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Sample records for controlled release matrix

  1. Evaluation of olibanum and its resin as rate controlling matrix for controlled release of diclofenac

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdary KPR; Mohapatra P; Murali Krishna M

    2006-01-01

    Olibanum and its resin and carbohydrate fractions were evaluated as rate controlling matrix materials in tablets for controlled release of diclofenac. Diclofenac matrix tablets were formulated employing olibanum and its resin and carbohydrate fractions in different concentrations and the tablets were evaluated for various tablet characters including drug release kinetics and mechanism. Olibanum and its resin component exhibited excellent retarding effect on drug release from the matrix tablet...

  2. Formulation and Evaluation of Olanzapine Matrix Pellets for Controlled Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammed Khan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Olanzapine is an antipsychotic used in treatment of schizophrenia. This research was carried out to design oral controlled release matrix pellets of water insoluble drug Olanzapine (OZ, using blend of Sodium Alginate (SA and Glyceryl Palmito-Stearate (GPS as matrix polymers, micro crystalline cellulose (MCC as spheronizer enhancer and Sodium Lauryl Sulphate (SLS as pore forming agent. Olanzapine is an antipsychotic used in treatment of   schizophrenia. This research was carried out to design oral controlled release matrix pellets of water insoluble drug Olanzapine (OZ, using blend of Sodium Alginate (SA and Glyceryl Palmito-Stearate (GPS as matrix polymers, micro crystalline cellulose (MCC as spheronizer enhancer and Sodium Lauryl Sulphate (SLS as pore forming agent. "nMethods: OZ formulations were developed by the pelletization technique by drug loaded pellets and characterized with regard to the drug content, size distribution, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and X-ray Diffraction study (XRD. Stability studies were carried out on the optimized formulation for a period of 90 days at 40 ± 2 °C and 75 ± 5% relative humidity. Results and major conclusion: The drug content was in the range of 93.34-98.12 %. The mean particle size of the drug loaded pellets was in the range 1024 to 1087μm. SEM photographs and calculated sphericity factor confirmed that the prepared formulations were spherical in nature. The compatibility between drug and polymers in the drug loaded pellets was confirmed by DSC and FTIR studies. Stability studies indicated that pellets are stable. XRD patterns revealed the crystalline nature of the pure OZ. Loose surface crystal study indicated that crystalline OZ is present in all formulations and more clear in formulation F5. Drug release was controlled for more than 24 hrs and mechanism of the

  3. Formulation and evaluation of olanzapine matrix pellets for controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishal Gupta, N; Gowda, Dv; Balamuralidhara, V; Mohammed Khan, S

    2011-01-01

    Olanzapine is an antipsychotic used in treatment of schizophrenia. This research was carried out to design oral controlled release matrix pellets of water insoluble drug Olanzapine (OZ), using blend of Sodium Alginate (SA) and Glyceryl Palmito-Stearate (GPS) as matrix polymers, micro crystalline cellulose (MCC) as spheronizer enhancer and Sodium Lauryl Sulphate (SLS) as pore forming agent. OZ formulations were developed by the pelletization technique by drug loaded pellets and characterized with regard to the drug content, size distribution, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray Diffraction study (XRD). Stability studies were carried out on the optimized formulation for a period of 90 days at 40±2 °C and 75±5% relative humidity. The drug content was in the range of 93.34-98.12%. The mean particle size of the drug loaded pellets was in the range 1024 to 1087µm. SEM photographs and calculated sphericity factor confirmed that the prepared formulations were spherical in nature. The compatibility between drug and polymers in the drug loaded pellets was confirmed by DSC and FTIR studies. Stability studies indicated that pellets are stable. XRD patterns revealed the crystalline nature of the pure OZ. Loose surface crystal study indicated that crystalline OZ is present in all formulations and more clear in formulation F5. Drug release was controlled for more than 24 hrs and mechanism of the drug release followed by Fickian diffusion. It may be concluded that F5 is an ideal formulation for once a day administration.

  4. Optimization of matrix tablets controlled drug release using Elman dynamic neural networks and decision trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Jelena; Ibrić, Svetlana; Betz, Gabriele; Đurić, Zorica

    2012-05-30

    The main objective of the study was to develop artificial intelligence methods for optimization of drug release from matrix tablets regardless of the matrix type. Static and dynamic artificial neural networks of the same topology were developed to model dissolution profiles of different matrix tablets types (hydrophilic/lipid) using formulation composition, compression force used for tableting and tablets porosity and tensile strength as input data. Potential application of decision trees in discovering knowledge from experimental data was also investigated. Polyethylene oxide polymer and glyceryl palmitostearate were used as matrix forming materials for hydrophilic and lipid matrix tablets, respectively whereas selected model drugs were diclofenac sodium and caffeine. Matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression method and tested for in vitro dissolution profiles. Optimization of static and dynamic neural networks used for modeling of drug release was performed using Monte Carlo simulations or genetic algorithms optimizer. Decision trees were constructed following discretization of data. Calculated difference (f(1)) and similarity (f(2)) factors for predicted and experimentally obtained dissolution profiles of test matrix tablets formulations indicate that Elman dynamic neural networks as well as decision trees are capable of accurate predictions of both hydrophilic and lipid matrix tablets dissolution profiles. Elman neural networks were compared to most frequently used static network, Multi-layered perceptron, and superiority of Elman networks have been demonstrated. Developed methods allow simple, yet very precise way of drug release predictions for both hydrophilic and lipid matrix tablets having controlled drug release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Distinct presynaptic control of dopamine release in striosomal and matrix areas of the cat caudate nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemel, M.L.; Desban, M.; Glowinski, J.; Gauchy, C.

    1989-01-01

    By use of a sensitive in vitro microsuperfusion method, the cholinergic presynaptic control of dopamine release was investigated in a prominent striosome (areas poor in acetylcholinesterase activity) located within the core of cat caudate nucleus and also in adjacent matrix area. The spontaneous release of [ 3 H]dopamine continuously synthesized from [ 3 H]tyrosine in the matrix area was found to be twice that in the striosomal area; the spontaneous and potassium-evoked releases of [ 3 H]dopamine were calcium-dependent in both compartments. With 10 -6 M tetrodotoxin, 5 x 10 -5 M acetylcholine stimulated [ 3 H]dopamine release in both striosomal and matrix areas, effects completely antagonized by atropine, thus showing the involvement of muscarinic receptors located on dopaminergic nerve terminals. Experiments without tetrodotoxin revealed a more complex regulation of dopamine release in the matrix: (i) in contrast to results seen in the striosome, acetylcholine induced only a transient stimulatory effect on matrix dopamine release. (ii) Although 10 -6 M atropine completely abolished the cholinergic stimulatory effect on [ 3 H]dopamine release in striosomal area, delayed and prolonged stimulation of [ 3 H] dopamine release was seen with atropine in the matrix. The latter effect was completely abolished by the nicotinic antagonist pempidine. Therefore, in the matrix, in addition to its direct (tetrodotoxin-insensitive) facilitatory action on [ 3 H]dopamine release, acetylcholine exerts two indirect (tetrodotoxin-sensitive) opposing effects: an inhibition and a stimulation of [ 3 H]dopamine release mediated by muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, respectively

  6. Formulation and evaluation of controlled release matrix mucoadhesive tablets of domperidone using Salvia plebeian gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Arora

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to prepare controlled release matrix mucoadhesive tablets of domperidone using Salvia plebeian gum as natural polymer. Tablets were formulated by direct compression technology employing the natural polymer in different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20% w/w. The prepared batches were evaluated for drug assay, diameter, thickness, hardness and tensile strength, swelling index, mucoadhesive strength (using texture analyzer and subjected to in vitro drug release studies. Real-time stability studies were also conducted on prepared batches. In vitro drug release data were fitted in various release kinetic models for studying the mechanism of drug release. Tensile strength was found to increase from 0.808 ± 0.098 to 1.527 ± 0.10 mN/cm 2 and mucoadhesive strength increased from 13.673 ± 1.542 to 40.378 ± 2.345 N, with an increase in the polymer concentration from 5 to 20% (A1 to A4. Swelling index was reported to increase with both increase in the concentration of gum and the time duration. The in vitro drug release decreased from 97.76 to 83.4% (A1 to A4 with the increase in polymer concentration. The drug release from the matrix tablets was found to follow zero-order and Higuchi models, indicating the matrix-forming potential of natural polymer. The value of n was found to be between 0.5221 and 0.8992, indicating the involvement of more than one drug release mechanism from the formulation and possibly the combination of both diffusion and erosion. These research findings clearly indicate the potential of S. plebeian gum to be used as binder, release retardant and mucoadhesive natural material in tablet formulations.

  7. Dithiocarbamate chitosan as a potential polymeric matrix for controlled drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youn Taeg; Yum, Soohwan; Heo, Jeong Soon; Kim, Wooseong; Jung, Yunjin; Kim, Young Mi

    2014-02-01

    To develop a polymer matrix for controlled release of drugs, chitosan, a linear aminopolysaccharide, was chemically modified to dithiocarbamate chitosan (DTCC) to afford a matrix where metal-drug complexes could be attached and released in a controlled manner depending on the binding nature between the drugs and the metals. DTCC was treated with metal-tetracycline (Tc) complexes to prepare DTCC-Ca(II)-Tc, DTCC-Mg(II)-Tc, DTCC-Cu(II)-Tc and DTCC-Zn(II)-Tc. The binding amount of Tc was in the order of DTCC-Zn(II)-Tc ≈ DTCC-Mg(II)-Tc ≈  DTCC-Ca(II)-Tc > DTCC-Cu(II)-Tc. The biphasic binding profiles, where Tc binding increased initially and then decreased, were shown for DTCC-Cu(II)-Tc and DTCC-Zn(II)-Tc. In a flow method, Tc was released slowly from DTCC-metal-Tc complexes except for DTCC-Cu(II)-Tc compared with Tc release from DTCC-Tc. In parallel with the results of the release experiment, DTCC-metal-Tc complexes except for DTCC-Cu(II)-Tc presented a prolonged antibacterial activity in an antibacterial test. The antibacterial activity of DTCC-Ca(II)-, -Mg(II)- and -Zn(II)-Tc complexes lasted for 28-44 days, while free Tc and DTCC-Tc lasted for 7-12 days. Taken together, our data suggest that DTCC could be used for a polymeric matrix for controlled release of drugs such as Tc, which possess functional groups for ionic and/or coordinate bond with metals.

  8. STUDIES ON NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC POLYMERS FOR CONTROLLED RELEASE MATRIX TABLET OF ACECLOFENAC

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek S. Joshi *, Deepak A. Joshi , Avinash V. Dhobale , Sandhya S. Bundel , Vijay R. Chakote, Gunesh N. Dhembre

    2018-01-01

    The present study was aimed to design new oral controlled release matrix tablets of new NSAID Aceclofenac for once a day by using 10, 15, 20 and 25% of GG:HPMC and XG:HPMC mixture in the ratio 1:1 by wet granulation method. The prepared tablets subjected to in vitro drug release studies in pH 7.4 buffer solution. All the formulation meets the pre-compression and compression characteristics. All the tablets prepared with 10, 15, 20 and 25% of HPMC: XG mixture in the ratio 1:1 fails to meet the...

  9. Modulation of Tenoxicam release from hydrophilic matrix: modulator membrane versus rate-controlling membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nabarawi, Mohamed Ahmed

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes the preparation of two layered device comprising of tenoxicam containing layer and a drug free membrane layer based on Geomatrix Technology. Our device based on bilaminated films which produced by a casting/solvent evaporation technique. The drug-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) layer was covered by drug free membrane layer composed of a mixture of different ratios of HPMC and ethyl cellulose (EC). The prepared devices were evaluated for thickness, weight, drug content uniformity, water absorption capacity and in-vitro drug release. The films were also evaluated for appearance, smoothness and transparency. The influence of drug free membrane layer composition and thickness on the drug release pattern was studied on 12 devices (D1 to D12). The results indicate that, the release of drug from HPMC matrixes without the drug free membrane layer was fast and follows diffusion controlled mechanism. The release of drug from the devices D1, D4, D9 and D12 follow the same mechanism, while the release of drug from other devices become linear with time (zero order) and extended for long time especially when thickness and the ratio of EC was increased in the drug free membrane layer. From this study it is concluded that, changing the geometry of drug layer by addition of drug free membrane layer and changing its composition and thickness plays an important role in determining whether the drug free membrane layer is rate-controlling or modulator membrane. Hence it can facilitate the development of different pharmaceutical products with different release pattern.

  10. PREPARATION OF GLIMEPIRIDE ALOE BARBADENSIS MILLER LEAVES MUCILAGE AND POVIDONE CONTROLLED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS: IN VITRO AND IN VIVO EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Hindustan Abdul Ahad; Sreeramulu J; Hima Bindu V; Guru Prakash P; Sravanthi M

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to prepare Glimepiride matrix tablets with Aloe barbadensis miller leaves mucilage and Povidone and to study its novelty as a matrix forming polymer for controlled release tablet formulations. Physicochemical properties of the dried powdered Aloe barbadensis miller mucilage and Povidone blend, drug-excipient compatibility studies, pre formulation studies, post formulation studies, in vitro drug release studies, mathematical modeling of in vitro dissol...

  11. Use of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers for the development of controlled release tizanidine matrix tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop tizanidine controlled release matrix. Formulations were designed using central composite method with the help of design expert version 7.0 software. Avicel pH 101 in the range of 14-50% was used as a filler, while HPMC K4M and K100M in the range of 25-55%, Ethylcellulose 10 ST and 10FP in the range of 15 - 45% and Kollidon SR in the range of 25-60% were used as controlled release agents in designing different formulations. Various physical parameters including powder flow for blends and weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, disintegration time and in-vitro release were tested for tablets. Assay of tablets were also performed as specified in USP 35 NF 32. Physical parameters of both powder blend and compressed tablets such as compressibility index, angle of repose, weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, disintegration time and assay were evaluated and found to be satisfactory for formulations K4M2, K4M3, K4M9, K100M2, K100M3, K100M9, E10FP2, E10FP9, KSR2, KSR3 & KSR9. In vitro dissolution study was conducted in 900 ml of 0.1N HCl, phosphate buffer pH 4.5 and 6.8 medium using USP Apparatus II. In vitro release profiles indicated that formulations prepared with Ethocel 10 standard were unable to control the release of drug while formulations K4M2, K100M9, E10FP2 & KSR2 having polymer content ranging from 40-55% showed a controlled drug release pattern in the above mentioned medium. Zero-order drug release kinetics was observed for formulations K4M2, K100M9, E10FP2 & KSR2. Similarity test (f2 results for K4M2, E10FP2 & KSR2 were found to be comparable with reference formulation K100M9. Response Surface plots were also prepared for evaluating the effect of independent variable on the responses. Stability study was performed as per ICH guidelines and the calculated shelf life was 24-30 months for formulation K4M2, K100M9 and E10FP2.

  12. Hydroxypropylcellulose controlled release tablet matrix prepared by wet granulation: effect of powder properties and polymer composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zenon Antunes Teixeira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to attain 100% drug release of caffeine after 24 h from hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC tablet matrices and to investigate the effect of co-excipient. Physical properties of the powders were evaluated and suggested for a wet granulation process. The tablet containing caffeine was formulated by different weight ratios of hydrophilic polymers. The results of polymer evaluation confirmed that the increase of HPC level with the same drug content significantly decreased the rate of drug release. The presence of co-polymer excipients carboxymethylcellulose (CMC and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP in the tablet matrix was also investigated. The release rate was also controlled by low levels of CMC (O objetivo deste estudo é desenvolver a liberação 100% da droga cafeína em 24 horas em comprimidos matrizes e investigar o uso de hidroxipropilcelulose (HPC mais os efeitos de co-excipiente. As propriedades físicas dos pós foram avaliadas assim como seu uso no processo de granulação úmida. O comprimido contendo a cafeína foi formulado por diferentes relações de peso dos polímeros hidrofílicos. Os resultados da avaliação do polímero confirmaram que o aumento do nível de HPC com o mesmo índice da droga diminuiu significativamente a taxa de liberação da droga. A presença do co-polímero excipiente carboximetilcelulose (CMC e do polivinilpirrolidona (PVP na matriz do comprimido foi também investigado. A taxa de liberação foi controlada principalmente por baixos níveis de CMC (< 10% enquanto PVP não mostrou efeito diferente considerável. A melhor taxa de liberação de cafeína 100% em 24 horas foi obtida quando 10% da lactose monoidrato foi adicionado na formulação.

  13. CONTROLLED RELEASE MATRIX UNCOATED TABLETS OF ENALAPRIL MALEATE USING HPMC ALONE

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Anroop B.; Vyas, Hiral; Kumar, Ashok

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) is generally combined with hydrophobic polymers in fabricating oral controlled solid dosage forms. This study evaluated the utility of diverse grades of HPMC in developing a controlled release formulation for a hydrophilic drug, enalapril maleate. Controlled release uncoated tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. Two grades of HPMC (K100 and K4M) in different proportions were used to prepare the tablets, and were evaluated for physical pr...

  14. Controlled release matrix uncoated tablets of enalapril maleate using hpmc alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Anroop B; Vyas, Hiral; Kumar, Ashok

    2010-03-01

    Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) is generally combined with hydrophobic polymers in fabricating oral controlled solid dosage forms. This study evaluated the utility of diverse grades of HPMC in developing a controlled release formulation for a hydrophilic drug, enalapril maleate. Controlled release uncoated tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. Two grades of HPMC (K100 and K4M) in different proportions were used to prepare the tablets, and were evaluated for physical properties, drug content, in vitro drug release and drug release kinetics as well. All the formulations demonstrated good physical integrity and the drug content were in the official limits. The formulation with HPMC K100 (25 mg/tablet) and K4M (15 mg/tablet) have been found to release the required amount of drug (2.97 mg/h) through out the study period (14 h). The calculated regression coefficients showed higher r(2) value with Higuchi model and zero order kinetics. Given the excellent release profile, the study concluded that HPMC in different grades with low concentration alone can control the enalapril maleate release over a period of time (14 h).

  15. Modified tamarind kernel polysaccharide: a novel matrix for control release of aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sandipta; Pal, Sagar

    2013-07-01

    pH dependent hydrogels of modified tamarind kernel polysaccharide (TKP) were synthesized by grafting with polyacrylamide chains on TKP backbone in presence of microwave irradiation and initiator. The present study is carried out to design oral controlled drug delivery systems for aspirin using synthesized hydrogels as carrier in form of tablets. TKP-g-PAM based hydrogels show significant enhancement for control release of aspirin. Release behavior of aspirin has been evaluated using USP type I apparatus in 900 mL of buffer solutions (pH 1.2, 6.8, 7.4), maintained at 37°C at 100 rpm. It is observed that with increase in percentage of grafting (% G), swelling of matrices increases whereas erosion and rate of drug release decrease. The effect of % G onto t50 value (time taken for release of 50% drug) has also been discussed. The release characteristics from the matrices under study show non-Fickian diffusion mechanism, suggesting the controlled release of aspirin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality by Design approach to understand the physicochemical phenomena involved in controlled release of captopril SR matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurí, J; Millán, D; Suñé-Negre, J M; Colom, H; Ticó, J R; Miñarro, M; Pérez-Lozano, P; García-Montoya, E

    2014-12-30

    The aim of this study is to obtain swelling controlled release matrix tablets of captopril using the Quality by Design methodology (ICH Q8) and to know the transport mechanisms involved in captopril release. To obtain the area of knowledge, the design of experiments studying the effect of two components (HPMC K15M and ethylcellulose) at different levels has been applied, with the captopril dissolution profile as the product's most important critical quality attribute (CQA). Different dissolution profiles have been obtained with the design of experiments performed, which is a key factor in the development of controlled release matrix tablets. Kinetic analysis according to the equations of Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas demonstrates that the release mechanism is a mechanism of erosion when the whole percentage of the polymer is ethylcellulose, and a diffusion mechanism when the whole percentage of the polymer is HPMC K15M. The physico-chemical characteristics of the gel layer determine the release rate of captopril. The thickness of the gel layer, the porosity which is formed in the matrix upon contact with water, pore size, the swelling rate, the erosion rate of the matrix, and the physico-chemical characteristics of captopril, are factors related to the kinetic equations described and that allow us to predict the release mechanism of captopril. A new relationship of the kinetic equations governing the in vitro behavior with the physical characteristics of the gel layer of the different formulations has been established. This study shows that the size of water-filled pores and the degree of crosslinking between the chains of HPMC K15M of the matrix are related to the exponent n of the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation and the type of transport of the captopril from within the matrix to the dissolution medium, that is, if the transport is only through water-filled pores, or if a combination of diffusion occurs through water-filled pores with a transport through continuous

  17. Pectin/anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate matrix tablets for in vitro controlled release of water-soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamani, Pseidy Luz; Ruiz-Caro, Roberto; Veiga, María Dolores

    2015-10-15

    Different pectin/anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate (ADCP) matrix tablets have been developed in order to obtain controlled release of a water-soluble drug (theophylline). Swelling, buoyancy and dissolution studies have been carried out in different aqueous media (demineralized water, progressive pH medium, simulated gastric fluid, simulated intestinal fluid and simulated colonic fluid), to characterize the matrix tablets. When the pectin/ADCP ratio was ≥0.26 (P1, P2, P3 and P4 tablets) a continuous swelling and low theophylline dissolution rate from the matrices were observed. So, pectin gel forming feature predominated over the ADCP properties, yielding pH-independent drug release behavior from these matrices. On the contrary, pectin/ADCP ratios ≤0.11 (P5 and P6 tablets) allowed to achieve drug dissolution pH dependent. Consequently, the suitable selection of the pectin/ADCP ratio will allow to tailor matrix tablets for controlled release of water-soluble drugs in a specific manner in the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Controlled protein delivery from electrospun non-wovens: novel combination of protein crystals and a biodegradable release matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Sebastian; Li, Linhao; Meinel, Lorenz; Germershaus, Oliver

    2014-07-07

    Poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) is an excellent polymer for electrospinning and matrix-controlled drug delivery combining optimal processability and good biocompatibility. Electrospinning of proteins has been shown to be challenging via the use of organic solvents, frequently resulting in protein unfolding or aggregation. Encapsulation of protein crystals represents an attractive but largely unexplored alternative to established protein encapsulation techniques because of increased thermodynamic stability and improved solvent resistance of the crystalline state. We herein explore the electrospinning of protein crystal suspensions and establish basic design principles for this novel type of protein delivery system. PCL was deployed as a matrix, and lysozyme was used as a crystallizing model protein. By rational combination of lysozyme crystals 0.7 or 2.1 μm in diameter and a PCL fiber diameter between 1.6 and 10 μm, release within the first 24 h could be varied between approximately 10 and 100%. Lysozyme loading of PCL microfibers between 0.5 and 5% was achieved without affecting processability. While relative release was unaffected by loading percentage, the amount of lysozyme released could be tailored. PCL was blended with poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) to further modify the release rate. Under optimized conditions, an almost constant lysozyme release over 11 weeks was achieved.

  19. Investigating the in vitro drug release kinetics from controlled release diclofenac potassium-ethocel matrix tablets and the influence of co-excipients on drug release patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shefaat Ullah; Shah, Kifayat Ullah; Rehman, Asimur; Khan, Gul Majid

    2011-04-01

    The objective of the study was to formulate and evaluate controlled release polymeric tablets of Diclofenac Potassium for the release rate, release patterns and the mechanism involved in the release process of the drug. Formulations with different types and grades of Ethyl Cellulose Ether derivatives in several drug-to-polymer ratios (D:P) were compressed into tablets using the direct compression method. In vitro drug release studies were performed in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) as dissolution medium by using USP Method-1 (Rotating Basket Method). Similarity factor f2 and dissimilarity factor f1 were applied for checking the similarities and dissimilarities of the release profiles of different formulations. For the determination of the release mechanism and drug release kinetics various mathematical/kinetic models were employed. It was found that all of the Ethocel polymers could significantly slow down the drug release rate with Ethocel FP polymers being the most efficient, especially at D:P ratios of 10:03 which lead towards the achievement of zero or near zero order release kinetics.

  20. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of mucoadhesive controlled release matrix tablets of flurbiprofen using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikrima Khalid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to formulate mucoadhesive controlled release matrix tablets of flurbiprofen and to optimize its drug release profile and bioadhesion using response surface methodology. Tablets were prepared via a direct compression technique and evaluated for in vitro dissolution parameters and bioadhesive strength. A central composite design for two factors at five levels each was employed for the study. Carbopol 934 and sodium carboxymethylcellulose were taken as independent variables. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy studies were performed to observe the stability of the drug during direct compression and to check for a drug-polymer interaction. Various kinetic models were applied to evaluate drug release from the polymers. Contour and response surface plots were also drawn to portray the relationship between the independent and response variables. Mucoadhesive tablets of flurbiprofen exhibited non-Fickian drug release kinetics extending towards zero-order, with some formulations (F3, F8, and F9 reaching super case II transport, as the value of the release rate exponent (n varied between 0.584 and 1.104. Polynomial mathematical models, generated for various response variables, were found to be statistically significant (P<0.05. The study also helped to find the drug's optimum formulation with excellent bioadhesive strength. Suitable combinations of two polymers provided adequate release profile, while carbopol 934 produced more bioadhesion.

  1. Evaluation of Ocimum basilicum L. seed mucilage as rate controlling matrix for sustained release of propranolol HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Saeedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide mucilage derived from the seeds of Ocimum basilicum L. (family Lamiaceae was investigated for use in matrix formulations containing propranolol hydrochloride. Basil mucilage was extracted and several tablets were formulated. The effect of mucilage on drug release rate was evaluated in comparison with tablets containing two kinds of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K4M and HPMC K100M as standard polymer. The release data were fitted to several models for kinetic evaluation. The results showed that hardness decreased and friability of tablets increased as the concentration of mucilage increased. The rate of release of propranolol HCl from O. basilicm mucilage matrices was mainly controlled by the drug: mucilage ratio. Drug release was slower from the HPMC K4M and HPMCK100M containing tablets compared to the mucilage containing matrices than the drug release from matrices containing O. basilicum seed mucilage in similar ratios.  Formulations containing O. basilicm mucilage were found to exhibit suitable release pattern. The results of kinetic analysis showed that in tablets containing O. basilicm mucilage the highest correlation coefficient was achieved with the zero order model. The swelling and erosion studies revealed that, as the proportion of mucilage in tablets was increased, there was a corresponding increase in percent swelling and a decrease in percent erosion of tablets.

  2. Evaluation of Plantago major L. seed mucilage as a rate controlling matrix for sustained release of propranolol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Majid; Morteza-Semnani, Katayoun; Sagheb-Doust, Mehdi

    2013-03-01

    Polysaccharide mucilage derived from the seeds of Plantago major L. (family Plantaginaceae) was investigated for use in matrix formulations containing propranolol hydrochloride. HPMC K4M and tragacanth were used as standards for comparison. The hardness, tensile strength, and friability of tablets increased as the concentration of mucilage increased, indicating good compactibility of mucilage powders. The rate of release of propranolol hydrochloride from P. major mucilage matrices was mainly controlled by the drug/mucilage ratio. Formulations containing P. major mucilage were found to exhibit a release rate comparable to HPMC containing matrices at a lower drug/polymer ratio (drug/HPMC 2:1). These results demonstrated that P. major mucilage is a better release retardant compared to tragacanth at an equivalent content. The results of kinetic analysis showed that in F3 (containing 1:2 drug/mucilage) the highest correlation coefficient was achieved with the zero order model. The swelling and erosion studies revealed that as the proportion of mucilage in tablets was increased, there was a corresponding increase in percent swelling and a decrease in percent erosion of tablets. The DSC and FT-IR studies showed that no formation of complex between the drug and mucilage or changes in crystallinity of the drug had occurred.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Sustained Release Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate matrix type sustained-release (SR) tablets of tizanidine hydrochloride (TH) for prolonged drug release and improvement in motor activity after spinal injuries. Methods: Matrix tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method using four polymers (hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose [HPMC] K 100, ethyl ...

  4. Application of a Biodegradable Polyesteramide Derived from L-Alanine as Novel Excipient for Controlled Release Matrix Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonillo Martínez, Ana Dora; Galán, Inés Carmen Rodríguez; Bellver, María Victoria Margarit

    2017-11-01

    This pre-formulation study assays the capacity of the polyesteramide PADAS, poly (L-alanine-dodecanediol-L-alanine-sebacic), as an insoluble tablet excipient matrix for prolonged drug release. The flow properties of PADAS were suitable for tableting, and the compressibility of tablets containing exclusively PADAS was evaluated by ESEM observation of the microstructure. The tablets were resistant to crushing and non-friable and they did not undergo disintegration (typical features of an inert matrix). Tablets containing 33.33% sodium diclofenac (DF), ketoprofen (K) or dexketoprofen trometamol (DK-T) as a model drug, in addition with 66.67% of polymer, were formulated, and the absence of interactions between the components was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry. Dissolution tests showed that PADAS retained DF and K and prolonged drug release, following a Higuchi kinetic. The tablets containing DK-T did not retain the drug sufficiently for prolonged release to be established. Tablets containing DK-T and 66.67, 83.33 or 91.67% PADAS, compressed at 44.48 or 88.96 kN, were elaborated to determine the influence of the polymer amount and of the compression force on DK-T release. Both parameters significantly delayed drug release, except when the proportion of polymer was 91.67%.

  5. Paroxetine hydrochloride controlled release POLYOX matrix tablets: screening of formulation variables using Plackett-Burman screening design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shun-Ji; Yoo, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Park, Jeong-Sook; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to screen the effects of the formulation variables - POLYOX molecular weight (X1), the ratio of POLYOX/Avicel PH102 (X2) and the amount of POLYOX and Avicel PH102 (X3), hardness (X4), HPMCP amount (X5), Eudragit L100 amount (X6), and citric acid amount (X7) - on the paroxetine hydrochloride release from POLYOX matrix tablet using the Plackett-Burman screening design. Paroxetine hydrochloride matrix tablets were prepared according to a 7-factor-12-run statistical model and subjected to a 8-h dissolution study in Tris buffer at pH 7.5. The regression results showed that POLYOX molecular weight (X1) and POLYOX/Avicel PH102 ratio (X2) had significantly influence on the drug release mechanism and drug release rate as main effects. Hardness (X4) had an insignificant effect on the drug release mechanism but a significant effect on the drug release rate. On the other hand, HPMCP, Eudragit L100 and citric acid had an insignificant effect on the both responses. The information obtained by screening design study can be expected to be useful for further formulation studies.

  6. Formulation and Evaluation of Cephalexin Extended-release Matrix Tablets Using Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose as Rate-controlling Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, J; Sahadevan, JT; Prabhakaran, R; Gilhotra, R Mehra

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation reports the design and evaluation of six-hour extended release film-coated matrix tablets of cephalexin using different grades of hydrophilic polymer hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) employing direct compression method. The preformulation studies performed included the physical compatibility studies, Differential Scanning Calorimetry analysis, drug characterization using Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopic analysis and particle size analysis using sieve method. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, thickness and friability. Results of the studies indicate that the polymers used have significant release-retarding effect on the formulation. The dissolution profile comparison of the prepared batches P1 to P8 and market preparation (Sporidex AF 375) was done by using Food and Drug Administration-recommended similarity factor (f2) determination. The formulation P8 (10% HPMC K4M, 15% HPMC 15cps) with a similarity factor (f2) of 77.75 was selected as the optimized formulae for scale-up batches. The dissolution data of the best formulation P8 was fitted into zero order, first order, Higuchi and Korsemeyer-Peppas models to identify the pharmacokinetics and mechanism of drug release. The results of the accelerated stability study of best formulation P8 for three months revealed that storage conditions were not found to have made any significant changes in final formulation F3. The release of cephalexin was prolonged for 6 h by using polymer combinations of HPMC and a twice daily matrix tablet was formulated. PMID:22523453

  7. D-optimal mixture design: optimization of ternary matrix blends for controlled zero-order drug release from oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Malah, Yasser; Nazzal, Sami; Khanfar, Nile M

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a tablet formulation with a zero-order drug release profile based on a balanced blend of three matrix ingredients. To accomplish this goal, a 17-run, three-factor, two-level D-Optimal mixture design was employed to evaluate the effect of Polyox (X1), Carbopol (X2), and lactose (X3) concentrations on the release rate of theophylline from the matrices. Tablets were prepared by direct compression and were subjected to an in vitro dissolution study in phosphate buffer at pH 7.2. Polynomial models were generated for the responses Y4 (percent released in 8 h) and Y6 (similarity factor or f2). Fitted models were used to predict the composition of a formulation that would have a similar dissolution profile to an ideal zero-order release at a rate of 8.33% per hour. When tested, dissolution profile of the optimized formulation was comparable to the reference profile (f2 was 74.2, and n [release exponent] was 0.9). This study demonstrated that a balanced blend of matrix ingredients could be used to attain a zero-order release profile. Optimization was feasible by the application of response surface methodology, which proved efficient in designing controlled-release dosage forms.

  8. Hot-melt co-extrusion for the production of fixed-dose combination products with a controlled release ethylcellulose matrix core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynckier, A-K; Dierickx, L; Saerens, L; Voorspoels, J; Gonnissen, Y; De Beer, T; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P

    2014-04-10

    In this study, hot-melt co-extrusion was evaluated as a technique for the production of fixed-dose combination products, using ethylcellulose as a core matrix former to control the release of metoprolol tartrate and a polyethylene oxide-based coat formulation to obtain immediate release of hydrochlorothiazide. By lowering the concentration of the hydrophilic additive polyethylene oxide in the plasticized ethylcellulose matrix or by lowering the drug load, the in vitro metoprolol tartrate release from the core was substantially sustained. The in vitro release of hydrochlorothiazide from the polyethylene oxide/polyethylene glycol coat was completed within 45 min for all formulations. Tensile testing of the core/coat mini-matrices revealed an adequate adhesion between the two layers. Raman mapping showed no migration of active substances. Solid state characterization indicated that the crystalline state of metoprolol tartrate was not affected by thermal processing via hot-melt extrusion, while hydrochlorothiazide was amorphous in the coat. These solid state characteristics were confirmed during the stability study. Considering the bioavailability of metoprolol tartrate after oral administration to dogs, the different co-extruded formulations offered a range of sustained release characteristics. Moreover, high metoprolol tartrate plasma concentrations were reached in dogs allowing the administered dose to be halved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronotherapeutic drug delivery of Tamarind gum, Chitosan and Okra gum controlled release colon targeted directly compressed Propranolol HCl matrix tablets and in-vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, A M J; Indana, V L; Kumar, Jatinder

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of this investigation is to develop a chronotherapeutic drug delivery of various natural polymers based colon targeted drug delivery systems to treat early morning sign in BP. The polymers such as Tamarind gum, Okra gum and Chitosan were used in the formulation design. A model drug Propranolol HCl was incorporated in the formulation in order to assess the controlled release and time dependent release potential of various natural polymers. A novel polymer Tamarind gum was extracted and used as a prime polymer in this study to prove the superiority of this polymer over other leading natural polymer. Propranolol HCl was used as a model drug which undergoes hepatic metabolism and witnesses the poor bioavailability. The matrix tablets of Propranolol HCl were prepared by direct compression. The tablets were evaluated for various quality control parameters and found to be within the limits. Carbopol 940 was used as an auxiliary polymer to modify the drug release and physicochemical characteristics of the tablets. The in vitro release studies were performed in 0.1N HCl for 1.5h, followed by pH 6.8 phosphate buffer for 2h and pH 7.4 phosphate buffer till maximum amount of drug release. The in vitro release profile of the formulations were fitted with various pharmacokinetic mathematical models and analyzed for release profile. The formulations prepared with Tamarind gum prolonged the release for an extended period of time compared to other polymer based formulation and showed an excellent compression characteristic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of a rapid prototyped tissue engineering scaffold with embedded multicomponent matrix for controlled drug release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Muwan; Le, Dang Qs; Hein, San

    2012-01-01

    scaffold was embedded with a porous matrix composed of chitosan, nanoclay, and β-tricalcium phosphate by freeze-drying. This composite scaffold was evaluated on its ability to deliver an anthracycline antibiotic and to promote formation of mineralized matrix in vitro. Scanning electronic microscopy...

  11. Analysis of the release process of phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride from ethylcellulose matrix granules V. Release properties of ethylcellulose layered matrix granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Atsuko; Fujii, Ryuta; Yonezawa, Yorinobu; Sunada, Hisakazu

    2008-04-01

    In the pharmaceutical preparation of a controlled release drug, it is very important and necessary to understand the release properties. In previous papers, a combination of the square-root time law and cube-root law equations was confirmed to be a useful equation for qualitative treatment. It was also confirmed that the combination equation could analyze the release properties of layered granules as well as matrix granules. The drug release property from layered granules is different from that of matrix granules. A time lag occurs before release, and the entire release property of layered granules was analyzed using the combination of the square-root time law and cube-root law equations. It is considered that the analysis method is very useful and efficient for both matrix and layered granules. Comparing the granulation methods, it is easier to control the manufacturing process by tumbling granulation (method B) than by tumbling-fluidized bed granulation (method C). Ethylcellulose (EC) layered granulation by a fluidized bed granulator might be convenient for the preparation of controlled release dosage forms as compared with a tumbling granulator, because the layered granules prepared by the fluidized bed granulator can granulate and dry at the same time. The time required for drying by the fluidized bed granulator is shorter than that by the tumbling granulator, so the fluidized bed granulator is convenient for preparation of granules in handling and shorter processing time than the tumbling granulator. It was also suggested that the EC layered granules prepared by the fluidized bed granulator were suitable for a controlled release system as well as the EC matrix granules.

  12. Morphologic characterization and properties of a nanocomposite matrix of polyvinylpyrrolidone and sodium bentonite for hydrophilic drug controlled release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Dario B.R. de; Tavares, Maria I.B.; Iulianelli, Gisele C.V.

    2015-01-01

    For several years, research in drug formulation field have been focused in seeking systems that enable a more efficient release of drug and greater time of acting. Aiming to bring numerous benefits to the patient and advantages for the pharmaceutical industry. Leading to greater acceptance and use by society. In this study polymer nanocomposites based on PVP and bentonite clay will be obtained with the drug Metformin, a known hydrophilic hypoglycemiating drug, in order to improve its properties and pharmacokinetics. This mixture will be obtained through spray drying, especially suited for administration of tablets. The characteristics of these materials are being studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). (author)

  13. Release Characteristics of Diltiazem Hydrochloride Wax-Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the release characteristics of matrix (non-disintegrating) granules consisting of diltiazem hydrochloride (model drug) and glyceryl behenate (a wax matrix forming polymer) for sustained release application using sintering technique. The granules of diltiazem ...

  14. Formulation of Sustained-Release Diltiazem Matrix Tablets Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation of Sustained-Release Diltiazem Matrix Tablets Using Hydrophilic Gum Blends. A Moin, H.G Shivakumar. Abstract. Purpose: To develop sustained release matrix tablets of diltiazem hydrochloride (DTZ) using karaya gum (K) alone or in combination with locust bean gum (LB) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ...

  15. Composite poly(vinyl alcohol/poly(vinyl acetate electrospun nanofibrous mats as a novel wound dressing matrix for controlled release of drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannesari M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Marziyeh Jannesari1, Jaleh Varshosaz2, Mohammad Morshed1, Maedeh Zamani11Department of Textile Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IranAbstract: The aim of this study was to develop novel biomedicated nanofiber electrospun mats for controlled drug release, especially drug release directly to an injury site to accelerate wound healing. Nanofibers of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA, poly(vinyl acetate (PVAc, and a 50:50 composite blend, loaded with ciprofloxacin HCl (CipHCl, were successfully prepared by an electrospinning technique for the first time. The morphology and average diameter of the electrospun nanofibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction studies indicated an amorphous distribution of the drug inside the nanofiber blend. Introducing the drug into polymeric solutions significantly decreased solution viscosities as well as nanofiber diameter. In vitro drug release evaluations showed that both the kind of polymer and the amount of drug loaded greatly affected the degree of swelling, weight loss, and initial burst and rate of drug release. Blending PVA and PVAc exhibited a useful and convenient method for electrospinning in order to control the rate and period of drug release in wound healing applications. Also, the thickness of the blend nanofiber mats strongly influenced the initial release and rate of drug release.Keywords: biodegradable polymers, drug delivery, controlled release, electrospun nanofibers, wound dressing

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Sustained Release Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tablet formulations showed a percent drug release ranging from 92.54 ± 1.02 to 98.56 ± 1.26 % at the end of 12 h. Using the spinal injury rat model, ... very common and significant problem. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ... animal studies, its mechanism of action involves depressing polysynaptic reflexes ...

  17. Wax-based sustained release matrix pellets prepared by a novel freeze pelletization technique II. In vitro drug release studies and release mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheboyina, Sreekhar; Wyandt, Christy M

    2008-07-09

    A novel freeze pelletization technique was evaluated for the preparation of wax-based sustained release matrix pellets. Pellets containing water-soluble drugs were successfully prepared using a variety of waxes. The drug release significantly depended on the wax type used and the aqueous drug solubility. The drug release decreased as the hydrophobicity of wax increased and the drug release increased as the aqueous drug solubility increased. In glyceryl monostearate (GMS) pellets, drug release rate decreased as the loading of theophylline increased. On the contrary, the release rate increased as the drug loading of diltiazem HCl increased in Precirol pellets. Theophylline at low drug loads existed in a dissolved state in GMS pellets and the release followed desorption kinetics. At higher loads, theophylline existed in a crystalline state and the release followed dissolution-controlled constant release for all the waxes studied. However, with the addition of increasing amounts of Brij 76, theophylline release rate increased and the release mechanism shifted to diffusion-controlled square root time kinetics. But the release of diltiazem HCl from Precirol pellets at all drug loads, followed diffusion-controlled square root time kinetics. Therefore, pellets capable of providing a variety of release profiles for different drugs can be prepared using this freeze pelletization technique by suitably modifying the pellet forming matrix compositions.

