WorldWideScience

Sample records for controlling adult populations

  1. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension among Saudi Adult Population: A National Survey

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    Abdalla A. Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed at estimating prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and predictors of hypertension among Saudi adult population. Multistage stratified sampling was used to select 4758 adult participants. Three blood pressure measurements using an automatic sphygmomanometer, sociodemographics, and antihypertensive modalities were obtained. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 25.5%. Only 44.7% of hypertensives were aware, 71.8% of them received pharmacotherapy, and only 37.0% were controlled. Awareness was significantly associated with gender, age, geographical location, occupation, and comorbidity. Applying drug treatment was significantly more among older patients, but control was significantly higher among younger patients and patients with higher level of physical activity. Significant predictors of hypertension included male gender, urbanization, low education, low physical activity, obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. In conclusion prevalence is high, but awareness, treatment, and control levels are low indicating a need to develop a national program for prevention, early detection, and control of hypertension.

  2. Population pharmacokinetics of rocuronium delivered by target-controlled infusion in adult patients

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    YANG Lu; WANG Hui-ling; ZHANG Li-ping; BI Shan-shan; LU Wei; YANG Ba-xian; GUO Xiang-yang

    2010-01-01

    Background Target-controlled infusion (TCI) has been recently developed and successfully implemented in clinical practice. The current study was to estimate the population pharmacokinetics of rocuronium TCI in adult patients using nonlinear mixed-effects model (NONMEM), and to investigate the influence of relevant factors in adult patients.Methods Fourteen ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ patients undergoing elective laparoscopy operation with general anesthesia were included.After induction, all patients received rocuronium by TCI system. The beginning target plasma concentration (Cpt) was 2.0 μg/ml, then increased Cpt according to the neuromuscular transmission monitoring. The endpoint of Cpt was determined when the T1 scale was blocked by 90%-95%. TCI rocuronium was stopped 30 minutes before the end of the operation.Arterial blood was drawn before anesthesia at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 360 minutes after the infusion of rocuronium was stopped for the analysis of plasma concentrations of rocuronium by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The population pharmacokinetics analysis was performed using NONMEM program.Results The pharmacokinetics of TCI rocuronium in adult patients was best described by a three-comparment model.Pharmacokintic parameters were clearance (CL)1=0.205 L/min, CL2=0.324 L/min, CL3=0.0292 L/min, volumes of distribution (V)1=4.00 L, V2=2.28 L, V3=4.26 L, Vdss=10.54 L. Both age and weight as covariates affected the pharmacokinetic parameters. V1 and CL1 were negatively correlated with patient age. CL1 was positively correlated with weight.Conclusions No pharmacokinetic change was noted when rocuronium was administered via TCI. Both age and weight as covariates affected the pharmacokinetic parameters.

  3. Asthma as a risk factor for zoster in adults: A population-based case-control study.

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    Kwon, Hyo Jin; Bang, Duk Won; Kim, Eun Na; Wi, Chung-Il; Yawn, Barbara P; Wollan, Peter C; Lahr, Brian D; Ryu, Euijung; Juhn, Young J

    2016-05-01

    We recently reported an increased risk of herpes zoster (shingles or zoster) in children with asthma, but little is known about whether the same is true for adults with asthma. We determined whether asthma is associated with an increased risk of zoster in adults. This study was designed as a population-based case-control study. Zoster cases during the study period were identified among adults (aged ≥50 years) who resided in Olmsted County, Minnesota. We compared the frequency of asthma between zoster cases and birthday- and sex-matched control subjects (1:2 matching) without a history of zoster. Asthma status was ascertained based on predetermined criteria. A conditional logistic regression model was used to assess the association of asthma with risk of zoster. A total of 371 zoster cases and their 742 matched control subjects were enrolled. Of the 371 cases, 246 (66%) were female, 348 (94%) were white, and the mean ± SD age was 66.8 ± 10.7 years. Twenty-three percent (n = 87) of zoster cases had a history of asthma compared with 15% (n = 114) of control subjects. Controlling for pertinent covariates and confounders, there was a significant association between a history of asthma and risk of zoster (adjusted odds ratio, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.20-2.42; P = .003). The population attributable risk percentage for asthma was about 10%. Asthma is an unrecognized risk factor for zoster in adults. Consideration should be given to immunizing adults with asthma aged more than 50 years as a target group. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sexuality among Spanish adults with diabetes: a population-based case control study.

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    Jiménez-Garcia, Rodrigo; Martinez-Huedo, Maria Angeles; Hernandez-Barrera, Valentin; De Andres, Ana Lopez; Jimenez-Trujillo, Isabel; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar

    2012-12-01

    To describe and compare sexuality between subjects with diabetes with matched non-diabetic controls. Population based case control study using individual data from the Spanish National Sexual Health Survey. Diabetes status was self reported, we selected type 2 patients. We identified 461 diabetes sufferers. Two controls were matched by age, sex and sexual partner for each diabetic case. Sexuality measures included: sexual activity, importance of sex, satisfaction with partner, bothersome with one's sexual life and self-rated sexual health. Independent variables included: socio-demographics, physical health, chronic diseases and medications use. No differences were found in "Sexually activity", "Importance of sex" or "Bothersome" between those with and without diabetes. Dissatisfaction with partner was 25% in women with diabetes and 12.9% in non-diabetic controls (Adjusted-OR 1.82 95%CI 1.02-4.85). Diabetes sufferers reported sexual health as "fair/poor/very poor" more than their non-diabetic control, 58.1% vs. 45.1% for women (Adjusted-OR 1.74 95%CI 1.15-2.63) and 54.3% vs. 38% for men (Adjusted-OR 1.88 95%CI 1.29-2.75). Among diabetes sufferers "fair/poor/very poor" sexual health was associated with poorer physical health, not having a sexual partner and among men taking heart medications. Women and men with diabetes have significantly worse sexuality measures than non diabetic controls. Copyright © 2012 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in an adult type 2 diabetes Spanish population between 2003 and 2009.

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    Carmen de Burgos-Lunar

    Full Text Available In patients with type 2 diabetes, the prevalence of hypertension is higher than in non-diabetic subjects. Despite the high cardiovascular risk involving hypertension in these patients, its prevalence and control are not well known. The aims of this study were: to estimate the hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in Spanish adults with type 2 diabetes attended in Primary Care; and to analyse its time trend from 2003 to 2009. A serial cross-sectional study from 2003 to 2009 was performed in 21 Primary Care Centres in Madrid. The study population comprised all patients with diagnosed type 2 diabetes in their computerised medical history. Overall annual prevalence during the period 2003-2009 was calculated from and according to sex and age groups. Linear trend tests, regression lines and coefficients of determination were used. In 2003 89.78% (CI 87.92-91.64 of patients with type 2 diabetes suffered hypertension and 94.76% (CI: 92.85-96.67 in 2009. This percentage was greater for women and for patients over 65 years old. 30% of patients suffered previously undiagnosed hypertension in 2003 and 23.1% in 2009. 97% of diagnosed patients received pharmacological treatment and 28.79% reached the blood pressure objective in 2009. The average number of antihypertensive drugs taken was 2.72 in 2003 and 3.27 in 2009. Only 5.2% of patients with type 2 diabetes show blood pressure levels below 130/80 mmHg. Although significant improvements have been achieved in the diagnosis and control of hypertension in people with type 2 diabetes, these continue to remain far from optimum.

  6. Adult vaccination strategies for the control of pertussis in the United States: an economic evaluation including the dynamic population effects.

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    Laurent Coudeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior economic evaluations of adult and adolescent vaccination strategies against pertussis have reached disparate conclusions. Using static approaches only, previous studies failed to analytically include the indirect benefits derived from herd immunity as well as the impact of vaccination on the evolution of disease incidence over time. METHODS: We assessed the impact of different pertussis vaccination strategies using a dynamic compartmental model able to consider pertussis transmission. We then combined the results with economic data to estimate the relative cost-effectiveness of pertussis immunization strategies for adolescents and adults in the US. The analysis compares combinations of programs targeting adolescents, parents of newborns (i.e. cocoon strategy, or adults of various ages. RESULTS: In the absence of adolescent or adult vaccination, pertussis incidence among adults is predicted to more than double in 20 years. Implementing an adult program in addition to childhood and adolescent vaccination either based on 1 a cocoon strategy and a single booster dose or 2 a decennial routine vaccination would maintain a low level of pertussis incidence in the long run for all age groups (respectively 30 and 20 cases per 100,000 person years. These strategies would also result in significant reductions of pertussis costs (between -77% and -80% including additional vaccination costs. The cocoon strategy complemented by a single booster dose is the most cost-effective one, whereas the decennial adult vaccination is slightly more effective in the long run. CONCLUSIONS: By providing a high level of disease control, the implementation of an adult vaccination program against pertussis appears to be highly cost-effective and often cost-saving.

  7. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control and risk factors related to hypertension among urban adults in Inner Mongolia 2014: differences between Mongolian and Han populations.

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    Li, Guoju; Wang, Hailing; Wang, Ke; Wang, Wenrui; Dong, Fen; Qian, Yonggang; Gong, Haiying; Xu, Guodong; Li, Yanlong; Pan, Li; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Guangjin; Shan, Guangliang

    2016-04-01

    Han and Mongolian populations constitute approximately 96% of the population of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and the two ethnic groups have different genetic backgrounds and lifestyle. We aim to assess the prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and related risk factors of hypertension among urban adults in Inner Mongolia, with the comparison of the differences between Mongolian and Han populations in this respect. Three thousand two hundred fifty-one individuals aged 20-80 years (2326 Han and 925 Mongolian) were selected using a multistage cluster sampling method from Inner Mongolia in 2014. The adjusted prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were evaluated by the Logistic regression. In addition, possible interactions were also tested. When interactions were found significant, strata-specific analysis were performed. Multivariate logistic regression was used for estimating independent associations between risk factors and hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was 27.47% for Han population, 31.46% for Mongolian population. The adjusted prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were 26.45, 65.43, 78.24 and 48.28% in Han, and 31.30, 68.22, 85.57 and 50.55% in Mongolian, respectively. There was no significant difference in the adjusted awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among Mongolian and Han adult residents (all P >0.05). Lower prevalence of hypertension was associated with younger age and healthy weight in both Mongolian and Han adults. Within Han adults, high education, moderate physical activity and non-alcohol drinkers were additionally associated with lower prevalence of hypertension, whereas within Mongolian adults, lower prevalence was associated with being female. Among residents with medium education level, nondrinkers had 0.60 times lower odds of having hypertension than current drinkers (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.44-0.82); among residents with high education level, nondrinkers has 0

  8. Cairo: repackaging population control.

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    Simons, H

    1995-01-01

    Aid agencies, charities, and other nongovernmental organizations once denounced population control programs as racist interference in the third world. Yet, at the United Nations Conference on Population and Development in Cairo last September, these same organizations endorsed very similar ideas. The U.N. can now claim that even its fiercest critics not only have muted their criticism of population control programs but now positively endorse them. Over the last 30 years, population control has been consciously repackaged by the U.S. establishment. The image of population control has changed from being overtly anti-third world to being about giving the people of the third world--especially women--basic rights in family planning. Wrapped up in the language of women's empowerment and environmentalism, the establishment's old arguments about there being too many nonwhite babies in the world, have, unfortunately, won the day.

  9. Daily physical activities and sports in adult survivors of childhood cancer and healthy controls: a population-based questionnaire survey.

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    Corina S Rueegg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthy lifestyle including sufficient physical activity may mitigate or prevent adverse long-term effects of childhood cancer. We described daily physical activities and sports in childhood cancer survivors and controls, and assessed determinants of both activity patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a questionnaire survey including all children diagnosed with cancer 1976-2003 at age 0-15 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry, who survived ≥5 years and reached adulthood (≥20 years. Controls came from the population-based Swiss Health Survey. We compared the two populations and determined risk factors for both outcomes in separate multivariable logistic regression models. The sample included 1058 survivors and 5593 controls (response rates 78% and 66%. Sufficient daily physical activities were reported by 52% (n = 521 of survivors and 37% (n = 2069 of controls (p<0.001. In contrast, 62% (n = 640 of survivors and 65% (n = 3635 of controls reported engaging in sports (p = 0.067. Risk factors for insufficient daily activities in both populations were: older age (OR for ≥35 years: 1.5, 95CI 1.2-2.0, female gender (OR 1.6, 95CI 1.3-1.9, French/Italian Speaking (OR 1.4, 95CI 1.1-1.7, and higher education (OR for university education: 2.0, 95CI 1.5-2.6. Risk factors for no sports were: being a survivor (OR 1.3, 95CI 1.1-1.6, older age (OR for ≥35 years: 1.4, 95CI 1.1-1.8, migration background (OR 1.5, 95CI 1.3-1.8, French/Italian speaking (OR 1.4, 95CI 1.2-1.7, lower education (OR for compulsory schooling only: 1.6, 95CI 1.2-2.2, being married (OR 1.7, 95CI 1.5-2.0, having children (OR 1.3, 95CI 1.4-1.9, obesity (OR 2.4, 95CI 1.7-3.3, and smoking (OR 1.7, 95CI 1.5-2.1. Type of diagnosis was only associated with sports. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Physical activity levels in survivors were lower than recommended, but comparable to controls and

  10. Daily physical activities and sports in adult survivors of childhood cancer and healthy controls: a population-based questionnaire survey.

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    Rueegg, Corina S; von der Weid, Nicolas X; Rebholz, Cornelia E; Michel, Gisela; Zwahlen, Marcel; Grotzer, Michael; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2012-01-01

    Healthy lifestyle including sufficient physical activity may mitigate or prevent adverse long-term effects of childhood cancer. We described daily physical activities and sports in childhood cancer survivors and controls, and assessed determinants of both activity patterns. The Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a questionnaire survey including all children diagnosed with cancer 1976-2003 at age 0-15 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry, who survived ≥5 years and reached adulthood (≥20 years). Controls came from the population-based Swiss Health Survey. We compared the two populations and determined risk factors for both outcomes in separate multivariable logistic regression models. The sample included 1058 survivors and 5593 controls (response rates 78% and 66%). Sufficient daily physical activities were reported by 52% (n = 521) of survivors and 37% (n = 2069) of controls (psports (p = 0.067). Risk factors for insufficient daily activities in both populations were: older age (OR for ≥35 years: 1.5, 95CI 1.2-2.0), female gender (OR 1.6, 95CI 1.3-1.9), French/Italian Speaking (OR 1.4, 95CI 1.1-1.7), and higher education (OR for university education: 2.0, 95CI 1.5-2.6). Risk factors for no sports were: being a survivor (OR 1.3, 95CI 1.1-1.6), older age (OR for ≥35 years: 1.4, 95CI 1.1-1.8), migration background (OR 1.5, 95CI 1.3-1.8), French/Italian speaking (OR 1.4, 95CI 1.2-1.7), lower education (OR for compulsory schooling only: 1.6, 95CI 1.2-2.2), being married (OR 1.7, 95CI 1.5-2.0), having children (OR 1.3, 95CI 1.4-1.9), obesity (OR 2.4, 95CI 1.7-3.3), and smoking (OR 1.7, 95CI 1.5-2.1). Type of diagnosis was only associated with sports. Physical activity levels in survivors were lower than recommended, but comparable to controls and mainly determined by socio-demographic and cultural factors. Strategies to improve physical activity levels could be similar as for the general population.

  11. Coffee and tea consumption and risk of leukaemia in an adult population: A reanalysis of the Italian multicentre case-control study.

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    Parodi, Stefano; Merlo, Domenico Franco; Stagnaro, Emanuele

    2017-04-01

    Coffee and tea are the most frequently consumed beverages in the world. Their potential effect on the risk of developing different types of malignancies has been largely investigated, but studies on leukaemia in adults are scarce. The present investigation is aimed at evaluating the potential role of regular coffee and tea intake on the risk of adult leukaemia by reanalysing a large population based case-control study carried out in Italy, a country with a high coffee consumption and a low use of green tea. Interviewed subjects, recruited between 1990 and 1993 in 11 Italian areas, included 1771 controls and 651 leukaemia cases. Association between Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML), Acute Lymphoid Leukaemia, Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia, Chronic Lymphoid Leukaemia, and use of coffee and tea was evaluated by standard logistic regression. Odds Ratios (OR) were estimated adjusting for the following potential confounders: gender, age, residence area, smoking habit, educational level, previous chemotherapy treatment, alcohol consumption and exposure to electromagnetic fields, radiation, pesticides and aromatic hydrocarbons. No association was observed between regular use of coffee and any type of leukaemia. A small protective effect of tea intake was found among myeloid malignancies, which was more evident among AML (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94). However, no clear dose-response relation was found. The lower risk of leukaemia among regular coffee consumers, reported by a few of previous small studies, was not confirmed. The protective effect of tea on the AML risk is only partly consistent with results from other investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Adult height, nutrition, and population health.

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    Perkins, Jessica M; Subramanian, S V; Davey Smith, George; Özaltin, Emre

    2016-03-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence.

  13. Population control charts for population data.

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    Hansen, John P

    2007-01-01

    Healthcare managers are beginning to collect full population data, rather than sample data, on some patient and performance measures. For example, hospitals and healthcare systems already gather and store comprehensive data on admissions, ambulatory encounters, and other procedures. And as the electronic medical record is more widely used, complete population data will be collected on an even wider range of clinical measures, such as blood pressure and Laboratory values, in both inpatient and outpatient settings. To correctly monitor process quality when working with full population data, rather than sample data, healthcare managers will need appropriate statistical tools. Traditional control charts, which are used for tracking processes over time, are not suitable for such population data because they are based on the assumption that sample data are being collected. The author proposes a new type of control chart specifically for use with such population data: population control charts. These control charts can be used for monitoring processes that have output measures with continuous, binomial, or nonbinomial rate variables.

  14. Controlling Population with Pollution

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    Browne, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Population models are often discussed in algebra, calculus, and differential equations courses. In this article we will use the human population of the world as our application. After quick looks at two common models we'll investigate more deeply a model which incorporates the negative effect that accumulated pollution may have on population.

  15. Controlling Population with Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Population models are often discussed in algebra, calculus, and differential equations courses. In this article we will use the human population of the world as our application. After quick looks at two common models we'll investigate more deeply a model which incorporates the negative effect that accumulated pollution may have on population.

  16. Nocturia in the Dutch adult population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, L. van; Kooij, D.G.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of nocturia in the Dutch adult population, its association with sociodemographic and health characteristics, and to assess problems experienced by persons with nocturia. Subjects and Methods: In spring 2001 a telephone survey was conducted among a representative

  17. Occupational solvent exposure and adult chronic lymphocytic leukemia: No risk in a population-based case-control study in four Nordic countries.

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    Talibov, Madar; Auvinen, Anssi; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Hansen, Johnni; Martinsen, Jan-Ivar; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Pukkala, Eero

    2017-09-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of occupational solvent exposure on the risk of adult chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The current case-control study was nested in the Nordic Occupational Cancer Study (NOCCA) cohort. 20,615 CLL cases diagnosed in 1961-2005 in Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, and 103,075 population-based controls matched by year of birth, sex, and country were included. Occupational histories for cases and controls were obtained from census records in 1960, 1970, 1980/1981, and 1990. Exposure to selected solvents was estimated by using the NOCCA job-exposure matrix (NOCCA-JEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by using conditional logistic regression models. Overall, nonsignificant CLL risk elevations were observed for methylene chloride, perchloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Compared to unexposed, significantly increased risks were observed for cumulative perchloroethylene exposure ≤13.3 ppm-years (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.16-2.96) and average life-time perchloroethylene exposure ≤2.5 ppm (1.61, 95% CI 1.01-2.56) among women, and cumulative methylene chloride exposure ≤12.5 ppm-years (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.41) and 12.5-74.8 ppm-years (OR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.01-1.51) among men in an analysis with 5 years lag-time, though without dose-response pattern. Decreased CLL risk was observed for aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon solvents and toluene. This study did not support associations for solvent exposure and CLL. Observed weak associations for methylene chloride, perchloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane exposures, aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons and toluene were not consistent across sexes, and showed no gradient with amount of exposure. © 2017 UICC.

  18. Association of bariatric surgery with risk of acute care use for hypertension-related disease in obese adults: population-based self-controlled case series study.

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    Shimada, Yuichi J; Tsugawa, Yusuke; Iso, Hiroyasu; Brown, David F M; Hasegawa, Kohei

    2017-08-23

    Hypertension carries a large societal burden. Obesity is known as a risk factor for hypertension. However, little is known as to whether weight loss interventions reduce the risk of hypertension-related adverse events, such as acute care use (emergency department [ED] visit and/or unplanned hospitalization). We used bariatric surgery as an instrument for investigating the effect of large weight reduction on the risk of acute care use for hypertension-related disease in obese adults with hypertension. We performed a self-controlled case series study of obese patients with hypertension who underwent bariatric surgery using population-based ED and inpatient databases that recorded every bariatric surgery, ED visit, and hospitalization in three states (California, Florida, and Nebraska) from 2005 to 2011. The primary outcome was acute care use for hypertension-related disease. We used conditional logistic regression to compare each patient's risk of the outcome event during sequential 12-month periods, using pre-surgery months 13-24 as the reference period. We identified 980 obese patients with hypertension who underwent bariatric surgery. The median age was 48 years (interquartile range, 40-56 years), 74% were female, and 55% were non-Hispanic white. During the reference period, 17.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.4-20.2%) had a primary outcome event. The risk remained unchanged in the subsequent 12-month pre-surgery period (18.2% [95% CI, 15.7-20.6%]; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.02 [95% CI, 0.83-1.27]; P = 0.83). In the first 12-month period after bariatric surgery, the risk significantly decreased (10.5% [8.6-12.4%]; aOR 0.58 [95% CI, 0.45-0.74]; P bariatric surgery (12.9% [95% CI, 10.8-15.0%]; aOR 0.71 [95% CI, 0.57-0.90]; P = 0.005). By contrast, there was no significant reduction in the risk among obese patients who underwent non-bariatric surgery (i.e., cholecystectomy, hysterectomy, spinal fusion, or mastectomy). In this population-based study of

  19. Trends in population blood pressure and prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among middle-aged and older adults in a rural area of Northwest China from 1982 to 2010.

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    Yaling Zhao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess trends in average blood pressure levels and prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among adults in a rural area of Northwest China, and to determine associated risk factors. METHODS: Four cross-sectional population-based surveys were conducted between 1982 and 2010 among randomly selected adults in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Data on blood pressure, body mass index, family history of hypertension, and socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics were collected in similar way by trained investigators in four surveys. Data of 8575 participants aged 35-64 years was analyzed. Averages and proportions were adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Average blood pressure in the population has increased since 1982 from 76.9 mm Hg to 79.6 mm Hg in 2010 (diastolic and from 120.9 to 129.7 mm Hg (systolic. Prevalence of hypertension increased from 18.4% in 1982 to 30.5% in 2010, and awareness of hypertension increased from 16.8% to 38.4% in 2010. Treatment of hypertension increased from 1.0% in 1982 to 17.4% in 2010, and control of hypertension increased from 0.1% in 1982 to 3.5% in 2010. All these gradients were statistically significant (P<0.01 for trend. Population blood pressure and prevalence, awareness and treatment of hypertension were positively associated with increasing age, body mass index and having family history of hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Average blood pressure levels and the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among adults in rural areas of Hanzhong have increased since 1982. However, awareness, treatment and control rates remain low. Public health programs and practical strategies are required to improve prevention and control of hypertension in rural Northwest China. In particular, attention should be given to the elderly and obese, and to those with a family history of hypertension, while raising awareness and treatment among younger adults.

  20. [Population control and environment protection].

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    Qu, G

    1982-01-29

    Although many factors cause environmental pollution and damage, the most important and basic factor is a rapidly increasing population. Therefore, a balanced development of population and environment is essential. The pressure a rapidly increasing populaton exerts on the environment has many aspects. The pressure of population on land resources results in increased land use and increased insecticide use due to increased insect tolerance leading to decreased productivity of cultivated land, increased desert formation, and decreased food supply. Population pressure on forest resources leads to land erosion; one of the major causes of the 1981 flood in Sichuan was attributed to excessive logging activities. Demand for fuels (firewood, straws, animal manures) by an increasing population leads to decrease in natural fertilizers, decreased food production, and energy shortage in rural areas. Population pressure on cities leads to air, water, noise and other environmental pollution as well as decrease in housing facilities and in green vegetation. Problems resulting from population pressures on industrial development include industrial and environmental pollution and unemployment. Population increases and accompanying industrial activities affect the weather which in turn affects the quality of agriculture, forests, and lakes. Thus, if unchecked, atmospheric carbon dioxide level would double by the middle of the next century, which would lead to increase in atmospheric temperature with disastrous consequences. Therefore, a well planned program for population control is essential for achieving decent quality of life.

  1. Results of a 2-year randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial: Effects on diet, activity and sleep behaviors in an at-risk young adult population.

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    Laska, Melissa N; Lytle, Leslie A; Nanney, Marilyn S; Moe, Stacey G; Linde, Jennifer A; Hannan, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Excess weight gain tends to occur in young adulthood. However, research examining effective weight-related interventions for this age group has been limited. As one of seven trials in the EARLY Trials consortium (Early Adult Reduction of weight through LifestYle intervention), the CHOICES Study (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) tested effects of a technology-integrated, young adult weight gain prevention intervention. It was a randomized controlled trial with assessments at baseline (2011) and 4-, 12- and 24-months post-intervention initiation and included 441 participants (ages 18-35) who were students at three Minnesota community colleges. The 24-month intervention included a 1-credit academic course and social networking and support online intervention. This analysis examined effects on 12 secondary behavioral outcomes across three domains: diet (fast food, sugary beverages, breakfast, at-home meal preparation), physical activity/screen time (minutes and energy expenditure in leisure time physical activity, television viewing, leisure time computer use) and sleep (hours of sleep, time required to fall asleep, days not getting enough rest, difficulty staying awake). The intervention resulted in significant reductions in fast food (p=0.007) but increases in difficulty staying awake (p=0.015). There was limited evidence of other behavior changes at 4months (0.05adults, particularly when addressing multiple weight-related outcomes.

  2. A study of population changes in adult Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) during a mosquito control programme in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, P R

    1986-02-01

    The effectiveness of insecticidal control measures on adult Culex quinquefasciatus Say in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, was examined. Direct treatment of the study site with cypermethrin applied as a fog caused a temporary reduction both in total numbers (males and females) and in the proportion of older females. When cypermethrin was applied as an ultra low volume formulation at dusk and dawn numbers of males were greatly reduced, but numbers of females were not affected. It appears that the adulticiding operations had little overall effect on the total numbers or survival rate of females, or breeding success. The oviposition cycle duration was estimated to be two days, with the survival rate per oviposition cycle calculated as 30%. With these values it is thought unlikely that filariasis would be transmitted in Dubai.

  3. Prevalence of Sleepwalking in an Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mume CO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities may besimple, complex or aggressive in nature. They include motor activities, confusion, and amnesia for the events. Sleepwalking isa disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. In children, episodes of sleepwalking are rarely violent; inadults, however, sleepwalking might include violence, which could endanger the patient or others and might precipitate legalissues. There is inadequate information on the prevalence and demographic correlates of sleepwalking in Nigeria.Objectives: One objective of this study was to determine the lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking in an adult populationin Ile-Ife, in Southwestern Nigeria. Another objective was to determine the age and sex distribution of sleepwalking amongthose who have experienced it at least once in their lifetime. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 228 healthyindividuals aged 18 – 60 years was obtained and the members were asked to fill out a survey form about lifetime prevalencerate of sleepwalking. Results: The overall lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking was 7% (16 of 228 participants. It was10.4% in males and 3.5% in females, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.07. Conclusion: This studyhas shown that sleepwalking is common in the population. In view of the psychological effects of sleepwalking and thepotential physical and legal problems associated with it, adequate efforts should be made for early detection and promptmanagement of the condition.

  4. Venous thromboembolism in adults screened for sickle cell trait: a population-based cohort study with nested case–control analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Iain; Vinogradova, Yana; Orton, Elizabeth; Kai, Joe; Qureshi, Nadeem

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine whether sickle cell carriers (‘sickle cell trait’) have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Design Cohort study with nested case–control analysis. Setting General population with data from 609 UK general practices in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Participants All individuals registered with a CPRD general practice between 1998 and 2013, with a medical record of screening for sickle cell between 18 and 75 years of age. Main outcomes measures Incidence of VTE per 10 000 person-years (PY) among sickle cell carriers and non-carriers; and adjusted OR for VTE among sickle cell carriers compared with non-carriers. Results We included 30 424 individuals screened for sickle cell, with a follow-up time of 179 503 PY, identifying 55 VTEs in 6758 sickle cell carriers and 125 VTEs in 23 666 non-carriers. VTE incidence among sickle cell carriers (14.9/10 000 PY; 95% CI 11.4 to 19.4) was significantly higher than non-carriers (8.8/10 000 PY; 95% CI 7.4 to 10.4). Restricting analysis to confirmed non-carriers was non-significant, but performed on a small sample. In the case–control analysis (180 cases matched to 1775 controls by age and gender), sickle cell carriers remained at increased risk of VTE after adjusting for body mass index, pregnancy, smoking status and ethnicity (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.69, p=0.006), with the greatest risk for pulmonary embolism (PE) (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.17 to 4.39, p=0.011). Conclusions Although absolute numbers are small, in a general population screened for sickle cell, carriers have a higher incidence and risk of VTE, particularly PE, than non-carriers. Clinicians should be aware of this elevated risk in the clinical care of sickle cell carriers, or when discussing carrier screening, and explicitly attend to modifiable risk factors for VTE in these individuals. More complete primary care coding of carrier status could improve analysis. PMID:28360235

  5. Flexible-dose fesoterodine in elderly adults with overactive bladder: results of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of fesoterodine in an aging population trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagg, Adrian; Khullar, Vik; Marschall-Kehrel, Daniela; Michel, Martin C; Oelke, Matthias; Darekar, Amanda; Bitoun, Caty E; Weinstein, David; Osterloh, Ian

    2013-02-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of flexible-dose fesoterodine in elderly adults with overactive bladder (OAB). Twelve-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Sixty-one outpatient clinics in Europe, Israel, and Turkey. Seven hundred ninety-four individuals aged 65 and older (47% male) with OAB symptoms for 3 months or longer, mean of eight or more micturitions and three or more urgency episodes per 24 hours, at least some moderate problems on Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 20 or greater. Participants were randomized to fesoterodine or placebo for 12 weeks, with stratification according to age (>75 vs ≤ 75) and dosing time (morning vs evening). Participants receiving fesoterodine started on 4 mg and could increase to 8 mg at week 4 or 8 and de-escalate to 4 mg at week 8 (sham escalation for placebo). Changes from baseline in bladder-diary variables (primary endpoint, urgency episodes) and patient-reported outcomes including OAB Questionnaire, Treatment Benefit Scale (TBS), PPBC, Urgency Perception Scale (UPS), and OAB Satisfaction Questionnaire (OAB-S); all observed or reported adverse events. By week 8, 64% of fesoterodine-treated and 71% of placebo-treated participants opted for dose escalation. At week 12, the fesoterodine group had statistically significantly greater improvement than the placebo group in urgency episodes, micturitions, nocturnal micturitions, incontinence pad use, and OAB Questionnaire scores but not urgency urinary incontinence episodes. Responder rates on TBS, PPBC, UPS, and OAB-S were statistically significantly higher with fesoterodine. Improvements in most diary variables and participant-reported outcomes were greater with fesoterodine than placebo in participants in both age groups and when administered in the morning and evening. Rates of dry mouth and constipation were 34% and 9% with fesoterodine and 5% and 3% with placebo, respectively. Rates of

  6. N-6 and n-3 fatty acid cholesteryl esters in relation to incident stroke in a Dutch adult population: A nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, de J.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Kromhout, D.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims - There are few prospective studies on fatty acid status in relation to incident stroke, with inconsistent results. We assessed the associations of plasma n-6 and n-3 PUFA in cholesteryl esters with the risk of total stroke and stroke subtypes in Dutch adults. Methods and results

  7. Prevalence of sleepwalking in an adult population

    OpenAIRE

    Mume, Celestine Okorome

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities may be simple, complex or aggressive in nature. They include motor activities, confusion, and amnesia for the events. Sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. In children, episodes of sleepwalking are rarely violent; in adults, however, sleepwalking might include violence, which could endanger the patient or others and might precipitate legal ...

  8. Diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis in adult Thai population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanitphakdeedecha Rungsima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Atopic dermatitis is a common disease that is diagnosed by use of Hanifin, Lobitz and Rajka′s criteria based on patient history and clinical features. However these criteria are not suitable for population-based studies. Aims: The purpose of this study is to develop a minimum list of diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis that is sensitive, specific, reproducible, noninvasive, applicable to adult Thai population and easy to perform in population-based studies. Settings and Design: This study was conducted at Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. Materials and Methods: The new cases of typical mild to moderate atopic dermatitis and exactly age-matched and sex-matched controls presenting with an inflammatory skin disease other than atopic dermatitis were selected from Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital. Each subject was examined with reference to 31 clinically diagnostic features of atopic dermatitis proposed by Hanifin and Rajka. One hundred and forty patients (70 cases and 70 controls were studied. Statistical Analysis Used: Sensitivity and specificity of each criterion was calculated using the dermatologist′s diagnosis as the standard. Regression techniques were then used to derive a minimum set of diagnostic criteria. Results: Using multiple logistic regression techniques, a minimum set of diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis was derived: visible flexural dermatitis, history of flexural dermatitis, duration of rash> 6 months and visible dry skin. Conclusions: A minimum list of diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis was derived that should be of use in Thai population-based studies.

  9. The Prevalence of Tooth Wear in the Dutch Adult Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetselaar, Peter; Vermaire, Jan H; Visscher, Corine M; Lobbezoo, Frank; Schuller, Annemarie A

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of tooth wear in different age groups of the Dutch adult population and to determine this tooth wear distribution by gender, socioeconomic class, and type of teeth. Results were compared with the outcomes of a previous study in a comparable population. As pa

  10. Fibromyalgia in the adult Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Kjøller, Mette; Jacobsen, S

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of fibromyalgia have so far been based on rheumatologic and general practice settings, which are poor proxies for the underlying population. The study is based on a national health interview survey carried out by the Danish Institute for Clinical Epidemiology in 1990......%). Eight subjects, all female, met the 1990 American College of Rheumatism criteria for fibromyalgia. Dropouts were regarded as not having fibromyalgia. The prevalence of fibromyalgia in the Danish population between 18 and 79 years of age was found to be a minimum estimate of 0.66% (95% confidence limits...

  11. Fibromyalgia in the adult Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Jacobsen, S; Kjøller, Mette

    1993-01-01

    Clinical characteristics of fibromyalgia have so far been based mainly on patients identified in rheumatologic settings. This paper offers the clinical findings in fibromyalgia based on a national health interview survey, in which 123 persons fulfilled preset criteria for widespread pain. Clinica...... of fibromyalgia in the general population may differ from those found in rheumatological settings....

  12. Population control in a market economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X

    1995-01-01

    The author explains that it is extremely important to establish a link between the new socialist market economy and control of population reproduction, especially the size of the population. That will determine future directions of reform in population control. Experiences gained from the coastal regions, which initiated reform and opened itself to foreign countries and influences, and from some inland areas which took the lead in establishing a market economy, allow the issue to be viewed in a new light. Sections discuss increasing the weight of benefit regulation with regard to micropopulation control, the regulatory function of the community in intermediary population control, and improving overall regulation with regard to macropopulation control.

  13. Scientists reinforce population control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, N

    1994-01-01

    In late October, 1993, 43 national scientific academies convened for 4 days in Delhi, India. This was the first time that so many academies had come together to discuss a topic of common interest: the controversial issue of population in conjunction with environment and development. The New Delhi gathering, known as the Population Summit, came up with a Conference Statement that earned the signatures of almost all participants. The statement proclaimed that ultimate success in dealing with global social, economic, and environmental problems cannot be achieved without stable world population. The goal should be zero population growth within the lifetime of our children. This goal will require prodigious planning efforts. If all couples were to decide right now that they would produce no more than 2 children, the world's population would still keep on growing through demographic momentum for another several decades. The source in shortest supply is probably not money but time. Said the Royal Society and the US National Academy of Sciences in 1993, "If current predictions of population growth prove accurate and patterns of human activity on the planet remain unchanged, science and technology may not be able to prevent irreversible degradation of the natural environment and continued poverty for much of the world ... Some of the environmental changes may produce irreversible damage to the Earth's capacity to sustain life. The future of our planet is in the balance." The Delhi statement was backed by 25 professional papers on subjects such as population history, energy, and water.

  14. An extra-domiciliary method of delivering entomopathogenic fungus, Metharizium anisopliae IP 46 for controlling adult populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnyone Ladslaus L

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fungal biopesticides have the potential to significantly reduce densities of malaria vectors as well as associated malaria transmission. In previous field trials, entomopathogenic fungus was delivered from within human dwellings, where its efficacy was limited by low infection rates of target mosquitoes, high costs of spraying fungus inside houses, and potential public health concerns associated with introducing fungal conidia inside houses. Here we have demonstrated that Metarhizium anisopliae IP 46, delivered within an extra-domiciliary odor-baited station (OBS, can infect and slowly-kill a high proportion of the wild adult malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis which entered and exited the OBS. This study, carried out in rural Tanzania, showed that by using a concentration of 3.9 × 1010 conidia/m2, more than 95% of mosquitoes that flew in and out of the OBS died within 14 days post-exposure. At least 86% infection of mosquito cadavers was recorded with a significant reduction in the probability of daily survival of exposed An. arabiensis in both treatments tested: low quantity of conidia (eave baffles plus one cotton panel; HR = 2.65, P P

  15. Population dynamics and population control of Galium aparine L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weide, van der R.Y.

    1993-01-01

    The population biology of Galium aparine L. needs to be better understood, in order to be able to rationalize decisions about the short- and long-term control of this weed species for different cropping practices.A population dynamics model was developed to simulate the basic processes of the life c

  16. Food security is related to adult type 2 diabetes control over time in a United States safety net primary care clinic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalowitz, M U; Eng, J S; McKinney, C O; Krohn, J; Lapin, B; Wang, C-H; Nodine, E

    2017-05-15

    Successful Type 2 diabetes management requires adopting a high nutrient-density diet made up of food items that both meet dietary needs and preferences and can be feasibly obtained on a regular basis. However, access to affordable, nutrient-dense foods often is lacking in poorer neighbourhoods. Therefore, low food security should directly impair glucose control, even when patients have full access to and utilize comprehensive medical management. The present study sought to determine whether food security is related longitudinally to glucose control, over-and-above ongoing medication management, among Type 2 diabetes patients receiving comprehensive care at a Midwestern multi-site federally qualified health centre (FQHC). In this longitudinal observational study, we completed a baseline assessment of patients' food security (using the US Household Food Security Module), demographics (via Census items), and diabetes history/management (using a structured clinical encounter form) when patients began receiving diabetes care at the health centre. We then recorded those patients' A1C levels several times during a 24-month follow-up period. Three hundred and ninety-nine patients (56% with low food security) had a baseline A1c measurement; a subsample of 336 (median age=52 years; 56% female; 60% Hispanic, 27% African American, and 9% White) also had at least one follow-up A1c measurement. Patients with lower (vs higher) food security were more likely to be on insulin and have higher A1c levels at baseline. Moreover, the disparity in glucose control by food security status persisted throughout the next 2 years. Although results were based on one multi-site FQHC, potentially limiting their generalizability, they seem to suggest that among Type 2 diabetes patients, low food security directly impairs glucose control-even when patients receive full access to comprehensive medical management-thereby increasing their long-term risks of high morbidity, early mortality, and high

  17. New, Occasional, and Frequent Use of Zolpidem or Zopiclone (Alone and in Combination) and the Risk of Injurious Road Traffic Crashes in Older Adult Drivers: A Population-Based Case-Control and Case-Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevriana, Alicia; Möller, Jette; Laflamme, Lucie; Monárrez-Espino, Joel

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies on the effect of zolpidem or zopiclone use on the risk of road traffic crashes (RTCs) have shown mixed results. Our objective was to determine the association between zolpidem or zopiclone use (as separate drugs or combined) and the occurrence of injurious RTCs among older adult drivers. This was a population-based matched case-control and case-crossover study based on secondary data linked together from Swedish national registers. Cases were drivers aged 50-80 years involved in a vehicle crash resulting in injuries between January 2006 and December 2009 for the case-control study (n = 27,096) and from February 2006 to December 2009 for the case-crossover study (n = 26,586). For the first design, four controls were matched to each case by sex, age, and residential area, and exposure was categorized into new, occasional, and frequent use of zolpidem only, zopiclone only, and combined zolpidem and zopiclone. For the case-crossover study, newly dispensed zolpidem or zopiclone users were assessed during the 28 days prior to the crash and compared with an equally long control period using a 12-week washout period. Matched adjusted odds ratios (OR) were computed using conditional logistic regression. Increased ORs for all users were observed. In the case-control study, the highest odds were seen among newly initiated zolpidem-only users involved in single-vehicle crashes (adjusted OR 2.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-4.24), followed by frequent combined zolpidem and zopiclone users [adjusted OR 2.20; CI 1.21-4.00]. In the case-crossover, newly initiated treatment with zolpidem or zopiclone showed an increased risk that was highest in the 2 weeks after the start of the treatment (OR 2.66; 95% CI 1.04-6.81). These results provide more compelling evidence for the role of zolpidem or zopiclone in the occurrence of RTCs among older adults, not only in frequent users, but also at the beginning of treatment.

  18. Surveillance of Vaccination Coverage among Adult Populations - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Walter W; Lu, Peng-Jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Kim, David K; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Pilishvili, Tamara; Skoff, Tami H; Nelson, Noele P; Harpaz, Rafael; Markowitz, Lauri E; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso; Fiebelkorn, Amy Parker

    2017-05-05

    Overall, the prevalence of illness attributable to vaccine-preventable diseases is greater among adults than among children. Adults are recommended to receive vaccinations based on their age, underlying medical conditions, lifestyle, prior vaccinations, and other considerations. Updated vaccination recommendations from CDC are published annually in the U.S. Adult Immunization Schedule. Despite longstanding recommendations for use of many vaccines, vaccination coverage among U.S. adults is low. August 2014-June 2015 (for influenza vaccination) and January-December 2015 (for pneumococcal, tetanus and diphtheria [Td] and tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis [Tdap], hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster, and human papillomavirus [HPV] vaccination). The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a continuous, cross-sectional national household survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population. In-person interviews are conducted throughout the year in a probability sample of households, and NHIS data are compiled and released annually. The survey objective is to monitor the health of the U.S. population and provide estimates of health indicators, health care use and access, and health-related behaviors. Compared with data from the 2014 NHIS, increases in vaccination coverage occurred for influenza vaccine among adults aged ≥19 years (a 1.6 percentage point increase compared with the 2013-14 season to 44.8%), pneumococcal vaccine among adults aged 19-64 years at increased risk for pneumococcal disease (a 2.8 percentage point increase to 23.0%), Tdap vaccine among adults aged ≥19 years and adults aged 19-64 years (a 3.1 percentage point and 3.3 percentage point increase to 23.1% and to 24.7%, respectively), herpes zoster vaccine among adults aged ≥60 years and adults aged ≥65 years (a 2.7 percentage point and 3.2 percentage point increase to 30.6% and to 34.2%, respectively), and hepatitis B vaccine among health care personnel (HCP) aged

  19. Diabetes Mellitus and Its Correlates in an Iranian Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    Asieh Golozar; Hooman Khademi; Farin Kamangar; Hossein Poutschi; Farhad Islami; Abnet, Christian C.; Freedman, Neal. D.; Philip R Taylor; Paul Pharoah; Paolo Boffetta; Brennan, Paul J.; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Reza Malekzadeh; Arash Etemadi

    2011-01-01

    The rising epidemic of diabetes imposes a substantial economic burden on the Middle East. Using baseline data from a population based cohort study, we aimed to identify the correlates of diabetes mellitus (DM) in a mainly rural population from Iran. Between 2004 and 2007, 50044 adults between 30 and 87 years old from Golestan Province located in Northeast Iran were enrolled in the Golestan Cohort Study. Demographic and health-related information was collected using questionnaires. Individuals...

  20. Self-controlled practice benefits motor learning in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessa, Helena Thofehrn; Chiviacowsky, Suzete

    2015-04-01

    Providing learners with the chance to choose over certain aspects of practice has been consistently shown to facilitate the acquisition of motor skills in several populations. However, studies investigating the effects of providing autonomy support during the learning process of older adults remain scarce. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of self-controlled amount of practice on the learning of a sequential motor task in older adults. Participants in the self-control group were able to choose when to stop practicing a speed cup stacking task, while the number of practice trials for a yoked group was pre-determined, mirroring the self-control group. The opportunity to choose when stop practicing facilitated motor performance and learning compared to the yoked condition. The findings suggest that letting older adult learners choose the amount of practice, supporting their autonomy needs, has a positive influence on motor learning.

  1. Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerolimatos, Lindsay A.; Gould, Christine E.; Edelstein, Barry A.

    2012-01-01

    Among young adults and clinical populations, perceived inability to control internal and external events is associated with anxiety. At present, it is unclear what role perceived anxiety control plays in anxiety among older adults. The Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ) was developed to assess one's perceived ability to cope with anxiety-related…

  2. Refugees, immigrants aggravate population controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, D

    1994-09-07

    The UN Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994 will discuss the pressure of population growth, the increase in the numbers of refugees, and labor migration between developing and developed countries. Population movement has been estimated as 1/50 in the world, regardless of reason. The impact of movement can be to augment a declining work force or to strain resources in poor countries, such as Zaire or Thailand. Rich countries may also respond with resentment and political turmoil, as is currently occurring in Germany. The tendency is to respond after the fact. Rwanda could be used as an example of a country with population pressure on land resources, which has exacerbated ethnic conflict. If the world in 1994 shows this pattern, the concern is that the future prospects are likely to reflect even greater turmoil and migration. The number of refugees has already increased from 2.5 million in 1970 to 20 million today. The head of the UN Commission on Refugees views the end of the Cold War as responsible for exposed and heightened ethnic and tribal rivalry. Migration movement is viewed as the desire for an improvement in quality of life. Significant shifts are to developed countries such as the US, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. The 1994 UN Plan of Action offers concrete recommendations about mass movements. Recommendations are made to assure host country's assurances of protection in work and safety for migrants, removal of restrictive banking practices that impede monetary transfers between countries, and arrangements for temporary migration. Host countries are urged to provide assistance for return migration. Rights and equal treatment with nationals should be extended to longterm migrants. Each country has a right to enact migration restrictions. Smuggling of immigrants should be stopped through international cooperation. Countries of origin have a responsibility to readmit nationals rejected by other countries. There are few recommendations

  3. Shrub control by browsing: Targeting adult plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira Pontes, Laíse; Magda, Danièle; Gleizes, Benoît; Agreil, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Reconciling the well known benefits of shrubs for forage with environmental goals, whilst preventing their dominance, is a major challenge in rangeland management. Browsing may be an economical solution for shrubby rangelands as herbivore browsing has been shown to control juvenile shrub growth. Less convincing results have been obtained for adult plants, and long-term experiments are required to investigate the cumulative effects on adult plants. We therefore assessed the impact of different levels of browsing intensity on key demographic parameters for a major dominant shrub species (broom, Cytisus scoparius), focusing on adult plants. We assigned individual broom plants to one of three age classes: 3-5 years (young adults); 5-7 years (adults); and 7-9 years (mature adults). These plants were then left untouched or had 50% or 90% of their total edible stem biomass removed in simulated low-intensity and high-intensity browsing treatments, respectively. Morphological, survival and fecundity data were collected over a period of four years. Browsing affected the morphology of individual plants, promoting changes in subsequent regrowth, and decreasing seed production. The heavily browsed plants were 17% shorter, 32% narrower, and their twigs were 28% shorter. Light browsing seemed to control the growth of young adult plants more effectively than that of older plants. Reproductive output was considerably lower than for control plants after light browsing, and almost 100% lower after heavy browsing. High-intensity browsing had a major effect on survival causing high levels of plant mortality. We conclude that suitable browsing practices could be used to modify adult shrub demography in the management of shrub dominance and forage value.

  4. Metabolic syndrome in a Taiwanese metropolitan adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Pei-Chia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MS is a combination of medical disorders that increase one's risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Little information exists on the prevalence of MS in a general adult population in Taiwan. Methods We did a cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of 2,359 Chinese adults aged 40 years and over who lived in a metropolitan city, Taiwan in 2004–05. MS was defined by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria modified for Asians. Results The prevalence of MetS was 35.32% and 43.23% in men aged 40–64 years and 65 years and over, respectively, and 24.19% and 51.82% in women aged 40–64 years and 65 years and over. Older age, postmenopausal status, higher body mass index, current smoking, low education attainment, low household income, no alcohol consumption, lower level of occupation physical activity, and a family history of diabetes were associated with increased odds of MetS. Conclusion MetS was present in more than 30% of the Taiwan adult population aged 40 years and over in a metropolitan area; there were substantial variations by age and body mass index groups.

  5. Interactional models for adults of two populations with maturation delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ze-rong; LI Jian-quan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with interactional models for adults of two species delayed by their mature periods. The existence and local stability of equilibria are discussed thoroughly for competitive systems, cooperative systems and predator-prey systems, respectively. For systems with interaction of competition and cooperation, it is found that the two populations are uniformly persistent if the positive equilibrium is stable. For predator-prey interaction, however, some further conditions are needed to guarantee the persistence of the systems.

  6. Increased reports of measles in a low endemic region during a rubella outbreak in adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Takako; Kanbayashi, Daiki; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Komano, Jun; Kase, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Kazuo

    2015-06-01

    In 2013, a rubella outbreak was observed in Japan, Romania, and Poland. The outbreak in Japan was accompanied by an increase of measles reports, especially from a region where measles is highly controlled. This was attributed to the adult populations affected by this rubella outbreak, similarity of clinical signs between rubella and measles, sufficiently small impact of measles outbreaks from neighboring nations, and elimination levels of measles endemicity. Current and future concerns for measles control are discussed.

  7. Estimate of intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, S; Temme, E; Andjelkovic, M; De Wil, M; Vinkx, C; Goeyens, L; Van Loco, J

    2010-08-01

    An exposure assessment was performed to estimate the usual daily intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population. Food consumption data were retrieved from the national food consumption survey. In a first step, individual food consumption data were multiplied with the maximum permitted use levels for sulfites, expressed as sulphur dioxide, per food group (Tier 2). In a second step, on the basis of a literature review of the occurrence of sulfites in different foods, the results of the Tier 2 exposure assessment and available occurrence data from the control programme of the competent authority, a refined list of foods was drafted for the quantification of sulphite. Quantification of sulphite was performed by a high-performance ion chromatography method with eluent conductivity detector in beers and potato products. Individual food consumption data were then multiplied with the actual average concentrations of sulfite per food group, or the maximum permitted levels in case actual levels were not available (partial Tier 3). Usual intakes were calculated using the Nusser method. The mean intake of sulfites was 0.34 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) (Tier 2), corresponding to 49% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and 0.19 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), corresponding to 27% of the ADI (partial Tier 3). The food group contributing most to the intake of sulfites was wines. The results showed that the intake of sulfites is likely to be below the ADI in Belgium. However, there are indications that high consumers of wine have an intake around the ADI.

  8. BDNF control of adult SVZ neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Kevin G; Akins, Michael R; Lee, Francis S

    2012-09-01

    The sensory processing of odorants is a dynamic process that requires plasticity at multiple levels. In the olfactory bulb (OB), inhibitory interneurons undergo lifelong replacement through a process known as adult neurogenesis. These newly born cells are incorporated in a learning-dependent fashion, a process which has led some to suggest this as a primary mechanism through which the OB retains a high degree of plasticity throughout life. A continued focus of researchers in this field has been to understand the molecular mechanisms controlling adult subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenesis and the innate functional role of these cells. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been identified as a strong candidate molecule regulating adult OB neurogenesis. We review what is known regarding the functional role of newly born cells, highlight the role of BDNF in this process, and describe preliminary findings from our lab implicating BDNF in the process of selecting of newly born cells for survival.

  9. [Lipid distribution in the adult population of Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plans, P; Ruigómez, J; Pardell, H; Salleras, L

    1993-06-01

    High concentrations of total and LDL-cholesterol and low concentrations of HDL-cholesterol are related to morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. In this study, lipid concentration, prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and the association between hypercholesterolemia and other cardiovascular risk factors was investigated in a random sample of adult population of Catalonia (Spain). A random sample of adult population of Catalonia aged 16 or more years was obtained. The sample was of 314 individuals, 156 men and 158 women. Serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were determined. Other cardiovascular risk factors were investigated: hypertension, smoking, body mass index, history of diabetes, and history of coronary heart disease. Total and LDL-cholesterol levels were similar in both sexes, with a mean of 211 mg/dl for the first 140 mg/dl for the latter. In contrast, triglyceride levels were higher in men (95 mg/dl) than in women (70 mg/dl), and HDL-cholesterol levels were higher in women (60 mg/dl) than in men (51 mg/dl) (p or = 240 mg/dl in 25% of men and 24% of women. Individuals with hypercholesterolemia had a higher prevalence of hypertension, obesity and diabetes was than normocholesterolemic individuals. The odds ratio was 3.68 for hypertension, 1.89 for obesity and 1.99 for diabetes. The adjusted odds ratio was statistically significant for hypertension (OR adj. = 2.77). The distribution of lipid values observed in the adult population of Catalonia was similar to that observed in other Mediterranean populations.

  10. Felbamate in an adult population with severe refractory epilepsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kearney, H

    2011-04-05

    Felbamate (FBM) is efficacious in treating patients with refractory epilepsy but was withdrawn due to cases of aplastic anaemia, hepatic failure and five reported deaths. FBM is currently used in specialist centres and is only being used in one Irish centre to date. This papers aim is to review the efficacy and safety experience of FBM in Irish adult patients with refractory epilepsy. A retrospective chart review was done on patients\\' medical records. Patients were subdivided into responders and non responders based on change in seizure frequency and side effects were recorded for all. Of the 13 patients on FBM nine patients responded to FBM, four patients did not. FBM is a safe and efficacious alternative in an Irish adult population with refractory epilepsy. However close monitoring is still required given the potential fatal side effects that are possible with this anticonvulsant.

  11. Components of adult class III malocclusion in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roodabeh Koodaryan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Class III malocclusions are considered complex and difficult orthodontic problems to diagnose and treat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphologic characteristics of the craniofacial complex of adults with Class III malocclusion in an Iranian population. Materials and methods. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 50 patients with Class III malocclusion (20 males and 30 females; age range of 18-27 years were selected on the basis of molar relationship, concave profile and an overjet of ≤ 0 mm. The standard values of 19 soft tissue measurements were determined using McNamara, Burstone and Viazis methods. Results. Adults with Class III malocclusion exhibited distinct craniofacial morphologic characteristics manifested by a combination of retrusion of maxilla and protrusion of mandible. Conclusion. The most prevalent component was mandibular prognathism, normal maxilla and LAFH on the basis of the component analysis.

  12. Normative data and discriminant validity of Rey's Verbal Learning Test for the Greek adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinis, Lambros; Tsakona, Ioanna; Malefaki, Sonia; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2007-08-01

    The present study sought to establish normative and discriminant validity data for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test [Rey, A. (1964). L 'examen clinique en psychologie [Clinical tests in psychology]. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France; Schmidt, M. (1996). Rey auditory verbal learning test: A handbook. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services] using newly adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. Applying the procedure suggested by Geffen et al. [Geffen, G., Moar, K. J., O'Hanlon, A. P., Clark, C. R., & Geffen, L. N. (1990). Performance measures of 16-86-year-old males and females on the auditory verbal learning test. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 4, 45-63] we administered the test to 205 healthy participants, aged 18-78 years and two adult patient groups (long-term cannabis users and HIV symptomatic patients). Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that the variables age, education and gender contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT. Performance decreased in an age-dependent manner from young adulthood. Women, young adults and higher educated participants outperformed men, older adults and less educated individuals. The test appears to discriminate adequately between the performance of long-term heavy cannabis users and HIV seropositive symptomatic patients and matched healthy controls, as both patient groups performed more poorly than their respective control group. Normative data stratified by age, gender and education for the Greek adult population is presented for use in research and clinical settings.

  13. Conditioned Pain Modulation and Pressure Pain Sensitivity in the Adult Danish General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Jørgensen, Torben; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Increased pressure pain sensitivity and impaired descending pain control have been associated with chronic pain, but knowledge on the variability in the adult general population is lacking. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and descending pain control assessed using conditioned pain modulation (CPM......) were recorded in a randomly selected sample (n = 2,199, 53% female) of the Danish adult general population aged 18 to 70 years. PPTs were recorded over the tibialis anterior muscle and the upper trapezius muscle. CPM was defined as the difference between PPT assessments before and during conditioning...... was associated with lower PPTs (P CPM potency was lower in female compared with male participants (P ≤ .003), whereas no association with age was found. Higher level of education (P ≤ .05), premature withdrawal from the cold pressor test...

  14. Motion control of a population of Artemias

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    L. Fortuna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the collective behavior of Artemia Salina is studied both experimentally and theoretically. Several experiments have been designed to investigate the Artemia motion under different environment conditions. From the results of such experiments, a strategy to control the direction of motion of an Artemia population, by exploiting their sensitivity to light, has been derived and then implemented.

  15. Perceptions of control in adults with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlert, S

    1994-01-01

    That psychosocial problems are extant in epilepsy is evidenced by a suicide rate among epileptic persons five times that of the general population and an unemployment rate estimated to be more than twice that of the population as a whole. External perceptions of control secondary to repeated episodes of seizure activity that generalize to the social sphere have been implicated as causes of these problems. The hypothesis that individuals who continue to have seizures become more and more external in perceptions of control was tested by a survey mailed to a sample of individuals with epilepsy in a metropolitan area of the Midwest. Dependent variables were, scores on instruments measuring locus of control and attributional style. The independent variable was a measure of seizure control based on present age, age at onset, and length of time since last seizure. Gender, socioeconomic status, and certain parenting characteristics were included as control variables, as they are also known to affect perceptions of control. Analysis by multiple regression techniques supported the study's hypothesis when perceptions of control was conceptualized as learned helplessness for bad, but not for good, events. The hypothesis was not confirmed when perceptions of control was conceptualized as either general or health locus of control.

  16. Dietary intake of metals by Mumbai adult population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunath, R. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Tripathi, R.M. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)]. E-mail: rmt@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Suseela, B. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Bhalke, Sunil [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Shukla, V.K. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Puranik, V.D. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2006-03-01

    Daily intake of 12 metals (Na, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Pb, Cd, Co and Ni) by Mumbai adult population were assessed by analysing duplicate diet samples. These metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and stripping voltammetric techniques. A total of 250 diet samples containing 170 vegetarian diet and 80 non-vegetarian diet collected during April 2003 to March 2004 were analysed during this study. Daily dietary intakes of 2.4 g Na and 1.2 g K were observed for Mumbai adults. Daily dietary intakes of Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Mg were 367, 1.0, 6.3, 6.7, 2.0 and 304 mg, respectively. Pb, Cd, Co and Ni intakes by Mumbai adults were 32.3, 2.2, 2.2 and 108 {mu}g/day, respectively. From this study it has been observed that the intake of toxic metals such as Pb, Cd and Ni is much lower than the tolerable daily intake derived from PTWI given by FAO/WHO and could not be considered harmful in this group of subjects. Daily intake of the studied 12 metals was found to be higher in non-vegetarian diet compared to the vegetarian diet (P < 0.02, 0.01)

  17. Predictors of Septic Arthritis in the Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzio, Robert; Mulchandani, Neil; Pivec, Robert; Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Leven, Dante; Harwin, Steven F; Urban, William P

    2016-07-01

    Septic arthritis is a devastating condition; well-established criteria for diagnosis exist in the pediatric population, but not for adults. This study evaluated patient factors and laboratory parameters that may be associated with the diagnosis of septic arthritis in adults. A total of 458 knee aspirates for suspected septic arthritis were evaluated with serum and synovial leukocyte counts and differentials as well as Kocher criteria for pediatric septic arthritis. Twenty-two patients (4.8%) had septic arthritis confirmed by a positive synovial fluid culture. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and serum white blood cell (WBC) counts were not statistically different between the 2 groups, with 64% of septic arthritis patients having a normal serum WBC count and 77% being afebrile. Mean synovial fluid WBC count was 26,758 cells/µL and 70,581 cells/µL in the nonseptic and septic groups, respectively. The likelihood ratio for a synovial fluid WBC count greater than 65,000 cells/µL was 2.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-6.7). Evaluation receiver operating characteristic curves using synovial WBC counts resulted in a significant area under the curve of 0.66 (P=.02). To achieve 90% specificity, a WBC cutoff of 64,000 cells/µL was required with a corresponding sensitivity of 40%. There was no significant difference in the synovial cell differential of 80% vs 90% in diagnosing infection. Synovial fluid WBC count greater than 64,000 cells/µL yielded the optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes, ESR, serum WBC count, fever, and weight-bearing status were not significant predictors of septic arthritis. This study demonstrates the limited utility of Kocher criteria in the adult population and the importance of synovial leukocyte counts. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e657-e663.].

  18. Young adults' trajectories of Ecstasy use: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Young adults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (Young Adult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns.

  19. School teachers' attitude toward population control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaswani, N V; Kapoor, I

    1977-01-01

    A report on a study of 412 school teachers in the Bombay area of India. 82 of the teachers were tested initially, and found to have unclear ideas about the meaning of "population control." As a result, the definition of the term adopted by UNESCO in 1970 was incorporated into the questionnaire, and translated into Hindi/Marathi and Gujarti. The 1st 82 teachers were considered as a pretest group, and the remaining teachers were given a 3-part questionnaire. This included identification data, questions on their opinions and reactions toward teaching population education, and their own views on age of marriage and family size. Tables break down the results in several ways. The main conclusions are that a majority of the teachers responding were still unclear about the meaning of population education, and felt that they were unqualified to teach the subject, while they believed in its importance.

  20. Age and Time Population Differences: Young Adults, Gen Xers, and Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Lauren A.

