) of the HEMP Thruster system will prove the success of the product. Astrium conducted several coupling tests during the PSCU development especially concentrated on *Thruster electrical I/F parameters *Neutralizer electrical I/F parameters *Flow Control I/F parameters Results of these tests were used to refine the specification and adapt the PSCU drivers and control algorithms. Furthermore, the tests results gave Thales and Astrium the possibility for a deep understanding of the interaction between the physics and the electronics. The paper presents an overview of the PSCU topology, key features, technical and development logic details as well as a view into the control capabilities of the PSCU.

  19. A New Concept of Controller for Accelerators' Magnet Power Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visintini, Roberto; Cleva, Stefano; Cautero, Marco; Ciesla, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    The complexity of a particle accelerator implies the remote control of very large numbers of devices, with many different typologies, either distributed along the accelerator or concentrated in locations, often far away from each other. Local and global control systems handle the devices through dedicated communication channels and interfaces. Each controlled device is practically a “smart node” performing a specific task. In addition, very often, those tasks are managed in real-time mode. The performances required to the control interface has an influence on the cost of the distributed nodes as well as on their hardware and software implementation. In large facilities (e.g. CERN) the “smart nodes” derive from specific in-house developments. Alternatively, it is possible to find on the market commercial devices, whose performances (and prices) are spread over a broad range, and spanning from proprietary design (customizable to the user's needs) to open source/design. In this paper, we will describe some applications of smart nodes in the particle accelerators field, with special focus on the power supplies for magnets. In modern accelerators, in fact, magnets and their associated power supplies constitute systems distributed along the accelerator itself, and strongly interfaced with the remote control system as well as with more specific (and often more demanding) orbit/trajectory feedback systems. We will give examples of actual systems, installed and operational on two light sources, Elettra and FERMI, located in the Elettra Research Center in Trieste, Italy.

  20. RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

  1. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chi Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants’ information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans’ intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It’s also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  2. Control of enterprise interfaces for supply chain enterprise modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Interrante, L.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Macfarlane, J.F. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Information and Computing Sciences Div.

    1995-04-01

    There is a current trend for manufacturing enterprises in a supply chain of a particular industry to join forces in an attempt to promote efficiencies and improve competitive position. Such alliances occur in the context of specific legal and business agreements such that each enterprise retains a majority of its business and manufacturing information as private and shares other information with its trading partners. Shared information may include enterprise demand projections, capacities, finished goods inventories, and aggregate production schedules. Evidence of the trend toward information sharing includes the recent emphases on vendor-managed inventories, quick response, and Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards. The increased competition brought on by the global marketplace is driving industries to consider the advantages of trading partner agreements. Aggregate-level forecasts, supply-chain production smoothing, and aggregate-level inventory policies can reduce holding costs, record-keeping overhead, and lead time in product development. The goal of this research is to orchestrate information exchange among trading partners to allow for aggregate-level analysis to enhance supply chain efficiency. The notion of Enterprise Interface Control (EIC) is introduced as a means of accomplishing this end.

  3. Thermal oxidation for air toxics control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Administration projects annual expenditures of $1.1 billion by 1995, increasing to $6.7 billion by 2005, in order to comply with the new Clean Air Act Title III hazardous air pollutant requirements. The Title III requirements include 189 hazardous air pollutants which must be reduced or eliminated by 2003. Twenty of the 189 listed pollutants account for approximately 75 percent of all hazardous air pollutant emissions. Ninety percent of these 20 pollutants can be effectively controlled through one or mote of the thermal oxidation technologies. This paper reports that the advantages and disadvantages of each thermal oxidation technology vary substantially and must be reviewed for each application in order to establish the most effective thermal oxidation solution. Effective thermal oxidation will meet MACT (maximum achievable control technology) emission standards

  4. The Air Force Mobile Forward Surgical Team (MFST): Using the Estimating Supplies Program to Validate Clinical Requirement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nix, Ralph E; Onofrio, Kathleen; Konoske, Paula J; Galarneau, Mike R; Hill, Martin

    2004-01-01

    .... The primary objective of the study was to provide the Air Force with the ability to validate clinical requirements of the MFST assemblage, with the goal of using NHRC's Estimating Supplies Program (ESP...

  5. Study on the influence of supplying compressed air channels and evicting channels on pneumatical oscillation systems for vibromooshing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glăvan, D. O.; Radu, I.; Babanatsas, T.; Babanatis Merce, R. M.; Kiss, I.; Gaspar, M. C.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a pneumatic system with two oscillating masses. The system is composed of a cylinder (framework) with mass m1, which has a piston with mass m2 inside. The cylinder (framework system) has one supplying channel for compressed air and one evicting channel for each work chamber (left and right of the piston). Functionality of the piston position comparatively with the cylinder (framework) is possible through the supplying or evicting of compressed air. The variable force that keeps the movement depends on variation of the pressure that is changing depending on the piston position according to the cylinder (framework) and to the section form that is supplying and evicting channels with compressed air. The paper presents the physical model/pattern, the mathematical model/pattern (differential equations) and numerical solution of the differential equations in hypothesis with the section form of supplying and evicting channels with compressed air is rectangular (variation linear) or circular (variation nonlinear).

  6. Power supplies for plasma column control in COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlíček, Josef; Hauptmann, R.; Peroutka, Oldřich; Tadros, Momtaz; Hron, Martin; Janky, Filip; Vondráček, Petr; Cahyna, Pavel; Mikulín, Ondřej; Šesták, David; Junek, Pavel; Pánek, Radomír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 88, 9-10 (2013), s. 1640-1645 ISSN 0920-3796. [Symposium on Fusion Technology (SOFT-27)/27./. Liège, 24.09.2012-28.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2470; GA MŠk 7G10072; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * Power supplies * Feedback control * Vertical displacement * Vertical kicks Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.149, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379613001543#

  7. Assessment methodology for air defence control systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, R

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In Command and Control, humans have to make sense of the situation to support decision making on the required action. Development of an Air Defence Control system through a Systems Engineering process starts with assessment of existing systems...

  8. Human performance interfaces in air traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hern; Yeh, Chung-Hsing

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how human performance factors in air traffic control (ATC) affect each other through their mutual interactions. The paper extends the conceptual SHEL model of ergonomics to describe the ATC system as human performance interfaces in which the air traffic controllers interact with other human performance factors including other controllers, software, hardware, environment, and organisation. New research hypotheses about the relationships between human performance interfaces of the system are developed and tested on data collected from air traffic controllers, using structural equation modelling. The research result suggests that organisation influences play a more significant role than individual differences or peer influences on how the controllers interact with the software, hardware, and environment of the ATC system. There are mutual influences between the controller-software, controller-hardware, controller-environment, and controller-organisation interfaces of the ATC system, with the exception of the controller-controller interface. Research findings of this study provide practical insights in managing human performance interfaces of the ATC system in the face of internal or external change, particularly in understanding its possible consequences in relation to the interactions between human performance factors.

  9. Selection of Air Traffic Controllers,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    Institute of Bahavioral Research, Texas Christian University Joseph A. Tucker, Ph.D. Professor of Instructional Technology, The Catholic University of...Peace Corps volunteers (Gordon, 1967); nursing students in their first year of training (Katzell, 1968); nursing turn- over in a teaching hospital (Saleh...retired FAA controllers and instructors who volunteered to help in the crisis. A student’s first few days (Phase I) at the Academy are spent in per

  10. Control system devices : architectures and supply channels overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent, Jason; Atkins, William Dee; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Mulder, John C.

    2010-08-01

    This report describes a research project to examine the hardware used in automated control systems like those that control the electric grid. This report provides an overview of the vendors, architectures, and supply channels for a number of control system devices. The research itself represents an attempt to probe more deeply into the area of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) - the specialized digital computers that control individual processes within supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. The report (1) provides an overview of control system networks and PLC architecture, (2) furnishes profiles for the top eight vendors in the PLC industry, (3) discusses the communications protocols used in different industries, and (4) analyzes the hardware used in several PLC devices. As part of the project, several PLCs were disassembled to identify constituent components. That information will direct the next step of the research, which will greatly increase our understanding of PLC security in both the hardware and software areas. Such an understanding is vital for discerning the potential national security impact of security flaws in these devices, as well as for developing proactive countermeasures.

  11. Determination and evaluation of air quality control. Manual of ambient air quality control in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahmann, E.

    1997-07-01

    Measurement of air pollution emissions and ambient air quality are essential instruments for air quality control. By undertaking such measurements, pollutants are registered both at their place of origin and at the place where they may have an effect on people or the environment. Both types of measurement complement each other and are essential for the implementation of air quality legislation, particularly, in compliance with emission and ambient air quality limit values. Presented here are similar accounts of measurement principles and also contains as an Appendix a list of suitability-tested measuring devices which is based on information provided by the manufacturers. In addition, the guide of ambient air quality control contains further information on discontinuous measurement methods, on measurement planning and on the assessment of ambient air quality data. (orig./SR)

  12. Cybernetic Control in a Supply Chain: Wave Propagation and Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Dozier

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The cybernetic control and management of production can be improved by an understanding of the dynamics of the supply chains for the production organizations. This paper describes an attempt to better understand the dynamics of a linear supply chain through the application of the normal mode analysis technique of physics. A model is considered in which an organization's response to a perturbation from the steady state is affected by the inertia which the company naturally exhibits. This inertia determines how rapidly an organization can respond to deviations from the steady state of its own inventories and those of the two organizations immediately preceding and following it in the chain. The model equations describe the oscillatory phenomena of the naturally occurring normal modes in the chain, in which waves of deviations from the steady state situation travel forward and backwards through the chain. It would be expected that the most effective cybernetic control occurs when resonant interventions cause either amplification or damping of the deviations from the steady state.

  13. Comparison of the Performance of Chilled Beam with Swirl Jet and Diffuse Ceiling Air Supply: Impact of Heat Load Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Bård; Mustakallio, Panu; Kosonen, Risto

    2013-01-01

    The impact of heat load strength and positioning on the indoor environment generated by diffuse ceiling air supply and chilled beam with radial swirl jet was studied and compared. An office room with two persons and a meeting room with six persons were simulated in a test room (4.5 x 3.95 x 3.5 m3......) and Category B thermal environment in the meeting room at high heat load of 94 W∙m−2. The air distribution pattern was influenced by the convective flows from the heat sources. The maximum local velocity in the occupied zone was 0.23–0.26 m∙s−1. The diffuse ceiling supply did not ensure complete mixing...... temperature was controlled at 24 °C. The quality of the generated indoor environment as defined in ISO standard 7730 (2005) was assessed based on comprehensive physical measurements. The systems created Category A thermal environment in cooling situations at heat load of 50 W∙m−2 and 78 W∙m−2 (office room...

  14. The upgraded PSI application in the BEPCⅡ power supply control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiangqi; Wang Xiaoli; Wang Chunhong; Liu Jia

    2011-01-01

    There are about 460 magnet power supplies in the two rings and the transport lines of the BEPCⅡ which are controlled by the power supply controller and the power supply interface. An upgraded Power Supply Interface (PSI-Ⅱ) was developed for replacing the old one in the power supply control system of the BEPCⅡ. It will firstly describe feature of the PSI-Ⅱ and difference from the PSI. Then, discuss performance test of the PSI-Ⅱ well as its application in the power supply control system. (authors)

  15. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutert, G. [Forests and Landscape, Berne (Switzerland). Federal Office of Environment

    1995-12-31

    The legal basis of the Swiss air pollution control policy is set by the Federal Law on the Protection of the Environment, which came into force in 1985. It aims to protect human beings, animals and plants, their biological communities and habitats against harmful effects or nuisances and to maintain the fertility of the soil. The law is source-oriented (by emission standards) as well as effect-oriented (by ambient air quality standards). To link both elements a two-stage approach is applied. In the first stage preventive measures are taken at the emitting sources, irrespective of existing air pollution levels. Emissions have to be limited by early preventive measures as much as technical and operational conditions allow and as far as economically acceptable (prevention principle). By this, air pollution shall be kept as low as possible as a matter of principle, without the environment having to be in danger first. In a second stage the measures are strengthened or backed up by additional measures if ambient air quality standards laid down in the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control are exceeded. At this second stage, protection of man and his environment has priority over economic considerations. (author)

  16. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutert, G [Forests and Landscape, Berne (Switzerland). Federal Office of Environment

    1996-12-31

    The legal basis of the Swiss air pollution control policy is set by the Federal Law on the Protection of the Environment, which came into force in 1985. It aims to protect human beings, animals and plants, their biological communities and habitats against harmful effects or nuisances and to maintain the fertility of the soil. The law is source-oriented (by emission standards) as well as effect-oriented (by ambient air quality standards). To link both elements a two-stage approach is applied. In the first stage preventive measures are taken at the emitting sources, irrespective of existing air pollution levels. Emissions have to be limited by early preventive measures as much as technical and operational conditions allow and as far as economically acceptable (prevention principle). By this, air pollution shall be kept as low as possible as a matter of principle, without the environment having to be in danger first. In a second stage the measures are strengthened or backed up by additional measures if ambient air quality standards laid down in the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control are exceeded. At this second stage, protection of man and his environment has priority over economic considerations. (author)

  17. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location

  18. Breakdowns in Coordination Between Air Traffic Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Chris; Orasanu, Judith; Miller, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    This talk outlines the complexity of coordination in air traffic control, introduces the NextGen technologies, identifies common causes for coordination breakdowns in air traffic control and examines whether these causes are likely to be reduced with the introduction of NextGen technologies. While some of the common causes of breakdowns will be reduced in a NextGen environment this conclusion should be drawn carefully given the current stage of development of the technologies and the observation that new technologies often shift problems rather than reduce them.

  19. Overcurrent Abuse of Primary Prismatic Zinc–Air Battery Cells Studying Air Supply Effects on Performance and Safety Shut-Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Larsson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overcurrent abuse has been performed on commercial 48 Ah primary prismatic zinc (Zn–Air battery cells with full air supply as well as with shut-off air supply. Compared to other battery technologies, e.g., lithium-ion batteries, metal–air batteries offer the possibility to physically stop the battery operation by stopping its air supply, thus offering an additional protection against severe battery damage in the case of, e.g., an accidental short circuit. This method may also reduce the electrical hazard in a larger battery system since, by stopping the air supply, the voltage can be brought to zero while maintaining the energy capacity of the battery. Measurements of overdischarge currents and current cut-off by suffocation have been performed to assess the safety of this type of Zn–air battery. The time to get to zero battery voltage is shown to mainly be determined by the volume of air trapped in the cell.

  20. Air leakage control in chief tunnel of uranium mines using air screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Gengsheng

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the results of air leakage control are described using air screen in the chief tunnels of some uranium mines. The air leakage decreases by 79-91% after using air screen. On the basis of mathematical treatment, the formulas for calculating the air resistance efficiency of air screen are presented

  1. Impact Analysis of Air Pollutant Emission Policies on Thermal Coal Supply Chain Enterprises in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaopeng Guo; Xiaodan Guo; Jiahai Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Spurred by the increasingly serious air pollution problem, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies to put forward specific measures of power structure adjustment and the control objectives of air pollution and coal consumption. Other policies pointed out that the coal resources regional blockades will be broken by improving transportation networks and constructing new logistics nodes. Thermal power takes the largest part of China’s total installed power generation capacity, s...

  2. Air intake device for at least one stand-by aggregate installed in an emergency power supply building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, A.; Schilling, R.

    1980-01-01

    Stand-by aggregates are installed in an energency power supply building in order to ensure the cooling of nuclear power plants during accidents. In order to assure the stand-by aggregates to be supplied with combustion air also in the case of fire, each stand-by aggregate is provided with two intake pipes for the combustion air, which are horizontally lead through the building wall on the opposite sides of the energency power supply building. Fire valves are incorporated in the inlet pipes, and one of them will always close in the case of fire. (orig.) [de

  3. Can air pollutant controls change global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strefler, Jessica; Luderer, Gunnar; Kriegler, Elmar; Meinshausen, Malte

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Air pollution policies do not affect long-term climate targets. • Reduction of aerosols counteracts a fraction of the reduction of Kyoto forcing. • Air pollution policies may affect the rate of climate change in the short term. • There is no tradeoff between clean air and climate policies. - Abstract: In this paper we analyze the interaction between climate and air pollution policies using the integrated assessment model REMIND coupled to the reduced-form climate model MAGICC. Since overall, aerosols tend to cool the atmosphere, there is a concern that a reduction of pollutant emissions could accelerate global warming and offset the climate benefits of carbon dioxide emission reductions. We investigate scenarios which independently reduce emissions from either large-scale sources, such as power plants, or small-scale sources, such as cooking and heating stoves. Large-scale sources are likely to be easier to control, but their aerosol emissions are characterized by a relatively high sulfur content, which tends to result in atmospheric cooling. Pollution from small-scale sources, by contrast, is characterized by a high share of carbonaceous aerosol, which is an important contributor to global warming. We find that air pollution policies can significantly reduce aerosol emissions when no climate policies are in place. Stringent climate policies lead to a large reduction of fossil fuel use, and therefore result in a concurrent reduction of air pollutant emissions. These reductions partly reduce aerosol masking, thus initially counteracting the reduction of greenhouse gas forcing, however not overcompensating it. If climate policies are in place, air pollution policies have almost no impacts on medium- and long-term radiative forcing. Therefore there is no conflict of objectives between clean air and limiting global warming. We find that the stringency of air pollution policies may influence the rate of global temperature change in the first decade

  4. CATS-based Air Traffic Controller Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes intelligent agents that function as air traffic controllers. Each agent controls traffic in a single sector in real time; agents controlling traffic in adjoining sectors can coordinate to manage an arrival flow across a given meter fix. The purpose of this research is threefold. First, it seeks to study the design of agents for controlling complex systems. In particular, it investigates agent planning and reactive control functionality in a dynamic environment in which a variety perceptual and decision making skills play a central role. It examines how heuristic rules can be applied to model planning and decision making skills, rather than attempting to apply optimization methods. Thus, the research attempts to develop intelligent agents that provide an approximation of human air traffic controller behavior that, while not based on an explicit cognitive model, does produce task performance consistent with the way human air traffic controllers operate. Second, this research sought to extend previous research on using the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) as the basis for intelligent agents. The agents use a high-level model of air traffic controller activities to structure the control task. To execute an activity in the CATS model, according to the current task context, the agents reference a 'skill library' and 'control rules' that in turn execute the pattern recognition, planning, and decision-making required to perform the activity. Applying the skills enables the agents to modify their representation of the current control situation (i.e., the 'flick' or 'picture'). The updated representation supports the next activity in a cycle of action that, taken as a whole, simulates air traffic controller behavior. A third, practical motivation for this research is to use intelligent agents to support evaluation of new air traffic control (ATC) methods to support new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. Current approaches that use large, human

  5. Development and analysis of an economizer control strategy algorithm to promote an opportunity for energy savings in air conditioning installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Jose H.M.; Azevedo, Walter L. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: henrique@daem.des.cefetmg.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents an algorithm control strategy denominated enthalpy economizer. The objective of this algorithm strategy is to determine the adequate fractions of outside and return air flowrates entering a cooling coil based on the analysis of the outside, return and supply air enthalpies, rather than on the analysis of the dry bulb temperatures. The proposed algorithm predicts the actual opening position of the outside and return air dampers in order to provide the lower mixing air enthalpy. First, the psychometrics properties of the outside and return air are calculated from actual measurements of the dry and wet bulb temperatures. Then, three distinct cases are analyzed: the enthalpy of the outside air is lower than the enthalpy of the supply air (free cooling); the enthalpy of the outside air is higher than the enthalpy of the return air; the enthalpy of the outside air is lower than the enthalpy of the return air and higher than the temperature of the supply air. Different outside air conditions were selected in order to represent typical weather data of Brazilians cities, as well as typical return air conditions. It was found that the enthalpy control strategy could promote an opportunity for energy savings mainly during mild nights and wintertime periods as well as during warm afternoons and summertime periods, depending on the outside air relative humidity. The proposed algorithm works well and can be integrated in some commercial automation software to reduce energy consumption and electricity demand. (author)

  6. Colombian legislation for air contamination control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez S, Gildardo; Montes de Correa, Consuelo

    1999-01-01

    The most relevant legislative acts promulgated by the Colombian government for controlling atmospheric pollution are reviewed in chronological order. Special emphasis is paid to decree 948 of 1995 modified according to decree 2107 of 1995, e. The general dispositions about norms of air quality, emission levels, contaminant emissions, noise and offensive odors (chapter II), as well as, prohibitions and restrictions to emissions and noise from stationary and mobile sources (chapters III-V) furthermore, the resolutions issued so far by the ministry of the environment for regulating decree 948/95 in those aspects related to the prevention and control of atmospheric pollution are describes. Finally, the main philosophies for regulating air pollutants around the world are explained: the emissions norms, air quality norms, the emission taxes philosophy and the cost-benefit norms

  7. An innovative system for supplying air and fuel mixture to a combustion chamber of an engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikumar, G. R. Bharath

    2018-04-01

    Conventional carburetors are being used since decades to ensure that the desired ratio of air and fuel enters the combustion chamber for combustion for the purpose of generating power in an Spark Ignition(SI) internal combustion engine. However to increase the efficiency, the carburetor system is gradually being replaced by fuel injection systems. Fuel injection systems use injectors to supply pressurized fuel into the combustion chamber. Owing to the high initial and maintenance cost, carburetors are still ruling in the low cost vehicle domain. An innovative concept is conceived, which is an alternative method to the carburetor system to supply the air and fuel mixture to a combustion chamber of an engine. This system comprises of an inner hollow cylinder with minute holes drilled along its length with an outer cylinder capable of sliding along its length or its longitudinal axis. This system is placed in the venturi instead of the conventional carburetor system. Fuel enters from the bottom inlet of the inner cylinder and flows out through the holes provided along its length. The fuel flow from the inner cylinder is dependent on the size and the number of holes exposed at that instance by the sliding outer cylinder which in turn is connected to the throttle or accelerator.

  8. Air pollution and health impact emboided in supply chains in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Close economic linkage and consequent air pollutant emissions embodied in trade among Chinese regions have been widely discussed. Yet the related health impacts across regions remain unaddressed. Here, we integrated four state-of-the-art models to for the first time estimate PM2.5 related premature deaths along the supply chains across seven Chinese regions, and we quantified cross impacts among receptors, producers, assemblers, consumers, and sectors. We find that, due to the atmospheric transport, in 2010, 33% of national premature deaths were caused by emissions released in other regions, and the trans-boundary effect is more significant from north to south and from east to west. From a supply chain perspective, 38% of national premature deaths were associated with production for in a region to supply other regions' consumption. For instance, 20-35% of premature deaths related to the highly developed east coastal regions' consumption were caused by emissions in the central and western regions. Sectorally, similar to the widely concerned heavy industries, direct emissions from agricultural and residential activities together contributed near half of national total premature deaths, posing a great challenge for recent pollution reduction action, which are mainly focusing on industrial restructuring. Our results emphasize the importance of regarding pollution related premature deaths in China as a national systemic problem, instead of targeting the pollution producers (region or sector) in isolation. Multilateral and multi-sector cooperation is in urgent need to improve the national atmospheric environment.

  9. Processes mediating expertise in air traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Jarodzka, Halszka; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; De Bock, Jeano; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Van Meeuwen, L., Jarodzka, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., De Bock, J. J. P. R., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010, August). Processes mediating expertise in air traffic control. Meeting of the EARLI SIG6/7 Instructional Design and Learning and Instruction with Computers, Ulm, Germany.

  10. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salt...

  11. Processes mediating expertise in air traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Jarodzka, Halszka; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; De Bock, Jeano; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Van Meeuwen, L. W., Jarodzka, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., De Bock, J. J. P. R., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010, September). Processes mediating expertise in air traffic control. Poster presented at the European Association for Aviation Psychology Conference, Budapest.

  12. Compressed-air flow control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Ki Wan; Chapin, Stephen C; Pregibon, Daniel C; Baah, David; Floyd-Smith, Tamara M; Doyle, Patrick S

    2011-02-21

    We present the construction and operation of a compressed-air driven flow system that can be used for a variety of microfluidic applications that require rapid dynamic response and precise control of multiple inlet streams. With the use of inexpensive and readily available parts, we describe how to assemble this versatile control system and further explore its utility in continuous- and pulsed-flow microfluidic procedures for the synthesis and analysis of microparticles.

  13. Brazilian air traffic controllers exhibit excessive sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Valdenilson Ribeiro; de Almeida, Cláudia Ângela Vilela; Martins, Hugo André de Lima; Alves, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Alves, Marcos José Pinheiro Cândido; Carneiro, Severino Marcos de Oliveira; Ribas, Valéria Ribeiro; de Vasconcelos, Carlos Augusto Carvalho; Sougey, Everton Botelho; de Castro, Raul Manhães

    2011-01-01

    Excessive sleepiness (ES) is an increased tendency to initiate involuntary sleep for naps at inappropriate times. The objective of this study was to assess ES in air traffic controllers (ATCo). 45 flight protection professionals were evaluated, comprising 30 ATCo, subdivided into ATCo with ten or more years in the profession (ATCo≥10, n=15) and ATCo with less than ten years in the profession (ATCoair traffic controllers exhibit excessive sleepiness.

  14. Air traffic control activity increases attention capacity in air traffic controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Valdenilson Ribeiro; Martins, Hugo André de Lima; Amorim, Gutemberg Guerra; Ribas, Renata de Melo Guerra; de Almeida, Cláudia Ângela Vilela; Ribas, Valéria Ribeiro; de Vasconcelos, Carlos Augusto Carvalho; Lima, Murilo Duarte Costa; Sougey, Everton Botelho; de Castro, Raul Manhães

    2010-01-01

    Air traffic controllers simultaneously develop complex and multiple tasks in the course of their activities. In this context, concern is raised over the high level of attention needed by these professionals which can ultimately be affected by stress and fatigue. The objective of this study was to assess attention level in air traffic controllers (ATCo). 45 flight protection professionals were evaluated, comprising 30 ATCo, subdivided into ATCo with ten or more years in the profession (ATCo≥10, n=15) and ATCo with less than ten years in the profession (ATCo air traffic control activity after ten years may be associated with a high level of attention.

  15. Fighting corrosion in air pollution control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittenhouse, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that materials is the name of the game for corrosion prevention in air pollution control equipment. Whether the system is already in place, a retrofit, are specified for a new power pant, preventing corrosion is critical, because such deterioration easily undermines reliability. Hence, materials can heavily influence power plant compliance to the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, perhaps the most vulnerable area to corrosion, are expected to be the method of choice for sulfur removal in many power plants in the near term. Components of these systems have various degrees of susceptibility to corrosion and related problems

  16. The dynamic relation between management control and governance structure in a supply chain context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van P.M.G.; Verdaasdonk, P.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show that local management control systems within supply chain organisations and the governance of supply chains are intertwined and that local control systems and governance structure have an important effect on the functioning of the supply chain.

  17. ELECTRONIC CONTROL FOR FUEL SUPPLY OF DIESEL ENGINE ON THE BASIS OF PROGRAMMABLE PID-REGULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Bakhanovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a schematic diagram of the Euro-3 diesel engine electronic control and describes hard- and software platform of the high pressure fuel pump pneumatic actuator control that allows to realize the concept of electronic fuel supply control of diesel engine KamAZ-740. The strategic dependence beetwen the angular position of fuel pump governor lever and the angular position of electronic accelerator pedal were put on the basis of electronic control concept. Implementation of this dependence was carried out by applying a modulated PWM signal with determined duty cycle by the controller to the coil proportional solenoid valve, which is responsible for the amount of air pressure in the working chamber of the power air cylinder, connected by articulated-type to the governor lever of the high pressure fuel pump. In this case, the feedback control by position of governor lever of the high pressure fuel pump was introduced in the control circuit, but engine crankshaft speed control was carried out using a software continuous PID governor. Developed strategy gives possibility to track the deflection  of control parameter from a predetermined value by real-time and almost instantly, to make a control action on actuators to eliminate this deflection, while providing a minimum time of transition. Governor’s setting (proportional, integral and differential component performed empirically using the classical Ziegler – Nichols method, based on the analysis of the safety factor of automatic control system. The results of calculating the coefficients of proportional integral-differential regulator and oscillograms HIL experiment on testing the proposed diesel engine throttle control strategies using visualization CoDeSys V2.3 are given in activity.