  18. Controlled drug release for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambhia, Kunal J; Ma, Peter X

    2015-12-10

    Tissue engineering is often referred to as a three-pronged discipline, with each prong corresponding to 1) a 3D material matrix (scaffold), 2) drugs that act on molecular signaling, and 3) regenerative living cells. Herein we focus on reviewing advances in controlled release of drugs from tissue engineering platforms. This review addresses advances in hydrogels and porous scaffolds that are synthesized from natural materials and synthetic polymers for the purposes of controlled release in tissue engineering. We pay special attention to efforts to reduce the burst release effect and to provide sustained and long-term release. Finally, novel approaches to controlled release are described, including devices that allow for pulsatile and sequential delivery. In addition to recent advances, limitations of current approaches and areas of further research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Poly(DL-lactic acid) as a direct compression excipient in controlled release tablets - Part I. Compaction behaviour and release characteristics of poly(DL-lactic acid) matrix tablets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steendam, R; Lerk, CF

    1998-01-01

    High-molecular weight poly(DL-lactic acid) (PDLA, M-v 85000) was applied as a direct compression excipient in controlled release tablets. PDLA powders with good flowing properties were obtained by milling pre-cooled PDLA granules. Apparent yield pressure values ranged from 44 to 71 MPa for

  20. Formulation of Extended-Release Metformin Hydrochloride Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and characterize an oral extended-release matrix tablet of metformin hydrochloride using a combination of a hydrophobic carrier and a hydrophilic polymer, and two types of formulation techniques. Methods: Various metformin hydrochloride formulations containing a hydrophobic carrier (stearic acid) ...

  1. Statistical Optimization of Sustained Release Venlafaxine HCI Wax Matrix Tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalekar, M R; Madgulkar, A R; Sheladiya, D D; Kshirsagar, S J; Wable, N D; Desale, S S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to prepare a sustained release drug delivery system of venlafaxine hydrochloride by using a wax matrix system. The effects of bees wax and carnauba wax on drug release profile was investigated. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to systemically optimize the drug release profile. Amounts of carnauba wax (X(1)) and bees wax (X(2)) were selected as independent variables and release after 12 h and time required for 50% (t(50)) drug release were selected as dependent variables. A mathematical model was generated for each response parameter. Both waxes retarded release after 12 h and increases the t(50) but bees wax showed significant influence. The drug release pattern for all the formulation combinations was found to be approaching Peppas kinetic model. Suitable combination of two waxes provided fairly good regulated release profile. The response surfaces and contour plots for each response parameter are presented for further interpretation of the results. The optimum formulations were chosen and their predicted results found to be in close agreement with experimental findings.

  2. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007555.htm Birth control - slow release methods To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Certain birth control methods contain man-made forms of hormones. ...

  3. Using the breakage matrix approach for monitoring the break release in the wheat flour milling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanić, Nemanja; Fišteš, Aleksandar; Rakić, Dušan; Takači, Aleksandar; Došenović, Tatjana

    2017-05-01

    The breakage matrix approach is a mathematical tool to relate input and output particle size distribution from a milling operation. Adjustment of the break release in the flour milling process is extremely important because it affects granulation and quality characteristics of the stock and hence the total results and balance of the mill. In this study the breakage matrix approach has been used for the purpose of controlling the release on the front passages of the break system in the flour milling process. It has been established that, for any particle size distribution of wheat, it is possible to predict break releases together with the distribution of the release size fractions by using the breakage matrices. Also, the reversibility of this approach is examined, that is the possibility to identify the wheat particle size distribution that would result in desired break releases and/or the desired yields of different sized intermediate stocks under the given set of milling conditions. It is confirmed that the breakage matrix approach can be successfully used to predict the break releases. The reverse breakage matrix concept allows the determination of the wheat particle size distribution which would result in a targeted break release. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Meltable magnetic biocomposites for controlled release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R.; Zhou, M.; Dellith, A.; Liebert, T.; Heinze, T.

    2017-06-01

    New biocompatible composites with adjustable melting point in the range of 30-140 °C, consisting of magnetite nanoparticles embedded into a matrix of meltable dextran fatty acid ester are presented which can be softened under an induced alternating magnetic field (AMF). The chosen thermoplastic magnetic composites have a melting range close to human body temperature and can be easily shaped into disk or coating film under melting. The composite disks were loaded with green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a model protein. Controlled release of the protein was realized with high frequent alternating magnetic field of 20 kA/m at 400 kHz. These results showed that under an AMF the release of GFP from magnetic composite was accelerated compared to the control sample without exposure to AMF. Furthermore a texturing of particles in the polymer matrix by a static magnetic field was investigated.

  5. Meltable magnetic biocomposites for controlled release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, R., E-mail: robert.mueller@ipht-jena.de [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), P.O.B. 100239, Jena, D-07702 Germany (Germany); Zhou, M. [Institute of Organic Chemistry and Macromolecular Chemistry, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Humboldtstrasse 10, Jena, D-07743 Germany (Germany); Dellith, A. [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), P.O.B. 100239, Jena, D-07702 Germany (Germany); Liebert, T.; Heinze, T. [Institute of Organic Chemistry and Macromolecular Chemistry, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Humboldtstrasse 10, Jena, D-07743 Germany (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    New biocompatible composites with adjustable melting point in the range of 30–140 °C, consisting of magnetite nanoparticles embedded into a matrix of meltable dextran fatty acid ester are presented which can be softened under an induced alternating magnetic field (AMF). The chosen thermoplastic magnetic composites have a melting range close to human body temperature and can be easily shaped into disk or coating film under melting. The composite disks were loaded with green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a model protein. Controlled release of the protein was realized with high frequent alternating magnetic field of 20 kA/m at 400 kHz. These results showed that under an AMF the release of GFP from magnetic composite was accelerated compared to the control sample without exposure to AMF. Furthermore a texturing of particles in the polymer matrix by a static magnetic field was investigated. - Highlights: • Thermoplastic biocomposite are prepared from dextran ester and magnetite particles. • The composite can be heated by an AC magnetic field above the melting temperature. • In molten state texturing of particles is possible and improves the heating ability. • The biopolymer could be used as a remote controlled matrix for protein release.

  6. Modification of Sodium Release Using Porous Corn Starch and Lipoproteic Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, Josephine; Lee, Youngsoo

    2016-04-01

    Excessive sodium consumption can result in hypertension, diabetes, heart diseases, stroke, and kidney diseases. Various chips and extruded snacks, where salt is mainly applied on the product surface, accounted for almost 56% of snacks retail sales in 2010. Hence, it is important to target sodium reduction for those snack products. Past studies had shown that modifying the rate-release mechanism of sodium is a promising strategy for sodium reduction in the food industry. Encapsulation of salt can be a possible technique to control sodium release rate. Porous corn starch (PCS), created by enzymatic treatment and spray drying and lipoproteic matrix, created by gelation and freeze drying, were evaluated as carriers for controlled sodium release targeting topically applied salts. Both carriers encapsulated salt and their in vitro sodium release profiles were measured using a conductivity meter. The sodium release profiles of PCS treated with different enzymatic reaction times were not significantly different. Protein content and fat content altered sodium release profile from the lipoproteic matrix. The SEM images of PCS showed that most of the salt crystals coated the starch instead of being encapsulated in the pores while the SEM images and computed tomography scan of lipoproteic matrix showed salt dispersed throughout the matrix. Hence, PCS was found to have limitations as a sodium carrier as it could not effectively encapsulate salt inside its pores. The lipoproteic matrix was found to have a potential as a sodium carrier as it could effectively encapsulate salt and modify the sodium release profile. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Formulation and evaluation of sustained release matrix tablets of pioglitazone hydrochloride using processed Aloe vera mucilage as release modifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Choudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Natural gums and mucilage which hydrates and swells on contact with aqueous media are used as additives in the formulation of hydrophilic drug delivery system. Aim: The purpose of this study was to develop a new monolithic matrix system for complete delivery of Pioglitazone hydrochloride (HCl, in a zero-order manner over an extended time period using processed Aloe vera gel mucilage (PAG as a release modifier. Materials and Methods: The matrices were prepared by dry blending of selected ratios of polymer and ingredients using direct compression technique. Physicochemical properties of dried powdered mucilage of A. vera were studied. Various formulations of pioglitazone HCl and A. vera mucilage were prepared using different drug: Polymer ratios viz., 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 for PAG by direct compression technique. Results: The formulated matrix tablets were found to have better uniformity of weight and drug content with low statistical deviation. The swelling behavior and in vitro release rate characteristics were also studied. Conclusion: The study proved that the dried A. vera mucilage can be used as a matrix forming material for controlled release of Pioglitazone HCl matrix tablets.

  8. Controlled Release from Recombinant Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. PMID:24956486

  9. Ultrasound stimulated release of gallic acid from chitin hydrogel matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huixin; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2017-06-01

    Ultrasound (US) stimulated drug release was examined in this study using a chitin hydrogel matrix loaded with gallic acid (GA), a drug used for wound healing and anticancer. Using phase inversion, GA-chitin hydrogels were prepared from chitin-dimethylacetamide (DMAc)/lithium chloride (LiCl) solution in the presence of GA, with 24h exposure of the solution to water vapor. The GA release from the GA-chitin hydrogel was examined under different US powers of 0-30W at 43kHz. The effects of GA loading amounts in the hydrogels (0.54, 0.43, and 0.25mg/cm 3 ) and chitin concentrations (0.1, 0.5, and 1wt%) on the release behaviors were recorded under 43kHz US exposure at 30W. Results show that US accelerated the release efficiencies for all samples. Furthermore, the release efficiency increased concomitantly with increasing US power, GA loading amount, and decrease of the chitin concentration. The highest release rate of 0.74μg/mL·min was obtained from 0.54mg/cm 3 of GA-loaded hydrogel fabricated from a 0.1wt% chitin mixture solution under 43kHz US exposure at 30W: nine times higher than that of the sample without US exposure. The hydrogel viscoelasticity demonstrated that the US irradiation rigidified the material. FT-IR showed that US can break the hydrogen bonds in the GA-chitin hydrogels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation between the viscoelastic properties of the gel layer of swollen HPMC matrix tablets and their in vitro drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Rania; Al Baraghthi, Tamadur; Sunoqrot, Suhair

    2016-11-21

    Drug release from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) hydrophilic matrix tablets is controlled by drug diffusion through the gel layer of the matrix-forming polymer upon hydration, matrix erosion or combination of diffusion and erosion mechanisms. In this study, the relationship between viscoelastic properties of the gel layer of swollen intact matrix tablets and drug release was investigated. Two sets of quetiapine fumarate (QF) matrix tablets were prepared using the high viscosity grade HPMC K4M at low (70 mg/tablet) and high (170 mg/tablet) polymer concentrations. Viscoelastic studies using a controlled stress rheometer were performed on swollen matrices following hydration in the dissolution medium for predetermined time intervals. The gel layer of swollen tablets exhibited predominantly elastic behavior. Results from the in vitro release study showed that drug release was strongly influenced by the viscoelastic properties of the gel layer of K4M tablets, which was further corroborated by results from water uptake studies conducted on intact tablets. The results provide evidence that the viscoelastic properties of the gel layer can be exploited to guide the selection of an appropriate matrix-forming polymer, to better understand the rate of drug release from matrix tablets in vitro and to develop hydrophilic controlled-release formulations.

  11. Tailorable Release of Small Molecules Utilizing Plant Viral Nanoparticles and Fibrous Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jing

    We have engineered Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) derived plant viral nanoparticles (PVNs) within a fibrous matrix to optimize its application for delivery and controlled release of active ingredients. RCNMV's structure and unique response to divalent cation depletion and re-addition enables the infusion of small molecules into its viral capsid through a pore formation mechanism. While this PVN technology shows a potential use in nano-scale therapeutic drug delivery, its inherent molecular dynamics to environmental stimuli places a constraint on its application and functionality as a vehicle for tailorable release of loading cargo. In this study, we enhance the understanding of the PVN technology by elucidating its mechanism for loading and triggered release of doxorubicin (Dox), a chemotherapeutic drug for breast cancer. Of critical importance is the methodology for manipulation of Dox's loading capacity and its binding location on either the exterior or interior of the virion capsid. The ability to control the active ingredient binding location provides an additional approach of tunable release from the PVN delivery vehicle besides its inherent pH- and ion- responsive release of loading cargo. The efficacious and controlled release strategy for agricultural active ingredients, such as nematicides, is also a large social need right now. Crop infestation of plant parasite nematodes causes in excess of 157 billion in worldwide crop damage annually. If an effective control strategy for these pests could be developed, it is estimated that the current market for effective nematicides is between 700 million and $1 billion each year worldwide. In this study, we report on the utilization of PVN technology to encapsulate the biological nematicide, abamectin (Abm), within the PVN's interior capsid (PVNAbm). Creating PVNAbm addresses Abm's issues of soil immobility while rendering a controlled release strategy for its bioavailability to root knot nematodes (RKNs

  12. Modeling the modified drug release from curved shape drug delivery systems - Dome Matrix®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccavo, D; Barba, A A; d'Amore, M; De Piano, R; Lamberti, G; Rossi, A; Colombo, P

    2017-12-01

    The controlled drug release from hydrogel-based drug delivery systems is a topic of large interest for research in pharmacology. The mathematical modeling of the behavior of these systems is a tool of emerging relevance, since the simulations can be of use in the design of novel systems, in particular for complex shaped tablets. In this work a model, previously developed, was applied to complex-shaped oral drug delivery systems based on hydrogels (Dome Matrix®). Furthermore, the model was successfully adopted in the description of drug release from partially accessible Dome Matrix® systems (systems with some surfaces coated). In these simulations, the erosion rate was used asa fitting parameter, and its dependence upon the surface area/volume ratio and upon the local fluid dynamics was discussed. The model parameters were determined by comparison with the drug release profile from a cylindrical tablet, then the model was successfully used for the prediction of the drug release from a Dome Matrix® system, for simple module configuration and for module assembled (void and piled) configurations. It was also demonstrated that, given the same initial S/V ratio, the drug release is independent upon the shape of the tablets but it is only influenced by the S/V evolution. The model reveals itself able to describe the observed phenomena, and thus it can be of use for the design of oral drug delivery systems, even if complex shaped. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Statistical moments in modelling of swelling, erosion and drug release of hydrophilic matrix-tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmpalexis, P; Kachrimanis, K; Malamataris, S

    2018-04-05

    Statistical moments were evaluated as suitable parameters for describing swelling and erosion processes (along with drug release) in hydrophilic controlled release matrix tablets. The effect of four independent formulation variables, corresponding to the quantity of four polymeric matrix excipients (namely polyethylene glycol, povidone, and two grades of hydroxyl-propylmethyl cellulose) on statistical moments describing swelling (mean swelling time, MST), erosion (mean erosion time, MET) and drug-release (mean dissolution time, MDT) was evaluated with the aid of multi-linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) based on a central composite experimental design. Results were compared to conventional model fitting, where the rate of water uptake during swelling (a), the maximum % water uptake (S max ), the time at which S max is achieved (t max ), the constant of apparent matrix-tablet erosion rate (k e ) and the release exponent (n) from Korsmeyer-Peppas drug-release equation were used as model parameters. Fitting to an external validation test set revealed superior prediction efficacy for statistical moments compared to conventional model fitting, while the combination of statistical moments with ANNs presented the most efficient approach (R 2 and RMSEp values of 0.922, 0.833, 0.987 and 0.443, 0.691, 0.173 for MST, MET, and MDT, respectively). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Design and characterization of controlled release tablet of metoprolol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Singhvi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metoprolol succinate is a selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocker useful in treatment of hypertension, angina and heart failure. The purpose of the present work was to design and evaluate controlled release matrix type tablet of Metoprolo succinate using HPMC K15M and Eudragit (RLPO and RSPO as a matrix forming agents. Effect of various polymer alone and combinations were studied in pH 1.2 buffer using USP type II paddle at 50 rpm. HPMC was used to form firm gel with Eudragit polymer. Formulation with Equal proportion (1:1 of Eudragit RSPO and RLPO showed optimum drug release t50 =7 hrs and t100 =16 hrs indicate optimum permeability for drug release from matrix. The drug release mechanism was predominantly found to be Non-Fickian diffusion controlled.

  15. Novel Polyurethane Matrix Systems Reveal a Particular Sustained Release Behavior Studied by Imaging and Computational Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campiñez, María Dolores; Caraballo, Isidoro; Puchkov, Maxim; Kuentz, Martin

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to better understand the drug-release mechanism from sustained release matrices prepared with two new polyurethanes, using a novel in silico formulation tool based on 3-dimensional cellular automata. For this purpose, two polymers and theophylline as model drug were used to prepare binary matrix tablets. Each formulation was simulated in silico, and its release behavior was compared to the experimental drug release profiles. Furthermore, the polymer distributions in the tablets were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the changes produced by the tortuosity were quantified and verified using experimental data. The obtained results showed that the polymers exhibited a surprisingly high ability for controlling drug release at low excipient concentrations (only 10% w/w of excipient controlled the release of drug during almost 8 h). The mesoscopic in silico model helped to reveal how the novel biopolymers were controlling drug release. The mechanism was found to be a special geometrical arrangement of the excipient particles, creating an almost continuous barrier surrounding the drug in a very effective way, comparable to lipid or waxy excipients but with the advantages of a much higher compactability, stability, and absence of excipient polymorphism.

  16. Study of drug release and tablet characteristics of silicone adhesive matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolia, Gaurav; Li, S Kevin

    2012-11-01

    Matrix tablets of a model drug acetaminophen (APAP) were prepared using a highly compressible low glass transition temperature (T(g)) polymer silicone pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) at various binary mixtures of silicone PSA/APAP ratios. Matrix tablets of a rigid high T(g) matrix forming polymer ethyl cellulose (EC) were the reference for comparison. Drug release study was carried out using USP Apparatus 1 (basket), and the relationship between the release kinetic parameters of APAP and polymer/APAP ratio was determined to estimate the excipient percolation threshold. The critical points attributed to both silicone PSA and EC tablet percolation thresholds were found to be between 2.5% and 5% w/w. For silicone PSA tablets, satisfactory mechanical properties were obtained above the polymer percolation threshold; no cracking or chipping of the tablet was observed above this threshold. Rigid EC APAP tablets showed low tensile strength and high friability. These results suggest that silicone PSA could eliminate issues related to drug compressibility in the formulation of directly compressed oral controlled release tablets of poorly compressible drug powder such as APAP. No routinely used excipients such as binders, granulating agents, glidants, or lubricants were required for making an acceptable tablet matrix of APAP using silicone PSA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of sustained release capsules containing "coated matrix granules of metoprolol tartrate".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Sabahuddin; Khanam, Jasmina; Bigoniya, Papiya

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this investigation was to prepare sustained release capsule containing coated matrix granules of metoprolol tartrate and to study its in vitro release and in vivo absorption. The design of dosage form was performed by choosing hydrophilic hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K100M) and hydrophobic ethyl cellulose (EC) polymers as matrix builders and Eudragit® RL/RS as coating polymers. Granules were prepared by composing drug with HPMC K100M, EC, dicalcium phosphate by wet granulation method with subsequent coating. Optimized formulation of metoprolol tartrate was formed by using 30% HPMC K100M, 20% EC, and ratio of Eudragit® RS/RL as 97.5:2.5 at 25% coating level. Capsules were filled with free flowing optimized granules of uniform drug content. This extended the release period upto 12 h in vitro study. Similarity factor and mean dissolution time were also reported to compare various dissolution profiles. The network formed by HPMC and EC had been coupled satisfactorily with the controlled resistance offered by Eudragit® RS. The release mechanism of capsules followed Korsemeyer-Peppas model that indicated significant contribution of erosion effect of hydrophilic polymer. Biopharmaceutical study of this optimized dosage form in rabbit model showed 10 h prolonged drug release in vivo. A close correlation (R(2) = 0.9434) was established between the in vitro release and the in vivo absorption of drug. The results suggested that wet granulation with subsequent coating by fluidized bed technique, is a suitable method to formulate sustained release capsules of metoprolol tartrate and it can perform therapeutically better than conventional immediate release dosage form.

  18. FORMULATION OF ACECLOFENAC SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLET USING HYDROPHILIC NATURAL GUM

    OpenAIRE

    Parasuram Rajam Radhika; Pankaj R. Kharkate; Thangavel Sivakumar

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce production costs, a simple, direct compression sustained release formulation consisting of drug Aceclofenac and by using hydrophilic polymer guar gum and tamarind gum as the release modifier was investigated. No interaction between drug and polymer was confirmed by FTIR, which shows the suitability of all excipients with the drug to formulate the sustained release matrix tablets. Five batches of sustained release matrix tablets of Aceclofenac with both guar gum and tamarind...

  19. Nanoporous Silicified Phospholipids and Application to Controlled Glycolic Acid Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang SangHwa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work demonstrates the synthesis and characterization of novel nanoporous silicified phospholipid bilayers assembled inorganic powders. The materials are obtained by silicification process with silica precursor at the hydrophilic region of phospholipid bilayers. This process involves the co-assembly of a chemically active phospholipids bilayer within the ordered porosity of a silica matrix and holds promise as a novel application for controlled drug release or drug containers with a high level of specificity and throughput. The controlled release application of the synthesized materials was achieved to glycolic acid, and obtained a zero-order release pattern due to the nanoporosity.

  20. Effect of sintering on controlled release profile of diltiazem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to formulate and evaluate diltiazem hydrochloride wax matrix tablets for controlled release using sintering technique. Granules of diltiazem hydrochloride-wax were prepared by melt granulation technique. This was formed by triturating the drug powder with a melted carnauba wax (drug: wax ratio, ...

  1. Composition for the controlled release of active compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, I.A.P.; Jongboom, R.O.J.; Stuut, P.I.

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides a composition for the controlled release of one or more biologically active substances encapsulated in a degradable biopolymer matrix, consisting of a thermoplastic and/or partly crystalline inulin. A plasticiser such as glycerol, and an emulsifier may be present. The active

  2. EQCM verification of the concept of drug immobilization and release from conducting polymer matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krukiewicz, Katarzyna; Bednarczyk-Cwynar, Barbara; Turczyn, Roman; Zak, Jerzy K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Disuccinyl derivative of anti-cancer drug, betulin, was immobilized in PEDOT matrix. • EQCM was used to monitor the processes of drug immobilization and release. • SEM, EDS and IR confirmed the presence of drug in polymer matrix. • The release of drug was performed with and without application of external potential. • Potentiodynamic stimulation was more efficient that potentiostatic release. - Abstract: Local drug delivery based on conducting polymer carriers is an innovative approach of medical treatment joining the concept of regional release of biomolecules with ion-exchange properties of conjugated polymers. In this study, we have applied electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) to monitor the process of three-step immobilization and release of anti-cancer drug, disuccinyl derivative of betulin, in PEDOT matrix. Each step of this process has been carefully investigated, i.e. electrochemical polymerization of monomer in the absence of drug, removal of primary dopant during the process of matrix reduction and drug incorporation during the process of matrix oxidation. The release of drug from PEDOT matrix has been performed via three paths, i.e. spontaneous release with no application of external potential, active release under potentiostatic conditions and active release under potentiodynamic conditions. EDS elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, IR and Raman spectroscopies, have been used to analyze structural and surface properties of drug-loaded PEDOT matrices.

  3. Controlled Drug Release from Pharmaceutical Nanocarriers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jinhyun Hannah; Yeo, Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Nanocarriers providing spatiotemporal control of drug release contribute to reducing toxicity and improving therapeutic efficacy of a drug. On the other hand, nanocarriers face unique challenges in controlling drug release kinetics, due to the large surface area per volume ratio and the short diffusion distance. To develop nanocarriers with desirable release kinetics for target applications, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which a carrier retains and releases a drug, the effec...

  4. Drug-releasing shape-memory polymers - the role of morphology, processing effects, and matrix degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischke, Christian; Behl, Marc; Lendlein, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) have gained interest for temporary drug-release systems that should be anchored in the body by self-sufficient active movements of the polymeric matrix. Based on the so far published scientific literature, this review highlights three aspects that require particular attention when combining SMPs with drug molecules: i) the defined polymer morphology as required for the shape-memory function, ii) the strong effects that processing conditions such as drug-loading methodologies can have on the drug-release pattern from SMPs, and iii) the independent control of drug release and degradation by their timely separation. The combination of SMPs with a drug-release functionality leads to multifunctional carriers that are an interesting technology for pharmaceutical sciences and can be further expanded by new materials such as thermoplastic SMPs or temperature-memory polymers. Experimental studies should include relevant molecules as (model) drugs and provide a thermomechanical characterization also in an aqueous environment, report on the potential effect of drug type and loading levels on the shape-memory functionality, and explore the potential correlation of polymer degradation and drug release.

  5. Formulation of Sustained-Release Matrix Tablets Using Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    pharmacotechnical properties and in vitro release, including release kinetics. The optimized formulation was compared ... thermogram studies confirmed that there was no chemical interaction between the drug and the polymers in MK formulation. ... and has an elimination half-life of 3.5 h. Therefore, DTZ requires multiple ...

  6. Formulation development and stability studies of norfloxacin extended-release matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paulo Renato; Mendes, Cassiana; Klein, Lilian; Sangoi, Maximiliano da Silva; Bernardi, Larissa Sakis; Silva, Marcos Antônio Segatto

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a new hydrophilic matrix system containing norfloxacin (NFX). Extended-release tablets are usually intended for once-a-day administration with benefits to the patient and lower discontinuation of the therapy. Formulations were developed with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose or poly(ethylene oxide) as hydrophilic polymers, with different molecular weights (MWs) and concentrations (20 and 30%). The tablets were found to be stable (6 months at 40 ± 2°C and 75 ± 5% relative humidity), and the film-coating process is recommended to avoid NFX photodegradation. The dissolution profiles demonstrated an extended-release of NFX for all developed formulations. Dissolution curves analyzed using the Korsmeyer exponential equation showed that drug release was controlled by both drug diffusion and polymer relaxation or erosion mechanisms. A more erosion controlled system was obtained for the formulations containing lower MW and amount of polymer. With the increase in both MW and amount of polymer in the formulation, the gel layer became stronger, and the dissolution was more drug-diffusion dependent. Formulations containing intermediate MW polymers or high concentration (30%) of low MW polymers demonstrated a combination of extended and complete in vitro drug release. This way, these formulations could provide an increased bioavailability in vivo.

  7. Formulation of Sustained-Release Matrix Tablets Using Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Matrix tablets of DTZ were prepared using varying ratios of unmodified karaya gum (K) and MK by direct compression. ... SEM images of the tablets before and after dissolution showed some morphological changes on the tablet surface while FTIR and DSC thermogram studies confirmed that there was no chemical ...

  8. Development of Sustained Release Capsules Containing “Coated Matrix Granules of Metoprolol Tartrate”

    OpenAIRE

    Siddique, Sabahuddin; Khanam, Jasmina; Bigoniya, Papiya

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to prepare sustained release capsule containing coated matrix granules of metoprolol tartrate and to study its in vitro release and in vivo absorption. The design of dosage form was performed by choosing hydrophilic hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K100M) and hydrophobic ethyl cellulose (EC) polymers as matrix builders and Eudragit® RL/RS as coating polymers. Granules were prepared by composing drug with HPMC K100M, EC, dicalcium phosphate by wet gr...

  9. Controlled Release Formulations of Auxinic Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Witold J.; Siłowiecki, Andrzej.; Romanowska, Iwona; Glazek, Mariola; Bajor, Justyna; Cieciwa, Katarzyna; Rychter, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    ingredient in the HBA oligomers was chemically bound to the oligomer matrix and a controlled release followed in concert with the hydrolysis of ester bonds in the oligomer systems. Due to the high volatility and high water solubility of the DMA salts, significant amounts of active ingredients were predisposed to be dispersed in the environment. On the other hand, the HBA oligomers exhibit low volatility and low solubility in water, so they tend to exhibit lover migrating rates from the target site. The obtained plots suggested that in the case of the HBA oligomers the effectiveness were delayed in time when compared with the DMA salts. The integral effectiveness of the studied HBA oligomers was practically equivalent to the conventional DMA salts, but the release of the HBA herbicides was delayed in time vs. DMA salts. The mixtures of oligo (R,S)-3-hydroxybutyric acid containing chemically bonded 2,4-D, Dicamba and MCPA (HBA) were proposed as carriers of active ingredients that could be released to control the sensitive weeds. The synthesized HBA oligomers could be particularly useful in a number of practical applications, because they release the herbicide to plants at a controlled rate and in amounts required over a specified period of time, their degradation products are identical to metabolites formed in plant cells, the physicochemical and operational parameters of the carrier oligomers might be optimized by fine-tuning of synthesis conditions. The decreased vapor pressure and increased lipophilicity of the studied materials could reduce the risk exposure of the operational personnel, as well as, a decrease the environmental pollution. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education for supporting this work through the grant No. NN 310 303039. References [1] S. Dubey, V. Jhelum, P.K. Patanjali, Controlled release agrochemical formulations: A review, J. Scientific &Industrial Research (India) 70 (2011) 105-112. [2] W. J

  10. Stimuli responsive nanomaterials for controlled release applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2012-01-01

    The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. Coupled with excellent biocompatibility profiles, various nanomaterials have showed great promise for biomedical applications. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials guarantee the controlled release of cargo to a given location, at a specific time, and with an accurate amount. In this review, we have combined the major stimuli that are currently used to achieve the ultimate goal of controlled and targeted release by "smart" nanomaterials. The most heavily explored strategies include (1) pH, (2) enzymes, (3) redox, (4) magnetic, and (5) light-triggered release.

  11. In-vitro Release Study of Carvedilol Phosphate Matrix Tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 101), starch (Sta-Rx 1500) and lactose monohydrate were used as diluents in the formulations while the effect of sodium lauryl sulphate (wetting agent) was studied for some of the formulations. The tablets were characterized for carvedilol phosphate release in both simulated gastric and ...

  12. In-vitro Release Study of Carvedilol Phosphate Matrix Tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    properties and therapeutic efficacy. Drugs 1993; 45: 232-258. 19. Ruffolo RR Jr, Gellai M, Hieble JP, Willette RN,. Nichols AJ. The pharmacology of carvedilol. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1990;38: S82-88. 20. Korsmeyer RW, Gurny R, Doelker E, Buri P, Peppas. NA. Mechanism of solute release from porous hydrophilic polymers.

  13. Impact of change of matrix crystallinity and polymorphism on ovalbumin release from lipid-based implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Luisa; Körber, Martin; Bodmeier, Roland

    2018-02-13

    The objectives of this study were to prepare lipid-based implants by hot melt extrusion (HME) for the prolonged release of ovalbumin (OVA), and to relate protein release to crystallinity and polymorphic changes of the lipid matrix. Two lipids, glycerol tristearate and hydrogenated palm oil, with different composition and degree of crystallinity were studied. Solid OVA was dispersed within the lipid matrixes, which preserved its stability during extrusion. This was partially attributed to a protective effect of the lipidic matrix. The incorporation of OVA decreased the mechanical strength of the implants prepared with the more crystalline matrix, glycerol tristearate, whereas it remained comparable for the hydrogenated palm oil because of stronger physical and non-covalent interactions between the protein and this lipid. This was also the reason for the faster release of OVA from the glycerol tristearate matrix when compared to the hydrogenated palm oil (8 vs. 28 weeks). Curing induced and increased crystallinity, and changes in the release rate, especially for the more crystalline matrix. In this case, both an increase and a decrease in release, were observed depending on the tempering condition. Curing at higher temperatures induced a melt-mediated crystallization and solid state transformation of the glycerol tristearate matrix and led to rearrangements of the inner structure with the formation of larger pores, which accelerated the release. In contrast, changes in the hydrogenated palm oil under the same curing conditions were less noticeable leading to a more robust formulation, because of less polymorphic changes over time. This study helps to understand the effect of lipid matrix composition and crystallinity degree on the performance of protein-loaded implants, and to establish criteria for the selection of a lipid carrier depending on the release profile desired. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Coherently Controlled Release of Drugs in Ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckup, Tiago; Möhring, Jens; Settels, Volker; Träger, Jens; Kim, Hee-Cheo; Hampp, Norbert; Motzkus, Marcus

    The photocleavage of a coumarin derivative dimer is a promising mechanism for laser controlled drug release in medical applications. We investigate the efficiency of the twophoton induced cleavage in open- and closed-loop control schemes.

  15. Influence of formulation and process variables on in vitro release of theophylline from directly-compressed Eudragit matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, A; Cirri, M; Maestrelli, F; Corti, G; Mura, P

    2005-01-01

    Extended-release theophylline (TP) matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression of drug and different pH-dependent (Eudragit L100, S100 and L100-55) and pH-independent (Eudragit RLPO and RSPO) polymer combinations. The influence of varying the polymer/polymer (w/w) ratio and the drug incorporation method (simple blend or solid dispersion) was also evaluated. Drug release, monitored using the Through Flow Cell system, markedly depended on both the kind of Eudragit polymer combinations used and their relative content in the matrix. Maintaining a constant 1:1 (w/w) drug/polymers ratio, the selection of appropriate mixtures of pH-dependent and pH-independent polymers enabled achievement of a suitable control of TP release. In particular, matrices with a 0.7:0.3 w/w mixture of Eudragit L100-Eudragit RLPO showed highly reproducible drug release profiles, with an almost zero-order kinetic, and allowed 100% released drug after 360 min. As for the effect of the drug incorporation method, simple blending was better than the solid dispersion technique, which not only did not improve the release data reproducibility, but also caused, unexpectedly, a marked slowing down in drug release rate.

  16. Denatured Whey Protein Powder as a New Matrix Excipient: Design and Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Tablets for Sustained Drug Release Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsein, Hassana; Garrait, Ghislain; Tamani, Fahima; Beyssac, Eric; Hoffart, Valérie

    2017-02-01

    In earlier study, we proposed denatured whey protein (DWP) powder obtained by atomization as a new excipient to promote oral drug delivery. In this work, we evaluate the possibility to formulate tablets based on DWP powders and to characterize their role as a matrix mucoadhesive excipient. Tablets containing increased amount of DWP (10 to 30%) were produced by direct compression after mixing with theophylline, microcrystalline cellulose, Aerosil® and magnesium stearate. Dissolution behaviors of obtained tablets were evaluated in different USP buffers (pH 1.2, 4.5 and 6.8) and in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids and mechanisms analyzed by multiple mathematical models. Swelling, erosion and mucoadhesion were also evaluated. Finally, release and absorption were studied in the artificial digestive system (TIM 1). Tablets based on DWP and containing 300 mg of theophylline were obtained by direct compression. These tablets exhibited controlled release driven by diffusion starting from 15% DWP content whatever the pH studied. They also showed a great extent of swelling and water uptake while matrix weight loss was limited. Addition of enzymes accelerated drug release which became governed by erosion according to Peppas model. The present study shows that DWP powders can be successfully used as a pharmaceutical excipient, and in particular as a matrix mucoadhesive controlled release tablets.

  17. Organic matrix based slow release fertilizer enhances plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinod K; Singh, Rana P

    2011-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of organic matrix based slow release fertilizers (SRFs) on plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Brassica juncea L. cv, pusa bold. The agro-waste materials like cow dung, clay soil, neem leaves and rice bran were mixed together in 2:2:1:1 ratio and used as organic matrix for the immobilization of chemical fertilizer nutrients with commercial grade saresh (Acacia gum, 15% solution) as binder. Different fertilizer treatments were organic matrix based slow release fertilizers, SRF-I (542.0 kg ha(-1)); SRF-II (736.5 kg ha(-1)) and chemical fertilizer combinations, boron (3 kg ha(-1))+sulphur (15 kg ha(-1))+nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1)) and boron (3 kg ha(-1)) + sulphur (15 kg ha(-1))+nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1))+phosphorus (15 kg ha(-1))+potassium (100 kg ha(-1)). Organic matrix based SRF-II released ammonium up to 50-d in wetsoil under laboratory conditions which showed maximum retention of the nutrients. Avery significant increase in plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield was recorded in organic matrix based SRF-II applied plants. The maximum percent increase in biomass production was observed with organic matrix based SRF-II (increase of 65.8% in root fresh weight, 38.0% in root dry weight, 45.9% in leaf fresh weight plant(-1) and 27.5 % in leaf dry weight plant(-1) in 60-d old plants). It also increased the acquisition and assimilation of nitrate from the plant's rhizosphere which was evident by 45.6% increase in nitrate, 27.5% in nitrite and 11.7% in nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in leaves of 45-d old plants over control. The organic matrix based SRF-II significantly increased the seed yield by 28% in Indian mustard. Cost analysis revealed thatthis formulation is cost effective as it is based on agro waste materials.

  18. Massive radiological releases profoundly differ from controlled releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascucci-Cahen, Ludivine; Patrick, Momal

    2012-11-01

    Preparing for a nuclear accident implies understanding potential consequences. While many specialized experts have been working on different particular aspects, surprisingly little effort has been dedicated to establishing the big picture and providing a global and balanced image of all major consequences. IRSN has been working on the cost of nuclear accidents, an exercise which must strive to be as comprehensive as possible since any omission obviously underestimates the cost. It therefore provides (ideally) an estimate of all cost components, thus revealing the structure of accident costs, and hence sketching a global picture. On a French PWR, it appears that controlled releases would cause an 'economical' accident with limited radiological consequences when compared to other costs; in contrast, massive releases would trigger a major crisis with strong radiological consequences. The two types of crises would confront managers with different types of challenges. (authors)

  19. Deletions in the fifth alpha helix of HIV-1 matrix block virus release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, Bridget; Li, Yan; Maly, Connor J.; Madson, Christian J. [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); Chen, Han [Center for Biotechnology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Zhou, You [Center for Biotechnology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Nebraska Center for Virology, Lincoln, NE (United States); Belshan, Michael, E-mail: michaelbelshan@creighton.edu [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); Nebraska Center for Virology, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The matrix (MA) protein of HIV-1 is the N-terminal component of the Gag structural protein and is critical for the early and late stages of viral replication. MA contains five α-helices (α1–α5). Deletions in the N-terminus of α5 as small as three amino acids impaired virus release. Electron microscopy of one deletion mutant (MA∆96-120) showed that its particles were tethered to the surface of cells by membranous stalks. Immunoblots indicated all mutants were processed completely, but mutants with large deletions had alternative processing intermediates. Consistent with the EM data, MA∆96-120 retained membrane association and multimerization capability. Co-expression of this mutant inhibited wild type particle release. Alanine scanning mutation in this region did not affect virus release, although the progeny virions were poorly infectious. Combined, these data demonstrate that structural ablation of the α5 of MA inhibits virus release. - Highlights: • Deletions were identified in the C-terminus of matrix that block virus release. • These deletion mutants still multimerized and associated with membranes. • TEM showed the mutant particles were tethered to the cell surface. • Amino acid mutagenesis of the region did not affect release. • The data suggests that disruption of matrix structure blocks virus release.

  20. Deletions in the fifth alpha helix of HIV-1 matrix block virus release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, Bridget; Li, Yan; Maly, Connor J.; Madson, Christian J.; Chen, Han; Zhou, You; Belshan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The matrix (MA) protein of HIV-1 is the N-terminal component of the Gag structural protein and is critical for the early and late stages of viral replication. MA contains five α-helices (α1–α5). Deletions in the N-terminus of α5 as small as three amino acids impaired virus release. Electron microscopy of one deletion mutant (MA∆96-120) showed that its particles were tethered to the surface of cells by membranous stalks. Immunoblots indicated all mutants were processed completely, but mutants with large deletions had alternative processing intermediates. Consistent with the EM data, MA∆96-120 retained membrane association and multimerization capability. Co-expression of this mutant inhibited wild type particle release. Alanine scanning mutation in this region did not affect virus release, although the progeny virions were poorly infectious. Combined, these data demonstrate that structural ablation of the α5 of MA inhibits virus release. - Highlights: • Deletions were identified in the C-terminus of matrix that block virus release. • These deletion mutants still multimerized and associated with membranes. • TEM showed the mutant particles were tethered to the cell surface. • Amino acid mutagenesis of the region did not affect release. • The data suggests that disruption of matrix structure blocks virus release

  1. Development and evaluation of Ketoprofen sustained release matrix tablet using Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage

    OpenAIRE

    Kaleemullah, M.; Jiyauddin, K.; Thiban, E.; Rasha, S.; Al-Dhalli, S.; Budiasih, S.; Gamal, O.E.; Fadli, A.; Eddy, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the use of natural gums and mucilage is of increasing importance in pharmaceutical formulations as valuable drug excipient. Natural plant-based materials are economic, free of side effects, biocompatible and biodegradable. Therefore, Ketoprofen matrix tablets were formulated by employing Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage as natural polymer and HPMC (K100M) as a synthetic polymer to sustain the drug release from matrix system. Direct compression method was used to develop susta...