    2013-01-01

    Age and Time disparities in young adult research populations are common because young adults are defined by varying age spans; members of Generation X and Millennial generations may both be considered young adults; study years vary, affecting populations; and qualitative methods with limited age/year samples are frequently utilized. The current…

  1. Seroepidemiology of dengue virus infection in the adult population in tropical Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, L W; Cutter, J; James, L; Goh, K T

    2015-06-01

    To assess the impact of past dengue epidemics in Singapore, we undertook a national seroepidemiological study to determine the prevalence of past dengue virus (DENV) infection in the adult population in 2010 and make comparisons with the seroprevalence in 2004. The study involved residual sera from 3293 adults aged 18-79 years who participated in a national health survey in 2010. The overall prevalence of anti-DENV IgG antibodies was 56·8% (95% confidence interval 55·1-58·5) in 2010. The seroprevalence increased significantly with age. Males had significantly higher seroprevalence than females (61·5% vs. 53·2%). Among the three major ethnic groups, Malays had the lowest seroprevalence (50·2%) compared to Chinese (57·0%) and Indians (62·0%). The age-standardized seroprevalence in adults was significantly lower in 2010 (54·4%) compared to 2004 (63·1%). Older age, male gender, Indian ethnicity, permanent residency and being home-bound were independent risk factors significantly associated with seropositivity. About 43% of the Singapore adult resident population remain susceptible to DENV infection as a result of the successful implementation of a comprehensive nationwide Aedes surveillance and control programme since the 1970s. Vector suppression and concerted efforts of all stakeholders in the community remain the key strategy in the prevention and control of dengue.

  2. [Socioeconomic status and risky health behaviors in Croatian adult population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilić, Leta; Dzakula, Aleksandar

    2013-03-01

    Based on the previous research, there is strong association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high morbidity and mortality rates. Even though association between SES and risky health behaviors as the main factors influencing health has been investigated in Croatian population, some questions are yet to be answered. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, smoking and excessive drinking in low, middle, and high socioeconomic group of adult Croatian population included in the cohort study on regionalism of cardiovascular health risk behaviors. We also investigated the association between SES measured by income, education and occupation, as well as single SES indicators, and risky health behaviors. We analyzed data on 1227 adult men and women (aged 19 and older at baseline) with complete data on health behaviors, SES and chronic diseases at baseline (2003) and 5-year follow up. Respondents were classified as being healthy or chronically ill. SES categories were derived from answers to questions on monthly household income, occupation and education by using two-step cluster analysis algorithm. At baseline, for the whole sample as well as for healthy respondents, SES was statistically significantly associated with unhealthy diet (whole sample/healthy respondents: p = 0.001), physical inactivity (whole sample/healthy respondents p = 0.44/ p = 0.007), and smoking (whole sample/healthy respondents p < 0.001/p = 0.002). The proportion of respondents with unhealthy diet was greatest in the lowest social class, smokers in the middle and physically inactive in the high social class. During the follow up, smoking and physical inactivity remained statistically significantly associated with SES. In chronically ill respondents, only smoking was statistically significantly associated with SES, at baseline and follow up (p = 0.001/p = 0.002). The highest share of smokers was in the middle social class. Results of our

  3. Trends in diet quality among adolescents, adults and older adults: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Caesar de Andrade, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to monitor diet quality and associated factors in adolescents, adults and older adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study involving 2376 individuals surveyed in 2003, and 1662 individuals in 2008 (Health Survey of São Paulo, ISA-Capital. Participants were of both sexes and aged 12 to 19 years old (adolescents, 20 to 59 years old (adults and 60 years old or over (older adults. Food intake was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method while diet quality was determined by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R. The prevalence of descriptive variables for 2003 and 2008 was compared adopting a confidence interval of 95%. The means of total BHEI-R score and its components for 2003 and 2008 were compared for each age group. Associations between the BHEI-R and independent variables were evaluated for each survey year using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the mean BHEI-R increased (54.9 vs. 56.4 points over the five-year period. However, the age group evaluation showed a deterioration in diet quality of adolescents, influenced by a decrease in scores for dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, total grains, oils and SoFAAS (solid fat, alcohol and added sugar components. In the 2008 survey, adults had a higher BHEI-R score, by 6.1 points on average, compared to adolescents. Compared to older adults, this difference was 10.7 points. The diet quality remains a concern, especially among adolescents, that had the worst results compared to the other age groups.

  4. Prevalence of voice quality deviations in the normal adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindle, B R; Morris, H L

    1979-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of voice quality deviations in a normal adult population. One-hundred twelve subjects, aged 17 to 80, read a short paragraph aloud into a high-fidelity tape recorder and completed a case history questionnaire. A group of 11 pretrained judges rated overall performance of each taped sample on a seven-point equal-appearing intervals scale, then designated those quality components which contributed toward deviant ratings. Eighty-two percent of the group received a mean severity rating lower than 1.99; 16% had a rating between 2.00 and 2.99; and 2% was assigned a mean rating higher than 3.00.

  5. Nightmares: risk factors among the Finnish general adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2015-04-01

    To identify risk factors for experiencing nightmares among the Finnish general adult population. The study aimed to both test whether previously reported correlates of frequent nightmares could be reproduced in a large population sample and to explore previously unreported associations. Two independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study. Age- and sex-stratified random samples of the Finnish population in 2007 and 2012. A total of 13,922 participants (6,515 men and 7,407 women) aged 25-74 y. N/A. Nightmare frequency as well as several items related to socioeconomic status, sleep, mental well-being, life satisfaction, alcohol use, medication, and physical well-being were recorded with a questionnaire. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, a depression-related negative attitude toward the self (odds ratio [OR] 1.32 per 1-point increase), insomnia (OR 6.90), and exhaustion and fatigue (OR 6.86) were the strongest risk factors for experiencing frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Sex, age, a self-reported impaired ability to work, low life satisfaction, the use of antidepressants or hypnotics, and frequent heavy use of alcohol were also strongly associated with frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Symptoms of depression and insomnia were the strongest predictors of frequent nightmares in this dataset. Additionally, a wide variety of factors related to psychological and physical well-being were associated with nightmare frequency with modest effect sizes. Hence, nightmare frequency appears to have a strong connection with sleep and mood problems, but is also associated with a variety of measures of psychological and physical well-being. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  6. Impulse control disorders in adult psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Levine, Laura; Kim, Daniel; Potenza, Marc N

    2005-11-01

    The authors' goal was to examine the prevalence of impulse control disorders in psychiatric inpatients. They used the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview, a semistructured clinical interview assessing pathological gambling, trichotillomania, kleptomania, pyromania, intermittent explosive disorder, compulsive buying, and compulsive sexual behavior, to screen 204 consecutively admitted psychiatric inpatients. One hundred twelve of the inpatients were women (54.9%), and the mean age of the 204 inpatients was 40.5 years (SD=13.2, range=18-83). Patients whose screen was positive for an impulse control disorder were evaluated with structured clinical interviews. Sixty-three patients (30.9%) were diagnosed with at least one current impulse control disorder. The most common impulse control disorders were compulsive buying (N=19 [9.3%]), kleptomania (N=16 [7.8%]), and pathological gambling (N=14 [6.9%]). Patients with and without co-occurring impulse control disorders did not differ significantly from each other on demographic measures or number or type of psychiatric diagnoses other than impulse control disorders. Impulse control disorders appear common among psychiatric inpatients. Additional, larger studies are needed to examine the prevalence of impulse control disorders in the general population and specific psychiatric groups.

  7. Surface anatomy and anatomical planes in the adult turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, C; Atman, E D; Ustuner, E; Mirjalili, S A; Oztuna, D; Esmer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Surface anatomy and anatomical planes are widely used in education and clinical practice. The planes are largely derived from cadaveric studies and their projections on the skin show discrepancies between and within anatomical reference textbooks. In this study, we reassessed the accuracy of common thoracic and abdominopelvic anatomical planes using computed tomography (CT) imaging in the live adult Turkish population. After patients with distorting pathologies had been excluded, CT images of 150 supine patients at the end tidal inspiration were analyzed. Sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal and pubic crest planes and their relationships to anatomical structures were established by dual consensus. The tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein/superior vena cava (SVC) junction and pulmonary bifurcation were usually below the sternal angle while the concavity of the aortic arch was generally within the plane. The tip of the tenth rib, the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein were usually within the transpyloric plane while the renal hila and the fundus of the gallbladder were below it. The inferior mesenteric artery was below the subcostal plane and the aortic bifurcation was below the supracristal plane in most adults. Projectional surface anatomy is fundamental to medical education and clinical practice. Modern cross-sectional imaging techniques allow large groups of live patients to be examined. Classic textbook information regarding anatomy needs to be reviewed and updated using the data gathered from these recent studies, taking ethnic differences into consideration.

  8. Length of urethra in the Indian adult male population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Krishnamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The urethral length has not been measured in the Indian population. Even the international literature in this arena is very sparse. This paper is an attempt to develop a simple anatomical database for urethral length. Materials and Methods: Between January 2010 and April 2011, the urethral lengths of 422 adult male patients who required catheterization as part of regular treatment at our hospital, were recorded after obtaining consent from the patients and from the scientific and ethics review boards of the institution. Patients with history of prostatic or urethral abnormalities were excluded. The balloon of a sterile Foley′s catheter was inflated using 10 cc of saline. The length from the junction of the balloon to the ′Y′ junction of the Foley was measured. The catheter was then passed into the bladder and re-inflated to same volume. The penis was gently straightened and the length of the catheter outside the penis was measured till the premarked point at the ′Y′ junction. Subtracting this from the original length gave the length of the urethra. Results: The mean length of the urethra was 17.55 + 1.42 cm with a range between 14 and 22.5 cm. Conclusions: Literature in which the length of the normal adult male urethra is recorded for a significant sample size is very scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra specific to the Indian population. Statistical Methods: Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. The non-linear regression analysis was employed to find the normative values of urethral length according to age class.

  9. Life and health satisfaction in the adult population of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroudi, Rajabali; Rashidian, Arash; Zeraati, Hojjat; Oliyaeemanesh, Alireza; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Increasing interest has emerged in the use of subjective well-being as a development indicator and for the evaluation of public policies. The aim of this study was to assess life and health satisfaction and their determinants in the adult population of Iran. We conducted a survey of a sample of 3,150 adults at least 18 years of age in Tehran, the capital of Iran. The subjects were selected using a stratified random sampling method, and they were interviewed face-to-face at their usual residence by trained interviewers. Life satisfaction was used as a measure of subjective well-being. We used ordinary least square regression models to assess the associations of life and health satisfaction with socio-demographic variables. On a 0-10 scale, the mean (standard deviation) scores for life and health satisfaction were 6.93 (2.54) and 7.18 (1.97), respectively. The average score for life satisfaction in females was 0.52 points higher than in males. A U-shaped relationship was found between age and life satisfaction, with respondents 35 to 44 years of age having the lowest average level of life satisfaction. Satisfaction with life and health among divorced respondents was significantly lower than among never-married and married participants. The scores for life satisfaction in respondents who rated their health status as poor were 3.83 points lower than in those who rated their health status as excellent. The majority of the population of Tehran was satisfied with their life and health. Self-rated health status had the greatest impact on life satisfaction.

  10. Prevalence of Dental Caries in Kosovar Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blerim Kamberi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in the Kosovar adult population. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study in Kosovo was conducted examining 9387 patients, aged 18 upwards, between January 2010 and December 2011. Clinical evaluation was done using WHO criteria for evaluation of dental health status and data collection. Results. The prevalence of caries for the whole study was 72.80%. The mean DMFT index was 9.61 (±5.12 in the 18–34-year age group, 11.6 (±6.42 in the 35–44-year age group, 13.68 (±8.12 among the 45–64-year age group, 17.98 (±9.81 in the 65–74-year age group, and 23.19 (±9.41 in the age group of 75+ years, respectively. A significant difference of mean DMFT and its each component was observed between the ages (P<0.001. Conclusion. This study comes out with the significant levels of dental caries among young Kosovar population (18–34 years old.

  11. Environmental Exposure of the Adult French Population to Permethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermant, Marie; Blanchard, Olivier; Perouel, Guillaume; Boulanger, Guillaume; Merlo, Mathilde; Desvignes, Virginie

    2017-08-11

    This work aims to assess the exposure to permethrin of the adult French population from available contamination measurements of outdoor air, indoor air, and settled dust. Priority is given to the assessment of chronic exposure, given the potential of permethrin to induce cancers and/or endocrine disorders. A statistical method was devised to calculate exposure to permethrin by different pathways (inhalation, indirect dust ingestion, and dermal contact). This method considers anthropometric parameters, the population's space-time budget, and recent methods for calculating dermal exposure. Considering the media of interest, our results pointed to house dust as the main environmental source of permethrin exposure, followed by indoor and outdoor air. Dermal contact and indirect dust ingestion may be more important exposure pathways than inhalation. A sensitivity analysis indicated that exposure estimates were mainly affected by variability within contamination data. This study is the first step in aggregated exposure and risk assessment due to pyrethroid exposure. Outdoor air, indoor air, and settled dust may constitute significant exposure sources, in addition to diet, which could be important. The next step entails assessing internal doses and estimating the proportion of each exposure source and pathway relative to internal exposure. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Diabetes mellitus and its correlates in an Iranian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golozar, Asieh; Khademi, Hooman; Kamangar, Farin; Poutschi, Hossein; Islami, Farhad; Abnet, Christian C; Freedman, Neal D; Taylor, Philip R; Pharoah, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul J; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza; Etemadi, Arash

    2011-01-01

    The rising epidemic of diabetes imposes a substantial economic burden on the Middle East. Using baseline data from a population based cohort study, we aimed to identify the correlates of diabetes mellitus (DM) in a mainly rural population from Iran. Between 2004 and 2007, 50044 adults between 30 and 87 years old from Golestan Province located in Northeast Iran were enrolled in the Golestan Cohort Study. Demographic and health-related information was collected using questionnaires. Individuals' body sizes at ages 15 and 30 were assessed by validated pictograms ranging from 1 (very lean) to 7 in men and 9 in women. DM diagnosis was based on the self-report of a physician's diagnosis. The accuracy of self-reported DM was evaluated in a subcohort of 3811 individuals using fasting plasma glucose level and medical records. Poisson regression with robust variance estimator was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR's). The prevalence of self-reported DM standardized to the national and world population was 5.7% and 6.2%, respectively. Self-reported DM had 61.5% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity. Socioeconomic status was inversely associated with DM prevalence. Green tea and opium consumption increased the prevalence of DM. Obesity at all ages and extreme leanness in childhood increased diabetes prevalence. Being obese throughout life doubled DM prevalence in women (PR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.8, 2.4). These findings emphasize the importance of improving DM awareness, improving general living conditions, and early lifestyle modifications in diabetes prevention.

  13. Diabetes mellitus and its correlates in an Iranian adult population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asieh Golozar

    Full Text Available The rising epidemic of diabetes imposes a substantial economic burden on the Middle East. Using baseline data from a population based cohort study, we aimed to identify the correlates of diabetes mellitus (DM in a mainly rural population from Iran. Between 2004 and 2007, 50044 adults between 30 and 87 years old from Golestan Province located in Northeast Iran were enrolled in the Golestan Cohort Study. Demographic and health-related information was collected using questionnaires. Individuals' body sizes at ages 15 and 30 were assessed by validated pictograms ranging from 1 (very lean to 7 in men and 9 in women. DM diagnosis was based on the self-report of a physician's diagnosis. The accuracy of self-reported DM was evaluated in a subcohort of 3811 individuals using fasting plasma glucose level and medical records. Poisson regression with robust variance estimator was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR's. The prevalence of self-reported DM standardized to the national and world population was 5.7% and 6.2%, respectively. Self-reported DM had 61.5% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity. Socioeconomic status was inversely associated with DM prevalence. Green tea and opium consumption increased the prevalence of DM. Obesity at all ages and extreme leanness in childhood increased diabetes prevalence. Being obese throughout life doubled DM prevalence in women (PR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.8, 2.4. These findings emphasize the importance of improving DM awareness, improving general living conditions, and early lifestyle modifications in diabetes prevention.

  14. Genetic control of mosquitoes: population suppression strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its development and actual field use. Most mosquito control measures have failed to achieve their goals, mostly because of the mosquito's great reproductive capacity and genomic flexibility. Chemical control is increasingly restricted due to potential human toxicity, mortality in no target organisms, insecticide resistance, and other environmental impacts. Other strategies for mosquito control are desperately needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is a species-specific and environmentally benign method for insect population suppression, it is based on mass rearing, radiation mediated sterilization, and release of a large number of male insects. Releasing of Insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL) offers a solution to many of the drawbacks of traditional SIT that have limited its application in mosquitoes while maintaining its environmentally friendly and species-specific utility. The self-limiting nature of sterile mosquitoes tends to make the issues related to field use of these somewhat less challenging than for self-spreading systems characteristic of population replacement strategies. They also are closer to field use, so might be appropriate to consider first. The prospect of genetic control methods against mosquito vectored human diseases is rapidly becoming a reality, many decisions will need to be made on a national, regional and international level regarding the biosafety, social, cultural and ethical aspects of the use and deployment of these vector control methods.

  15. Genetic Control of Mosquitoes: population suppression strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Barretto Bruno Wilke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its development and actual field use. Most mosquito control measures have failed to achieve their goals, mostly because of the mosquito's great reproductive capacity and genomic flexibility. Chemical control is increasingly restricted due to potential human toxicity, mortality in no target organisms, insecticide resistance, and other environmental impacts. Other strategies for mosquito control are desperately needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT is a species-specific and environmentally benign method for insect population suppression, it is based on mass rearing, radiation mediated sterilization, and release of a large number of male insects. Releasing of Insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL offers a solution to many of the drawbacks of traditional SIT that have limited its application in mosquitoes while maintaining its environmentally friendly and species-specific utility. The self-limiting nature of sterile mosquitoes tends to make the issues related to field use of these somewhat less challenging than for self-spreading systems characteristic of population replacement strategies. They also are closer to field use, so might be appropriate to consider first. The prospect of genetic control methods against mosquito vectored human diseases is rapidly becoming a reality, many decisions will need to be made on a national, regional and international level regarding the biosafety, social, cultural and ethical aspects of the use and deployment of these vector control methods.

  16. CONTROLLING STREET DOG POPULATION IN MOSCOW

    OpenAIRE

    ZHULENKO A.S.; POLYNOVA G.V.

    2016-01-01

    The issue represents the analysis of the fundamentals and world-wide best practices of controlling street dog population in Moscow and other global cities. Actions proposed to improve the strategy of managing free-ranging dogs in Moscow.Some reasons of increase in number of stray dogs and “pet overpopulation” ware studied. There are ecological types of stray dogs characterized the types of running wild of dogs and foraging (food procurement) strategy of animals.The analysis of the basic princ...

  17. Socioeconomic status and obesity in adult populations of developing countries: a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monteiro, Carlos A; Moura, Erly C; Conde, Wolney L; Popkin, Barry M

    2004-01-01

    .... The present review, on studies conducted in adult populations from developing countries, published between 1989 and 2003, shows a different scenario for the relationship between SES and obesity...

  18. A review of health utilities across conditions common in paediatric and adult populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopkins Robert B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-utility analyses are commonly used in economic evaluations of interventions or conditions that have an impact on health-related quality of life. However, evaluating utilities in children presents several challenges since young children may not have the cognitive ability to complete measurement tasks and thus utility values must be estimated by proxy assessors. Another solution is to use utilities derived from an adult population. To better inform the future conduct of cost-utility analyses in paediatric populations, we reviewed the published literature reporting utilities among children and adults across selected conditions common to paediatric and adult populations. Methods An electronic search of Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to November 2008 was conducted to identify studies presenting utility values derived from the Health Utilities Index (HUI or EuroQoL-5Dimensions (EQ-5D questionnaires or using time trade off (TTO or standard gamble (SG techniques in children and/or adult populations from randomized controlled trials, comparative or non-comparative observational studies, or cross-sectional studies. The search was targeted to four chronic diseases/conditions common to both children and adults and known to have a negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Results After screening 951 citations identified from the literature search, 77 unique studies included in our review evaluated utilities in patients with asthma (n = 25, cancer (n = 23, diabetes mellitus (n = 11, skin diseases (n = 19 or chronic diseases (n = 2, with some studies evaluating multiple conditions. Utility values were estimated using HUI (n = 33, EQ-5D (n = 26, TTO (n = 12, and SG (n = 14, with some studies applying more than one technique to estimate utility values. 21% of studies evaluated utilities in children, of those the majority being in the area of oncology. No utility values for children were reported in skin

  19. Population medicine and control of epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaoui, Hafid

    2010-01-01

    Population medicine is an important component of veterinary care in livestock (farm animals) and companion animals (pets). This chapter covers some of the chemotherapeutic approaches undertaken at population level to control infectious diseases in domestic animals. Optimisation of health, productivity and welfare in livestock commonly entails implementation of whole-herd or whole-flock strategies to effectively counter the negative impact of infectious diseases. Gastro-intestinal and liver parasites of grazing cattle and sheep are endemic in most parts of the world and can result in significant production losses. Strategically timed anthelmintic treatments are instituted with the double objective of reducing worm burdens in infected animals and ensuring reduction of pasture contamination with infective larvae. Mastitis is another major endemic problem, particularly in cattle, which causes significant economic losses to dairy farmers globally. As a painful inflammatory condition of the cow's udder, clinical mastitis also raises animal welfare concerns. Prevention of clinical mastitis requires rigorous post-milking hygiene, identification and culling of chronically infected cows, attention to the cow's environment and therapeutic management of udder health during the dry period. A third condition that can cause high levels of morbidity and mortality is bacterial respiratory disease. Pneumonia in young livestock is often exacerbated by stressful transportation and co-mingling of animals from different herds. The welfare consequences and production losses can be significant. Antimicrobial treatment of pneumonic animals and, when appropriate, of in-contact animals living in the same air-space is an integral part of whole-herd respiratory disease management. The role of the veterinary profession is to also ensure that principles of population medicine are understood and adhered to by pet owners. The increase in pet ownership and the importance of the human-animal bond in

  20. Periodontal Disease Status in an Isolated Greek Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Chrysanthakopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the periodontal condition of an adult population in three isolated regions in Greece and to determine the association of periodontal disease with several demographic, behavioral and environmental factors.Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 640 individuals, aged 20to69 years from three isolated regions. The following indices were assessed: Pocket Depth (PD, Clinical Attachment Level (CAL, Dental Plaque, Calculus and Bleeding on Probing (BOP. Statistical analysis was accomplished by multiple linear regression model which was used to assess the association between the mean clinical attachment loss and clinical, demographic and behavioral parameters.Results: The samples of the study showed high levels of dental plaque, dental calculus and BOP. The final multivariate model showed that age (p=0.000, gender (p=0.016 and presence of calculus (p=0.000 were associated with the mean clinical attachment loss. Age (p=0.000, gender (p=0.000 and dental plaque (p=0.027 were associated with gingival recession, while age (p=0.018 and gender (p=0.000 were associated with probing depth. Bleeding on probing, dental plaque, toothbrush frequency, level of education, tobacco consumption and reasons for dental visits were not associated with the mean clinical attachment loss.Conclusion: Periodontal disease consists of a complicated destructive condition of the Periodontal tissue with a.multi-factorial etiology. Oral hygiene instructions and a regular dental follow-up could play a significant role in the prevention of periodontal disease.Key Words: Periodontal Disease; Epidemiology; Risk Factors

  1. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianat, Iman; Feizi, Hossein; Hasan-khali, Kosar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for designing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population. Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females) aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis. Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively. Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population. PMID:26000246

  2. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Dianat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for design-ing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population.Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis.Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lat-eral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively.Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population.

  3. Respiratory pattern in an adult population of dystrophic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, M G; Romei, M; Lo Mauro, A; Marchi, E; Gandossini, S; Bonato, S; Comi, G P; Magri, F; Turconi, A C; Pedotti, A; Bresolin, N; Aliverti, A

    2011-07-15

    We studied respiratory function and Chest Wall kinematics in a large population of adult patients affected by slow course muscular dystrophies such as Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy (LGMD, n=38), Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD, n=20) and Facio-Scapulo Humeral Dystrophy (FSHD, n=30), through standard spirometry and through the Optoelectronic Plethysmography, to measure the thoraco-abdominal motion during Quiet Breathing and Slow Vital Capacity maneuvers. Within the restrictive pulmonary syndrome characterizing LGMD and FSHD, several different thoraco-abdominal patterns compared to those of healthy subjects were present in the more advanced stages of the disease. These differences were present in the seated position, during the execution of a maximal maneuver such as Slow Vital Capacity. A global respiratory (both inspiratory and expiratory) muscle involvement was more pronounced in the LGMD and FSHD than in the BMD patients, and a significant reduction of abdominal contribution in wheelchair bound patients was observed. In conclusion, OEP technique is able to reveal mild initial modifications in the respiratory muscles in FSHD and LGMD patients, which could be helpful for functional and new therapeutic strategy evaluation.

  4. Adult Mouse Liver Contains Two Distinct Populations of Cholangiocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The biliary system plays an important role in several acquired and genetic disorders of the liver. We have previously shown that biliary duct epithelium contains cells giving rise to proliferative Lgr5+ organoids in vitro. However, it remained unknown whether all biliary cells or only a specific subset had this clonogenic activity. The cell surface protease ST14 was identified as a positive marker for the clonogenic subset of cholangiocytes and was used to separate clonogenic and non-clonogenic duct cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Only ST14hi duct cells had the ability to generate organoids that could be serially passaged. The gene expression profiles of clonogenic and non-clonogenic duct cells were similar, but several hundred genes were differentially expressed. RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that clonogenic duct cells are interspersed among regular biliary epithelium at a ∼1:3 ratio. We conclude that adult murine cholangiocytes can be subdivided into two populations differing in their proliferative capacity.

  5. Perceived Stress and Mortality in a Taiwanese Older Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Glei, Dana A.; Weinstein, Maxine; Goldman, Noreen

    2015-01-01

    Perceived stress is associated with poor health outcomes including negative affect, increased susceptibility to the common cold, and cardiovascular disease; the consequences of perceived stress for mortality, however, have received less attention. This study characterizes the relationship between perceived stress and 11-year mortality in a population of Taiwanese adults aged 53+. Using the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Near Elderly and Elderly of Taiwan, we calculated a composite measure of perceived stress based on six items pertaining to the health, financial situation, and occupation of the respondents and their families. Proportional hazard models were used to determine whether perceived stress predicted mortality. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors only, we found that a one standard deviation increase in perceived stress was associated with a 19% increase in all-cause mortality risk during the 11-year follow-up period (HR=1.19, 95% CI 1.13–1.26). The relationship was greatly attenuated when perceptions of stress regarding health were excluded, and was not significant after adjusting for medical conditions, mobility limitations, and depressive symptoms. We conclude that the association between perceived stress and mortality is explained by an individual's current health; however, our data do not allow us to distinguish between two possible interpretations of this conclusion: a) the relationship between perceived stress and mortality is spurious, or b) poor health acts as the mediator. PMID:23869432

  6. Perceived stress and mortality in a Taiwanese older adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Glei, Dana A; Weinstein, Maxine; Goldman, Noreen

    2013-11-01

    Perceived stress is associated with poor health outcomes including negative affect, increased susceptibility to the common cold and cardiovascular disease; the consequences of perceived stress for mortality, however, have received less attention. This study characterizes the relationship between perceived stress and 11-year mortality in a population of Taiwanese adults aged 53+ years. Using the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Near Elderly and Elderly of Taiwan, we calculated a composite measure of perceived stress based on six items pertaining to the health, financial situation, and occupation of the respondents and their families. Proportional hazard models were used to determine whether perceived stress predicted mortality. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors only, we found that a one standard deviation increase in perceived stress was associated with a 19% increase in all-cause mortality risk during the 11-year follow-up period (hazard ratio, HR = 1.19, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.13-1.26). The relationship was greatly attenuated when perceptions of stress regarding health were excluded, and was not significant after adjusting for medical conditions, mobility limitations and depressive symptoms. We conclude that the association between perceived stress and mortality is explained by an individual's current health; however, our data do not allow us to distinguish between two possible interpretations of this conclusion: (a) the relationship between perceived stress and mortality is spurious, or (b) poor health acts as the mediator.

  7. A Study Of Prevalence Of Obesity In Adult Punjabi Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Goyal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available  Pooja Goyal, R.K. Sachar, R.K. Soni Deptt. of Community medicine, DMC.& Hospital, Ludhiana  Introduction :Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally with more than 1 billion overweight, Atleast 300 million of them are clinically obese and is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic disease and disability (1. Long considered a buy product of modern life in rich, developed contries, obesity is spreading to developing contries as well. Two critical factors that have influenced this explosion are changes in dietary patterns and levels of physical activity. The latest list of morbidity associated with obesity includes about forty diseases. Though, prevalence of co-morbidities of obesity is quite high among adults in India yet there are relatively less reliable and representative data available. Hence, this study was carried out.Material & Methods :It was a community based, cross sectional study conducted in field practice areas at Rural Health Centre (RHC, Pohir and Urban Health Centre (UHC, Kirti Nagar attached to the department of Community Medicine, DMC & Hospital Ludhiana.Field practice area of RHC is composed of 10 villages serving a total population of 20,450. The Urban health Centre covers ten colonies having a total populaation of 20.645.

  8. Effects of Dyslexia on Postural Control in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M.; Magnusson, M.; Lush, D.; Gomez, S.; Fransson, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    Dyslexia has been shown to affect postural control. The aim of the present study was to investigate the difference in postural stability measured as torque variance in an adult dyslexic group (n=14, determined using the Adult Dyslexia Checklist (ADCL) and nonsense word repetition test) and an adult non-dyslexic group (n=39) on a firm surface and…

  9. Association of ADAM33 gene polymorphisms with adult-onset asthma and its severity in an Indian adult population

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Priya Tripathi; Shally Awasthi; Rajendra Prasad; Nuzhat Husain; Subramaniam Ganesh

    2011-08-01

    ADAM33, a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) gene family, is an asthma susceptibility gene originally identified by positional cloning. In the present study, we investigated the possible association of five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ADAM33 (rs511898, rs528557, rs44707, rs597980 and rs2787094) with adult-onset asthma in an Indian population. The study included 175 patients with mild intermittent ($n = 44$), mild persistent ($n = 108$) or moderate persistent ($n = 23$) subgroups of asthma, and 253 nonasthmatic control individuals. SNPs were genotyped with the help of restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) method, and data were analysed using chi-square test and logistic regression model. Bonferroni’s correction for multiple comparisons was applied for each hypothesis. Genotypes and allele frequencies of SNPs rs511898 and rs528557 were significantly associated with adult-onset asthma ($P = 0.010-\\lt 0.001$). A significant association of the homozygous mutant genotype and mutant alleles of SNPs rs2787094, rs44707 and rs597980 with the asthma was also observed ($P = 0.020-\\lt 0.001$). A positive association between asthma and haplotypes AGCCT, GGCCT, AGACT, GCAGT, GGACT, ACCCC and AGACC were also found ($P = 0.036-\\lt 0.001$, OR $= 2.07-8.49$). Haplotypes AGCGT, GCAGC, ACAGC, ACAGT, GGAGC and GGCGT appear to protect against asthma ($P = 0.013-\\lt 0.0001$, OR $= 0.34-0.10$). Our data suggest that ADAM33 gene polymorphisms serve as genetic risk factors for asthma in Indian adult population.

  10. Oral health changes in an adult Norwegian population : a cohort analytical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holst, D; Schuller, A A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this analysis was to study temporal variation in oral health in an adult population. The cohort analysis comprised 1) estimation of longitudinal, cross-sectional, and time-lag differences in caries and treatment experience of the adult population in Trøndelag from 1973 to

  11. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabroe Svend

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since updated population registers do not exist in many countries it is often difficult to sample valid population controls from the study base to a case-control study. Use of patient controls is an alternative option if the exposure experience under study for these patients are interchangeable with the experience for population controls. Patient controls may even be preferable from population controls under certain conditions. In this study we examine if colon cancer patients can serve as surrogates for proper population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors. Methods The study was conducted from 1995 to 1997. Incident colon cancer controls (N = 428 aged 35–69 years with a histological verified diagnosis and population controls (N = 583 were selected. Altogether 254 (59% of the colon cancer controls and 320 (55% of the population controls were interviewed about occupational, medical and life style conditions. Results No statistical significant difference for educational level, medical history or smoking status was seen between the two control groups. There was evidence of a higher alcohol intake, less frequent work as a farmer and less exposure to pesticides among colon cancer controls. Conclusions Use of colon cancer controls may provide valid exposure estimates in studies of many occupational risk factors for cancer, but not for studies on exposure related to farming.

  12. Herpes virus seroepidemiology in the adult Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jan; Kok, Eloise; Adolfsson, Rolf; Lövheim, Hugo; Elgh, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    Herpes viruses establish a life-long latency and can cause symptoms during both first-time infection and later reactivation. The aim of the present study was to describe the seroepidemiology of Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV1), Herpes simplex type 2 (HSV2), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Varicella Zoster virus (VZV) and Human herpes virus type 6 (HHV6) in an adult Swedish population (35-95 years of age). Presence of antibodies against the respective viruses in serum from individuals in the Betula study was determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Singular samples from 535 persons (53.9% women, mean age at inclusion 62.7 ± 14.4 years) collected 2003-2005 were analyzed for the five HHVs mentioned above. In addition, samples including follow-up samples collected 1988-2010 from 3,444 persons were analyzed for HSV. Prevalence of HSV1 was 79.4%, HSV2 12.9%, CMV 83.2%, VZV 97.9%, and HHV6 97.5%. Herpes virus infections were more common among women (p = 0.010) and a lower age-adjusted HSV seroprevalence was found in later birth cohorts (p < 0.001). The yearly incidence of HSV infection was estimated at 14.0/1000. Women are more often seropositive for HHV, especially HSV2. Age-adjusted seroprevalence for HSV was lower in later birth cohorts indicating a decreasing childhood and adolescent risk of infection.

  13. An entomopathogenic fungus for control of adult African malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Ng'habi, K.R.N.; Kihonda, J.; Takken, W.; Paaijmans, K.P.; Abdulla, S.; Killeen, G.F.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Biological control of malaria mosquitoes in Africa has rarely been used in vector control programs. Recent developments in this field show that certain fungi are virulent to adult Anopheles mosquitoes. Practical delivery of an entomopathogenic fungus that infected and killed adult Anopheles gambiae,

  14. Framing the poor: population, elite interests, and the persistence of population control in India

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Ryan Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines why, despite a rhetorical shift towards a developmental approach to population issues in India, Malthusian ideology continues to dominate and influence the often heavy-handed efforts of the state to control population growth – largely among vulnerable social groups. An examination of Indian population policies, program implementation, and the population debate represented in the mainstream print media demonstrates that Neo-Malthusian population control measures in India are...

  15. Spatiotemporal investigation of adult mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations in an eastern Iowa county, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroote, John; Mercer, David R; Fisher, Jeffrey; Sugumaran, Ramanathan

    2007-11-01

    Landscape and climatic factors regulate distributions of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) over time and space. The anthropogenic control of mosquito populations is often carried out at a local administrative scale, and it is applied based on the relevant agency's experiential knowledge rather than systematic analysis of spatial and temporal data. To address this shortcoming, a spatial and temporal analysis of landscape and climatic parameters in relation to mosquito populations in Black Hawk County, IA, USA, has been carried out. Adult mosquito sampling took place using CDC light traps from May to August 2003 in representative landscapes. Mosquitoes were identified to species level with Aedes trivittatus (Coquillet) and Aedes vexans (Meigen) dominating the collection totals. The best publicly available spatial data on landscape and demographic attributes were collated and included land cover, human census, soils, floodplain, elevation, wetlands, hydrography, roads, and vegetation indices derived from satellite imagery. Spatial processing was carried out to organize landscape attributes for statistical comparison with abundance data from the potentially important West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) vector species Ae. vexans and Ae. trivittatus. Landscape parameters shown to be significantly correlated with mosquito counts included soil hydrological properties, presence in floodplain, wetland areas, and deciduous and bottomland forest cover. Data on temperature and precipitation were used to investigate the climatic influence on the temporal occurrence of mosquito population abundances. Late spring rain provided ample moisture for mosquito development, but low temperatures delayed widespread emergence of Ae. trivittatus and Ae. vexans until June 2003. Landscape and climatic impacts on adult mosquito population distributions were demonstrated, and these results could form the basis for the development of a spatiotemporal modeling framework that

  16. Factors and Mechanisms for Pharmacokinetic Differences between Pediatric Population and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose T. Ramos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Many physiologic differences between children and adults may result in age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Factors such as gastric pH and emptying time, intestinal transit time, immaturity of secretion and activity of bile and pancreatic fluid among other factors determine the oral bioavailability of pediatric and adult populations. Anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics in children also affect the bioavailability of other routes of administration. Key factors explaining differences in drug distribution between the pediatric population and adults are membrane permeability, plasma protein binding and total body water. As far as drug metabolism is concerned, important differences have been found in the pediatric population compared with adults both for phase I and phase II metabolic enzymes. Immaturity of glomerular filtration, renal tubular secretion and tubular reabsorption at birth and their maturation determine the different excretion of drugs in the pediatric population compared to adults.

  17. Reduction of population numbers of Melolontha spp. adults – a review of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woreta Danuta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article provides information about control of Melolontha spp. adults, the methods used in the past, chemical pest control as well as treatments applied today. In old times, cockchafer populations were reduced mechanically, by manual collection during the swarming period or by covering soil surfaces to prevent egg lying by females. Chemical pest control methods were introduced in the fifties of the 1900s, and in subsequent 50 years, they were improved to be less and less environmentally threatening. In many countries, including Poland, there have recently been introduced progressive restrictions on the use of insecticides in forestry. Banning chemical treatments against cockchafers resulted in going back to traditional methods and seeking alternate solutions, e.g. biological control agents. In the 1990s, polyethylene nets were used to prevent egg laying in the soil by cockchafer females. At the same time, there was tested possible usefulness of a botanical insecticide derived from neem (Azadirachta indica to combat cockchafer adults. The net, which needs to be spread flat on the ground, can be effective in orchards, however, in forested areas, the success of this method was limited due to the specific structure of forest land. In general, both methods stimulated no interest on the part of forestry on account of technical obstacles and too high cost of the botanical insecticide. Neglecting treatments toward reduction of cockchafer excessive numbers during their ongoing outbreak can bring about adverse changes in the forest structure.

  18. Adult survival and population growth rate in Colorado big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stanley, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied adult survival and population growth at multiple maternity colonies of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Fort Collins, Colorado. We investigated hypotheses about survival using information-theoretic methods and mark-recapture analyses based on passive detection of adult females tagged with passive integrated transponders. We constructed a 3-stage life-history matrix model to estimate population growth rate (??) and assessed the relative importance of adult survival and other life-history parameters to population growth through elasticity and sensitivity analysis. Annual adult survival at 5 maternity colonies monitored from 2001 to 2005 was estimated at 0.79 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.77-0.82). Adult survival varied by year and roost, with low survival during an extreme drought year, a finding with negative implications for bat populations because of the likelihood of increasing drought in western North America due to global climate change. Adult survival during winter was higher than in summer, and mean life expectancies calculated from survival estimates were lower than maximum longevity records. We modeled adult survival with recruitment parameter estimates from the same population. The study population was growing (?? = 1.096; 95% CI = 1.057-1.135). Adult survival was the most important demographic parameter for population growth. Growth clearly had the highest elasticity to adult survival, followed by juvenile survival and adult fecundity (approximately equivalent in rank). Elasticity was lowest for fecundity of yearlings. The relative importances of the various life-history parameters for population growth rate are similar to those of large mammals. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  19. Cognitive decline and older adults' perception of stigma controllability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krendl, Anne C; Wolford, George

    2013-05-01

    Emerging research suggests that older adults who experience age-related declines in regulatory abilities may have more difficulty inhibiting their expression of negative bias to stigmatized individuals as compared with young adults. However, it remains largely unexplored why this might be. For instance, older adults may hold stigmatized individuals more accountable for their conditions as compared with young adults, which could subsequently increase their expression of negative bias. The current study investigated this question by testing 90 older adults and 44 young adults. Researchers found that older adults with relatively impaired executive function placed a greater emphasis on controllability when evaluating stigmatized individuals and rated the stigmatized conditions overall as being more changeable.

  20. Population Control, Family Planning and Planned Parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmar, Norman A.

    Remarks in this article were made as part of a panel discussion presented at the Planned Parenthood-World Population combined Southeast Council and National Board Meeting, Savannah, Georgia, in May 1970. The problems and consequences of an increasing birth rate are indicated along with the need for reducing present rates of population growth and…

  1. Diffusely adherent Escherichia coli strains isolated from children and adults constitute two different populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansan-Almeida Rosane

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC have been considered a diarrheagenic category of E. coli for which several potential virulence factors have been described in the last few years. Despite this, epidemiological studies involving DAEC have shown inconsistent results. In this work, two different collections of DAEC possessing Afa/Dr genes, from children and adults, were studied regarding characteristics potentially associated to virulence. Results DAEC strains were recovered in similar frequencies from diarrheic and asymptomatic children, and more frequently from adults with diarrhea (P Citrobacter freundii strain have shown an improved ability to form biofilms in relation to the monocultures. Control strains have shown a greater diversity of Afa/Dr adhesins and higher frequencies of cellulose, TTSS, biofilm formation and induction of IL-8 secretion than strains from cases of diarrhea in children. Conclusions DAEC strains possessing Afa/Dr genes isolated from children and adults represent two different bacterial populations. DAEC strains carrying genes associated to virulence can be found as part of the normal microbiota present in asymptomatic children.

  2. Levels and predictors of persistent organic pollutants in an adult population from four Spanish regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, M; Arrebola, J P; Artacho-Cordón, F; Amaya, E; Aragones, N; Llorca, J; Perez-Gomez, B; Ardanaz, E; Kogevinas, M; Castano-Vinyals, G; Pollan, M; Olea, N

    2015-12-15

    This research aimed to assess serum concentrations of a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a sample of adults recruited in four different regions from Spain and to assess socio-demographic, dietary, and lifestyle predictors of the exposure. The study population comprised 312 healthy adults selected from among controls recruited in the MCC-Spain multicase-control study. Study variables were collected using standardized questionnaires, and pollutants were analyzed by means of gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Multivariable analyses were performed to identify predictors of log-transformed pollutant concentrations, using combined backward and forward stepwise multiple linear regression models. Detection rates ranged from 89.1% (hexachlorobenzene, HCB) to 93.6% (Polychlorinated biphenyl-153 [PCB-153]); p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) showed the highest median concentrations (1.04ng/ml), while HCB showed the lowest (0.24ng/ml). In the multivariable models, age was positively associated with HCB, p,p'-DDE, and PCB-180. BMI was associated positively with p,p'-DDE but negatively with PCB-138. Total accumulated time residing in an urban area was positively associated with PCB-153 concentrations. The women showed higher HCB and lower p,p'-DDE concentrations versus the men. Notably, POP exposure in our study population was inversely associated with the breastfeeding received by participants and with the number of pregnancies of their mothers but was not related to the participants' history of breastfeeding their children or parity. Smoking was negatively associated with HCB and PCB-153 concentrations. Consumption of fatty foods, including blue fish, was in general positively associated with POP levels. Although POP environmental levels are declining worldwide, there is a need for the continuous monitoring of human exposure in the general population. The results of the present study confirm previous findings and point to novel

  3. Children's and Adults' Judgments of the Controllability of Cognitive Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillow, Bradford H.; Pearson, RaeAnne M.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated 1st-, 3rd-, and 5th-grade children's and adults' judgments related to the controllability of cognitive activities, including object recognition, inferential reasoning, counting, and pretending. In Experiment 1, fifth-grade children and adults rated transitive inference and interpretation of ambiguous pictures as more…

  4. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  5. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  6. Nutrition Considerations for the Growing Population of Older Adults With Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The growing older adult population and its higher incidence of diabetes are creating demands on health care providers to address the special needs of these patients. Because nutrition is essential to the proper treatment and self-management of diabetes, clinicians must develop and adopt various strategies to address some of the common nutritional, lifestyle, and self-management barriers that older adults face. Nutrition assessments of older adults with diabetes should be comprehensive, with a...

  7. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a West African population of tuberculosis patients and unmatched healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian; Olesen, Rikke; Rabna, Paulo;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in African populations and in tuberculosis (TB) patients. VDD has been shown to be associated with TB. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the degree of vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) and VDD in TB patients and healthy adult controls in a...... in a West African population. DESIGN: An unmatched case-control study was performed at a Demographic Surveillance Site in Guinea-Bissau. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] concentrations were measured in 362 TB patients and in 494 controls. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D(3)...

  8. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a West African population of tuberculosis patients and unmatched healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian; Olesen, Rikke; Rabna, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in African populations and in tuberculosis (TB) patients. VDD has been shown to be associated with TB. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the degree of vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) and VDD in TB patients and healthy adult controls...... in a West African population. DESIGN: An unmatched case-control study was performed at a Demographic Surveillance Site in Guinea-Bissau. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] concentrations were measured in 362 TB patients and in 494 controls. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D(3) Udgivelsesdato: 2007...

  9. Tissue-resident adult stem cell populations of rapidly self-renewing organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, N.; Bartfeld, S.; Clevers, H.

    2010-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the intestine, stomach, and skin is continuously exposed to environmental assault, imposing a requirement for regular self-renewal. Resident adult stem cell populations drive this renewal, and much effort has been invested in revealing their identity. Reliable adult stem

  10. Tissue-resident adult stem cell populations of rapidly self-renewing organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, N.; Bartfeld, S.; Clevers, H.

    2010-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the intestine, stomach, and skin is continuously exposed to environmental assault, imposing a requirement for regular self-renewal. Resident adult stem cell populations drive this renewal, and much effort has been invested in revealing their identity. Reliable adult stem cel

  11. The National Blueprint for Promoting Physical Activity in the Mid-Life and Older Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Sheppard, Lisa; Senior, Jane; Park, Chae-Hee; Mockenhaupt, Robin; Bazzarre, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The National Blueprint: Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults Age 50 and Older was designed to develop a national strategy for the promotion of physically active lifestyles among the mid-life and older adult population. The Blueprint identifies barriers to physical activity in the areas of research, home and community programs, medical…

  12. The National Blueprint for Promoting Physical Activity in the Mid-Life and Older Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Sheppard, Lisa; Senior, Jane; Park, Chae-Hee; Mockenhaupt, Robin; Bazzarre, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The National Blueprint: Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults Age 50 and Older was designed to develop a national strategy for the promotion of physically active lifestyles among the mid-life and older adult population. The Blueprint identifies barriers to physical activity in the areas of research, home and community programs, medical…

  13. Increase in self-reported migraine prevalence in the Danish adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Han; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Skytthe, Axel

    2012-01-01

    It is uncertain whether migraine prevalence has increased in modern society. The aim of this study was to assess any change in migraine prevalence over an 8-year period among the adult population in Denmark.......It is uncertain whether migraine prevalence has increased in modern society. The aim of this study was to assess any change in migraine prevalence over an 8-year period among the adult population in Denmark....

  14. The voluntary control of facial action units in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Pierre; Perron, Mélanie; Beaupré, Martin

    2010-04-01

    We investigated adults' voluntary control of 20 facial action units theoretically associated with 6 basic emotions (happiness, fear, anger, surprise, sadness, and disgust). Twenty young adults were shown video excerpts of facial action units and asked to reproduce them as accurately as possible. Facial Action Coding System (FACS; Ekman & Friesen, 1978a) coding of the facial productions showed that young adults succeeded in activating 18 of the 20 target actions units, although they often coactivated other action units. Voluntary control was clearly better for some action units than for others, with a pattern of differences between action units consistent with previous work in children and adolescents. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Factor associated with tobacco use among the adult population in Sarawak, Malaysia: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizanur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Consumption of tobacco in any form is one of the leading causes of preventable mortality. The World Health Organization recommends that it should be monitored regularly.  This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use among the rural adult population in Sarawak and factors associated with it.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among the adult population in Sarawak. Data were collected from ten villages in Kota Samarahan and Kuching Division by face to face interview using modified Global Adult Tobacco Survey questionnaire. Non-probability sampling method was adopted to select the villages. All the households of the villages were visited and an adult member was selected randomly from each house irrespective of the sex. After missing value imputation, 1000 data were analysed using statistical software SPSS 19.0 version.Results: Analysis showed that 30.9% of the respondents were current tobacco users and 11% were past tobacco users. The mean age (SD at starting tobacco was 18.1 (6.48 years. The frequency of tobacco use was 14 times per day.  Hierarchical Logistic regression analysis revealed that age with male sex (OR=1. 064, 95% CI: 1.052, 1.076, secondary education (OR=-2.712; 95% CI: 1.122, 6.555, higher secondary and above (OR=3. 571; 95% CI: 1.641,7.774, occupation as business (OR=3. 152; 95% CI: 1.732, 5.735 and environmental exposure such as smoking at working place (OR=2. 754;95% CI: 1.895,4.002, coffee house (OR=2. 274;95% CI: 1.32,3.919 and at home (OR=1. 827;95% CI: 1.242,2.687 appeared to be  important predictors of tobacco use (p<0.05.Conclusion: A large proportion of males use tobacco products. Though tobacco use was negligible among females, but they would be potential users. Environmental exposure to tobacco appeared to be important predictors. Tobacco control campaigns should target banning of tobacco use in closed and open areas and also to intensify the monitoring of all forms

  16. Prevalence and etiology of anemias in the adult Turkish population

    OpenAIRE

    MEMİŞOĞULLARI, Ramazan; YILDIRIM, Hayriye AK; UÇGUN, Taner; ERKAN, Melih Engin; GÜNEŞ, Cemalettin; ERBAŞ, Mesut; GÜNGÖR, Adem; YANIK, Mehmet Emin

    2012-01-01

    Anemia is common in the general population and one of the most frequently observed nutritional deficiency diseases in the world today. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and etiology of anemias in a large cohort representing the Turkish nation. Materials and methods: The study population comprised 2187 subjects. Serum iron, iron binding capacity, ferritin, vitamin B12, and folic acid analyses were conducted with autoanalyzers using commercial kits. Results: A total of ...

  17. HIV-Infected Adolescent, Young Adult and Pregnant Smokers: Important Targets for Effective Tobacco Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerome Escota

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed.

  18. Association between Polyphenol Intake and Hypertension in Adults and Older Adults: A Population-Based Study in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Andreia Machado; Steluti, Josiane; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and diet has been identified as a modifiable factor for preventing and controlling hypertension. Besides, epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse association between polyphenol intake and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the intake of polyphenols and hypertension in a general population of Sao Paulo. Methods Data came from the ‘Health Survey of Sao Paulo (ISA-Capital)’ among 550 adults and older adults in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Diet was assessed by two 24-hour dietary recalls (24HR). Usual intakes were calculated using the Multiple Source Method. Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data from the 24HR with the Phenol-Explorer database. The associations between the hypertension and tertiles of the total and classes of polyphenols intake were tested by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results After multivariate adjustment for potential confounding factors the findings showed an inverse and linearly association between the hypertension and highest tertiles of tyrosols (OR = 0.33; 95%CI 0.18, 0.64), alkylphenols (OR = 0.45; 95%CI 0.23, 0.87), lignans (OR = 0.49; 95%CI 0.25, 0.98), as well as stilbenes (OR = 0.60; 95%CI 0.36, 0.98), and other polyphenols (OR = 0.33; 95%CI 0.14, 0.74). However, total polyphenol intake, and phenolic acids were significantly associated only in the middle tertile with hypertension and flavonoids were not significant associated. Conclusion There is an inverse and linearly association between the highest tertile of some classes of polyphenols, such as, tyrosols, alkylphenols, lignans, stilbenes, other polyphenols and hypertension. PMID:27792767

  19. Association between Polyphenol Intake and Hypertension in Adults and Older Adults: A Population-Based Study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Andreia Machado; Steluti, Josiane; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and diet has been identified as a modifiable factor for preventing and controlling hypertension. Besides, epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse association between polyphenol intake and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the intake of polyphenols and hypertension in a general population of Sao Paulo. Data came from the 'Health Survey of Sao Paulo (ISA-Capital)' among 550 adults and older adults in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Diet was assessed by two 24-hour dietary recalls (24HR). Usual intakes were calculated using the Multiple Source Method. Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data from the 24HR with the Phenol-Explorer database. The associations between the hypertension and tertiles of the total and classes of polyphenols intake were tested by multivariate logistic regression analysis. After multivariate adjustment for potential confounding factors the findings showed an inverse and linearly association between the hypertension and highest tertiles of tyrosols (OR = 0.33; 95%CI 0.18, 0.64), alkylphenols (OR = 0.45; 95%CI 0.23, 0.87), lignans (OR = 0.49; 95%CI 0.25, 0.98), as well as stilbenes (OR = 0.60; 95%CI 0.36, 0.98), and other polyphenols (OR = 0.33; 95%CI 0.14, 0.74). However, total polyphenol intake, and phenolic acids were significantly associated only in the middle tertile with hypertension and flavonoids were not significant associated. There is an inverse and linearly association between the highest tertile of some classes of polyphenols, such as, tyrosols, alkylphenols, lignans, stilbenes, other polyphenols and hypertension.

  20. 49 CFR 372.243 - Controlling distances and population data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controlling distances and population data. 372.243... population data. In the application of § 372.241: (a) Air-line distances or mileages about corporate limits of municipalities shall be used. (b) The population of any municipality shall be deemed to be the...

  1. Grammatical Class Effects Across Impaired Child and Adult Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study are to compare quantitative and qualitative differences for noun/verb retrieval across language-impaired groups, examine naming errors with reference to psycholinguistic models of word processing, and shed light on the nature of the naming deficit as well as determine relevant group commonalities and differences. This includes an attempt to establish whether error types differentiate language-impaired children from adults, to determine effects of psycholinguistic variables on naming accuracies, and to link the results to genetic mechanisms and/or neural circuitry in the brain. A total of 89 (language-)impaired participants took part in this report: 24 adults with acquired aphasia, 20 adults with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder, 31 adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and 14 children with specific language impairment. The results of simultaneous multiple regression analyses for the errors in verb naming compared to the psycholinguistic variables for all language-impaired groups are reported and discussed in relation to models of lexical processing. This discussion will lead to considerations of genetic and/or neurobiological underpinnings: Presence of the noun–verb dissociation in focal and non-focal brain impairment make localization theories redundant, but support for wider neural network involvement.The patterns reported cannot be reduced to any one level of language processing, suggesting multiple interactions at different levels (e.g., receptive vs. expressive language abilities).Semantic-conceptual properties constrain syntactic properties with implications for phonological word form retrieval.Competition needs to be resolved at both conceptual and phonological levels of representation. Moreover, this study may provide a cross-pathological baseline that can be probed further with respect to recent suggestions concerning a reconsideration of open- vs. closed-class items, according to which verbs may actually fall into the

  2. Determination of thyrotropin reference values in an adult Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rebollar, Armando; Moreno-Castañeda, Lidia; Vega-Servín, Norman S; López-Carrasco, Guadalupe; Ruiz-Juvera, Aída

    2015-02-01

    The upper limit of TSH reference level is controversial. The purpose of our study was to determine TSH reference values in a Mexican population in accordance with the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) criteria and in correlation with thyroid ultrasound (US) examination. The study was conducted in volunteers with no known thyroid disease. We recruited 482 subjects, most of them medical or administrative staff from our hospital. They answered a questionnaire on demographic data, family history, co-morbidities, and drug use. Their thyroid hormone levels and thyroid antibodies were determined, and a complete physical examination and thyroid US were performed. The population used to establish the TSH reference intervals was selected according to the NACB criteria and their normal thyroid structural and echogenic characteristics in US examination. Among 482 subjects (209 males) with a median age of 26 years, prevalence rates of TPOAb and TgAb were 9.3% and 10.3% respectively. Mean TSH level in the overall population was 1.90±1.94, with a 97.5th percentile of 6.76 mIU/L. The reference population was limited to 282 subjects (41.5% were excluded) with a mean TSH of 1.86±1.63 and a 97.5th percentile of 4.88 mIU/L. No sex difference was found (p=0.287). Median urinary iodine level in the reference population was 267 μg/L IQR (161.3-482.5). The TSH reference interval in the reference population was 0.71 (CI 0.65-0.77) to 4.88 mIU/L (CI 4.5-5.3); these limits may be influenced by iodine nutritional status in this population. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Levels and predictors of persistent organic pollutants in an adult population from four Spanish regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, M., E-mail: mafero@ugr.es [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.Granada, University of Granada, San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Arrebola, J.P., E-mail: jparrebola@ugr.es [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.Granada, University of Granada, San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Oncology Unit, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Artacho-Cordón, F.; Amaya, E. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.Granada, University of Granada, San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Aragones, N. [Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cancer Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cancer Epidemiology Research Group, Oncology and Hematology Area, IIS Puerta de Hierro (IDIPHIM), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Llorca, J. [Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Universidad de Cantabria-IDIVAL, Santander (Spain); Perez-Gomez, B. [Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cancer Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cancer Epidemiology Research Group, Oncology and Hematology Area, IIS Puerta de Hierro (IDIPHIM), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-12-15

    This research aimed to assess serum concentrations of a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a sample of adults recruited in four different regions from Spain and to assess socio-demographic, dietary, and lifestyle predictors of the exposure. The study population comprised 312 healthy adults selected from among controls recruited in the MCC-Spain multicase-control study. Study variables were collected using standardized questionnaires, and pollutants were analyzed by means of gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Multivariable analyses were performed to identify predictors of log-transformed pollutant concentrations, using combined backward and forward stepwise multiple linear regression models. Detection rates ranged from 89.1% (hexachlorobenzene, HCB) to 93.6% (Polychlorinated biphenyl-153 [PCB-153]); p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) showed the highest median concentrations (1.04 ng/ml), while HCB showed the lowest (0.24 ng/ml). In the multivariable models, age was positively associated with HCB, p,p′-DDE, and PCB-180. BMI was associated positively with p,p′-DDE but negatively with PCB-138. Total accumulated time residing in an urban area was positively associated with PCB-153 concentrations. The women showed higher HCB and lower p,p′-DDE concentrations versus the men. Notably, POP exposure in our study population was inversely associated with the breastfeeding received by participants and with the number of pregnancies of their mothers but was not related to the participants' history of breastfeeding their children or parity. Smoking was negatively associated with HCB and PCB-153 concentrations. Consumption of fatty foods, including blue fish, was in general positively associated with POP levels. Although POP environmental levels are declining worldwide, there is a need for the continuous monitoring of human exposure in the general population. The results of the present study confirm previous findings and

  4. Correspondence between overweight and socioeconomic and demographic indicators in the adult Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Schuindt da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the correlation between overweight and socioeconomic and demographic indicators among Brazilian adults, using data from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey from 2008/2009.METHODS: We analyzed the joint relationships between overweight and socioeconomic and demographic indicators in the Brazilian adult population (99,532,672 individuals, through the multiple correspondence analysis technique.RESULTS: The featured profile of the Brazilian adult population with regard to overweight was correlated with ages from 30 years of the most developed and economically social geographic regions of Brazil; however between genders, the correlation was in the opposite direction in the variables income, education, and subjective issues about life conditions related to food and nutrition security.CONCLUSION: By the joint relationship between overweight and selected demographic and socioeconomic indicators, the urgency of the development of strategies and/or preventive public health programs of health problems with overweight in the Brazilian adult population is suggested.

  5. Increasing seroprevalence of Clostridium difficile in an adult Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Linneberg, A; Tvede, M

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated infections is increasing, but it remains to be defined whether any change in the seroprevalence of C. difficile has also occurred. In a population-based study of the general adult population, 734 subjects, aged 15-69 years, were examined on two...

  6. Fibromyalgia in the adult Danish population: I. A prevalence study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Kjøller, M; Jacobsen, S;

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of fibromyalgia have so far been based on rheumatologic and general practice settings, which are poor proxies for the underlying population. The study is based on a national health interview survey carried out by the Danish Institute for Clinical Epidemiology in 1990......%). Eight subjects, all female, met the 1990 American College of Rheumatism criteria for fibromyalgia. Dropouts were regarded as not having fibromyalgia. The prevalence of fibromyalgia in the Danish population between 18 and 79 years of age was found to be a minimum estimate of 0.66% (95% confidence limits...

  7. Temporal gait characteristics in the Czech adult population

    OpenAIRE

    Korvas, Pavel; Hellebrandt, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    A descriptive comparative research study of gait of the Czech population has been carried out. Its aim was to assess temporal characteristics of a stance in the Czech population in relation to the BMI and age. To obtain basic data the Pedar Mobile System (Novel GER) with capacitative insoles was used. 170 men and women aged 18-60 divided by gender and age into three natural biological groups (18-30, 31-45, 46-60 years of age) were measured (Kovář 1997, Riegrová 1998, Pavlík 2007). Basic tempo...

  8. Allergic contact sensitization in an adult Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N H; Linneberg, A; Menné, T;

    2001-01-01

    In 1990 and 1998 15-41-year-old people were patch-tested in 2 cross-sectional studies of random samples of the population in the western part of Copenhagen County, Denmark. In 1990, 290 subjects and in 1998, 469 subjects were patch-tested. The participation rates were 69% and 51%, respectively...

  9. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome-related disorders in a large adult population in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yokusoglu Mehmet; Hasimi Adnan; Oktenli Cagatay; Sanisoglu S Yavuz; Ugurlu Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background There are few existing large population studies on the epidemiology of metabolic syndrome-related disorders of Turkey. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome-related disorders in the Turkish adult population, to address sex, age, educational and geographical differences, and to examine blood pressure, body mass index, fasting blood glucose and serum lipids in Turkey. Methods This study was executed under the population study "The Healt...

  10. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in natural populations of mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein, Irmgard

    2015-05-01

    This review will discuss adult hippocampal neurogenesis in wild mammals of different taxa and outline similarities with and differences from laboratory animals. It begins with a review of evidence for hippocampal neurogenesis in various mammals, and shows the similar patterns of age-dependent decline in cell proliferation in wild and domesticated mammals. In contrast, the pool of immature neurons that originate from proliferative activity varies between species, implying a selective advantage for mammals that can make use of a large number of these functionally special neurons. Furthermore, rapid adaptation of hippocampal neurogenesis to experimental challenges appears to be a characteristic of laboratory rodents. Wild mammals show species-specific, rather stable hippocampal neurogenesis, which appears related to demands that characterize the niche exploited by a species rather than to acute events in the life of its members. Studies that investigate adult neurogenesis in wild mammals are not numerous, but the findings of neurogenesis under natural conditions can provide new insights, and thereby also address the question to which cognitive demands neurogenesis may respond during selection.