  18. Design of EAST LHCD high power supply feedback control system based on PLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Huaichuan; Shan Jiafang

    2009-01-01

    Design of EAST LHCD -35kV/5.6MW high power supply feedback control system based on PLC is described. Industrial computer and PLC are used to control high power supply in the system. PID arithmetic is adopted to achieve the feedback control of voltage of high power supply. Operating system is base on real-time operating system of QNX. Good controlling properties and reliable protective properties of the feedback control system are proved by the experiment results. (authors)

  19. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  20. Air pollution control at a DOE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curn, B.L.

    1995-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium production program Produced some of the greatest scientific and engineering accomplishments of all time. It is remarkable to consider the accomplishments of the Manhattan Project. The Reactor on the Hanford Site, the first production reactor in the world, began operation only 13 months after the start of construction. The DOE nuclear production program was also instrumental in pioneering other fields such as health physics an radiation monitoring. The safety record of these installations is remarkable considering that virtually every significant accomplishment was on the technological threshold of the time. One other area that the DOE Facilities pioneered was the control of radioactive particles and gases emitted to the atmosphere. The high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) was a development that provided high collection efficiencies of particulates to protect workers and the public. The halogen and noble gases also were of particular concern. Radioactive iodine is captured by adsorption on activated carbon or synthetic zeolites. Besides controlling radioncuclide air pollution, DOE facilities are concerned with other criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutant emissions. The Hanford Site encompasses all those air pollution challenges

  1. Turn-key supply for the power supplies of the control coils of wendelstein 7-X experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauregi, E.; Ganuza, D.; Garcia, I.; Rio, J.M. del; Rummel, T.; Fuellenbach, F.

    2003-01-01

    In the Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, IPP, in Greifswald, a new stellerator is being built for fusion research experiments, the so called Wendelstein 7-X Experiment. JEMA Company has designed, manufacture and supply the turnkey system which energises the ten control coils in the stellerator. The system comprises ten independent Switch-mode power supplies, and the central distribution stations for power, cooling and control facilities. Each power supply must provide a controlled current compounded of direct current and 0-20 Hz bandwidth ac current in a range of almost 3 kA at low voltage, 30 V, in four quadrants. Positive and negative voltage and sinusoidal current with low harmonic distortion is required by load. The selected design is based on Switch-mode-power supply technology (SMPS) providing the system with a very high regulation response (very low current and voltage ripple) and excellent input power factor, keeping the grid total harmonic distortion (THD) under minimum values. The sources can be operated locally as independent systems or they can be co-ordinated from a main control keeping current synchronisation requirements. The system in its entirety requires a high efficiency due to thermal considerations and reduced space. The system presented here introduces a decisive solution for the future power supplies to superconducting or regular coils, where the regulation, precision and ripple are the basic requirements for the design. During year 2000 the design stage was covered and in 2001 a first prototype for the power supplies was manufactured and successfully tested at factory. The entire system has been installed over this year after the series fabrication and it is currently working at IPP facilities, waiting for the acceptance tests scheduled before end of the year. This paper aims to explain the different stages the company went through in order to get validation of the power supply system and make it running at its last location

  2. Automated Conflict Resolution For Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2005-01-01

    The ability to detect and resolve conflicts automatically is considered to be an essential requirement for the next generation air traffic control system. While systems for automated conflict detection have been used operationally by controllers for more than 20 years, automated resolution systems have so far not reached the level of maturity required for operational deployment. Analytical models and algorithms for automated resolution have been traffic conditions to demonstrate that they can handle the complete spectrum of conflict situations encountered in actual operations. The resolution algorithm described in this paper was formulated to meet the performance requirements of the Automated Airspace Concept (AAC). The AAC, which was described in a recent paper [1], is a candidate for the next generation air traffic control system. The AAC's performance objectives are to increase safety and airspace capacity and to accommodate user preferences in flight operations to the greatest extent possible. In the AAC, resolution trajectories are generated by an automation system on the ground and sent to the aircraft autonomously via data link .The algorithm generating the trajectories must take into account the performance characteristics of the aircraft, the route structure of the airway system, and be capable of resolving all types of conflicts for properly equipped aircraft without requiring supervision and approval by a controller. Furthermore, the resolution trajectories should be compatible with the clearances, vectors and flight plan amendments that controllers customarily issue to pilots in resolving conflicts. The algorithm described herein, although formulated specifically to meet the needs of the AAC, provides a generic engine for resolving conflicts. Thus, it can be incorporated into any operational concept that requires a method for automated resolution, including concepts for autonomous air to air resolution.

  3. Feast to famine: Sediment supply control on Laramide basin fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Alan R.; Chetel, Lauren M.; Elliot Smith, M.

    2006-03-01

    Erosion of Laramide-style uplifts in the western United States exerted an important first-order influence on Paleogene sedimentation by controlling sediment supply rates to adjacent closed basins. During the latest Cretaceous through Paleocene, these uplifts exposed thick intervals of mud-rich Upper Cretaceous foreland basin fill, which was quickly eroded and redeposited. Cretaceous sedimentary lithologies dominate Paleocene conglomerate clast compositions, and the volume of eroded foreland basin strata is approximately twice the volume of preserved Paleocene basin fill. As a result of this sediment oversupply, clastic alluvial and paludal facies dominate Paleocene strata, and are associated with relatively shallow and ephemeral freshwater lake facies. In contrast, large, long-lived, carbonate-producing lakes occupied several of the basins during the Eocene. Basement-derived clasts (granite, quartzite, and other metamorphic rocks) simultaneously became abundant in lower Eocene conglomerate. We propose that Eocene lakes developed primarily due to exposure of erosion-resistant lithologies within cores of Laramide uplifts. The resultant decrease in erosion rate starved adjacent basins of sediment, allowing the widespread and prolonged deposition of organic-rich lacustrine mudstone. These observations suggest that geomorphic evolution of the surrounding landscape should be considered as a potentially important influence on sedimentation in many other interior basins, in addition to more conventionally interpreted tectonic and climatic controls.

  4. A hierarchical framework for air traffic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kaushik

    Air travel in recent years has been plagued by record delays, with over $8 billion in direct operating costs being attributed to 100 million flight delay minutes in 2007. Major contributing factors to delay include weather, congestion, and aging infrastructure; the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) aims to alleviate these delays through an upgrade of the air traffic control system. Changes to large-scale networked systems such as air traffic control are complicated by the need for coordinated solutions over disparate temporal and spatial scales. Individual air traffic controllers must ensure aircraft maintain safe separation locally with a time horizon of seconds to minutes, whereas regional plans are formulated to efficiently route flows of aircraft around weather and congestion on the order of every hour. More efficient control algorithms that provide a coordinated solution are required to safely handle a larger number of aircraft in a fixed amount of airspace. Improved estimation algorithms are also needed to provide accurate aircraft state information and situational awareness for human controllers. A hierarchical framework is developed to simultaneously solve the sometimes conflicting goals of regional efficiency and local safety. Careful attention is given in defining the interactions between the layers of this hierarchy. In this way, solutions to individual air traffic problems can be targeted and implemented as needed. First, the regional traffic flow management problem is posed as an optimization problem and shown to be NP-Hard. Approximation methods based on aggregate flow models are developed to enable real-time implementation of algorithms that reduce the impact of congestion and adverse weather. Second, the local trajectory design problem is solved using a novel slot-based sector model. This model is used to analyze sector capacity under varying traffic patterns, providing a more comprehensive understanding of how increased automation

  5. Control of multiple filamentation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibich, Gadi; Eisenmann, Shmuel; Ilan, Boaz; Zigler, Arie

    2004-08-01

    In this Letter we provide what is believed to be the first experimental evidence of suppression of the number of filaments for high-intensity laser pulses propagating in air by beam astigmatism. We also show that the number, pattern, and spatial stability of the filaments can be controlled by varying the angle that a focusing lens makes with the axial direction of propagation. This new methodology can be useful for applications involving atmospheric propagation, such as remote sensing.

  6. Production planning and control of closed-loop supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Inderfurth (Karl); R.H. Teunter (Ruud)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMore and more supply chains emerge that include a return flow of materials. Many original equipment manufacturers are nowadays engaged in the remanufacturing business. In many process industries, production defectives and by-products are reworked. These closed-loop supply chains deserve

  7. AIR GAP CONTROL SYSTEM FOR HYDROGENERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zaitsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report of the solving the actual problem of control the air gap in the hydrogenerators. The aim of the study was development of a computerized information-measuring system for measuring the air gap in the hydrogenator, which used two capacitive sensors with parallel coplanar electrodes, and the method of determining the shape of the envelope parameters hydrogenerator rotor poles relative to the center axis of rotation, using the measurement results of the air gap.In practical studies of the sensor circuit it has been shown that its use allows for the informative value of the sensor capacitance conversion function to obtain a high accuracy and resolution measurement with digital linearization of converting function of the sensor with use program utility. To determine the form deviations of the envelope line of the rotor pole from the ideal cylinder, which is one of the main structural defects of the technological errors as results the distortion of the shape of the air gap in the hydrogenator, when the machine was manufacture and assembly. It is proposed to describe the shape of the envelope to use a Fourier transform. Calculation of the coefficients of the Fourier series is performed using the method of least squares as the regression coefficients.Application of this method in processing the measuring data in a computerized information-measuring system the developed with the primary converter with coplanar parallel electrodes allowed attaining the high measurement accuracy and resolution informative in magnitude of the capacity.

  8. Air-supplied pinhole discharge in aqueous solution for the inactivation of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganuma, Ryota; Yasuoka, Koichi

    2018-04-01

    An air-supplied pinhole discharge in aqueous solution has been developed to provide a short-lived and odorless bactericide to replace current conventional disinfectants such as O3, ClO-, HClO, and ClO2. The pinhole discharge that was initiated inside a water bubble generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitrous acid (HNO2) simultaneously. The concentrations of H2O2, HNO2, and HNO3 were 16.3, 13.9, and 17.4 mg/L, respectively when flow rates of NaCl solution and air were 72 and 12.5 mL/min, respectively. The pH value of the solution was 3.87, and HO2 radicals were generated from the reaction of H2O2 with HNO2. The efficacy of sterilization of discharge-treated water was evaluated by changing the acetic solutions. A 4-orders-of-magnitude decrease in Escherichia coli survival rate was observed after treatment with a sodium citrate solution of pH 3.2 for 60 s.

  9. Air pollution control technologies and their interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalbandian, H. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-11-01

    A large number of coal-fired power stations have been fitted/retrofitted with dedicated air pollutant control technologies. Experience shows that these technologies can have complex interactions and can impact each other as well as balance of plant, positively and/or negatively. Particulate matter (PM) is usually captured with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and fabric filters (FF). These technologies are efficient and reliable but their performance may be affected by modifying operating conditions and introducing primary measures for NOx reduction. Flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) systems for SO{sub 2} control have been installed in many facilities with the most popular technology being the wet limestone/gypsum scrubber. FGD use can decrease particulate matter and mercury emissions which is a major issue in the USA, cause an increase in carbon dioxide emissions, and in solids by-product. Primary measures such as low NOx burners (LNBs) and overfire air (OFA) minimise NOx formation but can increase carbon in ash (CIA) which can cause problems with fly ash sales but may also improve mercury capture. Reducing NOx emissions with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) can result in a decrease in particulate matter, an increase in SO{sub 3} emissions and trace increase in NH{sub 3}. This can cause fouling and loss of performance of the air preheater, due to the formation of ammonium sulphates. One way of alleviating this is improved soot-blowing and other cleaning capabilities. This report studies these and other interactions between existing air pollution control technologies in pulverised coal fired power plants. 249 refs., 13 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. Using the Estimating Supplies Program to Develop Materiel Solutions for the U.S. Air Force Aeromedical Evacuation In-Flight Kit (FFQDM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hopkins, Curtis; Nix, Ralph; Pang, Gerry; Konoske, Paula

    2008-01-01

    ... NHRC's medical modeling tool the Estimating Supplies Program (ESP) for the development and management of Air Force medical Allowance Standards as a baseline for standardization throughout the services...

  11. Protective and control relays as coal-mine power-supply ACS subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostin, V. N.; Minakova, T. E.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents instantaneous selective short-circuit protection for the cabling of the underground part of a coal mine and central control algorithms as a Coal-Mine Power-Supply ACS Subsystem. In order to improve the reliability of electricity supply and reduce the mining equipment down-time, a dual channel relay protection and central control system is proposed as a subsystem of the coal-mine power-supply automated control system (PS ACS).

  12. PENGELOLAAN MATA AIR UNTUK PENYEDIAAN AIR RUMAHTANGGA BERKELANJUTAN DI LERENG SELATAN GUNUNGAPI MERAPI (Springs Management for Sustainability Domestic Water Supply in the South West of Merapi Volcano Slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmadji Sudarmadji

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Mata air merupakan pemunculan air tanah ke permukaan tanah. Pemanfaatan mata air sangat beragam, antara lain penggunaan untuk keperluan air minum, irigasi, perikanan, untuk obyek wisata. Mata air mempunyai debit terbatas, namun kualitasnya baik, penggunaannya beragam, hal tersebut sering terjadi konflik pemanfaatan. Di saat musim kemarau, beberapa mata air merupakan sumber air satu-satunya di suatu tempat, sehingga pengelolaannya harus dilakukan secara baik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengelolaan mata air berbasis teknologi tepat guna dalam penyediaan air rumahtangga di lereng selatan Gunungapi Merapi. Penelitian dilakukan dengan survei dan observasi di lapangan terhadap mata air yang digunakan untuk penyediaan air rumahtangga. Sejumlah responden pengguna mata air dan tokoh masyarakat setempat diwawancarai secara bebas dan terstruktur untuk memperoleh data pengelolaan mata air. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kondisi lingkungan dan karakteristik mata air, pengetahuan masyarakat dan budaya lokal yang beragam akan berpengaruh terhadap pengelolaanmata air. Perkembangan teknologi tidak dapat diabaikan dalam pengelolaan sumberdaya air. Hal ini dapat dipadukan dengan budaya masyarakat setempat dalam pengelolaan mata air, sehingga dapat diperoleh manfaat yang optimal dan kesinambungan fungsi dan manfaat mata air tersebut.   ABSTRACT Spring is the groundwater which comes out on ground surface. The use of water from springs is very diverse, varying from water for drinking, irrigation, fisheries, even for tourism. The springs usually have a limited discharge but the water quality from springs is good, therefore they are often facing some conflicts in utilization. In the dry season, in fact the springs are the only source of water supply; therefore the management of the spring should be done properly. This research aims to study the spring management based on appropriate technology in relation to household water supply in the

  13. The control system based on PXI technology for high voltage power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dehong; Zhang Ming; Ma Shaoxiang; Xia Linglong; Zeng Zhen; Zhang Xueliang; Wang Chuliang; Yu Kexun

    2014-01-01

    A 100 kV/60 A high voltage power supply (HVPS) is being developed to carry some auxiliary heating research on J-TEXT and supply the auxiliary heating system. The power supply which consists of 144 switch modules is based on PSM technology. For the requirement of isolation, control and protection, a control system based on the PCI extensions for instrumentation (PXI) which meets up with the CODAC standards is designed with developed PSM technology for the high voltage power supply. The compact structure of hardware in the control system is presented too. And the control strategy which is based on shift phase pulse width modulation is discussed Some tests are performed on the control system to validate the control strategy, the experimental results show that the system has a good control performance and fast response, which meets the control requirement of 100 kV/60 A high voltage power supply. (authors)

  14. The More Supply Chain Control Power, the Better? A Comparison among Four Kinds of Cooperation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the parameter of supply chain control power into existing supply chain coordination models and explores the impacts of control power on the profits of manufacturer, retailer, and the overall supply chain under four modes of decision-making, including the decentralized decision-making dominated by manufacturer, the decentralized decision-making dominated by retailer, centralized decision-making, and Nash negotiation decision-making. Some significant conclusions are obtained. Firstly, supply chain control power does have great impact on the supply chain profits. The profit of the whole supply chain with centralized decision-making is higher than those of the other three modes, while the overall profit of supply chain with decentralized decision-making is superior to the profit when retailer and manufacturer dominate the supply chain together. Secondly, with decentralized decision-making, for manufacturer and retailer, it is beneficial to gain the control powers of the supply chain; however, control power has an optimal value, not the bigger, the better. Thirdly, under certain circumstances, order quantity will increase and the wholesale price will decrease when control power is transferred from manufacturer to retailer. In this case, the total profit of supply chain dominated by retailer will be greater than that dominated by manufacturer.

  15. Design and development of a low cost, high current density power supply for streamer free atmospheric pressure DBD plasma generation in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishal; Visani, Anand; Srinivasan, R; Agarwal, Vivek

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a new power supply architecture for generating a uniform dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in air medium at atmospheric pressure. It is quite a challenge to generate atmospheric pressure uniform glow discharge plasma, especially in air. This is because air plasma needs very high voltage for initiation of discharge. If the high voltage is used along with high current density, it leads to the formation of streamers, which is undesirable for most applications like textile treatment, etc. Researchers have tried to generate high-density plasma using a RF source, nanosecond pulsed DC source, and medium frequency AC source. However, these solutions suffer from low current discharge and low efficiency due to the addition of an external resistor to control the discharge current. Moreover, they are relatively costly and bulky. This paper presents a new power supply configuration which is very compact and generates high average density (∼0.28 W/cm 2 ) uniform glow DBD plasma in air at atmospheric pressure. The efficiency is also higher as no external resistor is required to control the discharge current. An inherent feature of this topology is that it can drive higher current oscillations (∼50 A peak and 2-3 MHz frequency) into the plasma that damp out due to the plasma dissipation only. A newly proposed model has been used with experimental validation in this paper. Simulations and experimental validation of the proposed topology are included. Also, the application of the generated plasma for polymer film treatment is demonstrated.

  16. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  17. Air Quality and Health Impacts of an Aviation Biofuel Supply Chain Using Forest Residue in the Northwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Vikram; Gao, Allan H; Martinkus, Natalie B; Wolcott, Michael P; Lamb, Brian K

    2018-04-03

    Forest residue is a major potential feedstock for second-generation biofuel; however, little knowledge exists about the environmental impacts of the development and production of biofuel from such a feedstock. Using a high-resolution regional air quality model, we estimate the air quality impacts of a forest residue based aviation biofuel supply chain scenario in the Pacific Northwestern United States. Using two potential supply chain regions, we find that biomass and biofuel hauling activities will add simulation. Using BenMAP, a health impact assessment tool, we show that avoiding slash pile burning results in a decrease in premature mortality as well as several other nonfatal and minor health effects. In general, we show that most air quality and health benefits result primarily from avoided slash pile burning emissions.

  18. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  19. Air Cleaning Devices for HVAC Supply Systems in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Guidelines for maintaining indoor air quality in schools with HVAC air cleaning systems are provided in this document. Information is offered on the importance of air cleaning, sources of air contaminants and indoor pollutants, types of air cleaners and particulate filters used in central HVAC systems, vapor and gas removal, and performance…

  20. Control device of air-fuel ratio of alcohol-gasoline mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kazuo

    1987-08-19

    Concerning alcohol-gasoline mixed fuel, even the same amount of the fuel shows different air-fuel ratio depending upon alcohol concentration in the fuel, accordingly it is required to know the alcohol concentration when it is intended to make the air-fuel ratio to be the same as the predetermined ratio. Although a sensor which can detect in quick response and exactly the alcohol concentration has not been developed, the alcohol concentration in gasoline can be detected by detecting the concentration of the water in exhaust gas and many hygrometers which can detect the concentration of the water with high precision are available. With regard to an internal combustion engine equipped with a fuel supply device in order to supply alcohol-gasoline mixed fuel into an engine suction passage, this invention offers an air-fuel ratio control device to control the amount of the fuel to be supplied from the fuel supply device by detecting the concentration of alcohol in the gasoline from among the output signals of the main hygrometer and the auxiliary hygrometer. The former hygrometer to detect the concentration of the water in the exhaust gas is set in the engine exhaust gas passage and the latter is installed to detect the concentration of the water in the air. (4 figs)

  1. Colombian legislation for air contamination control; Legislacion colombiana para el control de la contaminacion del aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez S, Gildardo; Montes de Correa, Consuelo

    1999-12-01

    The most relevant legislative acts promulgated by the Colombian government for controlling atmospheric pollution are reviewed in chronological order. Special emphasis is paid to decree 948 of 1995 modified according to decree 2107 of 1995, e. The general dispositions about norms of air quality, emission levels, contaminant emissions, noise and offensive odors (chapter II), as well as, prohibitions and restrictions to emissions and noise from stationary and mobile sources (chapters III-V) furthermore, the resolutions issued so far by the ministry of the environment for regulating decree 948/95 in those aspects related to the prevention and control of atmospheric pollution are describes. Finally, the main philosophies for regulating air pollutants around the world are explained: the emissions norms, air quality norms, the emission taxes philosophy and the cost-benefit norms.

  2. A Control Method of Current Type Matrix Converter for Plasma Control Coil Power Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, K.; Matsukawa, M.; Kurihara, K.; Jun-ichi Itoh

    2006-01-01

    In exploration to a tokamak fusion reactor, the control of plasma instabilities of high β plasma such as neoclassical tearing mode (NTM), resistive wall mode (RWM) etc., is the key issue for steady-state sustainment. One of the proposed methods to avoid suppressing RWM is that AC current having a phase to work for reduction the RWM growth is generated in a coil (sector coil) equipped spirally on the plasma vacuum vessel. To stabilize RWM, precise and fast real-time feedback control of magnetic field with proper amplitude and frequency is necessary. This implies that an appropriate power supply dedicated for such an application is expected to be developed. A matrix converter as one of power supply candidates for this purpose could provide a solution The matrix converter, categorized in an AC/AC direct converter composed of nine bi-directional current switches, has a great feature that a large energy storage element is unnecessary in comparison with a standard existing AC/AC indirect converter, which is composed of an AC/DC converter and a DC/AC inverter. It is also advantageous in cost and size of its applications. Fortunately, a voltage type matrix converter has come to be available at the market recently, while a current type matrix converter, which is advantageous for fast control of the large-inductance coil current, has been unavailable. On the background above mentioned, we proposed a new current type matrix converter and its control method applicable to a power supply with fast response for suppressing plasma instabilities. Since this converter is required with high accuracy control, the gate control method is adopted to three-phase switching method using middle phase to reduce voltage and current waveforms distortion. The control system is composed of VME-bus board with DSP (Digital Signal Processor) and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) for high speed calculation and control. This paper describes the control method of a current type matrix converter

  3. Simple power supply for power load controlled isoelectric focusing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duša, Filip; Šlais, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 8 (2014), s. 1114-1117 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015023 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : isoelectric focusing * power supply * voltage multiplier Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.028, year: 2014 http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0231022

  4. Design for the power-supply controller base on embedded operating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yuhui; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Wang Yanyu; Qiao Weimin; Huang Jijiang; Lin Feiyu

    2008-01-01

    In order to realize the power-supply equipment long-distance monitor, adopts embedded RTOS (NutOS) and the TCP/1P protocol power-supply controller. Independently designs partially the software and hardware, through socket programming system long-distance control is realized. (authors)

  5. On-chip digital power supply control for system-on-chip applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, M.; Pineda de Gyvez, J.; Otten, R.H.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The authors presented an on-chip, fully-digital, power-supply control system. The scheme consists of two independent control loops that regulate power supply variations due to semiconductor process spread, temperature, and chip's workload. Smart power-switches working as linear voltage regulators

  6. Scrap supply in Bosnian after war situation - sources, quality, regulation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihura, Dervis

    1999-01-01

    Before the war, the Bosnian foundry and steel industry were supplied with scrap partly from domestic sources but mainly from foreign market. The annual steel production before the war recorded 130,000 tonnes of casting and 2,000.000 tonnes of crude steel. Most of the scrap was imported to secure and stabilize the production. During and after the war, despite a significant loss of production, efforts have been made to return to the normal production level in many ways. In the wake of the war, there has been a growing concern over the import of radioactive contaminated metallurgical scrap or low quality raw materials which are uncontrolled or of unidentified sources. In this regard, it is urgently required to establish an effective system to prevent from, to detect and to control the flow of the radioactive contaminated metallurgical scrap. The system should be established in such a way that all sorts of radioactive metallurgical elements should be controlled and prevented from use in all the metallurgical manufacturing processes, ferrous and non-ferrous alike. The coverage of control should start from the border or (air) port checkpoint where the flow of the scrap begins to the final steel product. The control system should take a form of internationally common and acceptable standards and regulations. Equipments and measurement techniques should also be internationally common. (author)

  7. Pascal software structures achieve definite control of the 24 MFTF sustaining neutral-beam power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Precise control of large, complex systems is not assured unless there is known to be no unintended interactions in the control system. The software controlling the sustaining neutral-beam power supplies of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility accomplishes this feat. The software structures comprise some 16,000 lines of commented Pascal code, distributed amoung 10 different tasks. Each task may control any of the 24 power supplies. All the tasks are strictly event-driven, and are not subject to any system mode. Since there is no global information in the software, we know that all the power supplies are controlled independently

  8. Electrical power supply and controls for a remotely operated glass melter for nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haideri, A.Q.

    1985-01-01

    An electrical power supply, controls and instruments used for a joule heated glass melter for nuclear waste are discussed. Remotely replaceable interconnection wiring assemblies for power, controls and instruments are also described

  9. How to Control Airline Routes from the Supply Side: The Case of TAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Kenneth; Costa, Alvaro; Reis, Vasco

    2005-01-01

    Competition in the European airline industry is currently fierce in the face of depressed demand conditions, and in the wake of privatizations and liberalization. The Portuguese flag carrier, TAP Air Portugal, operates within this environment. It is a medium sized carrier that was part of the defunct Qualiflyer Group alliance and has recently joined the Star Alliance. It controls more than 50% of the air market between Europe and Brazil and Europe and Angola. Nevertheless, it has been experiencing financial losses. One reason for this is that, following the reasoning of Ronald Coase (1946), it is difficult for any company with decreasing average costs to recover full costs in a highly competitive market. One way of approaching the problem is to establish quasi-monopoly power and airlines have done this through such things as frequent flyer programs and hub-and-spoke operations. Other airlines, notably charter carriers, have sought to adjust capacity and services to meet an anticipated cash flow. In practice, many have used a combination of measures with mixed success. This paper focuses on how TAP has responded to changing conditions by adjusting its supply-side activities in terms of restructuring its network to maximize potential revenues.

  10. Flight to the future : human factors in air traffic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The nation's air traffic control system is responsible for managing a complex : mixture of air traffic from commercial, general, corporate, and military : aviation. Despite a strong safety record, the system does suffer occasional : serious disruptio...

  11. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  12. Los Alamos controlled-air incineration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.; Warner, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    Current regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) require that PCBs in concentrations greater than 500 ppM be disposed of in EPA-permitted incinerators. Four commercial incineration systems in the United States have EPA operating permits for receiving and disposing of concentrated PCBs, but none can accept PCBs contaminated with nuclear materials. The first section of this report presents an overview of an EPA-sponsored program for studying PCB destruction in the large-scale Los Alamos controlled-air incinerator. A second major FY 1983 program, sponsored by the Naval Weapons Support Center, Crane, Indiana, is designed to determine operating conditions that will destroy marker smoke compounds without also forming polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are known or suspected to be carcinogenic. We discuss the results of preliminary trial burns in which various equipment and feed formulations were tested. We present qualitative analyses for PAHs in the incinerator offgas as a result of these tests

  13. Trends in the use of digital technology for control and regulation of power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carwardine, J.; Lenkszus, F.