  2. Development and evaluation of Ketoprofen sustained release matrix tablet using Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kaleemullah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the use of natural gums and mucilage is of increasing importance in pharmaceutical formulations as valuable drug excipient. Natural plant-based materials are economic, free of side effects, biocompatible and biodegradable. Therefore, Ketoprofen matrix tablets were formulated by employing Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage as natural polymer and HPMC (K100M as a synthetic polymer to sustain the drug release from matrix system. Direct compression method was used to develop sustained released matrix tablets. The formulated matrix tablets were evaluated in terms of physical appearance, weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability and in vitro drug release. The difference between the natural and synthetic polymers was investigated concurrently. Matrix tablets developed from each formulation passed all standard physical evaluation tests. The dissolution studies of formulated tablets revealed sustained drug release up to 24 h compared to the reference drug Apo Keto® SR tablets. The dissolution data later were fitted into kinetic models such as zero order equation, first order equation, Higuchi equation, Hixson Crowell equation and Korsmeyer-Peppas equation to study the release of drugs from each formulation. The best formulations were selected based on the similarity factor (f2 value of 50% and more. Through the research, it is found that by increasing the polymers concentration, the rate of drug release decreased for both natural and synthetic polymers. The best formulation was found to be F3 which contained 40% Hibiscus rosa-sinensis mucilage polymer and showed comparable dissolution profile to the reference drug with f2 value of 78.03%. The release kinetics of this formulation has shown to follow non-Fickian type which involved both diffusion and erosion mechanism. Additionally, the statistical results indicated that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05 between the F3 and reference drug in terms of MDT and

  3. Development and evaluation of Ketoprofen sustained release matrix tablet using Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleemullah, M; Jiyauddin, K; Thiban, E; Rasha, S; Al-Dhalli, S; Budiasih, S; Gamal, O E; Fadli, A; Eddy, Y

    2017-07-01

    Currently, the use of natural gums and mucilage is of increasing importance in pharmaceutical formulations as valuable drug excipient. Natural plant-based materials are economic, free of side effects, biocompatible and biodegradable. Therefore, Ketoprofen matrix tablets were formulated by employing Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage as natural polymer and HPMC (K100M) as a synthetic polymer to sustain the drug release from matrix system. Direct compression method was used to develop sustained released matrix tablets. The formulated matrix tablets were evaluated in terms of physical appearance, weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability and in vitro drug release. The difference between the natural and synthetic polymers was investigated concurrently. Matrix tablets developed from each formulation passed all standard physical evaluation tests. The dissolution studies of formulated tablets revealed sustained drug release up to 24 h compared to the reference drug Apo Keto® SR tablets. The dissolution data later were fitted into kinetic models such as zero order equation, first order equation, Higuchi equation, Hixson Crowell equation and Korsmeyer-Peppas equation to study the release of drugs from each formulation. The best formulations were selected based on the similarity factor ( f 2 ) value of 50% and more. Through the research, it is found that by increasing the polymers concentration, the rate of drug release decreased for both natural and synthetic polymers. The best formulation was found to be F3 which contained 40% Hibiscus rosa-sinensis mucilage polymer and showed comparable dissolution profile to the reference drug with f 2 value of 78.03%. The release kinetics of this formulation has shown to follow non-Fickian type which involved both diffusion and erosion mechanism. Additionally, the statistical results indicated that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the F3 and reference drug in terms of MDT and T50% with p

  4. Influence of Natural, Synthetic Polymers and Fillers on sustained release matrix tablets of Pregabalin

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaya Durga. K; Ashok Kumar. P; Suresh V Kulkarni

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop sustained release matrix tablets of Pregabalin for the treatment of neuropathic pain and epilepsy. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation and formulated using drug with Hydrophilic, hydrophobic, synthetic, natural polymers and 4 different fillers were used. The effect of Polymer concentration, combination and fillers on drug release rate was analyzed for the formulations F-1 to F-17. The tablets were subjected to physicochemical studies,...

  5. Release of engineered nanomaterials from polymer nanocomposites: the effect of matrix degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Timothy V

    2015-01-14

    Polymer nanocomposites-polymer-based materials that incorporate filler elements possessing at least one dimension in the nanometer range-are increasingly being developed for commercial applications ranging from building infrastructure to food packaging to biomedical devices and implants. Despite a wide range of intended applications, it is also important to understand the potential for exposure to these nanofillers, which could be released during routine use or abuse of these materials so that it can be determined whether they pose a risk to human health or the environment. This article is the second of a pair that review what is known about the release of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) from polymer nanocomposites. Two roughly separate ENM release paradigms are considered in this series: the release of ENMs via passive diffusion, desorption, and dissolution into external liquid media and the release of ENMs assisted by matrix degradation. The present article is focused primarily on the second paradigm and includes a thorough, critical review of the associated body of peer-reviewed literature on ENM release by matrix degradation mechanisms, including photodegradation, thermal decomposition, mechanical wear, and hydrolysis. These release mechanisms may be especially relevant to nanocomposites that are likely to be subjected to weathering, including construction and infrastructural materials, sporting equipment, and materials that might potentially end up in landfills. This review pays particular attention to studies that shed light on specific release mechanisms and synergistic mechanistic relationships. The review concludes with a short section on knowledge gaps and future research needs.

  6. The effect of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers on release profiles of diclofenac sodium from matrix tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Imamul Islam

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that Diclofenac could be successfully prepared using an appropriate amount of Methocel K15 MCR® and CA in the form of matrix tablets with similar dissolution profile of patent product Voltaren SR® . The type of polymers used was found to induce a profound effect on release rate and mechanism.

  7. Electrosprayed nanoparticle delivery system for controlled release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltayeb, Megdi, E-mail: megdi.eltayeb@sustech.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sudan University of Science and Technology, PO Box 407, Khartoum (Sudan); Stride, Eleanor, E-mail: eleanor.stride@eng.ox.ac.uk [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Headington OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Edirisinghe, Mohan, E-mail: m.edirisinghe@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Harker, Anthony, E-mail: a.harker@ucl.ac.uk [London Centre for Nanotechnology, Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-01

    This study utilises an electrohydrodynamic technique to prepare core-shell lipid nanoparticles with a tunable size and high active ingredient loading capacity, encapsulation efficiency and controlled release. Using stearic acid and ethylvanillin as model shell and active ingredients respectively, we identify the processing conditions and ratios of lipid:ethylvanillin required to form nanoparticles. Nanoparticles with a mean size ranging from 60 to 70 nm at the rate of 1.37 × 10{sup 9} nanoparticles per minute were prepared with different lipid:ethylvanillin ratios. The polydispersity index was ≈ 21% and the encapsulation efficiency ≈ 70%. It was found that the rate of ethylvanillin release was a function of the nanoparticle size, and lipid:ethylvanillin ratio. The internal structure of the lipid nanoparticles was studied by transmission electron microscopy which confirmed that the ethylvanillin was encapsulated within a stearic acid shell. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated that the ethylvanillin had not been affected. Extensive analysis of the release of ethylvanillin was performed using several existing models and a new diffusive release model incorporating a tanh function. The results were consistent with a core-shell structure. - Highlights: • Electrohydrodynamic spraying is used to produce lipid-coated nanoparticles. • A new model is proposed for the release rates of active components from nanoparticles. • The technique has potential applications in food science and medicine. • Electrohydrodynamic processing controlled release lipid nanoparticles.

  8. Massive radiological releases profoundly differ from controlled releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascucci-Cahen, Ludivine; Patrick, Momal

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors report identification and assessment of different types of costs associated with nuclear accidents. They first outline that these cost assessments must be as exhaustive or comprehensive as possible. While referring to past accidents, they define the different categories of costs: on-site costs (decontamination and dismantling, electricity not produced on the site), off-site costs (health costs, psychological costs, farming losses), image-related costs (impact on food and farm product exports, decrease of other exports), costs related to energy production, costs related to contaminated areas (refugees, lands). They give an assessment of a severe nuclear accident (i.e. an accident with important but controlled radiological releases) in France and outline that it would be a national catastrophe which could be however managed. They discuss the possible variations of the estimated costs. Then, they show that a major accident (i.e. an accident with massive radiological releases) in France would be an unmanageable European catastrophe because of the radiological consequences, of high economic costs, and of huge losses

  9. Evaluating tamsulosin hydrochloride-released microparticles prepared using single-step matrix coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Atsushi; Shinoda, Tatsuki; Ito, Naoki; Baba, Keizo; Oku, Naoto; Mizumoto, Takao

    2011-04-15

    The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum composition for sustained-release of tamsulosin hydrochloride from microparticles intended for orally disintegrating tablets. Microparticles were prepared from an aqueous ethylcellulose dispersion (Aquacoa®), and an aqueous copolymer based on ethyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate dispersion (Eudragit®) NE30D), with microcrystalline cellulose as core particles with a fluidized bed coating process. Prepared microparticles were about 200 μm diameter and spherical. The microparticles were evaluated for in vitro drug release and in vivo absorption to assess bioequivalence in a commercial product, Harnal® pellets. The optimum ratio of Aquacoat® and Eudragit® NE30D in the matrix was 9:1. We observed similar drug release profiles in microparticles and Harnal® pellets. Higuchi model analysis of the in vitro drug release from microparticles was linear up to 80% release, typical of Fickian diffusion sustained-release profile. The in vivo absorption properties from microparticles were comparable to Harnal® pellets, and there was a linear relationship between in vitro drug release and in vivo drug release. In conclusion, this development produces microparticles in single-step coating, that provided a sustained-release of tamsulosin hydrochloride comparable to Harnal® pellets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Controlled antiseptic release by alginate polymer films and beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Ioannis; Rizzello, Loris; Bayer, Ilker S; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Cingolani, Roberto; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2013-01-30

    Biodegradable polymeric materials based on blending aqueous dispersions of natural polymer sodium alginate (NaAlg) and povidone iodine (PVPI) complex, which allow controlled antiseptic release, are presented. The developed materials are either free standing NaAlg films or Ca(2+)-cross-linked alginate beads, which properly combined with PVPI demonstrate antibacterial and antifungal activity, suitable for therapeutic applications, such as wound dressing. Glycerol was used as the plasticizing agent. Film morphology was studied by optical and atomic force microscopy. It was found that PVPI complex forms well dispersed circular micro-domains within the NaAlg matrix. The beads were fabricated by drop-wise immersion of NaAlg/PVPI/glycerol solutions into aqueous calcium chloride solutions to form calcium alginate beads encapsulating PVPI solution (CaAlg/PVPI). Controlled release of PVPI was possible when the composite films and beads were brought into direct contact with water or with moist media. Bactericidal and fungicidal properties of the materials were tested against Escherichia coli bacteria and Candida albicans fungi. The results indicated very efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity within 48 h. Controlled release of PVPI into open wounds is highly desired in clinical applications to avoid toxic doses of iodine absorption by the wound. A wide variety of applications are envisioned such as external and internal wound dressings with controlled antiseptic release, hygienic and protective packaging films for medical devices, and polymer beads as water disinfectants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Formulation and evaluation of sustained release matrix tablet of rabeprazole using wet granulation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqaiyah Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rabeprazole, a member of substituted benzimidazoles, inhibits the final step in gastric acid secretions. This drug claims to cause fastest acid separation (due to higher pKa, and more rapidly converts to the active species to aid gastric mucin synthesis. The most significant pharmacological action of Rabeprazole is dose dependent suppression of gastric acid secretion; without anticholinergic or H2-blocking action. It completely abolishes the hydrochloric acid secretion as it is powerful inhibitor of gastric acid. Rabeprazole is acid labile and hence commonly formulated as an enteric coated tablet. The absorption of rabeprazole occurs rapidly as soon as tablet leaves the stomach. Aim: In the present study an attempt was made to formulate and evaluate Rabeprazole sustained release matrix tablet using wet granulation technique incorporating various polymers like HPMC-E15, Carbopol934, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC. Materials and Methods: The Formulated tablets were evaluated for different physicochemical properties like rheological properties, weight variation, thickness, hardness, % friability, in vitro release studies and drug content. Results: Studies revealed that all the physicochemical parameters comply with the official standards. The in vitro release studies exhibits the release up to 90%, over a prolonged period of time which confirms the extended release profile of formulation, having better bioavailability as well as decreased dosing frequency with reduced doses. Conclusion: The sustained release matrix tablets of rabiprazole shown better bioavailability, efficacy and potency, when compared with official standards.

  12. Impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the in vivo aroma release from wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

    2014-01-08

    The impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the retronasal aroma release of four volatile compounds added to different types of wines has been evaluated. For this purpose, a tailor-made retronasal aroma trapping device (RATD) was used to entrap the exhaled breath of six panelists previously trained in a specific consumption procedure. Five wines of different composition (white wine, sparkling white wine, young red wine, aged red wine, and a sweet wine) were evaluated. Prior to the evaluation, with the exception of the sweet wine, the wines were adjusted to the same ethanol content and aromatized with a mixture of four target volatile compounds. Aroma release data were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis in order to relate wine chemical composition and aroma release during wine drinking. Results showed interindividual differences and a clustering of panelists among lower and higher aroma releasers, which was in agreement to the differences in their breathing capacity. A significant influence of the matrix composition in the low aroma releasers group during wine consumption was observed. The consumption of red wines provoked a significantly higher aroma release than the consumption of white and sweet wines. From the chemical composition determined in the wine samples (pH, total acidity, total polyphenols, neutral polysaccharides, residual sugar, and nitrogenous compounds), the amount of total polyphenols was better correlated with the observed effect.

  13. Bioadhesive Controlled Release Clotrimazole Vaginal Tablets | Bhat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study indicates the possible use of suitable mixtures of natural and semi-synthetic cellulosic polymers for the preparation of clotrimazole mucoadhesive tablets for application as a vaginal controlled delivery system. Keywords: Clotrimazole, Swelling, Cellulosic polymers, Guar gum, Bioadhesion, Release ...

  14. Aroma release in the oral cavity after wine intake is influenced by wine matrix composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Fernández, Adelaida; Muñoz-González, Carolina; Jiménez-Girón, Ana; Pérez-Jiménez, María; Pozo-Bayón, María Ángeles

    2018-03-15

    The aim of this study has been to investigate if wine matrix composition might influence the interaction between odorants and oral mucosa in the oral cavity during a "wine intake-like" situation. Aroma released after exposing the oral cavity of three individuals to different wines (n=12) previously spiked with six target aromas was followed by an -in vivo intra-oral SPME approach. Results showed a significant effect of wine matrix composition on the intra-oral aroma release of certain odorants. Among the wine matrix parameters, phenolic compounds showed the largest impact. This effect was dependent on their chemical structure. Some phenolic acids (e.g. hippuric, caffeic) were associated to an increase in the intra-oral release of certain odorants (e.g. linalool, β-ionone), while flavonoids showed the opposite effect, decreasing the intra-oral release of aliphatic esters (ethyl hexanoate). This work shows for the first time, the impact of wine composition on oral-mucosa interactions under physiological conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sustained-release of caffeine from a polymeric tablet matrix: An in vitro and pharmacokinetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Donna; Zhao Bin; Moochhala, Shabbir; Yang Yiyan

    2006-01-01

    Caffeine is utilized as a stimulant to impart a desired level of alertness during certain working hours. Usually, a single dose of caffeine induces 2-3 h of alertness coupled with side effects whereas a longer effect of 8-12 h is very useful for both daily life and military action. Thus, there is a need to deliver the stimulant continuously to an individual at one time to impart an increased level of alertness for the period stated after administration. This study aimed to design a polymeric microparticle system for sustained delivery of caffeine using a polymeric matrix. Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was used as the erodible matrix material and the caffeine polymeric tablets were fabricated by compression using a Graseby Specac hydraulic press. In vitro release profiles as well as the pharmacokinetics studies data were obtained. Caffeine tablets fabricated using various polymers showed a high initial burst release type profile as compared to the caffeine-PEO-tablet. The PK studies showed sustained delivery of caffeine resulted in two expected phenomena: a reduction in the initial high rate of caffeine release (burst release) as well as a reduction in the change in caffeine concentration in the systemic circulation. A simple two-component system for sustained-release caffeine formulation therefore has been achieved

  16. Human Homeostatic Control Matrix in Norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kruglov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We undertook our research to study and systemize the relationship between hemodynamics and biochemical parameters of arterial and venous blood in healthy people. Hemodynamic and biochemical characteristics were obtained through a probe by using catheterization in various vascular areas (aorta, brain, heart, lungs, and liver. Correlation and factor analyses were conducted to study the relationship between the obtained characteristics of the regional and systemic blood flow. Due to the nature of the correlation analysis, the significant (p<0.05 relation signs (+, 0, - without regard to their power were considered. The obtained results suggested that there are sets of both intra-organ and system regulatory relationships between metabolic and hemodynamic characteristics. The complex of relationships among the studied parameters makes it possible to maintain the homeostatic equilibrium in the body. The psychophysiological control system includes the subsystems we described: 1 the cardiac-hepatic-pulmonary complex having properties of the metabolic and hemodynamic information field providing biological stability of the homeostasis; any significant imbalance of its elements triggers afferent information flows actualizing an afferent synthesis; 2 the mind forming gradient patterns of targeted behavior to eliminate metabolic imbalance, to achieve goals both as coded biological parameters and as the highest forms of behavior, to reach the ultimate goal: parametric, homeostatic equilibrium in the “biosphere” of the human body. By using the results of our research and the complex of dynamic relationships in human homeostasis, we built a homeostatic control matrix (HCM.

  17. EPICS application source/release control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieman, B.; Anderson, J.; Kraimer, M.

    1995-01-01

    This manual describes a set of Application Source/Release Control tools (appSR) that can be used to develop software for EPICS based control systems. The Application Source/Release Control System (appSR) has been unbundled from base EPICS and is now available as an EPICS extension. Due to this unbundling, two new directories must be added to a user's path (see section ''Environment'' on page 3 for more information) and a new command getapp must be issued after the getrel command to get a specific version of appSR (see section ''Creating The Initial Application System Area'' on page 7 for more information). It is now required that GNU make version 3.71 or later be used for makes instead of SUN make. Users should now type gmake instead of make

  18. Formulation and in vivo evaluation of diclofenac sodium sustained release matrix tablet: effect of compression force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ehab Ibrahim; Shazly, Gamal Abdel-Ghany; Harisa, Gamaleldin Ibrahim; Barakat, Nahla Sedik; Al-Enazi, Fouza Kayem; Elbagory, Ibrahim Mostafa

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, Diclofenac Sodium (DS) matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression method under different compression forces (5, 10, 15 and 20 KN), using ethylcellulose as matrix forming material. The produced tablets were characterized on the foundation of satisfactory tablet properties such as hardness, friability, drug content, weight variations and in vitro drug release rate. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction have been used to investigate any incompatibilities of the tablet's ingredients. Additionally, in vivo bioavailability has been investigated on beagle dogs. Data obtained revealed that, upon increasing compression force the in vitro drug release was sustained and the T(max) value was four hours (for formulations compressed at 15 and 20 kN) compared to the conventional voltarine(®) 50 tablets (T(max) value of 2 hours).

  19. Gastroretentive extended release of metformin from methacrylamide-g-gellan and tamarind seed gum composite matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, Rosy; Nandi, Gouranga; Changder, Abhijit; Chowdhury, Sailee; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Ghosh, Lakshmi Kanta

    2016-02-10

    Formulation of a gastroretentive extended release tablet of metformin based on polymethacrylamide-g-gellan (Pmaa-g-GG)-tamarind seed gum (TSG) composite matrix is the main purpose of this study. Tablets were prepared employing wet granulation method taking amount of Pmaa-g-GG, TSG and NaHCO3 (SBC, buoyancy contributor) as independent formulation variables. The tablets were then evaluated for in vitro drug release, buoyancy, ex vivo mucoadhesion, swelling and surface morphology. Compatibility between drug and excipients was checked by DSC, FTIR and XRD analysis. Buoyancy-lag-time, mucoadhesive strength, % drug release and release-rate constant were statistically analyzed using Design-Expert software (version 9.0.4.1) and the formulation was then numerically optimized to obtain USP-reference release profile. The optimized formulation showed excellent buoyancy over a 10h period with buoyancy lag time of 2.76min, significant mucoadhesion and drug release over a period of 10h with f2=71.58. Kinetic modeling unveiled anomalous non-Fickian transport based drug release mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Controlled Release of Agrochemicals Intercalated into Montmorillonite Interlayer Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Wanyika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodic application of agrochemicals has led to high cost of production and serious environmental pollution. In this study, the ability of montmorillonite (MMT clay to act as a controlled release carrier for model agrochemical molecules has been investigated. Urea was loaded into MMT by a simple immersion technique while loading of metalaxyl was achieved by a rotary evaporation method. The successful incorporation of the agrochemicals into the interlayer space of MMT was confirmed by several techniques, such as, significant expansion of the interlayer space, reduction of Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH pore volumes and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface areas, and appearance of urea and metalaxyl characteristic bands on the Fourier-transform infrared spectra of the urea loaded montmorillonite (UMMT and metalaxyl loaded montmorillonite (RMMT complexes. Controlled release of the trapped molecules from the matrix was done in water and in the soil. The results reveal slow and sustained release behaviour for UMMT for a period of 10 days in soil. For a period of 30 days, MMT delayed the release of metalaxyl in soil by more than 6 times. It is evident that MMT could be used to improve the efficiency of urea and metalaxyl delivery in the soil.

  1. Controlled release of agrochemicals intercalated into montmorillonite interlayer space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanyika, Harrison

    2014-01-01

    Periodic application of agrochemicals has led to high cost of production and serious environmental pollution. In this study, the ability of montmorillonite (MMT) clay to act as a controlled release carrier for model agrochemical molecules has been investigated. Urea was loaded into MMT by a simple immersion technique while loading of metalaxyl was achieved by a rotary evaporation method. The successful incorporation of the agrochemicals into the interlayer space of MMT was confirmed by several techniques, such as, significant expansion of the interlayer space, reduction of Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore volumes and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, and appearance of urea and metalaxyl characteristic bands on the Fourier-transform infrared spectra of the urea loaded montmorillonite (UMMT) and metalaxyl loaded montmorillonite (RMMT) complexes. Controlled release of the trapped molecules from the matrix was done in water and in the soil. The results reveal slow and sustained release behaviour for UMMT for a period of 10 days in soil. For a period of 30 days, MMT delayed the release of metalaxyl in soil by more than 6 times. It is evident that MMT could be used to improve the efficiency of urea and metalaxyl delivery in the soil.

  2. Controlled Release of Agrochemicals Intercalated into Montmorillonite Interlayer Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Periodic application of agrochemicals has led to high cost of production and serious environmental pollution. In this study, the ability of montmorillonite (MMT) clay to act as a controlled release carrier for model agrochemical molecules has been investigated. Urea was loaded into MMT by a simple immersion technique while loading of metalaxyl was achieved by a rotary evaporation method. The successful incorporation of the agrochemicals into the interlayer space of MMT was confirmed by several techniques, such as, significant expansion of the interlayer space, reduction of Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore volumes and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, and appearance of urea and metalaxyl characteristic bands on the Fourier-transform infrared spectra of the urea loaded montmorillonite (UMMT) and metalaxyl loaded montmorillonite (RMMT) complexes. Controlled release of the trapped molecules from the matrix was done in water and in the soil. The results reveal slow and sustained release behaviour for UMMT for a period of 10 days in soil. For a period of 30 days, MMT delayed the release of metalaxyl in soil by more than 6 times. It is evident that MMT could be used to improve the efficiency of urea and metalaxyl delivery in the soil. PMID:24696655

  3. Assessment and Quantification of Noncollagenic Matrix Proteins Released from Human Dentin Powder Incorporated into a Silated Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose Biomedical Hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubeux, Davy; Beck, Laurent; Weiss, Pierre; Guicheux, Jérome; Enkel, Bénédicte; Pérez, Fabienne; Simon, Stéphane

    2016-09-01

    The dentin extracellular matrix is a reservoir of bioactive molecules sequestered into dentin during dental initial development. They can be released under pathological conditions but also by controlled demineralization with bioactive materials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of a biomedical hydrogel to extract and release these proteins from smashed dentin. Smashed dentin was obtained with 2 different kinds of grinders: a blade mill and a zirconia mortar grinder. The particle size was measured by scanning electron microscopy. Dentin powder was incorporated into a silated hydroxypropylmethylcellulose hydrogel. Several types of mixtures with variable parameters were tested. The mixtures were immersed into phosphate-buffered saline. The supernatants were collected, and the total released proteins were quantified by gel shift migration and Coomassie staining. The presence of transforming growth factor beta 1 was investigated by Western blot analysis and the ELISA. The mixture dentin powder/hydrogel released proteins (from 49.1 μg/mL-137.9 μg/mL according to the mixtures). The release kinetics was growing and started from the first day until stabilization at 14 days. The quantity of released proteins was directly related to the size of the particles and the weight of the powder incorporated into the hydrogel. Gel shift with direct revelation by ultraviolet and Western blot analyses confirmed the presence of transforming growth factor beta 1 using ELISA. We showed that silated hydroxypropylmethylcellulose hydrogel was able to extract dentin matrix proteins from smashed dentin powder. This mixture could be considered a new way of dental treatment for the dentin-pulp complex and bone regeneration. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro aceclofenac release from IPN matrix tablets composed of chitosan-tamarind seed polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Sougata; Sen, Kalyan Kumar; Basu, Sanat Kumar

    2014-04-01

    This communication describes the formulation and in vitro evaluation of IPN matrix tablets of aceclofenac. IPN microparticles using chitosan and tamarind seed polysaccharide blend was prepared using glutaraldehyde as cross-linker. The drug entrapment efficiency and average particle size of these microparticles was found to be 91.97±1.30% and 498.12±38.67 μm, respectively. These IPN microparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (P-XRD) study. These microparticles were compressed with tablet excipients through direct compression technique. These matrix tablets showed sustained aceclofenac release over 8 h. These matrix tablets might be helpful to minimize dosing frequency and reduction of various side effects during prolong period of treatment. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. A novel experimental design method to optimize hydrophilic matrix formulations with drug release profiles and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Du Hyung; Lim, Jun Yeul; Shin, Sangmun; Choi, Won Jun; Jeong, Seong Hoon; Lee, Sangkil

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the effects of hydrophilic polymers on the matrix system, an experimental design method was developed to integrate response surface methodology and the time series modeling. Moreover, the relationships among polymers on the matrix system were studied with the evaluation of physical properties including water uptake, mass loss, diffusion, and gelling index. A mixture simplex lattice design was proposed while considering eight input control factors: Polyethylene glycol 6000 (x1 ), polyethylene oxide (PEO) N-10 (x2 ), PEO 301 (x3 ), PEO coagulant (x4 ), PEO 303 (x5 ), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) 100SR (x6 ), HPMC 4000SR (x7 ), and HPMC 10(5) SR (x8 ). With the modeling, optimal formulations were obtained depending on the four types of targets. The optimal formulations showed the four significant factors (x1 , x2 , x3 , and x8 ) and other four input factors (x4 , x5 , x6 , and x7 ) were not significant based on drug release profiles. Moreover, the optimization results were analyzed with estimated values, targets values, absolute biases, and relative biases based on observed times for the drug release rates with four different targets. The result showed that optimal solutions and target values had consistent patterns with small biases. On the basis of the physical properties of the optimal solutions, the type and ratio of the hydrophilic polymer and the relationships between polymers significantly influenced the physical properties of the system and drug release. This experimental design method is very useful in formulating a matrix system with optimal drug release. Moreover, it can distinctly confirm the relationships between excipients and the effects on the system with extensive and intensive evaluations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  6. Controlled drug release from bifunctionalized mesoporous silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wujun; Gao, Qiang; Xu, Yao; Wu, Dong; Sun, Yuhan; Shen, Wanling; Deng, Feng

    2008-10-01

    Serial of trimethylsilyl-carboxyl bifunctionalized SBA-15 (TMS/COOH/SBA-15) have been studied as carriers for controlled release of drug famotidine (Famo). To load Famo with large capacity, SBA-15 with high content of carboxyl groups was successfully synthesized by one-pot synthesis under the assistance of KCl. The mesostructure of carboxyl functionalized SBA-15 (COOH/SBA-15) could still be kept even though the content of carboxyl groups was up to 57.2%. Increasing carboxyl content could effectively enhance the loading capacity of Famo. Compared with pure SBA-15, into which Famo could be hardly adsorbed, the largest drug loading capacity of COOH/SBA-15 could achieve 396.9 mg/g. The release of Famo from mesoporous silica was studied in simulated intestine fluid (SIF, pH=7.4). For COOH/SBA-15, the release rate of Famo decreased with narrowing pore size. After grafting TMS groups on the surface of COOH/SBA-15 with hexamethyldisilazane, the release of Famo was greatly delayed with the increasing content of TMS groups.

  7. Meticulous Overview on the Controlled Release Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siafu Ibahati Sempeho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the high demand for fertilizer formulations that will exhaust the possibilities of nutrient use efficiency (NUE, regulate fertilizer consumption, and lessen agrophysicochemical properties and environmental adverse effects instigated by conventional nutrient supply to crops, this review recapitulates controlled release fertilizers (CRFs as a cutting-edge and safe way to supply crops’ nutrients over the conventional ways. Essentially, CRFs entail fertilizer particles intercalated within excipients aiming at reducing the frequency of fertilizer application thereby abating potential adverse effects linked with conventional fertilizer use. Application of nanotechnology and materials engineering in agriculture particularly in the design of CRFs, the distinctions and classification of CRFs, and the economical, agronomical, and environmental aspects of CRFs has been revised putting into account the development and synthesis of CRFs, laboratory CRFs syntheses and testing, and both linear and sigmoid release features of CRF formulations. Methodical account on the mechanism of nutrient release centring on the empirical and mechanistic approaches of predicting nutrient release is given in view of selected mathematical models. Compositions and laboratory preparations of CRFs basing on in situ and graft polymerization are provided alongside the physical methods used in CRFs encapsulation, with an emphasis on the natural polymers, modified clays, and superabsorbent nanocomposite excipients.

  8. Kinetic Modelling of Drug Release from Pentoxifylline Matrix Tablets based on Hydrophilic, Lipophilic and Inert Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircia Eleonora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pentoxifylline is a xanthine derivative used in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease, which because of its pharmacokinetic and pharmacologic profile is an ideal candidate for the development of extended release formulations. The aim of this study is to present a kinetic analysis of the pentoxifylline release from different extended release tablets formulations, using mechanistic and empirical kinetic models. A number of 28 formulations were prepared and analysed; the analysed formulations differed in the nature of the matrix forming polymers (hydrophilic, lipophilic, inert and in their concentrations. Measurements were conducted in comparison with the reference product Trental 400 mg (Aventis Pharma. The conditions for the dissolution study were according to official regulations of USP 36: apparatus no. 2, dissolution medium water, volume of dissolution medium is 1,000 mL, rotation speed is 50 rpm, spectrophotometric assay at 274 nm. Six mathematical models, five mechanistic (0 orders, 1st-order release, Higuchi, Hopfenberg, Hixson-Crowell and one empirical (Peppas, were fitted to pentoxifylline dissolution profile from each pharmaceutical formulation. The representative model describing the kinetics of pentoxifylline release was the 1st-order release, and its characteristic parameters were calculated and analysed.

  9. Storage and sustained release of volatile substances from a hollow silica matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jiexin [Key Lab for Nanomaterials, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100029 (China); Ding Haomin [Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Tao Xia [Key Lab for Nanomaterials, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100029 (China); Chen Jianfeng [Key Lab for Nanomaterials, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2007-06-20

    Porous hollow silica nanospheres (PHSNSs) prepared by adopting a nanosized CaCO{sub 3} template were utilized for the first time as a novel carrier for the storage and sustained release of volatile substances. Two types of volatile substances, Indian pipal from perfumes and peroxyacetic acid from disinfectants, were selected and then tested by one simple adsorption process with two separate comparative carriers, i.e. activated carbon and solid porous silica. It was demonstrated that a high storage capacity (9.6 ml{sub perfume}/mg{sub carrier}) of perfume could be achieved in a PHSNS matrix, which was almost 14 times as much as that of activated carbon. The perfume release profiles showed that PHSNSs exhibited sustained multi-stage release behaviour, while the constant release of activated carbon at a low level was discerned. Further, a Higuchi model study proved that the release process of perfume in both carriers followed a Fickian diffusion mechanism. For peroxyacetic acid as a disinfectant model, PHSNSs also displayed a much better delayed-delivery process than a solid porous silica system owing to the existence of unique hollow frameworks. Therefore, the aforementioned excellent sustained-release behaviours would make PHSNSs a promising carrier for storage and sustained delivery applications of volatile substances.

  10. Aircraft Landing and Attitude Control Using Dynamic Matrix Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Cristian Calugaru

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for an efficient control of the aircraft landing and attitude through Dynamic Matrix Control. The idea of MPC structures used in aircraft control has been well established during the last few years, but some aspects require further investigation. With this in mind, the paper proposes structures for aircraft landing and aircraft attitude control by using single DMC controllers for landing and respectively one DMC controller for each of the attitude axis (pitch attitude hold, bank angle hold and heading hold. The model used for analysis of the aircraft landing structure is based on the last phase of landing. Also, the model used to illustrate the attitude control is that of a pitch attitude hold system of a N250-100 aircraft. Simulations are performed for a variety of control and prediction horizons, taking into account the possibility of adding a weighting factor for the control actions. Apart from separate studies on step reference variations, for some use cases, a generic reference trajectory is provided as a control purpose of the system. Results show a better performance of the proposed method in terms of control surface transition and protection of the actuators involved and a better time response in stabilizing the aircraft attitude. Overall, the aspects shown ensure an improved aircraft attitude control and landing stabilization.

  11. Cellular automata model for drug release from binary matrix and reservoir polymeric devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes Laaksonen, Timo; Mikael Laaksonen, Hannu; Tapio Hirvonen, Jouni; Murtomäki, Lasse

    2009-04-01

    Kinetics of drug release from polymeric tablets, inserts and implants is an important and widely studied area. Here we present a new and widely applicable cellular automata model for diffusion and erosion processes occurring during drug release from polymeric drug release devices. The model divides a 2D representation of the release device into an array of cells. Each cell contains information about the material, drug, polymer or solvent that the domain contains. Cells are then allowed to rearrange according to statistical rules designed to match realistic drug release. Diffusion is modeled by a random walk of mobile cells and kinetics of chemical or physical processes by probabilities of conversion from one state to another. This is according to the basis of diffusion coefficients and kinetic rate constants, which are on fundamental level just probabilities for certain occurrences. The model is applied to three kinds of devices with different release mechanisms: erodable matrices, diffusion through channels or pores and membrane controlled release. The dissolution curves obtained are compared to analytical models from literature and the validity of the model is considered. The model is shown to be compatible with all three release devices, highlighting easy adaptability of the model to virtually any release system and geometry. Further extension and applications of the model are envisioned.

  12. 28 CFR 541.50 - Release from a control unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release from a control unit. 541.50... INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Control Unit Programs § 541.50 Release from a control unit. (a) Only the Executive Panel may release an inmate from a control unit. The following factors are...

  13. Modeling of drug release from matrix systems involving moving boundaries: approximate analytical solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ping I

    2011-10-10

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of approximate analytical solutions to the general moving boundary diffusion problems encountered during the release of a dispersed drug from matrix systems. Starting from the theoretical basis of the Higuchi equation and its subsequent improvement and refinement, available approximate analytical solutions for the more complicated cases involving heterogeneous matrix, boundary layer effect, finite release medium, surface erosion, and finite dissolution rate are also discussed. Among various modeling approaches, the pseudo-steady state assumption employed in deriving the Higuchi equation and related approximate analytical solutions appears to yield reasonably accurate results in describing the early stage release of a dispersed drug from matrices of different geometries whenever the initial drug loading (A) is much larger than the drug solubility (C(s)) in the matrix (or A≫C(s)). However, when the drug loading is not in great excess of the drug solubility (i.e. low A/C(s) values) or when the drug loading approaches the drug solubility (A→C(s)) which occurs often with drugs of high aqueous solubility, approximate analytical solutions based on the pseudo-steady state assumption tend to fail, with the Higuchi equation for planar geometry exhibiting a 11.38% error as compared with the exact solution. In contrast, approximate analytical solutions to this problem without making the pseudo-steady state assumption, based on either the double-integration refinement of the heat balance integral method or the direct simplification of available exact analytical solutions, show close agreement with the exact solutions in different geometries, particularly in the case of low A/C(s) values or drug loading approaching the drug solubility (A→C(s)). However, the double-integration heat balance integral approach is generally more useful in obtaining approximate analytical solutions especially when exact solutions are not

  14. Modulation of microenvironmental pH for dual release and reduced in vivo gastrointestinal bleeding of aceclofenac using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-based bilayered matrix tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Won-Ho; Nguyen, Hien Van; Park, Chulhun; Choi, Youn-Woong; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2017-05-01

    This study was designed to develop a once-daily controlled-release matrix tablet of aceclofenac 200mg (AFC-CR) with dual release characteristics and to investigate the role of an alkalizer in enhancing drug solubility and reducing the occurrence of gastroduodenal mucosal lesions. Two formulation approaches were employed, namely a monolithic matrix tablet and a bilayered tablet. In vitro dissolution studies of AFC-CR tablets were carried out in simulated intestinal fluid (pH6.8 buffer). The in vivo pharmacokinetic studies and drug safety of the immediate-release reference tablet Airtal® 100mg (Daewoong Co., Korea) and the optimized AFC-CR tablet were compared in beagle dogs under fasted condition. The optimally selected AFC-CR formulation displayed the desired dual release characteristics in simulated intestinal fluid with satisfactory micromeritic properties. The swelling action of the optimal matrix tablet, which was visualized by near-infrared (NIR) chemical imaging, occurred rapidly following hydration. Incorporation of sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) was found to enhance the release rate of the AFC-CR bilayered tablets at early stages and increase the microenvironmental pH (pH M ). A pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs indicated a higher drug plasma concentration and a sustained-release pattern for the AFC-CR tablet compared to the Airtal® tablet. AFC-CR was also superior to Airtal® in terms of in vivo drug safety, since no beagle dog receiving AFC-CR experienced gastrointestinal bleeding. The significant enhancement of drug safety was attributed to the size reduction and the increase of pH M of drug particles by means of incorporation of the alkalizer. These findings provide a scientific rationale for developing a novel controlled-release matrix tablet with enhanced patient compliance and better pain control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Responsive Battery with Controlled Energy Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Gao, Jian; Cheng, Zhihua; Chen, Nan; Qu, Liangti

    2016-11-14

    A new type of responsive battery with the fascinating feature of pressure perceptibility has been developed, which can spontaneously, timely and reliably control the power outputs (e.g., current and voltage) in response to pressure changes. The device design is based on the structure of the Zn-air battery, in which graphene-coated sponge serves as pressure-sensitive air cathode that endows the whole system with the capability of self-controlled energy release. The responsive batteries exhibit superior battery performance with high open-circuit voltage (1.3 V), and competitive areal capacity of 1.25 mAh cm -2 . This work presents an important move towards next-generation intelligent energy storage devices with energy management function. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Role of various natural, synthetic and semi-synthetic polymers on drug release kinetics of losartan potassium oral controlled release tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasree, J; Sivaneswari, S; Hemalatha, G; Preethi, N; Mounika, B; Murthy, S Vasudeva

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the present work was to formulate and to characterize controlled release matrix tablets of losartan potassium in order to improve bioavailability and to minimize the frequency of administration and increase the patient compliance. Losartan potassium controlled release matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression technique by the use of different natural, synthetic and semisynthetic polymers such as gum copal, gum acacia, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose K100 (HPMC K100), eudragit RL 100 and carboxy methyl ethyl cellulose (CMEC) individually and also in combination. Studies were carried out to study the influence of type of polymer on drug release rate. All the formulations were subjected to physiochemical characterization such as weight variation, hardness, thickness, friability, drug content, and swelling index. In vitro dissolution studies were carried out simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) for first 2 h and followed by simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8) up to 24 h, and obtained dissolution data were fitted to in vitro release kinetic equations in order to know the order of kinetics and mechanism of drug release. Results of physiochemical characterization of losartan potassium matrix tablets were within acceptable limits. Formulation containing HPMC K100 and CMEC achieved the desired drug release profile up to 24 h followed zero order kinetics, release pattern dominated by Korsmeyer - Peppas model and mechanism of drug release by nonfickian diffusion. The good correlation obtained from Hixson-Crowell model indicates that changes in surface area of the tablet also influences the drug release. Based on the results, losartan potassium controlled release matrix tablets prepared by employing HPMC K100 and CMEC can attain the desired drug release up to 24 h, which results in maintaining steady state concentration and improving bioavailability.

  17. Absorption of controlled-release iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.D.; Lipschitz, D.A.; Skikne, B.S.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple-dose double radioiron technic was used to compare absorption of iron administered as a controlled release (CR) capsule and as an elixir; both formulations contained 50 mg elemental iron as ferrous sulfate. When taken by normal subjects in the fasting state, mean absorption from the elixir and CR capsule averaged 4.92% and 4.38%, which gave a CR capsule:elixir ratio of 0.89. This difference was not significant, but when taken with meals that inhibit absorption of dietary iron by different degrees, absorption of the CR formulation was superior. CR capsule:elixir absorption ratios averaged 1.70 from a meal that is mildly inhibitory and 3.13 from a meal that causes more marked inhibition. It is concluded that CR iron formulations may offer a therapeutic advantage to patients who take oral iron with meals to avoid gastrointestinal side effects

  18. Assessment of chronic spontaneous urticaria by serum-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha and matrix metalloproteinase-9 release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkencrone, Sidsel; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Skov, Per Stahl

    BACKGROUND Previous studies from our group have demonstrated that IgE-mediated basophil activation leads to release of TNFα that in turn can induce matrix metallo-proteinase-9 (MMP-9) release from monocytes. We wished to investigate if serum from chronic spontaneous urticaria-patients with auto-a....... Release levels appeared to be positive correlated to ASST reaction in ASST+ patients but not to disease severity for CSU patients in general....