  11. Early life exposures and the occurrence and timing of heart disease among the older adult Puerto Rican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnry, Mry; Palloni, Alberto

    2010-02-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of early life conditions on the timing of the onset of heart disease. We use the remarkable example of a representative sample of the population of older Puerto Ricans aged 60-74 who lived in the countryside during childhood (n = 1,438) to examine the effects ofseasonal exposures to poor nutrition and infectious diseases during late gestation on the timing of the onset and the probability of ever experiencing adult heart disease. Cox and log logistic hazard models controlling for childhood conditions (self-reported childhood health status and socioeconomic status [SES], rheumatic fever, and knee height) and adult risk factors (adult SES, obesity, smoking, exercise, and self-reported diabetes) showed that the risk of onset of heart disease was 65% higher among those born during high-exposure periods compared with unexposed individuals. However, there were no significant differences in median time of onset for those ever experiencing heart disease. As a comparison, we found that there were no significant seasonality effects for those who lived in urban areas during childhood. We conclude that early exposures in utero have important ramifications for adult heart disease among the older Puerto Rican population. We show, however, that while exposure is associated with the probability of ever experiencing adult heart disease, it is not associated with the timing of onset among those who do experience it.

  12. A randomized controlled trial to promote volunteering in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Lisa M; Wolff, Julia K; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Wurm, Susanne

    2014-12-01

    Volunteering is presumed to confer health benefits, but interventions to encourage older adults to volunteer are sparse. Therefore, a randomized controlled trial with 280 community-dwelling older German adults was conducted to test the effects of a theory-based social-cognitive intervention against a passive waiting-list control group and an active control intervention designed to motivate physical activity. Self-reports of weekly volunteering minutes were assessed at baseline (5 weeks before the intervention) as well as 2 and 6 weeks after the intervention. Participants in the treatment group increased their weekly volunteering minutes to a greater extent than participants in the control groups 6 weeks after the intervention. We conclude that a single, face-to-face group session can increase volunteering among older community-dwelling adults. However, the effects need some time to unfold because changes in volunteering were not apparent 2 weeks after the intervention.

  13. Does cannibalism of larvae by adults affect settlement and connectivity of mussel populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porri, Francesca; Jordaan, Tembisa; McQuaid, Christopher D.

    2008-09-01

    Intertidal population dynamics are driven by a complex series of processes, including larval supply and the possibility of larval predation by benthic animals such as filter-feeders. We hypothesised that cannibalism by adults could play a major role in the population connectivity of mussel populations by removing larvae as they attempt to settle in the adult habitat. Specifically, we tested hypotheses that consumption of mussel larvae by adults removes a significant proportion of potential settlers and is influenced by both settlement intensity and tidal state (flooding or ebbing). Predation of mussel larvae by adult mussels was investigated on incoming and ebbing tides during four spring tides by analysing the gut contents of adult Perna perna and Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from the low intertidal mussel zone between October 2005 and January 2006. Consumption rates were then compared with estimates of successful settler densities on natural beds. The results showed that mortality of competent mussel larvae through adult ingestion removes up to 77% a of potential settlers. Rates of larval consumption were highest during months of intense settlement, suggesting that mussels feed opportunistically, filtering a relatively fixed volume of water and removing particles, including larvae, in proportion to their densities in the water. Rates of larviphagy were also higher during receding than incoming tides. We suggest that this is due to changes in larval density or, more probably, in adult filtration efficiency that are related to the state of the tide. Despite significant effects of both tidal state and settlement intensity on rates of larval ingestion, neither had a significant effect on the proportion of potential settlers removed. During settlement more than half of all potential settlers are lost through cannibalism, with potentially serious consequences for population maintenance. The results highlight the paradoxical nature of the evolution of settlement

  14. Estimating total population size for adult female sea turtles: Accounting for non-nesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, W.L.; Richardson, J.I.; Rees, Alan F.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of population size and changes therein is important to sea turtle management and population or life history research. Investigators might be interested in testing hypotheses about the effect of current population size or density (number of animals per unit resource) on future population processes. Decision makers might want to determine a level of allowable take of individual turtles of specified life stage. Nevertheless, monitoring most stages of sea turtle life histories is difficult, because obtaining access to individuals is difficult. Although in-water assessments are becoming more common, nesting females and their hatchlings remain the most accessible life stages. In some cases adult females of a given nesting population are sufficiently philopatric that the population itself can be well defined. If a well designed tagging study is conducted on this population, survival, breeding probability, and the size of the nesting population in a given year can be estimated. However, with published statistical methodology the size of the entire breeding population (including those females skipping nesting in that year) cannot be estimated without assuming that each adult female in this population has the same probability of nesting in a given year (even those that had just nested in the previous year). We present a method for estimating the total size of a breeding population (including nesters those skipping nesting) from a tagging study limited to the nesting population, allowing for the probability of nesting in a given year to depend on an individual's nesting status in the previous year (i.e., a Markov process). From this we further develop estimators for rate of growth from year to year in both nesting population and total breeding population, and the proportion of the breeding population that is breeding in a given year. We also discuss assumptions and apply these methods to a breeding population of hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from

  15. Insecticide resistance of adults and nymphs of Asian citrus psyllid populations from Apatzingán Valley, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Saúl; Martínez, Ana M; Figueroa, José I; Chavarrieta, Juan M; Viñuela, Elisa; Rebollar-Alviter, Ángel; Miranda, Mario A; Valle, Javier; Pineda, Samuel

    2017-07-18

    Control of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the most important pest of citrus worldwide, is based on the use of insecticides, though unsatisfactory results have recently been reported. In this study, insecticide resistance of D. citri to three insecticides (bifenthrin, malathion, and chlorpyrifos) was examined. Three populations (designated Dci-CParácuaro, Dci-El Junco, and Dci-Antúnez) of both adults and fourth-instar D. citri individuals were collected in 2014 at two different times and on one occasion, respectively, from three locations (Crucero de Parácuaro, El Junco, and Antúnez). These locations represent the major commercial Mexican lemon production areas in the Apatzingán Valley in the state of Michoacán, Mexico. The three populations of D. citri adults and fourth-instar nymphs at the different collection times showed low levels of resistance (≤7-fold) to bifenthrin, but were very resistant to malathion (≤345- and ≤432-fold for adults and fourth instars, respectively) and chlorpyrifos (≤2435- and ≤1424-fold for adults and fourth instars, respectively). Resistance levels to the tested insecticides were highly variable but homogeneous among seasons and localities. Resistance management programmes that include crop sanitation, use of biological and cultural control practices, and rotation of insecticide classes should be established, particularly in areas where D. citri has developed resistance to malathion and chlorpyrifos. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Metabolic gene polymorphism frequencies in control populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garte, Seymour; Gaspari, Laura; Alexandrie, Anna-Karin

    2001-01-01

    Using the International Project on Genetic Susceptibility to Environmental Carcinogens (GSEC) database containing information on over 15,000 control (noncancer) subjects, the allele and genotype frequencies for many of the more commonly studied metabolic genes (CYP1A1, CYP2E1, CYP2D6, GSTM1, GSTT...

  17. Intravenous multipotent adult progenitor cell therapy after traumatic brain injury: modulation of the resident microglia population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Peter A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We have demonstrated previously that the intravenous delivery of multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC after traumatic brain injury affords neuroprotection via interaction with splenocytes, leading to an increase in systemic anti-inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesize that the observed modulation of the systemic inflammatory milieu is related to T regulatory cells and a subsequent increase in the locoregional neuroprotective M2 macrophage population. Methods C57B6 mice were injected with intravenous MAPC 2 and 24 hours after controlled cortical impact injury. Animals were euthanized 24, 48, 72, and 120 hours after injury. In vivo, the proportion of CD4+/CD25+/FOXP3+ T-regulatory cells were measured in the splenocyte population and plasma. In addition, the brain CD86+ M1 and CD206+ M2 macrophage populations were quantified. A series of in vitro co-cultures were completed to investigate the need for direct MAPC:splenocyte contact as well as the effect of MAPC therapy on M1 and M2 macrophage subtype apoptosis and proliferation. Results Significant increases in the splenocyte and plasma T regulatory cell populations were observed with MAPC therapy at 24 and 48 hours, respectively. In addition, MAPC therapy was associated with an increase in the brain M2/M1 macrophage ratio at 24, 48 and 120 hours after cortical injury. In vitro cultures of activated microglia with supernatant derived from MAPC:splenocyte co-cultures also demonstrated an increase in the M2/M1 ratio. The observed changes were secondary to an increase in M1 macrophage apoptosis. Conclusions The data show that the intravenous delivery of MAPC after cortical injury results in increases in T regulatory cells in splenocytes and plasma with a concordant increase in the locoregional M2/M1 macrophage ratio. Direct contact between the MAPC and splenocytes is required to modulate activated microglia, adding further evidence to the central role of the spleen in MAPC

  18. Differential effectiveness of two anxiety induction procedures in youth and older adult populations

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Montorio; Roberto Nuevo; Isabel Cabrera; María Márquez; María Izal

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we tested in older and younger adults the efficacy of two well-known procedures to experimentally induce anxiety: a) Velten self-statements combined with music; b) film scenes. We extended the previous findings in this field to the understudied area of mood induction in older adults. Fifty-seven older adults and 94 college students were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions or to a control group. Results indicated that both procedures were effective, according...

  19. Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in urban adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Rodrigues Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Estimating the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in the urban population aged between 30 and 69 years in the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study conducted between October/2009 and February/2011. The investigation included the determination of fasting glucose and participants with blood glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Nondiabetic patients, which showed blood glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL and < 200 mg/dL, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT to investigate whether they had DM or IGT. Results: 1.429 individuals participated in this investigation. The general prevalence, adjusted for sex and age, were: 12.3% for DM (95%CI: 10.5 to 13.9% and 7.1% for IGT (95%CI: 5.7 to 8.4%. There was a higher prevalence of DM with increasing age in people with low educational level, family history of diabetes, overweight, obesity and central obesity. Among diabetic patients (n = 195, 25% were unaware they had the disease and were diagnosed through investigation. Among patients who already knew they had DM (n = 146, 37% were unaware of the potential chronic complications. Conclusion: This study confirms the increased prevalence of DM in Brazil and emphasizes the need for early diagnosis, as well as the importance of strict adherence to medical treatment in order to prevent its much feared complications.

  20. Facial soft tissue thickness in North Indian adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanushri Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Forensic facial reconstruction is an attempt to reproduce a likeness of facial features of an individual, based on characteristics of the skull, for the purpose of individual identification - The aim of this study was to determine the soft tissue thickness values of individuals of Bareilly population, Uttar Pradesh, India and to evaluate whether these values can help in forensic identification. Study design: A total of 40 individuals (19 males, 21 females were evaluated using spiral computed tomographic (CT scan with 2 mm slice thickness in axial sections and soft tissue thicknesses were measured at seven midfacial anthropological facial landmarks. Results: It was found that facial soft tissue thickness values decreased with age. Soft tissue thickness values were less in females than in males, except at ramus region. Comparing the left and right values in individuals it was found to be not significant. Conclusion: Soft tissue thickness values are an important factor in facial reconstruction and also help in forensic identification of an individual. CT scan gives a good representation of these values and hence is considered an important tool in facial reconstruction- This study has been conducted in North Indian population and further studies with larger sample size can surely add to the data regarding soft tissue thicknesses.

  1. Bronchodilator responsiveness and reported respiratory symptoms in an adult population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan C Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between patient-reported symptoms and objective measures of lung function is poorly understood. AIM: To determine the association between responsiveness to bronchodilator and respiratory symptoms in random population samples. METHODS: 4669 people aged 40 years and older from 8 sites in Canada completed interviewer-administered respiratory questionnaires and performed spirometry before and after administration of 200 ug of inhaled salbutamol. The effect of anthropometric variables, smoking exposure and doctor-diagnosed asthma (DDA on bronchodilator responsiveness in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and in forced vital capacity (FVC were evaluated. Multiple logistic regression was used to test for association between quintiles of increasing changes in FEV1 and in FVC after bronchodilator and several respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: Determinants of bronchodilator change in FEV1 and FVC included age, DDA, smoking, respiratory drug use and female gender [p<0.005 to p<0.0001 ]. In subjects without doctor-diagnosed asthma or COPD, bronchodilator response in FEV1 was associated with wheezing [p for trend<0.0001], while bronchodilator response for FVC was associated with breathlessness. [p for trend <0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchodilator responsiveness in FEV1 or FVC are associated with different respiratory symptoms in the community. Both flow and volume bronchodilator responses are useful parameters which together can be predictive of both wheezing and breathlessness in the general population.

  2. Suboptimal effectiveness of the 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine in adult Korean populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Suk Choi

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine was evaluated in adult Korean populations with regard to how well it could prevent laboratory-confirmed influenza and influenza-related complications.A retrospective case-control and retrospective cohort study was conducted among patients who visited four selected hospitals from September 2011 to May 2012. The analysis included 1,130 laboratory-confirmed influenza patients. For each influenza case, one control patient was chosen at a ratio of 1:1. A control was defined as an age group-matched patient who visited the same hospital with influenza-like illness within 48 hours of symptom onset but for whom laboratory tests were negative for influenza. Age group and visit date were matched between the cases and controls. Vaccine effectiveness (VE was defined as [100 × (1-odds ratio for influenza in vaccinated versus non-vaccinated persons]. The patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza were followed for at least one month through reviewing the medical records and conducting a telephone interview.The VE of the 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine was 3.8% [95% confidence interval (CI, -16.5% to 20.6%] for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza, -16.1% (95% CI, -48.3 to 9.1 for influenza A and 26.2% (95% CI, -2.6 to 46.2 for influenza B. The age-specific adjusted VE was 0.3% (95% CI, -29.4 to 23.1 among participants aged 19 to 49 years, 11.9% (95% CI, -34.3 to 42.2 among those aged 50 to 64 years and -3.9% (-60.1 to 32.5 among those aged ≥65 years. The adjusted VE for preventing any influenza-related complications was -10.7% (95% CI, -41.1% to 42.2%.The 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine was not effective in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza or influenza-related complications in adult Korean populations.

  3. Cognitive control in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Westerhausen, René; Haavik, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to direct their attention and exert cognitive control in a forced instruction dichotic listening (DL) task. The performance of 29 adults with ADHD was compared with 58......-forced condition), or to focus and report either the right- or left-ear syllable (forced-right and forced-left condition). This procedure is presumed to tap distinct cognitive processes: perception (non-forced condition), orienting of attention (forced-right condition), and cognitive control (forced-left condition......). Adults with ADHD did not show significant impairment in the conditions tapping perception and attention orientation, but were significantly impaired in their ability to report the left-ear syllable during the forced-left instruction condition, whereas the control group showed the expected left...

  4. Socioeconomic Position, Rural Residence, and Marginality Influences on Obesity Status in the Adult Mexican Population

    OpenAIRE

    P. Johnelle Sparks; Sparks, Corey S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses individual and social environment determinants of obesity in the adult Mexican population based on socioeconomic position, rural residence, and areal deprivation. Using a nationally representative health and nutrition survey, this analysis considers individual and structural determinants of obesity from a socioeconomic position and health disparities conceptual framework using multilevel logistic regression models. We find that more than thirty percent of Mexican adults we...

  5. Optimal control methods for controlling bacterial populations with persister dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, N. G.

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial tolerance to antibiotics is a well-known phenomena; however, only recent studies of bacterial biofilms have shown how multifaceted tolerance really is. By joining into a structured community and offering shared protection and gene transfer, bacterial populations can protect themselves genotypically, phenotypically and physically. In this study, we collect a line of research that focuses on phenotypic (or plastic) tolerance. The dynamics of persister formation are becoming better understood, even though there are major questions that remain. The thrust of our results indicate that even without detailed description of the biological mechanisms, theoretical studies can offer strategies that can eradicate bacterial populations with existing drugs.

  6. Insecticide Rotation Programs with Entomopathogenic Organisms for Suppression of Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Adult Populations under Greenhouse Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivett, Jessica M; Cloyd, Raymond A; Bello, Nora M

    2015-08-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is one of the most destructive insect pests of greenhouse production systems with the ability to develop resistance to a wide variety of insecticides. A common resistance management strategy is rotating insecticides with different modes of action. By incorporating entomopathogenic organisms (fungi and bacteria), which have discrete modes of action compared to standard insecticides, greenhouse producers may preserve the effectiveness of insecticides used for suppression of western flower thrips populations. The objective of this study was to determine how different rotation programs that include entomopathogenic organisms (Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosoroseus, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Chromobacterium subtsugae) and commonly used standard insecticides (spinosad, chlorfenapyr, abamectin, and pyridalyl) may impact the population dynamics of western flower thrips adult populations by means of suppression. Eight-week rotation programs were applied to chrysanthemum, Dendranthema x morifolium plants and weekly counts of western flower thrips adults captured on yellow sticky cards were recorded as a means to evaluate the impact of the rotation programs. A final quality assessment of damage caused by western flower thrips feeding on foliage and flowers was also recorded. Furthermore, a cost comparison of each rotation program was conducted. Overall, insecticide rotation programs that incorporated entomopathogenic organisms were not significantly different than the standard insecticide rotation programs without entomopathogenic organisms in suppressing western flower thrips adult populations. However, there were no significant differences among any of the rotation programs compared to the water control. Moreover, there was no differential effect of the rotation programs on foliage and flower quality. Cost savings of up to 34% (in US dollars) are possible when including entomopathogenic organisms in the

  7. [Five recommendations for controlling population growth in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Z; Wu, C P; Lin, F D

    1980-10-01

    The rapid population growth rate (2% annually from 1949 to 1978) caused great difficulties for China's national economy because it increased the burden of families, communities, and government. It caused employment problems and slowed increases in living standards and educational levels. The best way to control population growth is based on a combination of political education and effective economic measures. The recommendations are: 1) coordinate employment, food rationing, salaries, bonuses, health treatment, age and condition of retirement, preschool care and education with family planning programs, maintain the elderly's living standard, and give preference to childless and single child families; 2) educate people about family planning and incorporate population growth and family planning into political and economics courses in high school and college; 3) incorporate population control into national economic plans; 4) prohibit families with 3 children and advocate 1 child per couple; and 5) establish a permanent population committee to plan, develop, and implement population policies and related research.

  8. Demographic Trends of Adults in New York City Opioid Treatment Programs--An Aging Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Benjamin; Polydorou, Soteri; Ferris, Rosie; Blaum, Caroline S; Ross, Stephen; McNeely, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The population of adults accessing opioid treatment is growing older, but exact estimates vary widely, and little is known about the characteristics of the aging treatment population. Further, there has been little research regarding the epidemiology, healt h status, and functional impairments in this population. To determine the utilization of opioid treatment services by older adults in New York City. This study used administrative data from New York State licensed drug treatment programs to examine overall age trends and characteristics of older adults in opioid treatment programs in New York City from 1996 to 2012. We found significant increases in utilization of opioid treatment programs by older adults in New York City. By 2012, those aged 50-59 made up the largest age group in opioid treatment programs. Among older adults there were notable shifts in demographic background including gender and ethnicity, and an increase in self-reported impairments. More research is needed to fully understand the specific characteristics and needs of older adults with opioid dependence.

  9. The demography of free-roaming dog populations and applications to disease and population control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morters, Michelle K; McKinley, Trevelyan J; Restif, Olivier; Conlan, Andrew J K; Cleaveland, Sarah; Hampson, Katie; Whay, Helen R; Damriyasa, I Made; Wood, James L N

    2014-08-01

    1. Understanding the demography of domestic dog populations is essential for effective disease control, particularly of canine-mediated rabies. Demographic data are also needed to plan effective population management. However, no study has comprehensively evaluated the contribution of demographic processes (i.e. births, deaths and movement) to variations in dog population size or density, or determined the factors that regulate these processes, including human factors. 2. We report the results of a 3-year cohort study of domestic dogs, which is the first to generate detailed data on the temporal variation of these demographic characteristics. The study was undertaken in two communities in each of Bali, Indonesia and Johannesburg, South Africa, in rabies-endemic areas and where the majority of dogs were free-roaming. None of the four communities had been engaged in any dog population management interventions by local authorities or animal welfare organizations. All identified dogs in the four communities were monitored individually throughout the study. 3. We observed either no population growth or a progressive decline in population size during the study period. There was no clear evidence that population size was regulated through environmental resource constraints. Rather, almost all of the identified dogs were owned and fed regularly by their owners, consistent with population size regulated by human demand. Finally, a substantial fraction of the dogs originated from outside the population, entirely through the translocation of dogs by people, rather than from local births. These findings demonstrate that previously reported growth of dog populations is not a general phenomenon and challenge the widely held view that free-roaming dogs are unowned and form closed populations. 4.Synthesis and applications. These observations have broad implications for disease and population control. The accessibility of dogs for vaccination and evaluation through owners and the

  10. Seroepidemiology of pertussis in a cross-sectional study of an adult general population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, P F; Dalby, T; Simonsen, J

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY An increase in pertussis has been observed in several countries over the last decades, especially in adult populations. The seroprevalence of pertussis was determined in a cross-sectional study of the adult population in the Copenhagen area, Denmark, conducted between 2006 and 2008....../1000 person-years. In contrast, an incidence of 0·03/1000 person-years was estimated from the official data of notified cases during the same period. Of the investigated risk factors, only age and education were significantly associated with pertussis infection. This study indicates that pertussis is highly...

  11. Examining Contextual Influences on Fall-Related Injuries Among Older Adults for Population Health Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Geoffrey J; Rodriguez, Hector P

    2015-12-01

    The objectives were to assess the associations between fall-related injuries (FRIs) treated in the emergency department (ED) among older adults in California and contextual county-level physical, social, and economic characteristics, and to assess how county-level economic conditions are associated with FRIs when controlling for other county-level factors. Data from 2008 California ED discharge, Medicare Impact File, and County Health Rankings were used. Random effects logistic regression models estimated contextual associations between county-level factors representing economic conditions, the built environment, community safety, access to care, and obesity with patient-level FRI treatment among 1,712,409 older adults, controlling for patient-level and hospital-level characteristics. Patient-level predictors of FRI treatment were consistent with previous studies not accounting for contextual associations. Larger and rural hospitals had higher odds of FRI treatment, while teaching and safety net hospitals had lower odds. Better county economic conditions were associated with greater odds (ß=0.73, P=0.001) and higher county-level obesity were associated with lower odds (ß=-0.37, P=0.004), but safer built environments (ß=-0.31, P=0.38) were not associated with FRI treatment. The magnitude of association between county-level economic conditions and FRI treatment attenuated with the inclusion of county-level obesity rates. FRI treatment was most strongly and consistently related to more favorable county economic conditions, suggesting differences in treatment or preferences for treatment for FRIs among older individuals in communities of varying resource levels. Using population health data on FRIs, policy makers may be able to remove barriers unique to local contexts when implementing falls prevention educational programs and built environment modifications.

  12. Comparison of statistical population reconstruction using full and pooled adult age-class data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Skalski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-at-harvest data are among the most commonly collected, yet neglected, demographic data gathered by wildlife agencies. Statistical population construction techniques can use this information to estimate the abundance of wild populations over wide geographic areas and concurrently estimate recruitment, harvest, and natural survival rates. Although current reconstruction techniques use full age-class data (0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, … years, it is not always possible to determine an animal's age due to inaccuracy of the methods, expense, and logistics of sample collection. The ability to inventory wild populations would be greatly expanded if pooled adult age-class data (e.g., 0.5, 1.5, 2.5+ years could be successfully used in statistical population reconstruction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the performance of statistical population reconstruction models developed to analyze full age-class and pooled adult age-class data. We performed Monte Carlo simulations using a stochastic version of a Leslie matrix model, which generated data over a wide range of abundance levels, harvest rates, and natural survival probabilities, representing medium-to-big game species. Results of full age-class and pooled adult age-class population reconstructions were compared for accuracy and precision. No discernible difference in accuracy was detected, but precision was slightly reduced when using the pooled adult age-class reconstruction. On average, the coefficient of variation (i.e., SE(θ/θ increased by 0.059 when the adult age-class data were pooled prior to analyses. The analyses and maximum likelihood model for pooled adult age-class reconstruction are illustrated for a black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus population in Washington State. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Inventorying wild populations is one of the greatest challenges of wildlife agencies. These new statistical population reconstruction models should expand the

  13. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  14. Development of and change in cognitive control: a comparison of children, young adults, and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, David; Nessler, Doreen; Cycowicz, Yael M; Horton, Cort

    2009-03-01

    Cognitive control involves adjustments in behavior to conflicting information, develops throughout childhood, and declines in aging. Accordingly, developmental and age-related changes in cognitive control and response-conflict detection were assessed in a response-compatibility task. We recorded performance measures, pre-response time (pre-RT) activity and medial frontal negativity (MFN)-sequentially occurring, putative event-related potential (ERP) indexes, respectively, of cognitive control and response-conflict detection. When response conflict reached the highest levels by requiring incompatible responses on posterror trials, children and older adults showed the greatest performance decrements. ERPs indicated that young adults implemented control (pre-RT) and detected the increased conflict (MFN) only when that conflict was at the highest levels, whereas children and older adults did so at lower levels (e.g., posterror, compatible responses). Consequently, the developmental and age-related performance decrements observed here may be due to the undifferentiated and inefficient manner in which children and older adults recruited the processes associated with both cognitive control and response-conflict detection.

  15. [Hypertension: prevalence, early diagnosis, control and trends in Mexican adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Hernández-Barrera, Lucía; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Pedroza, Adolfo; Medina-García, Catalina; Barquera-Cervera, Simón

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to describe the prevalence, distribution and trends of hypertension (HT) in Mexican adults ≥20 years, and to describe the prevalence of early diagnosis and treatment of HT. A total of 10 898 adults were considered. The measurement of blood pressure was performed following the procedures recommended by the American Heart Association. An adult was considered, hypertensive when he met the diagnostic criteria of JNC-7. The prevalence of HT was 31.5%, of which 47.3% were unaware of their condition. Pharmacological treatment was not associated with a higher percentage of subjects under control. Prevalences from 2000, 2006 and 2012 suggest that there is a stabilization. A health problem of this magnitude requires better diagnosis, care and training of the medical sector so that appropriate treatments are prescribed and HT control can be enhanced.

  16. Periodontal status in an urban adult population in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söder, P O; Jin, L J; Söder, B; Wikner, S

    1994-04-01

    The purpose was to describe the current periodontal status in a Swedish urban population aged 31-40 yr. 1681 individuals, 840 men and 841 women, participated in the study. 68.5% of the subjects had low amount of plaque, 82.8% low level of calculus and 28.9% healthy gingiva or mild gingivitis. 82.8% of the subjects had no pockets with probing depth (PD) > or = 5 mm. 4.9% of the subjects had one tooth with PD > or = 5 mm, 6.7% 2-5 teeth, 2.4% 6-9 teeth and 3.2% > or = 10 teeth with pockets. 55.8% of the subjects had no missing teeth, third molars excluded. 16.5% had one tooth missing, 23.8% 2-5 teeth, 2.7% 6-9 teeth and 1.2% > or = 10 teeth. 8.6% of the subjects had at least one front tooth missing, 28.7% one premolar and 24.1% one molar missing. Men had significantly higher scores than women for plaque (DI-S), calculus (CI-S), gingivitis (GI-M), and number and percent of remaining teeth with PD > or = 5 mm. Smokers had significantly higher scores than non-smokers for DI-S, CI-S, GI-M, number and percent of remaining teeth with PD > or = 5 mm, and number of missing teeth. The individuals who visited the dentist every year had better oral hygiene and gingival status than those who attended for > 3 yr. The multiple regression analysis showed that calculus (P = 0.0001) smoking (P = 0.001), and dental visits (P = 0.0284) were significantly correlated to the number of teeth with PD > or = 5 mm.

  17. Use of Proton Pump inhibitors is Associated with Fractures in Young Adults: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedberg, Daniel E.; Haynes, Kevin; Denburg, Michelle R.; Zemel, Babette S.; Leonard, Mary B.; Abrams, Julian A.; Yang, Yu-Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are associated with fracture in adults with osteoporosis. Because PPI therapy may interfere with bone accrual and attainment of peak bone mineral density, we studied the association between use of PPIs and fracture in children and young adults. Methods We conducted a population-based, case-control study nested within records from general medical practices from 1994 to 2013. Participants were 4–29 years old with ≥1 year of follow-up who lacked chronic conditions associated with use of long-term acid suppression. Cases of fracture were defined as the first incident fracture at any site. Using incidence density sampling, cases were matched with up to 5 controls by age, sex, medical practice, and start of follow-up. PPI exposure was defined as 180 or more cumulative doses of PPIs. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio and confidence interval for use of PPIs and fracture. Results We identified 124,799 cases and 605,643 controls. The adjusted odds ratio for the risk of fracture associated with PPI exposure was 1.13 (95% CI 0.92 to 1.39) among children aged < 18 years old and 1.39 (95% CI 1.26 to 1.53) among young adults aged 18–29 years old. In young adults but not children, we observed a dose-response effect with increased total exposure to PPIs (p for trend <.001). Conclusions PPI use was associated with fracture in young adults but overall evidence did not support a PPI-fracture relationship in children. Young adults who use PPIs should be cautioned regarding potentially increased risk for fracture, even if they lack traditional fracture risk factors. PMID:25986385

  18. [Immune status of adult population of the Bryansk region living in territory polluted by radionuclides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oradovskaia, I V; Fadeeva, I D; Ul'ianova, N V; Nikonova, M F; Litvina, M M; Lavdovskaia, M V; Chernetsova, L F; Khoroshilova, N V

    1995-01-01

    Clinical and immunological investigation with immune status evaluation of three groups of adult population of Bryansk Region was performed. The first group included 165 persons living in Vyshkov (settlement of town type in Bryansk Region) contaminated with radionuclides as a result of Chernobyl accident. The second group included 68 persons living in Vyshkov, immunological monitoring of those was performed. The third group consisted of 114 persons living on the "clean" area of Pochep (Bryansk Region). On both areas (contaminated Vyshkov and "clean" Pochep) the large percent of persons (three quarters of all investigated ones) had clinical manifestations of immune deficiency. The immune status of Vyshkov inhabitants was characterized by T-helper/inductor activation. That was expressed in significant increase of CD4+, CD4+/CD8+ in comparison of control group of primary donors and to "clean" Pochep inhabitants and in stable decrease of average values of serum IgG in comparison to control group, IgG and IgM in comparison to Pochep group. Maximum high values of T-helpers under lowest T-suppressor/killer values were observed at clinical symptoms which may be stipulated by radiation factor (loss of hair and teeth, surplus weight, predisposition to bleedings) and in persons working in cattle-breeding.

  19. Crohn's disease in adults: Observations in a multiracial Asian population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ida Hilmi; YM Tan; KL Goh

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the demography and clinical presentation of CD and secondly to determine any differences in the prevalence between the different ethnic groups in a multiracial Asian population.METHODS: Patients with CD who were seen in 2001-2003 in the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)were enrolled in this study. Prevalence of disease was calculated for the group as a whole and by race with hospital admissions per ethnic group as the denominator.RESULTS: Thirty-four patients were diagnosed to have CD. Basic demographic data of patients; male:female 17:17; mean age 29.1 years (±13.5 years); ethnic group: Malays 5 (14.7%), Chinese 12 (35.3%) and Indians 17 (50%). Twenty-six (76.5%) were diagnosed under the age of 40 and 8 (23.5%) were diagnosed over the age of 40. Location of the disease was as follows:ileocolonic 13 (38.2%), terminal ileum only 9 (26.5%),colon only 8 (23.5%), and upper gastrointestinal 4(11.8%). Sixteen (47.1%) had penetrating disease, 9(26.5%) had stricturing disease and 9 (26.5%) had nonpenetrating and non-stricturing disease. The hospital admission prevalence of CD was 26.0 overall, Indians 52.6, Chinese 6.9, and Malays 9.3 per 105 admissions per ethnic group. The difference between Indians and Malays: [OR 5.67 (1.97, 17.53) P< 0.001] was statistically significant but not between the Indians and the Chinese [OR 1.95 (0.89, 4.35) P= 0.700]. The difference between the Chinese and the Malays was also not statistically significant. [OR 2.90 (0.95, 9.42) P= 0.063].CONCLUSION: The clinical presentation of CD is similar to the Western experience. Although the overall prevalence is Iow, there appears to be a clear racial predominance among the Indians.

  20. Postural Control in Children, Teenagers and Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoldi, Chiara; Galli, Manuela; Mainardi, Luca; Crivellini, Marcello; Albertini, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work was to analyze postural control in Down syndrome (DS) participants considering three different groups composed by children, teenagers and adults with DS. An analysis of the centre of pressure (COP) displacement during standing position was therefore performed for the three groups of subjects. The obtained signal of COP was…

  1. Postural Control in Children, Teenagers and Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoldi, Chiara; Galli, Manuela; Mainardi, Luca; Crivellini, Marcello; Albertini, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work was to analyze postural control in Down syndrome (DS) participants considering three different groups composed by children, teenagers and adults with DS. An analysis of the centre of pressure (COP) displacement during standing position was therefore performed for the three groups of subjects. The obtained signal of COP was…

  2. Generalization of Adult's Stimulus Control of Children's Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, William H.

    1970-01-01

    Generalization of stimulus control in different situations and with novel adults occurred with those children who were trained by contingent reinforcement, but not with those trained by both contingent and noncontingent reinforcement. This research was submitted as part of the author's dissertation. (MH)

  3. Associations among depressive symptoms, childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events in the general adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kotaro; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakai, Yukiei; Shimura, Akiyoshi; Ono, Yasuyuki; Murakoshi, Akiko; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Tanabe, Hajime; Kusumi, Ichiro; Inoue, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that the interactions among several factors affect the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder. This study investigated how childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events interact with one another and affect depressive symptoms in the general adult population. Subjects and methods A total of 413 participants from the nonclinical general adult population completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, the neuroticism subscale of the shortened Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised, and the Life Experiences Survey, which are self-report scales. Structural equation modeling (Mplus version 7.3) and single and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. Results Childhood abuse, neuroticism, and negative evaluation of life events increased the severity of the depressive symptoms directly. Childhood abuse also indirectly increased the negative appraisal of life events and the severity of the depressive symptoms through enhanced neuroticism in the structural equation modeling. Limitations There was recall bias in this study. The causal relationship was not clear because this study was conducted using a cross-sectional design. Conclusion This study suggested that neuroticism is the mediating factor for the two effects of childhood abuse on adulthood depressive symptoms and negative evaluation of life events. Childhood abuse directly and indirectly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:28243100

  4. Gender differences in hypertension control among older korean adults: Korean social life, health, and aging project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sang Hui; Baek, Ji Won; Kim, Eun Sook; Stefani, Katherine M; Lee, Won Joon; Park, Yeong-Ran; Youm, Yoosik; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2015-01-01

    Controlling blood pressure is a key step in reducing cardiovascular mortality in older adults. Gender differences in patients' attitudes after disease diagnosis and their management of the disease have been identified. However, it is unclear whether gender differences exist in hypertension management among older adults. We hypothesized that gender differences would exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control among community-dwelling, older adults. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 653 Koreans aged ≥60 years who participated in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare several variables between undiagnosed and diagnosed hypertension, and between uncontrolled and controlled hypertension. Diabetes was more prevalent in men and women who had uncontrolled hypertension than those with controlled hypertension or undiagnosed hypertension. High body mass index was significantly associated with uncontrolled hypertension only in men. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that in women, awareness of one's blood pressure level (odds ratio [OR], 2.86; p=0.003) and the number of blood pressure checkups over the previous year (OR, 1.06; p=0.011) might influence the likelihood of being diagnosed with hypertension. More highly educated women were more likely to have controlled hypertension than non-educated women (OR, 5.23; p=0.013). This study suggests that gender differences exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control in the study population of community-dwelling, older adults. Education-based health promotion strategies for hypertension control might be more effective in elderly women than in elderly men. Gender-specific approaches may be required to effectively control hypertension among older adults.

  5. The Association between Some Nutrients and Adult Gliomas: A Case-Control Study of Adult Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shayanfar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abestract Background & aim: It has been estimated that about 30–40 percent of all cancers could be prevented by diet and lifestyle. In the present study, associations between food groups and some nutrients were studied in adult glioma. Methods: In the present hospital-based case-control study which took place in Tehran, Iran, from 2010 to 2012, socio-economic information, demographics, lifestyle factors, health and dietary intakes of 128 patients with glioma as cases, and 256 healthy controls, were collected through interviews and questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios. SPSS version 19 was used for all statistical analyses. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, inverse associations between calcium intake and adult glioma and vitamin C were observed. (Highest tertile versus lowest: OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.87-0.46, P for trend = 0.001 and vitamin C (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.15-0.76, P for trend = 0.002. In addition, we observed elevated ORs for highest vs. lowest tertile of cholesterol intake (OR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.29-5.99, P for trend = 0.061. We observed no significant associations with adult glioma for intakes of total fat, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin A, vitamin E and beta carotene. Conclusion: the results showed that intake of calcium and vitamin C may possibly prevent glioma in adults. Key words: Gliomas, Adult, Ca, Vitamin C

  6. Statin therapy reduces the likelihood of suboptimal blood pressure control among Ugandan adult diabetic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumu, William; Kampiire, Leaticia; Akabwai, George Patrick; Kiggundu, Daniel Ssekikubo; Kibirige, Davis

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypertension is one of the recognized risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in adult diabetic patients. High prevalence of suboptimal blood pressure (BP) control has been well documented in the majority of studies assessing BP control in diabetic patients in sub-Saharan Africa. In Uganda, there is a dearth of similar studies. This study evaluated the prevalence and correlates of suboptimal BP control in an adult diabetic population in Uganda. Patients and methods This was a cross-sectional study that enrolled 425 eligible ambulatory adult diabetic patients attending three urban diabetic outpatient clinics over 11 months. Data about their sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. Suboptimal BP control was defined according to the 2015 American Diabetes Association standards of diabetes care guideline as BP levels ≥140/90 mmHg. Results The mean age of the study participants was 52.2±14.4 years, with the majority being females (283, 66.9%). Suboptimal BP control was documented in 192 (45.3%) study participants and was independently associated with the study site (private hospitals; odds ratio 2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.18–3.43, P=0.01) and use of statin therapy (odds ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval 0.26–0.96, P=0.037). Conclusion Suboptimal BP control was highly prevalent in this study population. Strategies to improve optimal BP control, especially in the private hospitals, and the use of statin therapy should be encouraged in adult diabetic patients.

  7. Knee complaints vary with age and gender in the adult population. Population-based reference data for the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradowski, Przemyslaw T; Bergman, Stefan; Sundén-Lundius, Anne;

    2006-01-01

    Self-reported knee complaints may vary with age and gender. Reference data from the adult population would help to better interpret the outcome of interventions due to knee complaints. The objectives of the present study were to describe the variation of self-reported knee pain, function...... and quality of life with age and gender in the adult population and to establish population-based reference data for the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)....

  8. Increasing prevalence of specific IgE to aeroallergens in an adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Nielsen, N H; Madsen, F;

    2000-01-01

    E to aeroallergens had increased in an adult general population over an 8-year period. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 1990 and 1998. A mailed screening questionnaire on respiratory symptoms sent to random samples of 15- to 41-year-old subjects living in Copenhagen (Denmark) preceded both...

  9. Decrease in vitamin D status in the greenlandic adult population from 1987-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina O; Jørgensen, Marit E; Friis, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low vitamin D status may be pronounced in Arctic populations due to limited sun exposure and decreasing intake of traditional food. OBJECTIVE: To investigate serum 25(OH)D3 as a measure of vitamin D status among adult Inuit in Greenland, predictors of low serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations...

  10. Eysenck Personality Inventory: A Normative Study on an Adult Industrial Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Reid K.; Brown, William R.

    1980-01-01

    Developed norms for an adult industrial population for the Eysenck Personality Inventory. An analysis of scale scores by age, sex, marital status, and occupational category revealed significant differences in extraversion scale scores by age and sex. Norm tables are presented by sex. (Author)

  11. HIV/AIDS Misconceptions among Latinos: Findings from a Population-Based Survey of California Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritieni, Assunta; Moskowitz, Joel; Tholandi, Maya

    2008-01-01

    Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS among Latino adults (N=454) in California were examined using data from a population-based telephone survey conducted in 2000. Common misconceptions concerning modes of HIV transmission included transmission via mosquito or animal bite (64.1%), public facilities (48.3%), or kissing someone on the cheek (24.8%). A…

  12. The elusiveness of population-wide high blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Paul K

    2015-03-18

    High blood pressure (hypertension) is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is highly prevalent in the US general population, especially in those who are old, African American, or socially disadvantaged. Prevalence is also high and increasing worldwide. Awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension have improved over time, but there is still considerable room for improvement. The optimal solution to this health challenge varies by country. Several nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions are well proven as effective means to prevent hypertension and improve control rates in those with established hypertension. Better prevention and control of hypertension will yield substantial general population health benefits and remain high priorities in public health.

  13. Effects of particulate matter on inflammatory markers in the general adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Dai-Hua

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Although the precise mechanisms underlying this association are still unclear, the induction of systemic inflammation following particle inhalation represents a plausible mechanistic pathway. Methods We used baseline data from the CoLaus Study including 6183 adult participants residing in Lausanne, Switzerland. We analyzed the association of short-term exposure to PM10 (on the day of examination visit with continuous circulating serum levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β, interleukin 6 (IL-6, and tumor-necrosis-factor alpha (TNF-α by robust linear regressions, controlling for potential confounding factors and assessing effect modification. Results In adjusted analyses, for every 10 μg/m3 elevation in PM10, IL-1ß increased by 0.034 (95 % confidence interval, 0.007-0.060 pg/mL, IL-6 by 0.036 (0.015-0.057 pg/mL, and TNF-α by 0.024 (0.013-0.035 pg/mL, whereas no significant association was found with hs-CRP levels. Conclusions Short-term exposure to PM10 was positively associated with higher levels of circulating IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α in the adult general population. This positive association suggests a link between air pollution and cardiovascular risk, although further studies are needed to clarify the mechanistic pathway linking PM10 to cardiovascular risk.

  14. A survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards avian influenza in an adult population of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinelli Paolo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several public health strategic interventions are required for effective prevention and control of avian influenza (AI and it is necessary to create a communication plan to keep families adequately informed on how to avoid or reduce exposure. This investigation determined the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors relating to AI among an adult population in Italy. Methods From December 2005 to February 2006 a random sample of 1020 adults received a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of transmission and prevention about AI, attitudes towards AI, behaviors regarding use of preventive measures and food-handling practices, and sources of information about AI. Results A response rate of 67% was achieved. Those in higher socioeconomic classes were more likely to identify the modes of transmission and the animals' vehicles for AI. Those older, who knew the modes of transmission and the animals' vehicles for AI, and who still need information, were more likely to know that washing hands soap before and after touching raw poultry meat and using gloves is recommended to avoid spreading of AI through food. The risk of being infected was significantly higher in those from lower socioeconomic classes, if they did not know the definition of AI, if they knew that AI could be transmitted by eating and touching raw eggs and poultry foods, and if they did not need information. Compliance with the hygienic practices during handling of raw poultry meat was more likely in those who perceived to be at higher risk, who knew the hygienic practices, who knew the modes of transmission and the animals' vehicles for AI, and who received information from health professionals and scientific journals. Conclusion Respondents demonstrate no detailed understanding of AI, a greater perceived risk, and a lower compliance with precautions behaviors and health educational strategies are strongly needed.

  15. Nutrition Considerations for the Growing Population of Older Adults With Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    In Brief The growing older adult population and its higher incidence of diabetes are creating demands on health care providers to address the special needs of these patients. Because nutrition is essential to the proper treatment and self-management of diabetes, clinicians must develop and adopt various strategies to address some of the common nutritional, lifestyle, and self-management barriers that older adults face. Nutrition assessments of older adults with diabetes should be comprehensive, with attention to each patient’s unique nutritional needs. Constructing a realistic nutrition care plan is essential for success. This article addresses some of the key nutrition-related aspects of diabetes self-care in older adults with diabetes. PMID:26246753

  16. Problematic Video Game Play and ADHD Traits in an Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotidi, Maria

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between problematic video game play (PVGP), video game usage, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits in an adult population. A sample of 205 healthy adult volunteers completed the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), a video game usage questionnaire, and the Problem Video Game Playing Test (PVGT). A significant positive correlation was found between the ASRS and the PVGT. More specifically, inattention symptoms and time spent playing video games were the best predictors of PVGP. No relationship was found between frequency and duration of play and ADHD traits. Hyperactivity symptoms were not associated with PVGP. Our results suggest that there is a positive relationship between ADHD traits and problematic video game play. In particular, adults with higher level of self-reported inattention symptoms could be at higher risk of PVGP.

  17. A review of the neurobiological basis of dyslexia in the adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Ferrer, M; Piedra Martínez, E

    Adult dyslexia affects about 4% of the population. However, studies on the neurobiological basis of dyslexia in adulthood are scarce compared to paediatric studies. This review investigates the neurobiological basis of dyslexia in adulthood. Using PsycINFO, a database of psychology abstracts, we identified 11 studies on genetics, 9 neurostructural studies, 13 neurofunctional studies and 24 neurophysiological studies. Results from the review show that dyslexia is highly heritable and displays polygenic transmission. Likewise, adult neuroimaging studies found structural, functional, and physiological changes in the parieto-occipital and occipito-temporal regions, and in the inferior frontal gyrus, in adults with dyslexia. According to different studies, aetiology in cases of adult dyslexia is complex. We stress the need for neurobiological studies of dyslexia in languages with transparent spelling systems. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Yoga for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim E. Innes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests yogic practices may benefit adults with type 2 diabetes (DM2. In this systematic review, we evaluate available evidence from prospective controlled trials regarding the effects of yoga-based programs on specific health outcomes pertinent to DM2 management. To identify qualifying studies, we searched nine databases and scanned bibliographies of relevant review papers and all identified articles. Controlled trials that did not target adults with diabetes, included only adults with type 1 diabetes, were under two-week duration, or did not include quantitative outcome data were excluded. Study quality was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Thirty-three papers reporting findings from 25 controlled trials (13 nonrandomized, 12 randomized met our inclusion criteria (N = 2170 participants. Collectively, findings suggest that yogic practices may promote significant improvements in several indices of importance in DM2 management, including glycemic control, lipid levels, and body composition. More limited data suggest that yoga may also lower oxidative stress and blood pressure; enhance pulmonary and autonomic function, mood, sleep, and quality of life; and reduce medication use in adults with DM2. However, given the methodological limitations of existing studies, additional high-quality investigations are required to confirm and further elucidate the potential benefits of yoga programs in populations with DM2.

  19. Yoga for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests yogic practices may benefit adults with type 2 diabetes (DM2). In this systematic review, we evaluate available evidence from prospective controlled trials regarding the effects of yoga-based programs on specific health outcomes pertinent to DM2 management. To identify qualifying studies, we searched nine databases and scanned bibliographies of relevant review papers and all identified articles. Controlled trials that did not target adults with diabetes, included only adults with type 1 diabetes, were under two-week duration, or did not include quantitative outcome data were excluded. Study quality was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Thirty-three papers reporting findings from 25 controlled trials (13 nonrandomized, 12 randomized) met our inclusion criteria (N = 2170 participants). Collectively, findings suggest that yogic practices may promote significant improvements in several indices of importance in DM2 management, including glycemic control, lipid levels, and body composition. More limited data suggest that yoga may also lower oxidative stress and blood pressure; enhance pulmonary and autonomic function, mood, sleep, and quality of life; and reduce medication use in adults with DM2. However, given the methodological limitations of existing studies, additional high-quality investigations are required to confirm and further elucidate the potential benefits of yoga programs in populations with DM2.

  20. Nightmares: Prevalence among the Finnish General Adult Population and War Veterans during 1972-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Ollila, Hanna M; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of nightmares among the Finnish general adult population during 1972-2007 and the association between nightmare prevalence and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety in World War II veterans. Eight independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study conducted in Finland in 1972, 1977, 1982, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007. Epidemiologic. A total of 69,813 people (33,811 men and 36,002 women) age 25-74 years. N/A. The investigation of nightmare prevalence and insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms was based on questionnaires completed by the participants. Among the whole sample, 3.5% of the men and 4.8% of the women reported frequent nightmares (P Sandman N; Valli K; Kronholm E; Ollila HM; Revonsuo A; Laatikainen T; Paunio T. Nightmares: prevalence among the Finnish general adult population and war veterans during 1972-2007. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1041-1050.

  1. HIV-1 Disease Progression and Survival in an Adult Population in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinyama-Gutsire, Rutendo B L; Chasela, Charles; Kallestrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    plasma deficiency or MBL2 genetic variants from baseline to 3 years follow up period in this adult population. We suggest the need for global OMICS research and that the present findings attest to the large between-population variability in a host of factors that can predispose individuals susceptible......HIV infection remains a major global health burden since its discovery in 1983. Sub-Saharan Africa is the region hardest hit by the HIV/AIDS pandemic where 63% of the 33 million infected people live. While there is marked person-to-person variability in susceptibility, progression, and survival...... here the first study on the putative role of MBL deficiency on HIV progression and survival in an African adult population. We hypothesized that MBL deficiency has a role to play in HIV infection by increasing HIV disease progression and decreasing survival. We assessed the role of MBL deficiency...

  2. Recruiting and retaining youth and young adults: challenges and opportunities in survey research for tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Jennifer; Hair, Elizabeth C; Smith, Alexandria; Bennett, Morgane; Rath, Jessica Miller; Thomas, Randall K; Fahimi, Mansour; Dennis, J Michael; Vallone, Donna

    2017-04-21

    Evaluation studies of population-based tobacco control interventions often rely on large-scale survey data from numerous respondents across many geographic areas to provide evidence of their effectiveness. Significant challenges for survey research have emerged with the evolving communications landscape, particularly for surveying hard-to-reach populations such as youth and young adults. This study combines the comprehensive coverage of an address-based sampling (ABS) frame with the timeliness of online data collection to develop a nationally representative longitudinal cohort of young people aged 15-21. We constructed an ABS frame, partially supplemented with auxiliary data, to recruit this hard-to-reach sample. Branded and tested mail-based recruitment materials were designed to bring respondents online for screening, consent and surveying. Once enrolled, respondents completed online surveys every 6 months via computer, tablet or smartphone. Numerous strategies were utilized to enhance retention and representativeness RESULTS: Results detail sample performance, representativeness and retention rates as well as device utilization trends for survey completion among youth and young adult respondents. Panel development efforts resulted in a large, nationally representative sample with high retention rates. This study is among the first to employ this hybrid ABS-to-online methodology to recruit and retain youth and young adults in a probability-based online cohort panel. The approach is particularly valuable for conducting research among younger populations as it capitalizes on their increasing access to and comfort with digital communication. We discuss challenges and opportunities of panel recruitment and retention methods in an effort to provide valuable information for tobacco control researchers seeking to obtain representative, population-based samples of youth and young adults in the U.S. as well as across the globe. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  3. Characteristics of physical measurement consent in a population-based survey of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakshaug, Joseph W; Couper, Mick P; Ofstedal, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    Collecting physical measurements in population-based health surveys has increased in recent years, yet little is known about the characteristics of those who consent to these measurements. To examine the characteristics of persons who consent to physical measurements across several domains, including one's demographic background, health status, resistance behavior toward the survey interview, and interviewer characteristics. We conducted a secondary data analysis of the 2006 Health and Retirement Study, a nationally-representative panel survey of older adults aged 51 and older. We performed multilevel logistic regressions on a sample of 7457 respondents who were eligible for physical measurements. The primary outcome measure was consent to all physical measurements. Seventy-nine percent (unweighted) of eligible respondents consented to all physical measurements. In weighted multilevel logistic regressions controlling for respondent demographics, current health status, survey resistance indicators, and interviewer characteristics, the propensity to consent was significantly greater among Hispanic respondents matched with bilingual Hispanic interviewers, patients with diabetes, and those who visited a doctor in the past 2 years. The propensity to consent was significantly lower among younger respondents, those who have several Nagi functional limitations and infrequently participate in "mildly vigorous" activities, and those interviewed by black interviewers. Survey resistance indicators, such as number of contact attempts and interviewer observations of resistant behavior in prior wave iterations of the Health and Retirement Study were also negatively associated with physical measurement consent. The propensity to consent was unrelated to prior medical diagnoses, including high blood pressure, cancer (excluding skin), lung disease, heart abnormalities, stroke, and arthritis, and matching of interviewer and respondent on race and gender. Physical measurement consent

  4. Perinatal taurine exposure affects adult arterial pressure control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Wyss, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is an abundant free amino acid found in mammalian cells that contributes to many physiologic functions from that of a simple cell osmolyte to a programmer of adult health and disease. Taurine’s contribution extends from conception throughout life, but its most critical exposure period is during perinatal life. In adults, taurine supplementation prevents or alleviates cardiovascular disease and related complications. In contrast, low taurine consumption coincides with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity and type II diabetes. This review focuses on the effects that altered perinatal taurine exposure has on long-term mechanisms that control adult arterial blood pressure and could thereby contribute to arterial hypertension through its ability to program these cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms very early in life. The modifications of these mechanisms can last a lifetime and transfer to the next generation, suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms underlie the changes. The ability of perinatal taurine exposure to influence arterial pressure control mechanisms and hypertension in adult life appears to involve the regulation of growth and development, the central and autonomic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin system, glucose-insulin interaction and changes to heart, blood vessels and kidney function. PMID:23070226

  5. Survivorship services for adult cancer populations: a pan-Canadian guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, D.; Hack, T.F.; Oliver, T.K.; Chulak, T.; Mayo, S.; Aubin, M.; Chasen, M.; Earle, C.C.; Friedman, A.J.; Green, E.; Jones, G.W.; Jones, J.M.; Parkinson, M.; Payeur, N.; Sabiston, C.M.; Sinclair, S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Our goal was to develop evidence-based recommendations for the organization and structure of cancer survivorship services, and best-care practices to optimize the health and well-being of post–primary treatment survivors. This review sought to determine the optimal organization and care delivery structure for cancer survivorship services, and the specific clinical practices and interventions that would improve or maximize the psychosocial health and overall well-being of adult cancer survivors. Data Sources We conducted a systematic search of the Inventory of Cancer Guidelines at the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer, the U.S. National Guideline Clearinghouse, the Canadian Medical Association InfoBase, medline (ovid: 1999 through November 2009), embase (ovid: 1999 through November 2009), Psychinfo (ovid: 1999 through November 2009), the Cochrane Library (ovid; Issue 1, 2009), and cinahl (ebsco: 1999 through December 2009). Reference lists of related papers and recent review articles were scanned for additional citations. Methods Articles were selected for inclusion as evidence in the systematic review if they reported on organizational system components for survivors of cancer, or on psychosocial or supportive care interventions HOWELL et al. designed for survivors of cancer. Articles were excluded from the systematic review if they focused only on pediatric cancer survivor populations or on populations that transitioned from pediatric cancer to adult services; if they addressed only pharmacologic interventions or diagnostic testing and follow-up of cancer survivors; if they were systematic reviews with inadequately described methods; if they were qualitative or descriptive studies; and if they were opinion papers, letters, or editorials. Data Extraction and Synthesis Evidence was selected and reviewed by three members of the Cancer Journey Survivorship Expert Panel (SM, TC, TKO). The resulting summary of the evidence was guided further and reviewed

  6. Increasing opportunities for the productive engagement of older adults: a response to population aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Ernest; Matz-Costa, Christina; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    "Productive aging" puts forward the fundamental view that the capacity of older adults must be better developed and utilized in activities that make economic contributions to society-working, caregiving, volunteering. It is suggested that productive engagement can lead to multiple positive ends: offsetting fiscal strains of a larger older population, contributing to the betterment of families and civil society, and maintaining the health and economic security of older adults. Advocates claim that outdated social structures and discriminatory behaviors limit participation of older adults in these important social roles as well as prevent the optimization of outcomes for older adults, families, and society. We ask two important questions: (a) How can we shape policies and programs to optimally engage the growing resources of an aging population for the sake of society and older adults themselves? and (b) How can policies pertaining to productive engagement reduce health and economic disparities? We answer these questions by first describing the current state of engagement in each of the three productive activities and summarize some current policies and programs that affect engagement. Next we highlight challenges that cross-cut productive engagement. Finally, we provide policy recommendations to address these challenges.

  7. Dog population management for the control of human echinococcosis.

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    Kachani, Malika; Heath, David

    2014-11-01

    Cystic and alveolar hydatid disease of humans caused by infection with Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis are significant zoonoses in developing countries. For human infections, the main definitive host is the dog, and reduction in the population of unwanted dogs, together with anthelmintic treatment of wanted dogs, are recommended control procedures for these zoonoses. Both owned and unowned dogs have been shown to be a major source of Echinococcus spp. infection in developing countries. Unowned dogs are the most challenging category in dog population management for the control of major zoonotic diseases. Unowned dogs are those dogs that do not have an owner, and those dogs whose owner cannot readily be identified. Control of numbers of unowned dogs can be done in various ways if funds are available. Fertility control and humane euthanasia are likely to be the most effective procedures in developing countries. Fertility control requires significant funding, and where resources are scarce humane euthanasia may be the most effective option. Both procedures are ongoing events, with no predictable end point. This paper examines the sociology and technology for the population management of owned and unowned dogs, specifically for the reduction of human hydatid disease. Examples are given for developing and developed countries. Although a "One Health" approach is desirable, the technology for hydatid control is different from that for rabies, and FAO Animal Welfare recommendations for dog population management should be adjusted accordingly.

  8. Population pharmacokinetic modeling of pyrazinamide in children and adults with tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Starke, Jeffrey R; Burman, William J; Steiner, Phillip; Stambaugh, Jerry Jean; Ashkin, David; Bulpitt, Amy E; Berning, Shaun E; Peloquin, Charles A

    2002-06-01

    To determine population pharmacokinetic parameters of pyrazinamide after multiple oral doses given to children and adults with tuberculosis. Prospective, multiple-dose population pharmacokinetic study. Five hospitals in the United States. Sixty-seven adults and 23 children with active tuberculosis. The 90 patients received multiple oral doses of pyrazinamide as part of their treatment, based on the best clinical judgment of the attending physicians and in keeping with standard clinical practices at each institution. The patients also received other antituberculosis drugs empirically or based on in vitro susceptibility data. Serum samples were collected over 12 hours after dosing and were assayed with a validated gas chromatography assay with mass selective detection. Concentration-time data were analyzed by using population methods. Pyrazinamide concentrations increased linearly with increasing oral doses (185-3550 mg). Median maximum serum concentration values were 41.0 microg/ml with daily dosing and 66.1 microg/ml with larger, twice-weekly dosing. Incomplete (18%) or delayed (30%) absorption was more common in children than in adults (1% for each). Pharmacokinetic parameters of pyrazinamide were independent of human immunodeficiency virus status and patient demographics, except for body weight. Population elimination half-life values in pediatric and adult patients were 3.5 and 6.0 hours, respectively. Median volume of distribution (L/kg) was 32% larger in children, and median clearance (L/hr/kg) was 106% larger in children, with a resultant median half-life 43% shorter in children. Pyrazinamide concentrations and most pharmacokinetic parameters were comparable to those previously published. Apparent half-life was somewhat shorter than that in previous reports. Compared with adults, absorption of pyrazinamide in children appeared more likely to be incomplete or delayed.

  9. Partial Characterization of the Sox2+ Cell Population in an Adult Murine Model of Digit Amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Vineet; Siu, Bernard F.; Chao, Hsu; Hirschi, Karen K.; Raborn, Eric; Johnson, Scott A.; Tottey, Stephen; Hurley, Katherine B.; Medberry, Chris J.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue regeneration in response to injury in adult mammals is generally limited to select tissues. Nonmammalian species such as newts and axolotls undergo regeneration of complex tissues such as limbs and digits via recruitment and accumulation of local and circulating multipotent progenitors preprogrammed to recapitulate the missing tissue. Directed recruitment and activation of progenitor cells at a site of injury in adult mammals may alter the default wound-healing response from scar tissue toward regeneration. Bioactive molecules derived from proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins have been shown to recruit a variety of progenitor cells in vitro and in vivo to the site of injury. The present study further characterized the population of cells accumulating at the site of injury after treatment with ECM degradation products in a well-established model of murine digit amputation. After a mid-second phalanx digit amputation in 6–8-week-old adult mice, treatment with ECM degradation products resulted in the accumulation of a heterogeneous population of cells, a subset of which expressed the transcription factor Sox2, a marker of pluripotent and adult progenitor cells. Sox2+ cells were localized lateral to the amputated P2 bone and coexpressed progenitor cell markers CD90 and Sca1. Transgenic Sox2 eGFP/+ and bone marrow chimeric mice showed that the bone marrow and blood circulation did not contribute to the Sox2+ cell population. The present study showed that, in addition to circulating progenitor cells, resident tissue-derived cells also populate at the site of injury after treatment with ECM degradation products. Although future work is necessary to determine the contribution of Sox2+ cells to functional tissue at the site of injury, recruitment and/or activation of local tissue-derived cells may be a viable approach to tissue engineering of more complex tissues in adult mammals. PMID:22530556

  10. School performance and the risk of suicidal thoughts in young adults: population-based study.

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    Kyriaki Kosidou

    Full Text Available Although low school performance is related to attempted and completed suicide, its relationship with suicidal thoughts has been less clear. We conducted a population-based study including 10081 individuals aged 18-29 years in Stockholm, Sweden, and found a clear positive gradient in the risk of lifetime suicidal thoughts with decreasing levels of compulsory school leaving grades. This relationship was somewhat attenuated but remained significant in multivariate models accounting for family background, severe adult psychopathology and adult socioeconomic conditions. School failure is associated with an increased risk of experiencing suicidal thoughts and may also increase the tendency of acting upon them.