    1999-01-01

    Since the availability of computers, accelerator power supplies have relied on digital technology in some way, from such simple tasks as turning the supplies on and off to the supplying of computer-controlled references. However, advances in digital technology, both in performance and cost, allow considerably more than simple control and monitoring. This, coupled with increasing demand for higher performance and monitoring capabilities, has made it appealing to integrate such technology into power supply designs. This paper will review current trends in the use of such advanced technology as embedded DSP controllers, and the application of real-time algorithms to the regulation and control of power supplies for accelerators and other large-scale physics applications

  14. Power supplies in 14 UD pelletron accelerator and its control (Paper No. CP 12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaze, M.Y.; Bhalerao, P.J.; Tambvekar, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    14UD Pelletron is a 14 million volt tandem heavy ion accelerator. For generation of the accelerating voltage, heavy ion beams and transporting the beam through low energy injector systems, accelerator, high energy system, analysing magnets and finally upto the target different types of types of D.C. power supplies with varying capacity and specifications are used in this accelerator. Broadly these power supplies can be classified in three different types: (1)D.C. high voltage low current voltage regulated supplies, (2)Low voltage high current current regulated high precision D.C. power supplies, and (3)Medium power current regulated D.C. power supplies. These power supplies are described and systems where they are used are mentioned. They are interfaced with CAMAC module and are controlled and monitored remotely from the control room through the serial highway link. (author). 2 figs

  15. Evaluating the Modus Operandi of Construction Supply Chain using Organization Control Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Jagtap

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Supply chains are omnipresent. However, the modus operandi of the construction supply chain is not clearly established in the literature. This might be attributable to the character of construction projects and the structure of the construction industry. Formal and informal control mechanisms are well established in retail and manufacturing supply chains which is evident in improved product performance. However, there is a paucity of research on the construction supply chain especially at identifying the interplay of control mechanisms and their relationship with project performance. In the case of large and complex construction projects, the client-contractor relationship requires input control, behaviour control and output control for successful project delivery. In the light of organisation control theory and the existing literature on construction supply chains, this study evaluates the modus operandi of the client-contractor relationship based on three control mechanisms: input control (project risk and reward power, and intra-project communication, behaviour control (opportunism and output control (project performance using a structural equation model. A survey data of 258 construction professionals working on construction projects in India was collected. The study findings reveal that input control, in terms of project risk and reward power, and intraproject communication, largely influence behaviour control in terms of opportunism. However, behaviour controls do not directly affect output control in terms of project performance; rather, a direct effect of the input control mechanism of output control is particularly evident.

  16. Supply Chain Control Principles in Local Food Production: A Norwegian Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi C. Dreyer; Jan O. Strandhagen; Maria K. Thomassen; Anita Romsdal; Erik Gran

    2014-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the supply chain of four producers of local specialty foods, we explore how planning and control principles can be applied to align supply chain capabilities and market requirements. It has been shown that local food struggles with market access, and that the supply chain is one of the obstacles preventing local food producers from gaining a solid market position. We identify a number of features of the local food chain, analyse the obstacles and develop generic design...

  17. Integrated Heat Air & Moisture Modeling and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a recently developed Heat Air & Moisture Laboratory in SimuLink. The simulation laboratory facilitates the integration of the following models: (1) a whole building model; (2) Heating Venting and Air-Conditioning and primary systems; (3) 2D indoor airflow, 3D Heat Air & Moisture

  18. Control in indoor radon decay products by air treatment devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinds, W.C.; Rudnick, S.N.; Maher, E.F.; First, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation of the efficacy of household air cleaning devices as a means to control radon decay products in existing buildings is presented. Previous research on air cleaning methods for airborne radon decay products has been directed primarily to the control of radon decay products in mines and has only limited application to control in residences where dust concentration, air change rate, and humidity are lower than in mines. Results show that room size air cleaners can achieve substantial reductions in working levels in residences. Reductions observed at air infiltration rates of 0.52 air changes per hour ranged from 58 to 89%. Although the two air cleaners tested produced the greatest reductions, the low cost, simplicity, and other benefits of air circulating fans, particularly the ceiling fan, appear to make them most suitable for residences

  19. Experimental analysis of fuzzy controlled energy efficient demand controlled ventilation economizer cycle variable air volume air conditioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopalan Parameshwaran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for energy conservative building design, there is now a great opportunity for a flexible and sophisticated air conditioning system capable of addressing better thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency, that are strongly desired. The variable refrigerant volume air conditioning system provides considerable energy savings, cost effectiveness and reduced space requirements. Applications of intelligent control like fuzzy logic controller, especially adapted to variable air volume air conditioning systems, have drawn more interest in recent years than classical control systems. An experimental analysis was performed to investigate the inherent operational characteristics of the combined variable refrigerant volume and variable air volume air conditioning systems under fixed ventilation, demand controlled ventilation, and combined demand controlled ventilation and economizer cycle techniques for two seasonal conditions. The test results of the variable refrigerant volume and variable air volume air conditioning system for each techniques are presented. The test results infer that the system controlled by fuzzy logic methodology and operated under the CO2 based mechanical ventilation scheme, effectively yields 37% and 56% per day of average energy-saving in summer and winter conditions, respectively. Based on the experimental results, the fuzzy based combined system can be considered to be an alternative energy efficient air conditioning scheme, having significant energy-saving potential compared to the conventional constant air volume air conditioning system.

  20. Effect of efficient supply of pure O2 concentrated by PSA-type O2 separator on improvement of indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Gi Bo; Jang, Jung Hee; Choi, Changsik; Lee, Tae Jin

    2016-01-01

    To minimize the cost and loss rate of energy artificial room ventilation system, the O 2 separator was suggested for the flow of the excessive ventilation amount between indoor and outdoor because the pure O 2 separated and concentrated by the O 2 separator can be supplied with the ventilation amount minimized. How the O 2 separator applies to ventilation and its operation characteristics were investigated by controlling under various conditions as well as the operation conditions optimized required for indoor air quality such as the concentration of CO 2 and O 2 . Consequently, it was known that the O 2 concentration was increased; however, the increase of the CO 2 concentration was suppressed by the sufficient supply of O 2 concentrated from the storage tank into the room despite the two persons’ breathing in the room having an inner volume of about 56m 3 . Consequently, it was concluded that the supply system of the concentrated O 2 which was stored into the tank after the production with the O 2 separator can be applied to the room ventilation system for the improvement of the indoor air quality.

  1. Effect of efficient supply of pure O{sub 2} concentrated by PSA-type O{sub 2} separator on improvement of indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Gi Bo; Jang, Jung Hee; Choi, Changsik [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Jin [School of Chemical Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To minimize the cost and loss rate of energy artificial room ventilation system, the O{sub 2} separator was suggested for the flow of the excessive ventilation amount between indoor and outdoor because the pure O{sub 2} separated and concentrated by the O{sub 2} separator can be supplied with the ventilation amount minimized. How the O{sub 2} separator applies to ventilation and its operation characteristics were investigated by controlling under various conditions as well as the operation conditions optimized required for indoor air quality such as the concentration of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. Consequently, it was known that the O{sub 2} concentration was increased; however, the increase of the CO{sub 2} concentration was suppressed by the sufficient supply of O{sub 2} concentrated from the storage tank into the room despite the two persons’ breathing in the room having an inner volume of about 56m{sup 3}. Consequently, it was concluded that the supply system of the concentrated O{sub 2} which was stored into the tank after the production with the O{sub 2} separator can be applied to the room ventilation system for the improvement of the indoor air quality.

  2. Comparative International Air Cargo Solutions: The Pathway to a Resilient, Adaptable, Balanced and Sustainable Secure Global Air Cargo Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    counterfeit merchandise smugglers, and remains the weakest link in the air cargo transportation chain. The TSA and CBP continue to seek administrative...been exploited by narcotics, human and counterfeit merchandise smugglers for centuries, remains the weakest link in the air cargo transportation chain... visual depiction of the European Union 3rd country security processes. 96 Official Journal of the

  3. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  4. Software environment and configuration for the DSP controlled NSLS booster power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.; Dabrowski, J.; Murray, J.

    1993-01-01

    The booster at the NSLS is being upgraded from 0.75 to 2 pulses per second by means of the installation of new dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole power supplies. The control system of these power supplies employs general purpose digital signal processing modules, and therefore, software support is required. This paper outlines the development system configuration, and the software environment

  5. Control system for magnet power supplies for Novosibirsk free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikanov, Y.M.; Veremeenko, V.F.; Vinokurov, N.A.; Galt, A.A.; Dovzhenko, B.A.; Kozak, V.R.; Kuper, E.A.; Medvedev, L.E.; Medvedko, A.S.; Serednyakov, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    A high-power free electron laser (FEL) based on the accelerator-recuperator principle is being built in Budker Institute (Russia). The magnetic system of the FEL is an important part of the installation. It consists of many magnetic elements of different types: bending magnets, quadrupole lenses and correctors. The windings of all these elements are fed from DC current power supplies. The power supply control system based on embedded intelligent controllers with the CAN-BUS interface is considered in detail. The control software structure and capabilities are described. Besides, the software tools for power supply diagnostics are described

  6. Passenger evaluation of the optimum balance between fresh air supply and humidity from 7-h exposures in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wyon, David Peter; Lagercrantz, Love Per

    2007-01-01

    A 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin with realistic pollution sources was built inside a climate chamber capable of providing fresh outside air at very low humidity. Maintaining a constant 200 l/s rate of total air supply, i.e. recircu-lated and make-up air, to the cabin, experiments simulating 7...

  7. Air Traffic Control Officer AFSC 13MX OSSN 2335

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    The Air Traffic Control Officer utilization field was surveyed to better understand the utilization of AFSC 1 3MX personnel, validate training requirements, empirically determine career progression...

  8. Experimental evaluation of radiator control based on primary supply temperature for district heating substations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Jonas; Delsing, Jerker; Deventer, Jan van

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We compared a new radiator system control approach with traditional control. → This is an experimental verification of previous simulation results. → We examine changes in delta-T and indoor comfort. → The indoor comfort were not affected by the introduction of alt. radiator control. → The alternative control method can contribute to an increased delta-T. -- Abstract: In this paper, we evaluate whether the primary supply temperature in district heating networks can be used to control radiator systems in buildings connected to district heating; with the purpose of increasing the ΔT. The primary supply temperature in district heating systems can mostly be described as a function of outdoor temperature; similarly, the radiator supply temperature in houses, offices and industries can also be described as a function of outdoor temperature. To calibrate the radiator control system to produce an ideally optimal radiator supply temperature that produces a maximized ΔT across the substation, the relationship between the primary supply temperature and outdoor temperature must be known. However, even if the relation is known there is always a deviation between the expected primary supply temperature and the actual temperature of the received distribution media. This deviation makes the radiator control system incapable of controlling the radiator supply temperature to a point that would generate a maximized ΔT. Published simulation results show that it is possible and advantageous to utilize the primary supply temperature for radiator system control. In this paper, the simulation results are experimentally verified through implementation of the control method in a real district heating substation. The primary supply temperature is measured by the heat-meter and is shared with the radiator control system; thus no additional temperature sensors were needed to perform the experiments. However additional meters were installed for surveillance purposes

  9. Carbon Dioxide Detection and Indoor Air Quality Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, Steve

    2016-04-01

    When building ventilation is reduced, energy is saved because it is not necessary to heat or cool as much outside air. Reduced ventilation can result in higher levels of carbon dioxide, which may cause building occupants to experience symptoms. Heating or cooling for ventilation air can be enhanced by a DCV system, which can save energy while providing a comfortable environment. Carbon dioxide concentrations within a building are often used to indicate whether adequate fresh air is being supplied to the building. These DCV systems use carbon dioxide sensors in each space or in the return air and adjust the ventilation based on carbon dioxide concentration; the higher the concentration, the more people occupy the space relative to the ventilation rate. With a carbon dioxide sensor DCV system, the fresh air ventilation rate varies based on the number ofpeople in the space, saving energy while maintaining a safe and comfortable environment.

  10. An Improved Inventory Control Model for the Brazilian Navy Supply System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Portuguese Centro de Controle de Inventario da Marinha, the Brazilian Navy Inventory Control Point (ICP) developed an empirical model called SPAADA...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited AN IMPROVED INVENTORY CONTROL ...AN IMPROVED INVENTORY CONTROL MODEL FOR THE BRAZILIAN NAVY SUPPLY SYSTEM Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Moreira

  11. The Air Force Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT): Using the Estimating Supplies Program (ESP) to Validate Clinical Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-05

    Disease, Severe. 0249 Peptic Ulcer , Gastric or Duodenal, Penetrating and/or Perforating . 0250 Peptic Ulcer , Gastric or Duodenal, Uncomplicated. 0251...in US Air Force (USAF) Allowance Standard (AS) development and management . The Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) Unit Type Code (UTC) AS was...tasks enabling the management of the critically ill or injured en route to the appropriate level of care (LOC) or medical treatment facility (MTF

  12. Controlling Air Pollution; A Primer on Stationary Source Control Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Rena

    This companion document to "Air Pollution Primer" is written for the nonexpert in air pollution; however, it does assume a familiarity with air pollution problems. This work is oriented toward providing the reader with knowledge about current and proposed air quality legislation and knowledge about available technology to meet these standards for…

  13. Urban air pollution control in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-20

    Our central health cost estimate from particulate matter (PM) concentrations in larger Peruvian cities is approximately USD 790 million/year. More than 60 percent of these costs occur in Lima-Callao. Diesel vehicles are the most important emission source. Various abatement actions could yield health benefits of around USD 50 million in 2008 and USD 185 million after 2010. Some of the most important cost effective actions would be an inspection and maintenance (I&M) program for vehicles (planned to start in 2006) and introduction of low sulphur diesel (<50 ppm) from 2010. When low sulphur diesel is available, installing retrofit particle control technology on existing vehicles could be very cost effective. Some actions towards stationary sources could also be cost effective. In addition a mixture of several measures like tax incentives to promote use of gasoline cars at the expense of diesel cars, accelerated scrapping of old, polluting vehicles, ban on the use of some diesel vehicles and import restrictions on used cars could be chosen to yield short and long term air pollution benefits.

  14. A Relook at the National Drug Control Strategy: Supply versus Demand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Virgil

    1998-01-01

    .... By reviewing the ends, ways, and means of past drug control strategies, this paper suggests that it is time for the federal government to shift existing resources from supply reduction to demand reduction programs...

  15. The simulation of control system for the KEK main ring power supply, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hikaru; Shintomi, Takakazu; Kubo, Tadashi; Masuda, Masayoshi; Nakano, Michio.

    1975-09-01

    The simulation of control system for the KEK main ring power supply is performed. The inductance of the magnet is assumed to be linear against to the current. The results of the simulations are described. (auth.)

  16. Order release strategies to control outsourced operations in a supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulaksil, Y.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and compare three different order release strategies to plan and control outsourced operations in a supply chian where the contract manfacturer is producing different variants of a certain product.

  17. Air conditioning system and component therefore distributing air flow from opposite directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obler, H. D.; Bauer, H. B. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The air conditioning system comprises a plurality of separate air conditioning units coupled to a common supply duct such that air may be introduced into the supply duct in two opposite flow directions. A plurality of outlets such as registers or auxiliary or branch ducts communicate with the supply duct and valve means are disposed in the supply duct at at least some of the outlets for automatically channelling a controllable amount of air from the supply duct to the associated outlet regardless of the direction of air flow within the supply duct. The valve means comprises an automatic air volume control apparatus for distribution within the air supply duct into which air may be introduced from two opposite directions. The apparatus incorporates a freely swinging movable vane in the supply duct to automatically channel into the associated outlet only the deflected air flow which has the higher relative pressure.

  18. Control strategy research of two stage topology for pulsed power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Chunfeng; Wang Rongkun; Huang Yuzhen; Chen Youxin; Yan Hongbin; Gao Daqing

    2013-01-01

    A kind of pulsed power supply of HIRFL-CSR was introduced, the ripple and the current error of the topological structure of the power in the operation process were analyzed, and two stage topology of pulsed power supply was given. The control strategy was simulated and the experiment was done in digital power platform. The results show that the main circuit structure and control method are feasible. (authors)

  19. The test and control system for high performance digital power supplies of SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Junlong; Li Deming; Shen Tianjian

    2009-01-01

    A test and control system was designed to evaluate performance of the digital power supplies for SSRF. The software of serial communication (RS-232) and Ethernet interface was developed with Lab VIEW. The system can perform functions of instrument and power supply control, data acquisition and display, and store data for 24 h. LAN users can access the system and acquire data conveniently. The data are stored in Excel for analysis and establishment of database of digital PS in the future. (authors)

  20. Hybrid Control of Supply Chains: a Structured Exploration from a Systems Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. P. J. Grefen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Supply chains are becoming increasingly complex these days, both in the structure of the chains and in the need for fine-grained, real-time control. This development occurs in many industries, such as manufacturing, logistics, and the service industry. The increasing structural complexity is caused by larger numbers of participating companies in supply chains because of increasing complexity of products and services. Increasing requirements to control are caused by developments like mass-customization, pressure on delivery times, and smaller margins for waste. Maintaining well-structured strategic, tactic, and operational control over these complex supply chains is not an easy task – certainly as they are pressured by end-to-end synchronization requirements and just-in-time demands. Things become even more complex when chains need to be flexible to react to changing requirements to the products or services they deliver. To enable design of well-structured control, clear models of control topologies are required. In this paper, we address this need by exploring supply chain control topologies in an organized fashion. The exploration is based on integrating a supply chain model and a control model in two alternative ways to obtain two extreme models for supply chain control. These two models are next combined to obtain a hybrid chain control model in which control parameters can be adapted to accommodate different circumstances, hence facilitating agility in supply chains and networks. We apply the developed model to a number of case studies to show its usability. The contribution of this paper is the structured analysis of the design space for chain-level control models - not the description of individual new models.

  1. Supply Chain Control Principles in Local Food Production: A Norwegian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi C. Dreyer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on an analysis of the supply chain of four producers of local specialty foods, we explore how planning and control principles can be applied to align supply chain capabilities and market requirements. It has been shown that local food struggles with market access, and that the supply chain is one of the obstacles preventing local food producers from gaining a solid market position. We identify a number of features of the local food chain, analyse the obstacles and develop generic designs and control principles for local food producers.

  2. Evolutional Optimization on Material Ordering and Inventory Control of Supply Chain through Incentive Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasertwattana, Kanit; Shimizu, Yoshiaki; Chiadamrong, Navee

    This paper studied the material ordering and inventory control of supply chain systems. The effect of controlling policies is analyzed under three different configurations of the supply chain systems, and the formulated problem has been solved by using an evolutional optimization method known as Differential Evolution (DE). The numerical results show that the coordinating policy with the incentive scheme outperforms the other policies and can improve the performance of the overall system as well as all members under the concept of supply chain management.

  3. Control of the outlet air temperature in an air handling unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brath, P.; Rasmussen, Henrik; Hägglund, T.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discuss modeling and control of the inlet temperature in an Air Handling Unit, AHU. The model is based on step response experiments made at a full scale test plant. We use gain scheduling to lower the correlation of the air flow with the process dynamic which simplify the control task...

  4. FPGA based control system for -100 kV, 25 A Crowbarless DC power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, R.; Tripathi, A.; Badapanda, M.K.; Lad, M.

    2015-01-01

    FPGA based digital control system has been developed for -100 kV, 25 A solid state modular crowbarless DC klystron bias power supply of 1 MW, 352.2 MHz RF test stand. The control system has capability to operate this power supply either in CW or pulse mode. Central controller, PSM controller and graphical user interface are key parts of this control system. Central controller monitors the status of various subsystems of this power supply like 11 kV step start unit, four numbers of main transformers each having 44 numbers of secondary windings and 176 numbers of switch power modules for deciding the number of power modules to be put ON and their duty cycles depending on the set output voltage and current. PSM controller sends appropriate control signal to the switch power modules through fibre optic lines and communicates it to the central controller. Linux based graphical user interface has been developed which enables the user to set the operating parameters along with their trip limits and displays the information of critical parameters of this power supply on a local touch screen panel. Provision for remote control and supervision is also provided through a separate PC connected to the main control system via Ethernet. The control system has capability to trip the power supply within 5 μsec in case any parameter exceeds its set limit. Suitable data logging feature is incorporated for offline fault analysis. The control system architecture along with its software protection interlocks are presented in this paper. The performance of the control system has been verified during operation of -100 kV, 25 A DC power supply with 1 MW, 352.2 MHz klystron amplifier. (author)

  5. Air Pollution Prevention and Control Policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cunrui; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Suhan; Ren, Meng; Ma, Rui; He, Yiling

    2017-01-01

    With rapid urbanization and development of transport infrastructure, air pollution caused by multiple-pollutant emissions and vehicle exhaust has been aggravated year by year in China. In order to improve air quality, the Chinese authorities have taken a series of actions to control air pollution emission load within a permissible range. However, although China has made positive progress on tackling air pollution, these actions have not kept up with its economy growth and fossil-fuel use. The traditional single-pollutant approach is far from enough in China now, and in the near future, air pollution control strategies should move in the direction of the multiple-pollutant approach. In addition, undesirable air quality is usually linked with the combination of high emissions and adverse weather conditions. However, few studies have been done on the influence of climate change on atmospheric chemistry in the global perspective. Available evidence suggested that climate change is likely to exacerbate certain kinds of air pollutants including ozone and smoke from wildfires. This has become a major public health problem because the interactions of global climate change, urban heat islands, and air pollution have adverse effects on human health. In this chapter, we first review the past and current circumstances of China's responses to air pollution. Then we discuss the control challenges and future options for a better air quality in China. Finally, we begin to unravel links between air pollution and climate change, providing new opportunities for integrated research and actions in China.

  6. 5 CFR 842.207 - Air traffic controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air traffic controllers. 842.207 Section 842.207 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.207 Air traffic controllers. (a) An employee who separates from...

  7. Efficient Conversation: The Talk between Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, James L.

    Two-way radio communications between air traffic controllers using radar on the ground to give airplane pilots instructions are of interest within the developing framework of the sociology of language. The main purpose of air traffic control language is efficient communication to promote flight safety. This study describes the standardized format…

  8. Controls of nitrite oxidation in ammonia-removing biological air filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhler, Susanne; Ottosen, Lars Ditlev Mørck; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2008-01-01

    in accumulation of nitrate rather than nitrite and a significant decline in pH. As a consequence, ammonia is removed more efficiently, but heterotrophic oxidation of odorous compounds might be inhibited.  To identify the controlling mechanisms of nitrite oxidation, full-scale biological air filters were...... activity resulting in a lowered pH and thus a decreased FA concentration, promoting further growth of NOB. Yet, in some cases a situation with a nitrate-to-nitrite ratio of 1 and moderate pH remained stable even under varying air load and water supply, suggesting that additional mechanisms were involved......In biological air filters ammonia is removed due to the action of Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) resulting in nitrite accumulation exceeding 100 mM. Among filters treating exhaust air from pig facilities successful establishment of Nitrite Oxidizing Bacteria (NOB) sometimes occurs, resulting...

  9. Managing Air Quality - Multi-Pollutant Planning and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes how planning controls for multiple pollutants at the same time can save money and time and achieve significant benefits, and how control strategies can address both climate change and air quality.

  10. Machine & electrical double control air dryer for vehicle air braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Yang, Liu; Wang, Xian Yan; Tan, Xiao Yan; Wang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    As is known to all, a vehicle air brake system, in which usually contains moisture. To solve the problem, it is common to use air dryer to dry compressed air effectively and completely remove the moisture and oil of braking system. However, the existing air dryer is not suitable for all commercial vehicles. According to the operational status of the new energy vehicles in the initial operating period, the structure design principle of the machine & electric control air dryer is expounded from the aspects of the structure and operating principle, research & development process.

  11. High speed and high functional inverter power supplies for plasma generation and control, and their performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Razzak, Mohammad A.; Kondo, Kenji; Kikuchi, Yusuke; Takamura, Shuichi; Imai, Takahiro; Toyoda, Mitsuhiro

    2003-01-01

    The Rapid development of high power and high speed semiconductor switching devices has led to their various applications in related plasma fields. Especially, a high speed inverter power supply can be used as an RF power source instead of conventional linear amplifiers and a power supply to control the magnetic field in a fusion plasma device. In this paper, RF thermal plasma production and plasma heating experiments are described emphasis placed on using a static induction transistor inverter at a frequency range between 200 kHz and 2.5 MHz as an RF power supply. Efficient thermal plasma production is achieved experimentally by using a flexible and easily operated high power semiconductor inverter power supply. Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) inverter power supplies driven by a high speed digital signal processor are applied as tokamak joule coil and vertical coil power supplies to control plasma current waveform and plasma equilibrium. Output characteristics, such as the arbitrary bipolar waveform generation of a pulse width modulation (PWM) inverter using digital signal processor (DSP) can be successfully applied to tokamak power supplies for flexible plasma current operation and fast position control of a small tokamak. (author)

  12. Command and Control for Joint Air Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    systems, to include collaborative air planning tools such as the theater battle management core system ( TBMCS ). Operational level air planning occurs in...sight communications and data exchange equipment in order to respond to joint force requirements. For example, the TBMCS is often used. The use of ATO...generation and dissemination software portions of TBMCS has been standardized. This ATO feature allows the JAOC to be interoperable with other

  13. Combustion engine. [for air pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseman, J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An arrangement for an internal combustion engine is provided in which one or more of the cylinders of the engine are used for generating hydrogen rich gases from hydrocarbon fuels, which gases are then mixed with air and injected into the remaining cylinders to be used as fuel. When heavy load conditions are encountered, hydrocarbon fuel may be mixed with the hydrogen rich gases and air and the mixture is then injected into the remaining cylinders as fuel.

  14. Development of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Electrical Supply in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainudin Jaafar; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Mohd Hanafiah Chik

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear Power supplies in Malaysia supplied from the power utility company Tenaga Nasional Berhad through several substations before reaching the building and equipment. The power supply is received and passed down through the 11000 V high voltage switch gears to 415 V 3-phase or 1-phase 240 V. The equipment used in this process is dangerous and monitoring hardware operating remotely (remote) is the best as only guard machinery may engage in business operations. Similarly, the supply of electrical parameters should be monitored to ensure safe and continuous supply of and according to the appropriate voltage for record and analysis when needed. This paper discusses the monitoring and data acquisition is performed using the system 'Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) was developed. (author)

  15. Characteristics of inversion operation on Fermilab phase controlled pulsed power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trendler, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    A well known property of phase controlled rectifiers with pulsed inductive loads is the ability to advance firing angles from full rectification (positive voltage) to full inversion (negative voltage). Though these properties have been effectively used in the Main Ring power supplies, they have not been extensively utilized for beam line magnet power supplies. Modifications to permit advancing phase angle sufficiently to permit inversion were made on TransRex 500 kW power supplies and Ling 55 kW power supplies. The objective of these modifications was to rapidly reduce the current in magnet loads to zero upon command. The modifications required and the performance of the power supplies are discussed

  16. Modelling of air flow supply in a room at variable regime by using both K - E and spalart - allmaras turbulent model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbut, Vadim; Voznyak, Orest; Sukholova, Iryna; Myroniuk, Khrystyna

    2017-12-01

    The abstract is to The article is devoted to the decision of actual task of air distribution efficiency increasing with the help of swirl and spread air jets to provide normative parameters of air in the production apartments. The mathematical model of air supply with swirl and spread air jets in that type of apartments is improved. It is shown that for reachin of air distribution maximal efficiency it is necessary to supply air by air jets, that intensively extinct before entering into a working area. Simulation of air flow performed with the help of CFD FLUENT (Ansys FLUENT). Calculations of the equation by using one-parameter model of turbulence Spalart-Allmaras are presented. The graphical and the analytical dependences on the basis of the conducted experimental researches, which can be used in subsequent engineering calculations, are shown out. Dynamic parameters of air flow that is created due to swirl and spread air jets at their leakage at variable regime and creation of dynamic microclimate in a room has been determined. Results of experimental investigations of air supply into the room by air distribution device which creates swirl air jets for creation more intensive turbulization air flow in the room are presented. Obtained results of these investigations give possibility to realize engineer calculations of air distribution with swirl air jets. The results of theoretical researches of favourable influence of dynamic microclimate to the man are presented. When using dynamic microclimate, it's possible to decrease conditioning and ventilation system expenses. Human organism reacts favourably on short lasting deviations from the rationed parameters of air environment.