  19. Controlled release of water-soluble herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggle, B.D.

    1985-01-01

    Pine kraft lignin was used to control the release of metribuzin (4-amino-6-tert-butyl-3-(methylthio)-as-triazin-5(4H)-one) and alachlor (2-chloro-2',6'-diethyl-N-methoxy-methyl acetanalide). Soil thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis using 14 C-metribuzin and 14 C-alachlor demonstrated that NB-5203-58 series and PC940 series kraft lignins could retard the mobility of both herbicides after multiple soil TLC plate developments with water. Soil column chromatography analysis demonstrated that PC940C could retard the mobility of both herbicides after soil column water leaching by positioning the herbicides in the top portion of the soil column where the PC940C-herbicide mixture had been applied. There was a concentration effect where, as more PC940C was used, more 14 C-labelled herbicide was retained in the top portion of the soil columns. Soil column chromatography and soil TLC plate analysis demonstrated that 3 H-PC940C was immobile. Finally, PC940C significantly reduced metribuzin related phytotoxicity to field and greenhouse grown soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) which had been treated with PC940C rates of 0.77 and 1.15 L/ha and metribuzin rates of 0.42 and 0.84 kg/ha. The results for 14 C-metribuzin and 14 C-alachlor as well as the reduction in metribuzin related phytotoxicity to soybeans suggests that PC940C can effectively control the release of metribuzin and alachlor

  20. Electrically controlled drug release from nanostructured polypyrrole coated on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirivisoot, Sirinrath; Pareta, Rajesh; Webster, Thomas J, E-mail: Thomas_Webster@Brown.edu [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2011-02-25

    Previous studies have demonstrated that multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown out of anodized nanotubular titanium (MWNT-Ti) can be used as a sensing electrode for various biomedical applications; such sensors detected the redox reactions of certain molecules, specifically proteins deposited by osteoblasts during extracellular matrix bone formation. Since it is known that polypyrrole (PPy) can release drugs upon electrical stimulation, in this study antibiotics (penicillin/streptomycin, P/S) or an anti-inflammatory drug (dexamethasone, Dex), termed PPy[P/S] or PPy[Dex], respectively, were electrodeposited in PPy on titanium. The objective of the present study was to determine if such drugs can be released from PPy on demand and (by applying a voltage) control cellular behavior important for orthopedic applications. Results showed that PPy films possessed nanometer-scale roughness as analyzed by atomic force microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of P/S and Dex encapsulated within the PPy films. Results from cyclic voltammetry showed that 80% of the drugs were released on demand when sweep voltages were applied for five cycles at a scan rate of 0.1 V s{sup -1}. Furthermore, osteoblast (bone-forming cells) and fibroblast (fibrous tissue-forming cells) adhesion were determined on the PPy films. Results showed that PPy[Dex] enhanced osteoblast adhesion after 4 h of culture compared to plain Ti. PPy-Ti (with or without anionic drug doping) inhibited fibroblast adhesion compared to plain Ti. These in vitro results confirmed that electrodeposited PPy[P/S] and PPy[Dex] can release drugs on demand to potentially fight bacterial infection, reduce inflammation, promote bone growth or reduce fibroblast functions, further implicating the use of such materials as implant sensors.

  1. Controlled release of ketorolac through nanocomposite films of hydrogel and LDH nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhiping; Gu Zi; Cheng Xiaoxi; Rasoul, Firas; Whittaker, Andrew K.; Lu Gaoqing Max

    2011-01-01

    A novel nanocomposite film for sustained release of anionic ophthalmic drugs through a double-control process has been examined in this study. The film, made as a drug-loaded contact lens, consists principally of a polymer hydrogel of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), in whose matrix MgAl-layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH) nanoparticles intercalated with the anionic drug are well dispersed. Such nanocomposite films (hydrogel-LDH-drug) contained 0.6–0.8 mg of MgAl-LDH and 0.08–0.09 mg of the ophthalmic drug (ketorolac) in 1.0 g of hydrogel. MgAl-drug-LDH nanoparticles were prepared with the hydrodynamic particle size of 40–200 nm. TEM images show that these nanoparticles are evenly dispersed in the hydrogel matrix. In vitro release tests of hydrogel-LDH-drug in pH 7.4 PBS solution at 32 °C indicate a sustained release profile of the loaded drug for 1 week. The drug release undergoes a rapid initial burst and then a monotonically decreasing rate up to 168 h. The initial burst release is determined by the film thickness and the polymerization conditions, but the following release rate is very similar, with the effective diffusion coefficient being nearly constant (3.0 × 10 −12 m 2 /s). The drug release from the films is mechanistically attributed to anionic exchange and the subsequent diffusion in the hydrogel matrix.

  2. Control-matrix approach to stellarator design and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.; Pomphrey, N.

    2000-01-01

    The full space Z always equal to {Zj=1,..Nz} of independent variables defining a stellarator configuration is large. To find attractive design points in this space, or to understand operational flexibility about a given design point, one needs insight into the topography in Z-space of the physics figures of merit Pi which characterize the machine performance, and means of determining those directions in Z-space which give one independent control over the Pi, as well as those which affect none of them, and so are available for design flexibility. The control matrix (CM) approach described here provides a mathematical means of obtaining these. In this work, the authors describe the CM approach and use it in studying some candidate Quasi-Axisymmetric (QA) stellarator configurations the NCSX design group has been considering. In the process of the analysis, a first exploration of the topography of the configuration space in the vicinity of these candidate systems has been performed, whose character is discussed

  3. Desktop 3D printing of controlled release pharmaceutical bilayer tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled, Shaban A.; Burley, Jonathan C.; Alexander, Morgan R.; Roberts, Clive J.

    2014-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) printing was used as a novel medicine formulation technique for production of viable tablets capable of satisfying regulatory tests and matching the release of standard commercial tablets. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC 2208) (Methocel™ K100M Premium) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) (Carbopol® 974P NF) were used as a hydrophilic matrix for a sustained release (SR) layer. Hypromellose® (HPMC 2910) was used as a binder while microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) (Pharmacel® ...

  4. Effluent release limits, sources and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindell, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    Objectives of radiation protection in relation to releases. Environmental transfer models for radionuclides. Relationship between releases, environmental levels and doses to persons. Establishment of release limits: Limits based on critical population group concept critical pathway analysis and identification of critical group. Limits based on optimization of radiation protection individual dose limits, collective doses and dose commitments 1) differential cost benefit analysis 2) authorized and operational limits taking account of future exposures. Monitoring of releases to the environment: Objectives of effluent monitoring. Typical sources and composition of effluents; design and operation of monitoring programmes; recording and reporting of monitoring results; complementary environmental monitoring. (orig.) [de

  5. Formulation and Characterization of Matrix and Triple-Layer matrix tablets for Controlled Delivery of Metoprolol tartrate

    OpenAIRE

    Izhar Ahmed Syed; Lakshmi Narsu Mangamoori; Yamsani Madhusudan Rao

    2011-01-01

    In the present study matrix and triple layer matrix tablets of metoprolol tartrate were formulated by using xanthan gum as the matrix forming agent and Sodium Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (Na CMC) as barrier layers. The prepared tablets were analysed for their hardness, friability, drug content and in-vitro drug release studies. Marked differences in dissolution characteristics of (M3) and (M3L3) were observed and showed a significant difference statistically. Mean dissolution time (MDT) for M3 a...

  6. Regulating Drug Release Behavior and Kinetics from Matrix Tablets Based on Fine Particle-Sized Ethyl Cellulose Ether Derivatives: An In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kifayat Ullah Shah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and fabrication of sustained/controlled release dosage forms, employing new excipients capable of extending/controlling the release of drugs from the dosage forms over prolonged periods, has worked well in achieving optimally enhanced therapeutic levels of the drugs. In this sense, the objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of selected cellulose ether derivatives for use in direct compression (DC and as efficient drug release controlling agents. Controlled release matrix tablets of ciprofloxacin were prepared at different drug-to-polymer (D : P ratios by direct compression using a fine particle sized ethylcellulose ether derivative (ETHOCEL Standard Premium 7FP as rate controlling polymer. The tablets obtained were evaluated for various physico-chemical characteristics and in-vitro drug release studies were conducted in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4 using PharmaTest dissolution apparatus at constant temperature of 37∘C±0.1. Similarity factor 2 was employed to the release profiles of test formulations and were compared with marketed ciprofloxacin conventional tablets. Drug release mechanism and the kinetics involved were investigated by fitting the release profile data to various kinetic models. It was found that with increasing the proportion of ethylcellulose ether derivative in the matrix, the drug release was significantly extended up to 24 hours. The tablets exhibited zero order or nearly zero order drug transport mechanism. In vivo drug release performance of the developed controlled release tablets and reference conventional tablets containing ciprofloxacin were determined in rabbit serum according to randomized two-way crossover study design using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Several bioavailability parameters of both the test tablets and conventional tablets including max, max and AUC0- were compared which showed an optimized max and max (<0.05. A good correlation was obtained between in vitro

  7. Evaluation of gum mastic (Pistacia lentiscus as a microencapsulating and matrix forming material for sustained drug release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh M. Morkhade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a natural gum mastic was evaluated as a microencapsulating and matrix-forming material for sustained drug release. Mastic was characterized for its physicochemical properties. Microparticles were prepared by oil-in-oil solvent evaporation method. Matrix tablets were prepared by wet and melt granulation techniques. Diclofenac sodium (DFS and diltiazem hydrochloride (DLTZ were used as model drugs. Mastic produced discrete and spherical microspheres with DLTZ and microcapsules with DFS. Particle size and drug loading of microparticles was in the range of 22–62 µm and 50–87%, respectively. Increase in mastic: drug ratio increased microparticle size, improved drug loading and decreased the drug release rate. Microparticles with gum: drug ratio of 2:1 could sustain DLTZ release up to 12 h and released 57% DFS in 12 h. Mastic produced tablets with acceptable pharmacotechnical properties. A 30% w/w of mastic in tablet could sustain DLTZ release for 5 h from wet granulation, and DFS release for 8 h and 11 h from wet and melt granulation, respectively. Results revealed that a natural gum mastic can be used successfully to formulate matrix tablets and microparticles for sustained drug release.

  8. Generating favorable growth factor and protease release profiles to enable extracellular matrix accumulation within an in vitro tissue engineering environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Battiston, Kyle G; Labow, Rosalind S; Simmons, Craig A; Santerre, J Paul

    2017-05-01

    Tissue engineering (particularly for the case of load-bearing cardiovascular and connective tissues) requires the ability to promote the production and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components (e.g., collagen, glycosaminoglycan and elastin). Although different approaches have been attempted in order to enhance ECM accumulation in tissue engineered constructs, studies of underlying signalling mechanisms that influence ECM deposition and degradation during tissue remodelling and regeneration in multi-cellular culture systems have been limited. The current study investigated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC)-monocyte co-culture systems using different VSMC:monocyte ratios, within a degradable polyurethane scaffold, to assess their influence on ECM generation and degradation processes, and to elucidate relevant signalling molecules involved in this in vitro vascular tissue engineering system. It was found that a desired release profile of growth factors (e.g. insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1)) and hydrolytic proteases (e.g. matrix-metalloproteinases 2, 9, 13 and 14 (MMP2, MMP9, MMP13 and MMP14)), could be achieved in co-culture systems, yielding an accumulation of ECM (specifically for 2:1 and 4:1 VSMC:monocyte culture systems). This study has significant implications for the tissue engineering field (including vascular tissue engineering), not only because it identified important cytokines and proteases that control ECM accumulation/degradation within synthetic tissue engineering scaffolds, but also because the established culture systems could be applied to improve the development of different types of tissue constructs. Sufficient extracellular matrix accumulation within cardiovascular and connective tissue engineered constructs is a prerequisite for their appropriate function in vivo. This study established co-culture systems with tissue specific cells (vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)) and defined ratios of immune cells (monocytes) to investigate

  9. DIDS prevents ischemic membrane degradation in cultured hippocampal neurons by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Pamenter

    Full Text Available During stroke, cells in the infarct core exhibit rapid failure of their permeability barriers, which releases ions and inflammatory molecules that are deleterious to nearby tissue (the penumbra. Plasma membrane degradation is key to penumbral spread and is mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, which are released via vesicular exocytosis into the extracellular fluid in response to stress. DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid preserves membrane integrity in neurons challenged with an in vitro ischemic penumbral mimic (ischemic solution: IS and we asked whether this action was mediated via inhibition of MMP activity. In cultured murine hippocampal neurons challenged with IS, intracellular proMMP-2 and -9 expression increased 4-10 fold and extracellular latent and active MMP isoform expression increased 2-22 fold. MMP-mediated extracellular gelatinolytic activity increased ∼20-50 fold, causing detachment of 32.1±4.5% of cells from the matrix and extensive plasma membrane degradation (>60% of cells took up vital dyes and >60% of plasma membranes were fragmented or blebbed. DIDS abolished cellular detachment and membrane degradation in neurons and the pathology-induced extracellular expression of latent and active MMPs. DIDS similarly inhibited extracellular MMP expression and cellular detachment induced by the pro-apoptotic agent staurosporine or the general proteinase agonist 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate (APMA. Conversely, DIDS-treatment did not impair stress-induced intracellular proMMP production, nor the intracellular cleavage of proMMP-2 to the active form, suggesting DIDS interferes with the vesicular extrusion of MMPs rather than directly inhibiting proteinase expression or activation. In support of this hypothesis, an antagonist of the V-type vesicular ATPase also inhibited extracellular MMP expression to a similar degree as DIDS. In addition, in a proteinase-independent model of vesicular exocytosis, DIDS

  10. Direct Torque Control of Matrix Converter Fed Induction Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAGADEESAN Karpagam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Direct TorqueControl (DTC of induction motor drive using matrixconverters. DTC is a high performance motor controlscheme with fast torque and flux responses. However,the main disadvantage of conventional DTC iselectromagnetic torque ripple. In this paper, directtorque control for Induction Motors using MatrixConverters is analysed and points out the problem ofthe electromagnetic torque ripple which is one of themost important drawbacks of the Direct TorqueControl. Besides, the matrix converter is a single-stageac-ac power conversion device without dc-link energystorage elements. Matrix converter (MC may becomea good alternative to voltage-source inverter (VSI.This work combines the advantages of the matrixconverter with those of the DTC technique, generatingthe required voltage vectors under unity input powerfactor operation. Simulation results demonstrates theeffectiveness of the torque control.

  11. Drug Release Kinetics and Front Movement in Matrix Tablets Containing Diltiazem or Metoprolol/λ-Carrageenan Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggero Bettini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the moving boundaries and the associated drug release kinetics in matrix tablets prepared with two complexes between λ-carrageenan and two soluble model drugs, namely, diltiazem HCl and metoprolol tartrate aiming at clarifying the role played by drug/polymer interaction on the water uptake, swelling, drug dissolution, and drug release performance of the matrix. The two studied complexes released the drug with different mechanism indicating two different drug/polymer interaction strengths. The comparison between the drug release behaviour of the complexes and the relevant physical mixtures indicates that diltiazem gave rise to a less soluble and more stable complex with carrageenan than metoprolol. The less stable metoprolol complex afforded an erodible matrix, whereas the stronger interaction between diltiazem and carrageenan resulted in a poorly soluble, slowly dissolving matrix. It was concluded that the different stability of the studied complexes affords two distinct drug delivery systems: in the case of MTP, the dissociation of the complex, as a consequence of the interaction with water, affords a classical soluble matrix type delivery system; in the case of DTZ, the dissolving/diffusing species is the complex itself because of the very strong interaction between the drug and the polymer.

  12. Controlled release of 5-flurouracil from biomedical polyurethanes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The release of 5-FU through the microspheres was investigated in pH 7⋅4- phosphate buffer. An increase in release rate was observed with increasing molar ratio of PLF68 with respect to castor oil. Keywords. Biomedical polyurethane; controlled release; 5-flurouracil; drug delivery. 1. Introduction. Polyurethanes are one of ...

  13. Release of tensile strain on engineered human tendon tissue disturbs cell adhesions, changes matrix architecture, and induces an inflammatory phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayer, Monika L; Schjerling, Peter; Herchenhan, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical loading of tendon cells results in an upregulation of mechanotransduction signaling pathways, cell-matrix adhesion and collagen synthesis, but whether unloading removes these responses is unclear. We investigated the response to tension release, with regard to matrix proteins, pro...... were upregulated. Stimulation with the cytokine TGF-β1 had distinct effects on some tendon-related genes in both tensioned and de-tensioned tissue. These findings indicate an important role of mechanical loading for cellular and matrix responses in tendon, including that loss of tension leads...

  14. Sustained release of a water-soluble drug from alginate matrix tablets prepared by wet granulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sanchita; Basu, Sanat Kumar; Sa, Biswanath

    2009-01-01

    Alginate matrix tablet of diltiazem hydrochloride (DTZ), a water-soluble drug, was prepared using sodium alginate (SAL) and calcium gluconate (CG) by the conventional wet granulation method for sustained release of the drug. The effect of formulation variables like SAL/CG ratio, drug load, microenvironmental pH modulator, and processing variable like compression force on the extent of drug release was examined. The tablets prepared with 1:2 w/w ratio of SAL/CG produced the most sustained release of the drug extending up to 13.5 h. Above and below this ratio, the drug release was faster. The drug load and the hardness of the tablets produced minimal variation in drug release. The addition of alkaline or acidic microenvironmental modulators did not extend the release; instead, these excipients produced somewhat faster release of diltiazem. This study revealed that proper selection of SAL/CG ratio is important to produce alginate matrix tablet by wet granulation method for sustained release of DTZ.

  15. Investigating the correlation between in vivo absorption and in vitro release of fenofibrate from lipid matrix particles in biorelevant medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkar, Nrupa; Xia, Dengning; Holm, René; Gan, Yong; Müllertz, Anette; Yang, Mingshi; Mu, Huiling

    2014-01-23

    Lipid matrix particles (LMP) may be used as better carriers for poorly water-soluble drugs than liquid lipid carriers because of reduced drug mobilization in the formulations. However, the digestion process of solid lipid particles and their effect on the absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs are not fully understood. This study aimed at investigating the effect of particle size of LMP on drug release in vitro as well as absorption in vivo in order to get a better understanding on the effect of degradation of lipid particles on drug solubilisation and absorption. Fenofibrate, a model poorly water-soluble drug, was incorporated into LMP in this study using probe ultrasound sonication. The resultant LMP were characterised in terms of particle size, size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro lipolysis and in vivo absorption in rat model. LMP of three different particle sizes i.e. approximately 100 nm, 400 nm, and 10 μm (microparticles) were produced with high entrapment efficiencies. The in vitro lipolysis study showed that the recovery of fenofibrate in the aqueous phase for 100 nm and 400 nm LMP was significantly higher (pmicroparticles>control. In summary, the present study demonstrated the particle size dependence of bioavailability of fenofibrate loaded LMP in rat model which correlates well with the in vitro drug release performed in the biorelevant medium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation and In-Vitro Evaluation of Sustained Release Matrix Diclofenac Sodium Tablets Using HPMC KM 100 and Gums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Iqbal, Raza Khan, Fazli Nasir, Jamshaid Ali Khan, Lateef Ahmad, Abad Khan, Yaser Shah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The impact of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose(HPMC K 100M alone and in combination with the guar gum,xanthan gum and gum tragacanth on the release of the diclofenac sodium matrix tablets were evaluated.Materials and Methods: The granules were prepared using wet granulation method and compressed into tablets using different ratio of drug and gum ratio. The physical properties of the tablets were within acceptable pharmacopeial limits.The release profiles of the matrix tablets were evaluated in vitro,using USP dissolution apparatus II (paddle method.Results: The formulations containing HPMC K 100M drug ratio1:1.3 and 1:1.6 and formulations containing HPMC, gum and drug with different ratio also sustained the release of diclofenac sodium for 12 hours. The mechanism of drug release from the matrix tablets was studied using Zero order, First order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer’s models using regression coefficient method. The stability of the selected formulations was evaluated at 40˚C and 70% RH for 6 months.Conclusions: HPMC K100M alone and in combination with natural gums as the retarding material retarded the release upto 12 hours and showed little deviation from the theoretical release pattern.

  17. Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamatey, A.; Arnett, M.

    1997-01-01

    During the history of SRS, continual improvements in facilities, process, and operations, and changes in the site''s mission have reduced the amount of radioactive liquid releases. In the early years of SRS (1958 to 1965), the amount of tritium discharged to the Savannah River averaged approximately 61,000 curies a year. During the mid-1980''s (1983 to 1988), liquid releases of tritium averaged 27,000 curies a year. By 1996, liquid releases of tritium are projected to be just 3000 curies for the year. This large projected decrease is the result of the planned shut-down of all reactors and the anticipated significant decline in the amount of tritium migrating from the site seepage basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility

  18. Nanocomposites for controlled release of nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Viviane J.M. da; Visconte, Leila L.Y.; Nascimento, Regina Sandra V.

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed at the development of nano structured materials capable of reducing the rate of release of nitrogen in the soil from an agricultural nitrogen fertilizer. Four different systems of polymer composites were prepared: (1) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, (2) montmorillonite clay/thermoplastic starch and fertilizer, (3) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, thermoplastic starch and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and also (4) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, thermoplastic starch and polycaprolactone. It was confirmed the formation of nano structured materials by elemental analysis (CHN) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The kinetics of nitrogen release was detected by enzymatic colorimetric analysis and spectroscopy in the ultraviolet/visible. The results showed that all materials evaluated were able to reduce the rate of release of nitrogen in the fertilizers. (author)

  19. Radionuclides and isotopes release of spent fuel matrix. Conceptual and mathematical models of wastes behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cera, E.; Merino, J.; Bruno, J.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a conceptual and numerical model to calculate release of selected radionuclides from spent fuel under repository condition. This has been done in the framework of the Enresa 2000 performance assessment exercise. The model has been developed based on kinetic mass balance equations in order to study the evolution of the spent fuel water interface as a function of time. Several processes have been kinetically modelled: congruent dissolution, radioactive decay, ingrowth and water turnover in the gap. The precipitation/redissolution of secondary solid phases has been taken into account from a thermodynamic point of view. Both approaches have been coupled and the resulting equations solved for a number of radionuclides in both, a conservative and realistic approach. The results show three distinct groups of radionuclides based on their release behaviour: a first group is composed of radioisotopes of highly insoluble elements (e. g., Pu, Am, Pd) whose concentration in the gap is mainly controlled by their solubility and therefore their evolution is identical in both cases. Secondly, a set of radionuclides from soluble elements under these conditions (e. g., I, Cs, Ra) show concentrations kinetically controlled, decreasing with time following the congruent dissolution trend. Their release concentrations are one order of magnitude larger in the conservative case than in the realistic case. Finally, a third group has been identified (e. g., Se, Th, Cm) where a mixed behaviour takes place: initially their solubility limiting phases control their concentration in the gap but the situation reverts to a kinetic control as the chemical conditions change and the secondary precipitates become totally dissolved. The fluxes of the different radionuclides are also given as an assessment of the source term in the performance assessment. (Author)

  20. The effect of powder blend and tablet structure on drug release mechanisms of hydrophobic starch acetate matrix tablets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veen, B.; Pajander, J.; Zuurman, K.; Lappalainen, R.; Poso, A.; Frijlink, H.W.; Ketolainen, J.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the release mechanism of a hydrophilic drug (caffeine) from hydrophobic matrix tablets composed of starch acetate. Different particle size fractions of starch acetate were mixed with caffeine (22% V/V) to obtain various mixture organisations in the powder, as 14 well as in

  1. Controlled release of biologically active silver from nanosilver surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingyu; Sonshine, David A; Shervani, Saira; Hurt, Robert H

    2010-11-23

    Major pathways in the antibacterial activity and eukaryotic toxicity of nanosilver involve the silver cation and its soluble complexes, which are well established thiol toxicants. Through these pathways, nanosilver behaves in analogy to a drug delivery system, in which the particle contains a concentrated inventory of an active species, the ion, which is transported to and released near biological target sites. Although the importance of silver ion in the biological response to nanosilver is widely recognized, the drug delivery paradigm has not been well developed for this system, and there is significant potential to improve nanosilver technologies through controlled release formulations. This article applies elements of the drug delivery paradigm to nanosilver dissolution and presents a systematic study of chemical concepts for controlled release. After presenting thermodynamic calculations of silver species partitioning in biological media, the rates of oxidative silver dissolution are measured for nanoparticles and macroscopic foils and used to derive unified area-based release kinetics. A variety of competing chemical approaches are demonstrated for controlling the ion release rate over 4 orders of magnitude. Release can be systematically slowed by thiol and citrate ligand binding, formation of sulfidic coatings, or the scavenging of peroxy-intermediates. Release can be accelerated by preoxidation or particle size reduction, while polymer coatings with complexation sites alter the release profile by storing and releasing inventories of surface-bound silver. Finally, the ability to tune biological activity is demonstrated through a bacterial inhibition zone assay carried out on selected formulations of controlled release nanosilver.

  2. Overview study of LNG release prevention and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Holter, G.M.; Powers, T.B.

    1982-03-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry employs a variety of release prevention and control techniques to reduce the likelihood and the consequences of accidental LNG releases. A study of the effectiveness of these release prevention and control systems is being performed. Reference descriptions for the basic types of LNG facilities were developed. Then an overview study was performed to identify areas that merit subsequent and more detailed analyses. The specific objectives were to characterize the LNG facilities of interest and their release prevention and control systems, identify possible weak links and research needs, and provide an analytical framework for subsequent detailed analyses. The LNG facilities analyzed include a reference export terminal, marine vessel, import terminal, peakshaving facility, truck tanker, and satellite facility. A reference description for these facilities, a preliminary hazards analysis (PHA), and a list of representative release scenarios are included. The reference facility descriptions outline basic process flows, plant layouts, and safety features. The PHA identifies the important release prevention operations. Representative release scenarios provide a format for discussing potential initiating events, effects of the release prevention and control systems, information needs, and potential design changes. These scenarios range from relatively frequent but low consequence releases to unlikely but large releases and are the principal basis for the next stage of analysis.

  3. Characterization and control of the fiber-matrix interface in ceramic matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowden, R.A.

    1989-03-01

    Fiber-reinforced SiC composites fabricated by thermal-gradient forced-flow chemical-vapor infiltration (FCVI) have exhibited both composite (toughened) and brittle behavior during mechanical property evaluation. Detailed analysis of the fiber-matrix interface revealed that a silica layer on the surface of Nicalon Si-C-O fibers tightly bonds the fiber to the matrix. The strongly bonded fiber and matrix, combined with the reduction in the strength of the fibers that occurs during processing, resulted in the observed brittle behavior. The mechanical behavior of Nicalon/SiC composites has been improved by applying thin coatings (silicon carbide, boron, boron nitride, molybdenum, carbon) to the fibers, prior to densification, to control the interfacial bond. Varying degrees of bonding have been achieved with different coating materials and film thicknesses. Fiber-matrix bond strengths have been quantitatively evaluated using an indentation method and a simple tensile test. The effects of bonding and friction on the mechanical behavior of this composite system have been investigated. 167 refs., 59 figs., 18 tabs.

  4. Distinct presynaptic regulation of dopamine release through NMDA receptors in striosome- and matrix-enriched areas of the rat striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, M.O.; Trovero, F.; Desban, M.; Gauchy, C.; Glowinski, J.; Kemel, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Striosome- and matrix-enriched striatal zones were defined in coronal and sagittal brain sections of the rat, on the basis of 3 H-naloxone binding to mu-opiate receptors (a striosome-specific marker). Then, using a new in vitro microsuperfusion device, the NMDA (50 microM)-evoked release of newly synthesized 3 H-dopamine ( 3 H-DA) was examined in these four striatal areas under Mg(2+)-free conditions. The amplitudes of the responses were different in striosomal (171 +/- 6% and 161 +/- 5% of the spontaneous release) than in matrix areas (223 +/- 6% and 248 +/- 12%), even when glycine (1 or 100 microM) was coapplied (in the presence of 1 microM strychnine). In the four areas, the NMDA-evoked release of 3 H-DA was blocked completely by Mg 2+ (1 mM) or (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801; 1 microM) and almost totally abolished by kynurenate (100 microM). Because the tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant NMDA-evoked release of 3 H-DA was similar in striosome- (148 +/- 5% and 152 +/- 6%) or matrix-enriched (161 +/- 5% and 156 +/- 7%) areas, the indirect (TTX-sensitive) component of NMDA-evoked responses, which involves striatal neurons and/or afferent fibers, seems more important in the matrix- than in the striosome-enriched areas. The modulation of DA release by cortical glutamate and/or aspartate-containing inputs through NMDA receptors in the matrix appears thus to be partly distinct from that observed in the striosomes, providing some functional basis for the histochemical striatal heterogeneity

  5. Distinct presynaptic regulation of dopamine release through NMDA receptors in striosome- and matrix-enriched areas of the rat striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, M.O.; Trovero, F.; Desban, M.; Gauchy, C.; Glowinski, J.; Kemel, M.L. (College de France, Paris (France))

    1991-05-01

    Striosome- and matrix-enriched striatal zones were defined in coronal and sagittal brain sections of the rat, on the basis of {sup 3}H-naloxone binding to mu-opiate receptors (a striosome-specific marker). Then, using a new in vitro microsuperfusion device, the NMDA (50 microM)-evoked release of newly synthesized {sup 3}H-dopamine ({sup 3}H-DA) was examined in these four striatal areas under Mg(2+)-free conditions. The amplitudes of the responses were different in striosomal (171 +/- 6% and 161 +/- 5% of the spontaneous release) than in matrix areas (223 +/- 6% and 248 +/- 12%), even when glycine (1 or 100 microM) was coapplied (in the presence of 1 microM strychnine). In the four areas, the NMDA-evoked release of {sup 3}H-DA was blocked completely by Mg{sup 2}{sup +} (1 mM) or (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801; 1 microM) and almost totally abolished by kynurenate (100 microM). Because the tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant NMDA-evoked release of {sup 3}H-DA was similar in striosome- (148 +/- 5% and 152 +/- 6%) or matrix-enriched (161 +/- 5% and 156 +/- 7%) areas, the indirect (TTX-sensitive) component of NMDA-evoked responses, which involves striatal neurons and/or afferent fibers, seems more important in the matrix- than in the striosome-enriched areas. The modulation of DA release by cortical glutamate and/or aspartate-containing inputs through NMDA receptors in the matrix appears thus to be partly distinct from that observed in the striosomes, providing some functional basis for the histochemical striatal heterogeneity.

  6. Desktop 3D printing of controlled release pharmaceutical bilayer tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Shaban A; Burley, Jonathan C; Alexander, Morgan R; Roberts, Clive J

    2014-01-30

    Three dimensional (3D) printing was used as a novel medicine formulation technique for production of viable tablets capable of satisfying regulatory tests and matching the release of standard commercial tablets. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC 2208) (Methocel™ K100M Premium) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) (Carbopol(®) 974P NF) were used as a hydrophilic matrix for a sustained release (SR) layer. Hypromellose(®) (HPMC 2910) was used as a binder while microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) (Pharmacel(®) 102) and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) (Primojel(®)) were used as disintegrants for an immediate release (IR) layer. Commercial guaifenesin bi-layer tablets (GBT) were used as a model drug (Mucinex(®)) for this study. There was a favourable comparison of release of the active guaifenesin from the printed hydrophilic matrix compared with the commercially available GBT. The printed formulations were also evaluated for physical and mechanical properties such as weight variation, friability, hardness and thickness as a comparison to the commercial tablet and were within acceptable range as defined by the international standards stated in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). All formulations (standard tablets and 3D printed tablets) showed Korsmeyer-Peppas n values between 0.27 and 0.44 which indicates Fickian diffusion drug release through a hydrated HPMC gel layer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Polymer-controlled release of tobramycin from bone graft void filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Amanda E; Brooks, Benjamin D; Davidoff, Sherry N; Hogrebe, Paul C; Fisher, Mark A; Grainger, David W

    2013-12-01

    Despite clinical, material, and pharmaceutical advances, infection remains a major obstacle in total joint revision surgery. Successful solutions must extend beyond bulk biomaterial and device modifications, integrating locally delivered pharmaceuticals and physiological cues at the implant site, or within large bone defects with prominent avascular spaces. One approach involves coating clinically familiar allograft bone with an antibiotic-releasing rate-controlling polymer membrane for use as a matrix for local drug release in bone. The kinetics of drug release from this system can be tailored via alterations in the substrate or the polymeric coating. Drug-loaded polycaprolactone coating releases bioactive tobramycin from both cadaveric-sourced cancellous allograft fragments and synthetic hybrid coralline ceramic bone graft fragments with similar kinetics over a clinically relevant 6-week timeframe. However, micron-sized allograft particulate provides extended bioactive tobramycin release. Addition of porogen polyethylene glycol to the polymer coating formulation changes tobramycin release kinetics without significant impact on released antibiotic bioactivity. Incorporation of oil-microencapsulated tobramycin into the polymer coating did not significantly modify tobramycin release kinetics. In addition to releasing inhibitory concentrations of tobramycin, antibiotic-loaded allograft bone provides recognized beneficial osteoconductive potential, attractive for decreasing orthopedic surgical infections with improved filling of dead space and new bone formation.

  8. Compressor Surge Control Design Using Linear Matrix Inequality Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Nur; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    2017-01-01

    A novel design for active compressor surge control system (ASCS) using linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach is presented and including a case study on piston-actuated active compressor surge control system (PAASCS). The non-linear system dynamics of the PAASCS is transformed into linear parameter varying (LPV) system dynamics. The system parameters are varying as a function of the compressor performance curve slope. A compressor surge stabilization problem is then formulated as a LMI probl...

  9. Development and Optimization of controlled drug release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to develop and optimize an osmotically controlled drug delivery system of diclofenac sodium. Osmotically controlled oral drug delivery systems utilize osmotic pressure for controlled delivery of active drugs. Drug delivery from these systems, to a large extent, is independent of the physiological factors ...

  10. Effect of crosslinking agents on chitosan microspheres in controlled release of diclofenac sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L. Gonçalves

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work chitosan microspheres were prepared by the simple coacervation method and crosslinked using epichlorhydrin or glutaraldehyde for the controlled release of diclofenac sodium. The effects of the crosslinking agents on chitosan microspheres over a 12-hour period were assessed with regard to swelling, hydrolysis, porosity, crosslinking, impregnation of diclofenac sodium (DS, and consequently to the release of DS in buffer solutions, simulating the gastrointestinal tract. The degree of swelling varied with the pH for glutaraldehyde chitosan microspheres (GCM and epichlorhydrin chitosan microspheres (ECM. Partial acid and basic hydrolysis affected the swelling behavior of the GCM matrix. Release kinetics of diclofenac sodium from these matrices were investigated at pH 1.2, 6.8 and 9.0, simulating the gastrointestinal tract conditions. The results indicated that the release mechanism deviated slightly from Fickian transport.

  11. Controlled release from aspirin based linear biodegradable poly(anhydride esters) for anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Queeny; Movva, Sahitya; Chatterjee, Kaushik; Madras, Giridhar

    2017-08-07

    This work reports the synthesis of a novel, aspirin-loaded, linear poly (anhydride ester) and provides mechanistic insights into the release of aspirin from this polymer for anti-inflammatory activity. As compared to conventional drug delivery systems that rely on diffusion based release, incorporation of bioactives in the polymer backbone is challenging and high loading is difficult to achieve. In the present study, we exploit the pentafunctional sugar alcohol (xylitol) to provide sites for drug (aspirin) attachment at its non-terminal OH groups. The terminal OH groups are polymerized with a diacid anhydride. The hydrolysis of the anhydride and ester bonds under physiological conditions release aspirin from the matrix. The resulting poly(anhydride ester) has high drug loading (53%) and displays controlled release kinetics of aspirin. The polymer releases 8.5 % and 20%, of the loaded drug in one and four weeks, respectively and has a release rate constant of 0.0035h -0.61 . The release rate is suitable for its use as an anti-inflammatory agent without being cytotoxic. The polymer exhibits good cytocompatibility and anti-inflammatory properties and may find applications as injectable or as an implantable bioactive material. The physical insights into the release mechanism can provide development of other drug loaded polymers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Photoresponsive lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for controlled doxorubicin release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Cuiping; Wu, Ming; Zhang, Cecheng; Lin, Xinyi; Wei, Zuwu; Zheng, Youshi; Zhang, Da; Zhang, Zhenxi; Liu, Xiaolong

    2017-06-01

    Currently, photoresponsive nanomaterials are particularly attractive due to their spatial and temporal controlled drug release abilities. In this work, we report a photoresponsive lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticle for remote controlled delivery of anticancer drugs. This hybrid nanoparticle comprises three distinct functional components: (i) a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) core to encapsulate doxorubicin; (ii) a soybean lecithin monolayer at the interface of the core and shell to act as a molecular fence to prevent drug leakage; (iii) a photoresponsive polymeric shell with anti-biofouling properties to enhance nanoparticle stability, which could be detached from the nanoparticle to trigger the drug release via a decrease in the nanoparticle’s stability under light irradiation. In vitro results revealed that this core-shell nanoparticle had excellent light-controlled drug release behavior (76% release with light irradiation versus 10% release without light irradiation). The confocal microscopy and flow cytometry results also further demonstrated the light-controlled drug release behavior inside the cancer cells. Furthermore, a CCK8 assay demonstrated that light irradiation could significantly improve the efficiency of killing cancer cells. Meanwhile, whole-animal fluorescence imaging of a tumor-bearing mouse also confirmed that light irradiation could trigger drug release in vivo. Taken together, our data suggested that a hybrid nanoparticle could be a novel light controlled drug delivery system for cancer therapy.

  13. Application of the matrix converter to power flow control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szcześniak P.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Advanced power electronic converters can provide the means to control power flow and ensure proper and secure operation of the future power grid. The small electrical energy sources dispersed in electrical power systems referred to as distributed generation are one of the most significant parts of future grids - Smart Grids. The threephase, direct matrix converter is an alternative solution to the conventional AC-DC-AC converter for interfacing two AC systems in distributed power generation with different voltage and/or frequency parameters. This paper presents a control analysis of a threephase matrix converter employed as a power interface of future electrical grids. The proposed system has been successfully tested for bidirectional power flow operation with different grid operating conditions, such as, frequency and voltage variation

  14. RELEASE AND MUCOADHESION PROPERTIES OF DICLOFENAC MATRIX TABLETS FROM NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC POLYMER BLENDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeniyi, Michael A; Khan, Nasir H; Peh, Kok K

    2015-01-01

    The delayed release and mucoadhesive properties of Cedrela gum and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose blend in diclofenac sodium tablet formulations were evaluated. Tablets were prepared by direct compression and the crushing strength and detachment force were found to increase from 74.49 ± 1.22 to 147.25 ± 2.57 N and 0.302 ± 0.36 to 1.141 ± 0.05 N from low to high level of polymers, respectively. The release kinetics followed Korsmeyer-Peppas release and the n varied between 0.834 and 1.273, indicating that the release mechanism shifts from Fickian to super case I (anomalous release). The drug release profile fits a pulsatile-release pattern characterized by a lag time followed by a more or less rapid and complete drug release. The Cedrela gum-hydroxypropylmethylcelluse blend tablets delayed diclofenac release for 2 h and sustained the release for 12 h. The polymer blend delayed drug release in the 0.1 M HCl simulating gastric environment and subsequent release pH 6.8 phosphate buffer.

  15. In vitro evaluation of sustained released matrix tablets containing ibuprofen: a model poorly water-soluble drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Leticia Guerra-Ponce

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A matrix system was developed that releases ibuprofen (IB over a 12-hour period and the influence of the polymer type and concentration on the release rate of the drug was evaluated. Tablets containing different concentrations of Carbopol (CP, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, or ethyl cellulose (EC were prepared using direct compression and the drug content, content uniformity, hardness, friability, dissolution performance, and in vitro release kinetics were examined. Formulated tablets were found to be within acceptable limits for physical and chemical parameters. The release kinetics of the Carbopol(r971P 8% formulation showed the best linearity (r 2 =0.977 in fitting zero-order kinetics, suggesting the release rate was time independent. The drug release from tablets containing 8% CP was extended over approximately 18 hours and the release kinetics were nearly linear, suggesting that this system has the potential to maintain constant plasma drug concentrations over 12 hours, which could reduce the frequency of administration and the occurrence of adverse effects associated with repeated administration of conventional IB tablets.

  16. Characterization of physicochemical properties of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) type 2208 and their influence on prolonged drug release from matrix tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Devjak Novak, Sabina; Šporar, Elena; Vrečer, Franc; Baumgartner, Saša

    2015-01-01

    The key physicochemical properties of functional excipients should be identified, and the influence of their variability on the properties of the final dosage form should be evaluated during the development phase. Excipients produced by different manufacturers and/or by differentb manufacturing processes should have comparable properties. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) with a high molecular weight is a functional excipient often used in solid matrix systems with prolonged release of act...

  17. Investigating the correlation between in vivo absorption and in vitro release of fenofibrate from lipid matrix particles in biorelevant medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkar, Nrupa Nitin; Xia, Dengning; Holm, René

    2014-01-01

    Lipid matrix particles (LMP) may be used as better carriers for poorly water-soluble drugs than liquid lipid carriers because of reduced drug mobilization in the formulations. However, the digestion process of solid lipid particles and their effect on the absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs...... LMP in rat model which correlates well with the in vitro drug release performed in the biorelevant medium....

  18. Evaluation of Controlled Release Theophylline Microspheres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The microencapsulation technique by solvent evaporation process has been extensively studied in recent years for the preparation of microspheres. This is a complex process and requires strict control of several processing parameters such as rate of solvent evaporation, stirring rate, viscosity of polymeric phase, drug ...

  19. Design, in vitro release characterization and pharmacokinetics of novel controlled release pellets containing levodropropizine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing-Ri; Piao, Yong-Nan; Choi, Jae-Seung; Liu, Yan; Yang, Mingshi; Cui, Jing-Hao

    2014-05-01

    This study was performed to investigate the in vitro release characteristics of levodropropizine (LDP) from novel dual-coated sustained release (SR) pellets, and evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a novel controlled release (CR) preparation composed of the dual-coated SR pellets and immediate release (IR) LDP pellets. The dual-coated SR pellets composed of a drug-loaded nonpareil core, a sub-coating layer (HPMC 6cps) and an SR-coating layer (Aquacoat® ECD, Eudragit® RS 30D or Kollicoat® SR 30D) were prepared by a bottom-spray fluidized bed-coating method. The drug release from the dual-coated SR pellets coated with Aquacoat® ECD followed a zero-order profile in water, and the drug release was not affected by the coating level of the sub-coating layer and stable under the accelerated storage condition (40 °C, 75% RH) for 6 months. The CR preparation showed significantly decreased values of maximum drug concentration (Cmax) and elimination rate (K) than the reference product (LEVOTUS® SYR) but the similar bioavailability (F = 95.43%). The novel CR preparation presents promising delivery of LDP with an immediate and sustained release manner, with similar clinical effect as the commercial IR product.