  11. Quality of life among the Brazilian adult population using the generic SF-8 questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolina, Alessandro Gonçalves; Pinheiro, Marcelo M; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita; Ferraz, Marcos Bosi

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the quality of life in the Brazilian adult population, based on the U.S. standard population. It involved a cross-sectional population-based study with probabilistic sampling of 2,420 individuals (725 men and 1695 women) aged 40 or more in different geographic regions of Brazil. A socio-demographic questionnaire and the SF-8 (Short Form-8) were administered in interview form. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, the Mann-Whitney test and Tukey's test were used in the analysis. Females, populations in the northeastern region, the population of the regions of Brasília (Distrito Federal), Campo Grande (Mato Grosso do Sul State) and Goiania (Goiás State), Brazil, demonstrated worse quality of life. Age, education and income had influence over quality of life domains. This study presents quality of life estimates for the Brazilian adult population, based on the SF-8 questionnaire. The mean values on the subscales and components of the SF-8 appeared to be influenced by gender, geographic region, family income, age and schooling.

  12. How many steps/day are enough? For older adults and special populations

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    Tudor-Locke Catrine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Older adults and special populations (living with disability and/or chronic illness that may limit mobility and/or physical endurance can benefit from practicing a more physically active lifestyle, typically by increasing ambulatory activity. Step counting devices (accelerometers and pedometers offer an opportunity to monitor daily ambulatory activity; however, an appropriate translation of public health guidelines in terms of steps/day is unknown. Therefore this review was conducted to translate public health recommendations in terms of steps/day. Normative data indicates that 1 healthy older adults average 2,000-9,000 steps/day, and 2 special populations average 1,200-8,800 steps/day. Pedometer-based interventions in older adults and special populations elicit a weighted increase of approximately 775 steps/day (or an effect size of 0.26 and 2,215 steps/day (or an effect size of 0.67, respectively. There is no evidence to inform a moderate intensity cadence (i.e., steps/minute in older adults at this time. However, using the adult cadence of 100 steps/minute to demark the lower end of an absolutely-defined moderate intensity (i.e., 3 METs, and multiplying this by 30 minutes produces a reasonable heuristic (i.e., guiding value of 3,000 steps. However, this cadence may be unattainable in some frail/diseased populations. Regardless, to truly translate public health guidelines, these steps should be taken over and above activities performed in the course of daily living, be of at least moderate intensity accumulated in minimally 10 minute bouts, and add up to at least 150 minutes over the week. Considering a daily background of 5,000 steps/day (which may actually be too high for some older adults and/or special populations, a computed translation approximates 8,000 steps on days that include a target of achieving 30 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and approximately 7,100 steps/day if averaged over a week. Measured

  13. Association of genetic variants in chromosome 17q21 and adult-onset asthma in a Chinese Han population

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    Gong Yaoqin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies of asthma have identified a novel region containing ORMDL3 at chromosome 17q21 that is strongly associated with childhood-onset asthma and significantly linked to ORMDL3 transcript abundance. These results have been successfully replicated in childhood-onset asthma cohorts in several ethnic groups. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association of polymorphisms in ORMDL3, GSDMB, ZPBP2 and IKZF3 and adult-onset asthma in a Chinese Han population. Methods We genotyped 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at chromosome 17q21 in 1,366 Han Chinese people comprising 710 patients with adult-onset asthma and 656 healthy controls. We compared the 2 groups in terms of allele and haplotype frequencies. Transcript levels were measured in leukocytes from 61 asthma patients by quantitative real-time PCR. Results We found the 5 SNPs significantly associated with asthma (PORMDL3 and GSDMB in leukocytes (all p Conclusions Our replication study suggests that variants in 17q21 are significantly associated with risk of adult-onset asthma and gene expression in a Chinese Han population.

  14. A laboratory driving simulation for assessment of driving behavior in adults with ADHD: a controlled study

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    Aleardi Megan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is now estimated that attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD afflicts at least 4% of adults in the United States and is associated with high levels of morbidity and functional impairment. One key area of dysfunction associated with ADHD is impaired motor vehicle operation. Our goal was to examine the association between ADHD and specific driving outcomes in a sample of adults using a driving simulator. Methods Subjects were 20 adults with full DSM-IV ADHD and 21 controls without ADHD of equal gender distribution. However, the mean age of subjects with ADHD was somewhat older. All analyses were adjusted for age and gender. All subjects participated in a driving simulation that lasted for one hour and consisted of a short training period, a high stimulus segment and a low stimulus segment with two distinct monotonous periods. Results In the second monotonous period within the low stimulus environment, ADHD subjects were significantly more likely than controls to collide with an obstacle suddenly appearing from the periphery, adjusting for age and gender. Conclusion Adults with ADHD were more likely than controls to collide with an obstacle during a driving simulation suggesting that deficits in directed attention may underlie driving impairments in this population.

  15. Associations among depressive symptoms, childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events in the general adult population

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    Ono K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Kotaro Ono,1 Yoshikazu Takaesu,1 Yukiei Nakai,2 Akiyoshi Shimura,1 Yasuyuki Ono,1 Akiko Murakoshi,1 Yasunori Matsumoto,1 Hajime Tanabe,3 Ichiro Kusumi,2 Takeshi Inoue1 1Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido, 3Department of Clinical Human Sciences, Graduate school of Humanities and Social Sciences, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, Japan Background: Recent studies have suggested that the interactions among several factors affect the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder. This study investigated how childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events interact with one another and affect depressive symptoms in the general adult population. Subjects and methods: A total of 413 participants from the nonclinical general adult population completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, the neuroticism subscale of the shortened Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised, and the Life Experiences Survey, which are self-report scales. Structural equation modeling (Mplus version 7.3 and single and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. Results: Childhood abuse, neuroticism, and negative evaluation of life events increased the severity of the depressive symptoms directly. Childhood abuse also indirectly increased the negative appraisal of life events and the severity of the depressive symptoms through enhanced neuroticism in the structural equation modeling. Limitations: There was recall bias in this study. The causal relationship was not clear because this study was conducted using a cross-sectional design. Conclusion: This study suggested that neuroticism is the mediating factor for the two effects of childhood abuse on adulthood depressive symptoms and negative evaluation of life events. Childhood abuse directly and indirectly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms

  16. Adult Age Differences in Functional Connectivity during Executive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, David J.; Costello, Matthew C.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Davis, Simon W.; Shepler, Anne M.; Spaniol, Julia; Bucur, Barbara; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Task switching requires executive control processes that undergo age-related decline. Previous neuroimaging studies have identified age-related differences in brain activation associated with global switching effects (dual-task blocks vs. single-task blocks), but age-related differences in activation during local switching effects (switch trials vs. repeat trials, within blocks) have not been investigated. This experiment used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to examine adult age differences in task switching across adjacent trials (i.e., local task switching). During fMRI scanning, participants performed a cued, word categorization task. From interspersed cue-only trials, switch-related processing associated with the cue was estimated separately from the target. Activation associated with task switching, within a distributed frontoparietal network, differed for cue- and target-related processing. The magnitude of event-related activation for task switching was similar for younger adults (n = 20; 18-27 years) and older adults (n = 20; 60-85 years), although activation sustained throughout the on-tasks periods exhibited some age-related decline. Critically, the functional connectivity of switch-related regions, during cue processing, was higher for younger adults than for older adults, whereas functional connectivity during target processing was comparable across the age groups. Further, individual differences in cue-related functional connectivity shared a substantial portion of the age-related variability in the efficiency of target categorization response (drift rate). This age-related difference in functional connectivity, however, was independent of white matter integrity within task-relevant regions. These findings highlight the functional connectivity of frontoparietal activation as a potential source of age-related decline in executive control. PMID:20434565

  17. Association between tooth loss and obesity in Brazilian adults: a population-based study

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    Carla de Oliveira Bernardo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between tooth loss and general and central obesity among adults. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional study with 1,720 adults aged 20 to 59 years from Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. Home interviews were performed and anthropometric measures were taken. Information on sociodemographic data, self-reported diabetes, self-reported number of teeth, central obesity (waist circumference [WC] > 88 cm in women and > 102 cm in men and general obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m² was collected. We used multivariable Poisson regression models to assess the association between general and central obesity and tooth loss after controlling for confounders. We also performed simple and multiple linear regressions by using BMI and WC as continuous variables. Interaction between age and tooth loss was also assessed. RESULTS: The mean BMI was 25.9 kg/m² (95%CI 25.6;26.2 in men and 25.4 kg/m2 (95%CI 25.0;25.7 in women. The mean WC was 79.3 cm (95%CI 78.4;80.1 in men and 88.4 cm (95%CI 87.6;89.2 in women. A positive association was found between the presence of less than 10 teeth in at least one arch and increased mean BMI and WC after adjusting for education level, self-reported diabetes, gender and monthly per capita income. However, this association was lost when the variable age was included in the model. The prevalence of general obesity was 50% higher in those with less than 10 teeth in at least one arch when compared with those with 10 or more teeth in both arches after adjusting for education level, self-reported diabetes and monthly per capita family income. However, the statistical significance was lost after controlling for age. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity was associated with number of teeth, though it depended on the participants' age groups.

  18. Hearing thresholds in adult Nigerians with diabetes mellitus: a case–control study

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    Nwosu JN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Jones Ndubuisi Nwosu, Ethel Nkechi Chime Department of Otorhinolaryngology, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu, Nigeria Objectives: To determine the prevalence, types and severity of hearing loss and associated factors in a hospital population of adult Nigerians with diabetes mellitus.Subjects and methods: This study was a prospective hospital-based study conducted at the Otorhinolaryngology and Diabetic Clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, for a period of 12 months. Consecutively presenting eligible adult diabetics and their age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. Each case and control participant had clinical and otologic examination, followed by pure tone audiometry. Data were analyzed using descriptive and comparative statistics.Results: There were 224 patients and 192 control participants. The patients comprised 112 males and 112 females (sex ratio=1:1, whose mean age was 47.6 years (range: 26–80 years. The prevalence of hearing loss was 46.9%. This comprised 43.8% sensorineural and 3.1% conductive hearing losses. The distribution of hearing loss by severity was mild 25.0%, moderate 15.6% and severe 6.3%. The controls comprised 96 males and 96 females whose mean age was 44.6 years (range: 25–79 years. The prevalence of hearing loss was significantly higher overall and by type (sensorineural hearing loss, conductive hearing loss in cases compared with controls.Conclusion: The prevalence of hearing loss among diabetic adults at UNTH, Enugu, is comparatively high. Hearing loss is predominantly sensorineural and often mild to moderate in severity. Routine audiometric evaluation of all adult diabetics at UNTH is recommended. Keywords: adults, diabetes mellitus, hearing threshold

  19. Neurophysiological differences in inhibitory control between adults with ADHD and their peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltering, Steven; Liu, Zhongxu; Rokeach, Alan; Tannock, Rosemary

    2013-08-01

    Inhibitory control allows individuals to suppress prepotent responses and resist irrelevant stimuli, and is thought to be a core deficit in Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Whereas numerous studies have investigated neural mechanisms underlying inhibitory control deficits in children with ADHD, less is known about underlying mechanisms in young adults with ADHD. This study explores the neural correlates of inhibitory control in college students with ADHD-a population that, despite comparatively high educational attainment, still shows marked functional impairments in academic, social, and occupational functioning. Participants were 54 college students with ADHD and 29 typically developing peers. Specifically the fronto-centrally located N2 and the centro-parietal P3 event-related potential (ERP) components were hypothesized to show decreased amplitudes for the ADHD group due to their known association with inhibitory control. Dense array electroencephalography (EEG) data was collected during a Go/nogo task. Results show lower accuracy rates for the ADHD group and significant reductions in P3 amplitude as well as a trend for reduced N2 amplitude in nogo trials where subjects successfully inhibited a response. Notably, nogo N2 and P3 amplitudes correlated with the number of ADHD symptoms: namely, smaller amplitudes were associated with more symptoms. We conclude that when compared to their typically developing peers, relatively high functioning adults with ADHD still show a deviant neural signature. These results contribute to the growing literature of adult ADHD and increase our understanding of the neural correlates of inhibitory control associated with ADHD.

  20. Dietary intake and food contributors of polyphenols in adults and elderly adults of Sao Paulo: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, A M; Steluti, J; Fisberg, R M; Marchioni, D M

    2016-03-28

    A comprehensive estimation of polyphenol intake is needed to gain a better understanding of the association between polyphenol-rich food intake and the potential effects of this intake on chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the intake of polyphenols and the major dietary contributors in the population of Sao Paulo. Data were obtained from the Health Survey-São Paulo (ISA-Capital 2008) and were reported for 1103 adults and elderly adults. Food intake was estimated by one 24-h dietary recall (24HR). Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data from the 24HR with the polyphenol content in foods listed in the Phenol-Explorer database. The mean total intake of polyphenols was 377·5 (se 15·3) mg/d. The main polyphenol classes were phenolic acids (284·8 (se 15·9) mg/d) and flavonoids (54·6 (se 3·5) mg/d). Intakes were higher in the elderly adults than in other adults (Ppolyphenols were coffee (70·5 %), citrus fruits (4·6 %) and tropical fruits (3·4 %). Coffee was the major source of polyphenols, providing 266·2 (se 16·5) mg/d, and contributed 92·3 % of the phenolic acids and 93·1 % of the alkylmethoxyphenols. These findings will be useful for assessing the potential role on health of polyphenols and specific polyphenol-rich foods, such as coffee, and enable a comparison with people from other countries.

  1. Social Skills Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantman, Alexander; Kapp, Steven K.; Orenski, Kaely; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the psychosocial difficulties common among young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little to no evidence-based social skills interventions exist for this population. Using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, the current study tested the effectiveness of an evidence-based, caregiver-assisted social skills intervention…

  2. A juvenile-adult population model: climate change, cannibalism, reproductive synchrony, and strong Allee effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veprauskas, Amy; Cushing, J M

    2017-03-01

    We study a discrete time, structured population dynamic model that is motivated by recent field observations concerning certain life history strategies of colonial-nesting gulls, specifically the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens). The model focuses on mechanisms hypothesized to play key roles in a population's response to degraded environment resources, namely, increased cannibalism and adjustments in reproductive timing. We explore the dynamic consequences of these mechanics using a juvenile-adult structure model. Mathematically, the model is unusual in that it involves a high co-dimension bifurcation at [Formula: see text] which, in turn, leads to a dynamic dichotomy between equilibrium states and synchronized oscillatory states. We give diagnostic criteria that determine which dynamic is stable. We also explore strong Allee effects caused by positive feedback mechanisms in the model and the possible consequence that a cannibalistic population can survive when a non-cannibalistic population cannot.

  3. Sonographic determination of normal spleen size in an adult African population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustapha, Zainab; Tahir, Abdulrahman [Department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Tukur, Maisaratu [Department of Human Physiology, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Bukar, Mohammed [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Lee, Wai-Kit, E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.co [Department of Medical Imaging, St. Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the normal range of spleen size in an adult African population, and compare the findings to published data to determine any correlation with ethnicity. Materials and methods: Three hundred and seventy-four African adults without conditions that can affect the spleen or splenic abnormalities were evaluated with ultrasonography. Spleen length, width and thickness were measured and spleen volume calculated. Spleen size was correlated with age, gender, height, weight, and body mass index. Results: The mean spleen volume was 120 cm{sup 3}. Spleen volume correlated with spleen width (r = 0.85), thickness (r = 0.83) and length (r = 0.80). Men had a larger mean spleen volume than women. No correlation was found between spleen volume and age, weight, height, or body mass index. Conclusion: Mean spleen volume in African adults is smaller than data from Western sources, and cannot be explained by difference in body habitus.

  4. Links between childhood and adult social circumstances and obesity and hypertension in the Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Crimmins, Eileen M; Teruel, Graciela M; Thomas, Duncan

    2011-10-01

    This study examines links between early life circumstances and adult socioeconomic status and obesity and hypertension in the adult Mexican population. We use data from the Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS) collected in 2002 for people aged 20 or older (N = 14,280). We found that men with low education and women with more education have significantly lower obesity. Women with higher education also have significantly less hypertension. Obesity triples the likelihood of hypertension among both men and women. Better childhood experiences are associated with less hypertension among women, but more hypertension among men in rural areas. Recent changes in income, nutrition, and infection in Mexico may be responsible for the observed high prevalence of overweight and obesity and the extremely high odds of hypertension among obese young adults.

  5. Population Control, Myth or Fact as a National Goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarembinski, Clem

    Evidence presented in this paper substantiates the position that: (1) the United States is pursuing a national goal and foreign policy of population control; and (2) a conflict about this goal could arise within the minds of many people. To support these two facts, the author has outlined statements giving an overview about the profusion of…

  6. [Characteristics associated with the use of dental services by the adult Brazilian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rafaela da Silveira; Matos, Divane Leite; de Loyola Filho, Antônio Ignácio

    2012-02-01

    The scope of this study was to investigate the factors related to the use of dental services by Brazilian adults. Data were collected from 13,356 adults (35 to 44 years of age), participating in a nationwide epidemiological survey of oral health (SB-BRASIL 2003 Project). Data analysis was based on Poisson regression, which produced estimates of Prevalence Ratios as a measure of association. Data analysis showed that the use of dental services by adults was associated with: female gender, low education and income, living in the Northeastern and Southern regions and in small cities, complaints of toothache or gum pain, need for partial/total prosthesis, a greater amount of permanent teeth requiring treatment, demand for service due to some dental problems and evaluation of dental care received on a regular basis. These results showed that the population attended by the public service was socio-economically less privileged and had greater need for treatment. This situation reflects an historical abandonment of the adult population by the dental healthcare system in Brazil and poses a major challenge to the Unified Health Service, in light of its intended role to reduce inequalities and provide universal access to comprehensive care.

  7. Consumption of soft drinks and health-related quality of life in the adult population

    OpenAIRE

    LANA, A.; Lopez-Garcia, E.; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Despite the accumulated evidence on the health risks associated with sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), the industry has funded mass communication strategies promoting the idea that soft drinks, including SSB, may represent a source of well-being. This study assessed the association between consumption of soft drinks and health-related quality of life (HRQL), as a proxy of well-being, in the adult population of Spain. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The cohort was established ...

  8. Asthma diagnosis is not associated with obesity in a population of adults from Madrid

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several studies have suggested a relationship between asthma and obesity; however, this relationship is unclear when obesity is compared with bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Aim: To determine whether obesity is associated with a diagnosis of asthma. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a population of Spanish adults in the north of Madrid, Spain between 2003 and 2007. The patients included had experienced asthma symptoms during the previous y...

  9. A population-based study of cognitive impairment in socially vulnerable adults in Argentina. The Matanza Riachuelo Study. Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bartoloni

    Full Text Available Population aging has taken place intensively worldwide, even in developing countries. These countries have population groups with low resources and basic unmet needs that are frequently omitted from epidemiological studies. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI and dementia in an economic and socially vulnerable population from Argentina. METHODS: A door-to-door observational population-based survey among adults over 60 years of cognitive impairment and dementia in the social vulnerable area of the Matanza Riachuelo Basin, in the suburban area of Buenos Aires, Argentina was conducted. Trained psychologists interviewed subjects and a proxy informant. A standardized protocol including a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale and a functional inventory for IADL and ADL was administered. Diagnoses were divided into three general categories: normal cognitive function, cognitive impairment-no dementia (CIND and dementia. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A total of 2437 elderly persons were assessed, of which 73.6% fulfilled inclusion criteria. The prevalence of CI among those over 60 was 26.4% (18.1% CIND and 8.3% dementia with higher prevalence of dementia in younger individuals than rates reported in developed counties, probably due to low control of vascular risk factors. This information can help inform health public decisions in the generation of programs and plans for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cognitive impairment in this type of socially vulnerable population.

  10. Evaluation of alternative management strategies of muskrat Ondatra zibethicus population control using a population model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Daan; Ydenberg, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Muskrats Ondatra zibethicus are considered a pest species in the Netherlands, and a year-round control programme is in effect. Currently, the agency responsible for the management of muskrat populations in the Netherlands (the LCCM) is preparing for field studies to compare alternative strategies of

  11. Population pharmacokinetics of brodalumab in healthy adults and adults with psoriasis from single and multiple dose studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Christopher J; Salinger, David H; Köck, Kathleen; Gastonguay, Marc R; Martin, David A; Klekotka, Paul; Nirula, Ajay; Gibbs, Megan A

    2014-11-01

    Brodalumab, a human monoclonal IgG2-antibody, acts as a potent antagonist at the interleukin-17 receptor A, which is important in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. To characterize the pharmacokinetics of brodalumab and assess the effects of covariates, brodalumab concentrations from Phase 1a and Phase 2 clinical studies in healthy adults and subjects with psoriasis were used to construct a population PK model. The final two-compartment model with parallel linear and non-linear elimination pathways fit the data well. The population typical values for PK parameters CL, V, and V(max) were 0.223 L/day, 4.62 L, and 5.40 mg/day with between-subject-variability of 69.2, 69.6, and 25.9%CV, respectively. Body weight (BW) was an important covariate on CL (and Q), V (and V(2)) and V(max), with estimated effect exponents of 0.598, 0.849, and 1.12, respectively. Based on simulations from the final model, for doses between 140 and 210 mg, AUC was predicted to be greater than two fold higher in subjects weighing less than 75 kg compared to reference subjects. Age and diagnosis had smaller influence on exposure and was not clinically significant. These data suggest that BW is an important covariate explaining some of the variability in population PK observed in human clinical trials with brodalumab.

  12. Adults with mild to moderate depression exhibit more alcohol related problems compared to the general adult population: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åhlin, Julia; Hallgren, Mats; Öjehagen, Agneta; Källmén, Håkan; Forsell, Yvonne

    2015-06-09

    Alcohol use has been shown to interfere with treatment for depression, but consumption habits are not routinely screened in primary care. To date, few studies have compared the alcohol consumption habits of patients with depression to the general population. The purpose of this study was to compare alcohol habits in adults diagnosed with depression in primary care to the general adult population in Sweden. Nine hundred fourty six patients diagnosed with mild to moderate depression, without a primary substance use disorder, in primary care settings located across Sweden completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Consumptions habits and alcohol related problems in the depressed sample were compared to those in the general adult population (n = 663). Analyses were stratified by gender and age. Ratings of alcohol problems and measures of hazardous drinking and binge drinking were significantly higher among patients seeking treatment for depression in primary care compared to the general population. Male patients scored higher on the AUDIT total and AUDIT-C (consumption) subscale than men in the general population. Compared to younger adults (aged 17-27) older depressed adults (aged 28-50 and 51-71) exhibited higher rates of consumption and problems related to alcohol. Compared to the general adult population, consumption and problems related to alcohol use were substantially higher among patients with mild to moderate depression in primary care. Routine screening of alcohol use in primary care is recommended for patients presenting with depression.

  13. Medical Cannabis in Serbia: The Survey of Knowledge and Attitudes in an Urban Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazibara, Tatjana; Prpic, Milica; Maric, Gorica; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Kisic-Tepavcevic, Darija

    2017-01-01

    There are some indices in which legalization of medical cannabis in the Republic of Serbia might be considered. The purpose of this research was to assess knowledge and attitudes towards medical cannabis in an urban adult population. This cross-sectional study was conducted in December 2015 and January 2016. A convenience sample of study participants comprised users of the Community Health Center. A total of 360 adults were invited to participate. Data were collected through an anonymous questionnaire. Most participants (77.1%) answered correctly that cancer was indicative of medical cannabis treatment, while the remaining conditions were less frequently recognized. A total of 42% answered correctly that adverse effects of cannabis were hallucinations and dizziness. Persons who previously used cannabis were more knowledgeable on conditions for medical cannabis treatment (ρ = 0.155; p = 0.006). Study respondents expressed positive attitude towards legalization of medical cannabis (median 5 out of 5) and negative towards legalization of recreational cannabis (median 2 out of 5). In conclusion, the adult population in Belgrade had some knowledge of medical cannabis. The overall attitude of our population regarding legalization of medical cannabis was positive, while the attitude towards legalization of cannabis for recreational purposes was negative.

  14. Physical activity intensity and weight control status among U.S. Adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Pariser, Gina

    2014-01-01

    We have a limited understanding of the objectively determined physical activity levels by weight control status (i.e., trying to lose weight, trying to maintain weight, and neither trying to lose or maintain weight) among U.S. adults with diabetes. Therefore, this study assessed the association between physical activity and weight control status among U.S. adults with diabetes. Cross-sectional survey. The 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used, which is representative of the U.S. population. Subjects were 733 adults (≥20 years) with diabetes. Participants wore an accelerometer to assess physical activity, and questionnaires were used to assess weight control status and covariates. Multivariate negative binomial regressions were used. After adjustments, and compared to those not trying to lose or maintain their weight, women trying to lose weight engaged in 74% more physical activity (rate ratio = 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14 to 2.65). Although findings were not significant for men, men were more likely than women to meet physical activity recommendations. Diabetic women trying to lose weight engaged in more physical activity than did their female counterparts not trying to lose or maintain their weight. Although men were more active than women, no differences in activity estimates occurred across weight control status for men.

  15. Identification of a Bipotent Epithelial Progenitor Population in the Adult Thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Ulyanchenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thymic epithelial cells (TECs are critically required for T cell development, but the cellular mechanisms that maintain adult TECs are poorly understood. Here, we show that a previously unidentified subpopulation, EpCam+UEA1−Ly-51+PLET1+MHC class IIhi, which comprises <0.5% of adult TECs, contains bipotent TEC progenitors that can efficiently generate both cortical (c TECs and medullary (m TECs. No other adult TEC population tested in this study contains this activity. We demonstrate persistence of PLET1+Ly-51+ TEC-derived cells for 9 months in vivo, suggesting the presence of thymic epithelial stem cells. Additionally, we identify cTEC-restricted short-term progenitor activity but fail to detect high efficiency mTEC-restricted progenitors in the adult thymus. Our data provide a phenotypically defined adult thymic epithelial progenitor/stem cell that is able to generate both cTECs and mTECs, opening avenues for improving thymus function in patients.

  16. Prevalence of self-medication in the adult population of Brazil: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Paulo Henrique Faria; Galvão, Taís Freire; de Andrade, Keitty Regina Cordeiro; de Sá, Pedro Terra Teles; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Pereira, Mauricio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of self-medication in Brazil’s adult population. METHODS Systematic review of cross-sectional population-based studies. The following databases were used: Medline, Embase, Scopus, ISI, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, CRD, Lilacs, SciELO, the Banco de teses brasileiras (Brazilian theses database) (Capes) and files from the Portal Domínio Público (Brazilian Public Domain). In addition, the reference lists from relevant studies were examined to identify potentially eligible articles. There were no applied restrictions in terms of the publication date, language or publication status. Data related to publication, population, methods and prevalence of self-medication were extracted by three independent researchers. Methodological quality was assessed following eight criteria related to sampling, measurement and presentation of results. The prevalences were measured from participants who used at least one medication during the recall period of the studies. RESULTS The literature screening identified 2,778 records, from which 12 were included for analysis. Most studies were conducted in the Southeastern region of Brazil, after 2000 and with a 15-day recall period. Only five studies achieved high methodological quality, of which one study had a 7-day recall period, in which the prevalence of self-medication was 22.9% (95%CI 14.6;33.9). The prevalence of self-medication in three studies of high methodological quality with a 15-day recall period was 35.0% (95%CI 29.0;40.0, I2 = 83.9%) in the adult Brazilian population. CONCLUSIONS Despite differences in the methodologies of the included studies, the results of this systematic review indicate that a significant proportion of the adult Brazilian population self-medicates. It is suggested that future research projects that assess self-medication in Brazil standardize their methods. PMID:26083944

  17. Population ecology of feral horses in an era of fertility control management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, J.I.

    2012-01-01

    treatment at the population-level. This was partially offset by increased survival in adults, including a 300% increase in presence of horses ≥20 years old during the post-treatment period. In closed populations of feral horses, the positive feedbacks appear to outweigh the negative feedbacks and generate a larger contraceptive effect than the sum of individual treatments. The role of fertility control is uncertain for open populations of many wildlife species, with broad consensus across a synthesis of research that negative feedbacks on fertility control performance are occurring, and in many cases increased survival and increased immigration can compensate entirely for the reduction in births attributed to treatment. Understanding species‘ life-history strategies, biology, behavioral ecology, and ecological context is critical to developing realistic expectations of regulating wildlife populations using fertility control.

  18. Space-use, movement and dispersal of sub-adult cougars in a geographically isolated population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl D. Morrison

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cougar (Puma concolor observations have increased in Midwest North America, with breeding populations re-establishing in several regions east of their contemporary range. The Cypress Hills Uplands, located in southwest Saskatchewan and southeast Alberta, was recently re-colonized by cougars and now supports the easternmost confirmed breeding population of cougars in Canada. A number of factors contribute to this cougar range expansion, but it is dispersal that provides the mechanism for re-colonization of historic range. We used GPS-collar data to examine space-use and movement behavior of sub-adult cougars, the age class associated with dispersal, in the Cypress Hills. Conditional logistic regression and a two-stage modeling approach were used to estimate resource selection functions (RSF of sub-adult cougars during two distinct ranging behaviors: transient movements (i.e., dispersal and exploratory forays and localizing movements (i.e., temporary home ranges. Linear regression was used to model movement rates, measured as the distance between consecutive 3-h GPS-relocations, of sub-adult cougars relative to different habitats, times of day and between transient and localizing behavior. All individual sub-adult cougars displayed bouts of transient and localizing behavior. All male cougars dispersed from their natal ranges and travelled considerably farther distances than female cougars. One male dispersed over 750 km eastward through the agricultural belt of northern Montana and southern Saskatchewan. Males occupied temporary home ranges in more open habitats on the fringes of the insular Cypress Hills, while females appeared to be recruited into the adult population, occupying treed habitat that provided more suitable cover. During both ranging behaviors, sub-adult cougars selected for rugged terrain and proximity to hydrological features (likely supporting riparian habitats and avoided open cover types. Differences in habitat selection

  19. Large sequence divergence of mitochondrial DNA genotypes of the control region within populations of the African antelope, kob (Kobus kob)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birungi, J.; Arctander, Peter

    2000-01-01

    conservation genetics, control region, Kobus kob, mitochondrial DNA, population expansion, population structure......conservation genetics, control region, Kobus kob, mitochondrial DNA, population expansion, population structure...

  20. Population response of rodents to control with rodenticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.A.SHILOVA; A.V.TCHABOVSKY

    2009-01-01

    We summarize theoretical approaches and practice of rodent pest control in Russia and former USSR during last 50 years. We review literature as well as original data to understand mechanisms of rodent populations recovery after chemical control campaigns in urban areas, agricultural lands and natural foci of plague. Laboratory and field experiments indicate that inherent individual variation in behavioural, physiological and life-history traits provides survival of heterogeneous mix of individuals in residual population with increased resistance to poisonous baits and high reproductive potential that leads to fast recovery of a population. In a series of field experiments with various rodent and lagomorph species (Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Meriones unguiculatus, M.meridianus, M.tamariscinus, Ochotona pallasii) we have shown that patterns of recolonization of depopulated area and mechanisms of population recovery vary among species and depend on species-specific social organization. After control territorial and group-living species demonstrated an increase in mobility and affiliative and marking behaviour and a decrease in intraspecific aggression. The rate of recolonization of treated areas was high due to redistribution of survived individuals and immigration by neighbors. Population recovered to original level due to increased breeding performance and fecundity of both survived residents and immigrants. In contrast, socially-independent species exhibited minor changes in behaviour. Recolonization was mainly due to better survival and recruitment of youngs, so the rate of recolonization was low. Species-specificity of behavioural compensation mechanisms to control should be considered when developing ecologically based rodent management strategies[Current Zoology 55(2):81-91,2009].

  1. Delayed effects of obese and overweight population conditions on all-cause adult mortality rate in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert A Okunade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there are few studies separating the linkage of pathological obese and overweight body mass indices (BMI to the all-cause mortality rate in adults. Consequently, this paper, using annual Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS data of the 50 US states and the District of Columbia (DC estimates empirical regression models linking the US adult population overweight and obesity rates separately to the all-cause mortality rate. The biochemistry of multi-period cumulative adiposity (saturated fatty acid from unexpended caloric intakes (net energy storage provides the natural theoretical foundation for tracing unhealthy BMI to all-cause mortality. Cross-sectional and panel data regression models are separately estimated for the delayed effects of obese and overweight BMIs on the all-cause mortality rate. Controlling for the independent effects of economic, socio-demographic and other factors on the all-cause mortality rate, our findings confirm that the estimated panel data models are more appropriate. The panel data regression results reveal that the obesity-mortality link strengthens significantly after multiple years in the condition. The faster mortality response to obesity detected here is conjectured to arise from the significantly more obese. Compared with past studies postulating a static (rather than delayed effects, the statistically significant lagged effects of adult population BMI pathology in this study are novel and insightful. And, as expected, these lagged effects are more severe in the obese than overweight population segment. Public health policy implications of this social science study findings agree with those of the clinical sciences literature advocating timely lifestyle modification interventions (e.g., smoking cessation to slow premature mortality linked to unhealthy BMIs.

  2. Sociodemographic and lifestyle determinants of functional food consumption in an adult population of the Balearic Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Asli Emine; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2013-01-01

    Studies about functional food (FF) consumption among south Europeans are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess sociodemographic and lifestyle determinants of FF consumption in adult inhabitants of the Balearic Islands. A population-based, cross-sectional, nutritional survey was conducted. The target population consisted of all inhabitants aged 16-65 years living in the Balearic Islands. FFs were selected from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics were also assessed. A high percentage of the population consumed FFs (skimmed milk, fiber-rich bread/cookies, probiotics, breakfast cereals and tea). Gender was a significant determinant for FF consumption. Females were more likely to consume soy milk, fiber-rich bread/cookies and tea; males preferred to consume breakfast cereals. FF consumption was significantly associated with increasing age in both genders. Fiber-rich bread/cookies were especially consumed by individuals with medium education, and breakfast cereals were consumed by respondents with a medium income. Physically active adults were more likely to consume soy milk, breakfast cereals, probiotics and red wine, and obese individuals were less likely to consume breakfast cereals and fiber-rich bread/cookies. A high percentage of the study population consumed FFs. Gender, age, marital status, education level, body mass index and physical activity are factors associated with FF consumption.

  3. Differential effectiveness of two anxiety induction procedures in youth and older adult populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Montorio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested in older and younger adults the efficacy of two well-known procedures to experimentally induce anxiety: a Velten self-statements combined with music; b film scenes. We extended the previous findings in this field to the understudied area of mood induction in older adults. Fifty-seven older adults and 94 college students were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions or to a control group. Results indicated that both procedures were effective, according to a series of ANOVAs for several self-report, physiological, and behavioral measures. Likewise, the highest effect sizes were observed for the Velten procedure (g = .81 vs. g = .71, and the effects were significantly higher in younger (g = 1.0 in the Velten condition than in older adults (g = .62, Q = 4.25, χ2(1, P = .0392. Both procedures were effective to induce inducting anxiety in both age groups, especially the Velten procedure in younger adults. Therefore, Velten self-statements combined with music may be very useful anxiety induction procedure for further research in controlled situations of emotions across the life-span.

  4. Comparing neighborhoods of adults with serious mental illness and of the general population: research implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Thomas; Prvu Bettger, Janet; Brusilovskiy, Eugene; Wong, Yin-Ling Irene; Metraux, Stephen; Salzer, Mark S

    2013-08-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health emphasizes the importance of assessing the impact of environmental factors on functioning and disability. Drawing on this emphasis, this study used a set of objective measures to compare the characteristics of neighborhoods of adults with serious mental illness and of the general population. It also examined the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and neighborhood concentration of persons with serious mental illness. The sample comprised 15,246 adults who were treated for serious mental illness in Philadelphia between 1997 and 2000. Principal-components analysis of 22 neighborhood characteristics resulted in an ideal-factor solution of six components. The mean values of each component in neighborhoods of persons with serious mental illness were compared with values in an equally sized group of neighborhoods created by randomly generated addresses representative of the city's general population. Ordinary least-squares regression was used to assess the association between neighborhood characteristics and neighborhood concentration of persons with serious mental illness. Neighborhoods in which adults with serious mental illness resided had higher levels of physical and structural inadequacy, drug-related activity, and crime than comparison neighborhoods. Higher levels of physical and structural inadequacy, crime, drug-related activity, social instability, and social isolation were associated with higher concentration of persons with serious mental illness in the neighborhood's adult population. The differences in neighborhood characteristics identified in this study point to factors that merit closer attention as potential barriers or facilitators in the functioning, participation, and community integration of persons with serious mental illness.

  5. Prevalence of hypertension, its correlates and awareness among adult tribal population of Kerala state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I I Meshram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing prevalence of hypertension is a public health problem in India. Aims: To study prevalence, correlates, and awareness of hypertension among tribal adult population in Kerala. Setting and Design: A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in tribal areas of Kerala by adopting multistage random sampling procedure. Materials and Methods: Data was collected on socio-demographic and behavioral factors, and anthropometric measurements were carried out. Body mass index (BMI was categorized using the classification recommended for Asians. Waist circumference ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women was used cut off for defining an abdominal obesity. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was carried out to study association of hypertension with socio-demographic variables, personal habits, and obesity. Results: A total of 4,193 adults (men 1,891, women: 2,302 of ≥20 years of age were covered. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 40% (n=1671. The prevalence of hypertension increases with increase in age among both the genders. Regression analysis showed that the risk of hypertension was significantly (P<0.001 lower among educated and among higher socio-economic status group. Sedentary activity had 1.3 times (CI=1.09-1.60 and alcohol consumption had 1.4 (CI=1.17-1.73 times higher risk of hypertension. The risk of hypertension was 1.7 times higher among overweight/obese subjects. Overall, only 10% (n=164 of the adult population was aware of hypertension status, and about 8% (n=129 were on regular treatment. Conclusion: It was observed that the prevalence of hypertension was higher among tribal adult population of Kerala and was associated with age, gender, education, HHs wealth index, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, and overweight/obesity.

  6. Adult Vampire Bats Produce Contact Calls When Isolated: Acoustic Variation by Species, Population, Colony, and Individual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Gerald G.; Logsdon, Ryane; Arnold, Bryan D.; Menchaca, Angelica; Medellin, Rodrigo A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bat pups produce individually distinct isolation calls to facilitate maternal recognition. Increasing evidence suggests that, in group-living bat species, adults often use similar calls to maintain contact. We investigated if isolated adults from all three species of the highly cooperative vampire bats (Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae) would produce vocally distinct contact calls when physically isolated. Methods/Principal Findings We assessed variation in contact calls recorded from isolated captive and wild-caught adult common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus), white-winged vampire bats (Diaemus youngi) and hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata). We compared species-typical contact call structure, and used information theory and permuted discriminate function analyses to examine call structure variation, and to determine if the individuality of contact calls is encoded by different call features across species and populations. We found that isolated adult vampire bats produce contact calls that vary by species, population, colony, and individual. However, much variation occurred within a single context and individual. We estimated signature information for captive Diaemus (same colony), captive Desmodus (same colony), and wild Desmodus (different colonies) at 3.21, 3.26, and 3.88 bits, respectively. Contact calls from a captive colony of Desmodus were less individually distinct than calls from wild-caught Desmodus from different colonies. Both the degree of individuality and parameters encoding individuality differed between the bats from a single captive colony and the wild-caught individuals from different groups. This result is consistent with, but not sufficient evidence of, vocal convergence in groups. Conclusion Our results show that adult vampire bats of all three species produce highly variable contact calls when isolated. Contact calls contain sufficient information for vocal discrimination, but also possess more intra-individual variation

  7. Adult vampire bats produce contact calls when isolated: acoustic variation by species, population, colony, and individual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald G Carter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bat pups produce individually distinct isolation calls to facilitate maternal recognition. Increasing evidence suggests that, in group-living bat species, adults often use similar calls to maintain contact. We investigated if isolated adults from all three species of the highly cooperative vampire bats (Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae would produce vocally distinct contact calls when physically isolated. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed variation in contact calls recorded from isolated captive and wild-caught adult common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus, white-winged vampire bats (Diaemus youngi and hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata. We compared species-typical contact call structure, and used information theory and permuted discriminate function analyses to examine call structure variation, and to determine if the individuality of contact calls is encoded by different call features across species and populations. We found that isolated adult vampire bats produce contact calls that vary by species, population, colony, and individual. However, much variation occurred within a single context and individual. We estimated signature information for captive Diaemus (same colony, captive Desmodus (same colony, and wild Desmodus (different colonies at 3.21, 3.26, and 3.88 bits, respectively. Contact calls from a captive colony of Desmodus were less individually distinct than calls from wild-caught Desmodus from different colonies. Both the degree of individuality and parameters encoding individuality differed between the bats from a single captive colony and the wild-caught individuals from different groups. This result is consistent with, but not sufficient evidence of, vocal convergence in groups. CONCLUSION: Our results show that adult vampire bats of all three species produce highly variable contact calls when isolated. Contact calls contain sufficient information for vocal discrimination, but also possess more intra

  8. Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghio Andrew J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidemiologic studies have established an association between exposures to air pollution particles and human mortality and morbidity at concentrations of particles currently found in major metropolitan areas. The adverse effects of pollution particles are most prominent in susceptible subjects, including the elderly and patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. Controlled human exposure studies have been used to confirm the causal relationship between pollution particle exposure and adverse health effects. Earlier studies enrolled mostly young healthy subjects and have largely confirmed the capability of particles to cause adverse health effects shown in epidemiological studies. In the last few years, more studies involving susceptible populations have been published. These recent studies in susceptible populations, however, have shown that the adverse responses to particles appear diminished in these susceptible subjects compared to those in healthy subjects. The present paper reviewed and compared control human exposure studies to particles and sought to explain the "unexpected" response to particle exposure in these susceptible populations and make recommendations for future studies. We found that the causes for the discrepant results are likely multifactorial. Factors such as medications, the disease itself, genetic susceptibility, subject selection bias that is intrinsic to many controlled exposure studies and nonspecificity of study endpoints may explain part of the results. Future controlled exposure studies should select endpoints that are more closely related to the pathogenesis of the disease and reflect the severity of particle-induced health effects in the specific populations under investigation. Future studies should also attempt to control for medications and genetic susceptibility. Using a different study design, such as exposing subjects to filtered air and ambient levels of particles, and assessing the improvement in

  9. Are Tobacco Control Policies Effective in Reducing Young Adult Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Loomis, Brett R.; Kuiper, Nicole; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joseph; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Pechacek, Terry F.; Couzens, G. Lance

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined the influence of tobacco control program funding, smoke-free air laws, and cigarette prices on young adult smoking outcomes. Methods We use a natural experimental design approach that uses the variation in tobacco control policies across states and over time to understand their influence on tobacco outcomes. We combine individual outcome data with annual state-level policy data to conduct multivariable logistic regression models, controlling for an extensive set of sociodemographic factors. The participants are 18- to 25-year-olds from the 2002–2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. The three main outcomes are past-year smoking initiation, and current and established smoking. A current smoker was one who had smoked on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. An established smoker was one who had smoked 1 or more cigarettes in the past 30 days and smoked at least 100 cigarettes in his or her lifetime. Results Higher levels of tobacco control program funding and greater smoke-free-air law coverage were both associated with declines in current and established smoking (p smoke-free air laws was associated with lower past year initiation with marginal significance (p = .058). Higher cigarette prices were not associated with smoking outcomes. Had smoke-free-air law coverage and cumulative tobacco control funding remained at 2002 levels, current and established smoking would have been 5%–7% higher in 2009. Conclusions Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing young adult smoking. PMID:24268360

  10. Different KIRs confer susceptibility and protection to adults with latent autoimmune diabetes in Latvian and Asian Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Arun; Sedimbi, Saikiran K; Rajalingam, Raja; Rumba, Ingrida; Kanungo, Alok; Sanjeevi, C B

    2008-12-01

    KIRs (killer Ig-like receptors) expressed on natural killer (NK) cells are an important component of innate (and adaptive) immunity. They are either activatory or inhibitory, and certain KIRs are known to interact with specific motifs of HLA Class I molecules, which is very crucial in determining whether a cell is targeted to lysis or otherwise. Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a slowly progressive form of autoimmune diabetes, with an adult onset (>30 years). Because autoantibodies and autoimmunity involved are involved in the etiology of LADA, KIRs might play an important role in conferring susceptibility to or protection against the disease. The purpose of this study was to identify killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes, which are associated with susceptibility to and protection against type 1 diabetes in Latvian and Asian Indian patients with LADA. KIR and HLA-C ligand genotyping was performed using PCR-SSP in LADA patients from Latvia (n= 45) with age- and sex-matched controls (n= 92) and from India (n= 86) with controls (n= 98). Results showed that in Latvian patients with LADA, KIRs 2DL1, 2DS2, and 2DS4 were associated with susceptibility and KIR 2DS5 with protection. In Asian Indian LADA patients, KIRs 2DL5 and 3DL1 were associated with susceptibility and KIRs 2DS1 and 2DS3 with protection. Stratification analyses for KIRs that bind to HLA-C1 and C2 were performed. We concluded that KIRs are important in conferring susceptibility (or protection) to adult patients with LADA in both our study populations. However the KIR genes (and their HLA-C ligands) conferring susceptibility or protection in these two populations differ, showing a role of ethnicity in disease susceptibility.

  11. Effective control of hypertension in adults with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Adhikary

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adequate control of hypertension in Chronic Kidney Disease patients is difficult to achieve. This study was designed to analyze the adequacy of Hypertension control in adults with CKD using different classes of antihypertensive drugs. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was done that included 85 patients with CKD admitted to our Medicine Department over a period of two years (2006-2008 A.D.. Presence of CKD was defined as glomerular filtration rate 30ug/mg. Adequate blood pressure control was defined as systolic blood pressure less than or equals to 130 and diastolic blood pressure less than or equals to 80 mm Hg. Data and Statistical analysis was done using SPSS Version 12 for Windows. RESULTS: Of all the CKD patients, 51.4% required three Anti-Hypertensive drugs combination for the effective control of Hypertension, while only 21% of CKD patients with hypertension was controlled on two drugs. CONCLUSION: Adequate control of blood pressure in CKD patient was shown to be most effective on combination of three antihypertensive drugs. A poor control was seen on patients taking less than three antihypertensive drugs. Keywords: antihypertensive drug; chronic kidney disease; glomerular filtration rate; hypertension.

  12. Contact dermatitis to hair dyes in a Danish adult population: an interview-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, H; Hesse, U; Menné, T

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients is a well-known entity seen both in consumers using hair dyes and among hairdressers with occupational contact dermatitis. Surveys show that consumers with even severe adverse skin reactions to hair dyes only rarely contact the healthcare services....... The frequency of hair dye-induced skin reactions in the consumer population is unknown. OBJECTIVES: An epidemiological investigation with the aim of establishing the proportion of hair dye-induced skin reactions was performed in a population-based sample. METHODS: A representative random sample (n = 4000......) was taken of the Danish adult population. Personal interview questions were asked regarding adverse skin reactions to hair dyes, either compatible with a classical allergic eczematous reaction with redness, scaling and itching or a severe allergic reaction with oedema of the forehead and face. The response...

  13. Prospective dynamic balance control in healthy children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austad, Hanne; van der Meer, Audrey L H

    2007-08-01

    Balance control during gait initiation was studied using center of pressure (CoP) data from force plate measurements. Twenty-four participants were divided into four age groups: (1) 2-3 years, (2) 4-5 years, (3) 7-8 years, and (4) adults. Movement in the antero-posterior (CoPy) direction during the initial step was tau-G analyzed, investigating the hypothesis that tau of the CoPy motion-gap (tau(CoPy)), i.e., the time it will take to close the gap at its current closure rate, is tau-coupled onto an intrinsic tau-G guide (tau(G)), by maintaining the relation tau(CoPy )= Ktau(G), for a constant K. Mean percentage of tau-guidance for all groups was >/=99%, resulting in all r(2) exceeding 0.95, justifying an investigation of the regression slope as an estimate of the coupling constant K in the tau-coupling equation. Mean K values decreased significantly with age and were for 2- to 3-year-olds 0.56, for 4- to 5-year-olds 0.50, for 7- to 8-year-olds 0.47, and for adults 0.41. Therefore, the control of dynamic balance develops from the youngest children colliding with the boundaries of the base of support (K > 0.5) to the older children and adults making touch contact (K control, a helpful tool in assessing whether a child is following a normal developmental pattern.

  14. Training on Working Memory and Inhibitory Control in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraver, Maria J.; Bajo, M. Teresa; Gomez-Ariza, Carlos J.

    2016-01-01

    Different types of interventions have focused on trying to improve Executive Functions (EFs) due to their essential role in human cognition and behavior regulation. Although EFs are thought to be diverse, most training studies have targeted cognitive processes related to working memory (WM), and fewer have focused on training other control mechanisms, such as inhibitory control (IC). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the differential impact of training WM and IC as compared with control conditions performing non-executive control activities. Young adults were divided into two training (WM/IC) and two (active/passive) control conditions. Over six sessions, the training groups engaged in three different computer-based adaptive activities (WM or IC), whereas the active control group completed a program with low control-demanding activities that mainly involved processing speed. In addition, motivation and engagement were monitored through the training. The WM-training activities required maintenance, updating and memory search processes, while those from the IC group engaged response inhibition and interference control. All participants were pre- and post-tested in criterion tasks (n-back and Stroop), near transfer measures of WM (Operation Span) and IC (Stop-Signal). Non-trained far transfer outcome measures included an abstract reasoning test (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices) and a well-validated experimental task (AX-CPT) that provides indices of cognitive flexibility considering proactive/reactive control. Training results revealed that strongly motivated participants reached higher levels of training improvements. Regarding transfer effects, results showed specific patterns of near transfer effects depending on the type of training. Interestingly, it was only the IC training group that showed far transfer to reasoning. Finally, all trained participants showed a shift toward a more proactive mode of cognitive control, highlighting a general

  15. Training on Working Memory and Inhibitory Control in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesus Maraver

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Different types of interventions have focused on trying to improve Executive Functions (EF due to their essential role in human cognition and behavior regulation. Although EF are thought to be diverse, most training studies have targeted cognitive processes related to working memory (WM, and fewer have focused on training other control mechanisms, such as inhibitory control (IC. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the differential impact of training WM and IC as compared with control conditions performing non-executive control activities. Young adults were divided into two training (WM/IC and two (active/passive control conditions. Over six sessions, the training groups engaged in three different computer-based adaptive activities (WM or IC, whereas the active control group completed a program with low control-demanding activities that mainly involved processing speed. In addition, motivation and engagement were monitored through the training. The WM-training activities required maintenance, updating and memory search processes, while those from the IC group engaged response inhibition, and interference control. All participants were pre- and post-tested in criterion tasks (n-back and Stroop, near transfer measures of WM (Operation Span and IC (Stop-Signal. Non-trained far transfer outcome measures included an abstract reasoning test (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices and a well-validated experimental task (AX-CPT that provides indices of cognitive flexibility considering proactive/reactive control. Training results revealed that strongly motivated participants reached higher levels of training improvements. Regarding transfer effects, results showed specific patterns of near transfer effects depending on the type of training. Interestingly, it was only the IC training group that showed far transfer to reasoning. Finally, all trained participants showed a shift towards a more proactive mode of cognitive control, highlighting a

  16. Internal models for interpreting neural population activity during sensorimotor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Matthew D; Yu, Byron M; Chase, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    To successfully guide limb movements, the brain takes in sensory information about the limb, internally tracks the state of the limb, and produces appropriate motor commands. It is widely believed that this process uses an internal model, which describes our prior beliefs about how the limb responds to motor commands. Here, we leveraged a brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigm in rhesus monkeys and novel statistical analyses of neural population activity to gain insight into moment-by-moment internal model computations. We discovered that a mismatch between subjects' internal models and the actual BMI explains roughly 65% of movement errors, as well as long-standing deficiencies in BMI speed control. We then used the internal models to characterize how the neural population activity changes during BMI learning. More broadly, this work provides an approach for interpreting neural population activity in the context of how prior beliefs guide the transformation of sensory input to motor output.

  17. Psychiatric disorders in adults diagnosed as children with atypical autism. A case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and types of psychiatric disorders were studied in a clinical sample of 89 individuals with atypical autism (AA) first seen as children, and 258 matched controls from the general population using data from the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Register. The average observation...... is not seen to be associated with any specific mental disorder. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders were the most commonly associated psychiatric disorders, diagnosed at least one time in 34.8% of the AA cases. Our findings underscore that it is important for clinicians working in adult psychiatric services...

  18. Chronic pain self-management for older adults: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN11899548

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersek, Mary; Turner, Judith A; Cain, Kevin C; Kemp, Carol A

    2004-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is a common and frequently disabling problem in older adults. Clinical guidelines emphasize the need to use multimodal therapies to manage persistent pain in this population. Pain self-management training is a multimodal therapy that has been found to be effective in young to middle-aged adult samples. This training includes education about pain as well as instruction and practice in several management techniques, including relaxation, physical exercise, modification of negative thoughts, and goal setting. Few studies have examined the effectiveness of this therapy in older adult samples. Methods/Design This is a randomized, controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a pain self-management training group intervention, as compared with an education-only control condition. Participants are recruited from retirement communities in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and must be 65 years or older and experience persistent, noncancer pain that limits their activities. The primary outcome is physical disability, as measured by the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are depression (Geriatric Depression Scale), pain intensity (Brief Pain Inventory), and pain-related interference with activities (Brief Pain Inventory). Randomization occurs by facility to minimize cross-contamination between groups. The target sample size is 273 enrolled, which assuming a 20% attrition rate at 12 months, will provide us with 84% power to detect a moderate effect size of .50 for the primary outcome. Discussion Few studies have investigated the effects of multimodal pain self-management training among older adults. This randomized controlled trial is designed to assess the efficacy of a pain self-management program that incorporates physical and psychosocial pain coping skills among adults in the mid-old to old-old range. PMID:15285783

  19. Anatomical variation of posterior slope of tibial plateau in adult Eastern Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medda, Shyamalendu; Kundu, Rajib; Sengupta, Sohini; Pal, Ananda Kisor

    2017-01-01

    Upper surface of the proximal tibial end, tibial plateau, has a slope directed posteroinferiorly relative to the long axis of the middle of the shaft. It has important consideration in surgeries such as knee arthroplasty, high tibial osteotomy, and medical imaging of the knee joint. The aim of the present study was to estimate the tibial plateau angle (TPA) by plain radiograph in the adult Eastern Indian population as during literature review, we were unable to find any study, except one (without specific reference axis), on this variable among the Indian population. A sample was taken from adult patients attending the outpatient department of orthopedics of the institute with minor knee problems. Measurement of the TPA was done in the true lateral radiographs of the knee joints of the selected subjects by a standardized method. TPA varied widely from 6° to 24°, with the mean ± standard deviation value 13.6° ±3.5°. Student's unpaired t-test revealed no significant difference of TPA between left and right knees, both in male (P = 0.748) and female (P = 0.917) separately and in the entire study population irrespective of gender (P = 0.768). Comparison of TPA between male (13.3° ± 3.3°) and female (13.9° ± 3.4°) by Student's unpaired t-test showed no sexual dimorphism (P = 0.248). There were poor correlations of TPA with age and body mass index. The present study described the variations of the TPA in the adult Eastern Indian population (range 6°-24°, mean ± SD 13.6° ± 3.5°, no laterality, no sexual dimorphism, poor correlation with age and BMI). Knowledge of this study could be used in different orthopedic surgeries and imaging technique in or around the knee joint.

  20. Estimation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population size and adult male survival in an urban area in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Cáceres, Lorenzo; Kaiser, Paul E; Young, Josue; Pineda, Lleysa; Black, Isaac; Sosa, Nestor; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Traditional mosquito control strategies rely heavily on the use of chemical insecticides. However, concerns about the efficiency of traditional control methods, environmental impact and emerging pesticide resistance have highlighted the necessity for developing innovative tools for mosquito control. Some novel strategies, including release of insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL®), rely on the sustained release of modified male mosquitoes and therefore benefit from a thorough understanding of the biology of the male of the species. In this report we present the results of a mark-release-recapture study aimed at: (i) establishing the survival in the field of laboratory-reared, wild-type male Aedes aegypti and (b) estimating the size of the local adult Ae. aegypti population. The study took place in Panama, a country where recent increases in the incidence and severity of dengue cases have prompted health authorities to evaluate alternative strategies for vector control. Results suggest a life expectancy of 2.3 days for released male mosquitoes (confidence interval: 1.78-2.86). Overall, the male mosquito population was estimated at 58 males/ha (range 12-81 males/ha), which can be extrapolated to an average of 0.64 pupae/person for the study area. The practical implications of these results are discussed.

  1. Estimation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae population size and adult male survival in an urban area in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Neira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional mosquito control strategies rely heavily on the use of chemical insecticides. However, concerns about the efficiency of traditional control methods, environmental impact and emerging pesticide resistance have highlighted the necessity for developing innovative tools for mosquito control. Some novel strategies, including release of insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL®, rely on the sustained release of modified male mosquitoes and therefore benefit from a thorough understanding of the biology of the male of the species. In this report we present the results of a mark-release-recapture study aimed at: (i establishing the survival in the field of laboratory-reared, wild-type male Aedes aegypti and (b estimating the size of the local adult Ae. aegypti population. The study took place in Panama, a country where recent increases in the incidence and severity of dengue cases have prompted health authorities to evaluate alternative strategies for vector control. Results suggest a life expectancy of 2.3 days for released male mosquitoes (confidence interval: 1.78-2.86. Overall, the male mosquito population was estimated at 58 males/ha (range 12-81 males/ha, which can be extrapolated to an average of 0.64 pupae/person for the study area. The practical implications of these results are discussed.

  2. Surveillance and control of meningococcal meningitis epidemics in refugee populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P S; Toole, M J; Nieburg, P; Waldman, R J; Broome, C V

    1990-01-01

    Epidemics of communicable diseases pose a direct threat to refugee and internally displaced populations, and could lead to high mortality rates and a disruption of basic health care services. Several large refugee populations live in regions of high meningococcal disease endemicity and their camps are at risk for outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis. Surveillance in these camps allows early detection and control of impending outbreaks. Confirmation of meningococcal disease can be performed under field conditions using simple techniques, such as latex agglutination. Isolates should be obtained for serogroup confirmation and antibiotic sensitivity studies at reference laboratories. Serogroup information is used to determine the risk of widespread epidemic disease and the utility of available vaccines. During epidemics, treatment regimens should be standardized, preferably with an effective single-dose antibiotic. Mass vaccination campaigns should be initiated, the populations at high risk being targeted for vaccination as quickly as possible. When the risk of epidemic disease is deemed to be high, preemptive vaccination may be warranted. Daily surveillance using a simple case definition is essential during an epidemic to determine the effectiveness of control measures and to delineate high-risk groups for vaccination or chemoprophylaxis. Many of these recommendations can be applied also to other populations in developing countries.

  3. Estimating the population-level impact of vaccines using synthetic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Christian A. W.; Hetterich, Stephen; Schuck-Paim, Cynthia; Kürüm, Esra; Taylor, Robert J.; Lustig, Roger; Shapiro, Eugene D.; Warren, Joshua L.; Weinberger, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    When a new vaccine is introduced, it is critical to monitor trends in disease rates to ensure that the vaccine is effective and to quantify its impact. However, estimates from observational studies can be confounded by unrelated changes in healthcare utilization, changes in the underlying health of the population, or changes in reporting. Other diseases are often used to detect and adjust for these changes, but choosing an appropriate control disease a priori is a major challenge. The “synthetic controls” (causal impact) method, which was originally developed for website analytics and social sciences, provides an appealing solution. With this approach, potential comparison time series are combined into a composite and are used to generate a counterfactual estimate, which can be compared with the time series of interest after the intervention. We sought to estimate changes in hospitalizations for all-cause pneumonia associated with the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in five countries in the Americas. Using synthetic controls, we found a substantial decline in hospitalizations for all-cause pneumonia in infants in all five countries (average of 20%), whereas estimates for young and middle-aged adults varied by country and were potentially influenced by the 2009 influenza pandemic. In contrast to previous reports, we did not detect a decline in all-cause pneumonia in older adults in any country. Synthetic controls promise to increase the accuracy of studies of vaccine impact and to increase comparability of results between populations compared with alternative approaches. PMID:28154145

  4. Adult plant development in triticale (× triticosecale wittmack) is controlled by dynamic genetic patterns of regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würschum, Tobias; Liu, Wenxin; Alheit, Katharina V; Tucker, Matthew R; Gowda, Manje; Weissmann, Elmar A; Hahn, Volker; Maurer, Hans Peter

    2014-09-18

    Many biologically and agronomically important traits are dynamic and show temporal variation. In this study, we used triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack) as a model crop to assess the genetic dynamics underlying phenotypic plasticity of adult plant development. To this end, a large mapping population with 647 doubled haploid lines derived from four partially connected families from crosses among six parents was scored for developmental stage at three different time points. Using genome-wide association mapping, we identified main effect and epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) at all three time points. Interestingly, some of these QTL were identified at all time points, whereas others appear to only contribute to the genetic architecture at certain developmental stages. Our results illustrate the temporal contribution of QTL to the genetic control of adult plant development and more generally, the temporal genetic patterns of regulation that underlie dynamic traits.

  5. Bioinformatics: Tools to accelerate population science and disease control research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Michele R; Greene, Sarah M; Avis, Nancy E; Taplin, Stephen H; Courtney, Paul; Schad, Peter A; Hesse, Bradford W; Winn, Deborah M

    2010-06-01

    Population science and disease control researchers can benefit from a more proactive approach to applying bioinformatics tools for clinical and public health research. Bioinformatics utilizes principles of information sciences and technologies to transform vast, diverse, and complex life sciences data into a more coherent format for wider application. Bioinformatics provides the means to collect and process data, enhance data standardization and harmonization for scientific discovery, and merge disparate data sources. Achieving interoperability (i.e. the development of an informatics system that provides access to and use of data from different systems) will facilitate scientific explorations and careers and opportunities for interventions in population health. The National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) interoperable Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) is one of a number of illustrative tools in this report that are being mined by population scientists. Tools are not all that is needed for progress. Challenges persist, including a lack of common data standards, proprietary barriers to data access, and difficulties pooling data from studies. Population scientists and informaticists are developing promising and innovative solutions to these barriers. The purpose of this paper is to describe how the application of bioinformatics systems can accelerate population health research across the continuum from prevention to detection, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome.