  17. MODELS OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS ERRORS PREVENTION IN TERMINAL CONTROL AREAS UNDER UNCERTAINTY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of this study is to research applied models of air traffic controllers’ errors prevention in terminal control areas (TMA under uncertainty conditions. In this work the theoretical framework descripting safety events and errors of air traffic controllers connected with the operations in TMA is proposed. Methods: optimisation of terminal control area formal description based on the Threat and Error management model and the TMA network model of air traffic flows. Results: the human factors variables associated with safety events in work of air traffic controllers under uncertainty conditions were obtained. The Threat and Error management model application principles to air traffic controller operations and the TMA network model of air traffic flows were proposed. Discussion: Information processing context for preventing air traffic controller errors, examples of threats in work of air traffic controllers, which are relevant for TMA operations under uncertainty conditions.

  18. Internal Corrosion Control of Water Supply Systems Code of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Code of Practice is part of a series of publications by the IWA Specialist Group on Metals and Related Substances in Drinking Water. It complements the following IWA Specialist Group publications: 1. Best Practice Guide on the Control of Lead in Drinking Water 2. Best Prac...

  19. Control of PWR reactor energy supplied to a stream turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petetrot, J.F.; Parent, Pierre.

    1981-01-01

    This patent presents a process for regulating the power provided by a pressurized water nuclear reactor to a steam turbine, by moving the control rods absorbing the neutrons in the reactor core and by diverting a fraction of the steam produced by the reactor, outside the turbine circuit, by opening by-pass valves [fr

  20. An experimental study on defrosting heat supplies and energy consumptions during a reverse cycle defrost operation for an air source heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jiankai; Deng Shiming; Jiang Yiqiang; Xia Liang; Yao Yang

    2012-01-01

    For a space heating air source heat pump (ASHP) unit, when its outdoor coil surface temperature is below both the air dew point temperature and the freezing point of water, frost will form on its outdoor coil surface. Frosting affects its operational performance and energy efficiency. Therefore, periodic defrosting is necessary. Currently, the most widely used standard defrosting method for ASHP units is reverse cycle defrost. The energy that should have been used for space heating is used to melt frost, vaporize the melted frost off outdoor coil surface and heat ambient air during defrosting. It is therefore necessary to study the sources of heat supplies and the end-uses of the heat supplied during a reverse cycle defrost operation. In this paper, firstly, an experimental setup is described and experimental procedures are detailed. This is followed by reporting the experimental results and the evaluation of defrosting efficiency for the experimental ASHP unit. Finally, an evaluation of defrosting heat supplies and energy consumptions during a revere cycle defrost operation for the experimental ASHP unit is presented. The experimental and evaluation results indicated that the heat supply from indoor air contributed to 71.8% of the total heat supplied for defrosting and 59.4% of the supplied energy was used for melting frost. The maximum defrosting efficiency could be up to 60.1%. - Highlights: ► Heat supply and consumption during reverse cycle defrost was experimentally studied. ► Indoor air contributed to >70% of total heat supply when indoor fan was turned on. ► ∼60% of the supplied energy was used for melting frost. ► Alternate heat supply other than indoor air should be explored.

  1. Fuzzy Control Model and Simulation for Nonlinear Supply Chain System with Lead Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songtao Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fuzzy robust control strategy for the nonlinear supply chain system in the presence of lead times is proposed. Based on Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control system, the fuzzy control model of the nonlinear supply chain system with lead times is constructed. Additionally, we design a fuzzy robust H∞ control strategy taking the definition of maximal overlapped-rules group into consideration to restrain the impacts such as those caused by lead times, switching actions among submodels, and customers’ stochastic demands. This control strategy can not only guarantee that the nonlinear supply chain system is robustly asymptotically stable but also realize soft switching among subsystems of the nonlinear supply chain to make the less fluctuation of the system variables by introducing the membership function of fuzzy system. The comparisons between the proposed fuzzy robust H∞ control strategy and the robust H∞ control strategy are finally illustrated through numerical simulations on a two-stage nonlinear supply chain with lead times.

  2. Operation of controlled-air incinerators and design considerations for controlled-air incinerators treating hazardous and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McRee, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the basic theory and design philosophies of the so-called controlled-air incinerator and examines the features of this equipment that make it ideally suited to the application of low-level radioactive waste disposal. Special equipment design considerations for controlled air incinerators treating hazardous and radioactive wastes are presented. 9 figures

  3. A Performance Improvement of Power Supply Module for Safety-related Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Kyun; Yun, Dong-Hwa; Hwang, Sung-Jae; Lee, Myeong-Kyun; Yoo, Kwan-Woo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, in relation to voltage shortage state when power supply module is a slave mode, the performance improvement by modifying a PFC(Power Factor Correction) circuit is presented. With the modification of the PFC circuit, the performance improvement in respect of the voltage shortage state when the power supply module is a slave mode is checked. As a result, POSAFE-Q PLC can ensure the stability with the redundant power supply module. The purpose of this paper is to improve the redundant performance of power supply module(NSPS-2Q). It is one of components in POSAFE-Q which is a PLC(Programmable Logic Controller) that has been developed for the evaluation of safety-related. Power supply module provides a stable power in order that POSAFE-Q can be operated normally. It is possible to be mounted two power supply modules in POSAFE-Q for a redundant(Master/Slave) function. So that even if a problem occurs in one power supply module, another power supply module will provide a power to POSAFE-Q stably

  4. Flow rate of transport network controls uniform metabolite supply to tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meigel, Felix J; Alim, Karen

    2018-05-01

    Life and functioning of higher organisms depends on the continuous supply of metabolites to tissues and organs. What are the requirements on the transport network pervading a tissue to provide a uniform supply of nutrients, minerals or hormones? To theoretically answer this question, we present an analytical scaling argument and numerical simulations on how flow dynamics and network architecture control active spread and uniform supply of metabolites by studying the example of xylem vessels in plants. We identify the fluid inflow rate as the key factor for uniform supply. While at low inflow rates metabolites are already exhausted close to flow inlets, too high inflow flushes metabolites through the network and deprives tissue close to inlets of supply. In between these two regimes, there exists an optimal inflow rate that yields a uniform supply of metabolites. We determine this optimal inflow analytically in quantitative agreement with numerical results. Optimizing network architecture by reducing the supply variance over all network tubes, we identify patterns of tube dilation or contraction that compensate sub-optimal supply for the case of too low or too high inflow rate. © 2018 The Authors.

  5. A Performance Improvement of Power Supply Module for Safety-related Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Kyun; Yun, Dong-Hwa; Hwang, Sung-Jae; Lee, Myeong-Kyun; Yoo, Kwan-Woo [PONUTech Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, in relation to voltage shortage state when power supply module is a slave mode, the performance improvement by modifying a PFC(Power Factor Correction) circuit is presented. With the modification of the PFC circuit, the performance improvement in respect of the voltage shortage state when the power supply module is a slave mode is checked. As a result, POSAFE-Q PLC can ensure the stability with the redundant power supply module. The purpose of this paper is to improve the redundant performance of power supply module(NSPS-2Q). It is one of components in POSAFE-Q which is a PLC(Programmable Logic Controller) that has been developed for the evaluation of safety-related. Power supply module provides a stable power in order that POSAFE-Q can be operated normally. It is possible to be mounted two power supply modules in POSAFE-Q for a redundant(Master/Slave) function. So that even if a problem occurs in one power supply module, another power supply module will provide a power to POSAFE-Q stably.

  6. Control Theory Concepts Applied to Retail Supply Chain: A System Dynamics Modeling Environment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Janamanchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Control theory concepts have been long used to successfully manage and optimize complex systems. Using system dynamics (SD modeling methodology, which is continuous deterministic simulation modeling methodology, we apply control theory concepts to develop a suitable performance functional (or objective function that optimizes the performance of a retail supply chain. The focus is to develop insights for inventory management to prevent stock-outs and unfilled orders and to fill customer orders at the lowest possible cost to supply chain partners under different scenarios, in a two-player supplier-retailer supply chain. Moderate levels of inventory, defining appropriate performance functional, appear to be crucial in choosing the right policies for managing retail supply chain systems. The study also demonstrated how multiple objectives can be combined in a single performance functional (or objective function by carefully assigning suitable weights to the components of objectives based on their priority and the existence of possible trade off opportunities.

  7. Effectiveness evaluation of sources of supply and systems filter in production process of breathing air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Arkadiusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of how efficiently filtration systems used for the production of breathing air used in hyperbaric environments are operating is significant both from theoretical and practical points of view. The quality of breathing air and the breathing mixes based on air is crucial with regard to divers' safety. Paradoxically, a change in regulations regarding quality requirements for breathing mixes has imposed the necessity to verify both the technical equipment and laboratory procedures used in their production and verification. The following material, which is a continuation of previous publications, presents results of the conducted research along with the evaluation of effectiveness of the filtration systems used by the Polish Navy.

  8. Fault Tolerance Automotive Air-Ratio Control Using Extreme Learning Machine Model Predictive Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Pak Kin Wong; Hang Cheong Wong; Chi Man Vong; Tong Meng Iong; Ka In Wong; Xianghui Gao

    2015-01-01

    Effective air-ratio control is desirable to maintain the best engine performance. However, traditional air-ratio control assumes the lambda sensor located at the tail pipe works properly and relies strongly on the air-ratio feedback signal measured by the lambda sensor. When the sensor is warming up during cold start or under failure, the traditional air-ratio control no longer works. To address this issue, this paper utilizes an advanced modelling technique, kernel extreme learning machine (...

  9. FUEL SUPPLY IN ACCUMULATOR DIESEL SYSTEMS WITH ELECTRONIC CONTROL AT STARTING REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharenok

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains review and analysis of fuel supply process in accumulator diesel systems with electronic control at starting regime. The necessity has been shown to  develop and use programs of mathematic simulation pertaining to fuel supply processes with the purpose to decrease number of bench tests and time period required for a fuel system adaptation. The paper cites results of practical investigations on starting engines  equipped with the mentioned-above systems.

  10. Magnet power supply control of the NSLS VUV and x-ray storage rings transfer lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.D.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Singh, O.; Smith, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The transfer lines for NSLS VUV and x-ray storage rings have been split. New power supplies have been incorporated with existing ones. The existing microprocessor system has been upgraded in order to control the additional functions. This system expands the input/output port of the microprocessor to an addressable serial/parallel link to each magnet power supply. The implementation of this system will be discussed

  11. Improved airline-type supplied-air plastic suit. [For personnel protection against inhalation of airborne plutonium and tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, L. Jr.; Zippler, D.B.; Cofer, C.H.; Harper, J.A.

    1978-06-01

    Two piece supplied-air plastic suits are used extensively at the Savannah River Plant for personnel protection against inhalation of airborne plutonium and tritium. Worker comfort and noise level problems gave impetus to development of an improved suit and aid distribution system. The resulting plastic suit and development work are discussed. The plastic suit unit cost is less than $20, the hearing zone noise level is less than 75 dBA, protection factors exceed 10,000, and user comfort is approved. This suit is expected to meet performance requirements for unrestricted use.

  12. Final Test of the W7-X Control Coils Power Supply and its Integration into the Overall Control Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuellenbach, F.; Rummel, T.; Pingel, S.; Laqua, H.; Mueller, I.; Jauregi, E.

    2006-01-01

    In order to be able to vary the magnetic configuration of WENDELSTEIN 7-X (W7-X) at the plasma edge and allow sweeping of the power across the divertor target plates 10 '' control coils '' are installed inside the plasma vessel behind the baffle plates of the divertor. The coils are made of a hollow copper profile with eight turns each. The dimensions of the coils are 2,05 m x 0,35 m x 0,35 m with a three dimensional shape to fit into the narrow space between the baffles and the wall of the plasma vessel. Each of the ten coils is supplied by independent power supplies each providing bi-directionally a direct current of 2500 A with high accuracy and low ripple. To allow sweeping the power deposition from the plasma across the target plates the power supplies provide an alternating current of up to 625 A with frequencies up to 20 Hz which is synchronised between the ten supplies in order to maintain the symmetry of the magnetic field. The total output current of a power supply is a superposition of a direct current and an alternating current, where both parts have to be independently adjustable. JEMA, Spain provided the complete set of power supplies which are based on 10 independent four-quadrant power supplies with a link rectifier and includes a cooling water unit, a dedicated distribution and a central control and visualization system. All ten power supply units and auxiliary systems have meanwhile been installed and finally tested at the W7-X site in Greifswald. The paper focuses on the results of the final tests and measures to integrate the power supply system to the overall control system including the central PLC and PC's for experiment control, data acquisition- and security systems. (author)

  13. Impact of primary and secondary air supply intensity in stove on emissions of size-segregated particulate matter and carbonaceous aerosols from apple tree wood burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Shen, Zhenxing; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Qian; Lei, Yali; Cao, Junji; Huang, Yu; Liu, Suixin; Zheng, Chunli; Xu, Hongmei; Liu, Hongxia; Pan, Hua; Liu, Pingping; Zhang, Renjian

    2018-04-01

    In order to assess emission factors (EF) more accurately from household biomass burning, a series of laboratory-controlled apple tree wood burning tests were conducted to measure the EFs of size-segregated particulate matter (PM) and carbonaceous aerosols. The controlled burning experiments were conducted with designed primary air (PA) and secondary air (SA) supply intensity. An optimum value of 7 m3·h- 1 was found for SA, resulting the highest modified combustion efficiency (92.4 ± 2.5%) as well as the lowest EFs of PM2.5 (0.13 ± 0.01 g·MJ- 1), OC (0.04 ± 0.03 g·MJ- 1) and EC (0.03 ± 0.01 g·MJ- 1). SA values of 7 and 10 m3·h- 1 resulted the lowest EFs for all the different PM sizes. In a test with PA of 6 m3·h- 1 and SA of 7 m3·h- 1, very low EFs were observed for OC1 (8.2%), OC2 (11.2%) and especially OP (Pyrolyzed OC) (0%, not detected), indicating nearly complete combustion under this air supply condition. Besides SA, higher PA was proved to have positive effects on PM and carbonaceous fraction emission reduction. For example, with a fixed SA of 1.5 m3·h- 1, EFs of PM2.5 decreased from 0.64 to 0.27 g·MJ- 1 when PA increased from 6 to 15 m3·h- 1 (P < 0.05). Similar reductions were also observed in EFs of OC, EC and size segregated PM.

  14. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yana; Andersson, Henrik; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2016-01-01

    With China’s significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China’s air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1) The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2) Duri...

  15. Construction of control and instrumentation devices of high voltage power supply of double chamber plasma nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminto; Eko Priyono; Sugeng Riyanto

    2013-01-01

    A control and instrumentation devices of high voltage power supply of double chamber plasma nitrogen have been made. This device consists of the software and hardware component. Hardware component consists of SCR phase angle controller LPC-50HDA type, T100MD1616+ PLC, high voltage transformer and voltage rectifier system. Software component used a LADDER program and TBasic serves to control of the high voltage output. The components in these devices have been tested in the double chamber plasma nitrogen. Its performance meet with the design criteria that can supply of plasma nitrogen operation voltage in the range 290 Vdc to 851 Vdc with glow discharge current 0.4 A to 1.4 A. In general it can be said that the control and instrumentation devices of high voltage power supply is ready for use at the double chamber plasma nitrogen device. (author)

  16. Realization of toroidal field power supply control system for J-TEXT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Shengshun; Zhuang Ge; Zhang Ming; Feng Jianming

    2009-01-01

    Based on the integrated development environment provided by QNX real-time operation system, the control system of toroidal field power supply is designed and developed. The system is proved to be reliable, stable and in real-time. It can control the power supply successfully to produce a constant current up to 92.5kA lasting for 1s and 1.74T at the magnetic axis. In conclusion, the control system can meet the requirements of the J-TEXT routine operation at present. (authors)

  17. H∞ Control of Supply Chain Based on Switched Model of Stock Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junzhi Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of H∞ control for a class of discrete supply chain systems. A new method based on network control technique is presented to address this issue. Supply chain systems are modeled as networked systems with stochastic time delay. Sufficient conditions for H∞ controller design are given in terms of a set of linear matrix inequalities, based on which the mean-square asymptotic stability as well as H∞ performance is satisfied for such systems. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. AIR DISTRIBUTION NOISE CONTROL IN CRITICAL AUDITORIUMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOOVER, R.M.

    THE ACHIEVEMENT OF EXTREMELY LOW AIR-CONDITIONING NOISE LEVELS REQUIRED FOR MODERN AUDITORIUMS ARE THE RESULT OF CAREFUL PLANNING AND THOROUGH DETAILING. PROBLEMS FACED AND TECHNIQUES USED IN ARRIVING AT LEVELS AS LOW AS NC-15 FOR A SINGLE SYSTEM SERVING A HALL ARE DESCRIBED. SIX CASE HISTORIES ARE EXAMINED AND THE FOLLOWING OBSERVATIONS ARE…

  19. Pattern recognition methods in air pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauber, S

    1978-01-01

    The use of pattern recognition methods for predicting air pollution developments is discussed. Computer analysis of historical pollution data allows comparison in graphical form. An example of crisis prediction for carbon monoxide concentrations, using the pattern recognition method of analysis, is presented. Results of the analysis agreed well with actual CO conditions. (6 graphs, 4 references, 1 table)

  20. Adaptation of fast responding power supply for radial position control in SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Dinesh Kumar; Patel, Kiritkumar B.; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Dhongde, Jasraj

    2013-01-01

    A high current, fast responding power supply was installed in 2005 for vertical stabilization of elongated plasmas in SST-1 tokamak. Presently, during initial experiments of SST-1 tokamak the need for radial control during current build-up was envisaged. For this purpose the existing power supply was suitable and the same was re-commissioned and control adaptations were carried as per experimental requirements. This paper highlights the capabilities of the power supply and details the modifications in the control interfaces and test programs for the radial control purpose. Details of the operation of the power supply along with control interfaces with performance measurements are provided. The re-commissioning provided an opportunity in the trouble shooting methods and sequential operation of the system. With the operational use on the actual coil the mutual effects are understood better and appropriate test programs are prepared. The power supply provided satisfactory performance for the intended use. In additional the system is suitable to simulate a plasma current loop to enable the testing and calibration of Rogowski coil used for plasma current measurement. (author)

  1. Causes and effects of vital instrumentation and control power supply bus failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhlheim, M.D.; Murphy, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study in which the objective was to evaluate nuclear power-plant operating experience to identify the causes and the effects of vital instrumentation and control (I and C) power supply bus failures. Vital I and C power is normally provided to essential instrumentation and controls through either vital d-c or a-c power supply systems. The vital d-c power supply system generally provides control power for starting the diesel generators, for operating electrical circuit breakers, and for controlling various logic circuits. The vital d-c power system also supplies vital a-c power through an inverter. The vital a-c power supply system generally feeds the reactor protection system channels, the engineered safety features actuation system channels, and critical instrumentation in the control room. The leading cause of vital bus failures is inverter failures; other causes are human errors, battery charger failures, and miscellaneous failures. The effects of these failures are that the margin of safety can be degraded by (1) denying key information to the operators, (2) inducing plant transients, (3) causing safety injection actuations, and (4) causing the loss of shutdown cooling flow

  2. Power supply for control and instrumentation in Fast Breeder Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavan, K.; Shanmugam, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    The design and operation of the four 'no-break' power supplies for control and instrumentation in the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR), Kalpakkam, are described. Interruptions in the power supplies are eliminated by redundancy and battery back-up source while voltage dips and transients are taken care by automatic regulation system. The four power supplies are : (1) 24 V D.C. exclusively for neutronic and safety circuits, (2) 48 V D.C. for control logic indication lamps and solenoid valves, (3) 220 V D.C. for switchgear control, control room emergency lighting and D.C. flushing oil pump for the turbine and (4) 220 V A.C. single-phase 50 H/Z for computers and electronics of control and instrumentation. Stationary lead-acid batteries (lead antimony type) in floating mode operation with rectifier/charger are used for emergency back-up. All these power supplies are fed by 415 V, 3-phase, 50 HZ emergency supply buses which are provided with diesel generator back-up. Static energy conversion system (in preference to mechanical rotation system) is used for A.C. to D.C. and also for A.C. to A.C. conversion. (M.G.B.)

  3. Reducing energy consumption and leakage by active pressure control in a water supply system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2013-01-01

    WTP Gruszczyn supplies drinking water to a part of the city of Pozna?, in the Midwest of Poland. For the optimal automatic pressure control of the clear water pumping station, nine pressure measuring points were installed in the distribution network, and an active pressure control model was

  4. A new intelligent approach for air traffic control using gravitational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Therefore, poor management of this congestion may lead to a lot of flight delays, increase of operational errors by air traffic control personnel ... the PLT [8–11], and decreasing the duration of scheduling. [12, 13]. Hansen [3], Hu ...... [14] Hu X-B and Paolo E D 2009 An efficient genetic algorithm with uniform crossover for air ...

  5. Modeling activities in air traffic control systems: antecedents and consequences of a mid-air collision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Paulo Victor R; Ferreira, Bemildo

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present a model of some functions and activities of the Brazilian Air traffic Control System (ATS) in the period in which occurred a mid-air collision between flight GLO1907, a commercial aircraft Boeing 737-800, and flight N600XL, an executive jet EMBRAER E-145, to investigate key resilience characteristics of the ATM. Modeling in some detail activities during the collision and related them to overall behavior and antecedents that stress the organization uncover some drift into failure mechanisms that erode safety defenses provided by the Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP), enabling a mid-air collision to be happen.

  6. Simplified model-based optimal control of VAV air-conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassif, N.; Kajl, S.; Sabourin, R. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Construction Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The improvement of Variable Air Volume (VAV) system performance is one of several attempts being made to minimize the high energy use associated with the operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. A Simplified Optimization Process (SOP) comprised of controller set point strategies and a simplified VAV model was presented in this paper. The aim of the SOP was to determine supply set points. The advantage of the SOP over previous methods was that it did not require a detailed VAV model and optimization program. In addition, the monitored data for representative local-loop control can be checked on-line, after which controller set points can be updated in order to ensure proper operation by opting for real situations with minimum energy use. The SOP was validated using existing monitoring data and a model of an existing VAV system. Energy use simulations were compared to that of the existing VAV system. At each simulation step, 3 controller set point values were proposed and studied using the VAV model in order to select a value for each point which corresponded to the best performance of the VAV system. Simplified VAV component models were presented. Strategies for controller set points were described, including zone air temperature, duct static pressure set points; chilled water supply set points and supply air temperature set points. Simplified optimization process calculations were presented. Results indicated that the SOP provided significant energy savings when applied to specific AHU systems. In a comparison with a Detailed Optimization Process (DOP), the SOP was capable of determining set points close to those obtained by the DOP. However, it was noted that the controller set points determined by the SOP need a certain amount of time to reach optimal values when outdoor conditions or thermal loads are significantly changed. It was suggested that this disadvantage could be overcome by the use of a dynamic incremental value, which

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of an innovative liquid desiccant air conditioning system to supply potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.A.; Gandhidasan, P.; Zubair, Syed M.; Bahaidarah, Haitham M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The study objective is to reduce the energy consumption of desiccant AC system. • Heat and mass losses are recovered in the proposed system using a condenser. • The conventional and the proposed systems are compared in terms of COP. • The proposed system performance is better than the conventional system. • The proposed system produces freshwater in addition to space cooling. - Abstract: Liquid desiccant air conditioning systems are cost-effective, environmentally friendly and energy efficient techniques, especially in coastal areas. In the conventional liquid desiccant air conditioning system, the scavenging air is expelled into the atmosphere carrying a considerable amount of energy and water vapor. Thus, there is plenty of room to improve the system performance by recovering these losses. The proposed system consists of a conventional liquid desiccant air conditioning system plus a condenser. The aim of this study is to reduce the energy consumption by recovering the heat from the scavenging air using the condenser while also producing freshwater in addition to space cooling. Lithium chloride (LiCl) is used as the liquid desiccant for this study. The mathematical formulation for simultaneous heat and mass transfer between the condenser and the regenerator was developed to establish a comparison between the performance of the conventional and modified systems. Using the generated model, it is found that the modified system performance is 11.25% better than the conventional system and that it produces 86.4 kg of freshwater per hour as a by-product under the given conditions.

  8. A current-controlled PWM bipolar power supply for a magnet load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.G.; McGhee, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source, at Argonne National Laboratory will produce the world's brightest x-ray beams when it is complete. A number of correction magnets are used to maintain proper beam position. Basically, two different types of bipolar power supplies are used for all the correction magnets: one requires dc correction only, and the other requires dc and ac correction. Normally linear-mode power amplifiers would be used for the bipolar power supplies. However, linear-mode power amplifiers dissipate a substantial amount of power as heat, resulting in poor efficiency for their large size. In addition, most commercial bipolar power supplies are linear-mode and available for lower power levels. Therefore, for higher power levels it was necessary to design a bipolar power supply that uses switch-mode power conversion. This paper describes a control technique for a pulse-width-modulatcd bipolar power supply, which can deliver a controlled current, dc plus ac to a correction magnet. A design example of a 150A bipolar power supply is presented

  9. Risk management abilities in multimodal maritime supply chains: Visibility and control perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilko, Jyri; Ritala, Paavo; Hallikas, Jukka

    2016-11-29

    Supply chain complexity and disintegration lead to increased uncertainty from a stakeholders' perspective, which is emerging as one of the major challenges of risk management. The ability to identify risks has weakened, as the responsibility of supply chain risk management is handed over to outside service providers. Regardless, the risks, their visibility and their impact depend on the position of the companies in the supply chain. The actors in the chain must therefore collaborate to create effective risk management conditions. This challenging situation is especially pronounced in multimodal maritime supply chains, where the risks and actor focality are high. This paper contributes to current risk management literature by providing a holistic and systemic view of risk visibility and control in maritime supply chains. The study employs broad-based, qualitative interview data collected from actors operating in southern Finland and the Gulf of Finland as well as an expert-panel assessment of the related risk management abilities. The results show a high level of variance in the level of risk identification and visibility between the actors in question. This further suggests that collaboration in supply chain risk management is essential, as an awareness of the risks and their control mechanisms do not necessarily reside in the same company. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Design an Indoor Air Quality Controller Based on LPC2478

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Shuheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality is very important to our lives, because we spend most of our time indoor. In order to improve the air quality of indoor, this paper designs an indoor environment quality monitoring and controlling system based on ARM microcontroller LPC2478. It will do a real-time monitoring work for detecting the indoor environmental factors and comprehensively evaluate its air quality level. While the indoor air quality status is "poor", this intelligent system will automatically start the heat exchange ventilator for indoor environmental quality improvement. The results compared to traditional natural ventilation method show the better performance of proposed system.