  20. Stimuli-Responsive Materials for Controlled Release Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2015-04-01

    The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. To address this outstanding problem, the design and fabrication of stimuli-responsive materials are pursued to guarantee the controlled release of cargo at a specific time and with an accurate amount. Upon applying different stimuli such as light, magnetic field, heat, pH change, enzymes or redox, functional materials change their physicochemical properties through physical transformation or chemical reactions, allowing the release of payload agents on demand. This dissertation studied three stimuli-responsive membrane systems for controlled release from films of macro sizes to microcapsules of nano sizes. The first membrane system is a polymeric composite film which can decrease and sustain diffusion upon light irradiation. The photo-response of membranes is based on the photoreaction of cinnamic derivatives. The second one is composite membrane which can improve diffusion upon heating. The thermo-response of membranes comes from the volume phase transition ability of hydrogels. The third one is microcapsule which can release encapsulated agents upon light irradiation. The photo-response of capsules results from the photoreaction of nitrobenzyl derivatives. The study on these membrane systems reveals that stimuli-responsive release can be achieved by utilizing different functional materials on either macro or micro level. Based on the abundant family of smart materials, designing and fabricating stimuli-responsive systems shall lead to various advanced release processes on demand for biomedical applications.

  1. Mechanism of drug release from silica-gelatin aerogel-Relationship between matrix structure and release kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Péter; Kéri, Mónika; Bányai, István; Lázár, István; Fábián, István; Domingo, Concepción; Kalmár, József

    2017-04-01

    Specific features of a silica-gelatin aerogel (3 wt.% gelatin content) in relation to drug delivery has been studied. It was confirmed that the release of both ibuprofen (IBU) and ketoprofen (KET) is about tenfold faster from loaded silica-gelatin aerogel than from pure silica aerogel, although the two matrices are structurally very similar. The main goal of the study was to understand the mechanistic background of the striking difference between the delivery properties of these closely related porous materials. Hydrated and dispersed silica-gelatin aerogel has been characterized by NMR cryoporometry, diffusiometry and relaxometry. The pore structure of the silica aerogel remains intact when it disintegrates in water. In contrast, dispersed silica-gelatin aerogel develops a strong hydration sphere, which reshapes the pore walls and deforms the pore structure. The drug release kinetics was studied on a few minutes time scale with 1s time resolution. Simultaneous evaluation of all relevant kinetic and structural information confirmed that strong hydration of the silica-gelatin skeleton facilitates the rapid desorption and dissolution of the drugs from the loaded aerogel. Such a driving force is not operative in pure silica aerogels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Controlled release of tocopherols from polymer blend films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinata, Noe

    Controlled release packaging has great potential to increase storage stability of foods by releasing active compounds into foods continuously over time. However, a major limitation in development of this technology is the inability to control the release and provide rates useful for long term storage of foods. Better understanding of the factors affecting active compound release is needed to overcome this limitation. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between polymer composition, polymer processing method, polymer morphology, and release properties of active compounds, and to provide proof of principle that compound release is controlled by film morphology. A natural antioxidant, tocopherol was used as a model active compound because it is natural, effective, heat stable, and soluble in most packaging polymers. Polymer blend films were produced from combination of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), or polystyrene (PS) with 3000 ppm mixed tocopherols using conventional blending method and innovative blending method, smart blending with a novel mixer using chaotic advection. Film morphologies were visualized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Release of tocopherols into 95% ethanol as a food simulant was measured by UV/Visible spectrophotometry or HPLC, and diffusivity of tocopherols in the polymers was estimated from this data. Polymer composition (blend proportions) and processing methods have major effects on film morphology. Four different types of morphologies, dispersed, co-continuous, fiber, and multilayer structures were developed by either conventional extrusion or smart blending. With smart blending of fixed polymer compositions, different morphologies were progressively developed with fixed polymer composition as the number of rod rotations increased, providing a way to separate effects of polymer composition and morphology. The different morphologies

  3. Evaluating Carbon Release Rate of Controlled-release Tablet and Its Applicability to Biological Nitrate Denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeum, Y.; HAN, K.; Yoon, J.; Lee, J.; Song, K.; Kang, J. H.; Park, C. W.; Kim, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Generally, indigenous microbes in an aquifer have known to effectively degrade nitrate through heterotrophic denitrification in the presence of carbon source (CS). However, in case of continuous injection of excess amount of CS into an aquifer for complete denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, the injection of CS frequently results in biological clogging around the vicinity of an injection well. To overcome this problem, we developed a controlled-release CS tablet (CRCST) using fumarate as a CS. However, there is lack of study about CRCST release profile under field condition and its applicability to nitrate denitrification. Thus, we assessed CS release profile of CRCST in a continuous flowing cell (CFC) and its efficiency on biological denitrification in a soil column. During the CFC test, six different CRCSTs (3 for precipitating CRCSTs and 3 for floating CRCSTs) having different contents of polymer controlling CS release evaluated. CFC was operated under four different flowrates similar to groundwater velocities, and CRCST was added into the CFC before injecting test solution containing bromide (100 mg/L) as a tracer. During the soil column test, CFC and soil column was connected in sequence. Test solution containing nitrate (30 mg-N/L) and bromide was pumped into CFC, and its effluent was pumped into the column. Although the CRCSTs contain different amount of polymer, CS release rate and peak concentration of CS were highly proportional to flow rate. The ranges of CS release rate for precipitating and floating CRCSTs were 1.35-2.83 and 0.41-4.05 mmol/L/hr, respectively. The result suggests that groundwater velocity is a key parameter affecting CS release rate of CRCST. During the soil column test, one tablet addition of precipitating and floating CRCST maintained nitrate concentration less than 10mg-N/L (drinking water standard) for 4.3 and 3.7 days, respectively. These results suggest that CRCST may apply for the effective means of controlling high

  4. Influence of the composition of hydroxypropyl cellulose/maleic acid-alt-styrene copolymer blends on their properties as matrix for drug release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Poly(carboxylic acid-polysaccharide compositions have been found suitable for obtaining drug formulations with controlled release, most formulations being therapeutically efficacious, stable, and non-irritant. The influence of the characteristics of the aqueous solutions from which the polymer matrix is prepared (i.e. the total concentration of polymer in solutions and the mixing ratio between the partners, hydroxypropyl cellulose, HPC and maleic acid-alternating-styrene copolymer, MAc-alt-S on the kinetics of some drugs release in acidic environment (pH = 2 has been followed by ‘in vitro’ dissolution tests. It has been established that the kinetics of procaine hydrochloride release from HPC/MAc-alt-S matrix depends on its composition; the diffusion exponent, n is close to 0.5 for matrices where one of the components is in large excess and n~0.02 for middle composition range. The lower value of diffusion exponent for middle composition range could be caused by the so called ‘burst effect’, therefore the kinetic evaluation is difficult.

  5. Mucoadhesive controlled release microcapsules of indomethacin: optimization and stability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hany M; Ahmed, Tarek A; Lila, Ahmed E A; Samy, Ahmed M; Kaseem, Ala A; Nutan, Mohammad T H

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this project was to develop and optimize indomethacin microcapsules composed of multiple mucoadhesive polymers for high drug entrapment, good mucoadhesiveness and drug release in a controlled fashion over a longer period of time. Microcapsules containing sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose, Carbopol 934 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose were prepared by orifice-ionic gelation method. The effects of composition of microcapsules on drug entrapment efficacy, drug release and mucoadhesive character were determined by mixture statistical design. Most formulations exhibited good mucoadhesive property in everted intestinal sac test. Drug entrapment efficiency (68-94%) was dependent on the type of polymers. Drug release (92-100%) extended over 12 h. The optimized formulation resulted in drug entrapment efficiency of 89.3%, drug release of 94.8% and mucoadhesiveness of 30.4%. All formulations were stable for more than 1.5 years. The optimized mucoadhesive microcapsules are promising for controlled delivery of indomethacin with twice a day oral administration.

  6. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for aspirin recognition and controlled release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan Xianwen; Geng Zhirong; Zhao Yao; Wang Zhilin; Zhu Junjie [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, MOE Key Lab of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China)], E-mail: wangzl@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: jjzhu@nju.edu.cn

    2009-04-22

    Core-shell structural magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (magnetic MIPs) with combined properties of molecular recognition and controlled release were prepared and characterized. Magnetic MIPs were synthesized by the co-polymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) around aspirin (ASP) at the surface of double-bond-functionalized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in chloroform. The obtained spherical magnetic MIPs with diameters of about 500 nm had obvious superparamagnetism and could be separated quickly by an external magnetic field. Binding experiments were carried out to evaluate the properties of magnetic MIPs and magnetic non-molecularly imprinted polymers (magnetic NIPs). The results demonstrated that the magnetic MIPs had high adsorption capacity and selectivity to ASP. Moreover, release profiles and release rate of ASP from the ASP-loaded magnetic MIPs indicated that the magnetic MIPs also had potential applications in drug controlled release.

  7. A controlled release system for proteins based on poly(ether ester) block-copolymers: polymer network characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, J.M.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Feijen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The properties of a series of multiblock copolymers, based on hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and hydrophobic poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) blocks were investigated with respect to their application as a matrix for controlled release of proteins. The degree of swelling, Q, of the

  8. Configuration control based on risk matrix for radiotherapy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes de Oca Quinnones, Joe; Torres Valle, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of the science and technique breakthroughs in the application of the radiotherapy represents a challenge so that, the appearance of equipment failure or human mistakes that triggers unfavorable consequences for patients, public, or the occupationally exposed workers; it is also diversified forcing to incorporate besides, as part of the efforts, new techniques for the evaluation of risk and the detection of the weak points that can lead to these consequences. In order to evaluate the risks of the radiotherapy practices there is the SEVRRA code, based on the method of Risk Matrix. The system SEVRRA is the most frequently used code in the applications of risk studies in radiotherapy treatment. On the other hand, starting from the development of tools to control the dangerous configurations in nuclear power plants, it has been developed the SECURE code, which in its application variant of Risk Matrix, has gain a comfortable interface man-machine to make risk analyses to the radiotherapy treatment, molding in this way a lot of combinations of scenarios. These capacities outstandingly facilitate the studies and risk optimization applications in these practices. In the system SECURE-Risk Matrix are incorporated graphic and analytical capacities, which make more flexible the analyses and the subsequent documentation of all the results. The paper shows the the application of the proposed system to an integral risk study for the process of radiotherapy treatment with linear accelerator. (Author)

  9. Release kinetics of tocopherol and quercetin from binary antioxidant controlled-release packaging films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Lee, Dong Sun; Zhu, Xuntao; Yam, Kit L

    2012-04-04

    This paper investigated the feasibility of manipulating packaging polymers with various degrees of hydrophobicity to release two antioxidants, tocopherol and quercetin, at rates suitable for long-term inhibition of lipid oxidation in food. For example, one antioxidant can be released at a fast rate to provide short-term/intermediate protection, whereas the other antioxidant can be released at a slower rate to provide intermediate/long-term protection of lipid oxidation. Controlled-release packaging films containing tocopherol and quercetin were produced using ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and polypropylene (PP) polymers; the release of these antioxidants to 95% ethanol (a fatty food simulant) was measured using UV-vis spectrophotometry, and Fickian diffusion models with appropriate initial and boundary conditions were used to fit the data. For films containing only quercetin, the results show that the release of quercetin was much faster but lasted for a much shorter time for hydrophilic polymers (EVOH and EVA) than for hydrophobic polymers (LDPE and PP). For binary antioxidant films containing tocopherol and quercetin, the results show that tocopherol released more rapidly but for a shorter period of time than quercetin in LDPE and EVOH films, and the difference is more pronounced for LDPE films than EVOH films. The results also show the presence of tocopherol can accelerate the release of quercetin. Although none of the films produced is acceptable for long-term lipid oxidation inhibition, the study provides encouraging results suggesting that acceptable films may be produced in the future using polymer blend films.

  10. HABIT, Toxic and Radioactive Release Hazards in Reactor Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stage, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. 2 - Methods: Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel

  11. FERLENT - a controlled release fertilizer produced from a polymer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Mayra; Arces, Milagros; Cuesta, Ernesto; Corredera, Pilar; Sardina, Carmen; Rieumont, Jacques; Quintana, Patricia; Bartolo, Pascual; Guenther, Bluma

    2011-01-01

    The possibility to use release controlled fertilizers in the agriculture of the tropical countries is more important than in the agriculture of the countries of the template regions. In this context, this work purpose the development of a new Fertilizer of Controlled Release named FERLENT, which was obtained starting from a polymeric material, under controlled conditions which allowed to corroborate the adjustment of the synthesis parameters under the modulate of nutrients liberation. It was characterized by, Scanning Microscopy Electron (SEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). (author)

  12. Motor control differs for increasing and releasing force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seoung Hoon; Kwon, MinHyuk; Solis, Danielle; Lodha, Neha; Christou, Evangelos A

    2016-06-01

    Control of the motor output depends on our ability to precisely increase and release force. However, the influence of aging on force increase and release remains unknown. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine whether force control differs while increasing and releasing force in young and older adults. Sixteen young adults (22.5 ± 4 yr, 8 females) and 16 older adults (75.7 ± 6.4 yr, 8 females) increased and released force at a constant rate (10% maximum voluntary contraction force/s) during an ankle dorsiflexion isometric task. We recorded the force output and multiple motor unit activity from the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle and quantified the following outcomes: 1) variability of force using the SD of force; 2) mean discharge rate and variability of discharge rate of multiple motor units; and 3) power spectrum of the multiple motor units from 0-4, 4-10, 10-35, and 35-60 Hz. Participants exhibited greater force variability while releasing force, independent of age (P motor units from 35 to 60 Hz (R(2) = 0.38). Modulation of multiple motor units from 35 to 60 Hz was further correlated to the change in mean discharge rate of multiple motor units (r = 0.66) and modulation from 0 to 4 Hz (r = -0.64). In conclusion, these findings suggest that force control is altered while releasing due to an altered modulation of the motor units. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Chitosan nanoparticles/cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposites as a carrier system for the controlled release of repaglinide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Elseoud, Wafaa S; Hassan, Mohammad L; Sabaa, Magdy W; Basha, Mona; Hassan, Enas A; Fadel, Shaimaa M

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the use of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and chitosan nanoparticles (CHNP) for developing controlled-release drug delivery system of the anti-hyperglycemic drug Repaglinide (RPG). CNC was isolated from palm fruit stalks by sulfuric acid hydrolysis; the dimensions of the isolated nanocrystals were 86-237 nm in length and 5-7 nm in width. Simple and economic method was used for the fabrication of controlled release drug delivery system from CNC and CHNP loaded with RPG drug via ionic gelation of chitosan in the presence of CNC and RPG. The prepared systems showed high drug encapsulation efficiency of about ~98%. Chemical modification of CNC by oxidation to introduce carboxylic groups on their surface (OXCNC) was also carried out for further controlling of RPG release. Particles size analysis showed that the average size of CHNP was about 197 nm while CHNP/CNC/RPG or CHNP/OXCNC/RPG nanoparticles showed average size of 215-310 nm. Compatibility studies by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed no chemical reaction between RPG and the system's components used. By studying the drug release kinetic, all the prepared RPG formulations followed Higuchi model, indicating that the drug released by diffusion through the nanoparticles polymeric matrix. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A DSP controlled one-to-three phase matrix converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubovsky, J.; Dobrucly, B; Tabacek, R.; Havrila, R. [Department of Electric Traction and Energetics Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    This paper deals with the theoretical analysis computer simulation and experimental results of IM fed by a one-to-three phase matrix converter which offers a unique solution for single phase electric traction applications. The proposed drive in comparison with currently used conventional drives reduces the number of power switching elements of the converter, which increases drives dependability and brings lower investment in power electronics used in drive. Further advantage is that the converter is controlled with nearly unity power factor which cuts down the operational expenses and offers higher overall performance of the drive. (orig.) 6 refs.

  15. Matrix converter controlled with the direct transfer function approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, J.; Silva, E.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    Power electronics is an emerging technology. New power circuits are invented and have to be introduced into the power electronics curriculum. One of the interesting new circuits is the matrix converter (MC), and this paper analyses its working principles. A simple model is proposed to represent...... the power circuit, including the input filter. The power semiconductors are modelled as ideal bidirectional switches and the MC is controlled using a direct transfer function approach. The modulation strategy of the converter is explained in a complete and clear form. The commutation problem of two switches...

  16. Composite microsphere-functionalized scaffold for the controlled release of small molecules in tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current tissue engineering strategies focus on restoring damaged tissue architectures using biologically active scaffolds. The ideal scaffold would mimic the extracellular matrix of any tissue of interest, promoting cell proliferation and de novo extracellular matrix deposition. A plethora of techniques have been evaluated to engineer scaffolds for the controlled and targeted release of bioactive molecules to provide a functional structure for tissue growth and remodeling, as well as enhance recruitment and proliferation of autologous cells within the implant. Recently, novel approaches using small molecules, instead of growth factors, have been exploited to regulate tissue regeneration. The use of small synthetic molecules could be very advantageous because of their stability, tunability, and low cost. Herein, we propose a chitosan–gelatin scaffold functionalized with composite microspheres consisting of mesoporous silicon microparticles and poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid for the controlled release of sphingosine-1-phospate, a small molecule of interest. We characterized the platform with scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and confocal microscopy. Finally, the biocompatibility of this multiscale system was analyzed by culturing human mesenchymal stem cells onto the scaffold. The presented strategy establishes the basis of a versatile scaffold for the controlled release of small molecules and for culturing mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative medicine applications.

  17. Original research paper. Formulation and pharmaceutical development of quetiapine fumarate sustained release matrix tablets using a QbD approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavan, Alexandru; Porfire, Alina; Marina, Cristina; Tomuta, Ioan

    2017-03-01

    The main objective of the present study was to apply QbD methodology in the development of once-a-day sustained release quetiapine tablets. The quality target product profile (QTPP) was defined after the pharmaceutical properties and kinetic release of the innovator product, Seroquel XR 200 mg. For the D-optimal experimental design, the level and ratio of matrix forming agents and the type of extragranular diluent were chosen as independent inputs, which represented critical formulation factors. The critical quality attributes (CQAs) studied were the cumulative percentages of quetiapine released after certain time intervals. After the analysis of the experimental design, optimal formulas and the design space were defined. Optimal formulas demonstrated zero-order release kinetics and a dissolution profile similar to the innovator product, with f2 values of 74.53 and 83.74. It was concluded that the QbD approach allowed fast development of sustained release tablets with similar dissolution behavior as the innovator product.

  18. Electrochemically controlled release of anticancer drug methotrexate using nanostructured polypyrrole modified with cetylpyridinium: Release kinetics investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh, Naader; Shamaeli, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    A new simple strategy for direct electrochemical incorporation of chemotherapeutic methotrexate (MTX) into conductive polypyrrole (PPy) has been suggested for an electrochemically controlled loading and release system. Electropolymerization of MTX doped polypyrrole yielded poor quality with low efficiency of doping, but a well-doped, nanostructure and increased capacity of drug loading (24.5 mg g −1 ) has been obtained in the presence of cetylpyridinium (CP) as a modifier. When CP was preloaded onto PPy, the hydrophobic surface of the PPy serves as a backbone to which the hydrophobic chain of the CP can be attached. Electrostatic interaction between cationic CP with anionic MTX and aromatic interaction between pyridinium head of CP with pyrimidine and pyrazine rings of MTX increases drug doping. Then release kinetics were investigated at various applied potentials and temperatures. Kinetics analysis based on Avrami's equation showed that the drug release was controlled and accelerated by increasing temperature and negative potential and sustained by increasing positive potential. At open circuit condition, the release parameter (n) represented a diffusive mechanism and at applying electrochemical potentials, a first-order mode. Activation energy parameters (E a , ΔG ≠ , ΔH ≠ and ΔS ≠ ) and half-life time (t 1/2 ) of drug release are also analyzed as a function of applied potential. The nanostructured polymer films (PPy/CP/MTX) were characterized by several techniques: scanning electron microscopy, Furrier transforms Infrared, UV-vis spectroscopy. Overall, our results demonstrate that the PPy/CP/MTX films, combined with electrical stimulation, permit a programmable release of MTX by altering the interaction strength between the PPy/CP and MTX

  19. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Terry R. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-04-01

    An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

  20. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-01-01

    An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor is provided wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release

  1. Controlled-release nanoencapsulating microcapsules to combat inflammatory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baek JS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Jong-Suep Baek,1 Eng Wan Yeo,1 Yin Hao Lee,2 Nguan Soon Tan,2 Say Chye Joachim Loo1,3 1School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; 2School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; 3Singapore Centre on Environmental Life Sciences Engineering (SCELSE, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Abstract: The World Health Organization (WHO has reported that globally 235 million people suffer from chronic and other inflammatory diseases. The short half-lives of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and their notoriety in causing gastrointestinal discomforts, warrants these drugs to be released in a controlled and sustained manner. Although polymeric particles have been widely used for drug delivery, there are few reports that showcase their ability in encapsulating and sustaining the release of NSAIDs. In this paper, polymeric nanoencapsulating microcapsules loaded with NSAIDs were fabricated using solid/water/oil/water emulsion solvent evaporation method. Two NSAIDs, ibuprofen and naproxen, were first pre-loaded into nanoparticles and then encapsulated into a larger hollow microcapsule that contained the third NSAID, celecoxib. A high encapsulation efficiency (% of these NSAIDs was achieved and a sustained release (up to 30 days of these drugs in phosphate-buffered saline was observed. Then, a gastrointestinal drug – cimetidine (CIM – was co-loaded with the NSAIDs. This floating delivery system exhibited excellent buoyancy (~88% up to 24 h in simulated gastric fluid. It also allowed a sequential release of the drugs, whereby an immediate release of CIM followed by NSAIDs was observed. Drug release of the NSAIDs observed Fickian diffusion mechanism, whereas CIM observed non-Fickian diffusion. Therefore, this delivery system is a promising platform to control the delivery of NSAIDs to combat inflammatory diseases, thereby protecting against possible gastrointestinal

  2. Degradation of tropoelastin by matrix metalloproteinases--cleavage site specificities and release of matrikines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinz, Andrea; Jung, Michael C; Duca, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    To provide a basis for the development of approaches to treat elastin-degrading diseases, the aim of this study was to investigate the degradation of the natural substrate tropoelastin by the elastinolytic matrix metalloproteinases MMP-7, MMP-9, and MMP-12 and to compare the cleavage site specifi...

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Controlled-Release Avermectin/Castor Oil-Based Polyurethane Nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Qin, He; Li, Lingxiao; Zhou, Xiaoteng; Wang, Wei; Kan, Chengyou

    2017-06-12

    Avermectin (AVM) is a low-toxic and high-active biopesticide, but it can be easily degraded by UV light. In this paper, biodegradable castor oil-based polyurethanes (CO-PU) are synthesized and used as carriers to fabricate a new kind of AVM/CO-PU nanoemulsion through an emulsion solvent evaporation method, and the chemical structure, colloidal property, AVM loading capacity, controlled-release behavior, foliar adhesion, and photostability of the AVM/CO-PU drug delivery systems are investigated. Results show that AVM is physically encapsulated in the CO-PU carrier nanospheres, the diameter of the AVM/CO-PU nanoparticles is 85%. The release profiles indicate that the release rate is relatively high at the early stage and then slows, which can be adjusted by loaded AVM content, temperature, and pH of the release medium. The foliar pesticide retention of the AVM/CO-PU nanoemulsions is improved, and the photolysis rate of AVM in the AVM/CO-PU nanoparticles is significantly slower than that of the free AVM. A release mechanism of the AVM/CO-PU nanoemulsions is proposed, which is controlled by both diffusion and matrix erosion.

  4. Preparation and comparative evaluation of sustained release metoclopramide hydrochloride matrix tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Sayed I.; Mahrous, Gamal M.; El-Badry, Mahmoud

    2009-01-01

    Metoclopramide hydrochloride (MCP) is commonly used for the management of gastrointestinal disorders. Frequent administration and the undesired side effects (extra pyramidal symptoms) of the drug on the central nervous system due to the fluctuations of its plasma concentrations may lead to patient incompliance, and hence, improper therapy. Therefore, the present work will be devoted to formulate the drug in sustained release formulations. MCP was incorporated in 12 formulae containing different polymers and/or different polymer ratios. These polymers were hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and ethyl cellulose (EC). Sodium starch glycolate (SSG) was added to some formulae in different amounts in order to soften and/or disintegrate the tablets. Both direct compression and granulation techniques were used to prepare the tablets. The physical properties were found to be satisfactory for all the formulae. The dissolution profiles of the tablets were constructed using the change-over method. The drug release involved a combination of both diffusion and polymer-chain relaxation mechanisms. The time required to release 50% of MCP ranged from 1.2 to more than 8 h. Direct compression and dry granulation techniques produced sufficient sustaining of the drug release. However, the pellets made by wet granulation released MCP in about 2 h, i.e., pelletization spheronization technique was not effective in sustaining the drug. PMID:23960711

  5. Controlled release tablet formulation containing natural Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punyamurthula, Nagendra S; Hingorani, Tushar; Adelli, Goutham; Gul, Waseem; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Repka, Michael A; Majumdar, Soumyajit

    2016-01-01

    Cannabinoids are increasingly being used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) because of their action on the cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. The currently marketed capsule formulations (sesame oil based and crystalline powder) are required to be administered frequently to maintain therapeutic levels, which leads to non-compliance. In the present study, oral controlled release tablet formulations of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were prepared using the lipids Precirol® and Compritol®. Release profiles using THC-lipid matrices and/or with the lipids in the external phase (blend) were evaluated. The effect of directly compressible diluents lactose mixture (Ludipress®), dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (Emcompress®) and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel® 102) on tablet characteristics and in vitro drug release was also investigated. Further, in vitro THC release in the presence of a lipase inhibitor, Pluronic® F68, was also studied. A 24 h zero-order THC release profile was obtained with a combination of Precirol® and Compritol® in the compression blend. Addition of Pluronic® F68 did not alter THC release in vitro. These optimized tablets were chemically and physically stable for 3 months, the last time point tested, at 25 °C/60% RH. The overall results demonstrate the feasibility of preparing oral THC tablets for once a day administration which can improve CINV management.

  6. Thermosensitive liposomes entrapping iron oxide nanoparticles for controllable drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, L-A; Wang, Y-C; Wang, Y-J; Yang, C-S; Tsai, P-J; Lo, L-W

    2009-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles can serve as a heating source upon alternative magnetic field (AMF) exposure. Iron oxide nanoparticles can be mixed with thermosensitive nanovehicles for hyperthermia-induced drug release, yet such a design and mechanism may not be suitable for controllable drug release applications in which the tissues are susceptible to environmental temperature change such as brain tissue. In the present study, iron oxide nanoparticles were entrapped inside of thermosensitive liposomes for AMF-induced drug release while the environmental temperature was maintained at a constant level. Carboxyfluorescein was co-entrapped with the iron oxide nanoparticles in the liposomes as a model compound for monitoring drug release and environmental temperature was maintained with a water circulator jacket. These experiments have been successfully performed in solution, in phantom and in anesthetized animals. Furthermore, the thermosensitive liposomes were administered into rat forearm skeletal muscle, and the release of carboxylfluorescein triggered by the external alternative magnetic field was monitored by an implanted microdialysis perfusion probe with an on-line laser-induced fluorescence detector. In the future such a device could be applied to simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging and non-invasive drug release in temperature-sensitive applications.

  7. Drug release and adhesive properties of crospovidone-containing matrix patches based on polyisobutene and acrylic adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Martin; Fussnegger, Bernhard; Bodmeier, Roland

    2010-12-23

    Ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel were insoluble in blends of high:medium:low molecular weight polyisobutene adhesives (ratio: 1:5:0, 1:5:2 and 1:5:4) but soluble in acrylic adhesives (Durotak 87-202A, Durotak 87-2074 and Durotak 87-2677). The incorporation of drug adsorbates onto crospovidone into the polyisobutene blends yielded crystal-free patches. The drug release from these patches was independent of polyisobutene's molecular weight distribution, probably because the drug release occurred mainly through fluid filled channels. By contrast, the drug release from acrylic adhesives was independent of whether the patches contained pure drugs or drug adsorbates onto crospovidone. A higher degree of saturation (or supersaturation) in these systems resulted in a higher thermodynamic activity of the drugs and hence a higher drug release. The crystal-free acrylic and polyisobutene patches did not show drug recrystallization after 3 months at 25°C/60 RH and 40°C/75 RH. The adhesive properties of polyisobutene patches were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The area under the curve of force-distance curves recorded with the texture analyzer correlated well with the in vivo skin adhesion. The elongation at detachment showed the same trend as the in vivo matrix creep. Crospovidone contents ≤ 30% had no detrimental effect on the adhesive properties of the patches. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor with Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalaf Salloum Gaeid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The matrix converter (MC with direct torque control (DTC combination is efficient way to get better performance specifications in the industry. The MC and the DTC advantages are combined together. The reduction of complexity and cost of DC link in the DTC since it has no capacitors in the circuit. However, the controlling torque is a big problem it in DTC because of high ripple torque production which results in vibrations response in the operation of the iductuction motor as it has no PID to control the torque directly. To overcome this, a combination of MC with DTC is applied to reduce the fluctuation in the output torque and minimize the steady state error. This paper presents the simulation analysis of induction machine drives using Maltlab/Simulink toolbox R2012a. Design of DTC induction motor drive, MC with constant switching frequency, speed controller and stability investigation as well as controllability and observabilty with minimum final prediction (FPE steady state error and loss functionality has been carried out precisely.

  9. CONTROLLED RELEASE, BLIND TEST OF DNAPL REMEDIATION BY ETHANOL FLUSHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zone was established within a sheet-pileisolated cell through a controlled release of perchloroethylene (PCE) to evaluate DNAPLremediation by in-situ cosolvent flushing. Ethanol was used as the cosolvent, and the main remedia...

  10. Controlled release of diclofenac sodium from pH-responsive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, controlled release of diclofenac sodium (DS) from pH-sensitive carrageenan-gpoly(acrylic acid) superabsorbent hydrogels was investigated. The hydrogels were prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto kappa-carrageenan, using ammonium persulfate (APS) as a free radical initiator in the ...

  11. Rectal absorption of morphine from controlled release suppositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, Frits; Meyler, Pim; Frijlink, Erik; Jauw, Tjoe Hang; Visser, Jan; Proost, Johannes

    1995-01-01

    The absorption profiles and bioavailability of morphine in human volunteers (n = 13) were described after oral administration of MS Contin tablets and rectal administration of a newly developed controlled release suppository. By manipulating the viscosity of fatty suppository base an entirely

  12. Application of polymeric nanoparticles for controlled release of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most effectiveness extract was for 0.4% concentration by observing reduction in the eggs mass compared to control group. The nanomaterial proved to be able to anchor and release the insecticide gradually in pH between 5 and 6 regions, which makes it feasible for use in cattle, prolonging the exposure time between ...

  13. Multiparticulate Drug Delivery Systems for Controlled Release | Dey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmaceutical invention and research are increasingly focusing on delivery systems which enhance desirable therapeutic objectives while minimising side effects. Recent trends indicate that multiparticulate drug delivery systems are especially suitable for achieving controlled or delayed release oral formulations with low ...

  14. Using Randomized Controlled Trials to Evaluate Interventions for Releasing Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettus-Davis, Carrie; Howard, Matthew Owen; Dunnigan, Allison; Scheyett, Anna M.; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are rarely used to evaluate social and behavioral interventions designed for releasing prisoners. Objective: We use a pilot RCT of a social support intervention (Support Matters) as a case example to discuss obstacles and strategies for conducting RCT intervention evaluations that span prison and community…

  15. Improvement of waste release control in French NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, T.; Lucquin, E.; Dupin, M. [EDF/GDL (France); Florence, D. [EDF/GENV (France); Grisot, M. [EDF/CNPE Saint Laurent (France)

    2002-07-01

    The new waste release control in French NPP is more restrictive than the old one and needs heavy investment to bring plants to compliance with it. The great evolutions are a chemical follow up on more chemicals with a higher measurement frequency and with lower maximum concentrations and a specific measurement of carbon 14. Regarding radioactive releases, a new counting has been settled and activity of carbon 14 release is now measured and no longer calculated. The evolution of the French regulation leads to develop specific procedures and analytical techniques in chemistry and in radiochemistry (UV spectrometric methods, carbon 14 measurements,..) EDF NPP operators have launched a voluntarist process to reduce their releases since the beginning and before the evolution of the regulation. EDF priorities in terms of environment care lead henceforth to implement a global optimisation of the impact for a better control of releases. The new regulation will help EDF to reach its goals because it covers all the aspects in one administrative document: it is seen as a real simplification and a clarification towards public. In addition, this new regulation fits in with international practices which will allow an easier comparison of results between EDF and foreign NPP. These big environmental concerns lead EDF to create a national dedicated laboratory (LAMEN) in charge of developing specific measurement procedures to be implemented either by NPP or by sub-contractor laboratories. (authors)

  16. Methodology for performing measurements to release material from radiological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, J.S.; Gardner, D.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the existing and proposed methodologies for performing measurements of contamination prior to releasing material for uncontrolled use at the Hanford Site. The technical basis for the proposed methodology, a modification to the existing contamination survey protocol, is also described. The modified methodology, which includes a large-area swipe followed by a statistical survey, can be used to survey material that is unlikely to be contaminated for release to controlled and uncontrolled areas. The material evaluation procedure that is used to determine the likelihood of contamination is also described

  17. Improving Employee Satisfaction Priority through Performance Control Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Hsing Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study addresses Performance Control Matrix (PCM to determine service quality items of priority for improvement. Most businesses focus on customer satisfaction when undertaking surveys of satisfaction and dissatisfaction, while generally neglecting employee satisfaction. Therefore, this study develops an integrated model to improve service quality in Taiwanese finance industry employees. A questionnaire is designed to determine the priority of improvement objectives derived from certain questionnaire items that fall into the improvement zone of the PCM. Ten items are found to fall into the improvement zone of the PCM. The present results show that the finance industry employees surveyed in Taiwan were dissatisfied with their job security, salaries, annual bonus, and fair distribution of operational profits. The ten improvement items mostly belong to two dimensions - ‘Pay and Benefits’ and ‘Motivation’. The managers of the financial institutions should seek to improve these quality attributes by devoting more resources to these items, thus promoting employee satisfaction.

  18. Effect Of Ether Derivative Cellulose Polymers On Hydration, Erosion And Release Kinetics Of Diclofenac Sodium Matrix Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akhlaq*1,2, Gul Majid Khan1 , Abdul Wahab1, Waqas Rabbani1, Abid Hussain1, Asif Nawaz1, & Alam Zeb1

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The work aims to investigate the effect ofhydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers swelling and erosionon the release behaviour of DCL-Na from controlled matrixtablets prepared by direct compression and wet-granulationtechniques.Materials and Methods: Powder preformulation studies wereconducted. Tablets were prepared by direct compressiontechnique and their physicochemical properties wereevaluated. Drug-polymer interaction was analyzed by FTIRspectroscopy. The in-vitro drug release study was conductedusing phosphte buffer pH 7.4 as dissolution medium anddifferent kinetic parameters were applied.Results and Discussion: F-1 and F-5 containing ethycelluloseprepared by direct compression and wet granulationtechniques released 94 % and 84 % drug after 24hrs, while F-2and F-6 containing hydroxypropylmethylcellulose polymerprepared by direct compression and wet granulation released98.46 % and 91.25 % drug after within 24 hrs respectively.Ethylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose based matrixtablets showed the best anomalous drug release behaviour,with the release exponents “ n ” ranging from 0.685 to 0.809.Conclusion: It has been concluded that ethylcellulose etherderivative polymer is used to prepare oral controlled releasematrix tablet of diclofenac sodium. Fickian drug diffusion,polymer hydration and erosion mechanisms occurredsimultaneously and were considered as the main drug releasecontrolling factors.

  19. pH-controlled drug loading and release from biodegradable microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qinghe; Li, Bingyun

    2013-01-01

    Microcapsules made of biopolymers are of both scientific and technological interest and have many potential applications in medicine including their use as controlled drug delivery devices. The present study employs the electrostatic interaction between polycations and polyanions to form a multilayered microcapsule shell and also to control the loading and release of charged drug molecules inside the microcapsule. Micron-sized CaCO3 particles were synthesized and integrated with chondroitin sulfate (CS) through a reaction between Na2CO3 and Ca(NO3)2 solutions suspended with CS macromolecules. Oppositely-charged biopolymers were alternately deposited onto the synthesized particles using electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly, and glutaraldehyde was introduced to crosslink the multilayered shell structure. Microcapsules integrated with CS inside the multilayered shells were obtained after decomposition of the CaCO3 templates. The integration of a matrix, i.e. CS, enabled the subsequent selective control of drug loading and release. The CS integrated microcapsules were loaded with a model drug, i.e. bovine serum albumin labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-BSA), and it was shown that pH was an effective means of controlling the loading and release of FITC-BSA. Such CS integrated microcapsules may be used for controlled localized drug delivery as biodegradable devices, which have advantages in reducing systemic side effects and increasing drug efficacy. PMID:18657478

  20. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues inhibit leiomyoma extracellular matrix despite presence of gonadal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Minnie; Britten, Joy; Cox, Jeris; Patel, Amrita; Catherino, William H

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of GnRH analogues (GnRH-a) leuprolide acetate (LA) and cetrorelix acetate on gonadal hormone-regulated expression of extracellular matrix in uterine leiomyoma three-dimensional (3D) cultures. Laboratory study. University research laboratory. Women undergoing hysterectomy for symptomatic leiomyomas. The 3D cell cultures, protein analysis, Western blot, immunohistochemistry. Expression of extracellular matrix proteins, collagen 1, fibronectin, and versican in leiomyoma cells 3D cultures exposed to E2, P, LA, cetrorelix acetate, and combinations for 24- and 72-hour time points. The 3D leiomyoma cultures exposed to E2 for 24 hours demonstrated an increased expression of collagen-1 and fibronectin, which was maintained for up to 72 hours, a time point at which versican was up-regulated significantly. Although P up-regulated collagen-1 protein (1.29 ± 0.04) within 24 hours of exposure, significant increase in all extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins was observed when the gonadal hormones were used concomitantly. Significant decrease in the amount of ECM proteins was observed on use of GnRH-a, LA and cetrorelix, with 24-hour exposure. Both the compounds also significantly decreased ECM protein concentration despite the presence of E2 or both gonadal hormones. This study demonstrates that GnRH-a directly affect the gonadal hormone-regulated collagen-1, fibronectin, and versican production in their presence. These findings suggest that localized therapy with GnRH-a may inhibit leiomyoma growth even in the presence of endogenous gonadal hormone exposure, thereby providing a mechanism to eliminate the hypoestrogenic side effects associated with GnRH-a therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Quantitative analysis of Nipah virus proteins released as virus-like particles reveals central role for the matrix protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eaton Bryan T

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nipah virus (NiV is an emerging paramyxovirus distinguished by its ability to cause fatal disease in both animal and human hosts. Together with Hendra virus (HeV, they comprise the genus Henipavirus in the Paramyxoviridae family. NiV and HeV are also restricted to Biosafety Level-4 containment and this has hampered progress towards examining details of their replication and morphogenesis. Here, we have established recombinant expression systems to study NiV particle assembly and budding through the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs. Results When expressed by recombinant Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA or plasmid transfection, individual NiV matrix (M, fusion (F and attachment (G proteins were all released into culture supernatants in a membrane-associated state as determined by sucrose density gradient flotation and immunoprecipitation. However, co-expression of F and G along with M revealed a shift in their distribution across the gradient, indicating association with M in VLPs. Protein release was also altered depending on the context of viral proteins being expressed, with F, G and nucleocapsid (N protein reducing M release, and N release dependent on the co-expression of M. Immunoelectron microscopy and density analysis revealed VLPs that were similar to authentic virus. Differences in the budding dynamics of NiV proteins were also noted between rMVA and plasmid based strategies, suggesting that over-expression by poxvirus may not be appropriate for studying the details of recombinant virus particle assembly and release. Conclusion Taken together, the results indicate that NiV M, F, and G each possess some ability to bud from expressing cells, and that co-expression of these viral proteins results in a more organized budding process with M playing a central role. These findings will aid our understanding of paramyxovirus particle assembly in general and could help facilitate the development of a novel vaccine

  2. Autostereoscopic image creation by hyperview matrix controlled single pixel rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasnick, Armin

    2017-06-01

    technology just with a simple equation. This formula can be utilized to create a specific hyperview matrix for a certain 3D display - independent of the technology used. A hyperview matrix may contain the references to loads of images and act as an instruction for a subsequent rendering process of particular pixels. Naturally, a single pixel will deliver an image with no resolution and does not provide any idea of the rendered scene. However, by implementing the method of pixel recycling, a 3D image can be perceived, even if all source images are different. It will be proven that several millions of perspectives can be rendered with the support of GPU rendering and benefit from the hyperview matrix. In result, a conventional autostereoscopic display, which is designed to represent only a few perspectives can be used to show a hyperview image by using a suitable hyperview matrix. It will be shown that a millions-of-views-hyperview-image can be presented on a conventional autostereoscopic display. For such an hyperview image it is required that all pixels of the displays are allocated by different source images. Controlled by the hyperview matrix, an adapted renderer can render a full hyperview image in real-time.

  3. Hybrid nanostructured drug carrier with tunable and controlled drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depan, D.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2012-01-01

    We describe here a transformative approach to synthesize a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier that exhibits the characteristics of controlled drug release. The synthesis of the nanohybrid architecture involved two steps. The first step involved direct crystallization of biocompatible copolymer along the long axis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by the second step of attachment of drug molecule to the polymer via hydrogen bonding. The extraordinary inorganic–organic hybrid architecture exhibited high drug loading ability and is physically stable even under extreme conditions of acidic media and ultrasonic irradiation. The temperature and pH sensitive characteristics of the hybrid drug carrier and high drug loading ability merit its consideration as a promising carrier and utilization of the fundamental aspects used for synthesis of other promising drug carriers. The higher drug release response during the application of ultrasonic frequency is ascribed to a cavitation-type process in which the acoustic bubbles nucleate and collapse releasing the drug. Furthermore, the study underscores the potential of uniquely combining CNTs and biopolymers for drug delivery. - Graphical abstract: Block-copolymer crystallized on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Nanohybrid drug carrier synthesized by attaching doxorubicin (DOX) to polymer crystallized CNTs. Crystallized polymer on CNTs provide mechanical stability. Triggered release of DOX. Highlights: ► The novel synthesis of a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier is described. ► The drug carrier exhibits high drug loading ability and is physically stable. ► The high drug release is ascribed to a cavitation-type process.