  6. Yoga and Pilates: Associations with body image and disordered eating behaviors in a population-based sample of young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Wall, Melanie; Loth, Katie A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between participating in mind-body activities (yoga/Pilates) and body dissatisfaction and disordered eating (unhealthy and extreme weight control practices and binge eating) in a population-based sample of young adults. Method The sample included 1030 young men and 1257 young women (mean age: 25.3 years, SD=1.7) who participated in Project EAT-III (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Results Among women, disordered eating was prevalent in yoga/Pilates participants and non-participants, with no differences between the groups. Men participating in yoga/Pilates were more likely to use extreme weight control behaviors (18.6% vs. 6.8%, p=.006) and binge eating (11.6% vs. 4.2%, p=.023), and marginally more likely to use unhealthy weight control behaviors (49.1% vs. 34.5%; p=.053), than non-participants after adjusting for sociodemographics, weight status, and overall physical activity. Discussion Findings suggest the importance of helping yoga/Pilates instructors recognize that their students may be at risk for disordered eating. PMID:20862694

  7. Mitochondrial DNA deletion mutations in adult mouse cardiac side population cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lushaj, Entela B., E-mail: lushaj@surgery.wisc.edu [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Lozonschi, Lucian; Barnes, Maria; Anstadt, Emily; Kohmoto, Takushi [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the presence and potential role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion mutations in adult cardiac stem cells. Cardiac side population (SP) cells were isolated from 12-week-old mice. Standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to screen for the presence of mtDNA deletion mutations in (a) freshly isolated SP cells and (b) SP cells cultured to passage 10. When present, the abundance of mtDNA deletion mutation was analyzed in single cell colonies. The effect of different levels of deletion mutations on SP cell growth and differentiation was determined. MtDNA deletion mutations were found in both freshly isolated and cultured cells from 12-week-old mice. While there was no significant difference in the number of single cell colonies with mtDNA deletion mutations from any of the groups mentioned above, the abundance of mtDNA deletion mutations was significantly higher in the cultured cells, as determined by quantitative PCR. Within a single clonal cell population, the detectable mtDNA deletion mutations were the same in all cells and unique when compared to deletions of other colonies. We also found that cells harboring high levels of mtDNA deletion mutations (i.e. where deleted mtDNA comprised more than 60% of total mtDNA) had slower proliferation rates and decreased differentiation capacities. Screening cultured adult stem cells for mtDNA deletion mutations as a routine assessment will benefit the biomedical application of adult stem cells.

  8. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult population in Shiraz, southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaie, Amir Hossein; Shafiekhani, Mojtaba; Nasihatkon, Ali Asghar; Rastani, Iman Hafizi; Tabatabaie, Mojgan; Borzoo, Ali Reza; Hojat, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MSx) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study evaluated the prevalence of MSx in adult population in Shiraz, southern Iran. In a cross-sectional study conducted between October 2012 and April 2013, using a simple random sampling method, 377 adults aged more than 20 years who were invited for periodic health examinations to Petroleum Industry Health Organization Polyclinic, a general health care center, Shiraz, southern Iran, were studied. The revised National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III was used for the diagnosis of MSx. The participants included 190 women and 187 men with a mean±SD age of 43.8±11.0 (range: 20-86) years. Of 377 participants, 101 (26.8%, 95% CI: 22.3-31.3%) had MSx. The prevalence in men (16.6%) was significantly (p<0.001) lower than that in women (36.8%). The prevalence increased by almost 15% with each decade of life (p<0.001). The prevalence of MSx in our population, particularly in women, is high. Strategies should be planned to prevent the increasing prevalence of MSx in our country. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Determining Factors in the Access to Mental Health Services by the Adult Colombian Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Lina María; Peñaloza, Rolando Enrique; Matallana, María Alexandra; Gil, Fabián; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Landaeta, Angela Patricia Vega

    2016-12-01

    Access to mental health services by people with mental disorders has traditionally been limited, and is associated with attitudinal, social, and structural variables. To analyse the factors that determine access to mental health services by the adult population (18-44 years old) in Colombia, from the results obtained in the 2015 National Mental Health Survey. Analysis of variables of access to attention in mental health care for adults. The reasons for not consulting were classified as barriers of behavioural supply and demand. To analyse the factors associated with access to mental health services in the Colombian adult population, the use of health services in the last 12 months for emotional, nervous or mental health problems was taken into account, as well as associated variables such as demographic characteristics, occupational activity, affiliation to social security, and health status variables. The relationships between these variables were estimated using bivariate multinomial logistic regression models. Rural residence, being married, and having a chronic disease were associated with the decision to consult or not to consult the doctor. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the situation as regards mental health care access, as well as to determine the potential factors associated with these limitations. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. A common variant of HMGA2 is associated with adult and childhood height in the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedon, Michael N; Lettre, Guillaume; Freathy, Rachel M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Voight, Benjamin F; Perry, John R B; Elliott, Katherine S; Hackett, Rachel; Guiducci, Candace; Shields, Beverley; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Lango, Hana; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Timpson, Nicholas J; Burtt, Noel P; Rayner, Nigel W; Saxena, Richa; Ardlie, Kristin; Tobias, Jonathan H; Ness, Andrew R; Ring, Susan M; Palmer, Colin N A; Morris, Andrew D; Peltonen, Leena; Salomaa, Veikko; Smith, George Davey; Groop, Leif C; Hattersley, Andrew T; McCarthy, Mark I; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Frayling, Timothy M

    2011-01-01

    Human height is a classic, highly heritable quantitative trait. To begin to identify genetic variants influencing height, we examined genome-wide association data from 4,921 individuals. Common variants in the HMGA2 oncogene, exemplified by rs1042725, were associated with height (P = 4 × 10−8). HMGA2 is also a strong biological candidate for height, as rare, severe mutations in this gene alter body size in mice and humans, so we tested rs1042725 in additional samples. We confirmed the association in 19,064 adults from four further studies (P = 3 × 10−11, overall P = 4 × 10−16, including the genome-wide association data). We also observed the association in children (P = 1 × 10−6, N = 6,827) and a tall/short case-control study (P = 4 × 10−6, N = 3,207). We estimate that rs1042725 explains ~0.3% of population variation in height (~0.4 cm increased adult height per C allele). There are few examples of common genetic variants reproducibly associated with human quantitative traits; these results represent, to our knowledge, the first consistently replicated association with adult and childhood height. PMID:17767157

  11. Blood lead levels in the adult Victorian population: results from the Victorian Health Monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsall, Liza M; de Gooyer, Tanyth E; Carey, Marion; Vaughan, Loretta; Ansari, Zahid

    2013-06-01

    To estimate blood lead levels (BLLs) in the adult Victorian population and compare the distribution of BLLs with the current national reference level to better inform public health prevention and management of lead toxicity. Population-based cross-sectional health measurement survey of 50 randomly selected Census Collection Districts (CDs) throughout Victoria. The Victorian Health Monitor (VHM) was conducted over 12 months from May 2009 to April 2010. One eligible person (aged 18-75 years) from each household selected within each CD was randomly selected to participate. Persons with an intellectual disability and pregnant women were excluded from the sampling frame. BLLs were obtained from 3,622 of the 3,653 (99%) VHM participants. The geometric mean and median BLLs from the adult sample were 0.070 μmol/L (95%CI, 0.068-0.073) and 0.05 μmol/L (range: 0.05 to 1.22 μmol/L), respectively. Elevated BLLs (≥0.483 μmol/L or ≥10 μg/dL) were identified in 19 participants (0.7%; 95%CI, 0.3-1.6). Additionally, 86 participants (1.8%; 95%CI, 1.3-2.4) were identified with BLLs between 0.242 and <0.483 μmol/L (5 to <10 μg/dL). The geometric mean BLL was significantly higher for males, compared with females (0.077 μmol/L vs 0.064 μmol/L; p<0.001). BLLs increased significantly with age for both sexes. The first population estimates of BLLs in Victorian adults indicate the average adult BLL to be well below the current national reference level. However, some groups of the population have BLLs at which adverse effects may occur. Implications : The results provide baseline estimates for future population health surveillance and comparison with studies of at-risk groups. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  12. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandile J. Mchiza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups.

  13. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchiza, Zandile J; Steyn, Nelia P; Hill, Jillian; Kruger, Annamarie; Schönfeldt, Hettie; Nel, Johanna; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2015-09-23

    One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups.

  14. Status of Vitamin B12 and Folate among the Urban Adult Population in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaprasad, M; Shalini, T; Balakrishna, N; Sudarshan, M; Lopamudra, P; Suryanarayana, P; Arlappa, N; Ravikumar, B P; Radhika, M S; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate (FA) leads to a wide spectrum of disorders that affect all age groups. However, reports on B12 and FA status in healthy adults in India are limited. Hence, we determined the plasma levels and dietary intake of B12 and FA in the adult population. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study in an urban setup among 630 apparently healthy adults distributed into 3 age groups: 21-40, 41-60 and >60 years. Plasma concentrations of B12 and FA were analyzed by radio immunoassay and dietary intake by 24-hour recall method. The overall prevalence of FA deficiency was 12%, but there was no significant difference in plasma FA concentrations among the groups. While the overall prevalence of B12 deficiency was 35%, it was significantly higher in the 21-40 (44%) and 41-60 age groups (40%) when compared with the >60 group (30%). B12 deficiency was higher in vegetarians (54%) compared to those consuming mixed diet (31%), and the reverse was the case with FA. However, the dietary intakes of FA and B12 were not significantly different among the groups. These results indicate a higher prevalence of B12 deficiency in apparently healthy adults in an urban setup. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Race and asthma control in the pediatric population of Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Brian H; Cabana, Michael D; Hilton, Joan F; Ly, Ngoc P

    2011-05-01

    The racially unique population of Hawaii has one of the highest prevalences of childhood asthma in America. We estimate the prevalence of impaired asthma control among asthmatic children in Hawaii and determine which factors are associated with impaired control. We analyzed data from 477 asthmatic children living in Hawaii participating in the 2006-2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Asthma Call-Back Surveys. Impaired asthma control was modeled after 2007 National Asthma Education and Prevention Program guidelines. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify factors associated with impaired asthma control. Children (53.8%) with asthma were either part or full Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander. While 35.6% of asthmatic children met criteria for impaired asthma control, being part or full Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander was not associated with impaired control. Only 31.1% of children with impaired control reported the use of inhaled corticosteroids despite >80% having had a routine checkup for asthma in the past year and receipt of asthma education from a healthcare provider. A large proportion of asthmatic children in Hawaii have impaired asthma control that does not appear to be associated with race but may be associated with inadequate pharmacologic therapy. While a significant percentage reported receiving routine asthma care and asthma education, a minority reported using inhaled corticosteroids. Reasons for this discrepancy between asthma assessment and treatment are unclear. However, additional education on part of the physician, community, and healthcare system are likely to improve management and reduce morbidity in this population. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Association between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gene single nucleotide polymorphisms and arterial stiffness in adult Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许如意

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor(PPAR)and arterial stiffness in adult Chinese population(>50 years).Methods

  17. Anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies in an adult healthy population: serosurvey and risk factors in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Negri

    2013-03-01

    Conclusions: The results of this study reinforce the necessity in promoting preventive public health measures, even for healthy adult individual, particularly those related to the deworming of pets to avoid the soil contamination, and hygiene education of the population.

  18. Road-Traffic Noise: Annoyance, Risk Perception, and Noise Sensitivity in the Finnish Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Turunen, Anu W.; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Vartiainen, Anna-Kaisa; Tiittanen, Pekka; Lanki, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09–3.82) and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00–1.14) were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (p traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity. PMID:26016432

  19. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and violence in the population of England: does comorbidity matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A González

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the association between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and violence is explained by ADHD symptoms or co-existing psychopathology. We investigated associations of ADHD and its symptom domains of hyperactivity and inattention, among individuals reporting violence in the UK population. METHODS: We report data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (2007, a representative sample of the household population of England. A randomly selected sample of 7,369 completed the Adult Self-Report Scale for ADHD and the self-reported violence module, including repetition, injury, minor violence, victims and location of incidents. All models were weighted to account for non-response and carefully adjusted for demography and clinical predictors of violence: antisocial personality, substance misuse and anxiety disorders. RESULTS: ADHD was moderately associated with violence after adjustments (OR 1.75, p = .01. Hyperactivity, but not inattention was associated with several indicators of violence in the domestic context (OR 1.16, p = .03. Mild and moderate ADHD symptoms were significantly associated with violence repetition, but not severe ADHD where the association was explained by co-existing disorders. Stratified analyses further indicated that most violence reports are associated with co-occurring psychopathology. CONCLUSIONS: The direct effect of ADHD on violence is only moderate at the population level, driven by hyperactivity, and involving intimate partners and close persons. Because violence associated with severe ADHD is explained by co-existing psychopathology, interventions should primarily target co-existing disorders.

  20. Socioeconomic Position, Rural Residence, and Marginality Influences on Obesity Status in the Adult Mexican Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Johnelle Sparks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses individual and social environment determinants of obesity in the adult Mexican population based on socioeconomic position, rural residence, and areal deprivation. Using a nationally representative health and nutrition survey, this analysis considers individual and structural determinants of obesity from a socioeconomic position and health disparities conceptual framework using multilevel logistic regression models. We find that more than thirty percent of Mexican adults were obese in 2006 and that the odds of being obese were strongly associated with an individual's socioeconomic position, gender, place of residence, and the level of marginalization (areal deprivation in the place of residence. Surprisingly, areas of the country where areal deprivation was highest had lower risks of individual obesity outcomes. We suggest that programs oriented towards addressing the health benefits of traditional food systems over high-energy dense refined foods and sugary beverages be promoted as part of a public health program aimed at curbing the rising obesity prevalence in Mexico.

  1. Taxonomic separation of hippocampal networks: principal cell populations and adult neurogenesis

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    Roelof Maarten evan Dijk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available While many differences in hippocampal anatomy have been described between species, it is typically not clear if they are specific to a particular species and related to functional requirements or if they are shared by species of larger taxonomic units. Without such information, it is difficult to infer how anatomical differences may impact on hippocampal function, because multiple taxonomic levels need to be considered to associate behavioral and anatomical changes. To provide information on anatomical changes within and across taxonomic ranks, we present a quantitative assessment of hippocampal principal cell populations in 20 species or strain groups, with emphasis on rodents, the taxonomic group that provides most animals used in laboratory research. Of special interest is the importance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in species-specific adaptations relative to other cell populations. Correspondence analysis of cell numbers shows that across taxonomic units, phylogenetically related species cluster together, sharing similar proportions of principal cell populations. CA3 and hilus are strong separators that place rodent species into a tight cluster based on their relatively large CA3 and small hilus while non-rodent species (including humans and non-human primates are placed on the opposite side of the spectrum. Hilus and CA3 are also separators within rodents, with a very large CA3 and rather small hilar cell populations separating mole-rats from other rodents that, in turn, are separated from each other by smaller changes in the proportions of CA1 and granule cells. When adult neurogenesis is included, the relatively small populations of young neurons, proliferating cells and hilar neurons become main drivers of taxonomic separation within rodents. The observations provide challenges to the computational modeling of hippocampal function, suggest differences in the organization of hippocampal information streams in rodent and non

  2. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Fabianne; Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia; Forner-Cordero, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  3. Effect of wrist position on young adults pinch grip control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Luzia Barros de Andrade

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pinch grip is used in a large number of handling activities that require precision and control of an object. The position of the upper arm joints affects the fingers force production in order to handle the object. This study aimed to verify the influence of the wrist position in the production of maximum strength and in the control fingers grip pinch submaximum strength control. Participants were 21 right handed adults (10 male, 18-26 years old. They made two attempts of maximum force production and eight attempts of submaximal force production (four at 20% and four at 40% of maximum strength for pinch grip in three wrist positions: neutral, flexion and extension. The results showed that the production of maximum strength is higher in neutral position compared to wrist flexion and extension and higher for men compared to women. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the length of the hand and the production of maximum strength. The results also indicated that the wrist position did not interfere in the submaximum force control during this task. However, participants showed more difficulty controlling 20% than 40% of maximum strength. The present study showed evidence that the motor units used to produce grip pinch maximum strength cross the wrist joint but those used for the 20% and 40% of maximum strength are present only in the fingers and hand.

  4. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Michael W.; Leslie C. Griffith; Vecsey, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of pop...

  5. Insecticide resistance and its underlying mechanisms in field populations of Aedes aegypti adults (Diptera: Culicidae) in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Koou, Sin-Ying; Chong, Chee-Seng; Vythilingam, Indra; Lee, Chow-Yang; Ng, Lee-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Background In Singapore, dose–response bioassays of Aedes aegypti (L.) adults have been conducted, but the mechanisms underlying resistance to insecticides remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated insecticide resistance and its underlying mechanism in field populations of Ae. aegypti adults. Methods Seven populations of Ae. aegypti were collected from public residential areas and assays were conducted according to WHO guidelines to determine their susceptibility to several commonly used in...

  6. A Population based Study on Alcoholism among Adult Males in a Rural Area, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Ruma; Gnanasekaran, Sruthy; Suchithra, S; Srilalitha, V; Sujitha, R; Sivaranjani, S Sowmya; Subitha, S; Dcruze, Lawrence

    2014-06-01

    India's reputation as a country with a culture of abstinence especially in matters regarding alcohol is underserved. There has been a rapid proliferation of city bars and nightclubs in recent years and people are fast shedding its inhibitions about alcohol as a lifestyle choice. This scenario has led to fears of an undocumented rise in alcohol abuse among all sections of society. Policies by the government has been laid down to regulate sales and pricing of alcohol, but not well improvised. Our aim was to find out the prevalence of alcoholism among adult males in a rural population and also to analyze its association between various factors. A cross sectional study in a rural population at Kuthampakkam village, in Poonamallee block of Tiruvallur district in Tamil Nadu, India. The study population included adult male population. Simple random sampling method was adopted. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding the background characteristics, history of alcoholism and certain social factors. Data entry and analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15 software. Descriptive statistics were calculated for background variables and the prevalence of the alcoholism. Chi-square test and p-value were calculated to see the association between alcoholism and social factors. A total of 157 adult male were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the study participants was 37.20 years. The prevalence of alcoholism among the study participants was 35.7%. Among them only 4.5% who presented with symptoms of chronic alcoholism had taken treatment. Reasons for not taking treatment for alcoholism among study population were mainly due to their family problems (55.2%). Although alcohol consumption has existed for many centuries, the quantity, usage pattern, and resultant problems have undergone substantial changes over the past 20 years. These developments have raised concerns about the public health and social

  7. Road-traffic noise: annoyance, risk perception, and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Turunen, Anu W; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Vartiainen, Anna-Kaisa; Tiittanen, Pekka; Lanki, Timo

    2015-05-26

    Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09-3.82) and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00-1.14) were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (pnoise sensitivity. Age and sex were associated with annoyance and sensitivity only in bivariate models. A considerable proportion of Finnish adults are highly annoyed by road-traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity.

  8. Road-Traffic Noise: Annoyance, Risk Perception, and Noise Sensitivity in the Finnish Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enembe Oku Okokon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09–3.82 and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00–1.14 were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (p < 0.045 and positive environmental attitudes (p < 000 were associated with higher noise sensitivity. Age and sex were associated with annoyance and sensitivity only in bivariate models. A considerable proportion of Finnish adults are highly annoyed by road-traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity.

  9. High blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function in a general adult population

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    Meisinger Christa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies showed that blood pressure and lung function are associated. Additionally, a potential effect of antihypertensive medication, especially beta-blockers, on lung function has been discussed. However, side effects of beta-blockers have been investigated mainly in patients with already reduced lung function. Thus, aim of this analysis is to determine whether hypertension and antihypertensive medication have an adverse effect on lung function in a general adult population. Methods Within the population-based KORA F4 study 1319 adults aged 40-65 years performed lung function tests and blood pressure measurements. Additionally, information on anthropometric measurements, medical history and use of antihypertensive medication was available. Multivariable regression models were applied to study the association between blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function. Results High blood pressure as well as antihypertensive medication were associated with lower forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.02 respectively p = 0.05; R2: 0.65 and forced vital capacity values (p = 0.01 respectively p = 0.05, R2: 0.73. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of antihypertensive medication pointed out that only the use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced lung function, whereas other antihypertensive medication had no effect on lung function. The adverse effect of beta-blockers was significant for forced vital capacity (p = 0.04; R2: 0.65, while the association with forced expiratory volume in one second showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07; R2: 0.73. In the same model high blood pressure was associated with reduced forced vital capacity (p = 0.01 and forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.03 values, too. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that both high blood pressure and the use of beta-blockers, but not the use of other antihypertensive medication, are associated with reduced lung function in a

  10. Ancestry reported by white adults with cutaneous melanoma and control subjects in central Alabama

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    Hollowell William W

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to evaluate the hypothesis that the high incidence of cutaneous melanoma in white persons in central Alabama is associated with a predominance of Irish and Scots descent. Methods Frequencies of country of ancestry reports were tabulated. The reports were also converted to scores that reflect proportional countries of ancestry in individuals. Using the scores, we computed aggregate country of ancestry indices as estimates of group ancestry composition. HLA-DRB1*04 allele frequencies and relationships to countries of ancestry were compared in probands and controls. Results were compared to those of European populations with HLA-DRB1*04 frequencies. Results Ninety evaluable adult white cutaneous melanoma probands and 324 adult white controls reported countries of ancestry of their grandparents. The respective frequencies of Ireland, and Scotland and "British Isles" reported countries of ancestry were significantly greater in probands than in controls. The respective frequencies of Wales, France, Italy and Poland were significantly greater in controls. 16.7% of melanoma probands and 23.8% of controls reported "Native American" ancestry; the corresponding "Native American" country of ancestry index was not significantly different in probands and controls. The frequency of HLA-DRB1*04 was significantly greater in probands, but was not significantly associated with individual or aggregate countries of ancestry. The frequency of DRB1*04 observed in Alabama was compared to DRB1*04 frequencies reported from England, Wales, Ireland, Orkney Island, France, Germany, and Australia. Conclusion White adults with cutaneous melanoma in central Alabama have a predominance of Irish, Scots, and "British Isles" ancestry and HLA-DRB1*04 that likely contributes to their high incidence of cutaneous melanoma.

  11. Association between blood lead and blood pressure: a population-based study in Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida Lopes, Ana Carolina Bertin de; Silbergeld, Ellen Kovner; Navas-Acien, Ana; Zamoiski, Rachel; Martins, Airton da Cunha; Camargo, Alissana Ester Iakmiu; Urbano, Mariana Ragassi; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; Paoliello, Monica Maria Bastos

    2017-03-14

    Environmental lead exposure among adults may increase blood pressure and elevate the risk of hypertension. The availability of data on blood lead levels (BLL) in adult Brazilian population is scarce and population-based studies are important for screening the population exposure and also to evaluate associations with adverse health effects. The goal of this study was to examine the association of BLL with blood pressure and hypertension in a population-based study in a city in Southern Brazil. A total of 948 adults, aged 40 years or older, were randomly selected. Information on socioeconomic, dietary, lifestyle and occupational background was obtained by orally administered household interviews. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured according to the guidelines VI Brazilian Guidelines on Hypertension. BLL were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were performed to evaluate associations of BLL with SBP and DBP, and with the chance of hypertension and of elevated SBP and DBP. The geometric mean of BLL was 1.97 μg/dL (95%CI:1.90-2.04 μg/dL). After multivariable adjustment, participants in the quartile 4 of blood lead presented 0.06 mm/Hg (95%CI, 0.04-0.09) average difference in DBP comparing with those in quartile 1. Participants in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution had 0.07 mmHg (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.11) higher DBP compared with those participants in the 10th percentile of blood lead. The adjusted OR for hypertension was 2.54 (95% CI, 1.17-5.53), comparing the highest to the lowest blood lead quartiles. Compared with participants in the 10th percentile of blood lead, participants in the 90th percentile presented higher OR for hypertension (OR: 2.77; 95% CI, 1.41 to 5.46). At low concentrations, BLL were positively associated with DBP and with the odds for hypertension in adults aged 40 or older. It is important to enforce lead

  12. The Contributions of Phonological and Morphological Awareness to Literacy Skills In the Adult Basic Education Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracasso, Lucille E.; Bangs, Kathryn; Binder, Katherine S.

    2014-01-01

    The Adult Basic Education (ABE) population consists of a wide range of abilities with needs that may be unique to this set of learners. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relative contributions of phonological decoding and morphological awareness to spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension across a sample of ABE students. In this study, phonological decoding was a unique predictor of spelling ability, listening comprehension and reading comprehension. We also found that morphological awareness was a unique predictor of spelling ability, vocabulary, and listening comprehension. Morphological awareness indirectly contributed to reading comprehension through vocabulary. These findings suggest the need for morphological interventions for this group of learners. PMID:24935886

  13. Social, Demographic and Labour Market Related Determinants of Health in the Adult European Population

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    Agnes Rozsa Santha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the social, demographic and labour market related determinants of the state of health and assesses the magnitude of their impact within the European adult population. The research is based on a statistical analysis on the data of the European Social Survey (ESS, round 7, 2014/2015. Subjective socioeconomic situation and partnership status are being identified as the most influential social determinants of health. Results also illuminate how work-life-balance determines health. People suffering from work-life-imbalance are more likely to become ill than those with more free time and flexible working hours.

  14. Analysis of Head and Neck Dynamic Response of the U.S. Adult Military Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-15

    simulation results at -6Gx showed the largest error in condyles extension to be in peak and duration of condylar extension motion. Therefore, neck ...satisfactory. It was subsequently concluded that a two-joint neck with pivot points at the occipital * condyles and at T1 cannot produce a condylar ...Report No. 3 Analysis of Head and Neck Wow Dynamic Response of the U.S. Adult Military Population A.C. Bosio B.M. Bowman L-LECTEK JUL 08 i82 PREPARED

  15. Acrolein and asthma attack prevalence in a representative sample of the United States adult population 2000-2009.

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    B Rey deCastro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acrolein is an air toxic and highly potent respiratory irritant. There is little epidemiology available, but US EPA estimates that outdoor acrolein is responsible for about 75 percent of non-cancer respiratory health effects attributable to air toxics in the United States, based on the Agency's 2005 NATA (National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment and acrolein's comparatively potent inhalation reference concentration of 0.02 µg/m3. OBJECTIVES: Assess the association between estimated outdoor acrolein exposure and asthma attack reported by a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. METHODS: NATA 2005 chronic outdoor acrolein exposure estimates at the census tract were linked with residences oif adults (≥18 years old in the NHIS (National Health Interview Survey 2000-2009 (n = 271,348 subjects. A sample-weighted logistic regression model characterized the association between the prevalence of reporting at least one asthma attack in the 12 months prior to survey interview and quintiles of exposure to outdoor acrolein, controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: In the highest quintile of outdoor acrolein exposure (0.05-0.46 µg/m3, there was a marginally significant increase in the asthma attack pOR (prevalence-odds ratio [95% CI]  = 1.08 [0.98∶1.19] relative to the lowest quintile. The highest quintile was also associated with a marginally significant increase in prevalence-odds (1.13 [0.98∶1.29] in a model limited to never smokers (n = 153,820. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic exposure to outdoor acrolein of 0.05-0.46 µg/m3 appears to increase the prevalence-odds of having at least one asthma attack in the previous year by 8 percent in a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population.

  16. Adult mortality in a low-density tree population using high-resolution remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, James R; Hubbell, Stephen P

    2017-06-01

    We developed a statistical framework to quantify mortality rates in canopy trees observed using time series from high-resolution remote sensing. By timing the acquisition of remote sensing data with synchronous annual flowering in the canopy tree species Handroanthus guayacan, we made 2,596 unique detections of 1,006 individual adult trees within 18,883 observation attempts on Barro Colorado Island, Panama (BCI) during an 11-yr period. There were 1,057 observation attempts that resulted in missing data due to cloud cover or incomplete spatial coverage. Using the fraction of 123 individuals from an independent field sample that were detected by satellite data (109 individuals, 88.6%), we estimate that the adult population for this species on BCI was 1,135 individuals. We used a Bayesian state-space model that explicitly accounted for the probability of tree detection and missing observations to compute an annual adult mortality rate of 0.2%·yr(-1) (SE = 0.1, 95% CI = 0.06-0.45). An independent estimate of the adult mortality rate from 260 field-checked trees closely matched the landscape-scale estimate (0.33%·yr(-1) , SE = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.12-0.74). Our proof-of-concept study shows that one can remotely estimate adult mortality rates for canopy tree species precisely in the presence of variable detection and missing observations. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Risk of Shingles in Adults with Primary Sjogren's Syndrome and Treatments: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Yin Chen

    Full Text Available Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS is associated with immunological dysfunctions--a well-known risk factor of shingles. This study aimed to examine the incidence and risk of shingles in adults with pSS and pharmacological treatments.This retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted using National Health Insurance claims data. Using propensity scores, 4,287 pSS adult patients and 25,722-matched cohorts by age, gender, selected comorbidities and Charlson comorbidity index scores were identified. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression were conducted to compare the differences in developing shingles. In pSS, oral and eye dryness are treated with substitute agents. Extraglandular features are often treated with pharmacological drugs including steroids and immunosuppressants. pSS patients were grouped as follows: no pharmacological drugs, steroids alone; immunosuppressants alone; combined therapies.During the follow-up, 463 adults with pSS (10.80% and 1,345 control cohorts (5.23% developed shingles. The cumulative incidence of shingles in pSS patients (18.74/1,000 patient-years was significantly higher than controls (8.55/1,000 patient-years. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR of shingles was 1.69 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.50-1.90. In age-subgroup analyses, incidences of shingles in pSS increased with age and peaked in pSS patients aged ≧60; however, adjusted HRs decreased with age. Compared to control cohorts with no drugs, adjusted HRs for shingles in pSS patients were ranked from high to low as: combined therapies (4.14; 95% CI 3.14-5.45 > immunosuppressants alone (3.24; 95% CI 2.36-4.45 > steroids alone (2.54; 95% CI 2.16-2.97 > no pharmacological drugs (2.06; 95% CI 1.76-2.41. Rates of shingles-associated hospitalization and postherpetic neuralgia were 5.62% and 24.41%, both of which were significantly higher than those (2.60%; 13.01% in the control cohorts.Adults with pSS were at greater risk for shingles than control cohorts

  18. Hypertension in Iranian Urban Population, Epidemiology, Awareness, Treatment and Control

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    SM Namayandeh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the epidemiological characteristics of hypertensive patients in urban population of Yazd, A cen­tral city in Iran.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted from 2005-2006 and carried out on population aging 20-74 years. It is a part of the phase I of Yazd healthy heart program that it is a community interventional study for prevention of car­diovascular disease. Data obtained from questionnaires were analyzed by SPSS version 13. P value less than 0.05 were consid­ered significant level.Results: This study comprised of 2000 participants that 847 (42.5% were diagnosed as being hypertensive. After age ad­justment, prevalence of hypertension was 25.6% (23.3% for women and 27.5% for men (P< 0.001. Age, Total cho­lesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose tolerance test, body mass index and waist were significantly higher in the hypertensive groups. 53.7% of hypertensive cases were aware of own condition, 45% were treated, and 33.9% of treated were controlled (30.7% and 35.4% in men and women re­spectively. In other word, 24% of all hypertensives (aware or unaware about own blood pressure condition were treated and only 8% of them were controlled. Men significantly had less awareness (P< 0.001, lower tendency to take medi­cation (P< 0.001, and less were controlled (P= 0.046.Conclusion: We understand high prevalence, low awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and higher preva­lence of other traditional metabolic risk factors in these cases. It seems that urgent preventional studies should be con­ducted in this population.

  19. Differences in Sleep Duration among Four Different Population Groups of Older Adults in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl

    2017-05-09

    The study aims to investigate sleep duration in four different population groups in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. A national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3284 aged 50 years or older in South Africa was conducted in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and self-reported sleep duration. Results indicate that White Africans compared to other population groups had the lowest mean sleep duration (7.88 h among men and 7.46 h among women). The prevalence of short sleep was the highest among both men and women among the White African (18.8% in men and 16.9% in women) and Indian or Asian African population groups (14.5% in men and 17.1% in women), and lowest among both men and women in the Black African (7.0% in men and 6.5% in women) and multi-ancestry population groups (15.6% in men and 12.7% in women). The prevalence of long sleep was among both men and women the highest in the Black African population group (56.2% in men and 58.5% in women), and the lowest in the White African population group (36.4% in men and 24.3% in women). In a Poisson regression model, adjusted for sociodemographics and chronic disease status, coming from the male and female White African population group was associated with short sleep. In addition, coming from the Indian or Asian African population group was associated with short sleep. No population group differences were found regarding long sleep prevalence. White Africans reported more short sleep duration than the other population groups, while there were no racial or ethnic differences in long sleep. White Africans are more likely to have sleep durations that are associated with negative health outcomes. An explanation of the high short sleep prevalence among White Africans may be related to their racial or ethnic minority status in South Africa.

  20. Differences in Sleep Duration among Four Different Population Groups of Older Adults in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate sleep duration in four different population groups in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE Wave 1. A national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3284 aged 50 years or older in South Africa was conducted in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and self-reported sleep duration. Results indicate that White Africans compared to other population groups had the lowest mean sleep duration (7.88 h among men and 7.46 h among women. The prevalence of short sleep was the highest among both men and women among the White African (18.8% in men and 16.9% in women and Indian or Asian African population groups (14.5% in men and 17.1% in women, and lowest among both men and women in the Black African (7.0% in men and 6.5% in women and multi-ancestry population groups (15.6% in men and 12.7% in women. The prevalence of long sleep was among both men and women the highest in the Black African population group (56.2% in men and 58.5% in women, and the lowest in the White African population group (36.4% in men and 24.3% in women. In a Poisson regression model, adjusted for sociodemographics and chronic disease status, coming from the male and female White African population group was associated with short sleep. In addition, coming from the Indian or Asian African population group was associated with short sleep. No population group differences were found regarding long sleep prevalence. White Africans reported more short sleep duration than the other population groups, while there were no racial or ethnic differences in long sleep. White Africans are more likely to have sleep durations that are associated with negative health outcomes. An explanation of the high short sleep prevalence among White Africans may be related to their racial or ethnic minority status in South Africa.

  1. Mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adults: A methodological review of current strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Craig S; Seaman, Elizabeth L; Clark, Rachael S; Plano Clark, Vicki L

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco use among young people is a complex and serious global dilemma that demands innovative and diverse research approaches. The purpose of this methodological review was to examine the current use of mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adult populations and to develop practical recommendations for tobacco control researchers interested in this methodology. Using PubMed, we searched five peer-reviewed journals that publish tobacco control empirical literature for the use of mixed methods research to study young populations, age 12-25 years. Our team analyzed the features of each article in terms of tobacco control topic, population, youth engagement strategies, and several essential elements of mixed methods research. We identified 23 mixed methods studies published by authors from five different countries reported between 2004 and 2015. These 23 articles examined various topics that included tobacco use behavior, tobacco marketing and branding, and cessation among youth and young adults. The most common mixed methods approach was variations of the concurrent design in which the qualitative and quantitative strands were administered at the same time and given equal priority. This review documented several innovative applications of mixed methods research as well as challenges in the reporting of the complex research designs. The use of mixed methods research in tobacco control has great potential for advancing the understanding of complex behavioral and sociocultural issues for all groups, especially youth and young adults.

  2. Mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adults: A methodological review of current strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Elizabeth L.; Clark, Rachael S.; Plano Clark, Vicki L.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco use among young people is a complex and serious global dilemma that demands innovative and diverse research approaches. The purpose of this methodological review was to examine the current use of mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adult populations and to develop practical recommendations for tobacco control researchers interested in this methodology. Methods Using PubMed, we searched five peer-reviewed journals that publish tobacco control empirical literature for the use of mixed methods research to study young populations, age 12–25 years. Our team analyzed the features of each article in terms of tobacco control topic, population, youth engagement strategies, and several essential elements of mixed methods research. Results We identified 23 mixed methods studies published by authors from five different countries reported between 2004 and 2015. These 23 articles examined various topics that included tobacco use behavior, tobacco marketing and branding, and cessation among youth and young adults. The most common mixed methods approach was variations of the concurrent design in which the qualitative and quantitative strands were administered at the same time and given equal priority. This review documented several innovative applications of mixed methods research as well as challenges in the reporting of the complex research designs. Conclusions The use of mixed methods research in tobacco control has great potential for advancing the understanding of complex behavioral and sociocultural issues for all groups, especially youth and young adults. PMID:28841689

  3. Population versus hospital controls for case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct control selection is crucial to the internal validity of case-control studies. Little information exists on differences between population and hospital controls in case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospital setting. Methods We conducted three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast and colorectal cancers in China between 2009 and 2010, using population and hospital controls to separately match 540 incident cases by age, gender and residency at a 1:1 ratio. Demographic and lifestyle factors were measured using a validated questionnaire in face-to-face interview. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. Results The two control groups had closely similar exposure distributions of 15 out of 16 factors, with the only exception being that hospital controls were less likely to have a BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93. For exposure of green tea drinking, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs comparing green tealeaves intake ≥ 1000 grams annually with non-drinkers were 0.51 (0.31, 0.83 and 0.21 (0.27, 0.74 for three cancers combined, 0.06 (0.01, 0.61 and 0.07 (0.01, 0.47 for breast cancer, 0.52 (0.29, 0.94 and 0.45 (0.25, 0.82 for colorectal cancer, 0.65 (0.08, 5.63 and 0.57 (0.07, 4.79 for leukemia using hospital and population controls respectively. Conclusions The study found that hospital controls were comparable with population controls for most demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors measured, but there was a slight difference between the two control groups. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group in hospital-based case-control study in the Chinese hospital setting.

  4. Determinants of vitamin D status in a general population of Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, B.; Husemoen, L.; Fenger, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aimsDanish legislation regarding food fortification has been very restrictive and vitamin D deficiency is thought to be common in Denmark due to inadequate dietary intakes and the fact that in Denmark (latitude 56°N) vitamin D is only synthesized in the skin after exposure to solar...... radiation during summertime (April–September). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D status of a general adult population in Denmark and, in addition, associations between vitamin D status and distinct lifestyle factors were studied. MethodsA random sample of 6784 persons from a general...... population aged 30–60years participated in a health examination in 1999–2001. Serum samples from all participants were stored and levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured by HPLC in 2009. The method was compared to another HPLC method. Information on dietary intake of vitamin D and other...

  5. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among an adult population of Lima, Peru 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Pareja Cruz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To know the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among an adult population of Lima, Peru 2017. Materials and methods: Descriptive, prospective, cross-sectional study. Population of volunteers older than 18 years, of both sexes, with or without general gastrointestinal discomfort. A screening campaign was carried out in the districts of Magdalena and Chorrillos in the city of Lima, Peru, in January 2017. For the diagnosis, CTK Biotech’s OnSite H. pylori Ab Combo Rapid Test CE was used. Results: One hundred forty (140 patients were evaluated, with a mean age of 36.6 years old, being 22.1% male and 77.9% female. The seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was 63.6%. Conclusions: We conclude that Helicobacter pylori infection is common in the city of Lima, with no difference between gender and age.

  6. [Knowledge of electronic cigarettes and their perceived harmfulness among the adult population in Barcelona (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, José M; Fu, Marcela; Ballbè, Montse; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    To describe knowledge of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and their perceived harmfulness in the population of Barcelona in 2013-2014. We used participants from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of the adult population in the city of Barcelona (n=736). The field work was conducted between May 2013 and February 2014. Awareness of e-cigarette was 79.2%. The average level of knowledge was 4.4 points out of 10; there were statistically significant differences according to age, educational level, tobacco consumption, and nicotine dependence. Most participants had learned about e-cigarettes through traditional media (57.8%). Nearly half (47.2%) of the participants believed that e-cigarettes are less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Advertising of e-cigarettes in the media should be regulated because there is still scarce scientific evidence about the usefulness and harmful effects of these devices. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Decreased physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adults with ankylosing spondylitis: a cross-sectional controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Tom; O'Shea, Finbar; Wilson, Fiona

    2015-11-01

    The health benefits of physical activity (PA) in the general population are numerous; however, few studies have measured PA among adults with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The aims of this study were to: (1) objectively measure the PA levels and cardiorespiratory fitness of adults with AS and compare these to population controls, and (2) examine the relationships between PA, cardiorespiratory function and condition-specific outcomes. This cross-sectional study included participants (>18 years) meeting the modified New York criteria for AS, and matched population controls. Exclusion criteria were the presence of comorbidities limiting PA, or recent changes in medication usage. Participants completed clinical questionnaires assessing disease activity, physical function and quality of life. Tri-axial accelerometers recorded habitual PA over 1 week. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by submaximal treadmill test with breath-by-breath gas analysis and heart rate monitoring. Thirty-nine adults with AS and 39 controls were recruited. The AS group spent significantly less time performing vigorous-intensity PA than controls [mean difference (95 % CI) 1.8 min/day (1.2-2.7)] and performed significantly fewer bouts of health-enhancing PA [1.7 min/day (1.1-2.5)]. The AS group had significantly lower predicted VO(2MAX) than controls [6.0 mL kg(-1) min(-1) (1.8-10.1)]. PA was associated with aerobic capacity. Sedentary time was associated with disease activity and physical function. Adults with AS participate in less health-enhancing PA than population controls. Fewer than half meet PA recommendations, despite exercise being a key component of AS management. Explorations of PA behaviour and strategies to increase PA participation are needed.

  8. A population-based study of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and associated impairment in middle-aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Das

    Full Text Available Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most prevalent childhood psychiatric condition. It frequently persists into adulthood and can have serious health and other adverse consequences. The majority of previous adult ADHD studies have focused on young adults so that relatively little is known about ADHD symptoms and their effects in mid and late life. In addition, effects of subclinical levels of attention deficit and hyperactivity have not been studied in detail. In this study we investigated ADHD symptoms and related impairment in a large population-based sample of middle-aged Australian adults (n = 2091; 47% male. Applying the WHO adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS we observed that 6.2% of participants had scores that were previously associated with ADHD diagnosis. No significant gender difference in the distribution of ASRS scores was observed. Multiple regression analyses indicated strong positive correlations between symptoms of ADHD and depression/anxiety and significant negative associations (p<0.01 with employment, financial stress, relationship quality, health and well-being measures in this age group. Importantly, associations were highly significant even when few ADHD symptoms were reported. Compared to the hyperactivity component, the inattention trait was particularly strongly associated and remained significant after controlling for depression/anxiety symptoms. Our study confirms previous findings and significantly adds to existing literature especially for an age-group that has not been well-studied. Our results suggest that ADHD symptoms continue to be associated with ill-health and functional impairment in mid-life and are, therefore, likely to be a major, previously unrecognized source of late-life morbidity with associated social and economic costs. Thus, there is a compelling need for better understanding and development of age-appropriate approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in mid- to late-life.

  9. Coherent Control of Vibrational State Population in a Nonpolar Molecule

    CERN Document Server

    Picón, A; Jaron-Becker, A; Becker, A; 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.023412

    2011-01-01

    A coherent control scheme for the population distribution in the vibrational states of nonpolar molecules is proposed. Our theoretical analysis and results of numerical simulations for the interaction of the hydrogen molecular ion in its electronic ground state with an infrared laser pulse reveal a selective two-photon transition between the vibrational states via a coupling with the first excited dissociative state. We demonstrate that for a given temporal intensity profile the population transfer between vibrational states, or a superposition of vibrational states, can be made complete for a single chirped pulse or a train of chirped pulses, which accounts for the accumulated phase difference due to the AC Stark effect. Effects of a spatial intensity (or, focal) averaging are discussed.

  10. Prevalence of rheumatic diseases in adult population in Spain (EPISER 2016 study): Aims and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane-Mato, Daniel; Sánchez-Piedra, Carlos; Silva-Fernández, Lucía; Sivera, Francisca; Blanco, Francisco J; Pérez Ruiz, Fernando; Juan-Mas, Antonio; Pego-Reigosa, José M; Narváez, Javier; Quilis Martí, Neus; Cortés Verdú, Raúl; Antón-Pagés, Fred; Quevedo Vila, Víctor; Garrido Courel, Laura; Del Amo, Natividad Del Val; Paniagua Zudaire, Inmaculada; Añez Sturchio, Gustavo; Medina Varo, Fermín; Ruiz Tudela, María Del Mar; Romero Pérez, Antonio; Ballina, Javier; Brandy García, Anahy; Fábregas Canales, Dolores; Font Gayá, Teresa; Bordoy Ferrer, Carolina; González Álvarez, Beatriz; Casas Hernández, Laura; Álvarez Reyes, Fátima; Delgado Sánchez, Mónica; Martínez Dubois, Cristina; Sánchez-Fernández, Simón Ángel; Rojas Vargas, Luisa Marena; García Morales, Paula Virginia; Olivé, Alejandro; Rubio Muñoz, Paula; Larrosa, Marta; Navarro Ricos, Noemí; Graell Martín, Eduard; Chamizo, Eugenio; Chaves Chaparro, Lara; Rojas Herrera, Sara; Pons Dolset, Jordi; Polo Ostariz, Miguel Ángel; Ruiz-Alejos Garrido, Susana; Macía Villa, Cristina; Cruz Valenciano, Ana; González Gómez, María Luisa; Morcillo Valle, Mercedes; Palma Sánchez, Deseada; Moreno Martínez, María José; Mayor González, Marta; Atxotegi Sáenz de Buruaga, Joana; Urionagüena Onaindia, Irati; Blanco Cáceres, Boris Anthony; Díaz-González, Federico; Bustabad, Sagrario

    2017-07-31

    To describe the methodology of the EPISER 2016 (study of the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in adult population in Spain), as well its strengths and limitations. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome (SS), osteoarthritis (knee, hip, hands, and cervical and lumbar spine), fibromyalgia, gout and clinical osteoporotic fracture. Population-based, multicenter, cross-sectional study, with the participation of 45 municipalities in the 17 Spanish autonomous communities. The reference population will consist of adults aged 20 years and over residing in Spain. A computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) system will be used for data collection. Diagnostic suspicions and diagnoses received by the participants will be studied by rheumatologists in the referral hospitals in the selected municipalities. the prevalence of the rheumatic diseases will be calculated using estimators and their 95% confidence intervals. Weights will be calculated in each of the sampling stages in accordance with the probability of selection. The distribution of the population in Spain will be obtained from the Spanish Statistics Institute. Sociodemographic and lifestyle changes over the last 16 years justify EPISER 2016. This study will provide current data about the prevalences of RA, AS, PsA, SLE, SS, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, gout and clinical osteoporotic fracture. The results will allow comparisons with studies from other countries and EPISER 2000. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  11. A Pilot Study on Vitamin-D Status and Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Indian Population

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    Arti S Muley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D status indicated by 25-hydroxyvitamin D, along with its classic role in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism, is thought to be inversely associated with adiposity, glucose homeostasis, lipid profiles, and blood pressure. Studies among the western population have also shown it to be inversely associated with metabolic syndrome (MS and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. However, evidence from the Asian population is limited. Therefore, the present study aimed to study the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD (<20 ng/mL and its association with metabolic risk factors among adults. About 129 adults in the age group 30-60 years, who gave consent for participation, were enrolled in the study through snowball effect. Anthropometric measurements were recorded using standard methods & tools. Serum 25(OHD was estimated by CLIA method, lipid profile and fasting-glucose using enzymatic kits. MS was defined using NCEP ATP-III, 2005 guidelines. The results revealed that, around 88% of the subjects had VDD, with the prevalence being significantly higher among females than males (95% vs 77%. 31% of the population had MS of which 87.5% were vitamin-D deficient. The vitamin-D status of the subjects was not significantly related with the risk of developing MS (OR=0.88, 95% CI= 0.28-2.78. None of the risk factors for MS correlated significantly with the vitamin-D levels of the subjects. Waist-circumference (Exp(B= 0.281, 95% CI= 0.089-0.887 entered the model for logistic regression with vitamin-D status as the dependent variable. Thus the results highlighted the high prevalence of VDD among the population and it was independently associated with greater abdominal obesity.

  12. Sports and energy drink consumption among a population-based sample of young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa N.; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    Objective National data for the U.S. show increases in sports and energy drink consumption over the past decade with the largest increases among young adults ages 20–34. This study aimed to identify sociodemographic factors and health risk behaviors associated with sports and energy drink consumption among young adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of survey data from the third wave of a cohort study (Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Regression models stratified on gender and adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were used to examine associations of sports and energy drink consumption with eating behaviors, physical activity, media use, weight-control behaviors, sleep patterns, and substance use. Setting Participants completed baseline surveys in 1998–1999 as students at public secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota and the EAT-III surveys online or by mail in 2008–2009. Subjects The sample consisted of 2,287 participants (55% female, mean age=25.3). Results Results showed 31.0% of young adults consumed sports drinks and 18.8% consumed energy drinks at least weekly. Among men and women, sports drink consumption was associated with higher sugar-sweetened soda and fruit juice intake, video game use, and use of muscle-enhancing substances like creatine (pEnergy drink consumption was associated with lower breakfast frequency and higher sugar-sweetened soda intake, video game use, use of unhealthy weight-control behaviors, trouble sleeping, and substance use among men and women (penergy drink consumption with other unhealthy behaviors in the design of programs and services for young adults. PMID:25683863

  13. The Partners in Health scale for older adults : design and examination of its psychometric properties in a Dutch population of older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Karin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Lahr, Maarten M H; Uittenbroek, Ronald J; Wynia, Klaske

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-management is an important asset in helping older adults remain independent and in control for as long as possible. There is no reliable and valid measurement instrument to evaluate self-management behaviour of older adults. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to design a measurement instrum

  14. Safety from Crime and Physical Activity among Older Adults: A Population-Based Study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruí Weber Corseuil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the association between safety from crime and physical activity among older adults. Methods. A population-based survey including 1,656 older adults (60+ years took place in Florianopolis, Brazil, in 2009-2010. Commuting and leisure time physical activity were assessed through the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Perception of safety from crime was assessed using the Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale. Results. Perceiving the neighbourhood as safe during the day was related to a 25% increased likelihood of being active in leisure time (95% CI 1.02–1.53; general perception of safety was also associated with a 25% increase in the likelihood of being active in leisure time (95% CI 1.01–1.54. Street lighting was related to higher levels of commuting physical activity (prevalence ratio: 1.89; 95% CI 1.28–2.80. Conclusions. Safety investments are essential for promoting physical activity among older adults in Brazil.

  15. [Medicine consumption in the adult population: Influence of self-medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera-Lasfuentes, Patricia; Aguilar-Palacio, Isabel; Clemente Roldán, Eduardo; Malo Fumanal, Sara; Rabanaque Hernandez, María José

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the factors associated with medicine consumption and self-consumption in Aragón (Spain) Cross-sectional study from the National Health Survey 2006. Aragón (Spain). Adult population in Aragón (Spain). Medicine consumption and the type of consumption. Demographic, health and health style variables were also considered. At least one drug was taken by the 65.1% of the adults in Aragón during the previous two weeks. Of this group, 11.7% were self-medicated. A higher frequency of consumption was observed in females and older people, and in those with a poor self-perceived health. People with a low educational level took drugs more often, but self-consumption was more frequent in the group with a high educational level. Medicine consumption and self-consumption in adults in Aragón is common. It is of great interest to know the consumption profile of these patients in order to develop specific interventions to reduce unnecessary consumption and to improve safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Incidence of genital warts among the Hong Kong general adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to estimate the incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong and explore a way to establish a surveillance system for genital warts among the Hong Kong general population. Methods A total of 170 private doctors and all doctors working in the 5 local Social Hygiene Clinics (SHC) participated in this study. During the 14-day data collection period (January 5 through18, 2009), the participating doctors filled out a log-form on a daily basis to record the number of patients with genital warts. The total number of new cases of genital warts presented to private and public doctors in Hong Kong was projected using the stratification sampling method. Results A total of 721 (0.94%) adults presented with genital warts to the participating doctors during the two-week study period, amongst them 73 (10.1%) were new cases. The projected number of new cases of genital warts among Hong Kong adults was 442 (297 male and 144 female) during the study period. The incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong was estimated to be 203.7 per 100,000 person-years (respectively 292.2 and 124.9 per 100,000 person-years for males and females). Conclusions The incidence of genital warts is high among adults in Hong Kong. The study demonstrates the importance of collecting surveillance data from both private and public sectors. PMID:20849578

  17. A Population Pharmacokinetic Approach to Describe Cephalexin Disposition in Adult and Aged Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Prados

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to characterize the pharmacokinetics of orally administered cephalexin to healthy adult and aged dogs, using a population pharmacokinetic approach. Two hundred and eighty-six cephalexin plasma concentrations obtained from previous pharmacokinetic studies were used. Sex, age, pharmaceutical formulation, and breed were evaluated as covariates. A one-compartment model with an absorption lag-time (Tlag best described the data. The final model included age (adult; aged on apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F, apparent elimination rate (ke/F, and Tlag; sex (female; male on ke/F, and breed (Beagle; mixed-breed on Vd/F. Addition of the covariates to the model explained 78% of the interindividal variability (IIV in Vd/F, 36% in ke/F, and 24% in Tlag, respectively. Formulation did not affect the variability of any of the pharmacokinetic parameters. Tlag was longer, whereas Vd/F and ke/F were lower in aged compared to adult animals; in female aged dogs ke/F was lower than in male aged dogs; however, the differences were of low magnitude. Different disposition of cephalexin may be expected in aged dogs.

  18. Knowledge about mammography and associated factors: population surveys with female adults and elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ione Jayce Ceola Schneider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the knowledge about mammography and to identify associated factors in female adults and elderly. Data were obtained from two population surveys, one with female adults and another with elderly women from Florianópolis (SC in 2009 - 2010. A descriptive analysis of the variables was carried out, the appropriate mean of responses about mammography was estimated and crude and adjusted Poisson regression was conducted to identify associated factors. Among adults, 23.1% answered all of the questions appropriately and the appropriate average responses was 7.2 (95%CI 7.1 - 7.3 in a total of 9. In the adjusted model, older age, higher education and income were associated with knowledge about mammography. For the elderly, 15.3% answered all questions appropriately and the average of appropriate responses was 6.4 (95%CI 5.2 - 6.5 and the factors associated with knowledge about mammography in the adjusted model were younger age groups, increased education and income, and identification of mammography as the main diagnostic method for breast cancer. Information about mammography can neither be transmitted in a clear way nor be easily understood; there are also demographic and socioeconomic differences concerning the knowledge about the exam.

  19. Strong field quantum control by selective population of dressed states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenhaupt, M; Praekelt, A; Sarpe-Tudoran, C; Liese, D; Baumert, T [University of Kassel, Institute of Physics, Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), Heinrich-Plett-Strasse 40, D-34132 Kassel (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    We study the dynamics of potassium atoms in intense laser fields using femtosecond phase-locked pulse pairs in order to extract physical mechanisms of strong field quantum control. The structure of the Autler-Townes (AT) doublet in the photoelectron spectra is measured to analyse transient processes. The analysis shows that the physical mechanism is based on the selective population of dressed states (SPODS). Experimental results of closed loop optimization of SPODS are presented in addition. Applications to decoherence measurements with implications for quantum information are also proposed.

  20. Controllable coherent population transfers in superconducting qubits for quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, L F; Johansson, J R; Cen, L X; Ashhab, S; Nori, Franco

    2008-03-21

    We propose an approach to coherently transfer populations between selected quantum states in one- and two-qubit systems by using controllable Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passages. These evolution-time insensitive transfers, assisted by easily implementable single-qubit phase-shift operations, could serve as elementary logic gates for quantum computing. Specifically, this proposal could be conveniently demonstrated with existing Josephson phase qubits. Our proposal can find an immediate application in the readout of these qubits. Indeed, the broken parity symmetries of the bound states in these artificial atoms provide an efficient approach to design the required adiabatic pulses.

  1. Determining the Level of the Dural Sac Tip: Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an Adult Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binokay, F.; Akgul, E.; Bicakci, K.; Soyupak, S.; Aksungur, E.; Sertdemir, Y. [Cukurova Univ., Balcali Hospital, Adana (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology and Dept. of Biostatistics

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the variation in the location of the dural sac (DS) in a living adult population and to correlate this position with age and sex. Material and Methods: T2-weighted, midline, sagittal, spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of 743 patients were assessed to identify the tip of the DS. This location was recorded in relation to the upper, middle, or lower third of the adjacent vertebral body or the adjacent intervertebral disk. Results: Frequency distribution for levels of termination of the DS on MRI demonstrated that the end of the DS was usually located at the upper one-third of S2 (25.2%). The mean level in females was also the upper one-third of S2 (26.5%) and in males the lower one-third of S2 (24.1%). The overall mean DS position was mostly at the upper one-third of S2. No significant differences in DS position were seen between male and female patients or with increasing age. Conclusion: It is important to know the possible range for the termination level of the DS when performing caudal anesthesia and craniospinal irradiation in some clinical situations. The distribution of DS location in a large adult population was shown to range from the L5-S1 intervertebral disk to the upper third of S3 vertebrae.

  2. Age and gender effects on the prevalence of poor sleep quality in the adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid-Valero, Juan J; Martínez-Selva, José M; Ribeiro do Couto, Bruno; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Ordoñana, Juan R

    Sleep quality has a significant impact on health and quality of life and is affected, among other factors, by age and sex. However, the prevalence of problems in this area in the general population is not well known. Therefore, our objective was to study the prevalence and main characteristics of sleep quality in an adult population sample. 2,144 subjects aged between 43 and 71 years belonging to the Murcia (Spain) Twin Registry. Sleep quality was measured by self-report through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Logistic regression models were used to analyse the results. The prevalence of poor sleep quality stands at 38.2%. Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that women were almost twice as likely as men (OR: 1.88; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.54 to 2.28) to have poor quality of sleep. Age was directly and significantly associated with a low quality of sleep (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.03 to 1.06). The prevalence of poor sleep quality is high among adults, especially women. There is a direct relationship between age and deterioration in the quality of sleep. This relationship also appears to be more consistent in women. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Natural Bioactive Food Components for Improving Enteral Tube Feeding Tolerance in Adult Patient Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchnia, Adam J; Conlon, Beth; Greenberg, Norman

    2017-08-01

    Tube feeding (TF) is the most common form of nutrition support. In recent years, TF administration has increased among patient populations within and outside hospital settings, in part due to greater insurance coverage, reduced use of parenteral nutrition, and improved formularies suitable for sole source nutrition. With increasing life expectancy and improved access to TFs, the number of adults dependent on enteral nutrition is expected to grow. However, enteral TF intolerance (ETFI) is the most common complication of TFs, typically presenting with at least 1 adverse gastrointestinal event, including nausea, diarrhea, and constipation. ETFI often leads to reductions in TF volume with associated energy and protein deficits. Potentially ensuing malnutrition is a major public health concern due its effects on increased risk of morbidity and mortality, infections, prolonged hospital length of stay, and higher healthcare costs. As such, there is a need for intervention strategies to prevent and reduce ETFI. Incorporating whole foods with bioactive properties is a promising strategy. Emerging research has elucidated bioactive properties of whole foods with specific benefits for the prevention and management of adverse gastrointestinal events commonly associated with TFs. However, lack of evidence-based recommendations and technological challenges have limited the use of such foods in commercial TF formulas. This review addresses research gaps by discussing 5 whole foods (rhubarb, banana, curcumin, peppermint oil, and ginger) with bioactive attributes identified through literature searches and clinical experience as having substantial scientific rationale to consider their application for ETFI in adult populations.

  4. Ethnic identity, racial discrimination and attenuated psychotic symptoms in an urban population of emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Deidre M; Lui, Florence; Espinosa, Adriana; Tikhonov, Aleksandr; Ellman, Lauren

    2016-01-28

    Studies suggest strong ethnic identity generally protects against negative mental health outcomes associated with racial discrimination. In light of evidence suggesting racial discrimination may enhance psychosis risk in racial and ethnic minority (REM) populations, the present study explored the relationship between ethnic identity and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS) and whether ethnic identity moderates the association between racial discrimination and these symptoms. A sample of 644 non-help-seeking REM emerging adults was administered self-report inventories for psychosis risk, experiences of discrimination and ethnic identity. Latent class analysis was applied to determine the nature and number of ethnic identity types in this population. The direct association between ethnic identity and APPS and the interaction between ethnic identity and racial discrimination on APPS were determined in linear regression analyses. Results indicated three ethnic identity classes (very low, moderate to high and very high). Ethnic identity was not directly related to APPS; however, it was related to APPS under racially discriminating conditions. Specifically, participants who experienced discrimination in the moderate to high or very high ethnic identity classes reported fewer symptoms than participants who experienced discrimination in the very low ethnic identity class. Strong ethnic group affiliation and connection may serve a protective function for psychosis risk in racially discriminating environments and contexts among REM young adults. The possible social benefits of strong ethnic identification among REM youth who face racial discrimination should be explored further in clinical high-risk studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Chi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis.

  6. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Michael W; Griffith, Leslie C; Vecsey, Christopher G

    2014-08-11

    Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis.

  7. Hypertension and hemodialysis: pathophysiology and outcomes in adult and pediatric populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buren, Peter N; Inrig, Jula K

    2012-03-01

    Hypertension is prevalent in adult and pediatric end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis. Volume overload is a primary factor contributing to hypertension, and attaining true dry weight remains a priority for nephrologists. Other contributing factors to hypertension include activation of the sympathetic and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems, endothelial cell dysfunction, arterial stiffness, exposure to hypertensinogenic drugs, and electrolyte imbalances during hemodialysis. Epidemiologic studies in adults show that uncontrolled hypertension results in cardiovascular morbidity, but reveal increased mortality risk at low blood pressure, so that it remains unclear what the target blood pressure should be. Despite the lack of a definitive BP target, gradual dry weight reduction should be the first intervention for BP control. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors have been shown to improve cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and are recommended as the initial pharmacologic therapy for hypertensive hemodialysis patients. Short-daily or nocturnal hemodialysis are also good therapeutic options for these patients. It is already established that hypertension in pediatric hemodialysis patients is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, and there is emerging evidence that the mechanisms causing hypertension are similar to adults. Hypertension in adult and pediatric hemodialysis patients warrants aggressive management, although clinical trial evidence of a target BP that improves mortality does not currently exist.