  11. Fuzzy logic speed control for the engine of an air-powered vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihui Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve the condition of air and eliminate exhaust gas pollution, this article proposes a compressed air power system. Instead of an internal combustion engine, the automobile is equipped with a compressed air engine, which transforms the energy of compressed air into mechanical motion energy. A prototype was built, and the compressed air engine was tested on an experimental platform. The output torque and energy efficiency were obtained from experimental results. When the supply pressure was set at 2 MPa and the speed was 420 r min−1, the output torque, the output power, and the energy efficiency were 56 N m, 1.93 kW, and 25%, respectively. To improve the efficiency of the system, a fuzzy logic speed control strategy is proposed and simulated. The experimental study verified that the theoretical evaluation of the system was reasonable, and this research can be referred to as the design and control of air-powered vehicles.

  12. Progress in the prevention and control of air pollution in 1988: Report to congress. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Contents of this study: air quality trends, monitoring, and modeling; air pollution research programs; development of national ambient air; quality standards; assessment and control of toxic air pollutants; status of air quality management programs; control of stationary source emissions; stationary source compliance; control of mobile source emissions; stratospheric ozone protection; indoor air quality; acid deposition; radon assessment and remediation; litigation

  13. Contribution of 222Rn in domestic water supplies to 222Rn in indoor air in Colorado homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, E.P.; Wanty, R.B.; Nyberg, P.

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of 222Rn from domestic water wells to indoor air was investigated in a study of 28 houses near Conifer, CO. Air concentrations determined by alpha-track detectors (ATDs) and continuous radon monitors were compared with the predictions of a single-cell model. In many of the houses, the water supply was shown to contribute significantly to levels of indoor 222Rn. The data from the ATD study were augmented with a continuous monitoring study of a house near Lyons, CO. The well water in that house has the highest known concentration of 222Rn in water yet reported (93 MBq m-3). The temporal pattern in the indoor 222Rn concentration corresponds to water-use records. In general, it is difficult to quantify the proportion of indoor radon attributable to water use. Several lines of evidence suggest that the single-cell model underestimates this proportion. Continuous-monitoring data, although useful, are impractical due to the cost of the equipment. We propose a protocol for 222Rn measurement based on three simultaneous integrating radon detectors that may help estimate the proportion of indoor 222Rn derived from the water supply

  14. Design of monitoring and control system of digital power supply for HIMM based on microcontroller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chunlei; Wu Fengjun; Gao Daqing; Yan Huaihai; Chen Youxin; Guo Yuxin; Huang Yuzhen; Zhang Huajian

    2013-01-01

    The touch screen control system is under development in Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. In this paper, the touch screen control system is studied in detail, which is driven by PIC24 microcontroller. According to the internal protocol of power system , control of power switch , waveform and state display, parameter setting are all implemented in this control system. The communication among microcontroller, FPGA board for power supply and state board is normal and stable during the test. Compared to analog switch control system, the local control system for HIMM is much more convenient and aesthetic, additionally the control accuracy is even higher. (authors)

  15. A Study of Fuel Supplies for Emergency Power Generation at Air Logistics Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    md Grade PositIon Ogan~zatro IA-aT;; till al IN 0u two Pwuaay POrN POVAfT uga $300 -M HAM I BUSINESS REPLY MAIL I _____ FINN7 MAINli MIN. NII n...34nearly all U.S. military installations met their energy need through procurement from off- site commercial supplies [8:12].". This being the case, military

  16. Recognition, evaluation, and control of indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chastain, B.

    1993-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is typically associated with terms sick building syndrome, tight building syndrome, building related illness, and problem building. Indoor air pollution is a relatively new public health concern (approximately 15 years old) although this issue is an age-old problem dating back to prehistoric times when humans came to live indoors. This presentation summarizes indoor air quality issues in order to provide you with usable information concerning the recognition and evaluation of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and the subsequent control measures which can be used for maintaining or improving the indoor air environment for better occupant health and comfort control. Why has the subject become so vocalized in the last fifteen years? Why the sudden interest and awareness concerning indoor air quality issues? During the last half of the 1970's and all of the 1980's, buildings were built or remodeled to minimize air handling, heating, and cooling costs, often limiting the amount of outside air brought into the buildings to near minimums. Paralleling these developments, complaints related to modern buildings increased. The new terms tight building syndrome, sick building syndrome, and indoor air quality became widely used by health and safety professionals and subsequently by newspaper columnist and the general public

  17. Double-diffusive mixed convection in the slot ventilated enclosure with different arrangements of supplying air flow ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Sheng Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Steady double-diffusive mixed convection in an enclosure with side venting and discrete heat and contaminant sources is numerically studied under supplying upside and returning downside (STRB mode and returning upside and supplying downside mode (RTSB, respectively. The parameters governing the fluid flow include the Grashof number Gr (102–106, Reynolds number Re (100–500, supplying or returning distance H 1/HT (0–2, Prandtl number Pr (0.7, buoyancy ratio N, and Schmidt number Sc. Effects of Gr, Re, and H 1/HT on the flow patterns, thermal, and species transports were numerically investigated concerning STRB and RTSB modes. Fluid flow, heat, and species transports in the enclosure are visualized and analyzed by the contours of stream function, heat function, and mass function, respectively. Air age was also presented to evaluate the freshness of the enclosed fluid. Averaged Nusselt number of the heat source and Sherwood number of the contaminant source are power-law correlated with Gr, Re, and H 1/HT for two ventilation modes, respectively. The correlations demonstrate that the ratio of averaged Nusselt number to Sherwood number was approximately approaching unity, independent of ventilation modes and values of H 1/HT . This investigation could benefit the future design of room ventilation and thermal removals from the electronic chips.

  18. The chaos and control of a food chain model supplying additional food to top-predator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Banshidhar; Poria, Swarup

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a chaotic food chain model supplying additional food to top-predator. • Local and global stability conditions are derived in presence of additional food. • Chaos is controlled only by increasing quantity of additional food. • System enters into periodic region and depicts Hopf bifurcations supplying additional food. • This an application of non-chemical methods for controlling chaos. -- Abstract: The control and management of chaotic population is one of the main objectives for constructing mathematical model in ecology today. In this paper, we apply a technique of controlling chaotic predator–prey population dynamics by supplying additional food to top-predator. We formulate a three species predator–prey model supplying additional food to top-predator. Existence conditions and local stability criteria of equilibrium points are determined analytically. Persistence conditions for the system are derived. Global stability conditions of interior equilibrium point is calculated. Theoretical results are verified through numerical simulations. Phase diagram is presented for various quality and quantity of additional food. One parameter bifurcation analysis is done with respect to quality and quantity of additional food separately keeping one of them fixed. Using MATCONT package, we derive the bifurcation scenarios when both the parameters quality and quantity of additional food vary together. We predict the existence of Hopf point (H), limit point (LP) and branch point (BP) in the model for suitable supply of additional food. We have computed the regions of different dynamical behaviour in the quantity–quality parametric plane. From our study we conclude that chaotic population dynamics of predator prey system can be controlled to obtain regular population dynamics only by supplying additional food to top predator. This study is aimed to introduce a new non-chemical chaos control mechanism in a predator–prey system with the

  19. The Air Force Center for Optimal Design and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burns, John

    1997-01-01

    This report contains a summary and highlights of the research funded by the Air Force under AFOSR URI Grant F49620-93-1-0280, titled 'Center for Optimal Design and Control of Distributed Parameter Systems' (CODAC...

  20. VERIFICATION TESTING OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is the basis for quality assurance for the Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center (APCT Center) operated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It describes the policies, organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, and qualit...

  1. Multilevel Control & Optimization of Future Air Traffic Systems via Managem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We investigate solutions to problems of air traffic control subject to real-world limitations on the computational/communication cost of finding that solution. The...

  2. Data mining of air traffic control operational errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of : applying data mining techniques to identify patterns and : anomalies in air traffic control operational errors (OEs). : Reducing the OE rate is of high importance and remains a : challenge in the aviation saf...

  3. Air Traffic Control: Weak Computer Security Practices Jeopardize Flight Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Given the paramount importance of computer security of Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems, Congress asked the General Accounting Office to determine (1) whether the Fedcral Aviation Administration (FAA) is effectively managing physical security at ATC...

  4. The Effectiveness of Yoga on Spiritual Intelligence in Air Traffic Controllers of Tehran Flight Control Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safara, Maryam; Ghasemi, Pejman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of yoga on spiritual intelligence in air traffic controllers in Tehran flight control center. This was a quasi-experimental research and the study population includes all air traffic controllers in Tehran flight control center. The sample consisted of 40 people of the study population that were…

  5. Open loop control of filament heating power supply for large volume plasma device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugandhi, R., E-mail: ritesh@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India); Srivastava, P.K.; Sanyasi, A.K. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India); Srivastav, Prabhakar [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India); Awasthi, L.M., E-mail: kushagra.lalit@gmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India); Mattoo, S.K. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2017-02-15

    A power supply (20 V, 10 kA) for powering the filamentary cathode has been procured, interfaced and integrated with the centralized control system of Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD). Software interface has been developed on the standard Modbus RTU communication protocol. It facilitates the dashboard for configuration, on line status monitoring, alarm management, data acquisition, synchronization and controls. It has been tested for stable operation of the power supply for the operational capabilities. The paper highlights the motivation, interface description, implementation and results obtained.

  6. Open loop control of filament heating power supply for large volume plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugandhi, R.; Srivastava, P.K.; Sanyasi, A.K.; Srivastav, Prabhakar; Awasthi, L.M.; Mattoo, S.K.

    2017-01-01

    A power supply (20 V, 10 kA) for powering the filamentary cathode has been procured, interfaced and integrated with the centralized control system of Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD). Software interface has been developed on the standard Modbus RTU communication protocol. It facilitates the dashboard for configuration, on line status monitoring, alarm management, data acquisition, synchronization and controls. It has been tested for stable operation of the power supply for the operational capabilities. The paper highlights the motivation, interface description, implementation and results obtained.

  7. Controlled power supply for isotopes separator; Alimentations regulees pour separateur d'isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavaitte, A; Pottier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    This equipment is destined to equip the separator of isotopes who is the subject of the CEA report n 138. It includes: - a controlled power supply in voltage. - a controlled power supply in current. The spectra of fluctuations of these assembly is different in the two cases. (authors) [French] Cet equipement est destine a equiper le separateur d'isotopes qui fait l'objet du rapport C.E.A. n 138. Il comprend: - une alimentation regulee en tension. - une alimentation regulee en courant. Le spectre de fluctuations de ces ensembles est different dans les deux cas. (auteurs)

  8. CONVERTER SOLAR RADIATION INTO ELECTRICITY TO SUPPLY THE AUTOMOTIVE SEMICONDUCTOR THERMOELECTRIC AIR CONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the possibility to increase the efficiency of converters of solar radiation into electricity by combining constructive photoelectric effect, See-beck thermoeffect and semiconductor solar cells, which will create integrated device to provide power semiconductor thermoelectric automobile air conditioner. 

  9. Implementing Lean Six Sigma to achieve inventory control in supply chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chen

    2017-11-01

    The inventory cost has important impact on the production cost. In order to get the maximum circulation of funds of enterprise with minimum inventory cost, the inventory control with Lean Six Sigma is presented in supply chain management. The inventory includes both the raw material and the semi-finished parts in manufacturing process. Though the inventory is often studied, the inventory control in manufacturing process is seldom mentioned. This paper reports the inventory control from the perspective of manufacturing process by using statistical techniques including DMAIC, Control Chart, and Statistical Process Control. The process stability is evaluated and the process capability is verified with Lean Six Sigma philosophy. The demonstration in power meter production shows the inventory is decreased from 25% to 0.4%, which indicates the inventory control can be achieved with Lean Six Sigma philosophy and the inventory cost in production can be saved for future sustainable development in supply chain management.

  10. Design of a control card for remote operation of the magnet power supply of microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.; Hanumaiah, B.; Ganesh; Siddappa, K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In this paper we report on a control card developed for remote operation of the magnet power supply of the Microtron. We have used a microcontroller, an ADC, a DAC and some circuit components to make the microcontroller perform the control operations according to the in built program. The value of the parameter to be controlled (i.e. the magnetic field) is given by the main program in the PC kept away from the system. When the user wants to use the magnet power supply system operate the microtron, he will switch ON the system and feed a particular value of the parameter (i.e. magnetic field in Gauss). This value is passed on to the control program in the microcontroller. With this value and the read back value obtained from the sensor the control card activates its control circuitary to maintain the system at the defined parameter value

  11. Ecological Interface Design : Sensor Failure Diagnosis in Air Traffic Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijsterbosch, V.A.; Borst, C.; Mulder, M.; van Paassen, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Future air traffic control will have to rely on more advanced automation in order to support controllers in their job of safely controlling increased traffic volumes. A prerequisite for the success of such automation is that the underlying data driving it is reliable. Current technology, however,

  12. Solar thermal energy / exhaust air heat pump / wood pellet furnace for a sustainable heat supply of low energy buildings in older buildings; Solarthermie / Abluft-Waermepumpe / Pelletofen. Kombisysteme zur nachhaltigen Waermeversorgung von Niedrigenergiehaeusern im Gebaeudebestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenbach, Nikolaus; Born, Rolf [Institut Wohnen und Umwelt GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Staerz, Norbert [Ingenieurbuero inPlan, Pfungstadt (Germany)

    2009-11-13

    The research project under consideration reports on combination systems for a sustainable heat supply for low-energy buildings in older building. For this, a central and decentralized system configuration consisting of solar thermal energy, exhaust air heat pump and wood pellet furnace are presented. Solutions for an interaction of these three heat suppliers in one plant are designated regarding the control strategy. The fundamentals of the computerized simulations for the central and decentralized system are presented. A cost estimate with both variants of the combination system as well as a comparison with conventional energy-saving heat supply systems follow.

  13. The reference model of supply chain operational controlling in value management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The systemic approach of the controlling function to supporting the operations management results from its complex analysis of the supply chain business and operating results and from influencing the operations management factors - products, processes and resources that determine the achieved result (revenues, costs, profitability and assets turnover as well as the return on invested capital. All product features which stand for customer value and its competitiveness are the basis for designing, planning and controlling the interconnected processes responsible for manufacturing and delivery of products. The effectiveness of methods applied in developing products, processes and resources depends on the precise analysis and appraisal of the operating conditions that justify their application. Supporting the operations management, focused on the product value and improving the company's financial result, apart from financial, technical and economic analyses requires transferring the product value to activities control methods and to developing the resources in the product supply chain already at the stage of planning. As a result of an analysis of requirements supporting the development of processes and resources in the supply chain, a reference model of operational controlling in product value management was developed. The multicriterion selection and appropriate application of material flow management methods in the supply chain is each time preceded by an operating and financial analysis as well as by an appraisal of operating conditions that influence the choice of control methods.

  14. Testing the control of mineral supply rates on chemical erosion in the Klamath Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, N.; Ferrier, K.

    2017-12-01

    The relationship between rates of chemical erosion and mineral supply is central to many problems in Earth science, including the role of tectonics in the global carbon cycle, nutrient supply to soils and streams via soil production, and lithologic controls on landscape evolution. We aim to test the relationship between mineral supply rates and chemical erosion in the forested uplands of the Klamath mountains, along a latitudinal transect of granodioritic plutons that spans an expected gradient in mineral supply rates associated with the geodynamic response to the migration of the Mendocino Triple Junction. We present 10Be-derived erosion rates and Zr-derived chemical depletion factors, as well as bulk soil and rock geochemistry on 10 ridgetops along the transect to test hypotheses about supply-limited and kinetically-limited chemical erosion. Previous studies in this area, comparing basin-averaged erosion rates and modeled uplift rates, suggest this region may be adjusted to an approximate steady state. Our preliminary results suggest that chemical erosion at these sites is influenced by both mineral supply rates and dissolution kinetics.

  15. Energy-efficient control of a multi-section supercapacitor power supply of an electric drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozzhechkov Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for synthesizing the control laws of a multi-section supercapacitor power supply of an electric drive is developed. The synthesized control law for an electric drive realizes the prescribed motion and minimizes the required capacitance of the power source. It is achieved through optimal disconnection and connection to the power line of the drive at designated times of one of the power supply sections. Reduction of the required capacitance of the power supply is achieved through a fuller discharge of some of its sections in motion conditions requiring a low level of electrical voltage and saving high voltage in other sections for the respective motion conditions. A mathematical formulation of the problem and a method of its solution is proposed. An example of the implementation of the proposed method is considered.

  16. An analysis of control scheme and test results of fast feedback power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Shivam Kumar; Gupta, C.N.; Shah, Kunal; Makwana, Moti

    2017-01-01

    Real time Plasma Position Control is essential for obtaining long duration plasma in tokamaks. For that purpose four external coils has been installed in toroidal direction. Magnetic field of these coils interact with the plasma and tries to keep it radially stable in vacuum vessel to avoid direct contact of plasma to wall of tokamak. A fast feedback power supply has been installed in Aditya Tokamak which is able to set the appropriate current in either direction and current magnitude in external coils on the fast scale. In this paper, an analysis of control scheme and testing of Fast Feedback Power Supply (FFPS) has been described. FFPS is IGBT based H-bridge inverter programmable power supply

  17. 40 CFR 81.77 - Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.77 Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region. The Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region...

  18. Dual Rate Adaptive Control for an Industrial Heat Supply Process Using Signal Compensation Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Tianyou; Jia, Yao; Wang, Hong; Su, Chun-Yi

    2017-07-09

    The industrial heat supply process (HSP) is a highly nonlinear cascaded process which uses a steam valve opening as its control input, the steam flow-rate as its inner loop output and the supply water temperature as its outer loop output. The relationship between the heat exchange rate and the model parameters, such as steam density, entropy, and fouling correction factor and heat exchange efficiency are unknown and nonlinear. Moreover, these model parameters vary in line with steam pressure, ambient temperature and the residuals caused by the quality variations of the circulation water. When the steam pressure and the ambient temperature are of high values and are subjected to frequent external random disturbances, the supply water temperature and the steam flow-rate would interact with each other and fluctuate a lot. This is also true when the process exhibits unknown characteristic variations of the process dynamics caused by the unexpected changes of the heat exchange residuals. As a result, it is difficult to control the supply water temperature and the rates of changes of steam flow-rate well inside their targeted ranges. In this paper, a novel compensation signal based dual rate adaptive controller is developed by representing the unknown variations of dynamics as unmodeled dynamics. In the proposed controller design, such a compensation signal is constructed and added onto the control signal obtained from the linear deterministic model based feedback control design. Such a compensation signal aims at eliminating the unmodeled dynamics and the rate of changes of the currently sample unmodeled dynamics. A successful industrial application is carried out, where it has been shown that both the supply water temperature and the rate of the changes of the steam flow-rate can be controlled well inside their targeted ranges when the process is subjected to unknown variations of its dynamics.

  19. A technical overview of air pollution problems and its control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusheed, A.

    1997-01-01

    Air pollution is a well known phenomenon experienced in every day life. The air we breathe consist of gases and aerosol particles on which pollutants such as toxic elements and bacteria reside. These microscopic particles are transported to long distances from the source of origin the direction and magnitude of which depends upon the prevailing meteorological conditions. In order to assess the impact of air pollution, systematic studies are carried out which consist of: 1) sampling of air, 2) measurement of pollutants, 3) identification of pollutant source and 4) adoption of control methods. Each of these topics are fairly exhaustive and their understanding requires accurate scientific approach. An overview of these topic has been presented in this talk. Air samples are best collected by filtering air through suitable medium and analyses are carried out by diverse analytical techniques. Source identifications is a very important step which is done either by emission modeling or receptor modeling techniques. A general survey of these techniques, especially receptor modeling is presented in this talk. The control of air pollution is carried out by using carried devices and the processes especially developed for this purpose. Air pollution has given rise to a number of global problems such as depletion of stratospheric ozone, acid rain and greenhouse effect, which are being tackled on international scale. These problems have been discussed very briefly and a summary of international efforts has been presented. (author)

  20. Air insulated cables for medium and low voltage supplies of the EVU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dienstel, S

    1977-02-01

    Air insulated cables and insulated overhead cables are electrical components, which, by the use of new insulating materials and technology, are particularly suitable for the introduction of systems for overhead power transmission plants. They combine the favorable properties of underground cables, such as compact construction and low inductance, with their high mechanical strength. The present report deals with the construction, accessories and technical properties of these cables. The constructional and operational aspects of such systems and their costs are also discussed.

  1. Virtual instrument for controlling and monitoring digitalized power supply in SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Junlong; Chen Huanguang; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Xu Ruinian; Shen Tianjian; Li Deming

    2006-01-01

    The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) needs extremely precise power supplies for their various magnets. A digital controller is being developed for the power converters of the SSRF power supply (PS). In the digital controller, a fully digital pulse-width modulator (PWM) directly controls the power unit insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) of the PS. A program in LabVIEW language has been developed to control and monitor the digital PS via serial communication (RS232) from a PC and to modify its parameters as well. In this article, the software design of the virtual instrument for controlling and monitoring digitalized PS and its associated functions are described, and the essential elements of the program graphical main-VI and sub-VI source code are presented and explained. The communication protocol and the structure of the developed system are also included in this article. (authors)

  2. Upgrade of DIII-D toroidal magnetic field power supply controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrach, P.M.; Rouleau, A.R.; McNulty, R.D.; Patrick, D.B.; Walin, J.L.

    1993-11-01

    The toroidal magnetic field power supply for the DIII-D tokamak is of the 12 pulse line commutated variety. It consists of four individual modules and a main system control cabinet which are combined to deliver 127,000 A and 1000 V to the toroidal field coil. The modules are connected in a series-parallel configuration but can be run alone or two at a time as well. Normally on DIII-D experiments, the series-parallel configuration is required. The original design provided each individual module with its own voltage and current control loop and a main control loop. A problem with this design was that the individual control loops would cause a current sharing imbalance in the parallel modules if the calibrated loops drifted by the slightest amount. It was determined that individual control loops were not needed and a single phase lock firing circuit was employed in the system cabinet with fiber optic links to the modules for gate drive signals. Since all four modules have to be on line for DIII-D to operate, a problem in any of the five E ampersand I control loops resulted in the supply, and, therefore, the tokamak, being idled. By reducing the number of control loops to one, the sharing problem was eliminated, as well as 4 out of 5 potential control failures. The original supply employed relay logic for sequence control and fault monitoring. There were over 130 relays in each module plus an additional 100 in the system cabinet. The combination of the number of relays with the required interconnecting wiring, the age of the supply, the vibrations of the cabinets and the harsh environment, resulted in a continuously escalating number of phantom, and often intermittent, faults. The fault and sequence logic relays were replaced by a new Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). All existing interconnect wire was removed and replaced with multiconductor cables that connect directly from fault sensors and input devices to the PLC

  3. Remodeling Air Force Cyber Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-10

    Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems , and embedded processors and controllers .” That last phrase includes processors and controllers ...embedded” into weapons systems , including aircraft and spacecraft. Many weapon systems were built and connected before cyberspace became a...problems for systemic improvement of mission assurance. The benefit of a centralized environment could also extend to improving enterprise-level patch

  4. Investigation of air gasification of micronized coal, mechanically activated using the plasma control of the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butakov Evgenii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Combination of the processes of coal combustion and gasification into a single technology of mechano-chemical and plasma-chemical activation is of a considerable scientific and technological interest. Enhancement of coal reactivity at their grinding with mechanical activation is associated with an increase in the reaction rate of carbon material, and at plasma-chemical effect, the main is an increase in reactivity of the oxidizing agent caused by the high plasma temperatures of atomic oxygen. The process of gasification was studied on the 1-MW setup with tangential scroll supply of pulverized coal-air mixture and cylindrical reaction chamber. Coal ground by the standard boiler mill is fed to the disintegrator, then, it is sent to the scroll inlet of the burner-reactor with the transport air. Pulverized coal is ignited by the plasmatron of 10-kW power. In experiments on air gasification of micronized coal, carried out at the temperature in the reaction chamber of 1000-1200°C and air excess α = 0.3-1, the data on CO concentration of 11% and H2 concentration of up to 6% were obtained. Air and air-steam gasification of mechanically-activated micronized coals with plasma control was calculated using SigmaFlow software package.

  5. Investigation of air gasification of micronized coal, mechanically activated using the plasma control of the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butakov, Evgenii; Burdukov, Anatoly; Chernetskiy, Mikhail; Kuznetsov, Victor

    2017-10-01

    Combination of the processes of coal combustion and gasification into a single technology of mechano-chemical and plasma-chemical activation is of a considerable scientific and technological interest. Enhancement of coal reactivity at their grinding with mechanical activation is associated with an increase in the reaction rate of carbon material, and at plasma-chemical effect, the main is an increase in reactivity of the oxidizing agent caused by the high plasma temperatures of atomic oxygen. The process of gasification was studied on the 1-MW setup with tangential scroll supply of pulverized coal-air mixture and cylindrical reaction chamber. Coal ground by the standard boiler mill is fed to the disintegrator, then, it is sent to the scroll inlet of the burner-reactor with the transport air. Pulverized coal is ignited by the plasmatron of 10-kW power. In experiments on air gasification of micronized coal, carried out at the temperature in the reaction chamber of 1000-1200°C and air excess α = 0.3-1, the data on CO concentration of 11% and H2 concentration of up to 6% were obtained. Air and air-steam gasification of mechanically-activated micronized coals with plasma control was calculated using SigmaFlow software package.

  6. Multi-level access control in the data pipeline of the international supply chain system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruksasri, P.; Berg, J. van den; Hofman, W.; Daskapan, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Seamless Integrated Data Pipeline system was proposed to the European Union in order to overcome the information quality shortcomings of the current international supply chain information exchange systems. Next to identification and authorization of stakeholders, secure access control needs to

  7. High performance AC–DC control power supply for low voltage ride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ride-Through (LVRT) in solar and wind applications, no work has been ... section 5. Figure 2. Schematic structure of a control power supply used in a HPC. ..... order plant transfer function to first order transfer function. Also, peak current ...

  8. Hybrid control of supply chains : a structured exploration from a systems perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Dijkman, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Supply chains are becoming increasingly complex these days, both in the structure of the chains and in the need for fine-grained, real-time control. This development occurs in many industries, such as manufacturing, logistics, and the service industry. The increasing structural complexity is caused

  9. Contractual Control and Labour-Related CSR Norms in the Supply Chain: Dutch Best Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vytopil, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Multinational companies attempt to gain contractual control of their supply chain, in the face of possible reputational and legal risks with regard to corporate social responsibility. This article sets out the choices that fourteen Dutch multinational companies make: do they choose contracts,

  10. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Supply Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the Node 1 ECLS ACS subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for that subsystem.

  11. General collaboration offer of Johnson Controls regarding the performance of air conditioning automatic control systems and other buildings` automatic control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gniazdowski, J.

    1995-12-31

    JOHNSON CONTROLS manufactures measuring and control equipment (800 types) and is as well a {open_quotes}turn-key{close_quotes} supplier of complete automatic controls systems for heating, air conditioning, ventilation and refrigerating engineering branches. The Company also supplies Buildings` Computer-Based Supervision and Monitoring Systems that may be applied in both small and large structures. Since 1990 the company has been performing full-range trade and contracting activities on the Polish market. We have our own well-trained technical staff and we collaborate with a series of designing and contracting enterprises that enable us to have our projects carried out all over Poland. The prices of our supplies and services correspond with the level of the Polish market.

  12. An advanced lab frame PC-PLC regime for a power supply control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Bary, M

    2010-01-01

    A lab frame automatic control system (LFACS) based on a programmable logic controller (PLC) is designed, developed and tested in the laboratory. The LFACS is designed to control and monitor one DC power supply with output current accuracy 0.001 amps, one automatic valve. Also the LFACS will monitor one full range vacuum measurement and one water leak detector. The control system is built based on the internationally standard programmable logic controller (PLC) from Siemens. Two software's have been used; firstly SIMATIC S 7 lite has been used to build the control program and safety interlocks, secondly winCC flexible (runs in a PC computer and communicates with the PLC by multi point interface PC adapter (MPI) has been used to build the user-machine interface . This lab frame control system will be generalized to a global control system to control the MGC-20 cyclotron. The lab tests showed a reliable and flexible control system.