  4. Highly Efficient Thermoresponsive Nanocomposite for Controlled Release Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Yassine, Omar

    2016-06-23

    Highly efficient magnetic release from nanocomposite microparticles is shown, which are made of Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel with embedded iron nanowires. A simple microfluidic technique was adopted to fabricate the microparticles with a high control of the nanowire concentration and in a relatively short time compared to chemical synthesis methods. The thermoresponsive microparticles were used for the remotely triggered release of Rhodamine (B). With a magnetic field of only 1 mT and 20 kHz a drug release of 6.5% and 70% was achieved in the continuous and pulsatile modes, respectively. Those release values are similar to the ones commonly obtained using superparamagnetic beads but accomplished with a magnetic field of five orders of magnitude lower power. The high efficiency is a result of the high remanent magnetization of the nanowires, which produce a large torque when exposed to a magnetic field. This causes the nanowires to vibrate, resulting in friction losses and heating. For comparison, microparticles with superparamagnetic beads were also fabricated and tested; while those worked at 73 mT and 600 kHz, no release was observed at the low field conditions. Cytotoxicity assays showed similar and high cell viability for microparticles with nanowires and beads.

  5. The Experiment of Carbofuran Controlled Release Formulation Insecticide Application on Rice Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulistyati, M.; Ulfa TS; Sofnie M Ch; Kuswadi AN

    2004-01-01

    Field test of carbofuran insecticide (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl-N-methylcarbamate) controlled release formulation on rice plants of IR-64 variety was carried out in Pusakanegara, West Java. This insecticide formulation was made by using the mixture of activated charcoal, tapioca, kaolin, Na-alginate as a filler matrix. Insecticide formulation was applied one week after transplanting. The observations were conducted on the number of tillers, damage level caused by Orseolia oryzae (Wood/Mason), Chilo suppressalis (Walker), and Cnaphalocrosis medinalis (Guen) on new young plants. The observation were carried out on three weeks after application of carbofuran insecticide formulation then every two weeks until harvest. The number of tillers were occurred at the treatments of controlled release formulation of 20kg/ha, 30kg/ha, and 40kg/ha dose rate on the third weeks, it was showed significant difference compared with commercial carbofuran, and the following weeks were no significant difference between the treatments. The attack of Orseolia oryzae was occurred at the treatments of controlled release formulation with dose rate of 30 kg/ha and 40 kg/ha on the seventh weeks, ninth weeks, and eleventh weeks, those attacks were significantly difference found compared with commercial carbofuran. The attack of Chilo suppressalis was occurred at the treatments of controlled release formulation of 40kg/ha dose rate on the fifth weeks, it was showed significant difference which was compared to untreated carbofuran. The attack of Cnaphalocrosis medinalis was occurred on the ninth weeks, three dose rate of controlled released formulation were showed significant differences which compared with commercial carbofuran and were showed 50% less than commercial carbofuran, while the grains dry weight were no significant difference between the treatments. (author)

  6. Controlled release of phenytoin for epilepsy treatment from titania and silica based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Tessy; Ortiz, Emma; Meza, Doraliz; Basaldella, Elena; Bokhimi, Xim; Magana, Carlos; Sepulveda, Antonio; Rodriguez, Francisco; Ruiz, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Template technique was used to obtain well ordered nanostructured materials: SBA-15 and titania tubes. → Phenytoin (PH), a drug used in epilepsy treatment, was loaded in these materials to used como PH release. → Loaded PH showed a good stability inside the used materials as observed by spectroscopy analysis. → The load-release PH are faster in nanostructured TiO2 tubes than in mesoporous silica matrix. → There is an inverse effect of the surface area of the structured materials on the amount of released PH. - Abstract: Template technique was used to obtain well ordered nanostructured materials: mesoporous silica and nanostructured titania tubes. This technique permits the synthesis of solids with controlled mesoporosity, where a large variety of molecules that have therapeutic activity can be hosted and further released to specific sites. In this work phenytoin (PH), a drug used in epilepsy treatment, was loaded in ordered mesoporous silica (SBA 15) and nanostructured titania tubes (TiO 2 ). The pure materials and those containing PH were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and N 2 adsorption-desorption at 77 K. In order to determine the loading capacity of the antiepileptic drug on these silica- and titania-based materials, the loading and release of PH was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. Tubular structures were found for the titania samples, for which the X-ray diffractograms showed to be formed by anatase and rutile phases. On the other hand, an amorphous phase was found in the silica sample. A highly ordered hexagonal structure of 1D cylindrical channels was also observed for this material. Loaded PH showed a good stability inside the used materials as observed by spectroscopy analysis. The adsorption and desorption of PH are faster in nanostructured TiO 2 tubes than in mesoporous silica matrix.

  7. Controlled release of phenytoin for epilepsy treatment from titania and silica based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Tessy, E-mail: tessy3@prodigy.net.mx [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco. Departamento de Microbiologia. Calzada del Hueso 1100, Col. Villa Quietud, Coyoacan, C.P. 04960, Mexico D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia ' MVS' . Laboratorio de Nanotecnologia. Av. Insurgentes Sur 3877, Col. La Fama, Tlalpan, 14269, Mexico, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Ortiz, Emma [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia ' MVS' . Laboratorio de Nanotecnologia. Av. Insurgentes Sur 3877, Col. La Fama, Tlalpan, 14269, Mexico, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Meza, Doraliz [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Quimica, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, A.P. 55-534, Mexico D.F., C.P. 09340 (Mexico); Basaldella, Elena [CIC-CINDECA - Universidad Nacional de La Plata - Calle 47 No 257 - La Plata (Argentina); Bokhimi, Xim; Magana, Carlos [Instituto de fisica, UNAM. Circuito de la Investigacion s/n. C.U. Mexico D.F. 01000 (Mexico); Sepulveda, Antonio; Rodriguez, Francisco; Ruiz, Javier [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Alicante. Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante, Espana Spain (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Template technique was used to obtain well ordered nanostructured materials: SBA-15 and titania tubes. {yields} Phenytoin (PH), a drug used in epilepsy treatment, was loaded in these materials to used como PH release. {yields} Loaded PH showed a good stability inside the used materials as observed by spectroscopy analysis. {yields} The load-release PH are faster in nanostructured TiO2 tubes than in mesoporous silica matrix. {yields} There is an inverse effect of the surface area of the structured materials on the amount of released PH. - Abstract: Template technique was used to obtain well ordered nanostructured materials: mesoporous silica and nanostructured titania tubes. This technique permits the synthesis of solids with controlled mesoporosity, where a large variety of molecules that have therapeutic activity can be hosted and further released to specific sites. In this work phenytoin (PH), a drug used in epilepsy treatment, was loaded in ordered mesoporous silica (SBA 15) and nanostructured titania tubes (TiO{sub 2}). The pure materials and those containing PH were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption at 77 K. In order to determine the loading capacity of the antiepileptic drug on these silica- and titania-based materials, the loading and release of PH was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. Tubular structures were found for the titania samples, for which the X-ray diffractograms showed to be formed by anatase and rutile phases. On the other hand, an amorphous phase was found in the silica sample. A highly ordered hexagonal structure of 1D cylindrical channels was also observed for this material. Loaded PH showed a good stability inside the used materials as observed by spectroscopy analysis. The adsorption and desorption of PH are faster in nanostructured TiO{sub 2} tubes than in mesoporous silica

  8. Controlled release of carbofuran from an alginate-bentonite formulation: water release kinetics and soil mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pérez, M; Villafranca-Sánchez, M; González-Pradas, E; Martinez-López, F; Flores-Céspedes, F

    2000-03-01

    The insecticide-nematicide carbofuran was incorporated in alginate-based granules to obtain controlled-release (CR) properties. The basic formulation [sodium alginate (1.61%)-carbofuran (0. 59%)-water] was modified by addition of sorbents. The effect on carbofuran release rate, caused by the incorporation of natural and acid-treated bentonite (0.5 and 1.0 M H(2)SO(4)) in alginate formulation, was studied by immersion of the granules in water under shaking. The time taken for 50% of the active ingredient to be released into water, t(50), was longer for those formulations containing natural bentonite (6.1 h) or acid-treated bentonite (9.0 and 11.7 h for 0.5 and 1.0 M H(2)SO(4) treatments, respectively) than for the preparation without bentonite (4.7 h). It appears from the results that the release of carbofuran from the various formulations is controlled by a diffusion mechanism according to the n values obtained, which were close to 0.5 in all cases. The mobility of carbofuran from alginate-based CR formulations was investigated by using soil columns packed with a clay soil (53% clay and 0.08% organic matter). Two alginate-based CR formulations containing natural bentonite or acid-treated bentonite (0.5 M H(2)SO(4)) were compared to technical grade carbofuran. The use of alginate-based CR formulations resulted in a reduction of the leached amount of carbofuran compared with the total amount of pesticide leached using the technical product (50 and 75% for CR granules containing natural and acid-treated bentonite, respectively). Alginate-bentonite CR formulations might be efficient systems for reducing carbofuran leaching in clay soils, which would reduce the risk of groundwater pollution.

  9. Mechanism of controlled release kinetics from medical devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Raval

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of biodegradable polymers for controlled drug delivery has gained immense attention in the pharmaceutical and medical device industry to administer various drugs, proteins and other bio-molecules both systematically and locally to cure several diseases. The efficacy and toxicity of this local therapeutics depends upon drug release kinetics, which will further decide drug deposition, distribution, and retention at the target site. Drug Eluting Stent (DES presently possesses clinical importance as an alternative to Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting due to the ease of the procedure and comparable safety and efficacy. Many models have been developed to describe the drug delivery from polymeric carriers based on the different mechanisms which control the release phenomenon from DES. Advanced characterization techniques facilitate an understanding of the complexities behind design and related drug release behavior of drug eluting stents, which aids in the development of improved future drug eluting systems. This review discusses different drug release mechanisms, engineering principles, mathematical models and current trends that are proposed for drug-polymer coated medical devices such as cardiovascular stents and different analytical methods currently utilized to probe diverse characteristics of drug eluting devices.

  10. Matrix tablets: the effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose/anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate ratio on the release rate of a water-soluble drug through the gastrointestinal tract I. In vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamani, Pseidy L; Ruiz-Caro, Roberto; Veiga, María D

    2012-12-01

    Different hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)/anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate (ADCP) matrix tablets have been developed aiming to evaluate the influence of both components ratio in the control release of a water-soluble drug (theophylline). In order to characterise the matrix tablets, swelling, buoyancy and dissolution studies have been carried out in different aqueous media (demineralised water, progressive pH medium, simulated gastric fluid, simulated intestinal fluid and simulated colonic fluid). The HPMC/ADCP ratio has turned out to be the determinant in the matrix behaviour: the HPMC characteristic swelling behaviour was modulated, in some cases, by the ADCP characteristic acidic dissolution. When the HPMC/ADCP ratio was ≥0.69, buoyancy, continuous swelling and low theophylline dissolution rate from the matrices (H1, H2 and H3) were observed in all dissolution media. Consequently, these formulations could be adequate as gastro-retentive drug delivery systems. Additionally, HPMC/ADCP ratio ≤0.11 (H5 and H6) induces a pH-dependent drug release which could be applied to design control drug release enteric formulations (with a suitable enteric coating). Finally, a HPMC/ADCP ratio between 0.11 and 0.69 (H4) yield a gastrointestinal controlled drug release, due to its time-dependent buoyancy (7 h) and a total drug delivery in 17 h in simulated colonic fluid.

  11. Are fluoride releasing dental materials clinically effective on caries control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Jaime Aparecido; de Oliveira, Branca Heloisa; dos Santos, Ana Paula Pires; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló

    2016-03-01

    (1) To describe caries lesions development and the role of fluoride in controlling disease progression; (2) to evaluate whether the use of fluoride-releasing pit and fissure sealants, bonding orthodontic agents and restorative materials, in comparison to a non-fluoride releasing material, reduces caries incidence in children or adults, and (3) to discuss how the anti-caries properties of these materials have been evaluated in vitro and in situ. The search was performed on the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and on Medline via Pubmed. Caries is a biofilm-sugar dependent disease and as such it provokes progressive destruction of mineral structure of any dental surface - intact, sealed or restored - where biofilm remains accumulated and is regularly exposed to sugar. The mechanism of action of fluoride released from dental materials on caries is similar to that of fluoride found in dentifrices or other vehicles of fluoride delivery. Fluoride-releasing materials are unable to interfere with the formation of biofilm on dental surfaces adjacent to them or to inhibit acid production by dental biofilms. However, the fluoride released slows down the progression of caries lesions in tooth surfaces adjacent to dental materials. This effect has been clearly shown by in vitro and in situ studies but not in randomized clinical trials. The anti-caries effect of fluoride releasing materials is still not based on clinical evidence, and, in addition, it can be overwhelmed by fluoride delivered from dentifrices. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sol-gel Derived Warfarin - Silica Composites for Controlled Drug Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinina, Ekaterina S; Parfenyuk, Elena V

    2017-01-01

    Warfarin, commonly used anticoagulant in clinic, has serious shortcomings due to its unsatisfactory pharmacodynamics. One of the efficient ways for the improvement of pharmacological and consumer properties of drugs is the development of optimal drug delivery systems. The aim of this work is to synthesize novel warfarin - silica composites and to study in vitro the drug release kinetics to obtain the composites with controlled release. The composites of warfarin with unmodified (UMS) and mercaptopropyl modified silica (MPMS) were synthesized by sol-gel method. The composite formation was confirmed by FTIR spectra. The concentrations of warfarin released to media with pH 1.6, 6.8 and 7.4 were measured using UV spectroscopy. The drug release profiles from the solid composites were described by a series of kinetic models which includes zero order kinetics, first order kinetics, the modified Korsmeyer-Peppas model and Hixson-Crowell model. The synthesized sol-gel composites have different kinetic behavior in the studied media. In contrast to the warfarin composite with unmodified silica, the drug release from the composite with mercaptopropyl modified silica follows zero order kinetics for 24 h irrespective to the release medium pH due to mixed mechanism (duffusion + degradation and/or disintegration of silica matrix). The obtained results showed that warfarin - silica sol-gel composites have a potential application for the development of novel oral formulation of the drug with controlled delivery. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Continuous twin screw granulation of controlled release formulations with various HPMC grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoorne, V; Janssens, L; Vercruysse, J; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2016-09-25

    HPMC is a popular matrix former to formulate tablets with extended drug release. Tablets with HPMC are preferentially produced by direct compression. However, granulation is often required prior to tableting to overcome poor flowability of the formulation. While continuous twin screw granulation has been extensively evaluated for granulation of immediate release formulations, twin screw granulation of controlled release formulations including the dissolution behavior of the formulations received little attention. Therefore, the influence of the HPMC grade (viscosity and substitution degree) and the particle size of theophylline on critical quality attributes of granules (continuously produced via twin screw granulation) and tablets was investigated in the current study. Formulations with 20 or 40% HPMC, 20% theophylline and lactose were granulated with water at fixed process parameters via twin screw granulation. The torque was influenced by the viscosity and substitution degree of HPMC, but was not a limiting factor for the granulation process. An optimal L/S ratio was selected for each formulation based on the granule size distribution. The granule size distributions were influenced by the substitution degree and concentration of HPMC and the particle size of theophylline. Raman and UV spectroscopic analysis on 8 sieve fractions of granules indicated an inhomogeneous distribution of theophylline over the size fractions. However, this phenomenon was not correlated with the hydration rate or viscosity of HPMC. Controlled release of theophylline could be obtained over 24h with release profiles close to zero-order. The release of theophylline could be tailored via selection of the substitution degree and viscosity of HPMC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Controlled release of NELL-1 protein from chitosan/hydroxyapatite-modified TCP particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Dong, Rui; Park, Yujin; Bohner, Marc; Zhang, Xinli; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia; Wu, Benjamin M

    2016-09-10

    NEL-like molecule-1 (NELL-1) is a novel osteogenic protein that showing high specificity to osteochondral cells. It was widely used in bone regeneration research by loading onto carriers such as tricalcium phosphate (TCP) particles. However, there has been little research on protein controlled release from this material and its potential application. In this study, TCP was first modified with a hydroxyapatite coating followed by a chitosan coating to prepare chitosan/hydroxyapatite-coated TCP particles (Chi/HA-TCP). The preparation was characterized by SEM, EDX, FTIR, XRD, FM and Zeta potential measurements. The NELL-1 loaded Chi/HA-TCP particles and the release kinetics were investigated in vitro. It was observed that the Chi/HA-TCP particles prepared with the 0.3% (wt/wt) chitosan solution were able to successfully control the release of NELL-1 and maintain a slow, steady release for up to 28 days. Furthermore, more than 78% of the loaded protein's bioactivity was preserved in Chi/HA-TCP particles over the period of the investigation, which was significantly higher than that of the protein released from hydroxyapatite coated TCP (HA-TCP) particles. Collectively, this study suggests that the osteogenic protein NELL-1 showed a sustained release pattern after being encapsulated into the modified Chi/HA-TCP particles, and the NELL-1 integrated composite of Chi/HA-TCP showed a potential to function as a protein delivery carrier and as an improved bone matrix for use in bone regeneration research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. CONTROLLED RELEASE TABLET FORMULATION CONTAINING NATURAL ?9 TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL

    OpenAIRE

    Punyamurthula, Nagendra S; Hingorani, Tushar; Adelli, Goutham; Gul, Waseem; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Repka, Michael A.; Majumdar, Soumyajit

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoids are increasingly being used in the treatment of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) because of their action on the cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. The currently marketed capsule formulations (sesame oil based and crystalline powder) are required to be administered frequently to maintain therapeutic levels, which leads to non-compliance. In the present study, oral controlled release tablet formulations of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were prepared using the lipids...

  16. Control of extracellular matrix assembly by syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klass, C M; Couchman, J R; Woods, A

    2000-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and organization is maintained by transmembrane signaling and integrins play major roles. We now show that a second transmembrane component, syndecan-2 heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is pivotal in matrix assembly. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were stably....... The loss of matrix formation was not caused by a failure to synthesize or externalize ECM components as determined by metabolic labeling or due to differences in surface expression of alpha5 or beta1 integrin. The matrix assembly defect was at the cell surface, since S2deltaS cells also lost the ability...... to rearrange laminin or fibronectin substrates into fibrils and to bind exogenous fibronectin. Transfection of activated alphaIIbalphaLdeltabeta3 integrin into alpha(5)-deficient CHO B2 cells resulted in reestablishment of the previously lost fibronectin matrix. However, cotransfection of this cell line with S...

  17. Controlled release of hepatocyte growth factor from a bovine acellular scaffold for vocal fold reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chet C; Chan, Roger W; Weinberger, Debra G; Efune, Guy; Pawlowski, Karen S

    2010-06-15

    A bovine acellular scaffold was found to facilitate tissue remodeling in a rat model of vocal fold injury, whereas hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been shown to have an antiscarring effect in the larynx. This study examined the loading and release kinetics of HGF in vitro, and the potential of the acellular scaffold as a timed-release system for the delivery of HGF in vivo. Bilateral wounds were created in the posterior vocal folds of 20 rats, with HGF-loaded acellular scaffolds implanted into the wounds unilaterally, and scaffolds without HGF implanted into the contralateral vocal folds as control. The rats were humanely sacrificed after 3, 7, 30, and 90 days and their larynges were examined histologically and immunohistochemically. Expressions of key matrix proteins in the vocal fold coronal sections were quantified by digital image analysis. Results demonstrated a gradual, sustained release of HGF for at least 7 days in vitro, consistent with the detection of glycosaminoglycans inherent of the scaffold. In rat vocal folds implanted with HGF-loaded scaffolds, apparently fewer inflammatory cells were observed 3 days after surgery when compared to the control. The mean relative densities of collagen III and hyaluronic acid were significantly lower than those of the control 7 days after surgery. Scaffold implants were apparently degraded by 3 months in all animals, with no evidence of fibrosis or calcification. These data suggested that the bovine acellular scaffold could be promising for the exogenous delivery of select growth factors in vivo. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Controlled Aloin Release from Crosslinked Polyacrylamide Hydrogels: Effects of Mesh Size, Electric Field Strength and a Conductive Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuvat Sirivat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of hydrogel mesh size, a conductive polymer, and electric field strength on controlled drug delivery phenomena using drug-loaded polyacrylamide hydrogels prepared at various crosslinking ratios both with and without a conductive polymer system. Poly(p-phenylene vinylene, PPV, as the model conductive polymer, was used to study its ability to control aloin released from aloin-doped poly(p-phenylene vinylene/polyacrylamide hydrogel (aloin-doped PPV/PAAM. In the passive release, the diffusion of aloin from five aloin-doped PPV/PAAM hydrogel systems each was delayed ranging from during the first three hours to during the first 14 h due to the ionic interaction between the anionic drug and PPV. After the delayed periods, aloin could diffuse continuously into the buffer solution through the PAAM matrix. The amount of aloin released from the aloin-doped PPV/PAAM rose with increasing electric field strength as a result of the three mechanisms: the expansion of PPV chains inside the hydrogel, iontophoresis, and the electroporation of the matrix pore size, combined. Furthermore, the conductive polymer and the electric field could be used in combination to regulate the amount of release drug to a desired level, to control the release rate, and to switch the drug delivery on/off.

  19. Magnetic and Thermal-sensitive Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based Microgels for Magnetically Triggered Controlled Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chih-Yu; Liu, Ting-Yu; Wang, Kuan-Syun; Hardiansyah, Andri; Lin, Yen-Ting; Chen, Hsueh-Yung; Chiu, Wen-Yen

    2017-07-04

    Magnetically and thermally sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)/Fe3O4-NH2 microgels with the encapsulated anti-cancer drug curcumin (Cur) were designed and fabricated for magnetically triggered release. PNIPAAm-based magnetic microgels with a spherical structure were produced via a temperature-induced emulsion followed with physical-crosslinking by mixing PNIPAAm, polyethylenimine (PEI), and Fe3O4-NH2 magnetic nanoparticles. Because of their dispersity, the Fe3O4-NH2 nanoparticles were embedded inside the polymer matrix. The amine groups exposed on the Fe3O4-NH2 and PEI surface supported the spherical structure by physically crosslinking with the amide groups of the PNIPAAm. The hydrophobic anti-cancer drug curcumin can be dispersed in water after encapsulation into the microgels. The microgels were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and UV-Vis spectral analysis. Furthermore, magnetically triggered release was studied under an external high frequency magnetic field (HFMF). A significant "burst release" of curcumin was observed after applying the HFMF to the microgels due to the magnetic inductive heating (hyperthermia) effect. This manuscript describes the magnetically triggered controlled release of Cur-PNIPAAm/Fe3O4-NH2 encapsulated curcumin, which can be potentially applied for tumor therapy.

  20. Controlled release of astaxanthin from nanoporous silicified-phospholipids assembled boron nitride complex for cosmetic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Sun; Sung, Dae Kyung; Kim, Sung Hyun; Choi, Won Il; Hwang, Ee Tag; Choi, Doo Jin; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2017-12-01

    Nanoporous silicified-phospholipids assembled boron nitride (nSPLs@BN) powder was prepared and demonstrated for use in controlled release of anti-oxidant astaxanthin (AX) as a cosmetic application. The nanoporous silicified phospholipids (nSPLs) were obtained by the silicification with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) of the hydrophilic region of phospholipid bilayers. This process involved the co-assembly of chemically active phospholipid bilayers within the porous silica matrix. In addition, nSPLs@BN was characterized using several analytical techniques and tested to assess their efficiency as drug delivery systems. We calculated the maximum release amounts as a function of time and various pH. The release rate of AX from the nSPLs@BN for the initial 24 h was 10.7 μmol/(h mg) at pH 7.4. Furthermore, we determined the antioxidant activity (KD) for the released AX with DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) radical and the result was 34.6%.

  1. Characterization of physicochemical properties of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) type 2208 and their influence on prolonged drug release from matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devjak Novak, S; Šporar, E; Baumgartner, S; Vrečer, F

    2012-07-01

    The key physicochemical properties of functional excipients should be identified, and the influence of their variability on the properties of the final dosage form should be evaluated during the development phase. Excipients produced by different manufacturers and/or by different manufacturing processes should have comparable properties. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) with a high molecular weight is a functional excipient often used in solid matrix systems with prolonged release of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). This study investigates whether HPMC manufactured by two manufacturers using different chemical procedures differs in particle-size distribution, particle shape, particle morphology, chemical composition, and dissolution of diclofenac sodium as a model drug. NIR spectroscopy was introduced and calibration models were developed to detect physical differences among HPMC batches from two different origins. The physical differences between HPMC samples were additionally confirmed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gas chromatography (GC) measurements, and dissolution testing of hydrophilic matrix tablets. Our results prove that, even if HPMC polymers manufactured from two different sources comply with the pharmacopeial specification, they significantly differ in physicochemical properties and thus influence the properties of the formulated dosage forms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel thermogelling dispersions of polymer nanoparticles for controlled protein release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tong; Hu, Peter D; Sun, Manwu; Zhou, Jun; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Baker, David; Tang, Liping

    2012-11-01

    A novel poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate-co-oligo(ethylene glycol) ethyl ether methacrylate)-poly(acrylic acid) interpenetrating network (IPN) nanoparticle was synthesized. The temperature-responsive properties of the IPN nanoparticles were investigated by a dynamic light scattering method. Atomic force microscopic images confirmed the homogenous and monodisperse morphology of the IPN nanoparticles. Both visual observation and viscosity testing demonstrated that the IPN nanoparticles exhibit thermogelling properties at body temperature, 37 °C. Subsequent studies verified that such temperature-sensitive properties of IPN nanoparticles allow their ease of injection and then slow release of model proteins, both in vitro and in vivo. Histological analysis showed that our IPN implants exerted minimal inflammation following subcutaneous implantation. Our results support the idea that, by simply mixing with proteins of interest, the novel IPN nanoparticles can be used to form in situ thermogelling devices for controlled protein release. This paper discusses a temperature responsive interpenetrating network (IPN) polymeric nanoparticle that can be used to form in situ thermogelling devices for controlled protein release by simply mixing them with proteins of interest. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Design of a controlled release liquid formulation of lamotrigine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Kumar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n  Background and the purpose of the study: Lamotrigine is a broad spectrum anticonvulsant drug widely used as mono- or adjunct- therapy in adults and children. The aim of this study was to develop controlled release liquid formulation of lamotrigine to improve bioavailability and compliance of pediatric and geriatric epileptic patients. "n  Methods: Multiple (w/o/w emulsion was prepared using one step emulsification technique. It was evaluated for entrapment efficiency (EE, morphology, zeta potential (ZP, polydispersity index (PI, rheology, thermal property, in vitro drug release behavior and stability. In vivo studies in albino mice were carried out using maximal electroshock seizure (MES test and strychnine induced seizure (SIS pattern test and results were compared with marketed formulation. "n  Results: The EE of the formulations varied from 84.37% to 98.11%. The ZP and PI values of the prepared batches were in the range of +23.46 to +28.07 and 0.256 and 0.365, respectively. Microscopic observation clearly indicated the stability of the emulsions during the storage period. All batches exhibited controlled in vitro drug release up to 12 hrs. Batch C11 exhibited significantly longer duration of protection of seizure in mice against MES and exhibited comparable efficacy in SIS as compared to the marketed formulation. "n  Major Conclusion: Multiple emulsion of lamotrigine compared to the marketed tablet showed plasma drug concentration within therapeutic range for longer time and comparable efficacy.

  4. [Formal requirements and a cultural approach to the control of slow-release dosage forms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciranni Signoretti, E

    1989-06-01

    Problems related with controlled release dosage forms are reported. The need for a standard criteria regarding both nomenclature and dissolution test is pointed out. The purpose is to permit a suitable control of the controlled release characteristics.

  5. Controlled release of hydrophilic guest molecules from photoresponsive nucleolipid vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yawei; Yan, Yongfeng; Wang, Mingqing; Chen, Cuixia; Xu, Hai; Lu, Jian R

    2013-07-10

    Amphiphilic hybrid nucleolipids bear the structural and functional hallmarks of both lipids and nucleic acids and hold great potential for biotechnological applications. However, further tailoring of their structures and properties for specific applications represents a major challenge. We here report a novel design and synthesis of a light-responsive nucleolipid by introducing an o-nitrobenzyl group that acts as a linker between a nucleotide and a lipid. The nucleolipid was applied readily to preparing smart vesicles and encapsulating hydrophilic guest molecules 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF) in their inner aqueous phase. Upon light irradiation, their vesicular structure was disrupted as a result of the photolytic degradation of the nucleotide, resulting in CF release. Furthermore, temporally controlled CF release from these vesicles could be readily realized by turning on and off light. By demonstrating the molecular assembly and photodisassembly cycle, this report aims to stimulate further research exploring practical applications of nucleolipids.

  6. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Controlled release pesticide formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollner, L.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the Government of Indonesia, an IAEA expert undertook a two weeks mission from 2 to 15 April 1991, and continued it from the 9 to 22 November 1991 at the Center for Application of Isotopes and Radiation (CAIR) of the National Atomic Energy Agency, BATAN in Jakarta. Expert discussed the project and carried out experiments together with the staff of the center, introducing shellac (description in part II) as a candidate for controlled release formulations. Formulations of carbofuran, butachlor, 2,4-D and diazinon were carried out, using sand and cocconut shells as carriers. Release rates of a.i. into water have been checked and further work has been discussed. Expert assessed further needs for supply of instruments, accessories and chemicals. (author)

  7. The effect of pH, buffer capacity and ionic strength on quetiapine fumarate release from matrix tablets prepared using two different polymeric blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Rania; AlJanabi, Reem; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Abbas, Aiman

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the different physiological parameters of the gastrointestinal (GI) fluid (pH, buffer capacity, and ionic strength) on the in vitro release of the weakly basic BCS class II drug quetiapine fumarate (QF) from two once-a-day matrix tablet formulations (F1 and F2) developed as potential generic equivalents to Seroquel ® XR. F1 tablets were prepared using blends of high and low viscosity grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K4M and K100LV, respectively), while F2 tablets were prepared from HPMC K4M and PEGylated glyceryl behenate (Compritol ® HD5 ATO). The two formulations attained release profiles of QF over 24 h similar to that of Seroquel ® XR using the dissolution medium published by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A series of solubility and in vitro dissolution studies was then carried out using media that simulate the gastric and intestinal fluids and cover the physiological pH, buffer capacity and ionic strength range of the GIT. Solubility studies revealed that QF exhibits a typical weak base pH-dependent solubility profile and that the solubility of QF increases with increasing the buffer capacity and ionic strength of the media. The release profiles of QF from F1, F2 and Seroquel ® XR tablets were found to be influenced by the pH, buffer capacity and ionic strength of the dissolution media to varying degrees. Results highlight the importance of studying the physiological variables along the GIT in designing controlled release formulations for more predictive in vitro-in vivo correlations.

  8. Controlled release of ibuprofen by meso–macroporous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamaría, E., E-mail: esthersantamaria@ub.edu; Maestro, A.; Porras, M.; Gutiérrez, J.M.; González, C.

    2014-02-15

    Structured meso–macroporous silica was successfully synthesized from an O/W emulsion using decane as a dispersed phase. Sodium silicate solution, which acts as a silica source and a poly(ethylene oxide)–poly(propylene oxide)–poly(ethylene oxide) (EO{sub 19}PO{sub 39}EO{sub 19}) denoted as P84 was used in order to stabilize the emulsion and as a mesopore template. The materials obtained were characterized through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), small-angle X-ray diffraction scattering (SAXS) and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. Ibuprofen (IBU) was selected as the model drug and loaded into ordered meso–macroporous materials. The effect of the materials’ properties on IBU drug loading and release was studied. The results showed that the loading of IBU increases as the macropore presence in the material is increased. The IBU adsorption process followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. A two-step release process, consisting of an initial fast release and then a slower release was observed. Macropores enhanced the adsorption capacity of the material; this was probably due to the fact that they allowed the drug to access internal pores. When only mesopores were present, ibuprofen was probably adsorbed on the mesopores close to the surface. Moreover, the more macropore present in the material, the slower the release behaviour observed, as the ibuprofen adsorbed in the internal pores had to diffuse along the macropore channels up to the surface of the material. The material obtained from a highly concentrated emulsion was functionalized with amino groups using two methods, the post-grafting mechanism and the co-condensation mechanism. Both routes improve IBU adsorption in the material and show good behaviour as a controlled drug delivery system. - Graphical abstract: Ibuprofen release profiles for the materials obtained from samples P84{sub m}eso (black diamonds), P84{sub 2}0% (white squares), P84{sub 5

  9. Controlled release of ibuprofen by meso–macroporous silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaría, E.; Maestro, A.; Porras, M.; Gutiérrez, J.M.; González, C.

    2014-01-01

    Structured meso–macroporous silica was successfully synthesized from an O/W emulsion using decane as a dispersed phase. Sodium silicate solution, which acts as a silica source and a poly(ethylene oxide)–poly(propylene oxide)–poly(ethylene oxide) (EO 19 PO 39 EO 19 ) denoted as P84 was used in order to stabilize the emulsion and as a mesopore template. The materials obtained were characterized through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), small-angle X-ray diffraction scattering (SAXS) and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. Ibuprofen (IBU) was selected as the model drug and loaded into ordered meso–macroporous materials. The effect of the materials’ properties on IBU drug loading and release was studied. The results showed that the loading of IBU increases as the macropore presence in the material is increased. The IBU adsorption process followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. A two-step release process, consisting of an initial fast release and then a slower release was observed. Macropores enhanced the adsorption capacity of the material; this was probably due to the fact that they allowed the drug to access internal pores. When only mesopores were present, ibuprofen was probably adsorbed on the mesopores close to the surface. Moreover, the more macropore present in the material, the slower the release behaviour observed, as the ibuprofen adsorbed in the internal pores had to diffuse along the macropore channels up to the surface of the material. The material obtained from a highly concentrated emulsion was functionalized with amino groups using two methods, the post-grafting mechanism and the co-condensation mechanism. Both routes improve IBU adsorption in the material and show good behaviour as a controlled drug delivery system. - Graphical abstract: Ibuprofen release profiles for the materials obtained from samples P84 m eso (black diamonds), P84 2 0% (white squares), P84 5 0% (black triangles), P84 7

  10. Thermal treating of acrylic matrices as a tool for controlling drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Davood; Ghaffari, Solmaz; Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz; Al-Hallak, M H D-Kamal; Soltani, Ghazal; Azarmi, Shirzad

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of thermal-treating on the release of ibuprofen from the granules prepared using aqueous dispersions of Eudragit. To accomplish this goal, different formulations were prepared using wet granulation method containing two different types of Eudragit aqueous dispersions, RS30D, RL30D and Avicel as filler. Tablets were prepared using direct compression method. The prepared tablets were thermally treated at 50 and 70 degrees C for 24 h. The drug release from tablets was assessed before and after thermal-treating. The results of release study showed that, thermally-treating the tablets at the temperatures higher than glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer can decrease the drug release from matrices. For mechanistic evaluation of the effect of thermal-treating, powder X-ray diffraction (XPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and helium pycnometer have been employed. The SEM graphs showed that the tablets have smoother surface with less porosity after thermal-treating. FT-IR spectra showed no change in the spectrum of thermally-treated tablet compared to control. In DSC graphs, no crystalline change was seen in the heat-treated samples of ibuprofen tablets, but decreased and widened peak size were related to the probable formation of solid solution of ibuprofen in Eudragit matrix. The results of helium pycnometer showed a significant decrease in the total porosity of some heat-treated samples. This study revealed the importance of thermal treating on the drug release from sustained release tablets containing Eudragit polymer.

  11. Controlled delivery of aspirin: effect of aspirin on polymer degradation and in vitro release from PLGA based phase sensitive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu; Singh, Jagdish

    2008-06-05

    The objective of this study was to develop poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) based injectable phase sensitive in situ gel forming delivery system for controlled delivery of aspirin, and to characterize the effect of drug/polymer interaction on the in vitro release of aspirin and polymer degradation. Aspirin was dissolved into PLGA solution in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Poly(ethylene glycol)400 was used as plasticizer to reduce initial burst release. The solution formulation was injected into aqueous release medium to form a gel depot. Released samples were withdrawn periodically and assayed for aspirin content by high performance liquid chromatography. The effect of aspirin on the degradation of PLGA matrix was evaluated using Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Gel Permeation Chromatography. PLGA based in situ gel forming formulations controlled the in vitro release of aspirin for 7 days only. Analysis of PLGA matrix residuals revealed that PLGA in aspirin loaded formulations exhibited a significantly (pdegradation compared to blank formulations. These findings suggest that aspirin causes an unusually faster degradation of PLGA. Such faster degradation of PLGA has not been noticed for any other drugs reported in the literature.

  12. In vitro dissolution study of acetylsalicylic acid solid dispersions. Tunable drug release allowed by the choice of polymer matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Policianová, Olivia; Brus, Jiří; Hrubý, Martin; Urbanová, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 8 (2015), s. 935-940 ISSN 1083-7450 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03636S; GA ČR GPP106/11/P426 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200501201 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : acetylsallicylic acid * controlled drug release * polymers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.566, year: 2015

  13. Dexamethasone electrically controlled release from polypyrrole-coated nanostructured electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprince, Lucas; Dogimont, Audrey; Magnin, Delphine; Demoustier-Champagne, Sophie

    2010-03-01

    One of the key challenges to engineering neural interfaces is to reduce their immune response toward implanted electrodes. One potential approach to minimize or eliminate this undesired early inflammatory tissue reaction and to maintain signal transmission quality over time is the delivery of anti-inflammatory biomolecules in the vicinity of the implant. Here, we report on a facile and reproducible method for the fabrication of high surface area nanostructured electrodes coated with an electroactive polymer, polypyrrole (PPy) that can be used to precisely release drug by applying an electrical stimuli. The method consists of the electropolymerization of PPy incorporated with drug, dexamethasone (DEX), onto a brush of metallic nanopillars, obtained by electrodeposition of the metal within the nanopores of gold-coated polycarbonate template. The study of the release of DEX triggered by electrochemical stimuli indicates that the system is a true electrically controlled release system. Moreover, it appears that the presence of metallic nanowires onto the electrode surface improves the adherence between the polymer and the electrode and increases the electroactivity of the PPy coating.

  14. Use of imaging techniques to identify efficient controlled release systems of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG during in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Justine; Burgain, Jennifer; Borges, Frédéric; Bhandari, Bhesh; Desobry, Stéphane; Scher, Joël; Gaiani, Claire

    2017-04-19

    Matrix composition plays a crucial role in the controlled release of viable and functional bacteria in the intestine. Imaging tools such as electronic and confocal microscopies were used in this work to investigate the influence of matrix composition on matrix integrity and porosity, bacterial spatial distribution and viability during simulated in vitro digestion. L. rhamnosus GG was encapsulated in matrices having different casein/whey protein ratios. The formulation with a casein/whey ratio of 60/40 presented a porous weak gel structure that resulted in its fast disintegration in gastric media showing the presence of dead bacteria in the intestine. For the formulation with a casein/whey ratio of 100/0, the matrix was dense with a strong gel structure. At the end of the intestine, total disintegration of microparticles was not achieved and bacteria were still embedded in the matrix instead of being liberated. Only the intermediate formulation (casein/whey-80/20) permitted a good bacterial protection in the stomach and release of viable bacteria during intestinal digestion.