  8. Brain lateralization and self-reported symptoms of ADHD in a population sample of adults: A dimensional approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh M. H. Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many clinical studies reported a compromised brain lateralization in patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD without being conclusive about whether the deficit existed in the left or right hemisphere. It is well-recognized that studying ADHD dimensionally is more controlled for comorbid problems and medication effects, and provides more accurate assessment of the symptoms. Therefore, the present study applied the dimensional approach to test the relationship between brain lateralization and self-reported ADHD symptoms in a population sample. Eighty-five right-handed university students filled in the Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scales and performed a lateralization reaction time task. The task consists of two matching conditions: one condition requires nominal identification for letters tapping left hemisphere specialization (Letter Name-Identity condition and the other one requires physical and visuospatial identification for shapes tapping right hemisphere specialization (Shape Physical-Identity condition. The letters or shapes to be matched are presented in left or right visual field of a fixation cross. For both task conditions, brain lateralization was indexed as the difference in mean reaction time between left and right visual field. Linear regression analyses, controlled for mood symptoms reported by a depression, anxiety and stress scale, showed no relationship between the variables. These findings from a population sample of adults do not support the dimensionality of lateralized information processing deficit in ADHD symptomatology. However, group comparison analyses showed that subjects with high level of inattention symptoms close to or above the clinical cut-off had a reduced right hemisphere processing in the Shape Physical-Identity condition.

  9. Phase-controlled coherent population trapping in superconducting quantum circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程广玲; 王一平; 陈爱喜

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the influences of the-applied-field phases and amplitudes on the coherent population trapping behavior in superconducting quantum circuits. Based on the interactions of the microwave fields with a single∆-type three-level fluxonium qubit, the coherent population trapping could be obtainable and it is very sensitive to the relative phase and amplitudes of the applied fields. When the relative phase is tuned to 0 orπ, the maximal atomic coherence is present and coherent population trapping occurs. While for the choice ofπ/2, the atomic coherence becomes weak. Meanwhile, for the fixed relative phaseπ/2, the value of coherence would decrease with the increase of Rabi frequency of the external field coupled with two lower levels. The responsible physical mechanism is quantum interference induced by the control fields, which is indicated in the dressed-state representation. The microwave coherent phenomenon is present in our scheme, which will have potential applications in optical communication and nonlinear optics in solid-state devices.

  10. Antibody reactivity against Helicobacter pylori proteins in a sample of the Spanish adult population in 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Larrea, Nerea; Michel, Angelika; Romero, Beatriz; Butt, Julia; Pawlita, Michael; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Moreno, Victor; Martín, Vicente; Amiano, Pilar; Castilla, Jesús; Fernández-Tardón, Guillermo; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Clofent, Juan; Alguacil, Juan; Huerta, José María; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molinuevo, Amaia; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Casabonne, Delphine; Sierra, Ángeles; Kogevinas, Manolis; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Pollán, Marina; Del Campo, Rosa; Waterboer, Tim; Aragonés, Nuria

    2017-10-01

    Differences in Helicobacter pylori protein expression have been related to the risk of severe gastric diseases. In Spain, a marked geographic pattern in gastric cancer mortality has long been reported. To characterize antibody reactivity patterns against 16 H. pylori proteins, by age, sex, and region of birth, in a large sample of the Spanish adult population. Antibody reactivity was quantified by H. pylori multiplex serology in a sample from the control group of the multicase-control study MCC-Spain. For this analysis, 2555 population-based controls were included. Each participant was classified as seropositive or seronegative for each protein according to specific cutoffs. Overall H. pylori seroprevalence was defined as positivity against ≥4 proteins. Descriptive analyses by age, sex, and region of birth were performed for both seroprevalence and seroreactivity (continuous measure). Differences among groups were tested by logistic and linear regression models. Overall H. pylori seroprevalence increased with age in both sexes. For ages 55-74, seroprevalence was lower in women than in men (84% vs 92%, Ppylori seropositive subjects, proteins with the highest seroprevalence were GroEL, NapA, HP231, and Omp. Seropositivity for most of the proteins increased or remained stable with age, rising mainly for CagA, GroEL, and HyuA in women. A clear cohort effect was not observed. This is the first study to describe the antibody patterns against 16 H. pylori proteins in the Spanish population. We found variability in the H. pylori antibody profiles according to both individual factors such as age and sex, and environmental factors such as the region of birth. The slightness of the reduction in seropositivity with decreasing age highlights the ongoing importance of this infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Assessment of the risk factors for hearing loss in adult Nigerian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Ayodele Sogebi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A reduction in hearing sensitivity is common in adults and was previously considered to be normal as age increases. However, other health variables may play a role in the sensory changes. This prospective, comparative, hospital-based study assessed the risk factors (RFs associated with sensorineural hearing losses (SNHL in adult patients in a specialized tertiary hospital clinic in South-western Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Patients with clinical diagnosis of hearing impairment (bilateral SNHL were the test subjects and age and sex-matched comparable group without SNHL were the Controls. Using a structured questionnaire, variables assessed included current and past medical history, family and social history, use of medications including ototoxic drugs, and prolonged medications. Results: One hundred and twenty-seven patients participated in the study comprising of 76 test subjects with SNHL (including 14 with suspected ARHL and 51 controls. 59.8% of the participants were males. Univariate analysis revealed statistically-significant differences in family history, alcohol consumption, smoking, exposure to noise, previous ear discharge, previous head injury, hypertension, diabetes, osteoarthritis, ototoxic drugs usage, prolonged medication and obesity between the two categories of subjects. Logistic regression analysis revealed family history, smoking, noise exposure, head injury, hypertension had significantly increased odds of developing SNHL. Conclusion: It was concluded that the RFs for SNHL in adult Nigerians were multifactorial while some of the RFs may be amenable to primary prevention. Legislation and public health education could facilitate reduction of SNHL in our community.

  12. Factors influencing serum concentrations of IgD in the adult population: an observational study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Iago; Rabuñal, Noelia; Alvela, Lucía; Pérez, Luis-Fernando; Vidal, Carmen; Alonso, Manuela; Sopeña, Bernardo; Gude, Francisco; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo

    2017-01-27

    Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is the least studied of immunoglobulin classes. This study sought to investigate the potential relationship between demographic, metabolic, lifestyle and immunologic factors, and serum IgD concentrations in a general adult population. We measured serum IgD concentrations by means of a commercial turbidimetric assay in 413 individuals (median age, 55 years; 45% males), randomly selected from the adult population of a Spanish municipality. Serum IgD concentrations displayed considerable variation in the population, ranging from undetectable (immune disease after a median 11.4 years of follow-up. In conclusion, serum IgD concentrations in adults show a wide variation in the population and may be influenced by common factors, particularly age and smoking habit. These factors should be taken into account when defining reference ranges for serum IgD concentrations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in an Adult Urban Population of the West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sharifi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in an urban population of Zanjan, a province located to the west of Tehran. Methods. Randomly selected adults >20 years were studied using stratified sampling. Target study sample was 2941 (1396 males and 1545 females. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using Adult Treatment Panel-III (ATP-III guidelines when any three of the following were present: central obesity, raised triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, blood pressure ≥130/≥85 mm Hg, and diabetes or fasting plasma glucose (FPG ≥100 mg/dl. Results. Metabolic syndrome was present in 697 (23.7% subjects (CI 95%:22%–25%, P = .001, prevalence was 23.1% in men and 24.4% in women (P : .4. The prevalence increased from 7.5% in the population younger than 30 y to 45.6% in ages more than 50 years. Low HDL was the most common metabolic abnormality in both sexes. Most of those with metabolic syndrome had three components of the syndrome (75.6%, 170 subjects (24.4% had four and none had five components simultaneously. The prevalence of obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2, hypercholesterolemia (≥200 mg/dl and high LDL cholesterol (≥130 mg/dl was greater in the metabolic syndrome group than normal subjects (P = .00. Conclusions. There is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this urban population of the northern west of Iran. Focus of cardiovascular prevention should be undertaken in this area.

  14. Television viewing time in Hong Kong adult population: associations with body mass index and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Jie Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing dramatically in the Asia-Pacific region particularly China. The population of Hong Kong was exposed to modernization far earlier than the rest of China, reflecting conditions that are likely to be replicated as other Chinese cities undergo rapid change. This study examined the relationship between television viewing and obesity in a Hong Kong sample. Information about the relationship between a key sedentary behavior, TV viewing, and obesity, and its moderation by demographic characteristics may identify sectors of the population at highest risk for excess weight. METHODS: Data were from Hong Kong Family and Health Information Trends Survey (2009-2010, a population-based survey on the public's use of media for health information and family communication by telephone interviews with 3,016 Hong Kong adults (age ≥ 18 years. TV viewing time, body mass index (BMI, physical activity and other lifestyle variables were analyzed. RESULTS: Viewing time was longer in women, increased with age but decreased with education level and vigorous physical activity (all P<0.01. Longer TV viewing time was significantly associated with higher BMI (Coefficients B = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.24 after adjusting for age, gender, employment status, marital status, education level, smoking activity and vigorous physical activity. This association was stronger in women than men (Coefficients B: 0.19 versus 0.15 and strongest in those aged 18 to 34 years (Coefficients B = 0.35. Furthermore, an hour increase in daily TV viewing was associated with 10% greater odds of being obese. CONCLUSIONS: A significant socioeconomic gradient in television viewing time was observed. TV viewing time positively associated with BMI and obesity. The TV viewing--BMI associations were strongest in women and young adults, suggesting vulnerable groups to target for obesity prevention by decreasing TV viewing.

  15. [Physical activity in adult working population: results from the European National Health Survey for Spain (2009)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado-Pérez, Carmen; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Cesar; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2015-11-01

    1) To describe physical activity in the Spanish adult working population aged 16-70 years in 2009, and 2) to describe the prevalence of physical activity according to socio-demographic features, self-perceived health status, co-morbidity, and lifestyle habits. An epidemiological population based descriptive study was conducted using individual data taken from the European Health Survey for Spain. Community. The number of subjects aged 16-70 years included in the study was 10,928 (5,628 women and 5,300 men). None. Physical activity and intensity were assessed from questions included in the interview-survey. An analysis was performed on the socio-demographic characteristics and self-rated physical and mental health, using multivariate logistic regression models. Not having a partner (OR 1.44; P<.001), have university studies (OR 1.62; P<.001), non-smoker (OR 1.50; P<.001), and taking medications (OR 1.22; P<.5) were a predictor of intense physical activity in men. The first 3 factors are equal for intense activity in women. In contrast, obesity (OR 0.58; P<.001), and 36-50 years (OR 0.68; P<.001) were factors related to low activity in men. Aged between 36-50 years (OR 1.26; P<.01), suffering≥2 co-morbid conditions (OR 1.30; P<.001), and non-smoker (OR 1.17; P<.5) were also associated with higher probability of reporting moderate physical activity in women. The positive mental health was significant for physical activity in both sexes (OR 1.01; P<.5). This study identified several factors that appear to influence physical activity in the Spanish adult working population, with potential implications for healthcare providers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary patterns are associated with calcium and vitamin D intake in an adult Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition research has traditionally promoted a nutrient-based approach; however, to evaluate population compliance with dietary recommendations, researchers have increasingly used dietary pattern analysis. Objective: To assess the relationship between dietary patterns and vitamin D and calcium intake in an adult Mexican population. Methods: We characterized the dietary patterns of 8,456 men and women aged 20-80 years who were participating in the Health Workers Cohort Study. Information on participants' sociodemographic conditions and physical activity was collected via self-administered questionnaires. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess diet. In a cross-sectional analysis, we examined dietary patterns in relation to vitamin D and calcium consumption. Results: Factor analysis revealed 3 major dietary patterns. Pattern 1, labeled as "prudent pattern", was characterized by high positive loads for the consumption of fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, whole grains, oils, and legumes. The second dietary pattern, named as "dairy and fish pattern", was positively correlated with intake of dairy foods, fish and other seafood, milk and whole grains. Finally, dietary pattern 3 was associated with higher intake of red meat, soft drinks, fats, eggs, white meat and alcoholic beverages. Of these, the "dairy and fish pattern" was positively and significantly associated with vitamin D and calcium consumption (r = 0.42, p < 0.001; and r = 0.20, p < 0.001 respectively. Conversely, the third dietary pattern was negatively associated with vitamin D and calcium intake (r = -0.28, p < 0.001; and r = -0.41, p < 0.001, respectively. Conclusions: In summary, our findings show that dietary patterns represented by high consumption of milk, dairy products, whole grains, fish are associated with higher consumption of vitamin D and calcium in Mexican adult population. Additionally, our results highlight the importance of following an appropriate

  17. Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Tribendimidine Metabolites in Opisthorchis viverrini-Infected Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Melissa A.; Duthaler, Urs; Odermatt, Peter; Sayasone, Somphou; Keiser, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    There is a pressing need for alternative treatments against the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini. Oral tribendimidine is a promising candidate, but its population pharmacokinetic properties are unknown. Two phase IIa trials were conducted in Laos in O. viverrini-infected adults receiving single oral doses of 25 to 600 mg tribendimidine administered as different formulations in each study (study 1 used 200-mg tablets, and study 2 used 50-mg tablets). Venous whole blood, plasma, and capillary dried blood spots were sampled frequently from 68 adults, and concentrations of the tribendimidine metabolites dADT (deacetylated amidantel) and adADT (acetylated dADT) were measured. Population pharmacokinetics were assessed by using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. The relationship between drug exposure and cure (assessed at 21 days posttreatment) was evaluated by using univariable logistic regression. A six-transit compartment absorption model with a one-disposition compartment for each metabolite described the data well. Compared to the 50-mg formulation (study 2), the 200-mg formulation (study 1) had a 40.1% higher mean transit absorption time, a 113% higher dADT volume of distribution, and a 364% higher adADT volume of distribution. Each 10-year increase in age was associated with a 12.7% lower dADT clearance and a 21.2% lower adADT clearance. The highest cure rates (≥55%) were observed with doses of ≥100 mg. Higher dADT, but not adADT, peak concentrations and exposures were associated with cure (P = 0.004 and 0.003, respectively). For the first time, population pharmacokinetics of tribendimidine have been described. Known differences in the 200-mg versus 50-mg formulations were captured by covariate modeling. Further studies are needed to validate the structural model and confirm covariate relationships. (This study has been registered with the ISRCTN Registry under no. ISRCTN96948551.) PMID:27431233

  18. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels in adult population of Bangladesh: Results from STEPS 2006 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, M Mostafa; Choudhury, Sohel Reza; Ahmed, Jasimuddin; Talukder, Md Habibullah; Rahman, A H M Shafiqur

    2016-01-01

    A nationally representative survey was carried out to determine the distribution of blood glucose and cholesterol in adult population of Bangladesh in the absence of existing data. The study adopted a multistage and geographically clustered sampling technique of households. A total of 2610 individuals (1444 men and 1166 women) aged 25-64 years were selected from rural and urban areas. Capillary blood glucose and total cholesterol levels were measured using an overnight fasting state. The mean age of the participants was 41 years [standard deviation (SD), 11 years]. Half of them (49%) were from urban areas. Half of them (51%) had primary or higher education. Mean glucose was 74mg/dL (SD 23mg/dL). Men had higher mean glucose levels (79mg/dL) than women (67mg/dL). Age-standardized prevalence of diabetes (blood glucose level ≥126mg/dL and/or use of anti-diabetic medication) was 5.5%. In men, it was almost two-and-half times (7.6%) compared with women (2.8%). It was also double in urban areas (7.8%) compared with rural areas (3.4%). Mean cholesterol level among all participants was 167mg/dL (SD 26mg/dL). Men and women had almost similar levels (169mg/dL versus 166mg/dL, respectively). Prevalence of high cholesterol level (≥240mg/dL) was very low (1.3%) in both men (2.2%) and women (0.5%). However, the prevalence of borderline high cholesterol was substantial (5.8%) in this sample. The prevalence of high hypercholesterolemia is low, whereas there is a high prevalence of borderline high cholesterol and diabetes in the adult population of Bangladesh. This warrants population-based interventions to tackle this problem. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Internet-based treatment for adults with depressive symptoms: the protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuijpers Pim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a highly prevalent condition, affecting more than 15% of the adult population at least once in their lives. Guided self-help is effective in the treatment of depression. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of two Internet-based guided self-help treatments with adults reporting elevated depressive symptoms. Other research questions concern the identification of potential mediators and the search for subgroups who respond differently to the interventions. Methods This study is a randomized controlled trial with three conditions: two treatment conditions and one waiting list control group. The two treatment conditions are Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy and Internet-based problem-solving therapy. They consist of 8 and 5 weekly lessons respectively. Both interventions are combined with support by e-mail. Participants in the waiting list control group receive the intervention three months later. The study population consists of adults from the general population. They are recruited through advertisements in local and national newspapers and through banners on the Internet. Subjects with symptoms of depression (≥ 16 on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale are included. Other inclusion criteria are having sufficient knowledge of the Dutch language, access to the Internet and an e-mail address. Primary outcome is depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes are anxiety, quality of life, dysfunctional cognitions, worrying, problem solving skills, mastery, absence at work and use of healthcare. We will examine the following variables as potential mediators: dysfunctional cognitions, problem solving skills, worrying, anxiety and mastery. Potential moderating variables are: socio-demographic characteristics and symptom severity. Data are collected at baseline and at 5 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks and 9 months after baseline. Analyses will be conducted on the intention

  20. Waterpipe smoking associated with multiple sclerosis: A population-based incident case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahpour, Ibrahim; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Otahal, Petr; van der Mei, Ingrid

    2017-09-01

    While cigarette and passive smoking have been identified as modifiable risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS), there is no report regarding Waterpipe smoking-MS association. We examined the association of Waterpipe, tobacco, and passive smoking with MS. Population-based incident case-control study in Iran with 547 incident cases and 1057 general population controls (7 August 2013-17 February 2015). Logistic regression model was used. Multiplicative along with additive interaction was assessed using product term and Synergy Index (SI), respectively, and the population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated. Having ever smoked Waterpipe, tobacco, or being exposed to passive smoking were all significantly associated with MS (odds ratio (OR) = 1.77 (1.36-2.31), OR = 1.69 (1.24-2.31), and OR = 1.85 (1.48-2.32), respectively). Clear dose-response associations were observed with the duration exposed ( p Waterpipe and tobacco). Those who had all three types of smoking had an odds that was 4.1 times higher than those without any type. The three types of smoking jointly contributed to 30.9% of the MS incidence. We identified Waterpipe smoking as a novel risk factor for MS. Given the global increase in Waterpipe smoking, especially among young adults, this finding reinforces the need for public health interventional and educational programs to combat this global increase.

  1. Vitamin D levels in asymptomatic adults--a population survey in Karachi, Pakistan.

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    Adil Sheikh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well established that low levels of 25(OH Vitamin D (<30 ng/dL are a common finding world over, affecting over a billion of the global population. Our primary objective was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in the asymptomatic adult population of Karachi, Pakistan and the demographic, nutritional and co-morbidity characteristics associated with serum vitamin D levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional population survey was conducted at two spaced out densely populated areas of the city. Serum levels of 25OH vitamin D were measured and GFR as renal function was assessed by using 4 variable MDRD formula. RESULTS: Our sample of 300 had a median age of 48(interquartile range 38-55 years. The median level of serum vitamin D was 18.8 (IQ range 12.65-24.62 ng/dL. A total of 253 (84.3% respondents had low levels (<30 ng/dL of 25OH vitamin D. Serum PTH and vitamin D were negatively correlated (r = -0.176, p = 0.001. The median PTH in the vitamin D sufficiency group was 38.4 (IQ range28.0-48.8pg/mL compared with 44.4 (IQ range 34.3-56.8 pg/mL in the deficiency group (p = 0.011.The median serum calcium level in the sample was 9.46(IQ range 9.18-9.68 ng/dL. Low serum levels of vitamin D were not associated with hypertension (p = 0.771 or with an elevated spot blood pressure (p = 0.164.In our sample 75(26% respondents had an eGFR corresponding to stage 2 and stage 3 CKD. There was no significant correlation between levels of vitamin D and eGFR (r = -0.127, p-value = 0.277. Respondents using daily vitamin D supplements had higher 25 OH vitamin D levels (p-value = 0.021. CONCLUSION: We observed a high proportion of the asymptomatic adult population having low levels of vitamin D and subclinical deterioration of eGFR. The specific cause(s for this observed high prevalence of low 25OH vitamin D levels are not clear and need to be investigated further upon.

  2. Contraceptive vaccines for the humane control of community cat populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Julie K

    2011-07-01

    Free-roaming unowned stray and feral cats exist throughout the world, creating concerns regarding their welfare as well as their impact on the environment and on public health. Millions of healthy cats are culled each year in an attempt to control their numbers. Surgical sterilization followed by return to the environment is an effective non-lethal population control method but is limited in scope because of expense and logistical impediments. Immunocontraception has the potential to be a more practical and cost-effective method of control. This is a review of current research in immunocontraception in domestic cats. Functional characteristics of an ideal immunocontraceptive for community cats would include a wide margin of safety for target animals and the environment, rapid onset and long duration of activity following a single treatment in males and females of all ages, and sex hormone inhibition. In addition, product characteristics should include stability and ease of use under field conditions, efficient manufacturing process, and low cost to the user. Two reproductive antigens, zona pellucida and GnRH, have been identified as possible targets for fertility control in cats. Zona pellucida, which is used successfully in multiple wildlife species, has achieved little success in cats. In contrast, immunization against GnRH has resulted in long-term contraception in both male and female cats following a single dose. GnRH is an ideal contraceptive target because it regulates pituitary and gonadal hormone responses in both males and females, thus suppressing nuisance behaviors associated with sex hormones in addition to preventing pregnancy. The responsiveness of cats to fertility control via GnRH suppression should encourage researchers and cat control stakeholders to continue efforts to optimize vaccines that induce multiyear contraception following a single dose in a high proportion of treated cats.

  3. Daily Self-Weighing to Control Body Weight in Adults

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    Carly R. Pacanowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to review the history of daily self-weighing for weight control, discuss the possibility that self-weighing may cause adverse psychological symptoms, and propose mechanisms that explain how self-weighing facilitates weight control. A systematic forward (citation tracking approach has been employed in this study. In the early literature, experimental tests did not demonstrate a benefit of adding daily self-weighing to traditional behavioral modification for weight loss. More recent studies have shown that daily self-weighing combined with personalized electronic feedback can produce and sustain weight loss with and without a traditional weight loss program. Daily self-weighing appears to be effective in preventing age-related weight gain. Apart from these experimental findings, there is considerable agreement that the frequency of self-weighing correlates with success in losing weight and sustaining the weight loss. The early literature suggested frequent self-weighing may be associated with negative psychological effects. However, more recent experimental trials do not substantiate such a causal relationship. In conclusion, daily self-weighing may be a useful strategy for certain adults to prevent weight gain, lose weight, or prevent weight regain after loss. More research is needed to better understand the role of different types of feedback, who benefits most from self-weighing, and at what frequency.

  4. Is moderate substance use associated with altered executive functioning in a population-based sample of young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechatzek, Michaela; Indlekofer, Friedrich; Daamen, Marcel; Glasmacher, Christoph; Lieb, Roselind; Pfister, Hildegard; Tucha, Oliver; Lange, Klaus W; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Schütz, Christian G

    2009-12-01

    Substance use (SU) has been linked with impaired cognitive functioning. Evidence comes mainly from clinical studies or studies examining heavy users. Though, the majority of users are not involved in heavy use. This study investigates the association between moderate use and cognition in a population-based sample. A total of 284 young adults with ecstasy, cannabis or alcohol use and a control group were sampled from the EDSP database for participation in the Munich Assessment of Young Adults (MAYA) study. Subjects completed a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests (executive functions, working memory and impulsivity). Multiple linear regression models were conducted to examine the relationship between use and cognitive performance. Increased ecstasy consumption was associated with increased error-proneness (Stroop task, CANTAB ID/ED-shift, spatial working memory). More frequent cannabis use and more extensive alcohol consumption were associated with a higher degree of impulsiveness. Based on mild to moderate SU, little indication of differences in executive functioning was found. For ecstasy use, an increased error-proneness was revealed. The subtle differences in relatively young individuals warrant further investigation in prospective long-term studies to identify subjects at risk, and to examine effects of prolonged patterns of use on executive functioning. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Risk of Stroke and Myocardial Infarction After Herpes Zoster in Older Adults in a US Community Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawn, Barbara P; Wollan, Peter C; Nagel, Maria A; Gilden, Don

    2016-01-01

    To assess the risk of stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) after herpes zoster in a US community population of older adults. We performed a community cohort study (January 1, 1986, to October 1, 2011) comparing the risk of stroke and MI in 4862 adult residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, 50 years and older with and without herpes zoster and 19,433 sex- and age-matched individuals with no history of herpes zoster. Odds ratios are presented for MI and stroke at 3, 6, 12, and 36 months after index herpes zoster plus hazard ratios for long-term risk (up to 28.6 years). Individuals with herpes zoster had more risk or confounding factors for MI and stroke, suggesting that they had worse health status overall. When controlling for the multiple risk factors, those with herpes zoster were at increased risk for stroke at 3 months after herpes zoster compared with those without a history of herpes zoster (odds ratio, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.10-2.33; P=.04). The association between herpes zoster and MI at 3 months was not robust across analytic methods. Herpes zoster was not associated with an increased risk of stroke or MI at any point beyond 3 months. Herpes zoster was associated with only a short-term increased risk of stroke, which may be preventable with the prevention of herpes zoster. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ocular biometry in the adult population in rural central China: a population-based, cross-sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting; Fu; Yin-Wei; Song; Zhi-Qi; Chen; Jun-Wen; He; Kun; Qiao; Xu-Fang; Sun; Hong; Zhang; Jun-Ming; Wang

    2015-01-01

    ·AIM: To describe the distribution and determinants of ocular biometric parameters and to ascertain the relative importance of these determinants in a large population of adults in rural central China.·METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional study performed in rural central China included 1721 participants aged 40 or more years. Ocular biometrical parameters including axial length(AL), anterior chamber depth(ACD), radius of corneal curvature(K) and horizontal corneal diameter [white-to-white(WTW)distance] were measured using non-contact partial coherence interferometry [intraocular lens(IOL)-Master].·RESULTS: Ocular biometric data on 1721 participants with a average age of 57.0 ±8.7y were analyzed at last.The general mean AL, ACD, mean corneal curvature radius(MCR), WTW were 22.80±1.12, 2.96±0.36, 7.56±0.26 and 11.75 ±0.40 mm, respectively. The mean values of each parameter in 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and 70 to91 years age groups were as follows: AL, 22.77 ±0.87,22.76 ±1.06, 22.89 ±1.41, 22.92 ±0.80 mm; ACD, 3.10 ±0.32,2.98 ±0.34, 2.86 ±0.36, 2.77 ±0.35 mm; MCR, 7.58 ±0.25,7.54 ±0.26, 7.55 ±0.26, 7.49 ±0.28 mm; WTW, 11.79 ±0.38,11.75 ±0.40, 11.72 ±0.41, 11.67 ±0.41 mm. The AL, ACD,MCR and WTW were correlated with age and the AL was correlated with height and weight.·CONCLUSION: Our findings can serve as an important normative reference for multiple purposes and may help to improve the quality of rural eye care.

  7. Z-type control of populations for Lotka-Volterra model with exponential convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunong; Yan, Xiaogang; Liao, Bolin; Zhang, Yinyan; Ding, Yaqiong

    2016-02-01

    The population control of the Lotka-Volterra model is one of the most important and widely investigated issues in mathematical ecology. In this study, assuming that birth rate is controllable and using the Z-type dynamic method, we develop Z-type control laws to drive the prey population and/or predator population to a desired state to keep species away from extinction and to improve ecosystem stability. A direct controller group is initially designed to control the prey and predator populations simultaneously. Two indirect controllers are then proposed for prey population control and predator population control by exerting exogenous measure on another species. All three control laws possess exponential convergence performances. Finally, the corresponding numerical simulations are performed. Results substantiate the theoretical analysis and effectiveness of such Z-type control laws for the population control of the Lotka-Volterra model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. B-vitamin consumption and the prevalence of diabetes and obesity among the US adults: population based ecological study

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    Sun Wu-Ping

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global increased prevalence of obesity and diabetes occurred after the worldwide spread of B-vitamins fortification, in which whether long-term exposure to high level of B vitamins plays a role is unknown. Our aim was to examine the relationships between B-vitamins consumption and the obesity and diabetes prevalence. Methods This population based ecological study was conducted to examine possible associations between the consumption of the B vitamins and macronutrients and the obesity and diabetes prevalence in the US population using the per capita consumption data from the US Economic Research Service and the prevalence data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results The prevalences of diabetes and adult obesity were highly correlated with per capita consumption of niacin, thiamin and riboflavin with a 26-and 10-year lag, respectively (R2 = 0.952, 0.917 and 0.83 for diabetes, respectively, and R2 = 0.964, 0.975 and 0.935 for obesity, respectively. The diabetes prevalence increased with the obesity prevalence with a 16-year lag (R2 = 0.975. The relationships between the diabetes or obesity prevalence and per capita niacin consumption were similar both in different age groups and in male and female populations. The prevalence of adult obesity and diabetes was highly correlated with the grain contribution to niacin (R2 = 0.925 and 0.901, respectively, with a 10-and 26-year lag, respectively. The prevalence of obesity in US adults during 1971-2004 increased in parallel with the increase in carbohydrate consumption with a 10-year lag. The per capita energy and protein consumptions positively correlated with the obesity prevalence with a one-year lag. Moreover, there was an 11-year lag relationship between per capita energy and protein consumption and the consumption of niacin, thiamin and riboflavin (R2 = 0.932, 0.923 and 0.849 for energy, respectively, and R2 = 0.922, 0.878 and 0.787 for protein

  9. Frequency and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in an African diabetic population

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    Kibirige D

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Davis Kibirige,1 George Patrick Akabwai,2 Leaticia Kampiire,3 Daniel Ssekikubo Kiggundu,4 William Lumu5 1Department of Medicine/Diabetic and Hypertension Clinics, Our Lady of Consolota Hospital, Kisubi, 2Baylor College of Medicine, Children’s Foundation, 3Infectious Diseases Research Collaboration, Kampala, 4Nephrology Unit, Mulago National Referral and Teaching Hospital, Kampala, 5Department of Medicine and Diabetes/Endocrine Unit, Mengo Hospital, Mengo, Uganda Background: Persistent suboptimal glycemic control is invariably associated with onset and progression of acute and chronic diabetic complications in diabetic patients. In Uganda, studies documenting the magnitude and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in adult ambulatory diabetic patients are limited. This study aimed at determining the frequency and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in adult diabetic patients attending three urban outpatient diabetic clinics in Uganda. Methods: In this hospital-based cross-sectional study, eligible ambulatory adult diabetic patients attending outpatient diabetic clinics of three urban hospitals were consecutively enrolled over 11 months. Suboptimal glycemic control was defined as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c level ≥7%. Multivariable analysis was applied to determine the predictors. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 52.2±14.4 years, and the majority of them were females (283, 66.9%. The median (interquartile range HbA1c level was 9% (6.8%–12.4%. Suboptimal glycemic control was noted in 311 study participants, accounting for 73.52% of the participants. HbA1c levels of 7%–8%, 8.1%–9.9%, and ≥10% were noted in 56 (13.24%, 76 (17.97%, and 179 (42.32% study participants, respectively. The documented predictors of suboptimal glycemic control were metformin monotherapy (odds ratio: 0.36, 95% confidence interval: 0.21–0.63, p<0.005 and insulin therapy (odds ratio: 2.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.41–4.12, p=0

  10. Spillover effects of community uninsurance on awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among insured adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escarce, José J; Edgington, Sarah E; Roan Gresenz, Carole

    2014-07-01

    Although studies have shown that a high rate of uninsurance in a community reduces access to and satisfaction with health care among the insured population, little is known about whether the community uninsurance rate also affects quality of care and clinical outcomes among the insured. To assess the spillover effects of the rate of uninsurance in a community on the awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, a chronic condition responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States, among insured adults. NHANES III (1988-1994) and the 1999-2010 NHANES were linked to data from the Current Population Survey, Area Resource File, and InterStudy Competitive Edge. Multivariate probit regression models used 2 alternative estimation approaches: (1) maximum likelihood estimation, and (2) 2-stage residual inclusion estimation, an instrumental variables method. Six dichotomous outcomes included: awareness among all subjects with hypertension; treatment among all subjects with hypertension and among subjects who were aware of their condition; and control among all subjects with hypertension, among subjects who were aware of their condition, and among subjects receiving treatment. A 10 percentage point increase in the community uninsurance rate reduced the probability of receiving antihypertensive medications by 4.2 percentage points among insured hypertensive adults and by 5.5 percentage points among insured hypertensive adults who were aware of their hypertension. A 10 percentage point increase in the community uninsurance rate also resulted in a 6.8 percentage point decline in the probability of blood pressure control among insured hypertensive adults who were aware of their condition. Nationally, the Affordable Care Act is expected to reduce the number of uninsured by >30 million by 2016, although changes will be experienced by communities to a greater or lesser extent depending on the existing numbers and characteristics of the uninsured in the

  11. Genome-wide population-based association study of extremely overweight young adults--the GOYA study.

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    Lavinia Paternoster

    Full Text Available Thirty-two common variants associated with body mass index (BMI have been identified in genome-wide association studies, explaining ∼1.45% of BMI variation in general population cohorts. We performed a genome-wide association study in a sample of young adults enriched for extremely overweight individuals. We aimed to identify new loci associated with BMI and to ascertain whether using an extreme sampling design would identify the variants known to be associated with BMI in general populations.From two large Danish cohorts we selected all extremely overweight young men and women (n = 2,633, and equal numbers of population-based controls (n = 2,740, drawn randomly from the same populations as the extremes, representing ∼212,000 individuals. We followed up novel (at the time of the study association signals (p<0.001 from the discovery cohort in a genome-wide study of 5,846 Europeans, before attempting to replicate the most strongly associated 28 SNPs in an independent sample of Danish individuals (n = 20,917 and a population-based cohort of 15-year-old British adolescents (n = 2,418. Our discovery analysis identified SNPs at three loci known to be associated with BMI with genome-wide confidence (P<5×10(-8; FTO, MC4R and FAIM2. We also found strong evidence of association at the known TMEM18, GNPDA2, SEC16B, TFAP2B, SH2B1 and KCTD15 loci (p<0.001, and nominal association (p<0.05 at a further 8 loci known to be associated with BMI. However, meta-analyses of our discovery and replication cohorts identified no novel associations.Our results indicate that the detectable genetic variation associated with extreme overweight is very similar to that previously found for general BMI. This suggests that population-based study designs with enriched sampling of individuals with the extreme phenotype may be an efficient method for identifying common variants that influence quantitative traits and a valid alternative to genotyping all

  12. Working memory capacity and psychotic-like experiences in a general population sample of adolescents and young adults

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    Tim eZiermans

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM impairment is a common feature in individuals with schizophrenia and high-risk for psychosis and a promising target for early intervention strategies. However, it is unclear to what extent WM impairment parallels specific behavioral symptoms along the psychosis continuum. To address this issue, the current study investigated the relation of WM capacity with psychotic-like experiences (PLEs in a large Swedish population sample (N = 1012 of adolescents and young adults (M = 24.4 years, range 12-35. WM was assessed with two online computer tasks: A task where participants had to identify and remember the location of an odd shape and a task of remembering and following instructions. PLE scores were derived from a translated symptom questionnaire (Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences; CAPE, which includes positive, negative and depressive symptom scales. Positive and negative symptom scales were further subdivided into symptom clusters based on factor analyses. The results showed that low WM capacity was modestly associated with increased reports of bizarre experiences and depressive symptoms, after controlling for age, gender, and global symptom scores. Interestingly, when analyses were repeated for separate age groups, low WM was exclusively associated with a higher frequency of bizarre experiences for young adults (20 - 27 years and with depressive symptoms for older adults (28 - 35 years. These findings suggest that specific PLEs can be indicative of reduced WM capacity in early adulthood, which in turn may reflect an increased risk for psychosis and a greater need for targeted intervention. In contrast, during adolescence individual differences in cognitive development may influence the strength of the relationships and thereby mask potential vulnerabilities for psychopathology.

  13. Benefits of Health and Wellness Education in the Adult Population in México, 2006

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    Juan Manuel Hernández Vázquez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents advances in understanding the influence of Mexican education on the perceptions of the adult population regarding their health. The analysis forms part of the oecd conceptual model for understanding the connections between education and social—but not economic—outcomes. Data from the 2006 National Survey on Health and Nutrition is employed to build a logistic model. The study confirmed the idea that people tend to feel healthier as their educational level rises, regardless of their economic condition, ethnicity, age, gender or whether they reside in a rural or urban area. The findings also showed that education is the single most positive influence on the perception of feeling healthy, more so even than economic situation.

  14. Obesity and Malnutrition: Impact of Habitat and Living Conditions in Adult Urban Population in Argentina

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    Karina Temporelli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: malnutrition refers to imbalances (either deficit or excess in energy intake, protein and / or nutrients including underweight and obesity. The aim of this work is identify the contribution of individual factors, habits and life conditions in nutritional status. Material and methods: estimates of relative risk ratios are obtained from a multinomial logistic model using microdata from the National Survey of Risk Factors conducted in 2005 and 2009 in Argentinean‘ cities among adult population. Results: malnutrition is associated with constitutive and socioeconomic variables, while habits are also important in the obesity case. Discussion: both types of problems coexist in Argentine due to high heterogeneity in life styles, turning difficult the design of public interventions aimed to solve them. This complexity highlights the importance of a careful and specific multidimensional approach (medical, social, economical.

  15. Lifestyle and genetic determinants of folate and vitamin B12 levels in a general adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Betina H; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Ovesen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    12 in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the folate and vitamin B12 status of Danish adults and to investigate associations between vitamin status and distinct lifestyle and genetic factors. The study included a random sample of 6784 individuals aged 30-60 years....... Information on lifestyle factors was obtained by questionnaires and blood samples were analysed for serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations and several genetic polymorphisms. The overall prevalence of low serum folate ( ... and the prevalence was lower with increasing age. Low serum folate was associated with smoking, low alcohol intake, high coffee intake, unhealthy diet, and the TT genotype of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)-C677T polymorphism. The overall prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 (

  16. [Feasibility of following up a representative sample of the adult population in Barcelona (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Sureda, Xisca; Ballbè, Montse; Riccobene, Anna; Fernández, Esteve

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the feasibility of following up a representative sample of the adult population of Barcelona 8 years after the baseline study. We selected a random sample (n=100) of the 1161 participants who consented to be re-contacted. We contacted 66 participants: 52 (78.8%) agreed to participate in the follow-up, three (4.5%) had died, four (6.1%) had moved, and seven (10.6%) declined to participate in the follow-up. The participation rate in the feasibility study was 52%. In conclusion, the results of our study show a good feasibility of conducting a follow-up study 8 years after the baseline study. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of different protein concentrations on longevity and feeding behavior of two adult populations of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placido-Silva, Maria do Carmo; Silva Neto, Alberto M. da; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral; Zucoloto, Fernando S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Biologia

    2006-11-15

    The effects of protein intake on two adult male and female populations of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann were assessed. One population consisted of flies reared for twenty years in the laboratory (Lab-pop); the other population consisted both of flies reared in the laboratory for approximately fifteen years and of the periodically introduced wild flies (Hybrid-pop). Three diets were tested: a no-yeast diet and two diets containing yeast (protein source) at the concentrations 6.5 g or 1.5 g per 100 ml diet. The parameters analyzed were: adult longevity, diet intake with and without yeast, and discrimination threshold for yeast. Protein intake increased Lab-pop adult longevity and did not affect longevity of the Hybrid-pop. Longevity in each population was similar for males and females fed on the same diet. Food behavior were similar for male and female adults of both populations; all preferred diets containing protein (yeast). Males and females in both populations ingested similar amounts of each diet. The discrimination threshold for yeast was similar for all males (0.5 g yeast/100 ml diet); Lab-pop females were able to detect the presence of smaller quantities of yeast in their diet, thus having a higher discrimination capacity (0.4 g/100 ml diet) as compared to the Hybrid-pop females (0.6 g/ 100 ml diet). (author)

  18. Multimorbidity patterns in a national representative sample of the Spanish adult population.

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    Noe Garin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the context of population aging, multimorbidity has emerged as a growing concern in public health. However, little is known about multimorbidity patterns and other issues surrounding chronic diseases. The aim of our study was to examine multimorbidity patterns, the relationship between physical and mental conditions and the distribution of multimorbidity in the Spanish adult population. METHODS: Data from this cross-sectional study was collected from the COURAGE study. A total of 4,583 participants from Spain were included, 3,625 aged over 50. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to detect multimorbidity patterns in the population over 50 years of age. Crude and adjusted binary logistic regressions were performed to identify individual associations between physical and mental conditions. RESULTS: THREE MULTIMORBIDITY PATTERNS ROSE: 'cardio-respiratory' (angina, asthma, chronic lung disease, 'mental-arthritis' (arthritis, depression, anxiety and the 'aggregated pattern' (angina, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, cataracts, edentulism, arthritis. After adjusting for covariates, asthma, chronic lung disease, arthritis and the number of physical conditions were associated with depression. Angina and the number of physical conditions were associated with a higher risk of anxiety. With regard to multimorbidity distribution, women over 65 years suffered from the highest rate of multimorbidity (67.3%. CONCLUSION: Multimorbidity prevalence occurs in a high percentage of the Spanish population, especially in the elderly. There are specific multimorbidity patterns and individual associations between physical and mental conditions, which bring new insights into the complexity of chronic patients. There is need to implement patient-centered care which involves these interactions rather than merely paying attention to individual diseases.

  19. Seroprevalence of varicella-zoster virus and predictors for seronegativity in the Amsterdam adult population

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    van Rijckevorsel Gini GC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands, infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV is considered a benign common childhood illness and routine vaccination against VZV is not done. In 1995 it was estimated that 98-100% of the adult Dutch general population is immune, yet the estimate is based on a database in which a relative small number of people of non-Dutch ethnic origin were represented. As the city of Amsterdam has large immigrant communities originating from various subtropical and tropical countries, such as Morocco, Surinam, and Turkey with probably lower VZV transmission, this study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of VZV IgG antibodies (anti-VZV among various ethnic groups in Amsterdam, and identify factors associated with seronegative VZV status. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey of the Amsterdam population (2004, and the study sample was stratified by age and ethnicity, with deliberate oversampling of minority ethnic groups. Serum samples obtained from 1,341 residents in 2004 were tested for antibodies to VZV. Basic demographic data (gender, age, country of birth, age at immigration and number of children were also available. Results The anti-VZV seroprevalence in the overall Amsterdam population was estimated to be 94% (95% confidence intervals; 92–96%. Regarding ethnic origin, first generation immigrants (Moroccan immigrants 90%, Surinamese or Antillean immigrants 91%, and Turkish 92%, especially those that migrated after the age of 11 years, were more likely to be anti-VZV seronegative compared to those arriving at an earlier age or those born in the Netherlands (97–98%. Both ethnic origin and generation of immigration were positive predictors for IgG seronegativity to VZV (p Conclusion The results of this study imply that about 4–8% of the general adult Amsterdam population is still susceptible to infection with VZV, and that susceptibility is even higher in some immigrant groups. When assessing the risk

  20. Responses of FEV6, FVC, and FET to inhaled bronchodilator in the adult general population

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    Lundbäck Bo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of bronchodilator-induced change in forced vital capacity (FVC is dependent on forced expiratory time (FET in subjects with airflow limitation. Limited information is available on the concurrent responses of FVC, forced expiratory volume in six seconds (FEV6, and FET in the bronchodilation test among patients with obstructive airways disease or in the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in FEV6, FVC, and FET, and their relationships in a standardized bronchodilation test in the general population. Methods We studied bronchodilation response in a general adult population sample of 628 individuals (260 men, 368 women with flow-volume spirometry. The largest FVC, the corresponding FET and the largest FEV6 both at the baseline and after 0.4 mg of inhaled salbutamol were selected for analysis. Results After administration of salbutamol FEV6 decreased on average -13.4 (95% CI -22.3 to -4.5 ml or -0.2% (-0.4% to 0.0% from the baseline. The 95th percentile of change in FEV6 was 169.1 ml and 5.0%. FVC decreased on average -42.8 (-52.4 to -33.3 ml or -1.0% (-1.2% to -0.7%. Concurrently FET changed on average -0.2 (-0.4 to 0.0 seconds or 0.4% (-1.4% to 2.3%. There were four subjects with an increase of FVC over 12% and only one of these was associated with prolonged FET after salbutamol. Changes in FEV6 and FVC were more frequently positive in subjects with reduced FEV1/FVC in baseline spirometry. Conclusion In general adult population, both FEV6 and FVC tended to decrease, but FET remained almost unchanged, in the bronchodilation test. However, those subjects with signs of airflow limitation at the baseline showed frequently some increase of FEV6 and FVC in the bronchodilation test without change in FET. We suggest that FEV6 could be used in assessment of bronchodilation response in lieu of FVC removing the need for regulation of FET during bronchodilation testing.

  1. Outcomes in Adult Survivors of Childhood Burn Injuries as Compared with Matched Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Khan, Sazzadul; Chateau, Dan; Bolton, James M; Sareen, Jitender; Enns, Jessica; Doupe, Malcolm; Brownell, Marni; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2016-01-01

    Limited research exists examining long-term mental and physical health outcomes in adult survivors of pediatric burns. The authors examine the postinjury lifetime prevalence of common mental and physical disorders in a large pediatric burn cohort and compare the results with matched controls. Seven hundred and forty five survivors of childhood burns identified in the Burn Registry (1% between April 1, 1988 and March 31, 2010) were matched 1:5 to the general population based on age at time of injury (index date), sex, and geographic residence. Postinjury rate ratio (RR) was used to compare burn cases and control cohorts for common mental and physical illnesses through physician billings, and hospital claims. RR was adjusted for sex, rural residence, and income. Compared with matched controls, postburn cases had significantly higher RR of all mental disorders, which remained significant (P < .05) after adjustment (major depression RR = 1.5 [confidence limit {CL}: 1.2-1.8], anxiety disorder RR = 1.5 [CL: 1.3-1.8), substance abuse RR = 2.3 [CL: 1.7-3.2], suicide attempt RR = 4.3 [CL: 1.6-12.1], or any mental disorder RR = 1.5 [CL: 1.3-1.8]). The relative rate of some physical illnesses was also significantly increased in burn survivors: arthritis RR = 1.2 (CL: 1.1-1.4), fractures RR = 1.4 (CL: 1.2-1.6), total respiratory morbidity RR = 1.1 (CL: 1.02-1.3), and any physical illness RR = 1.2 (CL: 1.1-1.3). Adult survivors of childhood burn injury have significantly increased rates of postburn mental and physical illnesses. Screening and appropriate management of these illnesses is essential when caring for this population.

  2. Inequalities of quality of life in unemployed young adults: A population-based questionnaire study

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    Edén Lena

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that unemployment is a great problem both to the exposed individual and to the whole society. Unemployment is reported as more common among young people compared to the general level of unemployment. Inequity in health status and life-satisfaction is related to unemployment. The purpose of this population-based study was to describe QOL among unemployed young people compared to those who are not unemployed, and to analyse variables related to QOL for the respective groups. Methods The sample consisted of 264 young unemployed individuals and 528 working or studying individuals as a reference group. They all received a questionnaire about civil status, educational level, immigration, employment status, self-reported health, self-esteem, social support, social network, spare time, dwelling, economy and personal characteristics. The response rate was 72%. The significance of differences between proportions was tested by Fisher's exact test or by χ2 test. Multivariate analysis was carried out by means of a logistic regression model. Results Our results balance the predominant picture of youth unemployment as a principally negative experience. Although the unemployed reported lower levels of QOL than the reference group, a majority of unemployed young adults reported good QOL, and 24% even experienced higher QOL after being unemployed. Positive QOL related not only to good health, but also to high self-esteem, satisfaction with spare time and broad latitude for decision-making. Conclusion Even if QOL is good among a majority of unemployed young adults, inequalities in QOL were demonstrated. To create more equity in health, individuals who report reduced subjective health, especially anxiety need extra attention and support. Efforts should aim at empowering unemployed young adults by identifying their concerns and resources, and by creating individual programmes in relation not only to education and work, but also

  3. Factor structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire in the Japanese general adult population.

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    Doi, Yuriko; Minowa, Masumi

    2003-08-01

    The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) has been extensively used in a variety of settings across countries. The main aim of the present study was to assess the factor structure of the GHQ-12 for the Japanese general adult population. Data came from a sample of 1808 Japanese aged 20 years or older who were randomly selected based on the 1995 census (897 men and 911 women). Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.83 for men and 0.85 for women. Overall, the corrected item-total correlation coefficients were >0.20 for both genders. The GHQ-12 yielded a two-factor solution of psychological distress (items 2, 5, 6, 9, 10 and 11) and social dysfunction (items 1, 3, 4, 7 and 8), which jointly accounted for 49.1% of the total variance, for women. Item 12 on happiness was not discernable. For men, item 12 was separated from a social dysfunction factor and yielded the third factor with item 3 on social role, and the three factors jointly accounted for 57.6%. The results of the present study suggest that the GHQ-12 can be used as an internally reliable and homogeneous scale that produces mainly the factors of psychological distress and social dysfunction. Item 12 may be structurally different in the case of Japanese adults.

  4. A parametric ribcage geometry model accounting for variations among the adult population.

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    Wang, Yulong; Cao, Libo; Bai, Zhonghao; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hoff, Carrie N; Hu, Jingwen

    2016-09-06

    The objective of this study is to develop a parametric ribcage model that can account for morphological variations among the adult population. Ribcage geometries, including 12 pair of ribs, sternum, and thoracic spine, were collected from CT scans of 101 adult subjects through image segmentation, landmark identification (1016 for each subject), symmetry adjustment, and template mesh mapping (26,180 elements for each subject). Generalized procrustes analysis (GPA), principal component analysis (PCA), and regression analysis were used to develop a parametric ribcage model, which can predict nodal locations of the template mesh according to age, sex, height, and body mass index (BMI). Two regression models, a quadratic model for estimating the ribcage size and a linear model for estimating the ribcage shape, were developed. The results showed that the ribcage size was dominated by the height (p=0.000) and age-sex-interaction (p=0.007) and the ribcage shape was significantly affected by the age (p=0.0005), sex (p=0.0002), height (p=0.0064) and BMI (p=0.0000). Along with proper assignment of cortical bone thickness, material properties and failure properties, this parametric ribcage model can directly serve as the mesh of finite element ribcage models for quantifying effects of human characteristics on thoracic injury risks.

  5. Physical activity and perceived insecurity from crime in adults: a population-based study.

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    Márcio de Almeida Mendes

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to describe the perception of safety from crime in the neighborhood and to evaluate its association with leisure-time and transport-related physical activity in adults.A cross-sectional population based study was conducted in the urban area of Pelotas, Brazil, in 2012. Perceived insecurity from crime in the neighborhood was measured using the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS and the City Stress Inventory (CSI. Physical activity was measured using an adapted version of the leisure and transportation sections of the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire.Overall, 52.3% (95%CI49.0; 55.6 of the participants reported perceived exposure to an unsafe neighborhood. Subjects who practiced 150 or more minutes per week of physical activity during leisure-time and transportation were 10.5% (95%CI9.0; 12.0 and 51.7% (95%CI 48.7; 54.7, respectively. There were no significant associations between physical activity (leisure-time or transport-related and perceived insecurity from crime, neither in unadjusted nor in adjusted analyses.There was no evidence that the perception of safety from crime is associated to higher physical activity levels among Brazilian adults.

  6. Abcg2-Labeled Cells Contribute to Different Cell Populations in the Embryonic and Adult Heart

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    Doyle, Michelle J.; Maher, Travis J.; Li, Qinglu; Garry, Mary G.; Sorrentino, Brian P.

    2016-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily G member 2 (Abcg2)-expressing cardiac-side population cells have been identified in the developing and adult heart, although the role they play in mammalian heart growth and regeneration remains unclear. In this study, we use genetic lineage tracing to follow the cell fate of Abcg2-expressing cells in the embryonic and adult heart. During cardiac embryogenesis, the Abcg2 lineage gives rise to multiple cardiovascular cell types, including cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. This capacity for Abcg2-expressing cells to contribute to cardiomyocytes decreases rapidly during the postnatal period. We further tested the role of the Abcg2 lineage following myocardial injury. One month following ischemia reperfusion injury, Abcg2-expressing cells contributed significantly to the endothelial cell lineage, however, there was no contribution to regenerated cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, consistent with previous results showing that Abcg2 plays an important cytoprotective role during oxidative stress, we show an increase in Abcg2 labeling of the vasculature, a decrease in the scar area, and a moderate improvement in cardiac function following myocardial injury. We have uncovered a difference in the capacity of Abcg2-expressing cells to generate the cardiovascular lineages during embryogenesis, postnatal growth, and cardiac regeneration. PMID:26573225

  7. Balancing Sodium and Potassium: Estimates of Intake in a New Zealand Adult Population Sample

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    Rachael McLean

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intakes of sodium and potassium are important determinants of blood pressure. We assessed sodium and potassium intake in a cross-sectional survey which included a random sample of New Zealand Adults aged 18 to 64 years from two New Zealand cities: Dunedin and Wellington. Participants completed a short questionnaire, had height, weight and blood pressure measured, and collected a 24 h urine sample. Mean 24 h sodium excretion was 3386 mg/day (95% CI 3221, 3551: 3865 mg/day for men and for 2934 mg/day women. Mean 24 h potassium excretion was 2738 mg/day (95% CI 2623, 2855: 3031 mg/day for men and 2436 mg/day for women. Mean sodium:potassium ratio was 1.32 (95% CI 1.26, 1.39; 1.39 for men and 1.26 for women. Sodium intake was higher among younger people, men, those with a higher BMI and higher potassium excretion. Potassium excretion was higher among older people, men and those with a higher sodium excretion. New Zealand adults have high sodium intakes and low potassium intakes compared to recommended levels. This is likely to adversely affect population blood pressure levels as well as incidence of cardiovascular disease. A comprehensive public health programme to reduce dietary sodium intake and increase intake of fruit and vegetables is warranted.

  8. Relationship between 24 h urinary potassium and diet quality in the adult Spanish population.

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    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; Ortega, Rosa M; Andrés Carvajales, Pedro; González-Rodríguez, Liliana G

    2015-04-01

    To study the relationship between diet quality and 24 h urinary K excretion. K was measured in 24 h urine samples, while diet was studied using a 24 h recall method over two consecutive days. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). The body weight, height and body composition of all participants were recorded, and the BMI of each calculated. Representative members of the adult Spanish population from the FANPE Study ('Fuentes Alimentarias de Nutrientes en Población Española'; Dietary Sources of Nutrients in the Spanish Population). The final sample size was 329 participants aged 18-60 years. Participants with a 24 h urinary K excretion ≥ 93 mmol/d (group AP = adequate potassium) had greater self-reported K intakes, consumed more fruit and vegetables, had a more varied diet and had better HEI scores than those with a 24 h urinary K excretion <93 mmol/d (group IP = inadequate potassium). A significant positive correlation was seen between 24 h urinary K and dietary variety and the number of servings of fruits, vegetables and dairy products consumed, and between each of these and the HEI after correcting for age, sex, BMI, coefficient of activity, energy intake and the under-reporting of energy intake. AP participants were less likely to have an inadequate diet (HEI score <50) than IP participants (OR =0.439; 95 % CI 0.201, 0.961; P=0.039). Diet quality, measured by the HEI, is correlated with 24 h urinary K excretion in Spanish adults.

  9. Association of exclusive smokeless tobacco consumption with hypertension in an adult male rural population of India

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    Vellimana Ananth K

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Tobacco consumption is a major source of mortality and morbidity in India . Prevalence of smokeless tobacco (ST consumption in India is around 20%. Studies have shown increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events among the ST consumers. This is a cross-sectional study done to look into the association of exclusive smokeless tobacco consumption with hypertension, in an adult male rural population of north India. Methods All male residents of a village in north India above 15 years of age, who did not have any acute or chronic morbidity were included after taking an informed consent. Subjects were interviewed regarding their demographic profile, socioeconomic status and tobacco consuming habits. Current smokeless tobacco user was defined as one who has ever consumed tobacco orally in past 1 month. Blood pressure of the subjects was also recorded. Cut offs used for systolic and diastolic hypertension were 140 mm hg and 90 mm Hg respectively. Results 443 subjects were included in the study. Prevalence of exclusive ST users was 21% while 19.4% consumed both forms and 26.6% did not take any form of tobacco. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were significantly higher in exclusive ST users(systolic BP=139.2+17.4,diastolic BP = 86.8+11.5as compared to the non users(systolic BP= 135.7+18.8 , diastolic BP= 82.6 +11.5; p value Conclusion ST consumption is associated with increased prevalence of high BP in the adult male rural population.This is an indicator of increased predisposition to major adverse cardiac events later in their life time. Prevention of ST consumption could be an important intervention in preventing the ongoing upswing in prevalence of chronic heart disease.

  10. The correlates of leisure time physical activity among an adults population from southern Taiwan.

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    Chen, Yi-Ju; Huang, Ying-Hsiang; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Wu, Jin-Shang; Lin, Linda L; Chang, Chih-Jen; Yang, Yi-Ching

    2011-06-03

    Assessing the correlates of practicing physical activity during leisure time is important with regard to planning and designing public health strategies to increase beneficial behaviors among adult populations. Although the importance of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) is highlighted in many Western countries, there are not many publications on physical activity patterns, and even less on their correlates, in non-Western societies. The goal of this study was thus to explore the determinants influencing adults' leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in a city in southern Taiwan. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in 2007, using a standardized questionnaire. Energy expenditure was dichotomized into two groups based on the recommended levels of moderate physical activity from LTPA: ≥10 or convenience of exercise facilities (OR = 2.04; 95%CI = 1.28-3.24) and past exercise experience in school (OR = 1.86; 95%CI= 1.19-2.91) participated in more LTPA. Subjects with more general social support (OR = 1.66;95%CI = 1.13-2.44), greater knowledge about the health benefits of exercise (OR = 1.85;95%CI = 1.25-2.74), more sports media consumption (OR = 1.94;95%CI = 1.26-2.98), and higher self-efficacy (OR = 3.99;95%CI = 2.67-5.97) were more likely to engage in LTPA. Further analysis comparing different sources of social support showed only social support from friends had a significant positive association (OR = 1.73;95%CI = 1.14-2.63) with increased LTPA. LTPA in southern city of Taiwan showed some unique associations with age, socioeconomic status and media consumption that are not commonly reported in the Western World and similar associations with regards to psychosocial correlates of LTPA participation. Further studies from developing countries are warranted to highlight culture-specific differences in physical activity participation.

  11. Network social capital, social participation, and physical inactivity in an urban adult population.

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    Legh-Jones, Hannah; Moore, Spencer

    2012-05-01

    Research on individual social capital and physical activity has tended to focus on the association among physical activity, generalized trust, and social participation. Less is known about the association between network social capital, i.e., the resources accessed through one's social connections, and physical inactivity. Using formal network measures of social capital, this study examined which specific dimension of network capital (i.e. diversity, reach and range) was associated with physical inactivity, and whether network social capital mediated the association between physical inactivity and social participation. Data came from the 2008 Montreal (Canada) Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging survey, in which 2707 adults 25 years and older in 300 Montreal neighbourhoods were surveyed. Physical activity was self-reported using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). IPAQ guidelines provided the basis for the physical inactivity cutoff. Network social capital was measured with a position generator instrument. Multilevel logistic methods were used to examine the association between physical inactivity and individual social capital dimensions, while adjusting for socio-demographic and -economic factors. Higher network diversity was associated with a decreased likelihood of physical inactivity. Consistent with previous findings, individuals who did not participate in any formal associations were more likely to be physically inactive compared to those with high levels of participation. Network diversity mediated the association between physical inactivity and participation. Generalized trust and the network components of reach and range were not shown associated with physical inactivity. Findings highlight the importance of social participation and network social capital and the added value of network measures in the study of social capital and physical inactivity. Population-based programs targeting physical inactivity among adults might

  12. Associations of Sex Hormones and Anthropometry with the Speaking Voice Profile in the Adult General Population.

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    Jost, Lasse; Fuchs, Michael; Loeffler, Markus; Thiery, Joachim; Kratzsch, Juergen; Berger, Thomas; Engel, Christoph

    2017-07-21

    There is evidence that sexual hormone concentrations and anthropometric factors influence the human voice. The goal of this study was to investigate to what extent body mass index (BMI), body height, body weight, breast-to-abdomen-ratio, testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone are associated with the sound pressure level and the fundamental frequency of the speaking voice in a cross-sectional approach among adults in the general population. Speaking voice profiles with four different intensity levels, hormone concentrations, and anthropometric parameters were assessed for 2,381 individuals aged 40-79 years, who were randomly sampled from the population of a large city in Germany. Multivariate analysis was performed, adjusting for age and stratified by sex. Taller body height was associated with lower frequencies. Higher body weight was associated with lower frequencies and higher sound pressure levels. The ratio of chest to abdominal circumference was associated with the sound pressure levels in males and females: participants with larger breast-to-abdomen-ratio were found to have higher sound pressure levels. Among the sexual hormones, higher concentrations of DHEA-S were associated with lower fundamental frequencies of the voice while using the normal speaking voice. In addition, bioavailable testosterone was associated with the sound pressure level of the normal speaking voice in men and the softest speaking voice in women. Our findings suggest that BMI, body height, body weight, breast-to-abdomen-ratio, bioavailable testosterone, and DHEA-S are associated with the speaking voice in adults. No associations between testosterone and the frequency of the speaking voice were found. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Stages of change for physical activity in adults from Southern Brazil: a population-based survey

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    Gigante Denise P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that physical activity (PA interventions tailored to individual's stages of change (SoC are more effective in promote behavior change than "one-size-fits-all" interventions. However, only a few researches have investigated these stages towards PA behavior in representative samples of the population. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with the SoC for PA in a probabilistic sample of adults aged 20 years or over. Methods A population-based survey was undertaken in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2005. An algorithm was applied to evaluate the SoC for PA, and PA was defined as being engaged in moderate-to-vigorous PA for at least 20 minutes on three times per week. The covariates collected in the questionnaire were: sex, age, skin color, marital status, education level, economic status, family income, smoking, body mass index (BMI and self-reported health status. Data analyses were performed through Poisson and multinomial regression, taking the sampling design into account. Results Face-to-face interviews were applied to 3136 individuals, corresponding to a response rate of 93.5%. The prevalence across the stages was as follows: 38.3% in precontemplation, 13.0% in contemplation, 19.5% in preparation, 5.2% in action and 24.0% in maintenance. The elderly, married, smokers, and those with lower socioeconomic status were less likely to adopt, initiate and maintain regular PA. Conclusion Despite the all benefits of PA, a high proportion of adults from Southern Brazil are physically inactive and do not present intention to engage in regular PA. The profile of those who are inactive but intend to do PA resembles those who are physically active. The findings of the present study can contribute to improve health behaviors and to plan health promotion strategies aimed at increasing the level of PA in the community.