  13. A universal portable appliance for stellarator W7-X power supply controlling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weihua

    2001-01-01

    In the project Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X), the popular field bus Profibus has been determined as a uniform connection between the central control system and all the subordinate systems. A universal embedded control system has been developed for W7-X power supply controlling. Siemens 80C167CR micro-controller is used as the central control unit of the system. With a user-defined printed circuit board (PCB) several control buses, i.e., Profibus, CAN, IEEE 488, RS485 and RS232 have been connected to the micro-controller. The corresponding hardware interfaces for the control buses have been designed. A graphic liquid crystal display (LCD) and a user-defined keyboard are used as user interface. The control software will be developed with a C-like language, i.e., C166 for the controller

  14. Design of Air Traffic Control Operation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela STROE

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical simulation for a different aircraft, based on the specific aircraft data that can be incorporated in the model and the equations of motions which can be consequently solved. The aircraft flight design involves various technical steps and requires the use of sophisticated software having modeling and simulation capabilities. Within the flight simulation model, the aerodynamic model can be regarded as the most complex and most important. With appropriate aerodynamic modeling the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the aircraft's center of gravity can be numerically solved with accuracy. These forces and moments are further used to solve the equations of motion. The development of control and computing technology makes it possible for advanced flight control strategy. The advanced control techniques tend to make the control design and their implementation much more complicated with more control loops or channels; in this line, the autopilot of modern aircrafts includes a variety of automatic control systems that aid and support the flight navigation, flight management, and perform the enhancing and/or augmenting of the stability characteristics of the airplane. Therefore in this context it is very important to choose the dynamic that will satisfy the performance and robustness specifications.

  15. Electronics Controls Assessment for the PATRIOT Air Conditioner System. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-28

    Design, Febru- 3ary 1980. 8. "Solid State Motor Control Gives Smooth Starting", David J. Bak, Design News, April 1981. 9. "The Effect Of Voltage...Sgroi and Don Fetterman it wasE questioned whether or not this data applied to the compressor motor in the TECS units supplied to MTI. Another report No

  16. Control Technologies for Room Air-conditioner and Packaged Air-conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Nobuhisa

    Trends of control technologies about air-conditioning machineries, especially room or packaged air conditioners, are presented in this paper. Multiple air conditioning systems for office buildings are mainly described as one application of the refrigeration cycle control technologies including sensors for thermal comfort and heating/ cooling loads are also described as one of the system control technologies. Inverter systems and related technologies for driving variable speed compressors are described in both case of including induction motors and brushless DC motors. Technologies for more accurate control to meet various kind of regulations such as ozone layer destruction, energy saving and global warming, and for eliminating harmonic distortion of power source current, as a typical EMC problem, will be urgently desired.

  17. Design of ion-pump power supply control software system based on TCP/IP protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Feiyu; Huang Jijiang; Guo Yuhui; Fang Zheng; Wang Yanyu

    2009-01-01

    This paper discuss a Ion-pump Power Supply control system making use of RS232 series bus and Intranet. The system's hardware VAC800 is composed of MSP430F149 mixed-signal processors produced by TI and UA7000A network model. MSP430F149 has advantages of ultra-low-power and high-integration. The Ion-pump Power Supply control system has the characteristics of strong function, simple structure, high reliability, strong resistance of noise, no peripheral chip, etc. Visual studio 2005 is used to design the system's software. The Ion-pump Power supplier control system can remotely monitor and control Ion-pump Power Suppliers. (authors)

  18. Distribution of controlled substances in the U.S. supply chain: where does the compass point?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, James H

    2012-09-01

    Recent administrative actions taken by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) in Florida have prompted an articulate and detailed discussion of the pharmaceutical supply chain for controlled substances. Current practices in commercial distribution systems may have a partial nexus to the proliferation of opioid prescription drug abuse in Florida. No single factor or entity is responsible for this abuse proliferation, and there is no intent to harm consumers; however, distribution practices are adding risk to public health. This commentary extends a discussion on supply chain practices that seem misaligned in the promotion of legitimate business objectives and advancing public health.

  19. 41 CFR 101-26.606 - Supply support available from the inventory control points of the military departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from the inventory control points of the military departments. 101-26.606 Section 101-26.606 Public... § 101-26.606 Supply support available from the inventory control points of the military departments. Federal civil agencies may obtain items of supply which are procured and managed by the inventory control...

  20. Trust and Control Dynamics in Agrifood Supply Networks: Communication Strategies for Electronic Transaction Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Melanie; Hausen, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    Agrifood supply networks are dynamic structures where firms regularly face the need to search for new market partners. A decision for a transaction with a new partner requires the existence of appropriate control and safeguard mechanisms as well as trust to overcome perceived risk and uncertainties. Electronic transaction environments offer new potentials for the identification of new transaction partners. However, trust and control need to be communicated appropriately in electronic transact...

  1. Dynamic Modeling of Kosovo's Electricity Supply-Demand, Gaseous Emissions and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik Bekteshi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is described the developing of an integrated electricity supply–demand, gaseous emission and air pollution model for study of possible baseline electricity developments and available options to mitigate emissions. This model is constructed in STELLA software, which makes use of Systems Dynamics Modeling as the methodology. Several baseline scenarios have been developed from this model and a set of options of possible developments of Kosovo's Electricity Supply–Demand and Gaseous Emissions are investigated. The analysis of various scenarios results in medium growth scenarios (MGS that imply building of generation capacities and increase in participation of the electricity generation from renewable sources. MGS would be 10% of the total electricity generation and ensure sustainable development of the electricity sector. At the same time, by implementation of new technologies, this would be accompanied by reduced GHG (CO2 and NOx emissions by 60% and significant reduction for air pollutants (dust and SO2 by 40% compared to the business-as-usual (BAU case. Conclusively, obtained results show that building of new generation capacities by introducing new technologies and orientation on environmentally friendly energy sources can ensure sustainable development of the electricity sector in Kosovo.  

  2. Analysis on policies text of air pollution control in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, Yujuan; WANG, Wen; ZHANG, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and it is also the inevitable result of the extensive economic development mode. The matter of air pollution in Beijing is becoming more and more serious since 2010, which has a great impact on the normal social production, living and human health. These hazards have been highly valued by the whole society. More than 30 years have been pasted since controlling the air pollution and the system of policies was relatively complete. These policies have improved the quality of atmospheric and prevented environment further deterioration. The policies performance is not obvious. It is urgent trouble to improve policy performance. This paper analyzes the 103 policies text of air pollution control in Beijing, and researches status, history and problems, and put forward suggestions on policy improvement and innovation at last.

  3. Fuzzy logic speed control for the engine of an air-powered vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Qihui Yu; Yan Shi; Maolin Cai; Weiqing Xu

    2016-01-01

    To improve the condition of air and eliminate exhaust gas pollution, this article proposes a compressed air power system. Instead of an internal combustion engine, the automobile is equipped with a compressed air engine, which transforms the energy of compressed air into mechanical motion energy. A prototype was built, and the compressed air engine was tested on an experimental platform. The output torque and energy efficiency were obtained from experimental results. When the supply pressure ...

  4. Experience with an on-line computer for controlling and optimizing the gas supply and the application of various peak-load supply plants of a public utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poll, J [Technische Werke der Stadt Stuttgart A.G. (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-02-01

    The computer system has the following tasks: 1) On-line control; 2) supply of an information system; 3) performance of a gas marketing forecast; 4) background computations. Measured data are compiled, processed, monitored, recorded, prepared, and stored. The process is controlled by about a dozen programmes, the remaining tasks are taken over by 22 programmes. The system has proved a success.

  5. Cognitive Task Analysis of Prioritization in Air Traffic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Richard E.; And Others

    A cognitive task analysis was performed to analyze the key cognitive components of the en route air traffic controllers' jobs. The goals were to ascertain expert mental models and decision-making strategies and to identify important differences in controller knowledge, skills, and mental models as a function of expertise. Four groups of…

  6. Developed adaptive neuro-fuzzy algorithm to control air conditioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper developed artificial intelligence technique adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller for air conditioning systems at different pressures. The first order Sugeno fuzzy inference system was implemented and utilized for modeling and controller design. In addition, the estimation of the heat transfer rate and water mass flow rate ...

  7. Optimal Control of Hybrid Systems in Air Traffic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgarpour, Maryam

    Growing concerns over the scalability of air traffic operations, air transportation fuel emissions and prices, as well as the advent of communication and sensing technologies motivate improvements to the air traffic management system. To address such improvements, in this thesis a hybrid dynamical model as an abstraction of the air traffic system is considered. Wind and hazardous weather impacts are included using a stochastic model. This thesis focuses on the design of algorithms for verification and control of hybrid and stochastic dynamical systems and the application of these algorithms to air traffic management problems. In the deterministic setting, a numerically efficient algorithm for optimal control of hybrid systems is proposed based on extensions of classical optimal control techniques. This algorithm is applied to optimize the trajectory of an Airbus 320 aircraft in the presence of wind and storms. In the stochastic setting, the verification problem of reaching a target set while avoiding obstacles (reach-avoid) is formulated as a two-player game to account for external agents' influence on system dynamics. The solution approach is applied to air traffic conflict prediction in the presence of stochastic wind. Due to the uncertainty in forecasts of the hazardous weather, and hence the unsafe regions of airspace for aircraft flight, the reach-avoid framework is extended to account for stochastic target and safe sets. This methodology is used to maximize the probability of the safety of aircraft paths through hazardous weather. Finally, the problem of modeling and optimization of arrival air traffic and runway configuration in dense airspace subject to stochastic weather data is addressed. This problem is formulated as a hybrid optimal control problem and is solved with a hierarchical approach that decouples safety and performance. As illustrated with this problem, the large scale of air traffic operations motivates future work on the efficient

  8. 40 CFR 81.76 - State of Hawaii Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State of Hawaii Air Quality Control... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.76 State of Hawaii Air Quality Control Region. The State of Hawaii Air Quality...

  9. Development of a Data-Driven Predictive Model of Supply Air Temperature in an Air-Handling Unit for Conserving Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goopyo Hong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a data-driven predictive model that can predict the supply air temperature (SAT in an air-handling unit (AHU by using a neural network. A case study was selected, and AHU operational data from December 2015 to November 2016 was collected. A data-driven predictive model was generated through an evolving process that consisted of an initial model, an optimal model, and an adaptive model. In order to develop the optimal model, input variables, the number of neurons and hidden layers, and the period of the training data set were considered. Since AHU data changes over time, an adaptive model, which has the ability to actively cope with constantly changing data, was developed. This adaptive model determined the model with the lowest mean square error (MSE of the 91 models, which had two hidden layers and sets up a 12-hour test set at every prediction. The adaptive model used recently collected data as training data and utilized the sliding window technique rather than the accumulative data method. Furthermore, additional testing was performed to validate the adaptive model using AHU data from another building. The final adaptive model predicts SAT to a root mean square error (RMSE of less than 0.6 °C.

  10. 40 CFR 81.88 - Billings Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.88 Billings Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Billings Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Montana) has been renamed the Billings Intrastate Air Quality Control... to by Montana authorities as follows: Sec. 481.168Great Falls Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...

  11. A mathematical model for supplying air-cooling for a building using a packed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marewo, G.T. [Zimbabwe Univ., Mathematics Dept., Harare (Zimbabwe); Henwood, D.J. [School of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-15

    The cooling system at the Harare International School uses a packed bed system for storing the coldness of the night-time to be used later for day-time air-conditioning. A two-phase mathematical model is described for the packed bed which includes heat dispersion in the fluid, and heat loss to the environment. This is in contrast to other studies, where at least one of these terms is neglected to simplify the mathematical model. A numerical method for obtaining a solution is proposed and implemented. Using measured inlet temperatures, the measured and predicted outlet temperatures of the bed show good trend agreement. The differences in detail are examined through sensitivity analyses for both the heat convection transfer and air velocity. It is apparent that adjusting these parameters can increase the agreement between the predicted and measured data. A parametric study for heat storage with various materials and bed sizes is given, which indicates how the code may be used as a tool for improving design and operational parameters. Practical application: A mathematical model of a packed bed is described; the bed is made up of fluid flowing over solid material with heat interchange between the two. The solid material is idealized as spheres and the fluid temperature is assumed uniform in a cross-section of the bed. The model includes heat interchange between the bed and its surrounding environment and allows for time varying fluid velocity. The input data is the inlet temperature to the bed, which may be measured. The comparison with measured data may be helpful to anyone attempting to develop and test a similar model. The sensitivity tests give an understanding of the significance of some of the parameters involved. The Appendix gives a mathematical statement of the problem and an outline of an approach to developing computer code for a numerical solution. (Author)

  12. Research on the water hammer protection of the long distance water supply project with the combined action of the air vessel and over-pressure relief valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D D; Jiang, J; Zhao, Z; Yi, W S; Lan, G

    2013-01-01

    We take a concrete pumping station as an example in this paper. Through the calculation of water hammer protection with a specific pumping station water supply project, and the analysis of the principle, mathematical models and boundary conditions of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve we show that the air vessel can protect the water conveyance system and reduce the transient pressure damage due to various causes. Over-pressure relief valve can effectively reduce the water hammer because the water column re-bridge suddenly stops the pump and prevents pipeline burst. The paper indicates that the combination set of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve can greatly reduce the quantity of the air valve and can eliminate the water hammer phenomenon in the pipeline system due to the vaporization and water column separation and re-bridge. The conclusion could provide a reference for the water hammer protection of long-distance water supply system

  13. Research on the water hammer protection of the long distance water supply project with the combined action of the air vessel and over-pressure relief valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. D.; Jiang, J.; Zhao, Z.; Yi, W. S.; Lan, G.

    2013-12-01

    We take a concrete pumping station as an example in this paper. Through the calculation of water hammer protection with a specific pumping station water supply project, and the analysis of the principle, mathematical models and boundary conditions of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve we show that the air vessel can protect the water conveyance system and reduce the transient pressure damage due to various causes. Over-pressure relief valve can effectively reduce the water hammer because the water column re-bridge suddenly stops the pump and prevents pipeline burst. The paper indicates that the combination set of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve can greatly reduce the quantity of the air valve and can eliminate the water hammer phenomenon in the pipeline system due to the vaporization and water column separation and re-bridge. The conclusion could provide a reference for the water hammer protection of long-distance water supply system.

  14. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ...EPA is proposing a limited approval and limited disapproval of permitting rules submitted by California as a revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These rules were adopted by the PCAPCD and FRAQMD to regulate the construction and modification of stationary sources of air pollution within each District. EPA is proposing to approve these SIP revisions based on the Agency's conclusion that the rules are consistent with applicable Clean Air Act (CAA) requirements, policies and guidance. Final approval of these rules would make the rules federally enforceable and correct program deficiencies identified in a previous EPA rulemaking (76 FR 44809, July 27, 2011).

  15. 78 FR 58460 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ...EPA is finalizing a limited approval and limited disapproval of two permitting rules submitted by California as a revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions were proposed in the Federal Register on February 22, 2013 and concern construction and modification of stationary sources of air pollution within each District. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA). Final approval of these rules makes the rules federally enforceable and corrects program deficiencies identified in a previous EPA rulemaking (76 FR 44809, July 27, 2011). EPA is also making a technical amendment to the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) to reflect this previous rulemaking, which removed an obsolete provision from the California SIP.

  16. Is cosmic radiation exposure of air crew amenable to control?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    ICRP Committee 4 currently has a Working Party on Cosmic Ray Exposure in Aircraft and Space Flight. It has assembled information on doses arising in aircraft and space flight and considered the appropriateness of the Commission's recommendations relating to air crew. A central issue is whether the exposures received should be considered amenable to control. Factors of relevance to the enhanced cosmic radiation exposure of air crew, and frequent fliers such as couriers, are doses to pregnant staff, the issue of controllability of doses, and the implementation of regulatory controls. It is concluded that while air crew in the current range of subsonic jet aircraft are exposed to enhanced levels of cosmic radiation, these exposures are not readily controllable nor likely to exceed about 6 mSv/y. The revised ICRP Recommendations in 1991 (ICRP 60) propose air crew be designated as occupationally exposed. However, none of the usual optimisation of dose actions associated with regulation of practices, such as classification of work areas and rules governing working procedures, can be implemented, and in practice the doses are not amenable to control. The International Basic Safety Standards therefore leave this designation to the judgement of national regulatory authorities. One requirement that stems from designation as occupational exposure is that of restriction of doses to pregnant women. Both from the points of view that it is questionable whether exposure of air crew can reasonably be considered to be amenable to control, and the magnitude of the risks from exposures incurred, there is little reason to invoke additional restrictions to limit exposures of pregnant air crew. Copyright (1999) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  17. Improving tokamak vertical position control in the presence of power supply voltage saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favez, J-Y; Lister, J B; Muellhaupt, Ph; Srinivasan, B

    2005-01-01

    The control of the current, position and shape of an elongated cross-section tokamak plasma is complicated by the so-called instability of the current vertical position. Linearized models all share the feature of a single unstable eigenmode, attributable to this vertical instability of the plasma equilibrium movement, and a large number of stable or marginally stable eigenmodes, attributable to zero or positive resistance in all other model circuit equations. Due to the size and therefore cost of the ITER tokamak, there will naturally be smaller margins in the poloidal field coil power supplies, implying that the feedback control will experience actuator saturation during large transients due to a variety of plasma disturbances. Current saturation is relatively benign, due to the integrating nature of the tokamak, resulting in a reasonable time horizon for strategically handling the approach to saturation which leads to the loss of one degree of freedom in the feedback control for each saturated coil. On the other hand, voltage saturation is produced by the feedback controller itself, with no intrinsic delay. This paper presents a feedback controller design approach which explicitly takes saturation of the power supply voltage into account when producing the power supply demand signals. We consider the vertically stabilizing part of the ITER controller (fast controller) with one power supply and therefore a single saturated input. We consider an existing ITER controller and enlarge its region of attraction to the full null controllable region by adding a continuous nonlinearity into the control. In a system with a single unstable eigenmode and a single stable eigenmode we have already provided a proof of the asymptotical stability of the closed loop system, and we have examined the performance of this new continuous nonlinear controller. We have subsequently extended this analysis to a system with a single eigenmode and multiple stable eigenmodes. The method

  18. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yana; Andersson, Henrik; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2016-01-01

    With China’s significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China’s air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1) The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2) During 2006–2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground level ozone (O3) emerged and worsened; (3) After the winter-long PM2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions. PMID:27941665

  19. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yana; Andersson, Henrik; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2016-12-09

    With China's significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China's air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1) The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2) During 2006-2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO₂) emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ground level ozone (O₃) emerged and worsened; (3) After the winter-long PM 2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions.

  20. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Jin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With China’s significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China’s air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1 The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2 During 2006–2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and ground level ozone (O3 emerged and worsened; (3 After the winter-long PM2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions.

  1. Air Traffic Control: Observations on FAA's Air Traffic Control Modernization Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    In 1981, FAA began a multibillion-dollar modernization effort to improve the safety, capacity, and efficiency of this system to meet the increasing demand for air traffic services and to replace aging equipment...

  2. Integrated Guidance and Control Based Air-to-Air Autonomous Attack Occupation of UCAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach of air-to-air autonomous attack occupation for Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles (UCAVs is proposed to improve attack precision and combat effectiveness. According to the shortage of UCAV in the task of attack occupation, kinematic and dynamic models of UCAV and missile loaded on it are formed. Then, attack zone and no-escape zone are calculated by pattern search algorithm, and the optimum attack position is indicated. To arrive at the optimum attack position accurately with restriction of gesture, a novel adaptive sliding mode control method is suggested to design the integrated guidance and control system of UCAV in the process of autonomous attack occupation. Key parameters of the control system are adaptively regulated, which further economize control energy at the same time. The simulation results show that compared with traditional methods our approach can guide the UCAV to the optimum attack position with stable gesture and economize nearly 25% control energy.

  3. Bullwhip Entropy Analysis and Chaos Control in the Supply Chain with Sales Game and Consumer Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandong Lou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a supply chain system which consists of one manufacturer and two retailers including a traditional retailer and an online retailer. In order to gain a larger market share, the retailers often take the sales as a decision-making variable in the competition game. We devote ourselves to analyze the bullwhip effect in the supply chain with sales game and consumer returns via the theory of entropy and complexity and take the delayed feedback control method to control the system’s chaotic state. The impact of a statutory 7-day no reason for return policy for online retailers is also investigated. The bounded rational expectation is adopt to forecast the future demand in the sales game system with weak noise. Our results show that high return rates will hurt the profits of both the retailers and the adjustment speed of the bounded rational sales expectation has an important impact on the bullwhip effect. There is a stable area for retailers where the bullwhip effect doesn’t appear. The supply chain system suffers a great bullwhip effect in the quasi-periodic state and the quasi-chaotic state. The purpose of chaos control on the sales game can be achieved and the bullwhip effect would be effectively mitigated by using the delayed feedback control method.

  4. A study on the control of a hybrid MTDC system supplying a passive network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotb, Omar; Ghandhari, Mehrdad; Eriksson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid Multi-Terminal DC (MTDC) system can combine the benefits of both Line Commutated Converter (LCC) and Voltage Source Converter (VSC) technologies in the form of reduced losses and flexibility to connect to weak and passive grids. In this paper, an analysis of control strategies used...... in a hybrid MTDC system is presented. A case study of a four terminal hybrid MTDC system supplying a passive AC network was considered for simulation study. A control scheme based on voltage margin was developed to cope with the condition of main DC voltage controlling station tripping. Two various control...... scenarios for controlling the VSCs connected to the passive network were presented and compared. The system performance was studied through EMTP-RV simulations under different disturbances. The results show the ability of selected converter control modes and proposed control schemes to operate the hybrid...

  5. Electrolytic tritium enrichment: Current control using current-stabilised Kepco Type JQE modular supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-07-12

    This note describes the principles, design and operation of a current-stabilised power source for tritium electrolytic enrichment cells. A Kepoo Tpe JE, modular supply is current-stabilised by controlled current feedback. The accompanying control unit incorporates a temperature sensor or the cooling unit of the electrolysis cells, a line monitor to register current shut-off due to temporary power failure, a time-of-day clock, a current control potentiometer and a digital voltmeter providing current reading to an accuracy of 0.01A.

  6. DC-Link Protection and Control in Modular Uninterruptible Power Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jinghang; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Guan, Yajuan

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a DC-link voltage protection (DCVP) control method is proposed to address the DC-link overvoltage issue due to power back-feeding in parallel Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) system. The proposed control method is able to protect the inverter against the excessive DC-link voltage...... by the line impedance mismatching or power back-feeding issue in the UPS system. In addition, an improved consensus-based distributed controller is proposed to alleviate the overshoot issue during the transient process in voltage amplitude and frequency restoration. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed...

  7. Adaptive control strategy for ECRH negative high-voltage power supply based on CMAC neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xiaoping; Du Pengying; Du Shaowu

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that the negative high-voltage power supply in an electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system can not satisfy the requirements because of the nonlinearity and sensitivity, the direct inverse model control strategy was proposed by using cerebellar model articulation controller(CMAC) for better control, and experiments were carried out to study the system performances with CMAC tracing dynamic signals. The results show that this strategy is strong in self-learning and self-adaptation and easy to be realized. (authors)

  8. Electrolytic tritium enrichment: Current control using current-stabilised Kepco Type JQE modular supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This note describes the principles, design and operation of a current-stabilised power source for tritium electrolytic enrichment cells. A Kepoo Tpe JE, modular supply is current-stabilised by controlled current feedback. The accompanying control unit incorporates a temperature sensor or the cooling unit of the electrolysis cells, a line monitor to register current shut-off due to temporary power failure, a time-of-day clock, a current control potentiometer and a digital voltmeter providing current reading to an accuracy of 0.01A

  9. Robust Economic Control Decision Method of Uncertain System on Urban Domestic Water Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kebai; Ma, Tianyi; Wei, Guo

    2018-03-31

    As China quickly urbanizes, urban domestic water generally presents the circumstances of both rising tendency and seasonal cycle fluctuation. A robust economic control decision method for dynamic uncertain systems is proposed in this paper. It is developed based on the internal model principle and pole allocation method, and it is applied to an urban domestic water supply system with rising tendency and seasonal cycle fluctuation. To achieve this goal, first a multiplicative model is used to describe the urban domestic water demand. Then, a capital stock and a labor stock are selected as the state vector, and the investment and labor are designed as the control vector. Next, the compensator subsystem is devised in light of the internal model principle. Finally, by using the state feedback control strategy and pole allocation method, the multivariable robust economic control decision method is implemented. The implementation with this model can accomplish the urban domestic water supply control goal, with the robustness for the variation of parameters. The methodology presented in this study may be applied to the water management system in other parts of the world, provided all data used in this study are available. The robust control decision method in this paper is also applicable to deal with tracking control problems as well as stabilization control problems of other general dynamic uncertain systems.

  10. A Study on the Air Vent Valve of the Hydraulic Servo Actuator for Steam Control of Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Lee, Jong Jik

    2016-01-01

    To produce adequate electricity in nuclear and thermal power plants, an optimal amount of steam should be supplied to a generator connected to high- and low-pressure steam turbines. A turbine output control device, which is a special steam valve employed to supply or interrupt the steam to the turbine, is operated using a hydraulic servo actuator. In power plants, the performance of servo actuators is degraded by the air generated from the hydraulic system, or causes frequent failures owing to an increase in the wear of the seal. This is due to the seal being burnt as generated heat using the produced compressed air. Some power plants have exhausted air using a fixed orifice, and thus they encounter power loss due to mass flow exhaust. Failures are generated in hydraulic pumps, electric motors, and valves, which are frequently operated. In this study, we perform modeling and analysis of the load-sensing air-exhaust valves, which can be passed through very fine flow under normal use conditions, and exhaust mass flow air at the beginning stage as with existing fixed orifices. Then, we propose a method to prevent failures due to the compressed air, and to ensure the control accuracy of hydraulic servo actuators.

  11. A Study on the Air Vent Valve of the Hydraulic Servo Actuator for Steam Control of Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To produce adequate electricity in nuclear and thermal power plants, an optimal amount of steam should be supplied to a generator connected to high- and low-pressure steam turbines. A turbine output control device, which is a special steam valve employed to supply or interrupt the steam to the turbine, is operated using a hydraulic servo actuator. In power plants, the performance of servo actuators is degraded by the air generated from the hydraulic system, or causes frequent failures owing to an increase in the wear of the seal. This is due to the seal being burnt as generated heat using the produced compressed air. Some power plants have exhausted air using a fixed orifice, and thus they encounter power loss due to mass flow exhaust. Failures are generated in hydraulic pumps, electric motors, and valves, which are frequently operated. In this study, we perform modeling and analysis of the load-sensing air-exhaust valves, which can be passed through very fine flow under normal use conditions, and exhaust mass flow air at the beginning stage as with existing fixed orifices. Then, we propose a method to prevent failures due to the compressed air, and to ensure the control accuracy of hydraulic servo actuators.

  12. Measurement of Temporal Awareness in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal awareness, or level 3 situation awareness, is critical to successful control of air traffic, yet the construct remains ill-defined and difficult to measure. This research sought evidence for air traffic controllers awareness of temporal characteristics of their tasks in data from a high-fidelity system evaluation simulation. Five teams of controllers worked on four scenarios with different traffic load. Several temporal parameters were defined for each task controllers performed during a simulation run and their actions on the tasks were timed relative to them. Controllers showed a strong tendency to prioritize tasks according to a first come, first served principle. This trend persisted as task load increased. Also evident was awareness of the urgency of tasks, as tasks with impending closing of a window of opportunity were performed before tasks that had longer time available before closing of the window.