  15. Controlled release and intracellular protein delivery from mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deodhar, Gauri V; Adams, Marisa L; Trewyn, Brian G

    2017-01-01

    Protein therapeutics are promising candidates for disease treatment due to their high specificity and minimal adverse side effects; however, targeted protein delivery to specific sites has proven challenging. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) have demonstrated to be ideal candidates for this application, given their high loading capacity, biocompatibility, and ability to protect host molecules from degradation. These materials exhibit tunable pore sizes, shapes and volumes, and surfaces which can be easily functionalized. This serves to control the movement of molecules in and out of the pores, thus entrapping guest molecules until a specific stimulus triggers release. In this review, we will cover the benefits of using MSN as protein therapeutic carriers, demonstrating that there is great diversity in the ways MSN can be used to service proteins. Methods for controlling the physical dimensions of pores via synthetic conditions, applications of therapeutic protein loaded MSN materials in cancer therapies, delivering protein loaded MSN materials to plant cells using biolistic methods, and common stimuli-responsive functionalities will be discussed. New and exciting strategies for controlled release and manipulation of proteins are also covered in this review. While research in this area has advanced substantially, we conclude this review with future challenges to be tackled by the scientific community. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Formulation of a modified release metformin. HCl matrix tablet: influence of some hydrophilic polymers on release rate and in-vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rojas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Metformin hydrochloride is an antidiabetic agent which improves glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes and reduces basal plasma levels of glucose. In this study, a simplex centroid experimental design with 69 runs was used to select the best combination of some hydrophilic polymers that rendered a 24 h in-vitro release profile of metformin.HCl. The Korsmeyer-Peppas model was used to model the dissolution profiles since it presented the best fit to the experimental data. Further, a cubic model predicted the best formulation of metformin.HCl containing polyvinyl pyrrolidone, ethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, carrageenan, sodium alginate, and gum arabic at 6.26, 68.7, 6.26, 6.26, 6.26 and 6.26 % levels, respectively. The validation runs confirmed the accuracy of the cubic model with six components for predicting the best set of components which rendered a once-a-day modified release hydrophilic matrix tablet in compliance with the USP specifications.O cloridrato de metformina é um agente antidiabético que melhora a tolerância à glicose em pacientes com diabetes tipo 2 e reduz os níveis plasmáticos basais de glicose. Neste estudo, um projeto experimental do tipo "centróide simplex" com 69 tomadas foi usado para selecionar a melhor combinação de alguns polímeros hidrofílicos que gerou um perfil de liberação da metformina.HCl de 24 horas. O modelo Korsmeyer-Peppas foi usado para modelar os perfis de dissolução, uma vez que apresentou os melhores ajustes aos dados experimentais. Além disso, um modelo cúbico previu a melhor formulação de metformina.HCl sendo aquela contendo polivinilpirrolidona, etilcelulose, hidroxipropilmetil celulose, carragena, alginato de sódio e goma arábica nos níveis 6.26, 68.7, 6.26, 6.26, 6.26 e 6.26 %, respectivamente. As corridas de validação confirmaram a precisão do modelo cúbico com os seis componentes para prever o melhor conjunto de componentes que originou uma

  17. Gelatin Methacrylate Microspheres for Growth Factor Controlled Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh H.; McKinney, Jay; Miller, Tobias; Bongiorno, Tom; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    Gelatin has been commonly used as a delivery vehicle for various biomolecules for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications due to its simple fabrication methods, inherent electrostatic binding properties, and proteolytic degradability. Compared to traditional chemical cross-linking methods, such as the use of glutaraldehyde (GA), methacrylate modification of gelatin offers an alternative method to better control the extent of hydrogel cross-linking. Here we examined the physical properties and growth factor delivery of gelatin methacrylate (GMA) microparticles formulated with a wide range of different cross-linking densities (15–90%). Less methacrylated MPs had decreased elastic moduli and larger mesh sizes compared to GA MPs, with increasing methacrylation correlating to greater moduli and smaller mesh sizes. As expected, an inverse correlation between microparticle cross-linking density and degradation was observed, with the lowest cross-linked GMA MPs degrading at the fastest rate, comparable to GA MPs. Interestingly, GMA MPs at lower cross-linking densities could be loaded with up to a 10-fold higher relative amount of growth factor over conventional GA cross-linked MPs, despite an order of magnitude greater gelatin content of GA MPs. Moreover, a reduced GMA cross-linking density resulted in more complete release of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and accelerated release rate with collagenase treatment. These studies demonstrate that GMA MPs provide a more flexible platform for growth factor delivery by enhancing the relative binding capacity and permitting proteolytic degradation tunability, thereby offering a more potent controlled release system for growth factor delivery. PMID:25463489

  18. Contact lenses as drug controlled release systems: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Prior Filipe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Topically applied therapy is the most common way to treat ocular diseases, however given the anatomical and physiological constraints of the eye, frequent dosing is required with possible repercussions in terms of patient compliance. Beyond refractive error correction, contact lenses (CLs have, in the last few decades emerged as a potential ophthalmic drug controlled release system (DCRS. Extensive research is underway to understand how to best modify CLs to increase residence time and bioavailability of drugs within therapeutic levels on the ocular surface.These devices may simultaneously correct ametropia and have a role in managing ophthalmic disorders that can hinder CL wear such as dry eye, glaucoma, ocular allergy and cornea infection and injury. In this narrative review the authors explain how the ocular surface structures determine drug diffusion in the eye and summarize the strategies to enhance drug residence time and bioavailability. They synthesize findings and clinical applications of drug soaked CLs as DCRS combined with delivery diffusion barriers, incorporation of functional monomers, ion related controlled release, molecular imprinting, nanoparticles and layering. The authors draw conclusions about the impact of these novel ophthalmic agents delivery systems in improving drug transport in the target tissue and patient compliance, in reducing systemic absorption and undesired side effects, and discuss future perspectives.

  19. Controlled-release naringin nanoscaffold for osteoporotic bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yan; Wang, Lu; Watts, David C; Qiu, Hongmei; You, Tao; Deng, Feng; Wu, Xiaohong

    2014-11-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common bone diseases in the world and results from an imbalance of bone cell functions. In the process of guided bone regeneration, osteoporosis weakens the bonding strength between scaffold and bone. Naringin is evidenced to be effective for the treatment of osteoporosis and bone resorption and the aim was to explore methods and benefits of its incorporation. In this study, naringin was incorporated in the electrospun nanoscaffold containing poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL). The nanoscaffold demonstrated unchanged chemical structure, improved hydrophilicity, thinner and more uniform nanofibers by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy. The nanoscaffold also showed faster degradation rate and controlled-release of naringin. Osteoblast-nanoscaffold interactions were studied by the evaluation of adhesion, proliferation, differentiation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts and mineralization of ECM on the nanoscaffolds. Meanwhile, the response of osteoclasts to nanoscaffolds was evaluated in a mouse calvarial critical size defect organ culture model. The osteoclasts around the bone defect were shown by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase staining. The results demonstrated that controlled-release naringin nanoscaffolds supported greater osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization and suppressed osteoclast formation. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A concise review on smart polymers for controlled drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghabegi Moghanjoughi, Arezou; Khoshnevis, Dorna; Zarrabi, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Design and synthesis of efficient drug delivery systems are of critical importance in health care management. Innovations in materials chemistry especially in polymer field allows introduction of advanced drug delivery systems since polymers could provide controlled release of drugs in predetermined doses over long periods, cyclic and tunable dosages. To this end, researchers have taken advantages of smart polymers since they can undergo large reversible, chemical, or physical fluctuations as responses to small changes in environmental conditions, for instance, in pH, temperature, light, and phase transition. The present review aims to highlight various kinds of smart polymers, which are used in controlled drug delivery systems as well as mechanisms of action and their applications.

  1. Synthesis of Dichlorprop-Zn/ Al-hydrotalcite Nano hybrid and its Controlled Release Property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zobir Hussein; Norhayati Hashim

    2011-01-01

    New phase-pure nano hybrids of dichlorprop[2(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) propionate]-intercalated Zn/ Al-LDH were successfully prepared using either co-precipitation or ion exchange methods. The basal spacing expansion from 8.9 Angstrom in the layered double hydroxide (LDH) to 18.7 and 21.7 Angstrom of the nano hybrids was observed. This together with FTIR, DTG/ TGA and compositional studies show that dichlorprop was successfully intercalated into the Zn/ Al-layered double hydroxides interlayer. Release study of dichlorprop showed that it is dependent on the concentration of the incoming ionic species and governed by the pseudo-second order kinetic. This study suggests that the layered double hydroxide might be used as a matrix for controlled release formulation for a herbicide, dichlorprop and the release of the herbicide can be tuned using parameters such as method of synthesis and the concentration of the incoming ionic species to be ion exchange with. This is towards new generation of agrochemicals which are safer as well as user- and environmentally-friendly. (author)

  2. Biocompatible silver nanoparticles embedded in a PEG–PLA polymeric matrix for stimulated laser light drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, F.; Scala, A.; Grimato, S.; Santoro, M.; Spadaro, S.; Barreca, F.; Cimino, F.; Speciale, A.; Saija, A.; Grassi, G.; Fazio, E.

    2016-01-01

    The laser-induced release of a well-known hepatoprotective drug (silibinin, SLB) from a temperature-sensitive polymeric composite loaded with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was investigated. The surface chemistry tuning and the specific design of Ag NPs are fundamental in view of the engineering of specific stimuli-responsive systems, able to control drug release in response to external stimuli. The release profiles of SLB from the newly synthesized PEG–PLA@Ag composite show strong dependences on laser wavelength and Ag NPs’ Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). The resonant laser light excites the SPR of the NPs and the absorbed energy is converted into heat due to electron–photon collisions. The heat generated from the nanometer-sized metal particles embedded within the polymer is efficient and strongly localized. The nanovector, irradiated by a relatively low-intensity laser but tuned specifically to the metal NPs’ SPR, releases the encapsulated drug with a higher efficiency than that not irradiated or irradiated with a laser wavelength far from the metal SPR. A combination of analytical techniques including UV–Vis, NMR, and FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning/transmission electron microscopy has been used to study the structural and morphological properties of the composite. The controllable specificity of this approach and the possibility of the SPR-mediated localized photothermal effect to be usefully applied in aqueous environments are the relevant advances of the proposed system for photothermal therapies that make use of visible optical radiation or for the drug delivery in proximity of the tumor cells.

  3. Evaluation of Two Olibanum Resins as Rate Controlling Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olibanum is an oleo-gum resin which is economically and culturally valuable product obtained from several species of the genus Boswellia. In this study, the resins extracted from local olibanum: Boswellia papyrifera (Tigray type) and Boswellia rivae (Ogaden type) were evaluated as matrix forming agents in sustained ...

  4. Controlling Hazardous Releases while Protecting Passengers in Civil Infrastructure Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimer, Sara P.; Katopodes, Nikolaos D.

    2015-11-01

    The threat of accidental or deliberate toxic chemicals released into public spaces is a significant concern to public safety, and the real-time detection and mitigation of such hazardous contaminants has the potential to minimize harm and save lives. Furthermore, the safe evacuation of occupants during such a catastrophe is of utmost importance. This research develops a comprehensive means to address such scenarios, through both the sensing and control of contaminants, and the modeling of and potential communication to occupants as they evacuate. A computational fluid dynamics model is developed of a simplified public space characterized by a long conduit (e.g. airport terminal) with unidirectional ambient flow that is capable of detecting and mitigating the hazardous contaminant (via boundary ports) over several time horizons using model predictive control optimization. Additionally, a physical prototype is built to test the real-time feasibility of this computational flow control model. The prototype is a blower wind-tunnel with an elongated test section with the capability of sensing (via digital camera) an injected `contaminant' (propylene glycol smoke), and then mitigating that contaminant using actuators (compressed air operated vacuum nozzles) which are operated by a set of pressure regulators and a programmable controller. Finally, an agent-based model is developed to simulate ``agents'' (i.e. building occupants) as they evacuate a public space, and is coupled with the computational flow control model such that agents must interact with a dynamic, threatening environment. NSF-CMMI #0856438.

  5. Development of time and pH dependent controlled release colon specific delivery of tinidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Tinidazole is used in treatment of amoebiasis and other protozoal infections in doses of 2.0 g/ day (60 mg/kg for three days. In the present paper, controlled release formulation of tinidazole was developed with an objective to achieve colon specific drug delivery with reduced frequency of dosing, to minimize gastric side effects and thus to increase patient compliance. Methods: Matrix systems of tinidazole (500 mg were prepared by using swellable and pH dependent polymers like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K4M and K15M and eudragit (eudragit L-100 and S-100. Prepared tablets were enteric coated in order to overcome variability in gastric emptying time and delay in the release, to reduce gastric side effects and to provide prolonged localized action in colon. Process of manufacture was optimized during the scale up studies. Bioavailability study (using parallel group design was carried of on conventional marketed, developed uncoated and enteric coated tablets in healthy human volunteers. Results: Bioavailability study showed that greater portion of tinidazole was released in the large intestine and drug level in plasma was above 4 mg/mL in blood for 24 hours. Conclusion: From the results of this study it appears that, the proposed single enteric coated tinidazole (500 mg tablet per day could be used in place of 3-4 doses of 500 mg tinidazole conventional tablet with better control of drug release for targeted drug delivery. In addition developed colon-specific drug delivery system (CDDS was relatively inexpensive and easy to manufacture using conventional pharmaceutical coating technique.

  6. Optimization of preparation conditions of poly(ε-caprolactone microspheres for controlled release of carbamazepine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepić Dragana S.

    2010-01-01

    drug crystals. The encapsulation efficiency and the release behavior of the carbamazepine were examined using high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectroscopy (HPLC-UV. The drug encapsulation efficiencies were in the range from 69 to 81%, and were increasing with the increase of the amount of carbamazepine in both series. In vitro release experiments were carried out in the phosphate buffer solution (pH 7 at 37ºC. The release rate was influenced by the microspheres size and morphology. The larger microspheres released more carbamazepine (85-95% compared to the small ones (50-65% for the same period. This behavior was attributed to the different drug distribution in the PCL matrix. Different mathematical models were used to describe drug release kinetics. It was concluded that the mechanism of the carbamazepine release from the microspheres was diffusion-controlled, independent on the type of microspheres. The kinetic parameters showed that the release of carbamazepine was slower from the smaller microspheres, probably as a result of more even distribution of the drug in the polymer matrix.

  7. Properties and controlled release of chitosan microencapsulated limonene oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson M. Souza

    Full Text Available Chitosan microcapsules containing limonene essential oil as active ingredient were prepared by coacervation using three different concentrations of NaOH (0.50, 1.00, 1.45 wt% and fixed concentrations of chitosan and surfactant of 0.50 wt%. The produced microcapsules were fully characterized in their morphology and chemical composition, and the kinetic release analysis of the active ingredient was evaluated after deposition in a non-woven cellulose fabric. The concentration of 1.00 and 1.45 wt% clearly show the best results in terms of dimension and shape of the microcapsules as well as in the volatility results. However, at the concentration of 1 wt% a higher number of microcapsules were produced as confirmed by FTIR and EDS analysis. Free microcapsules are spherical in size with disperse diameters between 2 and 12 μm. Immobilized microcapsules showed sizes from 4 to 7 μm, a rough surface and loss of spherical shape with pore formation in the chitosan walls. SEM analysis confirms that at higher NaOH concentrations, the larger the size of the microcapsules. This technique shows that by tuning NaOH concentration it is possible to efficiently control the release rate of encapsulated active agents demonstrating great potential as insect repellent for textiles.

  8. Comparative In Vitro Controlled Release Studies on the Chronobiotic Hormone Melatonin from Cyclodextrins-Containing Matrices and Cyclodextrin: Melatonin Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachou, Marilena; Papamichael, Marianna; Siamidi, Angeliki; Fragouli, Irene; Afroudakis, Pandelis A; Kompogennitaki, Rodanthi; Dotsikas, Yannis

    2017-07-28

    A series of hydrophilic matrix tablets was prepared and tested with respect to their ability to release the hormone melatonin in a controlled manner, in order to alleviate sleep onset and sleep maintenance dysfunctions. Besides the active ingredient, the tablets were comprised of combinations of the following: HPMC K 15M, low viscosity sodium alginate, microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 102), magnesium stearate, and the cyclodextrins, α-CD, β-CD, γ-CD, HP-β-CD, sulfated β-CD, HP-α-CD and HP-γ-CD, and MLT (guest):CD (host) complexes of the above cyclodextrins, in 1:1 ratio. The controlled release studies were conducted in two aqueous dissolution media at pH 1.2 and 7.4. The stoichiometry of the formed complexes was examined by applying the continuous variation method (Job plot), while the stability constants were calculated by monitoring the spectrophotometric properties of free and CD-encapsulated melatonin (UV-Vis). Host-guest interactions were studied by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The dissolution data suggest that melatonin is released faster from the MLT:CD complexes than from the rest matrix systems. This enhancement in the dissolution rate and the % release of melatonin from the complexes is due to the increased solubility of the MLT:CD complexes.

  9. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Controlled release pesticide formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollner, L.

    1991-01-01

    At the request of the Government of Indonesia, an IAEA expert undertook a two weeks (of one month) mission from 2 to 15 April 1991 to the Center for Application of Isotopes and Radiation (CAIR) of BATAN in Jakarta. Expert held a seminar, discussed and carried out experiments on Controlled Release Formulations (CRF). Discussed further experiments, cleaned and reinstalled an ECD of the Shimadzu gas chromatograph and optimized the analytical conditions for chlorinated pesticides. He also developed a project for possible submission to the Government of Germany, to allow the staff of CAIR to undertake a more intensive research and to be able to set up training facilities in his research center in Munich/Germany. He furthermore assessed needs for supply of instruments, accessories and radiolabelled pesticides. An agreement for continuing the scientific and technical mission was obtained with the staff of CAIR, in connection with the DDT-RCM at the end of November 1991, provided approval by IAEA

  10. Controlled release of carcinogens in heterotopic tracheal grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, B.C.; Klein-Szanto, A.J.P.

    1981-01-01

    A major drawback of the conventional approaches to the study of the respiratory tract carcinogenesis by intratracheal injection or instillation is that neither the dose nor the target site can be accurately defined. The tracheal transplant model has been developed in our group to provide a solution to this problem. In this model, rodent tracheas are transplanted under the skin in the scapular region of the isogenic host. The transplants re-establish themselves in the host in 3 to 4 weeks and survive indefinitely. These tracheas can then be exposed to carcinogens in a controlled and quantitative fashion by using monolithic cylindrical pellets. The model has a good potential for establishing a more realistic dose-response relationship in respiratory tract carcinogenesis. However, the success of the model depends on the development of devices for release of carcinogens at a reproducible and predictable rate. This paper describes the various approaches to the solution of this problem.

  11. Critical review of controlled release packaging to improve food safety and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Mo; Xu, Chenyi; Yam, Kit L

    2018-03-19

    Controlled release packaging (CRP) is an innovative technology that uses the package to release active compounds in a controlled manner to improve safety and quality for a wide range of food products during storage. This paper provides a critical review of the uniqueness, design considerations, and research gaps of CRP, with a focus on the kinetics and mechanism of active compounds releasing from the package. Literature data and practical examples are presented to illustrate how CRP controls what active compounds to release, when and how to release, how much and how fast to release, in order to improve food safety and quality.

  12. Interaction between fed and gastric media (ensure Plus) and different hypromellose based caffeine controlled release tablets; comparison and mechanistic study of caffeine release in fed and fasted media versus water using USP dissolution apparatus 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Frans; Holm, Per; Larsen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    . Using fasted media instead of water slightly decreases caffeine release from 100 and 4000 mPa s HPMC viscosity tablets as well as erosion rates, while 15,000 mPa s tablets remain unaffected. Fed compared to fasted media decreases caffeine release rate, and the food effect is greater for the 100 mPa s......The aim of the study was to investigate caffeine release in fed and fasted state media from three controlled release matrix tablets containing different HPMC viscosity grades. The biorelevant in vitro dissolution methods utilize the USP 3 dissolution apparatus and biorelevant media to simulate fed...... and fasted gastro-intestinal dissolution conditions. The effect of tablet reciprocation rate (dip speed) in dissolution media (10 and 15 dips per minute) and media (water, fed and fasted) on caffeine release rate from – and erosion rate of – 100, 4000 and 15,000 mPa s HPMC viscosity tablets was investigated...

  13. Externally controlled triggered-release of drug from PLGA micro and nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Hua

    Full Text Available Biofilm infections are extremely hard to eradicate and controlled, triggered and controlled drug release properties may prolong drug release time. In this study, the ability to externally control drug release from micro and nanoparticles was investigated. We prepared micro/nanoparticles containing ciprofloxacin (CIP and magnetic nanoparticles encapsulated in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid PLGA. Both micro/nanoparticles were observed to have narrow size distributions. We investigated and compared their passive and externally triggered drug release properties based on their different encapsulation structures for the nano and micro systems. In passive release studies, CIP demonstrated a fast rate of release in first 2 days which then slowed and sustained release for approximately 4 weeks. Significantly, magnetic nanoparticles containing systems all showed ability to have triggered drug release when exposed to an external oscillating magnetic field (OMF. An experiment where the OMF was turned on and off also confirmed the ability to control the drug release in a pulsatile manner. The magnetically triggered release resulted in a 2-fold drug release increase compared with normal passive release. To confirm drug integrity following release, the antibacterial activity of released drug was evaluated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in vitro. CIP maintained its antimicrobial activity after encapsulation and triggered release.

  14. Externally controlled triggered-release of drug from PLGA micro and nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xin; Tan, Shengnan; Bandara, H M H N; Fu, Yujie; Liu, Siguo; Smyth, Hugh D C

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm infections are extremely hard to eradicate and controlled, triggered and controlled drug release properties may prolong drug release time. In this study, the ability to externally control drug release from micro and nanoparticles was investigated. We prepared micro/nanoparticles containing ciprofloxacin (CIP) and magnetic nanoparticles encapsulated in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) PLGA. Both micro/nanoparticles were observed to have narrow size distributions. We investigated and compared their passive and externally triggered drug release properties based on their different encapsulation structures for the nano and micro systems. In passive release studies, CIP demonstrated a fast rate of release in first 2 days which then slowed and sustained release for approximately 4 weeks. Significantly, magnetic nanoparticles containing systems all showed ability to have triggered drug release when exposed to an external oscillating magnetic field (OMF). An experiment where the OMF was turned on and off also confirmed the ability to control the drug release in a pulsatile manner. The magnetically triggered release resulted in a 2-fold drug release increase compared with normal passive release. To confirm drug integrity following release, the antibacterial activity of released drug was evaluated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in vitro. CIP maintained its antimicrobial activity after encapsulation and triggered release.

  15. Controlled release of drugs from cellulose acetate matrices produced from sugarcane bagasse: monitoring by square-wave voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Filho, Guimes; Almeida, Flávia; Ribeiro, Sabrina D; Tormin, Thiago F; Muñoz, Rodrigo A A; Assunção, Rosana M N; Barud, Hernane

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, cellulose triacetate (CTA) was produced from sugarcane bagasse and used as matrices for controlled release of paracetamol. Symmetric and asymmetric membranes were obtained by formulations of CTA/dichloromethane/drug and CTA/dichloromethane/water/drug, respectively, and they were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Different morphologies of membranes were observed by SEM, and the incorporation of paracetamol was confirmed by lowering of the glass transition temperature (Tg) in the DSC curves. This indicates the existence of interactions between the matrix and the drug. The evaluation of drug release was based on the electrochemical monitoring of paracetamol through its oxidation at a glassy carbon electrode surface using square-wave voltammetry (SWV), which provides fast, precise and accurate in situ measurements. The studies showed a content release of 27% and 45% by the symmetric and asymmetric membranes, respectively, during 8 h.

  16. Factors controlling alkalisalt deposition in recovery boiler- release mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeough, P.; Kylloenen, H.; Kurkela, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Process Technology Group

    1996-12-01

    As part of a cooperative effort to develop a model to describe the behaviour of inorganic compounds in kraft recovery boilers, an experimental investigation of the release of sulphur during black liquor pyrolysis has been undertaken. Previous to these studies, the mechanisms of sulphur release and the reasons for the observed effects of process conditions on sulphur release were very poorly understood. On the basis of the experimental results, the main reactions leading to sulphur release have been elucidated with a fair degree of certainty. Logical explanations for the variations of sulphur release with temperature and with liquor solids content have been proposed. The influence of pressure has been investigated in order to gain insights into the effects of mass transfer on the sulphur-release rate. In the near future, the research will be aimed at generating the kinetic data necessary for modelling the release of sulphur in the recovery furnace. (author)

  17. Extensions of linear-quadratic control, optimization and matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, David H

    1977-01-01

    In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

  18. Factors controlling phosphorus release from sediments in coastal archipelago areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttonen, Irma; Kohonen, Tuula; Mattila, Johanna

    2016-07-15

    In coastal archipelago areas of the northern Baltic Sea, significantly higher phosphate concentrations (6.0±4.5μmol/l, mean±SD) were measured in water samples close to the sediment surface compared with those from 1m above the seafloor (1.6±2.0μmol/l). The results indicated notable phosphate release from sediments under the bottom water oxygen concentrations of up to 250μmol/l, especially in areas that had experienced recent temporal fluctuation between oxic and hypoxic/anoxic conditions. No single factor alone was found to control the elevated PO4-P concentrations in the near-bottom water. In addition to the oxygen in the water, the contents of potentially mobile phosphorus fractions, grain-size, the organic content at the sediment surface, and the water depth were all important factors controlling the internal loading of phosphorus. The complexity of this process needs to be accounted for in assessments of the internal loading of phosphorus and in potential mitigation plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Interpenetrating network hydrogel beads of carboxymethylcellulose and egg albumin for controlled release of lipid lowering drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppana, Rashmi; Kulkarni, Raghavendra V; Mutalik, Srinivas S; Setty, C Mallikarjun; Sa, Biswanath

    2010-01-01

    Novel interpenetrating network hydrogel beads of sodium carboxymethylcellulose and egg albumin loaded with a lipid lowering drug, simvastatin, were prepared by ionotropic gelation and covalent cross-linking method. The IPN beads were characterized by differential scanning colorimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry to understand the crystalline nature of the drug after entrapment into IPN matrix. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to find the chemical stability of drug in the polymer matrix and scanning electron microscopy was performed to study the surface morphology. The ionically cross-linked beads were capable of releasing drug up to 7 h, whereas the drug release was extended up to 12 h in case of dual cross-linked beads. The beads which were prepared with higher concentration of glutaraldehyde released the drug more slowly. The release data were fitted to an empirical equation to determine the transport mechanism, which indicated the non-Fickian trend for drug transport.

  20. Complex coacervates for thermally sensitive controlled release of flavor compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Yoon; Bellas, Evangelia; Firestone, William; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S

    2005-09-21

    To improve the appeal of frozen baked foods upon heating, we have encapsulated flavor oil in complex coacervate microcapsules using gelatin and gum Arabic. Variation of polyion concentrations and homogenization rate affected particle morphology, size distribution, and oil release upon heating. Release of the oil from formulations was determined by a simple spectroscopic method based on separation of oil labeled with a lipophilic dye from unaffected particles. When heated to 100 degrees C or higher, univesicular microcapsules (prepared with a lower homogenization rate) released almost all of the encapsulated oil, while multivesicular microcapsules (produced by high homogenization rates) resulted had lesser degrees of release. The oil remained encapsulated during 4 weeks of storage at 4 and -20 degrees C (freezing and thawing) but was released by exposure to 100 mM NaCl at room temperature. When particles were cooled after releasing their oil content, the oil was re-encapsulated.

  1. Controlled release of diclofenac sodium from pH-responsive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In vitro drug-release studies in different buffer solutions showed that the most important parameter affecting the drug-release behaviour of hydrogels is the pH of the solution. The mechanism involved in release was Fickian ( ≤ 0.43, = 0.348) and Super Case II kinetics ( > 1, = 1.231) at pH 1.2 and 7.4, respectively.

  2. Surface-Deacetylated Chitin Nano-Fiber/Hyaluronic Acid Composites as Potential Antioxidative Compounds for Use in Extended-Release Matrix Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Anraku

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined a possible use of a surface-deacetylated chitin nano-fiber (SDCH-NF and hyaluronic acid (HA interpolymer complex (IPC tablet as a potential antioxidative compound in extended-release matrix tablets. The antioxidant properties of untreated chitin (UCH, SDCH-NF, and HA were examined using N-centered radicals derived from 1,1′-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS. SDCH-NF and HA had acceptable scavenging abilities and were relatively efficient radical scavengers, but UCH was much less effective. The results suggest that SDCH-NF and HA could serve as scavengers of compounds related to the development of oxidative stress. An SDCH-NF/HA IPC tablet was prepared and evaluated as an extended-release tablet matrix using famotidine (FMT as a model drug. The release of FMT from the IPC tablet (DCF-NF:HA = 1:1 was slower than that from a SDCH-NF only tablet. Turbidity measurements and X-ray diffraction (XRD data also indicated that the optimum complexation ratio for IPC between SDCH-NF/HA is 1/1, resulting in a good relationship between turbidity or XRD of the complex and the release ratio of FMT. These results suggest that an SDCH-NF/HA tablet has the potential for use in an extended-release IPC tablet with a high antioxidant activity.

  3. In vitro release studies of insulin from lipid implants in solution and in a hydrogel matrix mimicking the subcutis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sabrine S; Jensen, Henrik; Møller, Eva H

    2016-01-01

    sustained release of the model protein insulin and investigate the release into 0.5% (w/v) agarose hydrogels, pH7.40, using UV imaging- and a gel sampling-based release testing method. These results were compared to insulin release into well agitated buffer solution. Irrespective of the applied in vitro...... release method, the insulin release from Sterotex implants with a drug load of 20% (w/w) was faster as compared to the release from implants with a load of 10% (w/w), most likely due to the higher porosity of the implants with increasing drug load. Insulin release from 10% (w/w) implants into agitated...

  4. Nanoparticles with entrapped {alpha}-tocopherol: synthesis, characterization, and controlled release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigoneanu, Imola Gabriela [101 E B Doran Building, BAE Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Astete, Carlos Ernesto [110 E B Doran Building, BAE Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Sabliov, Cristina Mirela [141 E B Doran Building, BAE Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)], E-mail: csabliov@lsu.edu

    2008-03-12

    An emulsion evaporation method was used to synthesize spherical poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles with entrapped {alpha}-tocopherol. Two different surfactants were used: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). For SDS nanoparticles, the size of the nanoparticles decreased significantly with the entrapment of {alpha}-tocopherol in the PLGA matrix, while the size of PVA nanoparticles remained unchanged. The polydispersity index after synthesis was under 0.100 for PVA nanoparticles and around 0.150 for SDS nanoparticles. The zeta potential was negative for all PVA nanoparticles. The entrapment efficiency of {alpha}-tocopherol in the polymeric matrix was approximately 89% and 95% for nanoparticles with 8% and 16% {alpha}-tocopherol theoretical loading, respectively. The residual PVA associated with the nanoparticles after purification was approximately 6% ( w/w relative to the nanoparticles). The release profile showed an initial burst followed by a slower release of the {alpha}-tocopherol entrapped inside the PLGA matrix. The release for nanoparticles with 8% {alpha}-tocopherol theoretical loading (86% released in the first hour) was faster than the release for the nanoparticles with 16% {alpha}-tocopherol theoretical loading (34% released in the first hour)

  5. Controlled release of diuron from an alginate-bentonite formulation: water release kinetics and soil mobility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pérez, M; Villafranca-Sánchez, M; González-Pradas, E; Flores-Céspedes, F

    1999-02-01

    The herbicide diuron was incorporated in alginate-based granules to obtain controlled release (CR) properties. The standard formulation (alginate-herbicide-water) was modified by the addition of different sorbents. The effect on diuron release rate caused by incorporation of natural and acid-treated bentonites in alginate formulation was studied by immersion of the granules in water under static conditions. The release of diuron was diffusion-controlled. The time taken for 50% release of active ingredient to be released into water, T(50), was calculated for the comparison of formulations. The addition of bentonite to the alginate-based formulation produced the higher T(50) values, indicating slower release of the diuron. The mobility of technical and formulated diuron was compared by using soil columns. The use of alginate-based CR formulations containing bentonite produced a less vertical distribution of the active ingredient as compared to the technical product and commercial formulation. Sorption capacities of the various soil constituents for diuron were also determined using batch experiments.

  6. Formulation and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Controlled-Release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A coating layer was then applied with a mixture of HPMC, ethylcellulose, shellac, and HPMC phthalate. The effect of several formulation variables on in vitro drug release was studied; furthermore, the drug release kinetics of the optimized formulation was evaluated. The in vivo pharmacokinetics of the optimized formulation ...

  7. Formulation and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Controlled-Release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mixture of HPMC, ethylcellulose, shellac, and HPMC phthalate. The effect of several formulation variables on in vitro drug release was studied; furthermore, the drug release kinetics of the optimized formulation was evaluated. The in vivo pharmacokinetics of the optimized formulation was compared with those of commercial ...

  8. Radiation curing of intelligent coating for controlled release and permeation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Hiroshi; Kaetsu, Isao; Uchida, Kumao; Sakata, Shoei; Tougou, Kazuhide; Hara, Takamichi; Matsubara, Yoshio

    2002-01-01

    Intelligent membranes for pH and temperature-responsive drug releases were developed by coating and curing of polymer-drug composite film with electrolyte or N-isopropyl acrylamide curable mixture. It was proved that those intelligent membranes showed the stimule-sensitive and responsive release functions and could be produced efficiently by radiation curing processing with a conveyer system

  9. Controlled release formulations of Atrazine and Mesotrione: characterization and sorption on soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro Dick, D.; Gomes de Ávila, L.; Benvenuti Leite, S.; Raffin Pohlmann, A.

    2009-04-01

    Atrazine is a widely used herbicide on corn and sugar cane plantations, which, along with soybeans, are the most productive crops in Brazil and are responsible for 36.5% of the annual national consumption of herbicides. Mesotrione is a new herbicide registered in the last years used for controlling weeds in corn plantations as a tentative substitution for atrazine. After its application in the field, reactions between the herbicide and chemical groups from the soil matrix surface occur, and this complexed form remains in the soil, representing a potential source for environmental contamination and also affecting its agronomic efficiency. Therefore, the application of herbicides associated to carrier systems may represent an alternative to mitigate the environmental impact caused by their intense usage, considering that the interaction between the soil matrix and the xenobiotic is reduced, and thus, diminishes the recommended dosis and reduces the environmental pollution. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the chemical and morphological characteristics of controlled release formulations of atrazine (ATZ) and of mesotrione (MES) and to investigate their sorptive behavior in three representative Brazilian soils. To assess the feasibility of using these associated systems, four formulations (SGATZ) containing different concentrations of atrazine and four formulations (SGMES) containing different levels of mesotrione (MES) were synthesized by the sol-gel method (SG), using tetraetil-ortho-silicate as precursor and NaF as catalyst. The formulations were characterized by elemental analysis, adsorption and desorption isotherms of nitrogen, thermal analysis (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For comparison, samples of pure xerogel (SG), commercial MES (Callisto-Syngenta), pure ATZ (99% of active principle, Milênia), granulated ATZ (Gesaprim GrDA Syngenta) and dried commercial ATZ (Nortox 500 SC) were analyzed. The

  10. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a new carrier methodology in the controlled release of the active components in a polypill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doadrio, Antonio L; Sánchez-Montero, José M; Doadrio, Juan C; Salinas, Antonio J; Vallet-Regí, María

    2017-01-15

    Polypill is a medication designed for preventing heart attacks through a combination of drugs. Current formulations contain blood pressure-lowering drugs and others, such statins or acetylsalicylic acid. These drugs exhibit different physical chemical features, and consequently different release kinetics. Therefore, the concentration in plasma of some of them after the release process can be out of the therapeutic range. This paper investigates a new methodology for the control dosage of a polypill recently reported containing hydrochlorothiazide, amlodipine, losartan and simvastatin in a 12.5/2.5/25/40 weight ratio. The procedure is based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) with MCM-41 structure (MSN-41) used as carrier, aimed to control release of the four drugs included in the polypill. In vitro release data were obtained by HPLC and the curves adjusted with a kinetic model. To explain the release results, a molecular model was built to determine the drug-matrix interactions, and quantum mechanical calculations were performed to obtain the electrostatic properties of each drug. Amlodipine, losartan and simvastatin were released from the polypill-MSN-41 system in a controlled way. This would be a favourable behavior when used clinically because avoid too quick pressure decrease. However, the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide was quickly released from our system in the first minutes, as is needed in hypertensive urgencies. In addition, an increase in the stability of amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide occurred in the polypill-MSN-41 system. Therefore, the new way of polypill dosage proposed can result in a safer and effective treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. PH-triggered micellar membrane for controlled release microchips

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaoqiang

    2011-01-01

    A pH-responsive membrane based on polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) block copolymer was developed on a model glass microchip as a promising controlled polymer delivery system. The PS-b-P4VP copolymer assembles into spherical and/or worm-like micelles with styrene block cores and pyridine coronas in selective solvents. The self-assembled worm-like morphology exhibited pH-responsive behaviour due to the protonation of the P4VP block at low pH and it\\'s deprotonation at high pH and thus constituting a switchable "off/on" system. Doxorubicin (Dox) was used as cargo to test the PS-b-P4VP membrane. Luminescence experiments indicated that the membrane was able to store Dox molecules within its micellar structure at neutral pH and then release them as soon as the pH was raised to 8.0. The performance of the cast membrane was predictable and most importantly reproducible. The physiochemical and biological properties were also investigated carefully in terms of morphology, cell viability and cell uptake. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Gastrin release: Antrum microdialysis reveals a complex neural control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, P; Håkanson, R; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2010-01-01

    that the vagus has not only a prompt stimulatory but also a slow inhibitory effect on gastrin release. 2) Although vagal denervation did not affect the gastrin response to anacidity, the TTX experiments revealed that both food-evoked and anacidity-evoked gastrin release depends on neural input.......We used microdialysis to monitor local gastrin release in response to food, acid blockade and acute vagal excitation. For the first time, gastrin release has been monitored continuously in intact conscious rats in a physiologically relevant experimental setting in a fashion that minimizes...... in both serum and microdialysate. Food intake induced a 2- to 3-fold increase in serum gastrin, while gastrin in antral microdialysate increased 10- to 15-fold. In unilaterally vagotomized rats (fasted, 3 days post-op.), food evoked a prompt peak gastrin release followed by a gradual decline on the intact...

  13. Contribution of human osteoblasts and macrophages to bone matrix degradation and proinflammatory cytokine release after exposure to abrasive endoprosthetic wear particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonitz-Heincke, Anika; Lochner, Katrin; Schulze, Christoph; Pohle, Diana; Pustlauk, Wera; Hansmann, Doris; Bader, Rainer

    2016-08-01

    One of the major reasons for failure after total joint arthroplasty is aseptic loosening of the implant. At articulating surfaces, defined as the interface between implant and surrounding bone cement, wear particles can be generated and released into the periprosthetic tissue, resulting in inflammation and osteolysis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which osteoblasts and macrophages are responsible for the osteolytic and inflammatory reactions following contact with generated wear particles from Ti‑6Al‑7Nb and Co‑28Cr‑6Mo hip stems. To this end, human osteoblasts and THP‑1 monocytic cells were incubated with the experimentally generated wear particles as well as reference particles (0.01 and 0.1 mg/ml) for 48 h under standard culture conditions. To evaluate the impact of these particles on the two cell types, the release of different bone matrix degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs), and relevant cytokines were determined by multiplex enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assays. Following incubation with wear particles, human osteoblasts showed a significant upregulation of MMP1 and MMP8, whereas macrophages reacted with enhanced MMP3, MMP8 and MMP10 production. Moreover, the synthesis of TIMPs 1 and 2 was inhibited. The osteoblasts and macrophages also responded with modified expression of the inflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑8, monocyte chemoattractant protein‑1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. These results demonstrate that the release of wear particles affects the release of proinflammatory cytokines and has a negative impact on bone matrix formation during the first 48 h of particle exposure. Human osteoblasts are directly involved in the proinflammatory cascade of bone matrix degradation. The simultaneous activation and recruitment of monocytes/macrophages boosted osteolytic processes in the periprosthetic tissue. By the downregulation of TIMP production and the

  14. Controlling excited-state contamination in nucleon matrix elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Boram; Gupta, Rajan; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Engelhardt, Michael; Green, Jeremy; Joó, Bálint; Lin, Huey-Wen; Negele, John; Orginos, Kostas; Pochinsky, Andrew; Richards, David; Syritsyn, Sergey; Winter, Frank

    2016-06-01

    We present a detailed analysis of methods to reduce statistical errors and excited-state contamination in the calculation of matrix elements of quark bilinear operators in nucleon states. All the calculations were done on a 2+1 flavor ensemble with lattices of size $32^3 \\times 64$ generated using the rational hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm at $a=0.081$~fm and with $M_\\pi=312$~MeV. The statistical precision of the data is improved using the all-mode-averaging method. We compare two methods for reducing excited-state contamination: a variational analysis and a two-state fit to data at multiple values of the source-sink separation $t_{\\rm sep}$. We show that both methods can be tuned to significantly reduce excited-state contamination and discuss their relative advantages and cost-effectiveness. A detailed analysis of the size of source smearing used in the calculation of quark propagators and the range of values of $t_{\\rm sep}$ needed to demonstrate convergence of the isovector charges of the nucleon to the $t_{\\rm sep} \\to \\infty $ estimates is presented.

  15. Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on swelling, erosion and release behavior of HPMC matrix tablets containing a poorly water-soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Aiguo; Yuan, Bingxiang; Fu, Qiang; Wang, Changhe; Zhao, Guilan

    2009-01-01

    The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the swelling, erosion and release behavior of HPMC matrix tablets was examined. Swelling and erosion of HPMC matrix tablets were determined by measuring the wet and subsequent dry weights of matrices. The rate of uptake of the dissolution medium by the matrix was quantified using a square root relationship whilst the erosion of the polymer was described using the cube root law. The extent of swelling decreased with increasing SDS concentrations in the dissolution medium but the rate of erosion was found to follow a reverse trend. Such phenomena might have been caused by the attractive hydrophobic interaction between HPMC and SDS as demonstrated by the cloud points of the solutions containing both the surfactant and polymer. Release profiles of nimodipine from HPMC tablets in aqueous media containing different concentrations of SDS were finally studied. Increasing SDS concentrations in the medium was shown to accelerate the release of nimodipine from the tablets, possibly due to increasing nimodipine solubility and increasing rate of erosion by increasing SDS concentrations in the dissolution medium.

  16. Simple Power Control for Sensorless Induction Motor Drives Fed by a Matrix Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Lee, Kyo Beum

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new and simple method for sensorless control of matrix converter drives using a power flowing to the motor. The proposed control algorithm is based on controlling the instantaneous real and imaginary powers into the induction motor. To improve low-speed sensorless performance...

  17. Electrospinning of Silk Fibroin/Β-Cyclodextrin Nanofibers for Controlled Drug Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Nouri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Silk fibroin (SF as an important natural polymer has been extensively used as a suitable matrix in controlled drug release systems because of its biocompatibility feature, slow degradation rate and unique mechanical properties. In this study, a new β-cyclodextrin/silk fibroin nanofibrous membrane (β-CD/SF with the function of molecular capture was successfully prepared by electrospinning of homogeneous solutions of β-CD and SF in formic acid. The effects of cyclodextrin on the nanofibers properties and its drug release properties were investigated. The morphology, microscopic structure, chemical composition and heat treatment of the β-CD/SF nanofibrous membrane were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Scanning electronic microscopy images showed that defect free mats with a uniform structure were generated, and the average diameter of the nanofibers was mainly affected by weight ratio of the blend. The result revealed that increasing the β-CD content in the blends lowered the average fiber diameter. In this report these observations are discussed with respect to the viscosity data of the electrospinning solutions which have been decreased with increasing β-cyclodextrin concentration. Differential scanning calorimetry results showed that drug was loaded into the β-cyclodextrin cavities. In vitro drug delivery profile of salicylic acid, as a drug model, was examined by UV spectroscopy at body temperature (37˚C in phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4. The molecular capturing ability of β-cyclodextrin /silk fibroin composite was improved with the amount of β-cyclodextrin in composite nanofibrous membrane which resulted in lower drug release.