  14. Association of Body Mass Index with the Tuberculosis Infection: a Population-based Study among 17796 Adults in Rural China

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    Zhang, Haoran; Li, Xiangwei; Xin, Henan; Li, Hengjing; Li, Mufei; Lu, Wei; Bai, Liqiong; Wang, Xinhua; Liu, Jianmin; Jin, Qi; Gao, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) has been shown to be associated with host susceptibility to several infections. However, the link between BMI and the risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection has been sparsely studied in China and in worldwide. Based on the baseline survey of a population-based, prospective study in rural China, the association between BMI and TB infection among adults was estimated by means of cross-sectional analysis. TB infection status was tested using QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT), a commercial of interferon-γ release assay (IGRA). Totally, 17796 eligible participants aged ≥18 years from 4 study sites, were included in the analysis. 21.76% (3873/17796) were observed to be QFT positive. Age and gender standardized prevalence ranged from 16.49% to 23.81% across the study sites. 42.19% study participants were obese/overweight with BMI ≥ 24.0 kg/m2. BMI ≥ 28.0 kg/m2 was observed to be independently associated with QFT positivity (adjusted odds ratio: 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 1.04–1.33). The strength of the association was found to be geographically diversity, which might be explained, at least partly, by the varied local TB epidemic status. Our results suggest that individuals with obesity might be one important target population for TB infection control in rural China. PMID:28176883

  15. Costs of children--benefit theory and population control.

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    Tian, X

    1989-01-01

    fertile women are also important. The State's population policy of rewards and penalties also affects the costs and benefits. Administrative intervention to implement the FP program have been effectively and adequately used in the past to control population growth, even though it is recognized that social and economic development is another way of affecting population growth. Parents still need to be guaranteed that 1 child will indeed be a benefit. Children's economic value has been accepted, and policy is moving in the direction of correcting the imbalances between children's costs and benefits, such as increasing fines along with improving education and income distribution.

  16. Does marriage protect against hospitalization with pneumonia? A population-based case-control study

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    Mor A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anil Mor, Sinna P Ulrichsen, Elisabeth Svensson, Klara Berencsi, Reimar W Thomsen Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Background: To reduce the increasing burden of pneumonia hospitalizations, we need to understand their determinants. Being married may decrease the risk of severe infections, due to better social support and healthier lifestyle. Patients and methods: In this population-based case-control study, we identified all adult patients with a first-time pneumonia-related hospitalization between 1994 and 2008 in Northern Denmark. For each case, ten sex- and age-matched population controls were selected from Denmark's Civil Registration System. We performed conditional logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for pneumonia hospitalization among persons who were divorced, widowed, or never married, as compared with married persons, adjusting for age, sex, 19 different comorbidities, alcoholism-related conditions, immunosuppressant use, urbanization, and living with small children. Results: The study included 67,162 patients with a pneumonia-related hospitalization and 671,620 matched population controls. Compared with controls, the pneumonia patients were more likely to be divorced (10% versus 7% or never married (13% versus 11%. Divorced and never-married patients were much more likely to have previous diagnoses of alcoholism-related conditions (18% and 11%, respectively compared with married (3% and widowed (6% patients. The adjusted OR for pneumonia-related hospitalization was increased, at 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-1.33 among divorced; 1.15 (95% CI: 1.12-1.17 among widowed; and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.29-1.37 among never-married individuals as compared with those who were married. Conclusion: Married individuals have a decreased risk of being hospitalized with pneumonia compared with never-married, divorced, and widowed patients

  17. Estimation of effectiveness of three methods of feral cat population control by use of a simulation model.

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    McCarthy, Robert J; Levine, Stephen H; Reed, J Michael

    2013-08-15

    To predict effectiveness of 3 interventional methods of population control for feral cat colonies. Population model. Estimates of vital data for feral cats. Data were gathered from the literature regarding the demography and mating behavior of feral cats. An individual-based stochastic simulation model was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of trap-neuter-release (TNR), lethal control, and trap-vasectomy-hysterectomy-release (TVHR) in decreasing the size of feral cat populations. TVHR outperformed both TNR and lethal control at all annual capture probabilities between 10% and 90%. Unless > 57% of cats were captured and neutered annually by TNR or removed by lethal control, there was minimal effect on population size. In contrast, with an annual capture rate of ≥ 35%, TVHR caused population size to decrease. An annual capture rate of 57% eliminated the modeled population in 4,000 days by use of TVHR, whereas > 82% was required for both TNR and lethal control. When the effect of fraction of adult cats neutered on kitten and young juvenile survival rate was included in the analysis, TNR performed progressively worse and could be counterproductive, such that population size increased, compared with no intervention at all. TVHR should be preferred over TNR for management of feral cats if decrease in population size is the goal. This model allowed for many factors related to the trapping program and cats to be varied and should be useful for determining the financial and person-effort commitments required to have a desired effect on a given feral cat population.

  18. Monitoring serum PCB levels in the adult population of the Canary Islands (Spain

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    Guillermo Burillo-Putze

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic chemicals that have been detected in human serum or tissues all over the world. These pollutants could exert a number of deleterious effects on humans and wildlife, including carcinogenic processes. The Spanish population of the Canary Islands was evaluated with respect to PCB levels more than ten years ago showing lower levels than other Western populations. The objective of our study was to assess the current level of contamination by PCBs showed by this population. We measured serum PCBs in a sample of healthy adult subjects (206 serum samples from subjects with an average age of 66 years old to evaluate the potential modification of PCB serum levels in this population during the last decade. PCB congeners (28, 52, 77, 81, 101, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 138, 153, 156, 157, 167, 169, 180, and 189 were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Our results showed that PCB residues were found in 84% of serum samples analyzed, the congeners 28, 153 and 180 being the most frequently detected and at the highest median values (0.1 ng/mL. In addition, the median concentration of the sum of those PCBs considered as markers of environmental contamination by these chemicals (Marker-PCBs was 0.6 ng/mL, reaching values as high as as 2.6 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. Levels of the sum of PCBs with toxic effects similar to dioxins (dioxin-like PCBs reached median values of 0.4 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. The reported levels are similar to those described previously in this population more than ten years ago, in the sense that the inhabitants of the Canary Archipelago show levels of PCB contamination lower than the majority of populations from developed countries. These findings suggest that currently there is not any active source of these chemicals in this archipelago. Nevertheless, as foods seem to be a relevant source for these compounds, Public Health authorities should monitor the

  19. Replicated origin of female-biased adult sex ratio in introduced populations of the trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

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    Arendt, Jeffrey D; Reznick, David N; López-Sepulcre, Andres

    2014-08-01

    There are many theoretical and empirical studies explaining variation in offspring sex ratio but relatively few that explain variation in adult sex ratio. Adult sex ratios are important because biased sex ratios can be a driver of sexual selection and will reduce effective population size, affecting population persistence and shapes how populations respond to natural selection. Previous work on guppies (Poecilia reticulata) gives mixed results, usually showing a female-biased adult sex ratio. However, a detailed analysis showed that this bias varied dramatically throughout a year and with no consistent sex bias. We used a mark-recapture approach to examine the origin and consistency of female-biased sex ratio in four replicated introductions. We show that female-biased sex ratio arises predictably and is a consequence of higher male mortality and longer female life spans with little effect of offspring sex ratio. Inconsistencies with previous studies are likely due to sampling methods and sampling design, which should be less of an issue with mark-recapture techniques. Together with other long-term mark-recapture studies, our study suggests that bias in offspring sex ratio rarely contributes to adult sex ratio in vertebrates. Rather, sex differences in adult survival rates and longevity determine vertebrate adult sex ratio.

  20. Rapid Phenotyping Adult Plant Resistance to Stem Rust in Wheat Grown under Controlled Conditions.

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    Riaz, Adnan; T Hickey, Lee

    2017-01-01

    Stem rust (SR) or black rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the most common diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops globally. Among the various control measures, the most efficient and sustainable approach is the deployment of genetically resistant cultivars. Traditionally, wheat breeding programs deployed genetic resistance in cultivars, but unknowingly this is often underpinned by a single seedling resistance gene, which is readily overcome by the pathogen. Nowadays, adult plant resistance (APR) is a widely adopted form of rust resistance because more durable mechanisms often underpin it. However, only a handful of SR APR genes are available, so breeders currently strive to combine seedling and APR genes. Phenotyping adult wheat plants for resistance to SR typically involves evaluation in the field. But establishing a rust nursery can be challenging, and screening is limited to once a year. This slows down research efforts to isolate new APR genes and breeding of genetically resistant cultivars.In this study, we report a protocol for rapid evaluation of adult wheat plants for resistance to stem rust. We demonstrate the technique by evaluating a panel of 16 wheat genotypes consisting of near isogenic lines (NILs) for known Sr genes (i.e., Sr2, Sr33, Sr45, Sr50, Sr55, Sr57, and Sr58) and three landraces carrying uncharacterized APR from the N. I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR). The method can be completed in just 10 weeks and involves two inoculations: first conducted at seedling stage and a second at the adult stage (using the same plants). The technique can detect APR, such as that conferred by APR gene Sr2, along with pseudo-black chaff (the morphological marker). Phenotyping can be conducted throughout the year, and is fast and resource efficient. Further, the phenotyping method can be applied to screen breeding populations or germplasm accessions using local or exotic races of SR.

  1. The Correlates of Leisure Time Physical Activity among an Adults Population from Southern Taiwan

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    Wu Jin-Shang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing the correlates of practicing physical activity during leisure time is important with regard to planning and designing public health strategies to increase beneficial behaviors among adult populations. Although the importance of leisure time physical activity (LTPA is highlighted in many Western countries, there are not many publications on physical activity patterns, and even less on their correlates, in non-Western societies. The goal of this study was thus to explore the determinants influencing adults' leisure time physical activity (LTPA in a city in southern Taiwan. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in 2007, using a standardized questionnaire. Energy expenditure was dichotomized into two groups based on the recommended levels of moderate physical activity from LTPA: ≥10 or -1. Logistic regression analyses were applied to the results. Results A total of 762 subjects with valid data took part in the study (mean age 53.8 ± 13.8 years. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following results: Age was positively associated with LTPA. Adults with stronger perceived convenience of exercise facilities (OR = 2.04; 95%CI = 1.28-3.24 and past exercise experience in school (OR = 1.86; 95%CI= 1.19-2.91 participated in more LTPA. Subjects with more general social support (OR = 1.66;95%CI = 1.13-2.44, greater knowledge about the health benefits of exercise (OR = 1.85;95%CI = 1.25-2.74, more sports media consumption (OR = 1.94;95%CI = 1.26-2.98, and higher self-efficacy (OR = 3.99;95%CI = 2.67-5.97 were more likely to engage in LTPA. Further analysis comparing different sources of social support showed only social support from friends had a significant positive association (OR = 1.73;95%CI = 1.14-2.63 with increased LTPA. Conclusions LTPA in southern city of Taiwan showed some unique associations with age, socioeconomic status and media consumption that are not commonly

  2. Associations of Proatrial Natriuretic Peptide with Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents and Young Adults from the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goharian, Tina S; Gøtze, Jens P; Faber, Jens

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In middle-aged and elderly populations, circulating natriuretic peptide concentrations are negatively associated with several components of the metabolic syndrome. Whether these negative associations are also present in healthy adolescents and young adults from the general population...... with triglycerides (β = -0.13, P = 0.01), diastolic BP (β = -0.12, P = 0.01) and systolic BP (β = -0.10, P = 0.10), although the latter association was of borderline significance. CONCLUSIONS: The young adults displayed significant negative associations between MR-proANP and several components of the metabolic...... syndrome, whereas such associations were not found among the adolescents besides triglycerides and diastolic BP....

  3. Spain: promoting the welfare of older adults in the context of population aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Juan P; Latorre, José M; Gatz, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    Spain is one of the European countries with the most significant societal changes in the 21st century contributing to an aging population, in particular, high life expectancy coupled with low fertility, which will result in a doubling of the old-age dependency ratio. Demographic aging implies important challenges that affect the lives of people, families, the economy, public finances, and the reorganization of the health and social systems. Currently, the older population has become particularly vulnerable due to the economic crisis taking place in Spain, which has brought about the need for new policies and systems to protect older persons. The pension system is under the greatest threat in conjunction with possible changes in the national health care system. This report presents a general view of the main factors that surround and affect older adults in Spain, as well as policies developed by the government in response to the current and future situation. We highlight demographic predictions for the coming decades, quality-of-life indicators, situations of dependency, active aging policies, and the main research programs related to gerontology in Spain.

  4. The PACE study: lifetime and past-year prevalence of headache in Parma's adult general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taga, Arens; Russo, Marco; Manzoni, Gian Camillo; Torelli, Paola

    2017-05-01

    Headache is a widespread disorder and therefore it has a strong impact on quality of life. In the present work we focused on lifetime and past-year prevalence of headache in general and by gender, in a population-based sample in Parma. A total of 904 subjects representative of Parma's adult general population were interviewed face-to-face by a physician from the Parma Headache Centre, using a validated questionnaire. The lifetime prevalence of headache was 69.1%, i.e. 75.8% in women and 60.6% in men; the crude past-year prevalence of headache was 42.8%, i.e. 52.0% in women and 31.1% in men. Both lifetime and past-year prevalence rates were significantly higher in females than in males (odds ratio, respectively, 2.0 and 2.4). In our study, past-year prevalence decreased after age 50 in both genders. Most people suffer from one headache subtype. In over 80% of cases, headache starts before age 40 and therefore people were not very likely to develop headache after 50 years. The past-year and lifetime prevalence rate of headache in general that we found in our study falls within the lower range of values for headache prevalence in European countries. Further researches need to be set in the Italian epidemiological background.

  5. Present Food Shopping Habits in the Spanish Adult Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Achón

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Information on grocery shopping patterns is one key to understanding dietary changes in recent years in Spain. This report presents an overview of Spanish food shopping patterns in the adult population. A cross-sectional, nationally representative telephone survey was conducted in Spain. Individuals were asked about food shopping responsibility roles, types of visited food stores, time spent, additional behaviors while shopping, the influence of marketing/advertising and, in particular, fresh produce shopping profile. Binary logistic regression models were developed. The final random sample included 2026 respondents aged ≥18 years, of which 1223 were women and 803 were men. Women reported being in charge of most of the food shopping activities. Looking for best prices, more than looking for healthy or sustainable foods, seemed to be a general behavior. Supermarkets were the preferred retail spaces for food price consideration, convenience, variety and availability. Fresh produce shopping was associated with traditional markets and neighborhood stores in terms of reliance and personalized service. It is essential to highlight the importance of the role played by women. They are the main supporters concerned in preserving adequate dietary habits. Economic factors, more than health or food sustainability, are commonly considered by the population. Traditional markets may play an important role in preserving some healthy dietary habits of the Mediterranean food culture in Spain.

  6. Present Food Shopping Habits in the Spanish Adult Population: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achón, María; Serrano, María; García-González, Ángela; Alonso-Aperte, Elena; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2017-05-18

    Information on grocery shopping patterns is one key to understanding dietary changes in recent years in Spain. This report presents an overview of Spanish food shopping patterns in the adult population. A cross-sectional, nationally representative telephone survey was conducted in Spain. Individuals were asked about food shopping responsibility roles, types of visited food stores, time spent, additional behaviors while shopping, the influence of marketing/advertising and, in particular, fresh produce shopping profile. Binary logistic regression models were developed. The final random sample included 2026 respondents aged ≥18 years, of which 1223 were women and 803 were men. Women reported being in charge of most of the food shopping activities. Looking for best prices, more than looking for healthy or sustainable foods, seemed to be a general behavior. Supermarkets were the preferred retail spaces for food price consideration, convenience, variety and availability. Fresh produce shopping was associated with traditional markets and neighborhood stores in terms of reliance and personalized service. It is essential to highlight the importance of the role played by women. They are the main supporters concerned in preserving adequate dietary habits. Economic factors, more than health or food sustainability, are commonly considered by the population. Traditional markets may play an important role in preserving some healthy dietary habits of the Mediterranean food culture in Spain.

  7. Prevalence and incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus in the adult population of Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsa, K; Talli, S; Harding, P; Parsik, E; Esko, M; Teepere, A; Tammaru, M

    2017-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated considerable variability in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) incidence and prevalence estimates. Lack of reliable epidemiological data may hinder evidence-based health care planning. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of SLE in the Estonian adult population. The SLE billing cases were extracted from the Estonian Health Insurance Fund database 2006-2010 and verified using health care providers' databases. The patients' life status data for January 1, 2011, were retrieved from the Estonian Population Register. The calculations for the estimates' lower limits were based on verified cases only; the upper limits calculations also accounted for the billing cases for which clinical data were unavailable. The period prevalence of SLE was between 39 and 48 per 100,000 and incidence rate between 1.5 and 1.8 per 100,000 person-years. The point prevalence on January 1, 2011, was between 37 and 40 per 100,000. The estimates are comparable with internationally published figures and can be used to enhance evidence-based health care planning. The high percentage of billing cases that could not be verified using clinical data supports the argument that epidemiological studies based solely on administrative databases are usually of low reliability.

  8. Dietary exposure of the Belgian adult population to non-dioxin-like PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimenci, Oya; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Goscinny, Séverine; Van Den Bergh, Marie-Anne; Hanot, Vincent; Vinkx, Christine; Bolle, Fabien; Van Loco, Joris

    2013-09-01

    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (ndl-PCBs), and some of their metabolites, might initiate neurological, neuroendocrinological, immunological and carcinogenic effects. Dietary exposure of the Belgian adult population to ndl-PCBs was investigated in this study. Foods from five food groups, collected in Belgium in 2008, were analyzed by GC-MS/MS for the six indicator PCBs (PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180). Results were expressed as the sum of the six congeners. A dietary exposure assessment was performed, combining ndl-PCBs levels found in food with data from the national food consumption survey of 2004. Fish and fish products were the dominating food group in terms of contamination level, with the highest levels measured in the composite sample «other fishes» (18.58 ng/g FW). The dietary exposure of the Belgian population (n=3083) to ndl-PCBs ranged from 5.33 ng/kg b.w./day on average to 16.10 ng/kg b.w./day at the 99th percentile, using the lower bound concentration. The mean dietary exposure mainly originates from Fish and fish products (54.3%), followed by dairy products (28.5%). As neither EFSA nor JECFA have set a Tolerable Daily Intake for ndl PCBs, uncertainty remains about how to interpret the exposure data in terms of public health.

  9. Dietary pattern and risk of hodgkin lymphoma in a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Mara M; Chang, Ellen T; Zhang, Yawei; Fung, Teresa T; Batista, Julie L; Ambinder, Richard F; Zheng, Tongzhang; Mueller, Nancy E; Birmann, Brenda M

    2015-09-01

    Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has few known modifiable risk factors, and the relationship between diet and cHL risk is unclear. We performed the first investigation of an association between dietary pattern and cHL risk in 435 cHL cases and 563 population-based controls from Massachusetts and Connecticut (1997-2000) who completed baseline diet questionnaires. We identified 4 major dietary patterns ("vegetable," "high meat," "fruit/low-fat dairy," "desserts/sweets") using principal components analysis. We computed multivariable odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of dietary pattern score (quartiles) with younger-adult (age dietary patterns were not clearly associated with cHL. We report the first evidence for a role of dietary pattern in cHL etiology. Diets featuring high intake of meat or desserts and sweets may increase cHL risk.

  10. Motor Control in Children and Adults during a Non-Speech Oral Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heather M.; Robin, Donald A.; McCullagh, Gail; Schmidt, Richard A.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the accuracy and stability of oral motor control in 20 adults and 20 children. Although the children were less accurate and less stable, adults and children exhibited similar variability in their generalized motor program. Results are discussed within the framework of a schema model of motor control, especially the strategic…

  11. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santric-Milicevic, Milena; Jankovic, Janko; Trajkovic, Goran; Terzic-Supic, Zorica; Babic, Uros; Petrovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    Background: The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. Aims: To explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households – 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5), and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index). The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at p<0.05. Results: Chronic anxiety or depression was seen in 4.9% of the respondents, and poor MHI-5 in 47% of respondents. Low education (Odds Ratios 1.32; 95% confidence intervals=1.16–1.51), unemployment (1.36; 1.18–1.56), single status (1.34; 1.23–1.45), and Wealth Index middle class (1.20; 1.08–1.32) or poor (1.33; 1.21–1.47) were significantly related with poor MHI-5. Unemployed persons in urban settlements had higher odds for poormMHI-5 than unemployed in rural areas (0.73; 0.59–0.89). Single (1.50; 1.26–1.78), unemployed (1.39; 1.07–1.80) and inactive respondents (1.42; 1.10–1.83) had a higher odds of chronic anxiety or depression than married

  12. Organ dose conversion coefficients for tube current modulated CT protocols for an adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wanyi; Tian, Xiaoyu; Sahbaee, Pooyan; Zhang, Yakun; Segars, William Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-03-01

    In computed tomography (CT), patient-specific organ dose can be estimated using pre-calculated organ dose conversion coefficients (organ dose normalized by CTDIvol, h factor) database, taking into account patient size and scan coverage. The conversion coefficients have been previously estimated for routine body protocol classes, grouped by scan coverage, across an adult population for fixed tube current modulated CT. The coefficients, however, do not include the widely utilized tube current (mA) modulation scheme, which significantly impacts organ dose. This study aims to extend the h factors and the corresponding dose length product (DLP) to create effective dose conversion coefficients (k factor) database incorporating various tube current modulation strengths. Fifty-eight extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms were included in this study representing population anatomy variation in clinical practice. Four mA profiles, representing weak to strong mA dependency on body attenuation, were generated for each phantom and protocol class. A validated Monte Carlo program was used to simulate the organ dose. The organ dose and effective dose was further normalized by CTDIvol and DLP to derive the h factors and k factors, respectively. The h factors and k factors were summarized in an exponential regression model as a function of body size. Such a population-based mathematical model can provide a comprehensive organ dose estimation given body size and CTDIvol. The model was integrated into an iPhone app XCATdose version 2, enhancing the 1st version based upon fixed tube current modulation. With the organ dose calculator, physicists, physicians, and patients can conveniently estimate organ dose.

  13. Hallucinations and aberrant perceptions are prevalent among the young healthy adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ptacek, S; García Azorín, D; Sanchez Salmador, R; Cuadrado, M L; Porta-Etessam, J

    2013-01-01

    Hallucinations are frequent in clinical practice, with an incidence of up to 38.7% in the general population. We aim to determine the prevalence of hallucinations among healthy young adults in our environment. We designed an observational study, using as subjects 3rd to 6th year medical students at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid who complete clinical rotations in the Hospital Clínico San Carlos. After a screening questionnaire, an individual interview was conducted via telephone or e-mail to those students who reported hallucinations. We obtained clinical and epidemiological data through a semi-structured clinical interview performed by a third year neurology resident. N=134 (average age was 22.1 years; 77.6% were women). 74 respondents answered affirmatively to one or more screening questions, and 54 completed the follow-up interview. 22.2% described visual phenomena and 64.8%, auditory. The majority reported sleep-related experiences and auditory perceptions related to hyper vigilance, such as hearing the telephone or the doorbell ring when in fact it had not (38.8%). All subjects had good insight into their experiences and none had psychotic symptoms. Two cases were associated with substance abuse. Hallucinations are frequent among the general population. Traditionally, auditory phenomena have been associated with psychotic pathology, and other studies show a low population incidence (0.6%). However, in our sample, short auditory perceptions with immediate analysis were frequent and not pathological. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Trends and correlates in meat consumption patterns in the US adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Beydoun, May A; Caballero, Benjamin; Gary, Tiffany L; Lawrence, Robert

    2010-09-01

    Few studies have examined recent shifts in meat consumption (MC), differences among US population groups, and the influence of psychosocial-behavioural factors. Nationally representative data collected for US adults aged >or=18 years in the 1988-1994 and 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS) were used. We found a U-shaped trend in MC, a decrease between 1988-1994 and 1994-1996, and an increase from 1994-1996 to 1999-2004. NHANES 1988-1994 and 1999-2004 indicate that MC did not change significantly, particularly for all meat, red meat, poultry and seafood. Between 1994-1996 and 1999-2004, average MC, including red meat, poultry, seafood and other meat products, increased in men. Women's total MC decreased, mainly due to decreased red meat and other meat products, except for increased seafood. Noticeable differences existed in the changes across population groups. Black men had the largest increase in consumption of total meat, poultry and seafood; Mexican American men had the smallest increase in poultry, seafood and other meat products. In 1999-2004, ethnic differences in MC became greater in women than among women in 1994-1996. Associations between MC and energy intake changed over time. Perceived benefit of dietary quality and food label use were associated with reduced red MC. Noticeable differences exist in the shifts in MC across population groups and surveys. MC increased in men but decreased in women in recent years.

  15. Prevalence of malocclusion traits and orthodontic treatment in a Finnish adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krooks, Laura; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Kanavakis, Georgios; Lähdesmäki, Raija

    2016-07-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of malocclusion traits and the extent of orthodontic treatment in a Finnish adult population. Materials and methods The study population comprised subjects (n = 1964) from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 living in the city of Oulu and within 100 km of it. A clinical oral and dental examination with registration of occlusion was carried out in 2012 in connection with a 46-year follow-up survey. Data on previous orthodontic treatment were collected based on a questionnaire. Results In the clinical examination, 39.5% of the subjects had at least one malocclusion trait. The most common malocclusion traits were lateral crossbite (17.9%), overbite ≥ 6 mm (11.7%) and overjet ≥ 6 mm (9.7%). Crossbite on the left premolars, negative overjet and increased overbite were found more frequently in men. The prevalence of malocclusion traits was at the same level in treated and untreated groups. Overall, 18.6% of the subjects had undergone orthodontic treatment. Women showed a significantly higher prevalence of orthodontic treatment. Conclusions The most common malocclusion trait in the present study was lateral crossbite. Significant male dominance in the prevalence of malocclusion was observed, which has not been reported earlier in Finland. Orthodontic treatment of malocclusion traits was more common among females in Northern Finland. This study indicates that orthodontic treatment provided in childhood was, on average, adequate in reducing malocclusion traits to the level observed in the general population.

  16. Physical activity of Polish adolescents and young adults according to IPAQ: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergier, Józef; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Biliński, Przemysław; Paprzycki, Piotr; Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The alarming problem of a decline in physical activity among children and adolescents and its detrimental effects on public health has been well recognised worldwide. Low physical activity is responsible for 6% of deaths worldwide and 5-10% of deaths in the countries of the WHO European Region, according to country. Within the last decade, many initiatives have been launched to counteract this phenomenon. The objective of presented study was analysis of the level of physical activity among adolescents and young adults in Poland, according to the IPAQ questionnaire. The study group covered 7,716 adolescents: 5,086 children attending high school and secondary schools and 2,630 university students. Low physical activity was noted among 57% of schoolchildren and 20.84% of students. Analysis of the level of physical activity according to the IPAQ indicated that it was lower among girls, compared to boys. An additional analysis, with the consideration of the place of residence, showed that the highest percentage of the population with low physical activity was noted in the rural areas (29.30%), while among the urban inhabitants of cities with a population above 100,000 it was on the level of 23.69% and 20.57%. Median for weekly physical activity by respondents" gender was on the level of 1,554.00 MET*min. weekly among females, and 2,611.00 MET*min. weekly among males (ptowns with a population less than 100,000, whereas among the rural population and inhabitants of large cities with a population of over 100,000 the weekly physical activity was on a similar level (1,830.50 and 1,962.00 respectively). An extended analysis of respondents' physical activity showed that during the day students spend significantly more time in a sedentary position, compared to schoolchildren. The presented results of studies indicate the necessity to continue and intensify actions to promote various forms of physical activity among students and schoolchildren. A constant decrease in physical

  17. Traffic-related air pollution and risk for leukaemia of an adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Ketzel, Matthias; Harbo Poulsen, Aslak; Sørensen, Mette

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution causes lung cancer, but associations with other cancers have not been established. We investigated whether long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution is associated with the risk of the general population for leukaemia. We identified 1,967 people in whom leukaemia was diagnosed in 1992-2010 from a nation-wide cancer registry and selected 3,381 control people at random, matched on sex and year of birth, from the entire Danish population. Residential addresses since 1971 were traced in a population registry, and outdoor concentrations of NOx and NO2 , as indicators of traffic-related air pollution, were calculated at each address in a dispersion model. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the risk for leukaemia after adjustment for income, educational level, cohabitation status and co-morbidity. In linear analyses, we found odds ratios for acute myeloid leukaemia of 1.20 (95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.38) per 20 µg/m(3) increase in NOx and 1.31 (1.02-1.68) per 10 µg/m(3) increase in NO2 , calculated as time-weighted average exposure at all addresses since 1971. We found no association with chronic myeloid or lymphocytic leukaemia. This study indicates an association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and acute myeloid leukaemia in the general population, but not for other subtypes of leukaemia.

  18. DIETARY SODIUM INTAKE IN A SAMPLE OF ADULT MALE POPULATION IN SOUTHERN ITALY.Results of the Olivetti Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Strazzullo, P; Venezia, Antonella; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Russo, Ornella; Capasso, Clemente; De Luca, Viviana; Farinaro, Eduardo; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Galletti, Ferruccio; Rossi, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess dietary habitual sodium intake, the association between daily sodium intake and anthropometric indices, food habits and hypertension in the sample of adult male population participating in the Olivetti Heart Study. Design, Setting and Participants: The study population was composed of 940 men participating in the 2002-04 follow-up examination of the Olivetti Heart Study. Blood pressure, anthropometric indices, biochemical parameters and sodium excre...

  19. Goal-directed memory: the role of cognitive control in older adults' emotional memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Mara; Knight, Marisa

    2005-12-01

    The present study revealed that older adults recruit cognitive control processes to strengthen positive and diminish negative information in memory. In Experiment 1, older adults engaged in more elaborative processing when retrieving positive memories than they did when retrieving negative memories. In Experiment 2, older adults who did well on tasks involving cognitive control were more likely than those doing poorly to favor positive pictures in memory. In Experiment 3, older adults who were distracted during memory encoding no longer favored positive over negative pictures in their later recall, revealing that older adults use cognitive resources to implement emotional goals during encoding. In contrast, younger adults showed no signs of using cognitive control to make their memories more positive, indicating that, for them, emotion regulation goals are not chronically activated.

  20. Population structure and characterization of viridans group streptococci (VGS) including Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yasunori; Elborn, J Stuart; Parkins, Michael D; Reihill, James; Goldsmith, Colin E; Coulter, Wilson A; Mason, Charlene; Millar, B Cherie; Dooley, James S G; Lowery, Colm J; Ennis, Madeleine; Rendall, Jacqueline C; Moore, John E

    2011-03-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the population structure of viridans group streptococci (VGS) in the sputum of adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Freshly expectorated sputa (n=58) from 45 adult CF patients were examined by selective conventional culture on Mitis-Salivarius agar and yielded 190 isolates of VGS. Sequence analyses of the rpnB and 16-23S rRNA ITS genes identified these isolates to belong to 12 species of VGS and included S. anginosus, S. australis, S. cristatus, S. gordonii, S. infantis, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. parasanguinis, S. pneumoniae, S. salivarius and S. sanguinis. The most frequently VGS organism isolated was S. salivarius (47/190; 24.7%), followed by S. mitis (36/190; 19%), S. sanguinis (25/190; 13.2%), S. oralis (20/190; 11.0%), S. pneumoniae (19/190; 10.0%), S. parasanguinis (16/190; 8.4%), S. infantis (11/190; 5.8%), S. gordonii (7/190; 3.7%), S. anginosus (4/190; 2.1%), S. cristatus (2/190; 1.1%), S. australis (1/190; 0.5%), S. mutans (1/190; 0.5%) and S. agalactiae (1/190; 0.5%). All, but four, patients harboured at least one VGS species, which ranged from one to five streptococcal species, with a mean of 2.85 species per patient. There was no clonality at the subspecies level employing ERIC RAPD PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) testing against penicillin, erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. Overall, resistance to penicillin with all VGS was 73/190 (38.4%) and 167/190 (87.9%) for erythromycin. With regard to ciprofloxacin, 27/190 (14.2%) were fully resistant, whilst a further 21/190 (11.1%) showed intermediate resistance, which equated to approximately three quarters (74.7%) of isolates being fully sensitive to this agent. In addition, as a comparator control population, we examined antibiotic susceptibility, as above, in a non-CF population comprising 12 individuals (50 VGS isolates), who were not receiving chronic antibiotics. In comparison, 8% and 38% of VGS

  1. Seasonal hematocrit variation and health risks in the adult population of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Makena Hightower

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available C Makena Hightower1, Joyce D Hightower2, Beatriz Y Salazar Vázquez1,3, Marcos Intaglietta11Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; 2Group de Reflection, Actions et Etude de Culture, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; 3Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango, Durango, Durango, MéxicoAbstract: Hematocrit (Hct as an indicator of blood viscosity and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP were assessed according to the season in adult participants of health screenings conducted throughout Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Data was collected at the end of summer (April and the end of winter (August and identified by gender. Male Hcts in August were significantly higher (P < 0.0001 than in April (48.3% ± 4.2% and 45.7% ± 2.3%, respectively while male MAP (85.0 ± 8.4 mm Hg was identical to that recorded in April (85.4 ± 7.7 mm Hg. August female Hcts (41.4% ± 3.1% were statistically higher than those recorded in April (39.6% ± 1.9%, P = 0.001, MAP being 82.3 ± 7.3 vs 87.9 ± 6.6 mm Hg, respectively (P = 0.0001. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate, body mass indices, ages, and personal and familial medical histories of the August and April groups were not significantly different. This study offers further support for the assertion that the relationship between blood viscosity and pressure of a healthy population shows that increased Hct, and therefore increased blood viscosity is associated with lowered MAP, and presumably peripheral vascular resistance.Keywords: blood pressure, African adults, blood viscosity, cardiovascular, shear stress

  2. Visual function and vision-related quality of life in presbyopic adult population of Northwestern Nigeria

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    Nasiru Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the impact of uncorrected presbyopia on vision-related quality of life (QoL and visual function (VF among adults 40 years and older in Bungudu local government area (LGA of Zamfara State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study in Bungudu LGA of Zamfara State Nigeria was conducted in 2012. Six-hundred and fifty persons at least 40 years of age were examined using a two-stage cluster random sampling-based on probability proportional to size. Presbyopia was defined as the inability to read N8 at 40 cm in an indoor illumination using LogMAR E-chart. Demographic information comprising of age, sex, occupation, and educational level among others was obtained from a pilot tested VF-14 and modified vision-related QoL questionnaire by trained interviewer. Results: Out Of the 650 subjects enumerated 635 were examined given a response rate of 97.7%. The mean age of participants was 53.59 years (95% confidence interval:52.75%-54.43%. The crude prevalence of presbyopia was 30.4%, (95% CI: 26.8%-34.1%. The mean VF score of persons with presbyopia was 85.09, (95% CI: 83.09%-87.09% and being female was strongly associated with high VF scores (P = 0.003. The VFs most impaired were the ability to read, write, use mobile phones, and thread needles. The higher the degree of presbyopia the lower the mean VF score (P = 0.00. Conclusion: Uncorrected presbyopia is associated with functional visual impairment and reduce QoL especially in the ability to read, write, and usage of mobile cell phones among adults 40 years and older in Bungudu District.

  3. Health supplement consumption behavior in older adults population: An exploratory study

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    Mimi M.Y. eTSE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Health supplement consumption behavior is important to maintain health status. The purpose of the study was to explore the spending pattern on health supplement consumption behavior in Hong Kong older adults population. The present study was a cross-sectional survey study; and was collected from via a street-intercept interview. Participants were approached and invited to response to a questionnaire. The location for data collection was evenly distributed in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Territories. The questionnaire included demographic data and source of income source, spending habits on health supplement products and whether they performed regular health check. There were 982 participants interviewed; and 46% was male and 54% was female. The participants are divided into young-old (age 50-69 and old-old group (age 70 or above. The mean age is 67.93±10.386. Most of the participants have regular body check; the major reason is to maintain health. Less than half of the participants spent money on health supplement products; the major reason for such purchase was to maintain health; while for not buying is they did not think that would have any effect in their health. Also, more young-old participants have regular body check and spend more money on health supplement products; while old-old group participants were less likely to concern their health, and they were less likely to perform regular body check and purchase health supplement products. The present research reveals the pattern of the health supplement consumption behavior of young-old and old-old. Young-old group and old-old group have difference pattern according to their difference age-related health condition and the amount of spare money. Different educational programme concern health consciousness and promotion strategy of regular body check and health supplement products need be tailor-made for older adults, and for young old and old-old groups.

  4. Functional results after cholesteatoma surgery in an adult population using the retrograde mastoidectomy technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minovi, Amir; Venjacob, Johanna; Volkenstein, Stefan; Dornhoffer, John; Dazert, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    In this retrospective study, we analyzed the functional results after using the retrograde mastoidectomy technique for cholesteatoma removal in an adult patient population. The described technique was used at a tertiary referral center for cholesteatoma removal in 218 adult patients, representing 242 operated ears, with an average follow-up time of 20.3 months. With the retrograde mastoidectomy technique, the cholesteatoma is removed posteriorly through the canal wall, from the epitympanic region toward the mastoid, with the option to reconstruct the posterior bony canal wall or create an open mastoid cavity, depending on the size of the defect. Primary surgery was carried out in 58.7 % ears, with the remaining 41.3 % representing revision surgery. In 151 cases, the posterior canal wall was reconstructed, and in 91 cases a classical CWD with an open mastoid cavity was created. In the majority of the cases (n = 213, 88.0 %), a primary hearing restoration was performed. There were 18 recurrences (12.7 %) in primary cases and 22 recurrences (22 %) in revision surgeries. Ninety percent of the recurrences (36 of 40 cases) occurred within 5 years. A postoperative air-bone gap of less than 20 dB was achieved in 61.6 % of the operated ears. Ears with a reconstructed posterior canal wall had significantly better hearing results than those cases in which a CWD procedure was used (air-bone gap of 17.6 versus 22.5 dB, p < 0.05). The retrograde mastoidectomy technique for cholesteatoma removal resulted in satisfying hearing results in the majority of the cases, with a recurrence rate comparable to the current literature.

  5. Dietary exposure to mycotoxins of the Hong Kong adult population from a Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Arthur Tin-Chung; Chen, Melva Yung-Yung; Lam, Chi-Ho; Ho, Yuk-Yin; Xiao, Ying; Chung, Stephen Wai-Cheung

    2016-06-01

    Dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to mycotoxins and their metabolites including aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FNs), deoxynivalenol (DON), acetyldeoxynivalenols (AcDONs) and zearalenone (ZEA) was estimated using the Total Diet Study (TDS) approach to assess the associated health risk to the local people. Sixty commonly consumed food items, collected in four seasons, were sampled and prepared as consumed. These mycotoxins were primarily found at low levels. The highest mean levels (upper bound) were: AFs, 1.50 µg kg(-)(1) in legumes, nuts and seed; OTA, 0.22 µg kg(-)(1) in sugars and confectionery; FNs, 9.76 µg kg(-)(1) in cereals and their products; DON and AcDONs, 33.1 µg kg(-)(1) in cereals and their products; and ZEA, 53.8 µg kg(-)(1) in fats and oils. The estimated dietary exposures of Hong Kong adults to the mycotoxins analysed were well below the respective health-based guidance values, where available. For AFs, the upper-bound exposure for high consumers is 0.0049 µg kg bw(-)(1) day(-)(1), which was estimated to contribute to about 7.7 (mycotoxins were: ochratoxin A, 3.6-9.2%; fumonisins, 0.04-8.5%; deoxynivalenol and acetyldeoxynivalenols, 21.7-28.2%; and zearalenone 3.3-34.5%. The findings indicate that dietary exposures to all the mycotoxins analysed in this study were unlikely to pose an unacceptable health risk to the Hong Kong population.

  6. Statin Safety in Chinese: A Population-Based Study of Older Adults.

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    Daniel Q Li

    Full Text Available Compared to Caucasians, Chinese achieve a higher blood concentration of statin for a given dose. It remains unknown whether this translates to increased risk of serious statin-associated adverse events amongst Chinese patients.We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of older adults (mean age, 74 years newly prescribed a statin in Ontario, Canada between 2002 and 2013, where 19,033 Chinese (assessed through a validated surname algorithm were matched (1:3 by propensity score to 57,099 non-Chinese. This study used linked healthcare databases.The follow-up observation period (mean 1.1, maximum 10.8 years was similar between groups, as were the reasons for censoring the observation period (end of follow-up, death, or statin discontinuation. Forty-seven percent (47% of Chinese were initiated on a higher than recommended statin dose. Compared to non-Chinese, Chinese ethnicity did not associate with any of the four serious statin-associated adverse events assessed in this study [rhabdomyolysis hazard ratio (HR 0.61 (95% CI 0.28 to 1.34, incident diabetes HR 1.02 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.30, acute kidney injury HR 0.90 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.13, or all-cause mortality HR 0.88 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.05]. Similar results were observed in subgroups defined by statin type and dose.We observed no higher risk of serious statin toxicity in Chinese than matched non-Chinese older adults with similar indicators of baseline health. Regulatory agencies should review available data, including findings from our study, to decide if a change in their statin dosing recommendations for people of Chinese ethnicity is warranted.

  7. Statin Safety in Chinese: A Population-Based Study of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daniel Q.; Kim, Richard B.; McArthur, Eric; Fleet, Jamie L.; Hegele, Robert A.; Shah, Baiju R.; Weir, Matthew A.; Molnar, Amber O.; Dixon, Stephanie; Tu, Jack V.; Anand, Sonia; Garg, Amit X.

    2016-01-01

    Background Compared to Caucasians, Chinese achieve a higher blood concentration of statin for a given dose. It remains unknown whether this translates to increased risk of serious statin-associated adverse events amongst Chinese patients. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of older adults (mean age, 74 years) newly prescribed a statin in Ontario, Canada between 2002 and 2013, where 19,033 Chinese (assessed through a validated surname algorithm) were matched (1:3) by propensity score to 57,099 non-Chinese. This study used linked healthcare databases. Findings The follow-up observation period (mean 1.1, maximum 10.8 years) was similar between groups, as were the reasons for censoring the observation period (end of follow-up, death, or statin discontinuation). Forty-seven percent (47%) of Chinese were initiated on a higher than recommended statin dose. Compared to non-Chinese, Chinese ethnicity did not associate with any of the four serious statin-associated adverse events assessed in this study [rhabdomyolysis hazard ratio (HR) 0.61 (95% CI 0.28 to 1.34), incident diabetes HR 1.02 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.30), acute kidney injury HR 0.90 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.13), or all-cause mortality HR 0.88 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.05)]. Similar results were observed in subgroups defined by statin type and dose. Conclusions We observed no higher risk of serious statin toxicity in Chinese than matched non-Chinese older adults with similar indicators of baseline health. Regulatory agencies should review available data, including findings from our study, to decide if a change in their statin dosing recommendations for people of Chinese ethnicity is warranted. PMID:26954681

  8. Statin Safety in Chinese: A Population-Based Study of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daniel Q; Kim, Richard B; McArthur, Eric; Fleet, Jamie L; Hegele, Robert A; Shah, Baiju R; Weir, Matthew A; Molnar, Amber O; Dixon, Stephanie; Tu, Jack V; Anand, Sonia; Garg, Amit X

    2016-01-01

    Compared to Caucasians, Chinese achieve a higher blood concentration of statin for a given dose. It remains unknown whether this translates to increased risk of serious statin-associated adverse events amongst Chinese patients. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of older adults (mean age, 74 years) newly prescribed a statin in Ontario, Canada between 2002 and 2013, where 19,033 Chinese (assessed through a validated surname algorithm) were matched (1:3) by propensity score to 57,099 non-Chinese. This study used linked healthcare databases. The follow-up observation period (mean 1.1, maximum 10.8 years) was similar between groups, as were the reasons for censoring the observation period (end of follow-up, death, or statin discontinuation). Forty-seven percent (47%) of Chinese were initiated on a higher than recommended statin dose. Compared to non-Chinese, Chinese ethnicity did not associate with any of the four serious statin-associated adverse events assessed in this study [rhabdomyolysis hazard ratio (HR) 0.61 (95% CI 0.28 to 1.34), incident diabetes HR 1.02 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.30), acute kidney injury HR 0.90 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.13), or all-cause mortality HR 0.88 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.05)]. Similar results were observed in subgroups defined by statin type and dose. We observed no higher risk of serious statin toxicity in Chinese than matched non-Chinese older adults with similar indicators of baseline health. Regulatory agencies should review available data, including findings from our study, to decide if a change in their statin dosing recommendations for people of Chinese ethnicity is warranted.

  9. Likelihood Estimation of the Systemic Poison-Induced Morbidity in an Adult North Eastern Romanian Population

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    Cătălina Lionte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Acute exposure to a systemic poison represents an important segment of medical emergencies. We aimed to estimate the likelihood of systemic poison-induced morbidity in a population admitted in a tertiary referral center from North East Romania, based on the determinant factors. Methodology: This was a prospective observational cohort study on adult poisoned patients. Demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics were recorded in all patients. We analyzed three groups of patients, based on the associated morbidity during hospitalization. We identified significant differences between groups and predictors with significant effects on morbidity using multiple multinomial logistic regressions. ROC analysis proved that a combination of tests could improve diagnostic accuracy of poison-related morbidity. Main findings: Of the 180 patients included, aged 44.7 ± 17.2 years, 51.1% males, 49.4% had no poison-related morbidity, 28.9% developed a mild morbidity, and 21.7% had a severe morbidity, followed by death in 16 patients (8.9%. Multiple complications and deaths were recorded in patients aged 53.4 ± 17.6 years (p .001, with a lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score upon admission and a significantly higher heart rate (101 ± 32 beats/min, p .011. Routine laboratory tests were significantly higher in patients with a recorded morbidity. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that a GCS < 8, a high white blood cells count (WBC, alanine aminotransferase (ALAT, myoglobin, glycemia and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP are strongly predictive for in-hospital severe morbidity. Originality: This is the first Romanian prospective study on adult poisoned patients, which identifies the factors responsible for in-hospital morbidity using logistic regression analyses, with resulting receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. Conclusion: In acute intoxication with systemic poisons, we identified several clinical and laboratory variables

  10. Motor vehicle crashes in diabetic patients with tight glycemic control: a population-based case control analysis.

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    Donald A Redelmeier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complications from diabetes mellitus can compromise a driver's ability to safely operate a motor vehicle, yet little is known about whether euglycemia predicts normal driving risks among adults with diabetes. We studied the association between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and the risk of a motor vehicle crash using a population-based case control analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified consecutive drivers reported to vehicle licensing authorities between January 1, 2005 to January 1, 2007 who had a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and a HbA1c documented. The risk of a crash was calculated taking into account potential confounders including blood glucose monitoring, complications, and treatments. A total of 57 patients were involved in a crash and 738 were not involved in a crash. The mean HbA1c was lower for those in a crash than controls (7.4% versus 7.9%, unpaired t-test, p = 0.019, equal to a 26% increase in the relative risk of a crash for each 1% reduction in HbA1c (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.54. The trend was evident across the range of HbA1c values and persisted after adjustment for measured confounders (odds ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.55. The two other significant risk factors for a crash were a history of severe hypoglycemia requiring outside assistance (odds ratio = 4.07, 95% confidence interval 2.35-7.04 and later age at diabetes diagnosis (odds ratio per decade = 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.57. CONCLUSIONS: In this selected population, tighter glycemic control, as measured by the HbA1c, is associated with an increased risk of a motor vehicle crash.

  11. Sex-specific early survival drives adult sex ratio bias in snowy plovers and impacts mating system and population growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Clemens; Miller, Tom E. X.; Cruz-López, Medardo; Maher, Kathryn H.; dos Remedios, Natalie; Stoffel, Martin A.; Hoffman, Joseph I.; Krüger, Oliver; Székely, Tamás

    2017-01-01

    Adult sex ratio (ASR) is a central concept in population biology and a key factor in sexual selection, but why do most demographic models ignore sex biases? Vital rates often vary between the sexes and across life history, but their relative contributions to ASR variation remain poorly understood—an essential step to evaluate sex ratio theories in the wild and inform conservation. Here, we combine structured two-sex population models with individual-based mark–recapture data from an intensively monitored polygamous population of snowy plovers. We show that a strongly male-biased ASR (0.63) is primarily driven by sex-specific survival of juveniles rather than adults or dependent offspring. This finding provides empirical support for theories of unbiased sex allocation when sex differences in survival arise after the period of parental investment. Importantly, a conventional model ignoring sex biases significantly overestimated population viability. We suggest that sex-specific population models are essential to understand the population dynamics of sexual organisms: reproduction and population growth are most sensitive to perturbations in survival of the limiting sex. Overall, our study suggests that sex-biased early survival may contribute toward mating system evolution and population persistence, with implications for both sexual selection theory and biodiversity conservation. PMID:28634289

  12. Lithium treatment and risk for dementia in adults with bipolar disorder: population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, Tobias; Devanand, D P; Huang, Cecilia; Crystal, Stephen; Olfson, Mark

    2015-07-01

    BackgroundLithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3, an enzyme implicated in the pathogenesis of dementia.AimsTo examine the association of lithium and dementia risk in a large claims-based US cohort of publicly insured older adults with bipolar disorder.MethodThe cohort included individuals ≥50 years diagnosed with bipolar disorder who did not receive dementia-related services during the prior year. Each follow-up day was classified by past-year cumulative duration of lithium use (0, 1-60, 61-300 and 301-365 days). Dementia diagnosis was the study outcome. Anticonvulsants commonly used as mood stabilisers served as a negative control.ResultsCompared with non-use, 301-365 days of lithium exposure was associated with significantly reduced dementia risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.77, 95% CI 0.60-0.99). No corresponding association was observed for shorter lithium exposures (HR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.83-1.31 for 61-300 days; HR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.67-1.71 for 1-60 days) or for any exposure to anticonvulsants.ConclusionsContinuous lithium treatment may reduce dementia risk in older adults with bipolar disorder. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  13. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome-related disorders in a large adult population in Turkey

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    Yokusoglu Mehmet

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few existing large population studies on the epidemiology of metabolic syndrome-related disorders of Turkey. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome-related disorders in the Turkish adult population, to address sex, age, educational and geographical differences, and to examine blood pressure, body mass index, fasting blood glucose and serum lipids in Turkey. Methods This study was executed under the population study "The Healthy Nutrition for Healthy Heart Study" conducted between December 2000 and December 2002 by the Health Ministry of Turkey. Overall, 15,468 Caucasian inhabitants aged over 30 were recruited in 14 centers in the seven main different regions of Turkey. The data were analyzed with the Students' t, ANOVA or Chi-Square tests. Results Overall, more than one-third (35.08 % of the participants was obese. The hypertensive people ratio in the population was 13.66 %, while these ratios for DM and metabolic syndrome were 4.16 % and 17.91 %, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, metabolic syndrome and obesity were higher in females than males, whereas diabetes mellitus was higher in males than females. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and related disorders were found to be significantly different across educational attainments for both men and women. The prevalence of hypertension increased with age, while it was remarkable that in the age group of 60–69 years, prevalence of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome reached a peak value and than decreased. For obesity, the peak prevalence occurred in the 50–59 year old group. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and related disorders were found to be significantly different according to geographical region. Conclusion In conclusion, high prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome, particularly among women, is one of the major public health problems in Turkey. Interestingly, obesity prevalence is relatively

  14. Type of vegetarian diet, obesity and diabetes in adult Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Millett, Christopher J; Dhillon, Preet K; Subramanian, S V; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-09-05

    To investigate the prevalence of obesity and diabetes among adult men and women in India consuming different types of vegetarian diets compared with those consuming non-vegetarian diets. We used cross-sectional data of 156,317 adults aged 20-49 years who participated in India's third National Family Health Survey (2005-06). Association between types of vegetarian diet (vegan, lacto-vegetarian, lacto-ovo vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian and non-vegetarian) and self-reported diabetes status and measured body mass index (BMI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for age, gender, education, household wealth, rural/urban residence, religion, caste, smoking, alcohol use, and television watching. Mean BMI was lowest in pesco-vegetarians (20.3 kg/m2) and vegans (20.5 kg/m2) and highest in lacto-ovo vegetarian (21.0 kg/m2) and lacto-vegetarian (21.2 kg/m2) diets. Prevalence of diabetes varied from 0.9% (95% CI: 0.8-1.1) in person consuming lacto-vegetarian, lacto-ovo vegetarian (95% CI:0.6-1.3) and semi-vegetarian (95% CI:0.7-1.1) diets and was highest in those persons consuming a pesco-vegetarian diet (1.4%; 95% CI:1.0-2.0). Consumption of a lacto- (OR:0.67;95% CI:0.58-0.76;p vegetarian (OR:0.77; 95% CI:0.60-0.98; p = 0.03) diet was associated with a lower likelihood of diabetes than a non-vegetarian diet in the adjusted analyses. In this large, nationally representative sample of Indian adults, lacto-, lacto-ovo and semi-vegetarian diets were associated with a lower likelihood of diabetes. These findings may assist in the development of interventions to address the growing burden of overweight/obesity and diabetes in Indian population. However, prospective studies with better measures of dietary intake and clinical measures of diabetes are needed to clarify this relationship.

  15. Genome-wide population-based association study of extremely overweight young adults--the GOYA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paternoster, Lavinia; Evans, David M; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-two common variants associated with body mass index (BMI) have been identified in genome-wide association studies, explaining ∼1.45% of BMI variation in general population cohorts. We performed a genome-wide association study in a sample of young adults enriched for extremely overweight...

  16. Dental functional status in a southern vietnamese adult population-a combined quantitative and qualitative classification system analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.C.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Pham, L.H.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the dental functional status of a Southern Vietnamese adult population using a new quantitative- and qualitative-based classification system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 2,809 dentate subjects aged =/> 20 years from urban and rural

  17. Content validity, construct validity, and reliability of the WHOQOL-Bref in a population of Dutch adult psychiatric outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trompenaars, F.J.; Masthoff, E.D.M.; Heck, G.L. van; Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Vries, I.J.M. de

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the psychometric properties of a quality of life scale, the WHOQOL-Bref, were examined in a population of 533 Dutch adult psychiatric outpatients. Participants underwent two semistructured interviews in order to obtain Axis-I and II diagnoses, according to DSM-IV. Besides the WHOQOL-B

  18. The Role of Supportive Adults in Promoting Positive Development in Middle Childhood: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Hertzman, Clyde

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the role of supportive adults to emotional well-being in a population of Grade 4 students attending public schools in Vancouver, Canada. Reflecting the ecology of middle childhood, we examined the extent to which perceived family, school, and neighborhood support relate to young people's self-reported…

  19. Disability and chronic disease among older adults in India: detecting vulnerable populations through the WHO SAGE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; King, Abby C

    2013-12-01

    Chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now prevalent in many low- and middle-income countries and confer a heightened risk of disability. It is unclear how public health programs can identify the older adults at highest risk of disability related to NCDs within diverse developing country populations. We studied nationally representative survey data from 7,150 Indian adults older than 50 years of age who participated in the World Health Organization Study on Global Aging and Adult Health (2007-2010) to identify population subgroups who are highly disabled. Using machine-learning algorithms, we identified sociodemographic correlates of disability. Although having 2 or more symptomatic NCDs was a key correlate of disability, the prevalence of symptomatic, undiagnosed NCDs was highest among the lowest 2 wealth quintiles of Indian adults, contrary to prior hypotheses of increased NCDs with wealth. Women and persons from rural populations were also disproportionately affected by nondiagnosed NCDs, with high out-of-pocket health care expenditures increasing the probability of remaining symptomatic from NCDs. These findings also indicate that NCD prevalence surveillance studies in low- and middle-income countries should expand beyond self-reported diagnoses to include more extensive symptom- and examination-based surveys, given the likely high rate of surveillance bias due to barriers to diagnosis among vulnerable populations.

  20. Tooth replacement related to number of natural teeth in a dentate adult population in Bulgaria: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damyanov, N.D.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the relationships among tooth replacement, number of present natural teeth, and sociodemographic and behavioral factors in an adult population in Bulgaria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quota sampling was used to recruit 2,531 dentate subjects aged 20 years and over fro

  1. Dental status and associated factors in a dentate adult population in bulgaria: a cross-sectional survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damyanov, N.D.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine variations in the dental status of a dentate adult population in terms of "decayed," "missing," and "filled" teeth in relation to several sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Quota sampling was used to draw 2531 subjects aged 20 years and over. Data were collected b

  2. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Short Form for Index and IQ Scores in a Psychiatric Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bruce K.; Girard, Todd A.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2007-01-01

    An eight-subtest short form (SF8) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III), maintaining equal representation of each index factor, was developed for use with psychiatric populations. Data were collected from a mixed inpatient/outpatient sample (99 men and 101 women) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Psychometric…

  3. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of High Blood Pressure: A Population-Based Survey in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Anh Ha

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Vietnam and hypertension (HTN is an important and prevalent risk factor for CVD in the adult Vietnamese population. Despite an increasing prevalence of HTN in this country, information about the awareness, treatment, and control of HTN is limited. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of HTN, and factors associated with these endpoints, in residents of a mountainous province in Vietnam.Data from 2,368 adults (age≥25 years participating in a population-based survey conducted in 2011 in Thai Nguyen province were analyzed. All eligible participants completed a structured questionnaire and were examined by community health workers using a standardized protocol.The overall prevalence of HTN in this population was 23%. Older age, male sex, and being overweight were associated with a higher odds of having HTN, while higher educational level was associated with a lower odds of having HTN. Among those with HTN, only 34% were aware of their condition, 43% of those who were aware they had HTN received treatment and, of these, 39% had their HTN controlled.Nearly one in four adults in Thai Nguyen is hypertensive, but far fewer are aware of this condition and even fewer have their blood pressure adequately controlled. Public health strategies increasing awareness of HTN in the community, as well as improvements in the treatment and control of HTN, remain needed to reduce the prevalence of HTN and related morbidity and mortality.

  4. Reliability and validity of the Bangla version of WHOQOL-BREF in an adult population in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Kato, Seika; Islam, Md Akramul; Yamada, Helena Sayuri; Kato, Hiroshi; Wakai, Susumu

    2006-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Bangla version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) in an adult population in Bangladesh. Approximately 200 adults in the Dhaka district were interviewed using a questionnaire containing the Bangla version of the WHOQOL-BREF, as well as questions related to sociodemographic data. To assess the reliability of WHOQOL-BREF, Cronbach's alpha was calculated, and test-retest reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of the first and second administrations. For comparison, approximately 200 leprosy patients were also interviewed with the questionnaire to examine the discriminant validity between groups. On the whole, sufficient validity was observed, and the Bangla version of the WHOQOL-BREF was deemed to be valid and reliable in assessing the quality of life of an adult population in Bangladesh.

  5. Measuring autistic traits in the general population: a systematic review of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in a nonclinical population sample of 6,900 typical adult males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzich, Emily; Allison, Carrie; Smith, Paula; Watson, Peter; Auyeung, Bonnie; Ring, Howard; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) is a self-report measure of autistic traits. It is frequently cited in diverse fields and has been administered to adults of at least average intelligence with autism and to nonclinical controls, as well as to clinical control groups such as those with schizophrenia, prosopagnosia, anorexia, and depression. However, there has been no empirical systematic review of the AQ since its inception in 2001. The present study reports a comprehensive systematic review of the literature to estimate a reliable mean AQ score in individuals without a diagnosis of an autism spectrum condition (ASC), in order to establish a reference norm for future studies. A systematic search of computerized databases was performed to identify studies that administered the AQ to nonclinical participant samples representing the adult male and female general population. Inclusion was based on a set of formalized criteria that evaluated the quality of the study, the usage of the AQ, and the population being assessed. After selection, 73 articles, detailing 6,934 nonclinical participants, as well as 1,963 matched clinical cases of ASC (from available cohorts within each individual study), were analyzed. Mean AQ score for the nonclinical population was 16.94 (95% CI 11.6, 20.0), while mean AQ score for the clinical population with ASC was found to be 35.19 (95% CI 27.6, 41.1). In addition, in the nonclinical population, a sex difference in autistic traits was found, although no sex difference in AQ score was seen in the clinical ASC population. These findings have implications for the study of autistic traits in the general population. Here, we confirm previous norms with more rigorous data and for the first time establish average AQ scores based on a systematic review, for populations of adult males and females with and without ASC. Finally, we advise future researchers to avoid risk of bias by carefully considering the recruitment strategy for both clinical and

  6. [Diabetes mellitus in an adult population of the IMSS (Mexican Institute of Social Security). Results of the National Health Survey 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Martínez, José Luis; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Fernández-Cantón, Sonia

    2006-01-01

    To describe the prevalence and control of diabetes in the adult population served by the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social according to data from the National Health Survey 2000 (ENSA-2000). The data for adults from the National Health Survey 2000 was used to estimate and describe the prevalence of diabetes in the population that belongs to the social security system in Mexico. Criteria used to define diabetes mellitus were the medical diagnosis of the disease (MDDM) and the glucose measurement from capillary blood (>126 mg/dL fasting sample and 200 mg/dL in casual blood sample). If diabetes was confirmed only through blood sample, the diabetes case was define as survey finding (SF). Prevalences were estimated for both groups, while means and medians were estimated for the four possible combination groups (SF+, MDDM+, SF+, MDDM-, SF-, MDDM+, SF-, MDDM-). Sampling results were adjusted for population estimates according to the methods established in the ENSA-2000. Diabetes is described according to age, sex, education level, geographic region, background of diabetes in the family, body mass index (BMI), abdominal perimeter. A logistic regression method was used to estimate potential associations with different risk factors. Overall prevalence was 8.7%; for MDDM, it was 7.1%, and for SF, only 1.5%. Glycemia was highest in SF+ and MDDM-, median 292 mg/dL and in MDDM+ but SF-, median 289 mg/dL. Major risk factors were background of diabetes in both parents, abdominal obesity, low educational level age (coef. = 0.5943 per decade) and BMI (coef. = 0.0133). Diabetes in social security population is higher than in the rest of the population, while genetic background, age, educational level, high BMI and abdominal perimeter have important influences in diabetes prevalence in this population. Glucose control is suboptimal even in patients under medical supervision.