  13. 40 CFR 81.36 - Maricopa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.36 Maricopa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Phoenix-Tucson Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Maricopa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maricopa Intrastate Air Quality...

  14. 40 CFR 81.29 - Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region. 81.29 Section 81.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.29 Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  15. Multi-objective design of fuzzy logic controller in supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghane, Mahdi; Tarokh, Mohammad Jafar

    2012-08-01

    Unlike commonly used methods, in this paper, we have introduced a new approach for designing fuzzy controllers. In this approach, we have simultaneously optimized both objective functions of a supply chain over a two-dimensional space. Then, we have obtained a spectrum of optimized points, each of which represents a set of optimal parameters which can be chosen by the manager according to the importance of objective functions. Our used supply chain model is a member of inventory and order-based production control system family, a generalization of the periodic review which is termed `Order-Up-To policy.' An auto rule maker, based on non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II, has been applied to the experimental initial fuzzy rules. According to performance measurement, our results indicate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  16. Financing of power supply systems and pollution control equipment. Models, dimensions, developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, G; Raabe, G

    1988-11-01

    The authors explain the bankers' point of view of the financial and economic aspects of developments in the energy sector, discussing the financing of natural gas pipelines (Muro, Megal, etc.), of nuclear power plant construction, of projects in the oil supply sector, and of pollution abatement measures and equipment for the power industry and other industries. The different financial situations of small firms or large firms supplying pollution control equipment are discussed referring to the financing schemes to be set up, explaining among other things the profitability assessment taking into account long-term development or delays in return on capital investment from borrowed funds as induced, e.g., by delays in the licensing procedure. Future demand for borrowed capital for pollution control or nuclear power plant development is difficult to assess by the banking circles. (orig./RST).

  17. How Much Control Dose Central Bank of Iran over Money Supply?

    OpenAIRE

    Jafar HAGHIGHAT

    2011-01-01

    In discussions about the efficacy of monetary policy instruments, attention is often focused on analyzing the money supply process. Monetarists, in general, argue that the monetary authorities can exercise effective control over the stock of money; others, especially those who share the new view of monetary theory argue that the determination of the stock of money is part of the economy. In this view, the stock of money is the outgrowth of the behavior of the public, the financial sector (ban...

  18. Performance and Qualification of the Power Supply and Control Unit for the HEMP Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brag, R.; Herty, F.

    2014-08-01

    In 2013, Astrium GmbH delivered several flight model electronics for Electric Propulsion (EP) systems or corresponding components. One of the elements is a Power Supply and Control Unit (PSCU) for the Thales development "High Efficiency Multistage Plasma Thruster" (HEMP-T) (see Figure 1). This paper presents the PSCU specification and results of the qualification and acceptance phase of the EQM and the PFM.

  19. Effect of voltage sags on digitally controlled line connected switched-mode power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2012-01-01

    Different voltage disorders like voltage fluctuations, sags, frequency variations may occur in the power supply networks due to different fault conditions. These deviations from normal operation affects in different ways the line connected devices. Standards were developed to protect and ensure...... of voltage sags is analyzed. Fault tolerant control algorithm was designed, implemented and is discussed. The fault conditions and their effects were investigated at different power levels....

  20. MODELING OF THE CONTROLLED TRACTION POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM IN THE SPACE-TIME COORDINATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry BOSYI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The problems of the traction power supply system calculation are considered in the article. The authors proposed the space-time model, which is based on the analytical functions of the current- and voltage-drop distributions in the contact network. The usage of the proposed model is shown for the control law calculation both to stabilize the voltage at the pantographs of the electric rolling stocks and to reduce the power losses.

  1. Air pollution emission under control?; Luchtverontreinigende emissies onder controle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeek, R.; Smokers, R. [TNO Mobility / Sustainable Transport and Logistics, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The air-polluting emissions of lorries and inland shipping needs to adhere to increasingly strict requirements. As a result, the emissions of new vehicles and vessels in 2020 will only be a fraction of the emissions of for example 1990. How does it work out in practice? Is it useful to switch to alternative fuels in the coming years, such as for example natural gas and biofuels? Or will all air-polluting emission problems have been solved in the near future, allowing for full focus on energy use and CO2 reduction?. [Dutch] De luchtverontreinigende emissies van vrachtauto's en binnenvaartschepen moeten aan steeds strengere eisen voldoen. Daardoor zullen de emissies van nieuwe voer- en vaartuigen in 2020 nog maar een fractie zijn in vergelijking tot bijvoorbeeld 1990. Werkt het allemaal goed in de praktijk? En heeft het de komende jaren nog zin om over te stappen naar alternatieve brandstoffen zoals aardgas en biobrandstoffen? Of zijn alle problemen rond de luchtverontreinigende emissies straks van de baan en kunnen we de focus geheel richten op energieverbruik en CO2-reductie?.

  2. National supply of reactivity control rods for Embalse nuclear power plant (CNE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondo, C.D.; Carloni, J.G.; Aba, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The manufacture and supply on industrial scale of reactivity control rods for CNE (Embalse nuclear power plant) were developed by the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) together with the private industry, as part of a program aimed to the substitution of imported supplies used in the operation of power plants by materials manufactured in Argentina. So far, the control rods were imported from Canada. In this work, the different development stages performed by CNEA and CONUAR S.A. are described, leading to the supply of a set of 21 cobalt rods to be included in a reactor of CNE in order to qualify this component. Among the main activities performed, the following stand out: specifications development, particularly those concerning to cobalt cores, evaluation of design documentation and elaboration of bidding conditions and a plan of manufacture and control. According to the results obtained during the service and the post-irradiation measurements, the design will be reviewed in order to undertake new manufacturing plans. (Author)

  3. Higher energy efficiency and better water quality by using model predictive flow control at water supply systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Verberk, J.Q.J.C.; Palmen, L.J.; Sperber, V.; Bakker, G.

    2011-01-01

    Half of all water supply systems in the Netherlands are controlled by model predictive flow control; the other half are controlled by conventional level based control. The differences between conventional level based control and model predictive control were investigated in experiments at five full

  4. U.S. Air Force Operational Medicine: Using the Enterprise Estimating Supplies Program to Develop Materiel Solutions for the Aeromedical Evacuation In-Flight Kit (FFQDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    HEMORRHAGE 1 533.10 ACUTE PEPTIC ULCER WITH PERFORATION 1 346.90 MIGRAINE UNPSECIFIED 1 410.90 ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION OF UNSPECIFIED SITE 1 451.90...Enterprise Estimating Supplies Program (EESP), for the development and management of Air Force medical Allowance Standards as a baseline for

  5. Respirator studies for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Protection factors for supplied-air respirators. Progress report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hack, A.; Bradley, O.D.; Trujillo, A.

    1977-12-01

    This report describes the work performed during FY 1977 for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Protection Factors (efficiency) provided by 25 NIOSH approved supplied-air respirators were determined while the devices were worn by a panel of anthropometrically selected test subjects. The major recommendation was that demand-type respirators should neither be used nor approved

  6. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL...

  7. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements. 84.163 Section 84.163 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF...

  8. The Sources of Air Pollution and Their Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

    The problems of air pollution and its control are discussed. Major consideration is given the sources of pollution - motor vehicles, industry, power plants, space heating, and refuse disposal. Annual emission levels of five principle pollutants - carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter - are listed…

  9. Air Traffic Controller Training at the FAA Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Roy J.

    1970-01-01

    Describes air traffic controller training by discussing: (1) job description, (2) centralized training, (3) method of training, (4) laboratory arrangement, (5) staffing, (6) curriculum development, (7) staff training, (8) student reaction, and (9) training results and suggested improvements. Training Technology is a quarterly supplement to…

  10. Pollutant dispersion models for issues of air pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    14 papers entered separately into the data base were presented at the meeting for application-oriented dispersion models for issues of air pollution control. These papers focus on fields of application, availability of required input data relevant to emissions and meteorology, performance and accuracy of these methods and their practicability. (orig./PW) [de

  11. Developed adaptive neuro-fuzzy algorithm to control air conditioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... conditioning system is highly appreciated and essential in most of our daily life. ... (Hossien and Karla, 2012) presented an overview work which provides an .... energy balance for SSSF and the mass flow balance for the water in the air are ..... of Automatic Control and Electrical Engineering at Siegen University, Germany.

  12. Adaptive Automation Based on Air Traffic Controller Decision-Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJtsma (Student TU Delft), Martijn; Borst, C.; Mercado Velasco, G.A.; Mulder, M.; van Paassen, M.M.; Tsang, P.S.; Vidulich, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Through smart scheduling and triggering of automation support, adaptive automation has the potential to balance air traffic controller workload. The challenge in the design of adaptive automation systems is to decide how and when the automation should provide support. This paper describes the design

  13. Air contamination control as an element of state environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.

    1993-01-01

    The results of air contamination control on the base of gamma and beta radioactivity of aerosols collected on filters and in precipitation samples have been shown. The data have been gathered from 12 monitoring stations in Poland during 1993. No significant differences between actual results and those obtained in previous years have been noticed. 4 figs, 1 tab

  14. The Controlled-Air Incinerator at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmyer, J.N.

    1994-04-01

    The Controlled-Air Incinerator (CAI) at Los Alamos is being modified and upgraded to begin routine operations treating low-level mixed waste (LLMW), radioactively contaminated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes, low-level liquid wastes, and possibly transuranic (TRU) wastes. This paper describes those modifications. Routine waste operations should begin in late FY95.

  15. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS SURFACE MINING PERMIT...

  16. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784.26 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS UNDERGROUND MINING PERMIT APPLICATION...

  17. Developed adaptive neuro-fuzzy algorithm to control air conditioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The paper developed artificial intelligence technique adaptive neuro-fuzzy ... system is highly appreciated and essential in most of our daily life. ... It can construct an input-output mapping based on human knowledge and specific input-output data ... fuzzy controllers to produce desirable internal temperature and air quality, ...

  18. A Course in English for Air Traffic Controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Paul; Thompson, Lesley

    A description is provided of a course, developed by the British Council in Madrid, Spain, to improve the English language training for trainee air traffic services personnel as a result of an increased demand for trained controllers over the next few years. The course aims to teach students in the areas of standard radiotelephony, non-routine…

  19. Planes, Politics and Oral Proficiency: Testing International Air Traffic Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moder, Carol Lynn; Halleck, Gene B.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the variation in oral proficiency demonstrated by 14 Air Traffic Controllers across two types of testing tasks: work-related radio telephony-based tasks and non-specific English tasks on aviation topics. Their performance was compared statistically in terms of level ratings on the International Civil Aviation Organization…

  20. Indicators for successful learning in air traffic control training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; De Bock, Jeano; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Van Meeuwen, L. W., Brand-Gruwel, S., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., De Bock, J. J. P. R., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010, August). Indicators for successful learning in air traffic control training. Paper presented at the 5th EARLI SIG 14 Learning and Professional Development Conference. Munich, Germany.

  1. Trainer Interventions as Instructional Strategies in Air Traffic Control Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Inka; Palukka, Hannele

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify methods of guidance and supervision used in air traffic control training. It also aims to show how these methods facilitate trainee participation in core work activities. Design/methodology/approach: The paper applies the tools of conversation analysis and ethnomethodology to explore the ways in which trainers…

  2. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues in bench scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ferreira, Celia; Hansen, Henrik K.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is considered a hazardous waste due to its alkalinity and high content of salts and mobile heavy metals. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist in different regions; however, most commercial soluti...

  3. Modeling validation and control analysis for controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14 °C, 0006 kg(w)/kg(da) in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system.

  4. Modeling Validation and Control Analysis for Controlled Temperature and Humidity of Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Nang Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14°C, 0006 kgw/kgda in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system.

  5. Room air conditioner load control under summer comfort constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Da Silva , David; Brancaccio , M; Duplessis , Bruno; Adnot , J

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Load control options interest is growing because it can represent a response to future network investments and to congestion problems. In this frame, the present paper gives a methodology to quantify the value of load control for heat pumps (room air conditioners), in small tertiary and residential buildings, considering the occupant's comfort and the electrical grid needs for load shift. This methodology was applied to a small office building where simulations were ma...

  6. Decentralized control of units in smart grids for the support of renewable energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnenschein, Michael, E-mail: Michael.Sonnenschein@Uni-Oldenburg.DE [University of Oldenburg, Department of Computing Science, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Lünsdorf, Ontje, E-mail: Ontje.Luensdorf@OFFIS.DE [OFFIS Institute for Information Technology, Escherweg 2, D-26121 Oldenburg (Germany); Bremer, Jörg, E-mail: Joerg.Bremer@Uni-Oldenburg.DE [University of Oldenburg, Department of Computing Science, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Tröschel, Martin, E-mail: Martin.Troeschel@OFFIS.DE [OFFIS Institute for Information Technology, Escherweg 2, D-26121 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Due to the significant environmental impact of power production from fossil fuels and nuclear fission, future energy systems will increasingly rely on distributed and renewable energy sources (RES). The electrical feed-in from photovoltaic (PV) systems and wind energy converters (WEC) varies greatly both over short and long time periods (from minutes to seasons), and (not only) by this effect the supply of electrical power from RES and the demand for electrical power are not per se matching. In addition, with a growing share of generation capacity especially in distribution grids, the top-down paradigm of electricity distribution is gradually replaced by a bottom-up power supply. This altogether leads to new problems regarding the safe and reliable operation of power grids. In order to address these challenges, the notion of Smart Grids has been introduced. The inherent flexibilities, i.e. the set of feasible power schedules, of distributed power units have to be controlled in order to support demand–supply matching as well as stable grid operation. Controllable power units are e.g. combined heat and power plants, power storage systems such as batteries, and flexible power consumers such as heat pumps. By controlling the flexibilities of these units we are particularly able to optimize the local utilization of RES feed-in in a given power grid by integrating both supply and demand management measures with special respect to the electrical infrastructure. In this context, decentralized systems, autonomous agents and the concept of self-organizing systems will become key elements of the ICT based control of power units. In this contribution, we first show how a decentralized load management system for battery charging/discharging of electrical vehicles (EVs) can increase the locally used share of supply from PV systems in a low voltage grid. For a reliable demand side management of large sets of appliances, dynamic clustering of these appliances into uniformly

  7. Decentralized control of units in smart grids for the support of renewable energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenschein, Michael; Lünsdorf, Ontje; Bremer, Jörg; Tröschel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Due to the significant environmental impact of power production from fossil fuels and nuclear fission, future energy systems will increasingly rely on distributed and renewable energy sources (RES). The electrical feed-in from photovoltaic (PV) systems and wind energy converters (WEC) varies greatly both over short and long time periods (from minutes to seasons), and (not only) by this effect the supply of electrical power from RES and the demand for electrical power are not per se matching. In addition, with a growing share of generation capacity especially in distribution grids, the top-down paradigm of electricity distribution is gradually replaced by a bottom-up power supply. This altogether leads to new problems regarding the safe and reliable operation of power grids. In order to address these challenges, the notion of Smart Grids has been introduced. The inherent flexibilities, i.e. the set of feasible power schedules, of distributed power units have to be controlled in order to support demand–supply matching as well as stable grid operation. Controllable power units are e.g. combined heat and power plants, power storage systems such as batteries, and flexible power consumers such as heat pumps. By controlling the flexibilities of these units we are particularly able to optimize the local utilization of RES feed-in in a given power grid by integrating both supply and demand management measures with special respect to the electrical infrastructure. In this context, decentralized systems, autonomous agents and the concept of self-organizing systems will become key elements of the ICT based control of power units. In this contribution, we first show how a decentralized load management system for battery charging/discharging of electrical vehicles (EVs) can increase the locally used share of supply from PV systems in a low voltage grid. For a reliable demand side management of large sets of appliances, dynamic clustering of these appliances into uniformly

  8. Pressure control modernization for DO2 supply system of the fuel machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, T.; Burla, I.; Vasilache, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The analog controllers of the D 2 O Supply System (BSI-35260) were replaced at Cernavoda NPP U1 with a modern solution built on a new platform with powerful Fischer and Porter controllers. During two years of operating experience this new solution demonstrated its capabilities to work without any fault. This paper describes briefly the involved system, the hardware and software aspects of this solution, how the software solution was tested using the Full-Scope Simulator facilities and finally, results of the tests done in the real plant are discussed. (authors)

  9. Pressure control modernization for D2O supply system of the fuel machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, T.; Burla, I.; Vasilache, V.

    2005-01-01

    The analog controllers of the D 2 O Supply System (BSI-35260) were replaced at Cernavoda NPP U1 with a modern solution built on a new platform with powerful Fischer and Porter controllers. During two years of operating experience this new solution demonstrated its capabilities to work without any fault. This paper describes briefly the involved system, the hardware and software aspects of this solution, how the software solution was tested using the Full-Scope Simulator facilities and finally, results of the tests done in the real plant are discussed. (authors)

  10. Design of the klystron filament power supply control system for EAST LHCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zege; Wang, Mao; Hu, Huaichuan; Ma, Wendong; Zhou, Taian; Zhou, Faxin; Liu, Fukun; Shan, Jiafang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-09-15

    A filament is a critical component of the klystron used to heat the cathode. There are totally 44 klystrons in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) systems. All klystron filaments are powered by AC power suppliers through isolated transformers. In order to achieve better klystron preheat, a klystron filament power supply control system is designed to obtain the automatic control of all filament power suppliers. Klystron filament current is measured by PLC and the interlock between filament current and klystron high voltage system is also implemented. This design has already been deployed in two LHCD systems and proves feasible completely.

  11. Learning styles: The learning methods of air traffic control students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dontae L.

    In the world of aviation, air traffic controllers are an integral part in the overall level of safety that is provided. With a number of controllers reaching retirement age, the Air Traffic Collegiate Training Initiative (AT-CTI) was created to provide a stronger candidate pool. However, AT-CTI Instructors have found that a number of AT-CTI students are unable to memorize types of aircraft effectively. This study focused on the basic learning styles (auditory, visual, and kinesthetic) of students and created a teaching method to try to increase memorization in AT-CTI students. The participants were asked to take a questionnaire to determine their learning style. Upon knowing their learning styles, participants attended two classroom sessions. The participants were given a presentation in the first class, and divided into a control and experimental group for the second class. The control group was given the same presentation from the first classroom session while the experimental group had a group discussion and utilized Middle Tennessee State University's Air Traffic Control simulator to learn the aircraft types. Participants took a quiz and filled out a survey, which tested the new teaching method. An appropriate statistical analysis was applied to determine if there was a significant difference between the control and experimental groups. The results showed that even though the participants felt that the method increased their learning, there was no significant difference between the two groups.

  12. ACCOUNTING FOR NONUNIFORMITY OF WATER CONSUMPTION IN THE EXHAUST AIR HEAT RECLAMATION SYSTEMS FOR HOT WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarin Oleg Dmitrievich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to assessment of the influence of variation of daily hot water consumption on the predicted energy effect by using heat recovery of exhaust air in typical exhaust ventilation systems of the most commonly used flat buildings during their switch to the mechanical induction for the pre-heating of water for hot water supply. It outlines the general principle of the organization of this method of energy saving and presents the basic equations of heat transfer in the heat exchanger. The article proposes a simplified method of accounting for changes in the heat transfer coefficient of air-to-water heat exchanger with fluctuations of water demand using existing dependencies for this coefficient from the rate flow of heating and heated fluid through the device. It presents observations to identify the parameters of the real changes of water consumption during the day with the main quantitative characteristics of normally distributed random variables. Calculation of thermal efficiency of the heat exchange equipment using dimensionless parameters through the number of heat transfer under the optimal opposing scheme of fluid motion is completed under conditions of variable water flow rate for the type residential building of the П3-1/16 series using the Monte Carlo method for numerical modeling of stochastic processes. The estimation of the influence of fluctuation of the current water consumption on the instantaneous thermal efficiency factor of the heat exchanger and the total energy consumption of the building is given, and it is shown that the error of said calculation using average daily parameters is within the margin of usual engineering calculation.

  13. High performance fuzzy sliding mode control of DFIG supplied by seven level NPC inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed BENKAHLA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the powers control of a variable speed wind turbine (WT based on a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG because of their advantages in terms of economy and control. The considered system consists of a double fed induction generator whose stator is connected directly to the network and its rotor is supplied by seven-level inverter with structure NPC are well used to minimize the harmonics absorbed by the DFIG. In order to control the power flowing between the stator of the DFIG and the grid. Have been studied and compared two types of controllers : Sliding Mode Control (SMC and Fuzzy SMC (FSMC. Their respective performances are compared in terms of power reference tracking, response to sudden speed variations, sensitivity to perturbations and robustness against machine parameters variations.

  14. Evaluating Information Assurance Control Effectiveness on an Air Force Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Byres, E. J., Lowe, J. (2004). The Myths and facts behind cyber security risks for industrial control systems . Berlin, Germany: VDE 2004 Congress...ACQUISITION (SCADA) SYSTEM THESIS Jason R. Nielsen, Major, USAF AFIT/GCO/ENG/11-10 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE...DATA ACQUISITION (SCADA) SYSTEM THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of

  15. Application of propagation calculations in air quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuelske, S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a methodics of propagation calculation since the foundation of the 'Landesanstalt fuer Immissionsschutz' in 1963, and its practical use in air quality control. In this context, it deals with methods for calculating stack heights and the Gaussian propagation model adopted by the Technical Code on Clean Air, the propagation of flue gas emitted via cooling towers, the propagation of accidentally released substances, odours and automobile emissions, and with flow and propagation calculation for the proximity zone of buildings as well as for meteorological fields with space and time variations and topographically varied terrain. (orig.) [de

  16. Status of selected air pollution control programs, February 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The collection of status reports has been prepared in order to provide a timely summary of selected EPA air pollution control activities to those individuals who are involved with the implementation of these programs. The report contains ozone/carbon monoxide (CO) programs; mobile sources programs; particulate matter nominally 10M and less (PM-10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and lead programs; New Source Review (NSR); economics programs; emission standards programs; Indian activity programs; mobile sources programs; air toxics programs; acid rain programs; permits programs; chlorofluorocarbons programs; enforcement programs; and other programs

  17. Automotive engine air intake system with variable noise control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moenssen, David J.; Hellie, Mark D.; Koston, John D.; Shaw, Christopher E.

    2005-09-01

    Engine air intake systems are routinely tasked with delivering a specific target sound which involves meeting an overall noise level and, in many cases, desired frequency content over the entire engine speed range. In order to meet these targets, it is generally necessary to incorporate one or more reactive tuning devices, such as Helmholtz resonators, into the intake system. Traditional devices provide deep attenuation at their designed frequency, but they also introduce undesirable sideband resonances at a higher and a lower frequency. Even after the addition of several devices, it may still not be possible to match the desired intake noise targets due to their deep attenuation and sideband amplification. The subject of this work is to introduce an electronically controlled variable noise control (VNC) device for engine air intake systems which is capable of adjusting the air intake system's frequency response as commanded by the engine operating conditions. The VNC device permits the desired amount of attenuation of peaks in the air intake noise without introducing undesirable sideband resonances. In addition, because the tuning is controlled electronically, the VNC device can deliver a target-specific response using the same hardware across multiple vehicle programs.

  18. Optimizing condenser fan control for air-cooled centrifugal chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, F.W.; Chan, K.T. [Dept. of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Hung Hom, Hong Kong (China)

    2008-07-15

    The current design and operation of air-cooled condensers can cause a significant decrease in chiller performance under part load conditions. This paper demonstrates optimal condenser fan control to improve the coefficient of performance (COP) of air-cooled chillers. This control involves identifying the optimum set point of condensing temperature with the optimized power relationships of the compressors and condenser fans and enhancing the airflow and heat transfer area of the condensers. An example application of this control for an air-cooled centrifugal chiller indicated that the COP could increase by 11.4-237.2%, depending on the operating conditions. Such the increase of the COP results in a reduction of up to 14.1 kWh/m{sup 2}, or 27.3% in the annual electricity consumption per unit A/C floor area of chillers, given that the chillers serve an office building requiring an annual cooling energy per unit A/C floor area of 173.3 kWh/m{sup 2}. The simulation results of this study will give HVAC engineers a better understanding of how to optimize the design and operation of air-cooled chillers. (author)

  19. Organic and weed control in water supply reservoirs of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eswaran, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    Aquatic weeds and algal control in water supply reservoirs used for multipurpose use need specific attention, since they pose a lot of problem for the operating plants by affecting (a) the water quality of boiler and feed waters, (b) the performance of DM plants by reducing the efficiency of Anion beds, (c) the performance of Activated Carbon Filters (ACF) and (d) fouling induced corrosion problems in cooling water systems (Heat Exchangers and Piping materials) causing plant outages leading to production losses. The photosynthetic activity of planktonic plants which are growing abundantly in the open reservoir, sustained by the relatively high inorganic phosphate levels shoots up the pH of the reservoir water to very high levels. High pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and depleted plants can increase corrosion problems affecting plant performance. This paper focuses on the type of weeds prominent in the water supply reservoir at Kalpakkam and the associated problems in the Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). (author)

  20. Contractual Control and Labour-Related CSR Norms in the Supply Chain: Dutch Best Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Vytopil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multinational companies attempt to gain contractual control of their supply chain, in the face of possible reputational and legal risks with regard to corporate social responsibility. This article sets out the choices that fourteen Dutch multinational companies make: do they choose contracts, general terms and conditions and/or codes of conduct to regulate CSR in their supply chains? Furthermore, it explores the possibilities and limitations of these choices in terms of contract law. A model with three possible options that companies may choose is proposed. It is concluded that most Dutch multinationals do not rely on codes of conduct alone; nearly all anchor their codes of conduct by means of contractual mechanisms. Furthermore, nearly all 'strong' choices include perpetual clauses in relation to sub-tier suppliers.

  1. Control of highly vertically unstable plasmas in TCV with internal coils and fast power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, A.; Moret, J.M.; Chavan, R.; Fasel, D.; Hofmann, F.; Lister, J.B.; Mayor, J.M.; Perez, A.; Elkjaer, A.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of TCV (Tokamak a Configuration Variable) is to investigate effects of plasma shape, in particular high elongation (up to 3), on tokamak physics. Such elongated configurations (I p ≅1 MA) are highly vertically unstable with growth rates up to γ=4000 s -1 . Control of the vertical position using the poloidal coils located outside the vessel is limited to γ≤1000 s -1 because of the shielding effect of the conductive vessel and because of the relative slow time response of their power supplies (0.8 ms thyristor 12 pulse switching at 120 Hz). This dictated the necessity to install a coil set inside the vacuum vessel fed with a Fast Power Supply (FPS). The choice and design of the system with a special attention to the mechanical and electrical constraints in TCV tokamak, as the results and real performances, will be presented. (author) 3 figs., 2 tabs., 2 refs

  2. 40 CFR 81.63 - Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.63 Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Oklahoma) has been revised to consist...

  3. 40 CFR 81.62 - Northeast Mississippi Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Mississippi Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.62 Northeast Mississippi Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Alabama-Mississippi-Tennessee Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Northeast...

  4. 40 CFR 81.216 - Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.216 Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Indiana) consists of the territorial area...

  5. 40 CFR 81.237 - Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.237 Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  6. 40 CFR 81.139 - Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.139 Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  7. 40 CFR 81.251 - Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.251 Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  8. 40 CFR 81.162 - Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.162 Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial area...