  7. Testing fungus impregnated cloths for the control of adult Aedes aegypti under natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Adriano R; Carolino, Aline T; Silva, Carlos P; Pereira, César R; Samuels, Richard I

    2013-09-08

    Entomopathogenic fungi could be useful tools for reducing populations of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti. Here the efficiency of fungus (Metarhizium anisopliae) impregnated cloths (with and without imidacloprid [IMI]) was evaluated against adult A. aegypti in simulated human dwellings. Behaviour of mosquitoes in the presence of black cloths was also investigated. When mosquitoes were released into the test rooms, the lowest survival rates (38%) were seen when five black cloths impregnated with conidia of ESALQ 818 + 10 ppm IMI were fixed under tables and chairs. This result was significantly lower than the survival rate recorded when cloths were impregnated with ESALQ 818 alone (44%) or ESALQ 818 + 0.1 ppm IMI (43%). Blood fed A. aegypti had lower landing frequencies on black cloths than sucrose fed insects during the first 24 h following feeding, which may have been due to reduced flight activity. Few mosquitoes (4-5%) were observed to land on the cloths during the hours of darkness. The landing pattern of sucrose-fed mosquitoes on non-treated and fungus-treated cloths was similar. The synergism between M. anisopliae and IMI significantly reduced Aedes survival in simulated field conditions. The use of fungus impregnated cloths is a promising point source application method for the control of adult A. aegypti.

  8. Alcohol policy changes and 22-year trends in individual alcohol consumption in a Swiss adult population: a 1993–2014 cross-sectional population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Shireen; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Favrod-Coune, Thierry; Theler, Jean-Marc; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Broers, Barbara; Guessous, Idris

    2017-01-01

    Objective Evidence on the impact of legislative changes on individual alcohol consumption is limited. Using an observational study design, we assessed trends in individual alcohol consumption of a Swiss adult population following the public policy changes that took place between 1993 and 2014, while considering individual characteristics and secular trends. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Swiss general adult population. Participants Data from 18 963 participants were collected between 1993 and 2014 (aged 18–75 years). Outcome measures We used data from the ‘Bus Santé’ study, an annual health survey conducted in random samples of the adult population in the State of Geneva, Switzerland. Individual alcohol intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Individual characteristics including education were self-reported. 7 policy changes (6 about alcohol and 1 about tobacco) that occurred between 1993 and 2014 defined 6 different periods. We predicted alcohol intake using quantile regression with multivariate analysis for each period adjusting for participants' characteristics and tested significance periods. Sensitivity analysis was performed including drinkers only, the 10th centile of highest drinkers and smoker's status. Results Between 1993 and 2014, participants' individual alcohol intake decreased from 7.1 to 5.4 g/day (24% reduction, p<0.001). Men decreased their alcohol intake by 34% compared with 22% for women (p<0.001). The decrease in alcohol intake remained significant when considering drinkers only (28% decrease, p<0.001) and the 10th centile highest drinkers (24% decrease, p<0.001). Consumption of all alcoholic beverages decreased between 1993 and 2014 except for the moderate consumption of beer, which increased. After adjustment for participants' characteristics and secular trends, no independent association between alcohol legislative changes and individual alcohol intake was found. Conclusions Between 1993 and

  9. Consumption of soft drinks and health-related quality of life in the adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, A; Lopez-Garcia, E; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F

    2015-11-01

    Despite the accumulated evidence on the health risks associated with sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), the industry has funded mass communication strategies promoting the idea that soft drinks, including SSB, may represent a source of well-being. This study assessed the association between consumption of soft drinks and health-related quality of life (HRQL), as a proxy of well-being, in the adult population of Spain. The cohort was established in 2008-2010 with 8417 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged 18-60 years. Habitual soft drink consumption was assessed with a validated diet history at baseline. HRQL was measured using the SF-12 questionnaire at baseline and in a subsample of 2132 study participants in 2012. The analyses were performed using linear regression and adjusted for the main confounders. In cross-sectional analyses at baseline, those who drank ⩾1 serving/day of SSB had a lower (worse) score on the physical composite summary (PCS) of the SF-12 (adjusted linear regression coefficient: -1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.60 to -0.54) than those who drank 5 kg in the previous 4 years (-0.79; 95% CI: -1.87 to 0.29), and in those without morbidity (-1.18; 95% CI: -1.91 to -0.46). Neither SSBs nor artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) showed an association with the mental composite summary (MCS) of the SF-12. In the prospective analyses, no association was observed between baseline consumption of SSBs or ASBs and the changes in the PCS and MCS score from 2008/2010 to 2012. No evidence was found that soft drink consumption has a beneficial effect on either the physical or mental dimensions of HRQL.

  10. Mortality by causes in HIV-infected adults: comparison with the general population

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    Floristan Yugo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared mortality by cause of death in HIV-infected adults in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy with mortality in the general population in the same age and sex groups. Methods Mortality by cause of death was analyzed for the period 1999-2006 in the cohort of persons aged 20-59 years diagnosed with HIV infection and residing in Navarre (Spain. This was compared with mortality from the same causes in the general population of the same age and sex using standardized mortality ratios (SMR. Results There were 210 deaths among 1145 persons diagnosed with HIV (29.5 per 1000 person-years. About 50% of these deaths were from AIDS. Persons diagnosed with HIV infection had exceeded all-cause mortality (SMR 14.0, 95% CI 12.2 to 16.1 and non-AIDS mortality (SMR 6.9, 5.7 to 8.5. The analysis showed excess mortality from hepatic disease (SMR 69.0, 48.1 to 78.6, drug overdose or addiction (SMR 46.0, 29.2 to 69.0, suicide (SMR 9.6, 3.8 to 19.7, cancer (SMR 3.2, 1.8 to 5.1 and cardiovascular disease (SMR 3.1, 1.3 to 6.1. Mortality in HIV-infected intravenous drug users did not change significantly between the periods 1999-2002 and 2003-2006, but it declined by 56% in non-injecting drug users (P = 0.007. Conclusions Persons with HIV infection continue to have considerable excess mortality despite the availability of effective antiretroviral treatments. However, excess mortality in the HIV patients has declined since these treatments were introduced, especially in persons without a history of intravenous drug use.

  11. Pattern of acute glomerulonephritis in adult population in Dubai: A single-center experience

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    Amna K Alhadari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data of renal diseases have great geographic variability throughout the world. Due to the lack of a national renal data registry system, there is no information on the prevalence rate, clinical and pathological features of various glomerulonephritis (GN in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. In a retrospective cross-sectional study, we analyzed 158 renal biopsies done in Dubai Hospital, UAE, between the years of 2005 and September 2014, with an aim to determine the prevalence rate and frequency of different pathological patterns of GN in adult patients who presented with proteinuria ± hematuria. In our study, primary GN still remains more common than secondary GN (66.4% vs. 33.5%. Among the primary GN in our analysis, minimal change disease was the most common primary GN affecting 20% of the study population (13.2% of the total GN causes followed with membranous GN (18.2%, then membrano- proliferative GN (15.3% and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (13.46%, while among the secondary causes lupus nephritis (LN is the most prevalent GN in UAE, predominantly in the Emirati national population whom constituted 48% of total biopsies. Indeed, LN had the highest incidence among all types of GN even the primary ones, constituting 23.4% of total GN in Dubai (74% of the total secondary causes. Furthermore, systemic lupus erythematosus was the most common GN in women while the minimal change was widely affecting male patients. Among elderly, the most common pathology was diabetic glomerulosclerosis followed by amyloidosis.

  12. [Personality Traits Screening in a Colombian Adult Population Sample - Colombian National Survey of Mental Health-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Gabriel Fernando; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rondón, Martín; Borda Bohigas, Juan Pablo; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    Personality refers to the individual style in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. Traits may configure a personality disorder when there is a long-lasting rigid pattern of inner experience that deviates from the expectations of the individual's culture, are inflexible and form maladaptative schemes in different interpersonal scenarios. Given the pervasiveness of this structure, they cause impairment of functioning in the affected person. To establish the prevalence of personality traits in all selected adults, using the module-structured interview WHO WHM-CIDI-CAPI for clusters A, B and C of personality traits. Colombian National Survey on Mental Health with persons older than 18 years of age. Personality traits that are the most frequently described: Cluster A 46% (95%CI, 45.2-48.1) of people believe they are convinced that there are conspiracies behind many things in the world. Regarding the features of cluster B, 35.6% (95%CI, 34.2-37.0) of the population reports that generally they do not feel bad when offending or upsetting someone and 35.4% (95%CI, 33.9-36.8) refer to show feelings to anyone. The highest proportion of traits were found to the probable borderline personality disorder, as 4.6% (95%CI, 4.1-5.2) of the Colombian population aged 18 and older has 6 or more features of this type, and is the widely reported as an individual entity with similar rates in men and women. The high prevalence of disruptive personality traits requires more research. The high prevalence reported for borderline personality traits suggests the need to implement measures to improve and integrate a collaborative model of care for people afflicted with a possible borderline personality disorder. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Respiratory function, physical activity and body composition in adult rural population

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    Krystyna Rożek-Piechura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate functioning of the respiratory system and to estimate the correlation between the function parameters of the respiratory system and the level of physical activity and body composition in the adult rural population. The study involved a group of 116 people from rural population aged 35–60 years, staying on 3-week rehabilitation camps. They were divided into two groups: men (29 and women (87. The somatic features: body height, body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI and body copmposition were analysed, on the status of smoking and declared level of physical activity (PA was checked. For the evaluation of the functional parameters of the respiratory system the pattern of flow volume curve was used. The following parameters were determined: vital capacity (VC, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, peak expiratory flow (PEF, MEF50 (maximum expiratory flow at 50% of VC and Tiffenau index. Hand grip and maximum torque of the knee join flexor and extensor muscles was measured. As expected, men had significantly higher levels of respiratory parameters. In analyzing the status of smoking cigarettes, it can be stated that the majority of subjects are smokers. conclusions. The values of functional parameters of the respiratory system were suitable for the age they were within the norm and did not show lung ventilation disorder. Most subjects of the study declared low physical activity which may be due to manual work on the farm. Smoking cigarettes significantly lowered the value of such parameters as FEV1, PEF and MEF50 only in the male group but the values did not indicate ventilatory disorder. Parameters of the respiratory system show the highest correlations with the parameters of muscle strength. Significant correlations with body compositions parameters (FFM, water have been noticed too.

  14. Mental-Physical Comorbidity in Korean Adults: Results from a Nationwide General Population Survey in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Byung-Soo; Cho, Maeng Je

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of mental-physical comorbidity and health-threatening risk factors in subjects with mental disorders, and the risks of mental disorders in those with physical diseases for the last 12 months in the general Korean population. Methods Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study replication (KECA-R) was conducted for 6,510 adults between August 2006 and April 2007. The Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (K-CIDI) was used in the survey. Prevalence of mental and physical disorders, and risk factors for physical health were calculated, and their associations were evaluated with adjustment for age and sex. Results Subjects with any mental disorder showed significantly higher prevalence of chronic physical conditions (adjusted odds ratio, AOR=1.5 to 2.8, psmoking, heavy drinking, overweight, and hypertension (AOR=1.5 to 4.0, p<0.001). Of those with chronic physical conditions, 21.6% had one or more comorbid mental disorder compared with 10.5% of the subjects without chronic physical disorders (AOR=2.6, p<0.001). Contrary to expectations, depressive disorders did not show significant association with hypertension and prevalence of obesity was not influenced by presence of mental disorders. Further studies should assess these findings. Conclusion This is the first identification of significant mental-physical comorbidity in the general Korean population. Clinicians and health care officials should keep in mind of its potential adverse effects on treatment outcome and aggravated disease-related socioeconomic burden.

  15. A STUDY ON TIBIAL TORSION IN ADULT DRY TIBIA OF EAST AND SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

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    Jami Sagar Prusti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Rotational deformities of the lower limbs are very common. There is increasing evidence that abnormal torsion in the tibia is associated with severe knee and ankle arthritis. Primary knee osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability in older persons. Varus or valgus alignment increases the risk of osteoarthritis. Coexistence of tibial torsional deformity may increase the risk further. Variability in the tibial torsion has been reported and is due to the torsional forces applied on tibia during development. The aim of the study is to estimate the angle of tibial torsion on both sides and both sexes. The present study was an attempt to provide baseline data of tibial torsion in the East and South Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted mechanically on 100 dry adult unpaired human tibia, i.e. 50 male and 50 female bones. The measurements were recorded and statistically analysed using Student’s unpaired t-test using GraphPad Prism 5.0 (free trial version. RESULTS Out of the 100 tibia undertaken, mean value of tibial torsion angle obtained is 25.8°. In males, it is 23.68° and in females it is about 27.86°. Statistical analysis revealed significant greater average angle of tibial torsion in female bones. The angle of the right-sided bones was more and this was statistically significant. CONCLUSION The gender variation for the angle could be the result of the difference in lifestyle in day-to-day activities. The knowledge of the angle in a population could be helpful in understanding the incidence of pathogenesis related to gait and knee osteoarthritis and in view of reconstructive surgeries in orthopaedic practice.

  16. Evaluation of Risk Factors of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in the Adult Population of Zahedan, Iran

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    Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common form of chronic liver disease. It has been reported that visceral fat releases free fatty acids and arises fat accumulation in the liver. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the some biomarkers of NAFLD risk in adult general population. Materials and Methods: An analytical - descriptive study was carried out on a total of 1529 randomly selected individuals (797 male and 732 female aged 30–88 years in Zahedan. The characteristics of socio-demographic, medical history, food habits and lifestyle factors were obtained by a validated questionnaire, liver ultrasonography and routine laboratory tests were performed with the use of standard techniques. The assessment of waist circumference (WC and waist to hip ratio (WHR was performed as central obesity indices. Results: The mean levels of WC and WHR were 92±11.7 cm and 0.91±0.06 in men, and 91.2±12.4 cm and 0.88±0.07 in women, respectively. 39.7% and 37% of subjects had hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, respectively. Ultrasonography findings demonstrated diffuse fatty liver in 40.9% subjects. Data also showed low consumption of fruits and vegetables and fish, and high consumption of saturated fatty acids (SFAs and fast foods in the majority of obesity and NAFLD subjects compared with normal subjects. Conclusion: The results showed that a large proportion of the study population is at risk of central obesity and NAFLD. The formation of non-alcoholic fatty liver may be associated with obesity and unhealthy dietary patterns which warrants further research.

  17. Mouthwash Use in General Population: Results from Adult Dental Health Survey in Grampian, Scotland

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    Kirstin Rhodes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of mouthwash use and to investigate the associated factors in general population.Material and Methods: An Adult Dental Health Survey was conducted on 3,022 residents of Grampian region of Scotland (adjusted participation rate 58.2%. Participants received a questionnaire consisting of questions on oral health and behavioural factors.Results: The majority of participants (38.1% have never used mouthwash, 17.5% used mouthwash less than once a month, 19.4% used mouthwash once every few days and 25.1% used mouthwash daily.Prevalence of use decreased with age (P < 0.001. Woman were more likely to use mouthwash than men (P = 0.004. Mouthwash use decreased with decrease in the level of deprivation (P < 0.001. Never-smokers were less likely to use mouthwash (40.3% compared to smokers (53.1% or those who stopped smoking (46.5% (P < 0.001. Mouthwash was used by smaller proportion of people drinking alcohol on daily basis (36.6%, than by abstainers (42.2% (P = 0.012.There was a positive relationship between flossing or brushing pattern and mouthwash use (P < 0.001. There was statistically significant relationship between mouthwash use and reasons for the last dental visit (P = 0.009.When compared to healthy individuals, mouthwash was used by higher proportion of people reporting that they had gum disease (P = 0.001, ulcers (P = 0.001, oral infections or swelling (P = 0.002 or other problems (P = 0.025.Conclusions: Mouthwash use in general population is associated with socio-demographic, health and behavioural factors.

  18. Population-based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in an urban slum in Enugu, South East Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeala-Adikaibe, B A; Orjioke, C; Ekenze, O S; Ijoma, U; Onodugo, O; Okudo, G; Okwara, C; Chime, P; Mbadiwe, N; Eddy, A; Onyekonwu, C; Onyebueke, G; Ulasi, I; Mba, A U

    2016-04-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), rapid urbanization and changing lifestyle have modified the profile and pattern of various medical disorders. Apart from high prevalence rates, recent trends with regard to hypertension in Africa include: low levels of awareness, treatment and control. Although a large number of studies provide data about hypertension in SSA, few studies focused on special populations such as urban slum dwellers. The WHO STEP-wise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable diseases was used to access the prevalence of hypertension among adults in one of the urban slums in Enugu. Out of the 811 individuals aged 20 years and above surveyed, 774 (95.4%) cases were analyzed. About 4.7% and 2.7% reported a past history of diabetes and stroke, respectively, whereas 15% had a positive family history of hypertension. The mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) body mass index (BMI) was 23.7 (23.2-24.2) kg m(-2) among males and 26.6 (25.7-26.7) kg m(-2) among females (Phypertension was 52.5% (95% CI: 48.9-56.0) and 55.4% (95% CI: 49.5-61.3) in males and 50.8% (95% CI: 46.4-55.1) in females (P=0.23). It increased with age peaking at 45-54 years in females and ⩾55 years in males. About 40.1% were aware of their hypertension and 28.8% of those aware had normal blood pressure. In regression analysis, systolic (R(2)=0.192) and diastolic (R(2)=0.129) blood pressures increased with age and BMI. The prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Enugu slums is very high and a cause for concern, and calls for urgent attention.

  19. Prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in an adult population in a rural community of Haryana, India

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    Anindo Majumdar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Though nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is increasingly becoming prevalent in the Indian population, knowledge regarding the burden and risk factors of NAFLD is limited, more so from rural areas. This study was thus conducted to estimate the prevalence of NAFLD among adults in a rural community of Haryana, India and to measure the association of diet, physical activity, and other selected risk factors with NAFLD. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in a rural community of Haryana, India among resident adults ≥35 years of age. Eight out of 28 villages were selected by probability proportion to size sampling. The number of eligible and consenting participants randomly selected from each village was 27. Out of 216 participants thus recruited, 184 participants reported for undergoing ultrasonography (USG of the liver, anthropometry, blood pressure recording, and blood sample collection. Finally, 176 participants were analyzed. Results: Prevalence of NAFLD was 30.7%. There was no significant difference in the calorie intake and average total physical activity between participants with and without NAFLD. On multivariate analysis, hypertension [adjusted odds ratio (OR: 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.1-5.0, P 0.03] and an increased waist circumference (adjusted OR: 4.9, 95% CI: 1.5-7.0, P < 0.001 were independently associated with NAFLD. A normal high-density lipoprotein (HDL level was protective against NAFLD (adjusted OR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.8, P 0.001. Conclusions: The high prevalence of NAFLD is already a public health problem, even in the rural parts of India. Urgent public health interventions are required to prevent its development by controlling the cardiometabolic risk factors associated with it.

  20. Effect of health insurance and facility quality improvement on blood pressure in adults with hypertension in Nigeria: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Marleen E; Wit, Ferdinand W N M; Akande, Tanimola M; Kramer, Berber; Osagbemi, Gordon K; Tanovic, Zlata; Gustafsson-Wright, Emily; Brewster, Lizzy M; Lange, Joep M A; Schultsz, Constance

    2014-04-01

    IMPORTANCE Hypertension is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa, but the lack of affordable treatment and the poor quality of health care compromise antihypertensive treatment coverage and outcomes. OBJECTIVE To report the effect of a community-based health insurance (CBHI) program on blood pressure in adults with hypertension in rural Nigeria. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We compared changes in outcomes from baseline (2009) between the CBHI program area and a control area in 2011 through consecutive household surveys. Households were selected from a stratified random sample of geographic areas. Among 3023 community-dwelling adults, all nonpregnant adults (aged ≥18 years) with hypertension at baseline were eligible for this study. INTERVENTION Voluntary CBHI covering primary and secondary health care and quality improvement of health care facilities. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The difference in change in blood pressure from baseline between the program and the control areas in 2011, which was estimated using difference-in-differences regression analysis. RESULTS Of 1500 eligible households, 1450 (96.7%) participated, including 564 adults with hypertension at baseline (313 in the program area and 251 in the control area). Longitudinal data were available for 413 adults (73.2%) (237 in the program area and 176 in the control area). Baseline blood pressure in respondents with hypertension who had incomplete data did not differ between areas. Insurance coverage in the hypertensive population increased from 0% to 40.1% in the program area (n = 237) and remained less than 1% in the control area (n = 176) from 2009 to 2011. Systolic blood pressure decreased by 10.41 (95% CI, -13.28 to -7.54) mm Hg in the program area, constituting a 5.24 (-9.46 to -1.02)-mm Hg greater reduction compared with the control area (P = .02), where systolic blood pressure decreased by 5.17 (-8.29 to -2.05) mm Hg. Diastolic blood pressure decreased by 4.27 (95

  1. Assessing control of postural stability in community-living older adults using performance-based limits of stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jbabdi, Myriam; Boissy, Patrice; Hamel, Mathieu

    2008-01-01

    . Results showed that a motor learning effect was present as the participants optimized their weight-shifting strategy through the first three trials of each task using the visual biofeedback provided on their COP. Reliable measures of control of postural stability at performance-based LOS can be obtained...... during weight-shifting postural tasks with real time visual feedback of the COP displacement to assess postural stability of community-living older adults. In order to obtain reliable results, a learning phase allowing subjects to learn how to control their COP displacement is needed.......BACKGROUND: Balance disability measurements routinely used to identify fall risks in frail populations have limited value in the early detection of postural stability deficits in community-living older adults. The objectives of the study were to 1) measure performance-based limits of stability (LOS...

  2. Substance-related and addictive disorders among adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD): an Ontario population cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Elizabeth; Balogh, Robert; McGarry, Caitlin; Selick, Avra; Dobranowski, Kristin; Wilton, Andrew S; Lunsky, Yona

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Describe the prevalence of substance-related and addictive disorders (SRAD) in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and compare the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of adults with IDD and SRAD to those with IDD or SRAD only. Design Population-based cohort study (the Health Care Access Research and Development Disabilities (H-CARDD) cohort). Setting All legal residents of Ontario, Canada. Participants 66 484 adults, aged 18–64, with IDD identified through linked provincial health and disability income benefits administrative data from fiscal year 2009. 96 589 adults, aged 18–64, with SRAD but without IDD drawn from the provincial health administrative data. Main outcome measures Sociodemographic (age group, sex, neighbourhood income quintile, rurality) and clinical (psychiatric and chronic disease diagnoses, morbidity) characteristics. Results The prevalence of SRAD among adults with IDD was 6.4%, considerably higher than many previous reports and also higher than found for adults without IDD in Ontario (3.5%). Among those with both IDD and SRAD, the rate of psychiatric comorbidity was 78.8%, and the proportion with high or very high overall morbidity was 59.5%. The most common psychiatric comorbidities were anxiety disorders (67.6%), followed by affective (44.6%), psychotic (35.8%) and personality disorders (23.5%). These adults also tended to be younger and more likely to live in the poorest neighbourhoods compared with adults with IDD but no SRAD and adults with SRAD but no IDD. Conclusions SRAD is a significant concern for adults with IDD. It is associated with high rates of psychiatric and other comorbidities, indicating that care coordination and system navigation may be important concerns. Attention should be paid to increasing the recognition of SRAD among individuals with IDD by both healthcare and social service providers and to improving staff skills in successfully engaging those with both IDD and

  3. Memory Monitoring and Control in Young and Intermediate-Age Adults

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    Maxciel Zortea

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The way adults perceive and regulate learning (metamemory is an important indicator of how they perform on memory tasks. This study assessed memory monitoring, control and performance in young and intermediate-age adults according to item type (with or without semantic relation, type of judgment of learning (JOL - immediate or delayed, and age. Twenty-six young adults (M = 22 years old and 18 intermediate-age adults (M = 47 years old participated, who responded to an experimental paradigm to evaluate metamemory. Results showed that related word-pairs received higher magnitude for the JOLs and better cued-recall scores. JOLs’ accuracy was similar between the age groups, delayed JOLs being more accurate only for young adults. Intermediate-age adults apparently based their allocation of study time less on JOLs or cued-recall than young adults.

  4. Prior population immunity reduces the expected impact of CTL-inducing vaccines for pandemic influenza control.

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    Kirsty J Bolton

    Full Text Available Vaccines that trigger an influenza-specific cytotoxic T cell (CTL response may aid pandemic control by limiting the transmission of novel influenza A viruses (IAV. We consider interventions with hypothetical CTL-inducing vaccines in a range of epidemiologically plausible pandemic scenarios. We estimate the achievable reduction in the attack rate, and, by adopting a model linking epidemic progression to the emergence of IAV variants, the opportunity for antigenic drift. We demonstrate that CTL-inducing vaccines have limited utility for modifying population-level outcomes if influenza-specific T cells found widely in adults already suppress transmission and prove difficult to enhance. Administration of CTL-inducing vaccines that are efficacious in "influenza-experienced" and "influenza-naive" hosts can likely slow transmission sufficiently to mitigate a moderate IAV pandemic. However if neutralising cross-reactive antibody to an emerging IAV are common in influenza-experienced hosts, as for the swine-variant H3N2v, boosting CTL immunity may be ineffective at reducing population spread, indicating that CTL-inducing vaccines are best used against novel subtypes such as H7N9. Unless vaccines cannot readily suppress transmission from infected hosts with naive T cell pools, targeting influenza-naive hosts is preferable. Such strategies are of enhanced benefit if naive hosts are typically intensively mixing children and when a subset of experienced hosts have pre-existing neutralising cross-reactive antibody. We show that CTL-inducing vaccination campaigns may have greater power to suppress antigenic drift than previously suggested, and targeting adults may be the optimal strategy to achieve this when the vaccination campaign does not have the power to curtail the attack rate. Our results highlight the need to design interventions based on pre-existing cellular immunity and knowledge of the host determinants of vaccine efficacy, and provide a framework

  5. Prior Population Immunity Reduces the Expected Impact of CTL-Inducing Vaccines for Pandemic Influenza Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Kirsty J.; McCaw, James M.; Brown, Lorena; Jackson, David; Kedzierska, Katherine; McVernon, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines that trigger an influenza-specific cytotoxic T cell (CTL) response may aid pandemic control by limiting the transmission of novel influenza A viruses (IAV). We consider interventions with hypothetical CTL-inducing vaccines in a range of epidemiologically plausible pandemic scenarios. We estimate the achievable reduction in the attack rate, and, by adopting a model linking epidemic progression to the emergence of IAV variants, the opportunity for antigenic drift. We demonstrate that CTL-inducing vaccines have limited utility for modifying population-level outcomes if influenza-specific T cells found widely in adults already suppress transmission and prove difficult to enhance. Administration of CTL-inducing vaccines that are efficacious in "influenza-experienced" and "influenza-naive" hosts can likely slow transmission sufficiently to mitigate a moderate IAV pandemic. However if neutralising cross-reactive antibody to an emerging IAV are common in influenza-experienced hosts, as for the swine-variant H3N2v, boosting CTL immunity may be ineffective at reducing population spread, indicating that CTL-inducing vaccines are best used against novel subtypes such as H7N9. Unless vaccines cannot readily suppress transmission from infected hosts with naive T cell pools, targeting influenza-naive hosts is preferable. Such strategies are of enhanced benefit if naive hosts are typically intensively mixing children and when a subset of experienced hosts have pre-existing neutralising cross-reactive antibody. We show that CTL-inducing vaccination campaigns may have greater power to suppress antigenic drift than previously suggested, and targeting adults may be the optimal strategy to achieve this when the vaccination campaign does not have the power to curtail the attack rate. Our results highlight the need to design interventions based on pre-existing cellular immunity and knowledge of the host determinants of vaccine efficacy, and provide a framework for assessing the

  6. Decrease in vitamin d status in the greenlandic adult population from 1987-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina O; Jørgensen, Marit E; Friis, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low vitamin D status may be pronounced in Arctic populations due to limited sun exposure and decreasing intake of traditional food. OBJECTIVE: To investigate serum 25(OH)D3 as a measure of vitamin D status among adult Inuit in Greenland, predictors of low serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations...... and the trend from 1987 to 2005-2010. DESIGN: A total of 2877 randomly selected Inuit (≥18 years) from the Inuit Health in Transition study were included. A sub-sample (n = 330) donated a blood sample in 1987 which allowed assessment of time trends in vitamin D status. RESULTS: The geometric mean serum 25(OH)D3...... (25[OH]D2 concentrations were negligible and not reported) in 2005-2010 was lowest among the 18-29 year old individuals (30.7 nmol/L; 95% CI: 29.7; 31.7) and increased with age. In all age-groups it decreased from 1987 to 2005-2010 (32%-58%). Low 25(OH)D3 concentrations (

  7. Relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population

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    Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population. Materials and methods. A 140-item SFFQ and two 24-hour dietary recalls (24DRs were administered. Foods were categorized into 29 food groups used to derive dietary patterns via factor analy­sis. Pearson and intraclass correlations coefficients between dietary pattern scores identified from the SFFQ and 24DRs were assessed. Results. Pattern 1 was high in snacks, fast food, soft drinks, processed meats and refined grains; pattern 2 was high in fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, and dairy products; and pattern 3 was high in legumes, eggs, sweetened foods and sugars. Pearson correlation oefficients between the SFFQ and the 24DRs for these patterns were 0.66 (P<0.001, 0.41 (P<0.001 and 0.29 (P=0.193 respectively. Conclusions. Our data indicate reasonable validity of the SFFQ, using fac­tor analysis, to derive major dietary patterns in comparison with two 24DR.

  8. [Prevalence trends of high risk of mental disorders in the Spanish adult population: 2006-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basterra, Virginia

    To evaluate the prevalence of high risk of psychiatric morbidity in the Spanish adult population and its changes between 2006 and 2012. Data from 47,905 participants obtained from the National Health Surveys in 2006 and 2012 were used. Mental health status was assessed with the General Health Questionnaire score. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted. The prevalence of high risk of psychiatric morbidity was 20.5% in 2012 and 21.3% in 2006. Using 2006 as the reference, the odds ratio (OR) for these problems in 2012 was 0.84 (0.79-0.89) in women and 1.10 (1.02-1.18) in men. In women, it decreased for all ages. In men, these ORs were 1.15 (1.04-1.27) in the aged 16-44 group, 1.23 (1.08-1.40) in the aged 45-64 group and 0.81 (0.68-0.96) in the aged ≥ 65 group. The prevalence of high risk of psychiatric morbidity decreased except in males <65 years of age, who are more sensitive to the economic crisis. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. An atypical anxious-impulsive pattern of social anxiety disorder in an adult clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörtberg, Ewa; Tillfors, Maria; van Zalk, Nejra; Kerr, Margaret

    2014-08-01

    An atypical subgroup of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) with impulsive rather than inhibited traits has recently been reported. The current study examined whether such an atypical subgroup could be identified in a clinical population of 84 adults with SAD. The temperament dimensions harm avoidance and novelty seeking of the Temperament and Character Inventory, and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale were used in cluster analyses. The identified clusters were compared on depressive symptoms, the character dimension self-directedness, and treatment outcome. Among the six identified clusters, 24% of the sample had atypical characteristics, demonstrating mainly generalized SAD in combination with coexisting traits of inhibition and impulsivity. As additional signs of severity, this group showed low self-directedness and high levels of depressive symptoms. We also identified a typically inhibited subgroup comprising generalized SAD with high levels of harm avoidance and low levels of novelty seeking, with a similar clinical severity as the atypical subgroup. Thus, higher levels of harm avoidance and social anxiety in combination with higher or lower levels of novelty seeking and low self-directedness seem to contribute to a more severe clinical picture. Post hoc examination of the treatment outcome in these subgroups showed that only 20 to 30% achieved clinically significant change. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Considerations when using the activPAL monitor in field-based research with adult populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charlotte L. Edwardson; Elisabeth A.H. Winkler; Danielle H. Bodicoat; Tom Yates; Melanie J. Davies; David W. Dunstan; Genevieve N. Healy

    2017-01-01

    Research indicates that high levels of sedentary behavior (sitting or lying with low energy expenditure) are adversely associated with health. A key factor in improving our understanding of the impact of sedentary behavior (and patterns of sedentary time accumulation) on health is the use of objective measurement tools that collect date and time-stamped activity information. One such tool is the activPAL monitor. This thigh-worn device uses accelerometer-derived information about thigh position to determine the start and end of each period spent sitting/lying, standing, and stepping, as well as stepping speed, step counts, and postural transitions. The activPAL is increasingly being used within field-based research for its ability to measure sitting/lying via posture. We summarise key issues to consider when using the activPAL in physical activity and sedentary behavior field-based research with adult populations. It is intended that the findings and discussion points be informative for researchers who are currently using activPAL monitors or are intending to use them. Pre-data collection decisions, monitor preparation and distribution, data collection considerations, and manual and automated data processing possibilities are presented using examples from current literature and experiences from 2 research groups from the UK and Australia.

  11. Risk factors for tooth loss in an adult population: a radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Golnosh; Vaeth, Michael; Kirkevang, Lise-Lotte; Wenzel, Ann; Isidor, Flemming

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence and identify risk factors for tooth loss during a 5-year period in a randomly selected Danish population. In 1997 and 2003, 473 randomly selected adults received a full-mouth radiographic examination. The total number of teeth was 12,444. For each tooth, the following information was recorded from the radiographs: marginal bone level, filling, crown, root canal post, root filling, apicectomy, periapical status and caries lesion. Unconditional and conditional logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors for tooth loss. During the study period, 107 teeth in 60 individuals were lost. On the individual level, reduced marginal bone level and apical periodontitis (AP) were highly associated with tooth loss. On the tooth level, a reduced marginal bone level, AP and apicectomy were strongly associated with tooth loss. Canines were not lost often, whereas tooth loss was more frequently observed in molars and premolars than in incisors. A reduced marginal bone level and AP were associated with tooth loss over time. Furthermore, there was a higher risk of tooth loss in the posterior regions than in the anterior region.

  12. Factors associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet in the adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino-Alonso, Maria C; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Belio, Jose Felix Magdalena; Colominas-Garrido, Ruben; Lema-Bartolomé, Jorge; Arranz, Amparo Gómez; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2014-04-01

    Our aim was to analyze the variables associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet in the adult population. We conducted a cross-sectional study in an established cohort of 1,553 healthy study participants (mean age=55 ± 14 years; 60.3% women). Mediterranean diet adherence was evaluated based on a 14-item questionnaire and the Mediterranean diet adherence screener, which defines adequate adherence as a score of ≥ 9. Physical activity was evaluated using the 7-day physical activity record. Sociodemographic, biological, and anthropometric variables were also evaluated. The differences between Mediterranean diet compliers and noncompliers are defined by the consumption of fruit, red meats, carbonated beverages, wine, fish/shellfish, legumes, pasta, and rice (PMediterranean diet adherence: more physical exercise (odds ratio=1.588), older age (odds ratio=2.162), and moderate alcohol consumption (odds ratio=1.342). The factors associated with improved Mediterranean diet adherence included female sex, age older than 62 years, moderate alcohol consumption, and more than 17 metabolic equivalents (METs)/h/wk of physical exercise. Poorer adherence was associated with males and obesity.

  13. Determinants of blood lead levels in an adult population from a mining area in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos Paoliello, M. M.; Mello de Capitani, E.; Gonçalves da Cunha, F.; Carvalho, M. De Fatima; Matsuo, T.; Sakuma, A.; Ribeiro Figueiredo, B.

    2003-05-01

    During the last fifty year the Ribeira river valley, Brazil, had been under the influence of the full activity of a huge lead refinery and mining along the riverside. The plant completely stopped all kind of industrial activities at the end of 1995, and part of the worker population and their families still remain living nearby in smal communities. The objective of the present study was to assess the deterninants of blood lead levels (BLL) in these nining areas, where residual environmental contamination from the past industrial activity still remains. Blood samples of 350 adults aged 15 to 70, residing in areas around the mine and the refinery were collected. A questionnaire was given in order to gather information on food habits, current and former residential places occupationnal activities, among other variables. Blood lead concentrations were analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using Zeeman background correction. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the independent contribution of selected variables in predicting BLL in those subjects. The following variables showed significant association with high BLL: residential area close to the lead refinery, former dwelling at the refinery village, male gender, smoking habits, and consume of fruits from home back yard.

  14. Knowledge, attitudes and practices survey on organ donation among a selected adult population of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Taimur

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in a selected adult population in Pakistan. Methods Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 440; 408 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. Data collection was carried out via a face to face interview based on a pre-tested questionnaire in selected public areas of Karachi, Pakistan. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.15 and associations were tested using the Pearson's Chi square test. Multiple logistic regression was used to find independent predictors of knowledge status and motivation of organ donation. Results Knowledge about organ donation was significantly associated with education (p = 0.000 and socioeconomic status (p = 0.038. 70/198 (35.3% people expressed a high motivation to donate. Allowance of organ donation in religion was significantly associated with the motivation to donate (p = 0.000. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher level of education and higher socioeconomic status were significant (p Conclusion Better knowledge may ultimately translate into the act of donation. Effective measures should be taken to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media, doctors and religious scholars.

  15. Analyzing Population Genetics Using the Mitochondrial Control Region and Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takumi; Phillips, Bonnie; Latourelle, Sandra M.; Elwess, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    The 14-base pair hypervariable region in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Asian populations, specifically Japanese and Chinese students at Plattsburgh State University, was examined. Previous research on this 14-base pair region showed it to be susceptible to mutations and as a result indicated direct correlation with specific ethnic populations.…

  16. The Rapid Reproducers Paradox: Population Control and Individual Procreative Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissenburg, M.L.J.

    1998-01-01

    In this article, I consider the impact of population policies on individual rights (in a very broad sense of the word), a topic that has received disproportionately little attention in debates on the legitimacy of population rights. I first concentrate on arguments in favour of very radical antinata

  17. The Rapid Reproducers Paradox: Population Control and Individual Procreative Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissenburg, M.L.J.

    1998-01-01

    In this article, I consider the impact of population policies on individual rights (in a very broad sense of the word), a topic that has received disproportionately little attention in debates on the legitimacy of population rights. I first concentrate on arguments in favour of very radical

  18. Peruvians’ sleep duration: analysis of a population-based survey on adolescents and adults

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    Rodrigo M. Carrillo-Larco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep duration, either short or long, has been associated with diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Characterizing the prevalence and patterns of sleep duration at the population-level, especially in resource-constrained settings, will provide informative evidence on a potentially modifiable risk factor. The aim of this study was to explore the patterns of sleep duration in the Peruvian adult and adolescent population, together with its socio-demographic profile.Material and Methods. A total of 12,424 subjects, mean age 35.8 years (SD ±17.7, 50.6% males, were included in the analysis. This is a cross-sectional study, secondary analysis of the Use of Time National Survey conducted in 2010. We used weighted means and proportions to describe sleep duration according to socio-demographic variables (area and region; sex; age; education attainment; asset index; martial and job status. We used Poisson regressions, taking into account the multistage sampling design of the survey, to calculate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Main outcomes were short- (<6 h and long-sleep duration (≥ 9 h.Results. On average, Peruvians slept 7.7 h (95% CI [7.4–8.0] on weekdays and 8.0 h (95% CI [7.8–8.1] during weekends. The proportions of short- and long-sleep, during weekdays, were 4.3% (95% CI [2.9%–6.3%] and 22.4% (95% CI [14.9%–32.1%], respectively. Regarding urban and rural areas, a much higher proportion of short-sleep was observed in the former (92.0% vs. 8.0%; both for weekdays and weekends. On the multivariable analysis, compared to regular-sleepers (≥ 6 to <9 h, short-sleepers were twice more likely to be older and to have higher educational status, and 50% more likely to be currently employed. Similarly, relative to regular-sleep, long-sleepers were more likely to have a lower socioeconomic status as per educational attainment.Conclusions. In this

  19. Factors Affecting Tooth Retention among Adult Population of Dharwad District, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, Nurul Ameen; Prasad, K V V

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral health in relation to general health is influen-ced by the retention of teeth. Understanding factors affecting tooth retention will help health and social policy-makers to translate the knowledge on tooth retention into action programs for improving oral health of the people and hence enhance tooth retention. Aim The aim of the present study was to determine the factors affecting tooth retention among adult population of Dharwad district, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1100 subjects (616 urban and 484 rural) residing in Dharwad district, Karnataka, India, was conducted. Self-designed questionnaire was prepared and data were collected on socio-demographic factors, oral hygiene practices, diet practices, adverse oral habits and frequency of dental visits by the interview method and clinical examination. Statistical analysis was carried out by applying one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), unpaired t-test and backward stepwise multiple regression. Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to test the correlation between the two quantitative variables. Results A total of 66.72% subjects retained all 28 teeth and mean number of teeth retained by the study subjects were 25.33 (90.46%). There was gradual reduction in tooth retention with increase in age. Males (95.8%) compared to females (94.07%), unmarried (98.8%) than married subjects (93.3%) and subjects with intermediate or post high school diploma (97.5%) than those who were illiterate (89.5%) and other low educational level study subjects retained more teeth. Further mean values of tooth retention for other socio demographic factors i.e., occupation, income and family size were not statistically significant (p≤0.05). In addition, subjects using tooth brush (96.6%) and tooth paste (96.6%) for cleaning the teeth, subjects practicing mixed diet (96.6%) and subjects who never visited the dentist (96.5%) in their lifetime showed statistically significant greater tooth

  20. Children and young adults with parents with cancer: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syse A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Astri Syse1, Gjøril B Aas1, Jon H Loge2,31Cancer Registry of Norway, 2Oslo University Hospital, 3University of Oslo, Oslo, NorwayBackground: Today many people are choosing to have children later in life. Additionally, the use of sophisticated diagnostic tools and screening modalities has increased over recent years. Because of these factors, cancer is being diagnosed more frequently during the child-rearing years. Sociodemographic and cancer-related information on families and minor (0–18 years and young adult (YA (19–25 years children experiencing parental cancer is scarce, but this information is vital for healthcare initiatives aimed toward those potentially adversely affected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe features of families and minor and YA children affected by parental cancer in a nationwide population.Methods: Complete Norwegian birth cohort data were obtained from national registries. Descriptive prevalence and incidence statistics were collected for parents and minor and YA children. Logistic regression models were used to assess factors likely to influence parental death.Results: Every year around 0.3% of all families with children under the age of 18 years encounter parental cancer, and 3.1% of minors and 8.4% of YAs have a parent who has been diagnosed with cancer. This study found skin, breast, testicular, and colorectal cancers were the most common forms of cancer diagnosed. The sociodemographic features of those affected were fairly similar to those of the general population. One in five children experienced parental death from cancer; parental death was more often paternal than maternal and was most common in parents diagnosed with leukemia or brain, colorectal, and lung tumors. Deaths are uncommon among parents without cancer.Conclusion: Adequate assistance for minor and YA children affected by parental cancer requires knowledge of their number and characteristics. Parental cancer is more common than

  1. Prevalence of and factors associated with homebound status among adults in urban and rural Spanish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrón-Blanco, Laureano; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Almazán, Javier; Rodríguez-Blázquez, Carmen; Franco, Esther; Damián, Javier

    2016-07-15

    There is a marked growth in the number of homebound older adults, due mainly to increased life expectancy. Although this group has special characteristics and needs, it has not been properly studied. This study thus aimed to measure the prevalence of homebound status in a community-dwelling population, and its association with both socio-demographic, medical and functional characteristics and the use of health care and social services. We used instruments coming under the WHO International Classification of Functioning (ICF) framework to carry out a cross-sectional study on populations aged 50 years and over in the province of Zaragoza (Spain), covering a total of 1622 participants. Persons who reported severe or extreme difficulty in getting out of the house in the last 30 days were deemed to be homebound. We studied associations between homebound status and several relevant variables in a group of 790 subjects who tested positive to the WHODAS-12 disability screening tool. Prevalence of homebound status was 9.8 % (95 % CI: 8.4 to 11.3 %). Homebound participants tended to be older, female and display a lower educational level, a higher number of diseases, poorer cognition and a higher degree of disability. In fully adjusted models including disability as measured with the ICF-Checklist, the associated variables (odds ratios and [95 % confidence intervals]) were: female gender (3.75 [2.10-6.68]); urban population (2.36 [1.30-4.29]); WHODAS-12 disability (6.27 [2.56-15.40]); depressive symptoms (2.95 [1.86-4.68]); moderate pain (2.37 [1.30-4.31] and severe pain (3.03 [1.31-7.01]), as compared to the group with no/mild pain; hospital admissions in the previous 3 months (2.98 [1.25-7.11]); and diabetes (1.87 [1.03-3.41]). Adjustment for ICF-Checklist disability had a notable impact on most associations. The study shows that homebound status is a common problem in our setting, and that being disabled is its main determinant. Socio-demographic characteristics, barriers

  2. Cognitive-reminiscence therapy and usual care for depression in young adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallford, David J; Mellor, David

    2013-10-21

    Depression is a common affliction for young adults, and is associated with a range of adverse outcomes. Cognitive-reminiscence therapy is a brief, structured intervention that has been shown to be highly effective for reducing depressive symptoms, yet to date has not been evaluated in young adult populations. Given its basis in theory-guided reminiscence-based therapy, and incorporation of effective therapeutic techniques drawn from cognitive therapy and problem-solving frameworks, it is hypothesized to be effective in treating depression in this age group. This article presents the design of a randomized controlled trial implemented in a community-based youth mental health service to compare cognitive-reminiscence therapy with usual care for the treatment of depressive symptoms in young adults. Participants in the cognitive-reminiscence group will receive six sessions of weekly, individual psychotherapy, whilst participants in the usual-care group will receive support from the youth mental health service according to usual procedures. A between-within repeated-measures design will be used to evaluate changes in self-reported outcome measures of depressive symptoms, psychological wellbeing and anxiety across baseline, three weeks into the intervention, post-intervention, one month post-intervention and three months post-intervention. Interviews will also be conducted with participants from the cognitive-reminiscence group to collect information about their experience receiving the intervention, and the process underlying any changes that occur. This study will determine whether a therapeutic approach to depression that has been shown to be effective in older adult populations is also effective for young adults. The expected outcome of this study is the validation of a brief, evidence-based, manualized treatment for young adults with depressive symptoms. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000084785.

  3. Safety Margins in Older Adults Increase with Improved Control of a Dynamic Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher James Hasson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Older adults face decreasing motor capabilities due to pervasive neuromuscular degradations. As a consequence errors in movement control increase. Thus, older individuals should maintain larger safety margins than younger adults. While this has been shown for object manipulation tasks, several reports on whole-body activities, such as posture and locomotion, however demonstrate age-related reductions in safety margins. This is despite increased costs for control errors, such as a fall. We posit that this paradox could be explained by the dynamic challenge presented by the body or an external object, and that age-related reductions in safety margins are in part due to a decreased ability to control dynamics. To test this conjecture we used a virtual ball-in-cup task that had challenging dynamics, yet afforded an explicit rendering of the physics and safety margin. The hypotheses were: 1 When manipulating an object with challenging dynamics, older adults have smaller safety margins than younger adults. 2 Older adults increase their safety margins with practice. Nine young and 10 healthy older adults practiced moving the virtual ball-in-cup to a target location in exactly two seconds. The accuracy and precision of the timing error quantified skill and the ball energy relative to an escape threshold quantified the safety margin. Compared to the young adults, older adults had increased timing errors, greater variability, and decreased safety margins. With practice, both young and older adults improved their ability to control the object with decreased timing errors and variability, and increased their safety margins. These results suggest that safety margins are related to the ability to control dynamics, and may explain why in tasks with simple dynamics older adults use adequate safety margins, but in more complex tasks, safety margins may be inadequate. Further, the results indicate that task-specific training may improve safety margins in older

  4. Genome-wide association study of autistic-like traits in a general population study of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel Maree; Cadby, Gemma; Melton, Phillip E; Abraham, Lawrence J; Whitehouse, Andrew J; Moses, Eric K

    2013-01-01

    Lay abstract: It has been proposed that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), representing the extreme end of this distribution. The current study undertook a genome-wide association (GWA) scan of 965 young Western Australian adults to identify novel risk variants associated with autistic-like traits. No associations reached genome-wide significance; however, a review of nominally associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) indicated two positional candidate loci that have been previously implicated in autistic-like trait etiology. Scientific abstract: Research has proposed that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical ASD representing the extreme end of this distribution. Inherent in this proposal is that biological mechanisms associated with clinical ASD may also underpin variation in autistic-like traits within the general population. A GWA study using 2,462,046 SNPs was undertaken for ASD in 965 individuals from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. No SNP associations reached genome-wide significance (p CBLN1. The rs198198 SNP (p = 9.587 × 10(-6)), is located within an intron of the protein kinase C, beta 1 (PRKCB1) gene on chromosome 16p11. The PRKCB1 gene has been previously reported in linkage and association studies for ASD, and its mRNA expression has been shown to be significantly down regulated in ASD cases compared with controls. The rs16946931 SNP (p = 1.78 × 10(-6)) is located in a region flanking the Cerebellin 1 (CBLN1) gene on chromosome 16q12.1. The CBLN1 gene is involved with synaptogenesis and is part of a gene family previously implicated in ASD. This GWA study is only the second to examine SNPs associated with autistic-like traits in the general population, and provides evidence to support roles for the PRKCB1 and CBLN1 genes in risk of clinical ASD.

  5. Controlling malaria: competition, seasonality and 'slingshotting' transgenic mosquitoes into natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, W M; Bronnikova, T V

    2009-03-01

    Forty years after the World Health Organization abandoned its eradication campaign, malaria remains a public health problem of the first magnitude with worldwide infection rates on the order of 300 million souls. The present paper reviews potential control strategies from the viewpoint of mathematical epidemiology. Following MacDonald and others, we argue in Section 1 that the use of imagicides, i.e., killing, or at least repelling, adult mosquitoes, is inherently the most effective way of combating the pandemic. In Section 2, we model competition between wild-type (WT) and plasmodium-resistant, genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes. Under the assumptions of inherent cost and prevalence-dependant benefit to transgenics, GM introduction can never eradicate malaria save by stochastic extinction of WTs. Moreover, alternative interventions that reduce prevalence have the undesirable consequence of reducing the likelihood of successful GM introduction. Section 3 considers the possibility of using seasonal fluctuations in mosquito abundance and disease prevalence to 'slingshot' GM mosquitoes into natural populations. By introducing GM mosquitoes when natural populations are about to expand, one can 'piggyback' on the yearly cycle. Importantly, this effect is only significant when transgene cost is small, in which case the non-trivial equilibrium is a focus (damped oscillations), and piggybacking is amplified by the system's inherent tendency to oscillate. By way of contrast, when transgene cost is large, the equilibrium is a node and no such amplification is obtained.

  6. Race, sense of control over life, and short-term risk of mortality among older adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2017-08-01

    Sense of control over life has been shown to have protective health effects in studies that have mostly enrolled White middle class individuals. It is unknown, however, whether populations differ in the protective health gain associated with sense of control over life. This study compared a nationally representative sample of Black and White older adults for protective effects of sense of control over life on short-term risk of all-cause mortality in the United States. This longitudinal prospective study followed 1,493 White (n = 759) and Black (n = 734) older adults (age 66 or more) from 2001 to 2004. Race, demographics, socio-economics, sense of control over life, health behaviors, and self-rated health were measured at baseline in 2001. Outcome was all-cause mortality occurring between 2001 and 2004. Logistic regression models were used for data analysis. In the pooled sample, sense of control over life was protective against 3-year mortality risk above and beyond demographics, socio-economics, health behaviors, and self-rated health. We found a race by sense of control over life interaction, suggesting a stronger protective effect of control over life on mortality risk for Whites compared to Blacks. In race-specific models, sense of control over life at baseline was predictive of mortality among Whites but not Blacks. In the United States, Black older adults do not gain a survival benefit associated with high levels of sense of control over life, as do their White counterparts. It is not clear why sense of control over life translates into survival for Whites but not for Blacks.

  7. Prevalence of asthma control among adults in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK

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    P. Demoly

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this article were to estimate the prevalence of asthma control and describe the characteristics of at least well-controlled (ALWC versus not well-controlled (NWC asthmatics. Data were obtained from the European National Health and Wellness Survey, an internet-based, cross-sectional study of 37,476 adults in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. Analysis was limited to 2,337 respondents who self-reported a physician diagnosis. Based on the Asthma Control Test (ACT, respondents were grouped as ALWC (ACT 20 and NWC (ACT 19. The prevalence of diagnosed asthma across five countries was estimated to be 5.8% (14 million extrapolated for the European Union population. Of these, 50.4% (7.1 million were NWC. Compared with ALWC, NWC were older (15.8 versus 15.0%; p<0.001, less likely to be college educated (28.7 versus 36.3%; p<0.001 and more likely to be obese (30.0 versus 22.7%; p<0.001, experience depression (28.0 versus 18.7%; p<0.001 and smoke (34.7 versus 25.0%; p<0.001. The NWC had more occasions of contact with healthcare providers and were more likely to use controller and rescue medications, but with less adherence. A substantial portion of asthmatics are NWC. However, the proportion of NWC asthmatics found in this study was less than in previously reported. Patients and physicians need to be educated on the importance of asthma control and adherence to treatments.

  8. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity and Their Associations with Socioeconomic Status in a Rural Han Chinese Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ming-Juan; Chen, Bing-Bing; Mao, Ying-Ying; Zhu, Yi-Min; Yu, Yun-Xian; Wu, Yin-Yin; Zhang, Ming-Wu; Zhu, Shan-Kuan; Chen, Kun

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of overweight, general obesity, and abdominal obesity and examine their associations with socioeconomic status in a rural Chinese adult population. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 15,236 participants ≥ 35 years of age (6,313 men [41.4%] and 8,923 women [58.6%]). Each participant’s weight, height, waist circumference (WC), and hipline circumference (HC) were measured, and demographic and socioeconomic data were collected using questionnaires. Results The mean body mass index (BMI) values were 23.31 ± 2.96 and 23.89 ± 3.23 kg m-2 and the mean WC values were 79.13 ± 8.43 and 79.54 ± 8.27 cm for men and women, respectively. The age-standardized prevalence rates of overweight (BMI ≥ 24.0 kg m-2), general obesity (BMI ≥ 28.0 kg m-2), and abdominal obesity (WC ≥ 85 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women) were 32.0%, 6.7%, and 27.0% for men and 35.1%, 9.7%, and 48.3% for women, respectively. All gender differences were statistically significant (p obesity slowly decreased among men but sharply increased among women as age increased (p obesity and abdominal obesity among women but positively associated with abdominal obesity among men. No significant correlation was found between obesity and income. Conclusions These results suggest a high prevalence of obesity which might differ by gender and age, and an inverse association among women and a mixed association among men noted between education and obesity in our locality. Preventive and therapeutic programs are warranted to control this serious public health problem. The gender-specific characteristics of populations at high-risk of developing obesity should be taken into consideration when designing interventional programs. PMID:24224024

  9. Prevalence of Risk Factors for Chronic Non-communicable Diseases Using WHO Steps Approach in an Adult Population in Delhi

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    Garg, Ankur; Anand, Tanu; Sharma, Urvi; Kishore, Jugal; Chakraborty, Mantosh; Ray, Prakash Chandra; Ingle, Gopal Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing worldwide largely due to prevalence of various risk factors, which can be controlled. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to measure the prevalence of major preventable risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi, using STEPS approach. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study, that included a random sample of 200 adults, was conducted. A study tool based on the WHO STEPS questionnaire for assessing non-communicable diseases and their risk factors was used. Fasting venous blood sample was collected to assess the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. Anthropometric measurements of the participants were also taken. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: Out of the 200 participants, 26% (n = 52) were consuming alcohol and 17% (n = 34) were smoking. Majority (77.5%) had a raised waist circumference, and more than two-thirds were either overweight or obese. Fasting blood sugar levels were found to be raised in 18% of the study population. More than third participants had raised systolic and diastolic blood pressures and abnormal lipid profiles. More males were found to be overweight in comparison to females (P < 0.01), but in contrast, obesity (P < 0.05) and raised waist circumference (P < 0.001) were more common in females. Tobacco use was more common in lower class (P < 0.05), whereas obesity was commoner in the upper socio-economic class (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Study showed a high burden of risk factors for NCDs in the study population, pointing towards changing disease epidemiology of non-communicable diseases in India. PMID:25161966

  10. Deciphering interference control in adults with ADHD by using distribution analyses and electromyographic activity.

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    Suarez, Isabel; Burle, B; Tobon, C; Pineda, D; Lopera, F; Hasbroucq, T; Casini, L

    2015-07-01

    A deficit in "interference control" is commonly found in adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This has mainly been interpreted as difficulties in inhibiting inappropriate responses. However, interference control involves processes other than simply the ability to inhibit. Consequently, we used sophisticated analysis to decipher the additional processes of interference control in these patients. We compared interference control between 16 adults with ADHD and 15 control adults performing a Simon task. In most studies, performance is generally reported in terms of mean error rates and reaction times (RTs). However, here we used distribution analyses of behavioral data, complemented by analyses of electromyographic (EMG) activity. This allowed us to better quantify the control of interference, specifically the part that remains hidden when pure correct trials are not distinguished from partial errors. Partial errors correspond to sub-threshold EMG bursts induced by incorrect responses that immediately precede a correct response. Moreover, besides "online" control, we also investigated cognitive control effects manifesting across consecutive trials. The main findings were that adults with ADHD were slower and showed a larger interference effect in comparison to controls. However, the data revealed that the larger interference effect was due neither to higher impulse expression, nor to a deficit in inhibition but that these patients presented a larger interference effect than the controls after congruent trials. We propose and discuss the hypothesis that the interference control deficit found in adults with ADHD is secondary to impairments in sustained attention.

  11. Executive Cognitive Functioning and Cardiovascular Autonomic Regulation in a Population-Based sample of Working Adults

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    Cecilia Ulrika Dagsdotter Stenfors

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Executive cognitive functioning is essential in private and working life and is sensitive to stress and aging. Cardiovascular (CV health factors are related to cognitive decline and dementia, but there is relatively few studies of the role of CV autonomic regulation, a key component in stress responses and risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and executive processes. An emerging pattern of results from previous studies suggest that different executive processes may be differentially associated with CV autonomic regulationThe aim was thus to study the associations between multiple measures of CV autonomic regulation and measures of different executive cognitive processes. Method: Participants were 119 healthy working adults (79% women, from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Electrocardiogram was sampled for analysis of heart rate variability measures, including the Standard Deviation of NN, here heart beats (SDNN, root of the mean squares of successive differences (RMSSD, high frequency (HF power band from spectral analyses, and QT variability index (QTVI, a measure of myocardial repolarization patterns. Executive cognitive functioning was measured by 7 neuropsychological tests. The relationships between CV autonomic regulation measures and executive cognitive measures were tested with bivariate and partial correlational analyses, controlling for demographic variables and mental health symptoms.Results: Higher SDNN and RMSSD and lower QTVI were significantly associated with better performance on cognitive tests tapping inhibition, updating, shifting and psychomotor speed. After adjustments for demographic factors however (age being the greatest confounder, only QTVI was clearly associated with these executive tests. No such associations were seen for working memory capacity. Conclusion: Poorer cardiovascular autonomic regulation in terms of lower SDNN & RMSSD and higher QTVI was associated with poorer

  12. Executive Cognitive Functioning and Cardiovascular Autonomic Regulation in a Population-Based Sample of Working Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenfors, Cecilia U. D.; Hanson, Linda M.; Theorell, Töres; Osika, Walter S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Executive cognitive functioning is essential in private and working life and is sensitive to stress and aging. Cardiovascular (CV) health factors are related to cognitive decline and dementia, but there is relatively few studies of the role of CV autonomic regulation, a key component in stress responses and risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and executive processes. An emerging pattern of results from previous studies suggest that different executive processes may be differentially associated with CV autonomic regulation. The aim was thus to study the associations between multiple measures of CV autonomic regulation and measures of different executive cognitive processes. Method: Participants were 119 healthy working adults (79% women), from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Electrocardiogram was sampled for analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) measures, including the Standard Deviation of NN, here heart beats (SDNN), root of the mean squares of successive differences (RMSSD), high frequency (HF) power band from spectral analyses, and QT variability index (QTVI), a measure of myocardial repolarization patterns. Executive cognitive functioning was measured by seven neuropsychological tests. The relationships between CV autonomic regulation measures and executive cognitive measures were tested with bivariate and partial correlational analyses, controlling for demographic variables, and mental health symptoms. Results: Higher SDNN and RMSSD and lower QTVI were significantly associated with better performance on cognitive tests tapping inhibition, updating, shifting, and psychomotor speed. After adjustments for demographic factors however (age being the greatest confounder), only QTVI was clearly associated with these executive tests. No such associations were seen for working memory capacity. Conclusion: Poorer CV autonomic regulation in terms of lower SDNN and RMSSD and higher QTVI was associated with poorer executive

  13. Levels of Acculturation of Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area - The Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago.

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    Dong, XinQi; Bergren, Stephanie M; Chang, E-Shien

    2015-09-01

    Acculturation is a difficult process for minority older adults for a variety of reasons, including access and exposure to mainstream culture, competing ethnic identities, and linguistic ability and preference. There is a paucity of research regarding overall level of acculturation for Chinese older adults in the United States. This study aimed to provide an overall estimate of level of acculturation of Chinese older adults in the United States and to examine correlations between sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health measures, and level of acculturation. Data were collected through the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE) study. This community-based participatory research study surveyed 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and older. The PINE Study Acculturation Scale was used to assess level of acculturation in three dimensions: language preference, media use, and ethnic social relations. Mean acculturation level for all items was 15.3 ± 5.1, indicating low levels of acculturation. Older age, more offspring, lower income, fewer years living in the United States, lower overall health status, and lower quality of life were associated with lower levels of acculturation. Level of acculturation was low in Chinese older adults, and certain subsets of the population were more likely to have a lower level of acculturation. Future research should investigate causality and effects of level of acculturation.

  14. Modulation, Adaptation, and Control of Orofacial Pathways in Healthy Adults