  9. Improved inhaled air quality at reduced ventilation rate by control of airflow interaction at the breathing zone with lobed jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Spilak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled air quality at a reduced supply of clean air was studied by controlling the airflow interaction at the breathing zone of a person using lobed jets as part of personalized ventilation (PV). Experiments were performed in a full-scale test room at 23°C (73.4°F) with a breathing thermal manikin...... seated at a workstation, with realistic free-convection flow around the body and a normal breathing cycle. The air in the room was mixed with tracer gas R134a. Clean air was supplied isothermally from three nozzles with circular, four-leafed clover, and six-edged star openings of 0.025 m (0.08 ft...... over the interaction between the inserted jets and the free convection flow was efficient. Over 80% clean PV air was measured in inhalation. The worst performing nozzle was the four-leafed clover: its best performance yielded 23% clean air inhalation, at the shortest distance and the highest velocity...

  10. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  11. Coagulation, flocculation, dissolved air flotation and filtration in the removal of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. from water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Fernando César; Sabogal-Paz, Lyda Patricia

    2017-11-15

    Removing protozoa from a water supply using coagulation, flocculation, dissolved air flotation (DAF) and filtration on a bench scale was evaluated. Calcium carbonate flocculation with and without immunomagnetic separation (IMS) was chosen to detect Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in the studied samples. The results indicated that DAF removed between 1.31 log and 1.79 log of cysts and between 1.08 log and 1.42 log of oocysts. The performance was lower in filtration, with the removal of 1.07 log-1.44 log for cysts and 0.82 log-0.98 log for oocysts. The coagulation, flocculation, DAF and filtration steps removed more than 2.2 log of cysts and oocysts from the water studied. However, protozoa were detected in the filtered water, even with turbidity values of 0.2 NTU. The recovery of the detection method met the international criteria and was higher when there was no IMS. Including the third acid dissociation in the IMS was critical to improve the performance of the protocol tested. However, there was an increase in the technical and analytical complexity and costs. It was also observed that the efficiency of the treatment was linked to the performance of the selected method of detecting protozoa.

  12. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (air pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Air pollution from flue gases, exhaust gases, odors, dust, smog, microorganisms, etc.; Control techniques and equipment; Sampling and analytical techniques, and equipment; Waste gas recovery; Biological and ecological effects; Air pollution chemistry; Acid precipitation; Atmospheric motion; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

  13. The Design of Compressed air system in the Conventional Facility of Proton Accelerator Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, G. P.; Kim, J. Y.; Cho, S. W.; Min, Y. S.; Mun, K. J.; Cho, J. S.; Nam, J. M.; Park, S. S.; Jo, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    The Compressed Air System (CA) supplies compressed air for all air operated devices and instruments, pneumatic equipment and other miscellaneous air user points in the Conventional Facilities of Proton Engineering Frontier Project. CA System consist of the Instrument Air System and the Service air System. The Instrument Air System supplies oil-free, dried, filtered, and compressed instrument air for the air operated control devices and instruments in the Accelerator and Beam Application Building, Ion Beam Application Building, Utility Building and etc.. The Service air System supplies compressed air for pneumatic equipment and other services

  14. The state of transboundary air pollution: Effects and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This fifth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention of Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the sixth session of the Executive Body held at Sofia (Bulgaria) from 31 October to 4 November 1988. Part one is the annual review of strategies and policies for air pollution abatement. Country-by-country, recent legislative and regulatory developments are summarized, including ambient-air quality standards, fuel-quality standards, emission standards, as well as economic instruments for air pollution abatement. Part two summarizes the results of the third phase (1984-1986) of the Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP). Part three is an executive summary of the 1987 forest damage survey in Europe, carried out under the International Co-operative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests. This survey covered more than 50 per cent of all coniferous forests and about 40 per cent of the broadleaved forests in Europe. Part four describes the current geographical extent of acidification in rivers, lakes and reservoirs in the ECE region. Part five contains guidelines for determining the cost of emission control activities. The guidelines aim at harmonizing cost estimates and cost accounts for anti-pollution measures at the level of individual plants or companies. The proposed calculation scheme includes cost items related to investment, material and energy consumption, manpower and other costs, taking into account depreciation and revenues from by-product utilization. Refs

  15. Charging system of ECRH high-voltage power supply and its control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Guofu; Ding Tonghai; Liu Baohua; Jiang Shufang

    2003-01-01

    High-voltage power supply (HVPS) of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) for HT-7 and HT-7U is presently being constructed. The high voltage (100 kV) energy of HVPS is stored in the capacitor banks, and they can power one or two gyrotrons. All the operation of the charging system will be done by the control system, where the field signals are interfaced to programmable logic controller (PLC). The use of PLC not only simplifies the control system, but also enhances the reliability. The software written by using configuration software installed in the master computer allows for remote and multiple operator control, and the status and data information is also remotely available

  16. Simulation Modeling of Intelligent Control Algorithms for Constructing Autonomous Power Supply Systems with Improved Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimazov Ruslan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the issue of supplying autonomous robots by solar batteries. Low efficiency of modern solar batteries is a critical issue for the whole industry of renewable energy. The urgency of solving the problem of improved energy efficiency of solar batteries for supplying the robotic system is linked with the task of maximizing autonomous operation time. Several methods to improve the energy efficiency of solar batteries exist. The use of MPPT charge controller is one these methods. MPPT technology allows increasing the power generated by the solar battery by 15 – 30%. The most common MPPT algorithm is the perturbation and observation algorithm. This algorithm has several disadvantages, such as power fluctuation and the fixed time of the maximum power point tracking. These problems can be solved by using a sufficiently accurate predictive and adaptive algorithm. In order to improve the efficiency of solar batteries, autonomous power supply system was developed, which included an intelligent MPPT charge controller with the fuzzy logic-based perturbation and observation algorithm. To study the implementation of the fuzzy logic apparatus in the MPPT algorithm, in Matlab/Simulink environment, we developed a simulation model of the system, including solar battery, MPPT controller, accumulator and load. Results of the simulation modeling established that the use of MPPT technology had increased energy production by 23%; introduction of the fuzzy logic algorithm to MPPT controller had greatly increased the speed of the maximum power point tracking and neutralized the voltage fluctuations, which in turn reduced the power underproduction by 2%.

  17. Air Traffic ControL : FAA Order 7110.65K

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-17

    This order prescribes air traffic control procedures and phraseology for use by : personnel providing air traffic control services. Controllers are required to : be familiar with the provisions of this order that pertain to their operational : respon...

  18. 40 CFR 81.112 - Charleston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.112 Charleston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Charleston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (South Carolina) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... Quality Control Region: Region 1. 81.107Greenwood Intrastate Air Quality Control Region: Region 2. 81...

  19. The supply and demand for pollution control: Evidence from wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, V.D.; Schwarz, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determination of pollution control from wastewater treatment plants as an economic decision facing local or regional regulators. Pollution control is measured by plant design effluent concentration levels and is fully endogenous in a supply- and-demand model of treatment choice. On the supply side, plant costs are a function of the design treatment level of the plant, and on the demand side, treatment level is a function of both the costs of control and the regional or regulatory preferences for control. We find evidence that the economic model of effluent choice by local regulators has a good deal of explanatory power. We find evidence that wastewater treatment plant removal of biological oxygen demand (BOD) is sensitive to many local factors including the size of the treatment plant, the flow rate of the receiving water, the population density of the surrounding area, regional growth, state sensitivity to environmental issues, state income, and the extent to which the damages from pollution fall on other states. We find strong evidence that regulators are sensitive to capital costs in determining the design level of BOD effluent reduction at a plant. Thus, proposed reductions in federal subsidies for wastewater treatment plant construction are likely to have significant adverse effects on water quality. ?? 1992.

  20. Options for reducing food waste by ‘Quality Controlled Logistics’ using intelligent packaging along the supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heising, J.K.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Dekker, M.

    2017-01-01

    Optimizing supply chain management can help to reduce food waste. This article describes how intelligent packaging can be used to reduce food waste when used in supply chain management based on Quality Controlled Logistics (QCL). Intelligent packaging senses compounds in the package that correlate

  1. Development of microcontroller based remote control system for HV power supply of ECR ion source for ADSS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.; Misra, A.; Thakur, S.K.; Pandey, H.K.; Pandit, V.S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we will describe the design and development of the microcontroller based interface card used to control and monitor the operation of High Voltage Power supply 120kV/50mA (HVPS). This power supply is deployed for the extraction of proton beam from the microwave ion source in the ADSS project. (author)

  2. Development of Fuzzy Logic Control for Vehicle Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Nasution

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle air conditioning system is experimentally investigated. Measurements were taken during the experimental period at a time interval of one minute for a set point temperature of 22, 23 and 24oC with internal heat loads of 0, 1 and 2 kW. The cabin temperature and the speed of the compressor were varied and the performance of the system, energy consumption and energy saving ware analyzed. The main objective of the experimental work is to evaluate the energy saving obtained when the fuzzy logic control (FLC algorithm, through an inverter, continuously regulates the compressor speed. It demonstrates better control of the compressor operation in terms of energy consumption as compared to the control by using a thermostat imposing On/Off cycles on the compressor at the nominal frequency of 50 Hz. The experimental set-up consists of original components from the air conditioning system of a compact passenger vehicle. The experimental results indicate that the proposed technique can save energy and improve indoor comfort significantly for vehicle air conditioning systems compared to the conventional (On/Off control technique.

  3. Control room envelope unfiltered air inleakage test protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagus, P.L.; Grot, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    In 1983, the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) recommended that the US NRC develop a control room HVAC performance testing protocol. To date no such protocol has been forthcoming. Beginning in mid-1994, an effort was funded by NRC under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant to develop several simplified test protocols based on the principles of tracer gas testing in order to measure the total unfiltered inleakage entering a CRE during emergency mode operation of the control room ventilation system. These would allow accurate assessment of unfiltered air inleakage as required in SRP 6.4. The continuing lack of a standard protocol is unfortunate since one of the significant parameters required to calculate operator dose is the amount of unfiltered air inleakage into the control room. Often it is assumed that, if the Control Room Envelope (CRE) is maintained at +1/8 in. w.g. differential pressure relative to the surroundings, no significant unfiltered inleakage can occur it is further assumed that inleakage due to door openings is the only source of unfiltered air. 23 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Control room envelope unfiltered air inleakage test protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagus, P.L. [Lagus Applied Technology, San Diego, CA (United States); Grot, R.A. [Lagus Applied Technology, Olney, MD (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In 1983, the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) recommended that the US NRC develop a control room HVAC performance testing protocol. To date no such protocol has been forthcoming. Beginning in mid-1994, an effort was funded by NRC under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant to develop several simplified test protocols based on the principles of tracer gas testing in order to measure the total unfiltered inleakage entering a CRE during emergency mode operation of the control room ventilation system. These would allow accurate assessment of unfiltered air inleakage as required in SRP 6.4. The continuing lack of a standard protocol is unfortunate since one of the significant parameters required to calculate operator dose is the amount of unfiltered air inleakage into the control room. Often it is assumed that, if the Control Room Envelope (CRE) is maintained at +1/8 in. w.g. differential pressure relative to the surroundings, no significant unfiltered inleakage can occur it is further assumed that inleakage due to door openings is the only source of unfiltered air. 23 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Voltage controller design for air conditioning; Diseno de controlador de voltaje para aire acondicionado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Andrade, R; Lopez Villalobos, J.J; Valderrama Chairez, J; Ramirez, R.L. [Instituto Tecnologico de Nuevo Leon, Guadalupe, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)]. E-mails: roxana_garciaandrade@yahoo.com; xe2n@yahoo.com.mx; jose.valderrama@ieee.org

    2013-03-15

    This paper discusses the design of a voltage controller for an air conditioning system in order to generate additional power in activation or startup of the system, for which as a first stage is presented the modeling power generation of electric current through alternative means, such as solar energy. The results of this study will be the basis for development of the physical prototype of this system controller. [Spanish] El presente trabajo trata sobre el diseno de un controlador de voltaje para un sistema de aire acondicionado con el fin de generar energia adicional en la activacion o arranque de dicho sistema, para lo cual como primer fase se presenta el modelado de la generacion de corriente electrica mediante medios alternos, como lo es la energia solar. Los resultados de este trabajo seran la base para desarrollo del prototipo fisico de este sistema controlador.

  6. Boundary conditions for natural supply ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, D.W.L.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Wit, de M.H.; Zeiler, W.; Seppänen, O.; Säteri, J.

    2007-01-01

    The development of an air jet from a controlled natural ventilation grill for different outdoor conditions is studied. Extensive laboratory measurements are taken in different situations, while the air flow rate through the grill is kept constant. The grill setting and supply temperature are varied.

  7. Means of control of the public authorities as participants in public limited energy supply companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kermel, C.

    1994-01-01

    Despite the fundamental studies by Emmerich and Puettner, the control of publicly owned companies by the state as a majority shareholder has not evolved to a generally accepted form. With a mind to the discussion on a nuclear phase-out at Hamburgische Electrizitaetswerke AG the author examines the scope offered by the law on public limited companies for realising the interests of the state as a shareholder. She arrives at interesting conclusions regarding the means to this end and the legal consequences of a phase-out decision. Lower supply companies are an ideal object of study for the purposes of this work. (orig./UA) [de

  8. Reliability analysis of the automatic control and power supply of reactor equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monori, Pal; Nagy, J.A.; Meszaros, Zoltan; Konkoly, Laszlo; Szabo, Antal; Nagy, Laszlo

    1988-01-01

    Based on reliability analysis the shortcomings of nuclear facilities are discovered. Fault tree types constructed for the technology of automatic control and for power supply serve as input data of the ORCHARD 2 computer code. In order to charaterize the reliability of the system, availability, failure rates and time intervals between failures are calculated. The results of the reliability analysis of the feedwater system of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant showed that the system consisted of elements of similar reliabilities. (V.N.) 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  9. Study of matrix converter as a current-controlled power supply in QUEST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Jiang, Yi; Nakamura, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Because QUEST tokamak has a divertor configuration with a higher κ and a negative n-index, a precise power supply with a rapid response is needed to control the vertical position of the plasma. A matrix converter is a direct power conversion device that uses an array of controlled bidirectional switches as the main power elements for creating a variable-output current system. This paper presents a novel three-phase to two-phase topological matrix converter as a proposed power supply that stabilizes the plasma vertical position and achieves unity input power factor. An indirect control strategy in which the matrix converter is split into a virtual rectifier stage and a virtual inverter stage is adopted. In the virtual rectifier stage, the instantaneous active power and reactive power are decoupled on the basis of system equations derived from the DQ transformation; hence, unity power factor is achieved. Space vector pulse width modulation is adopted to determine the switching time of each switch in the virtual rectifier; the output voltage of the virtual rectifier is adjusted by the virtual inverter stage to obtain the desired load current. Theoretical analyses and simulation results are provided to verify its feasibility. (author)

  10. Digital remote control system for power supplies of particle channel magnetooptical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetrov, P.B.; Ermolina, G.P.; Kuznetsov, V.S.; Mojbenko, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Current control of magnetooptical elements of accelerator particle channels is based on control of reference voltage of current stabilizers. Advent of industrial multidigit (12 bits) integral analog-to-digital converters permitted to develop simple digital sources of reference voltage. A digital control system of 30 spatially remoted power supplies of magnetooptical elements of particle channels on the basis of the ''Elektronika-60'' microcomputer is described. The microcomputer is connected by the standard communication line (20 mA) with the SM-4 computer. The ''Summa'' crate is connected with the microcomputer through the branch driver. Digit data are transmitted by the multibranch trunk of sequential communication (Manchester-2 code) at the rate of 0.5 Mband. Feedback was realized by connection of analog signals through the distributed commutator to the measuring line with a digital voltmeter

  11. The control systems for the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron ring power supplies

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhn, H K

    1981-01-01

    The dedicated control system for the 16 voltage-controlled Main Ring pulsed supplies, allowing the reproduction of the desired B and Q fields to better than +or-2*10/sup -4/ at injection is described. It outlines both the hardware (smoothed function generators) and software side. Current measurements via DVMs or the B train off the reference magnets are used as inputs to the correction algorithm which is based on successive approximation. The algorithm enables the machine operators to trim selectively both the closed orbit and/or the betatron wave number of the machine within 1 to a few cycles. The control system related computer memory requirements are given. (0 refs).

  12. Energy efficient air inlet humidity control; Energiezuinige inblaasvochtregeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gielen, J.H. [C Point, DLV Plant, Horst (Netherlands)

    2005-03-15

    This project report describes the results of research conducted on the control of the inlet, humidification and dehumidification, based on the air inlet humidity rate. The project was carried out at a mushroom cultivation business in Heijen, the Netherlands [Dutch] Deze projectrapportage geeft de resultaten van het onderzoek naar het regelen van de luchtklep, bevochtiging en ontvochtiging, op basis van het inblaasvochtgehalte. Het project werd uitgevoerd op een champignonkwekerij in Heijen.

  13. Saturable reactor-controlled power supply system for TCT/TFTR neutral beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.R.; Hopkins, D.B.; Dexter, W.L.; Kuenning, R.W.; Smith, B.J.

    1975-11-01

    Each neutral beam source requires one major power supply, the acceleration supply, and four auxiliary power supplies. The power supplies are designed to permit independent interruption of current to any source and crowbarring within 20 μsec, in the event of a source spark, while not disturbing the normal pulsing of all other adjacent sources. The sources are described

  14. The effects of electrostatic particle filtration and supply-air filter condition in classrooms on the performance of schoolwork by children (RP-1257)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David Peter; Jensen, Kasper Lynge

    2008-01-01

    the lower the outdoor air supply rate. There were no consistent effects of this reduction on the performance of schoolwork, on the children's perception of the classroom environment, on symptom intensiiy, or on air quality as perceived by the sensory panel. This suggests there are no short-term (acute...... the filters in use in other schools were not changed. The conditions were established for one week at a time in a blind crossover design with repeated measures on ten-to-twelve-year-old children. Pupils performed six exercises exemplifying different aspects of schoolwork as part of normal lessons...... and indicated their environmental perceptions and the intensity of any symptoms. A sensory panel of adults judged the air quality in the classrooms soon after the pupils left. Operating the electrostatic air cleaners considerably reduced the concentration of particles in the classrooms. The effect was greater...

  15. 40 CFR 81.104 - Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.104 Section 81.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.104 Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  16. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.43 Section 81.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial area...

  17. 40 CFR 81.31 - Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.31 Section 81.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.31 Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Rhode Island-Massachusetts) consists of the...

  18. 40 CFR 81.117 - Southeast Missouri Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.117 Section 81.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.117 Southeast Missouri Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeast Missouri Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  19. 40 CFR 81.90 - Androscoggin Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.90 Section 81.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.90 Androscoggin Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Androscoggin Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Maine-New Hampshire) consists of the territorial...

  20. 40 CFR 81.78 - Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.78 Section 81.78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.78 Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maine) consists of the territorial area...

  1. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.45 Section 81.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of the...

  2. 40 CFR 81.30 - Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.30 Section 81.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.30 Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Milwaukee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wisconsin) has been renamed the Southeastern...

  3. 40 CFR 81.123 - Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.123 Section 81.123 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.123 Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  4. 40 CFR 81.98 - Burlington-Keokuk Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.98 Section 81.98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.98 Burlington-Keokuk Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Burlington-Keokuk Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Iowa) is revised to consist of the...

  5. 40 CFR 81.16 - Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.16 Section 81.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.16 Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Colorado) consists of the territorial area...

  6. 40 CFR 81.49 - Southeast Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.49 Section 81.49 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.49 Southeast Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeast Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region is redesignated to consist of the territorial area...

  7. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma Intrastate...

  8. 40 CFR 81.59 - Cumberland-Keyser Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.59 Section 81.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.59 Cumberland-Keyser Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Cumberland-Keyser Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Maryland-West Virginia) has been revised to consist...

  9. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.20 Section 81.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist of...

  10. 40 CFR 81.97 - Southwest Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.97 Section 81.97 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.97 Southwest Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwest Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  11. 40 CFR 81.101 - Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.101 Section 81.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.101 Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Iowa-Wisconsin) consists of the...

  12. 40 CFR 81.79 - Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.79 Section 81.79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.79 Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Tulsa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate...

  13. 40 CFR 81.48 - Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.48 Section 81.48 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.48 Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Vermont-New York) has been revised to consist of the...

  14. 40 CFR 81.116 - Northern Missouri Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.116 Section 81.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.116 Northern Missouri Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northern Missouri Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  15. 40 CFR 81.24 - Niagara Frontier Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.24 Section 81.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.24 Niagara Frontier Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Niagara Frontier Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New York) consists of the territorial area...

  16. 40 CFR 81.106 - Greenville-Spartanburg Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.106 Section 81.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.106 Greenville-Spartanburg Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Greenville-Spartanburg Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (South Carolina) consists of the territorial...

  17. 40 CFR 81.44 - Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.44 Section 81.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.44 Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Mississippi-Tennessee) consists of the...

  18. 40 CFR 81.67 - Lake Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.67 Lake Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Menominee-Escanaba (Michigan)-Marinette (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Lake Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wisconsin) and revised to consist of the territorial area...

  19. 40 CFR 81.51 - Portland Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.51 Portland Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Portland Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Oregon-Washington) has been revised to consist of the territorial area... Portland Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Oregon-Washington) will be referred to by Washington...

  20. 40 CFR 81.34 - Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.34 Section 81.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.34 Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  1. 40 CFR 81.19 - Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.19 Section 81.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.19 Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Massachusetts) consists of the territorial area...

  2. 40 CFR 81.28 - Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.28 Section 81.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.28 Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maryland) consists of the territorial area...

  3. 40 CFR 81.119 - Western Tennessee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.119 Section 81.119 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.119 Western Tennessee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Western Tennessee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  4. 40 CFR 81.115 - Northwest Nevada Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.115 Section 81.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.115 Northwest Nevada Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northwest Nevada Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  5. 40 CFR 81.41 - Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.41 Section 81.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.41 Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alabama) has been revised to consist of the...

  6. 40 CFR 81.14 - Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.14 Section 81.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.14 Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Indiana) is revised to consist of the...

  7. 40 CFR 81.118 - Southwest Missouri Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.118 Section 81.118 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.118 Southwest Missouri Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwest Missouri Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  8. 40 CFR 81.89 - Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.89 Section 81.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.89 Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wyoming) consists of the territorial area...

  9. 40 CFR 81.87 - Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.87 Section 81.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.87 Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Idaho) consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  10. 40 CFR 81.23 - Southwest Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.23 Section 81.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.23 Southwest Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwest Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region is redesignated to consist of the territorial...

  11. 40 CFR 81.75 - Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.75 Section 81.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.75 Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina-South Carolina) has been revised...

  12. 40 CFR 81.122 - Mississippi Delta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.122 Section 81.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.122 Mississippi Delta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Mississippi Delta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  13. 40 CFR 81.120 - Middle Tennessee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.120 Section 81.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.120 Middle Tennessee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Middle Tennessee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  14. Modeling and Analyzing Transient Military Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    arrive and be serviced. In general, for n flights, the number of ways that flights can enter and leave the ATC is given by the nth Catalan number ...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number . 1. REPORT DATE DEC 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00...2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Modeling and Analyzing Transient Military Air Traffic Control 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  15. Development and Evaluation of Control System for Microgrid Supplying Heat and Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yasuhiro; Koshio, Masanobu; Nakamura, Shizuka

    Photovoltaic (PV) and Wind Turbine (WT) generation systems are expected to offer solutions to reduce green house gases and become more widely used in the future. However, the chief technical drawback of using these kinds of weather-dependent generators is the difficulty of forecasting their output, which can have negative impacts on commercial grids if a large number of them are introduced. Thus, this problem may hinder the wider application of PV and WT generation systems. The Regional Power Grid with Renewable Energy Resources Project was launched to seek a solution to this problem. The scope of the project is to develop, operate, and evaluate a Dispersed Renewable Energy Supply System with the ability to adapt the total energy output in response to changes in weather and demand. Such a system would reduce the impact that PV and WT generation systems have on commercial grids and allow the interconnection of more Dispersed Energy Resources (DER). In other words, the main objective of this project is to demonstrate an integrated energy management system, or a type of microgrid [1], as a new way of introducing DERs. The system has been in operation since October 2005 and will continue operation until March 2008. Through the project period, the data on power quality, system efficiency, operation cost, and environmental burden will be gathered and a cost-benefit analysis of the system will be undertaken. In this paper, firstly we introduce the concept of microgrid for reducing negative impact of natural energy, and secondly illustrate the structure of electric and thermal supply control system for Microgrid, especially for the Hachinohe demonstration project. The control system consists of four stages; weekly operation planning, economic dispatching control, tie-line control and local frequency control. And finally demonstration results and evaluation results are shown.

  16. Control strategy and experimental study on a novel defrosting method for air-source heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Caihua; Zhang Xiaosong; Li Xiuwei; Chen Zhenqian

    2010-01-01

    A new defrosting method - the sensible heat defrosting method, aiming at shelving the various disadvantages of the conventional reverse cycle defrosting was proposed in this paper. The mechanism and process of this method was analysed. To guarantee the reliability, the self-organizing control algorithm with self-learning function was introduced based on the cardinal fuzzy control algorithm. Moreover, the control strategy was enacted; the corresponding self-organizing fuzzy control system was developed; the Micro Controller Unit (MCU) based control unit was accomplished; and the experimental study was conducted to investigate the sample machine of air-source heat pump system. The results of the experiments showed that the self-organizing control algorithm has good control characteristic and effect. On one hand, the adverse shock from the conventional reverse cycle defrosting to the refrigeration system could be avoided through this proposed method; on the other hand, the 'oil rush' could also be eliminated. Besides, the thermal comfort could be greatly improved since the temperature fluctuation range of the supplied water is narrowed by applying this new method in practice.

  17. Control of the Free Convective Flow around the Human Body for Enhanced Inhaled Air Quality: Application to a Seat-Incorporated Personalized Ventilation Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Krenek, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on methods for control of the free convective flow around the human body, with the aim of improving inhaled air quality. The methods were studied with sea-incorporated personalized ventilation (PV)-two PV nozzles placed sideways at the head level of a seated occupant supplied...

  18. ATC-lab(Advanced): an air traffic control simulator with realism and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fothergill, Selina; Loft, Shayne; Neal, Andrew

    2009-02-01

    ATC-lab(Advanced) is a new, publicly available air traffic control (ATC) simulation package that provides both realism and experimental control. ATC-lab(Advanced) simulations are realistic to the extent that the display features (including aircraft performance) and the manner in which participants interact with the system are similar to those used in an operational environment. Experimental control allows researchers to standardize air traffic scenarios, control levels of realism, and isolate specific ATC tasks. Importantly, ATC-lab(Advanced) also provides the programming control required to cost effectively adapt simulations to serve different research purposes without the need for technical support. In addition, ATC-lab(Advanced) includes a package for training participants and mathematical spreadsheets for designing air traffic events. Preliminary studies have demonstrated that ATC-lab(Advanced) is a flexible tool for applied and basic research.

  19. 75 FR 18142 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ...The EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Texas State Implementation Plan (SIP) that amend Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles. The State submitted these revisions on May 15, 2006, October 10, 2006, January 17, 2008, and February 28, 2008. These revisions establish the Rebate Grant Process and the Texas Clean School Bus Program under the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP), further amend the TERP, and amend the Locally Enforced Motor Vehicle Idling Limitations. The EPA is proposing to approve these SIP revisions because they allow for clarity and consistency of the SIP requirements. The EPA is proposing to approve these revisions pursuant to section 110 of the Federal Clean Air Act (CAA).

  20. An Inventory Controlled Supply Chain Model Based on Improved BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inventory control is a key factor for reducing supply chain cost and increasing customer satisfaction. However, prediction of inventory level is a challenging task for managers. As one of the widely used techniques for inventory control, standard BP neural network has such problems as low convergence rate and poor prediction accuracy. Aiming at these problems, a new fast convergent BP neural network model for predicting inventory level is developed in this paper. By adding an error offset, this paper deduces the new chain propagation rule and the new weight formula. This paper also applies the improved BP neural network model to predict the inventory level of an automotive parts company. The results show that the improved algorithm not only significantly exceeds the standard algorithm but also outperforms some other improved BP algorithms both on convergence rate and prediction accuracy.