  18. Control of anoplophora glabripennis by releasing sterile insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaohui; Li Yongjun; Zhang Shuyong; Wang Endong; Lu Daguang

    2003-01-01

    An experiment to evaluate the effect of released sterile insects on reproduction of natural A. glabripennis population was conducted at a 30-hectare poplar tree forest in Ying County of Shanxi Province from July 10 to August 29, 2001. Though the releasing ratio was only about 2-5, results from different methods showed that the reproduction of natural A. glabripennis population was suppressed effectively by releasing sterile insects, and that hatch ratio of eggs laid by parent generation was about 20% and survival ratio of F1 progeny about 27%. (authors)

  19. Two-Link Flexible Manipulator Control Using Sliding Mode Control Based Linear Matrix Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfatman; Marzuki, Mohammad; Alif Mardiyah, Nur

    2017-04-01

    Two-link flexible manipulator is a manipulator robot which at least one of its arms is made of lightweight material and not rigid. Flexible robot manipulator has some advantages over the rigid robot manipulator, such as lighter, requires less power and costs, and to result greater payload. However, suitable control algorithm to maintain the two-link flexible robot manipulator in accurate positioning is very challenging. In this study, sliding mode control (SMC) was employed as robust control algorithm due to its insensitivity on the system parameter variations and the presence of disturbances when the system states are sliding on a sliding surface. SMC algorithm was combined with linear matrix inequality (LMI), which aims to reduce the effects of chattering coming from the oscillation of the state during sliding on the sliding surface. Stability of the control algorithm is guaranteed by Lyapunov function candidate. Based on simulation works, SMC based LMI resulted in better performance improvements despite the disturbances with significant chattering reduction. This was evident from the decline of the sum of squared tracking error (SSTE) and the sum of squared of control input (SSCI) indexes respectively 25.4% and 19.4%.

  20. Fuzzy attitude control of solar sail via linear matrix inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baculi, Joshua; Ayoubi, Mohammad A.

    2017-09-01

    This study presents a fuzzy tracking controller based on the Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model of the solar sail. First, the T-S fuzzy model is constructed by linearizing the existing nonlinear equations of motion of the solar sail. Then, the T-S fuzzy model is used to derive the state feedback controller gains for the Twin Parallel Distributed Compensation (TPDC) technique. The TPDC tracks and stabilizes the attitude of the solar sail to any desired state in the presence of parameter uncertainties and external disturbances while satisfying actuator constraints. The performance of the TPDC is compared to a PID controller that is tuned using the Ziegler-Nichols method. Numerical simulation shows the TPDC outperforms the PID controller when stabilizing the solar sail to a desired state.

  1. CONTROLLED-RELEASE OF PARACETAMOL FROM AMYLODEXTRIN TABLETS - IN-VITRO AND IN-VIVO RESULTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERVEEN, J; EISSENS, AC; LERK, CF

    Amylodextrin is a suitable excipient for the design of solid controlled-release systems. The release of paracetamol from tablets containing 30% drug and 70% amylodextrin was studied in vitro and in vivo. In vitro dissolution profiles showed almost-constant drug release rates during 8 hr, when

  2. An implantable smart magnetic nanofiber device for endoscopic hyperthermia treatment and tumor-triggered controlled drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, Arathyram Ramachandra Kurup; Unnithan, Afeesh Rajan; Yun, Yeo-Heung; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2016-02-01

    The study describes the design and synthesis of an implantable smart magnetic nanofiber device for endoscopic hyperthermia treatment and tumor-triggered controlled drug release. This device is achieved using a two-component smart nanofiber matrix from monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) as well as bortezomib (BTZ), a chemotherapeutic drug. The IONP-incorporated nanofiber matrix was developed by electrospinning a biocompatible and bioresorbable polymer, poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), and tumor-triggered anticancer drug delivery is realized by exploiting mussel-inspired surface functionalization using 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine (dopamine) to conjugate the borate-containing BTZ anticancer drug through a catechol metal binding in a pH-sensitive manner. Thus, an implantable smart magnetic nanofiber device can be exploited to both apply hyperthermia with an alternating magnetic field (AMF) and to achieve cancer cell-specific drug release to enable synergistic cancer therapy. These results confirm that the BTZ-loaded mussel-inspired magnetic nanofiber matrix (BTZ-MMNF) is highly beneficial not only due to the higher therapeutic efficacy and low toxicity towards normal cells but also, as a result of the availability of magnetic nanoparticles for repeated hyperthermia application and tumor-triggered controlled drug release. The current work report on the design and development of a smart nanoplatform responsive to a magnetic field to administer both hyperthermia and pH-dependent anticancer drug release for the synergistic anticancer treatment. The iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) incorporated nanofiber matrix was developed by electrospinning a biocompatible polymer, poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), and tumor-triggered anticancer drug delivery is realized by surface functionalization using 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine (dopamine) to conjugate the boratecontaining anticancer drug bortezomib through a catechol metal binding in a p

  3. Materials for Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Molecular Pharmaceutics and Controlled Release Drug Delivery Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick P. DeLuca

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlled release delivery is available for many routes of administration and offers many advantages (as microparticles and nanoparticles over immediate release delivery. These advantages include reduced dosing frequency, better therapeutic control, fewer side effects, and, consequently, these dosage forms are well accepted by patients. Advances in polymer material science, particle engineering design, manufacture, and nanotechnology have led the way to the introduction of several marketed controlled release products and several more are in pre-clinical and clinical development.

  4. Materials for pharmaceutical dosage forms: molecular pharmaceutics and controlled release drug delivery aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Heidi M; Sohn, Minji; Al-Ghananeem, Abeer; Deluca, Patrick P

    2010-09-15

    Controlled release delivery is available for many routes of administration and offers many advantages (as microparticles and nanoparticles) over immediate release delivery. These advantages include reduced dosing frequency, better therapeutic control, fewer side effects, and, consequently, these dosage forms are well accepted by patients. Advances in polymer material science, particle engineering design, manufacture, and nanotechnology have led the way to the introduction of several marketed controlled release products and several more are in pre-clinical and clinical development.

  5. Gastrin release: Antrum microdialysis reveals a complex neural control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, P; Håkanson, R; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2010-01-01

    We used microdialysis to monitor local gastrin release in response to food, acid blockade and acute vagal excitation. For the first time, gastrin release has been monitored continuously in intact conscious rats in a physiologically relevant experimental setting in a fashion that minimizes...... the gastrin concentration in blood as well as microdialysate. The high gastrin concentration following omeprazole treatment was not affected by vagotomy. Vagal excitation stimulated the G cells: electrical vagal stimulation and pylorus ligation (fasted rats) raised the gastrin concentration transiently...... that the vagus has not only a prompt stimulatory but also a slow inhibitory effect on gastrin release. 2) Although vagal denervation did not affect the gastrin response to anacidity, the TTX experiments revealed that both food-evoked and anacidity-evoked gastrin release depends on neural input....

  6. Development of controlled release spheroids using Buchananiacochinchinesis gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Babulal Gaikwad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chirauli nut gum was isolated from the bark of Buchanania cochinchinesis (fam. Anacadiacea and was used as a release modifier for the preparation of Diclofenac sodium spheroids using the extrusion spheronization technique. The process was studied for the effects on variables when making spheroids with satisfactory particle shape, size and size distribution. The prepared spheroids were characterized for surface morphology, qualitative surface porosity, friability, bulk density and flow properties. In vitro studies demonstrated that the release exhibited Fickian diffusion kinetics which was confirmed by the Higuchi and the Korsmeyer-Peppas models. The physico-chemical parameters of the gum could be correlated to the in vitro dissolution profile of the spheroids. The spheroids were not able to sustain the drug releases over 12 hours. A greater concentration of Chirauli nut gum and a process that can accommodate such greater concentrations may produce a formulation capable of significant sustained release.

  7. Comparative Studies of Different Control Strategies of a Dynamic Voltage Restorer Based on Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Shabanpour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic voltage restorer (DVR with no energy storage is studied. By using a matrix converter instead of the conventional AC/DC/AC converters, elimination of the DC-link capacitor is possible. The switching algorithm of matrix converter is the space vector modulation. There are different compensation algorithms to control the conventional DVR. These methods have been analyzed in this paper for the proposed matrix-converter-based DVR. A deep analysis through different diagrams would show the advantages or disadvantages of each compensation method. Equations for all methods are derived, and the characteristics of algorithms are compared with each other.

  8. Controlled release from stimuli-sensitive microgel capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Hassan; Alexeev, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    We introduce a mesoscale computational model for responsive gels, i.e. chemically cross-linked polymer networks immersed in Newtonian fluids, and use it to probe the release of nanoparticles from hollow microgel capsules that swell and deswell in response to external stimuli. Our model explicitly describes the transport of nanoparticles in swelling/deswelling polymer networks with complex geometries and associated fluid flows. Our simulations reveal that responsive microcapsules can be effectively utilized for steady and pulsatile release of encapsulated solutes. Steady, diffusive release of nanoparticle takes place from swollen gel capsules, whereas capsule deswelling cause burst-like discharge of solutes driven by a flow from the shrinking capsule interior. We demonstrate that this hydrodynamic release can be regulated by introducing rigid microscopic rods inside the capsule. Our calculations indicate that the rods stretch the deswelling membrane and promote the formation of large pores in the shell, which allow massive flow-driven release of nanoparticles. Thus, our findings unveil a new approach for regulating the release from stimulus responsive micro-carriers that will be especially useful for designing new drug delivery systems.

  9. Manufacture of slow-release matrix granules by wet granulation with an aqueous dispersion of quaternary poly(meth)acrylates in the fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Guido; Knop, Klaus; Lippold, Bernhard C

    2002-11-01

    Slow-release matrix granules were manufactured in the fluidized bed using an aqueous dispersion of quaternary poly(meth)acrylates (Eudragit RS 30 D) as binder for granulation. A factorial design was carried out to investigate the influence of the following parameters, spraying rate, applied polymer amount, and inlet air temperature, on various granule properties. Prerequisites for a slow release of the model drug theophylline are high spraying rate, high amount of polymer, and low inlet air temperature. No considerable decrease of the drug release rate can be achieved without a subsequent curing of the dry granules. A clear correlation exists between the moisture content of the fluidized bed, indicated by the terminal moisture content (TMC), and the mean dissolution time for 80% of the drug (MDT80).

  10. Developing Learning Tool of Control System Engineering Using Matrix Laboratory Software Oriented on Industrial Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnur Haryudo, Subuh; Imam Agung, Achmad; Firmansyah, Rifqi

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop learning media of control technique using Matrix Laboratory software with industry requirement approach. Learning media serves as a tool for creating a better and effective teaching and learning situation because it can accelerate the learning process in order to enhance the quality of learning. Control Techniques using Matrix Laboratory software can enlarge the interest and attention of students, with real experience and can grow independent attitude. This research design refers to the use of research and development (R & D) methods that have been modified by multi-disciplinary team-based researchers. This research used Computer based learning method consisting of computer and Matrix Laboratory software which was integrated with props. Matrix Laboratory has the ability to visualize the theory and analysis of the Control System which is an integration of computing, visualization and programming which is easy to use. The result of this instructional media development is to use mathematical equations using Matrix Laboratory software on control system application with DC motor plant and PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative). Considering that manufacturing in the field of Distributed Control systems (DCSs), Programmable Controllers (PLCs), and Microcontrollers (MCUs) use PID systems in production processes are widely used in industry.

  11. Development of a Controlled Release of Salicylic Acid Loaded Stearic Acid-Oleic Acid Nanoparticles in Cream for Topical Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Woo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid nanoparticles are colloidal carrier systems that have extensively been investigated for controlled drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. In this work, a cost effective stearic acid-oleic acid nanoparticles (SONs with high loading of salicylic acid, was prepared by melt emulsification method combined with ultrasonication technique. The physicochemical properties, thermal analysis and encapsulation efficiency of SONs were studied. TEM micrographs revealed that incorporation of oleic acid induces the formation of elongated spherical particles. This observation is in agreement with particle size analysis which also showed that the mean particle size of SONs varied with the amount of OA in the mixture but with no effect on their zeta potential values. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the SONs prepared in this method have lower crystallinity as compared to pure stearic acid. Different amount of oleic acid incorporated gave different degree of perturbation to the crystalline matrix of SONs and hence resulted in lower degrees of crystallinity, thereby improving their encapsulation efficiencies. The optimized SON was further incorporated in cream and its in vitro release study showed a gradual release for 24 hours, denoting the incorporation of salicylic acid in solid matrix of SON and prolonging the in vitro release.

  12. Morphologic characterization and properties of a nanocomposite matrix of polyvinylpyrrolidone and sodium bentonite for hydrophilic drug controlled release; Caracterizacao morfologica e propriedades de uma matriz de nanocomposito de polivinilpirrolidona e bentonita sodica para potencial uso como matriz para liberacao controlada de farmacos hidrofilicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Dario B.R. de; Tavares, Maria I.B.; Iulianelli, Gisele C.V., E-mail: dario@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas

    2015-07-01

    For several years, research in drug formulation field have been focused in seeking systems that enable a more efficient release of drug and greater time of acting. Aiming to bring numerous benefits to the patient and advantages for the pharmaceutical industry. Leading to greater acceptance and use by society. In this study polymer nanocomposites based on PVP and bentonite clay will be obtained with the drug Metformin, a known hydrophilic hypoglycemiating drug, in order to improve its properties and pharmacokinetics. This mixture will be obtained through spray drying, especially suited for administration of tablets. The characteristics of these materials are being studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). (author)

  13. Predictive current control with instantaneous reactive power minimization for a four-leg indirect matrix converter

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Cristian F.; Rivera, Marco E.; Rodriguez, Jose R.; Wheeler, Patrick; Pena, Ruben S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental valida¬tion of a predictive current control strategy with minimiza¬tion of the instantaneous reactive input power for a Four-Leg Indirect Matrix Converter (4Leg-IMC). The topology includes an input matrix converter stage, which provides the dc voltage for a four-leg voltage source converter (VSC) output stage. The VSC’s fourth leg provides a path for the zero sequence load current. The control technique is based on a finite control set model predictive con...

  14. Factors controlling alkali salt deposition in recovery boilers. Release mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeough, P.; Kurkela, M.; Kylloenen, H.; Tapola, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Process Technology Group

    1997-10-01

    The research was part of an ongoing cooperative research effort aimed at developing a model to describe the behaviour of inorganic compounds in kraft recovery boilers. During 1996 experimental investigations of sulphur release were continued. Experiments at elevated pressures and employing larger particle sizes were performed in order to gain information about mass transfer effects. The first experiments yielding data on the rates of the sulphur-release reactions were performed. This data will be used as the basis of a drop model for sulphur release being developed in cooperation with another research group. The other part of the work during 1996 explored the possibility of using chemical equilibrium calculations to predict the release of sodium, potassium and chlorine in the recovery furnace. The approach is essentially different from that employed in earlier studies in that the effects of fume formation are taken into account. So far, the predictions of the chemical equilibrium release model have, in no way, conflicted with field measurements. (orig.)

  15. Control-release microcapsule of famotidine loaded biomimetic synthesized mesoporous silica nanoparticles: Controlled release effect and enhanced stomach adhesion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Hongyu; Yang, Baixue; Xu, Lu; Zheng, Nan; Chen, Hongtao; Li, Sanming

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, control-release microcapsule of famotidine (FMT) loaded biomimetic synthesized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (B-MSNs) was developed, and controlled release effect and stomach adhesion of this formulation in vitro were mainly investigated. B-MSN was previously synthesized and it was amorphous mesoporous nanoparticles with helical channels. Cytotoxicity of B-MSN was studied using human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and the result indicated that cytotoxicity of B-MSN can be neglected. After loading FMT into B-MSN, specific surface area, pore volume and pore diameter of B-MSN were obviously reduced. In vitro dissolution test showed that B-MSN had the ability to slow down FMT release for 15 min. In order to prolong controlled release effect and remained the advantage of B-MSN (improve drug stability due to its rigid silica framework), the combined application of control-release microcapsule (using cellulose and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K15M as excipients) with B-MSN was designed. It was obvious that newly designed formulation significantly controlled FMT release with Fickian diffusion mechanism and showed enhanced stomach adhesion in vitro, which has significant value in widening the application of B-MSN in formulation design. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Controlled release fertilizers using superabsorbent hydrogel prepared by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbarbary, Ahmed M.; Ghobashy, Mohamed Mohamady [Atomic Energy Authority, Nasr City (Egypt). National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRTT)

    2017-07-01

    Superabsorbent hydrogels (PVP/CMC) based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC) of different copolymer compositions were prepared by gamma radiation. Factors affecting the gel content (%) and the swelling ratio (g/g) of hydrogel such as irradiation dose as well as copolymer composition were investigated. With increasing the CMC content in PVP/CMC hydrogels, increases the swelling and improves the water retention capability. The high swelling ratio was observed at copolymer composition of PVP/CMC (60/40). Fast swelling of the hydrogels was obtained after 20 min. The effect of different fertilizers and buffers of different pH's on equilibrium swelling of hydrogels was investigated. Fertilizers such as urea, monopotassium-phosphate (MPK), and nitrogen-phosphate-potassium (NPK) were loaded onto the hydrogel to supply nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous nutrients. PVP/CMC hydrogels retained 28-36% after 72 h and slow retention was noticed up to 9 days. The swelling of hydrogel in fertilizer solutions is lower than that in water. The hydrogels showed adsorption desorption of fertilizers which governs by slow release property. The release rate of urea is much higher 10 times than that of phosphate. After 3 days, urea released 60%, while phosphate released 10-12%. The applicability of PVP/CMC hydrogels in the agricultural fields shows greater growth effect on zea maize plants. The growth of zea maize plant in soil mixed with PVP/CMC hydrogels loaded fertilizers is greater than untreated soil. The slow release fertilize, the high swelling and the slow water retention behaviors of PVP/CMC hydrogels encourage their use as safer release systems for fertilizers and as soil conditioner in agricultural applications.

  17. Model-based computer-aided design for controlled release of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muro Sunè, Nuria; Gani, Rafiqul; Bell, G.

    2005-01-01

    In the field of controlled release technology for pesticides or active ingredients (AI), models that can predict its delivery during application are important for purposes of design and marketing of the pesticide product. Appropriate models for the controlled release of pesticides, if available, ...... extended models have been developed and implemented into a computer-aided system. The total model consisting of the property models embedded into the release models are then employed to study the release of different combinations of AIs and polymer-based microcapsules.......In the field of controlled release technology for pesticides or active ingredients (AI), models that can predict its delivery during application are important for purposes of design and marketing of the pesticide product. Appropriate models for the controlled release of pesticides, if available...

  18. Predictive property models for use in design of controlled release of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suné, Nuria Muro; Gani, Rafiqul; Bell, G.

    2005-01-01

    A model capable of predicting the release of an Active Ingredient (AI) from a specific device would be very useful in the field of pesticide controlled release technology for design purposes. For the release of an AI from a microcapsule a mathematical model is briefly presented here, as an introd......A model capable of predicting the release of an Active Ingredient (AI) from a specific device would be very useful in the field of pesticide controlled release technology for design purposes. For the release of an AI from a microcapsule a mathematical model is briefly presented here......-contribution model for polymers (GC-Flory EoS). Therefore, this model (GC-Flory EoS) is extended in order to suit the needs of the complex pesticide molecules. The results of the extension of the GC-Flory EoS model, together with a case study dealing with the release of a pesticide from a microcapsule as well...

  19. Controlled Release Formulation of Indomethacin Prepared With Bee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probable interaction between the drug and propolis extracts was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results: The results show that, although the release rate of formulations F1 - F7 did not show any significant difference (p < 0.05) compared to F18 as blank, the other formulations did. DSC results indicate that ...

  20. Controlling benthic release of phosphorus in different Baltic Sea scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Heikki; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Hansen, Jørgen L. S.

    The general aim of the PROPPEN project was to study whether it is possible to counteract near-bottom anoxia and excess benthic nutrient release ("internal loading") in the Baltic Sea by artificial oxygenation in cost-efficient and socio-economically beneficial ways. Two pilot sites were selected ...

  1. Controlled Release Formulation of Indomethacin Prepared With Bee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2010-12-27

    Dec 27, 2010 ... liquid chromatography (HPLC) and determination of the values of fat and fixed oils. Several ... that the best-fit drug release model varied with the drug:propolis extract ratio of the formulations. Conclusion: Formulation F13 (with equal proportion of drug and bee glue extract) came out best from the dissolution ...

  2. Biodegradable hollow fibres for the controlled release of drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakenraad, J.M.; Oosterbaan, J.A.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Molenaar, I.; Olijslager, J.; Potman, W.; Eenink, M.J.D.; Feijen, Jan

    1988-01-01

    Biodegradable hollow fibres of poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) filled with a suspension of the contraceptive hormone levonorgestrel in castor oil were implanted subcutaneously in rats to study the rate of drug release, rate of biodegradation and tissue reaction caused by the implant. The in vivo drug

  3. Optimization of metformin HCl 500 mg sustained release matrix tablets using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based on Multilayer Perceptrons (MLP) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Uttam; Gowda, Veeran; Ghosh, Animesh; Bose, Anirbandeep; Bhaumik, Uttam; Chatterjee, Bappaditya; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to apply the simultaneous optimization method incorporating Artificial Neural Network (ANN) using Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP) model to the development of a metformin HCl 500 mg sustained release matrix tablets with an optimized in vitro release profile. The amounts of HPMC K15M and PVP K30 at three levels (-1, 0, +1) for each were selected as casual factors. In vitro dissolution time profiles at four different sampling times (1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 8 h) were chosen as output variables. 13 kinds of metformin matrix tablets were prepared according to a 2(3) factorial design (central composite) with five extra center points, and their dissolution tests were performed. Commercially available STATISTICA Neural Network software (Stat Soft, Inc., Tulsa, OK, U.S.A.) was used throughout the study. The training process of MLP was completed until a satisfactory value of root square mean (RSM) for the test data was obtained using feed forward back propagation method. The root mean square value for the trained network was 0.000097, which indicated that the optimal MLP model was reached. The optimal tablet formulation based on some predetermined release criteria predicted by MLP was 336 mg of HPMC K15M and 130 mg of PVP K30. Calculated difference (f(1) 2.19) and similarity (f(2) 89.79) factors indicated that there was no difference between predicted and experimentally observed drug release profiles for the optimal formulation. This work illustrates the potential for an artificial neural network with MLP, to assist in development of sustained release dosage forms.

  4. Use of a novel modified TSI for the evaluation of controlled-release aerosol formulations. I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, J T; Patel, N; Ditchburn, N; Tobyn, M J; Staniforth, J N; Woodcock, P

    2000-11-01

    When considering the development of potential controlled-release pulmonary drug delivery systems, there is at present no standard method available for the assessment of in vitro drug release profiles necessary to understand how the drug might release following deposition in the lungs. For this purpose, the twin-stage impinger (TSI), apparatus A of the BP, has been redesigned and tested. This modified TSI was found capable of discriminating between drug release rates from conventional and different dry powder formulations consisting of model controlled-release excipients, providing information related to (a) drug diffusion properties of controlled-release dry powder blends with different excipient components and (b) the effect of varying drug concentration within a given formulation.

  5. Direct torque control of six-phase induction motors using three-phase matrix converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talaeizadeh, V.; Kianinezhad, R.; Seyfossadat, S.G.; Shayanfar, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new direct torque control (DTC) method for six-phase induction motor (SPIM). In the proposed method, direct torque and flux control are applied to the SPIM using matrix converter with the conventional three-phase source as its input. The new DTC scheme for SPIM benefits the advantages of both DTC and matrix converter, such as unity power factor and absence of dc-link. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in both dynamic and steady state response.

  6. Gastrin release: Antrum microdialysis reveals a complex neural control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, P; Håkanson, R; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2010-01-01

    We used microdialysis to monitor local gastrin release in response to food, acid blockade and acute vagal excitation. For the first time, gastrin release has been monitored continuously in intact conscious rats in a physiologically relevant experimental setting in a fashion that minimizes...... in serum regardless of the prandial state. The rats were conscious during microdialysis except when subjected to electrical vagal stimulation. Acid blockade (omeprazole treatment of freely fed rats for 4 days), or bilateral sectioning of the abdominal vagal trunks (fasted, 3 days post-op.), raised...... the gastrin concentration in blood as well as microdialysate. The high gastrin concentration following omeprazole treatment was not affected by vagotomy. Vagal excitation stimulated the G cells: electrical vagal stimulation and pylorus ligation (fasted rats) raised the gastrin concentration transiently...

  7. Controlled Release of Biologically Active Silver from Nanosilver Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jingyu; Sonshine, David A.; Shervani, Saira; Hurt, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Major pathways in the antibacterial activity and eukaryotic toxicity of nano-silver involve the silver cation and its soluble complexes, which are well established thiol toxicants. Through these pathways, nano-silver behaves in analogy to a drug delivery system, in which the particle contains a concentrated inventory of an active species, the ion, which is transported to and released near biological target sites. Although the importance of silver ion in the biological response to nano-silver ...

  8. Phenobarbital loaded microemulsion: development, kinetic release and quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayo Alves Figueiredo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to obtain and characterize a microemulsion (ME containing phenobarbital (PB. The PB was incorporated in the proportion of 5% and 10% in a microemulsion system containing Labrasol(r, ethanol, isopropyl myristate and purified water. The physicochemical characterization was performed and the primary stability of the ME was evaluated. An analytical method was developed using spectrophotometry in UV = 242 nm. The kinetics of the in vitro release (Franz model of the ME and the emulsion (EM containing PB was evaluated. The incorporation of PB into ME at concentrations of 5 and 10% did not change pH and resistance to centrifugation. There was an increase in particle size, a decrease of conductivity and a change in the refractive index in relation to placebo ME. The ME remained stable in preliminary stability tests. The analytical method proved to be specific, linear, precise, accurate and robust. Regarding the kinetics of the in vitro release, ME obtained an in vitro release profile greater than the EM containing PB. Thus, the obtained ME has a potential for future transdermal application, being able to compose a drug delivery system for the treatment of epilepsy.

  9. Electrospun biodegradable nanofiber nonwovens for controlled release of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maretschek, Sascha; Greiner, Andreas; Kissel, Thomas

    2008-04-21

    Electrospinning of emulsions composed of an organic poly(l-lactide) solution and an aqueous protein solution yielded protein containing nanofiber nonwovens (NNs) having a mean fiber diameter of approximately 350 nm. Cytochrome C was chosen as a hydrophilic model protein for encapsulation. SEM imaging and gas adsorption measurements were carried out to determine morphology and surface characteristics of the different nanofiber nonwovens. Transmission electron microscopy was used to clarify the localization of the protein within the NN. PLLA NNs exhibited a highly hydrophobic surface which led to a slow wetting. It was shown that the protein release was dependent on the surface tension of the release medium. Electrospinning of emulsions consisting of an organic solution of PLLA and an aqueous solution of hydrophilic polymers yielded fibers composed of a polymer blend. The resulting NNs exhibited a less hydrophobic surface, which gave us the opportunity to tailor the release profile via this technology. Furthermore it was investigated how the addition of different amounts of hydrophilic polymer to the aqueous phase influenced the morphology of the resulting NNs.

  10. Controlled drug release on amine functionalized spherical MCM-41

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szegedi, Agnes, E-mail: szegedi@chemres.hu [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1025 Budapest, Pusztaszeri ut 59-67 (Hungary); Popova, Margarita; Goshev, Ivan [Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Klebert, Szilvia [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1025 Budapest, Pusztaszeri ut 59-67 (Hungary); Mihaly, Judit [Institute of Molecular Pharmacology, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1025 Budapest, Pusztaszeri ut 59-67 (Hungary)

    2012-10-15

    MCM-41 silica with spherical morphology and small particle sizes (100 nm) was synthesized and modified by post-synthesis method with different amounts of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). A comparative study of the adsorption and release of a model drug, ibuprofen, was carried out. The modified and drug loaded mesoporous materials were characterized by XRD, TEM, N{sub 2} physisorption, elemental analysis, thermal analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy. A new method was developed for the quantitative determination of amino groups in surface modified mesoporous materials by the ninhydrin reaction. Good correlation was found between the amino content of the MCM-41 materials determined by the ninhydrin method and their ibuprofen adsorption capacity. Amino modification resulted in high degree of ibuprofen loading and slow release rate in comparison to the parent non-modified MCM-41. - Graphical abstract: Determination of surface amino groups by ninhidrin method. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spherical MCM-41 modified by different amounts of APTES was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ibuprofen (IBU) adsorption and release characteristics was tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ninhydrin reaction was used for the quantitative determination of amino groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stoichiometric amount of APTES is enough for totally covering the surface with amino groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good correlation was found between the amino content and IBU adsorption capacity.

  11. Controlled drug release on amine functionalized spherical MCM-41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szegedi, Agnes; Popova, Margarita; Goshev, Ivan; Klébert, Szilvia; Mihály, Judit

    2012-01-01

    MCM-41 silica with spherical morphology and small particle sizes (100 nm) was synthesized and modified by post-synthesis method with different amounts of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). A comparative study of the adsorption and release of a model drug, ibuprofen, was carried out. The modified and drug loaded mesoporous materials were characterized by XRD, TEM, N 2 physisorption, elemental analysis, thermal analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy. A new method was developed for the quantitative determination of amino groups in surface modified mesoporous materials by the ninhydrin reaction. Good correlation was found between the amino content of the MCM-41 materials determined by the ninhydrin method and their ibuprofen adsorption capacity. Amino modification resulted in high degree of ibuprofen loading and slow release rate in comparison to the parent non-modified MCM-41. - Graphical abstract: Determination of surface amino groups by ninhidrin method. Highlights: ► Spherical MCM-41 modified by different amounts of APTES was studied. ► Ibuprofen (IBU) adsorption and release characteristics was tested. ► The ninhydrin reaction was used for the quantitative determination of amino groups. ► Stoichiometric amount of APTES is enough for totally covering the surface with amino groups. ► Good correlation was found between the amino content and IBU adsorption capacity.

  12. Controlled release of ibuprofen using Mg Al LDH nano carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Sudip

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) such as ibuprofen in anionic form has been intercalated in-situ into the interlayer space of Mg Al LDH nanoparticle during co-precipitation of hydroxides. LDH nanohybrids are characterized by XRD, FTIR and UV spectroscopy. Mg1-xAlx(NO3)x(OH)2.nH2O nanoparticles were synthesized using co-precipitation method from an aqueous solution of Mg(NO3)2.6H2O and Al(NO3)3.9H2O. Ibuprofen was intercalated in inter layer space of Mg-Al LDH during coprecipitation of drug LDH conjugate in nitrogen atmosphere. The nanopowders synthesised were in the size range between 25 to 90 nm with an average particle size of 55 nm. XRD analysis proved that there is an increase in d003 spacing from 7.89 Å for pristine LDH to 14.71 Å for ibuprofen intercalated LDH due to the intercalation of bigger ibuprofen molecule in the interlayer space of LDH. FTIR analysis showed hydroxyl and carbonyl stretching of ibuprofen in LDH-IBU sample confirming the intercalation of ibuprofen in the interlayer structure of LDH. The drug release study in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 using UV-Vis spectroscopy demonstrated that 50 % drug molecules were released in 15 hours and more than 85 % release was achieved after 36 hours.

  13. A current controlled matrix converter for wind energy conversion systems based on permanent magnet synchronous generator

    OpenAIRE

    Naggar H. Saad; Ahmed A. El-Sattar; Mohamed I. Marei

    2016-01-01

    The main challenges of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) are to maximize the energy capture from the wind and injecting reactive power during the fault. This paper presents a current controlled matrix converter to interface Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators (PMSG) based WECS with the grid. To achieve fast dynamic response with reduced current ripples, a hysteresis current control is utilized. The proposed control system decouples the active and reactive components of the PMSG curren...

  14. Operational control of material release and discharges from nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, I. C.; Ranga, T.; Daroczi, L.; Deme, S.; Kerekes, A.

    2003-01-01

    The operational control of radioactive materials during atmospheric release and aquatic discharge from nuclear power plant is a licensing criterion for NPPs. Originally at the Paks NPP the release control was based on activity limits for four groups of elements. These groups were noble gases, long living radio-aerosols, radioiodine and radiostrontium for atmospheric release and specified activity limit for beta emitters, strontium and tritium for aquatic discharge into Danube. These groups were controlled with proper sampling and/or measuring instrumentation. The limit for atmospheric release was given as a 30-day moving average, for liquid discharges the annual limit was stipulated. The new release and discharge limitation system is based on the environmental dose limitation. The dose constraint for Paks NPP is 90 Sv/year of the critical group for all release pathways and the investigation dose limit is equal to 27 Sv/year. The regulation did not subdivide the dose limit for atmospheric and liquid components but for operational control subdivision of dose limits for atmospheric release and aquatic discharge and shorter time period (one day-one month) seems to be useful. The subdivision can be based on past release data and/or previous activity limits. To satisfy dose below the investigation dose limit there should be a proper operation control level for each separately measured component and pathway belonging to reasonable time interval significantly shorter than one year. The main task of the NPP staff is elaboration of reasonable control levels and reference time intervals for different radionuclide and element groups to be used in operational control. Operational control levels are based on measured daily or monthly release rates. In case of noble gases, aerosols and iodine the daily release rates have several sharp peaks per year. Operational control levels give opportunity to detect these peaks for internal investigation purposes. Investigation release limits

  15. COMPUTATIONAL EXPERIENCE IN SOLVING LARGE LINEAR MATRIX EQUATIONS FOR AUTOMATIC CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Sima

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available State-of-the-art, uni-processor linear matrix equation solvers for automatic control computations are investigated and compared for various problem sizes. Generalpurpose SLICOT solvers are the most efficient ones for small-size problems, but they cannot compete for larger problems with specialized solvers designed for certain problem classes.

  16. A New Real Time Lyapunov Based Controller for Power Quality Improvement in Unified Power Flow Controllers Using Direct Matrix Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Monteiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Direct Matrix Converter operating as a Unified Power Flow Controller (DMC-UPFC with an advanced control method for UPFC, based on the Lyapunov direct method, presenting good results in power quality assessment. This control method is used for real-time calculation of the appropriate matrix switching state, determining which switching state should be applied in the following sampling period. The control strategy takes into account active and reactive power flow references to choose the vector converter closest to the optimum. Theoretical principles for this new real-time vector modulation and control applied to the DMC-UPFC with input filter are established. The method needs DMC-UPFC dynamic equations to be solved just once in each control cycle, to find the required optimum vector, in contrast to similar control methods that need 27 vector estimations per control cycle. The designed controller’s performance was evaluated using Matlab/Simulink software. Controllers were also implemented using a digital signal processing (DSP system and matrix hardware. Simulation and experimental results show decoupled transmission line active (P and reactive (Q power control with zero theoretical error tracking and fast response. Output currents and voltages show small ripple and low harmonic content.

  17. Controlled growth factor release from synthetic extracellular matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuen Yong; Peters, Martin C.; Anderson, Kenneth W.; Mooney, David J.

    2000-12-01

    Polymeric matrices can be used to grow new tissues and organs, and the delivery of growth factors from these matrices is one method to regenerate tissues. A problem with engineering tissues that exist in a mechanically dynamic environment, such as bone, muscle and blood vessels, is that most drug delivery systems have been designed to operate under static conditions. We thought that polymeric matrices, which release growth factors in response to mechanical signals, might provide a new approach to guide tissue formation in mechanically stressed environments. Critical design features for this type of system include the ability to undergo repeated deformation, and a reversible binding of the protein growth factors to polymeric matrices to allow for responses to repeated stimuli. Here we report a model delivery system that can respond to mechanical signalling and upregulate the release of a growth factor to promote blood vessel formation. This approach may find a number of applications, including regeneration and engineering of new tissues and more general drug-delivery applications.

  18. Preparation and investigation of controlled-release glipizide novel oral device with three-dimensional printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qijun; Wen, Haoyang; Jia, Danyang; Guan, Xiaoying; Pan, Hao; Yang, Yue; Yu, Shihui; Zhu, Zhihong; Xiang, Rongwu; Pan, Weisan

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of combining fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing technology with hot melt extrusion (HME) to fabricate a novel controlled-release drug delivery device. Glipizide used in the treatment of diabetes was selected as model drug, and was successfully loaded into commercial polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) filaments by HME method. The drug-loaded filaments were printed through a dual-nozzle 3D printer, and finally formed a double-chamber device composed by a tablet embedded within a larger tablet (DuoTablet), each chamber contains different contents of glipizide. The drug-loaded 3D printed device was evaluated for drug release under in vitro dissolution condition, and we found the release profile fit Korsmeyer-Peppas release kinetics. With the double-chamber design, it is feasible to design either controlled drug release or delayed drug release behavior by reasonably arranging the concentration distribution of the drug in the device. The characteristics of the external layer performed main influence on the release profile of the internal compartment such as lag-time or rate of release. The results of this study suggest the potential of 3D printing to fabricate controlled-release drug delivery system containing multiple drug concentration distributions via hot melt extrusion method and specialized design configurations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Aerosol-Assisted Fast Formulating Uniform Pharmaceutical Polymer Microparticles with Variable Properties toward pH-Sensitive Controlled Drug Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Lei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation is highly attractive for oral drug delivery. Microparticles are a common form of drug carrier for this purpose. There is still a high demand on efficient methods to fabricate microparticles with uniform sizes and well-controlled particle properties. In this paper, uniform hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP-based pharmaceutical microparticles loaded with either hydrophobic or hydrophilic model drugs have been directly formulated by using a unique aerosol technique, i.e., the microfluidic spray drying technology. A series of microparticles of controllable particle sizes, shapes, and structures are fabricated by tuning the solvent composition and drying temperature. It is found that a more volatile solvent and a higher drying temperature can result in fast evaporation rates to form microparticles of larger lateral size, more irregular shape, and denser matrix. The nature of the model drugs also plays an important role in determining particle properties. The drug release behaviors of the pharmaceutical microparticles are dependent on their structural properties and the nature of a specific drug, as well as sensitive to the pH value of the release medium. Most importantly, drugs in the microparticles obtained by using a more volatile solvent or a higher drying temperature can be well protected from degradation in harsh simulated gastric fluids due to the dense structures of the microparticles, while they can be fast-released in simulated intestinal fluids through particle dissolution. These pharmaceutical microparticles are potentially useful for site-specific (enteric delivery of orally-administered drugs.

  20. A unified approach to fixed-order controller design via linear matrix inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Iwasaki

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the design of fixed-order (or low-order linear controllers which meet certain performance and/or robustness specifications. The following three problems are considered; covariance control as a nominal performance problem,-stabilization as a robust stabilization problem, and robust L∞ control problem as a robust performance problem. All three control problems are converted to a single linear algebra problem of solving a linear matrix inequality (LMI of the type BGC+(BGCT+Q<0 for the unknown matrix G. Thus this paper addresses the fixed-order controller design problem in a unified way. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a fixed-order controller which satisfies the design specifications for each problem are derived, and an explicit controller formula is given. In any case, the resulting problem is shown to be a search for a (structured positive definite matrix X such that X∈1 and X−1∈2 where 1 and 2 are convex sets defined by LMIs. Computational aspects of the nonconvex LMI problem are discussed.

  1. A unified approach to fixed-order controller design via linear matrix inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwasaki T.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the design of fixed-order (or low-order linear controllers which meet certain performance and/or robustness specifications. The following three problems are considered; covariance control as a nominal performance problem, 𝒬 -stabilization as a robust stabilization problem, and robust L ∞ control problem as a robust performance problem. All three control problems are converted to a single linear algebra problem of solving a linear matrix inequality (LMI of the type B G C + ( B G C T + Q < 0 for the unknown matrix G . Thus this paper addresses the fixed-order controller design problem in a unified way. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a fixed-order controller which satisfies the design specifications for each problem are derived, and an explicit controller formula is given. In any case, the resulting problem is shown to be a search for a (structured positive definite matrix X such that X ∈ 𝒞 1 and X − 1 ∈ 𝒞 2 where 𝒞 1 and 𝒞 2 are convex sets defined by LMIs. Computational aspects of the nonconvex LMI problem are discussed.

  2. Performance Improvement of Sensorless Vector Control for Matrix Converter Drives Using PQR Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kyo-Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    using PQR transformation and compensated using a reference current control scheme. To eliminate the input current distortion due to the input voltage unbalance, a simple method using PQR transformation is also proposed. The proposed compensation method is applied for high performance induction motor......This paper presents a new method to improve sensorless performance of matrix converter drives using PQR power transformation. The non-linearity of matrix converter drives such as commutation delay, turn-on and turn-off time of switching device, and on-state switching device voltage drop is modelled...

  3. Independent control of matrix adhesiveness and stiffness within a 3D self-assembling peptide hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrebe, Nathaniel J; Reinhardt, James W; Tram, Nguyen K; Debski, Anna C; Agarwal, Gunjan; Reilly, Matthew A; Gooch, Keith J

    2018-04-01

    A cell's insoluble microenvironment has increasingly been shown to exert influence on its function. In particular, matrix stiffness and adhesiveness strongly impact behaviors such as cell spreading and differentiation, but materials that allow for independent control of these parameters within a fibrous, stromal-like microenvironment are very limited. In the current work, we devise a self-assembling peptide (SAP) system that facilitates user-friendly control of matrix stiffness and RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) concentration within a hydrogel possessing a microarchitecture similar to stromal extracellular matrix. In this system, the RGD-modified SAP sequence KFE-RGD and the scrambled sequence KFE-RDG can be directly swapped for one another to change RGD concentration at a given matrix stiffness and total peptide concentration. Stiffness is controlled by altering total peptide concentration, and the unmodified base peptide KFE-8 can be included to further increase this stiffness range due to its higher modulus. With this tunable system, we demonstrate that human mesenchymal stem cell morphology and differentiation are influenced by both gel stiffness and the presence of functional cell binding sites in 3D culture. Specifically, cells 24 hours after encapsulation were only able to spread out in stiffer matrices containing KFE-RGD. Upon addition of soluble adipogenic factors, soft gels facilitated the greatest adipogenesis as determined by the presence of lipid vacuoles and PPARγ-2 expression, while increasing KFE-RGD concentration at a given stiffness had a negative effect on adipogenesis. This three-component hydrogel system thus allows for systematic investigation of matrix stiffness and RGD concentration on cell behavior within a fibrous, three-dimensional matrix. Physical cues from a cell's surrounding environment-such as the density of cell binding sites and the stiffness of the surrounding material-are increasingly being recognized as key regulators of cell function

  4. A Predictive-Control-Based Over-Modulation Method for Conventional Matrix Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guanguan; Yang, Jian; Sun, Yao

    2018-01-01

    to further enhance the system performance promptly. This method has advantages like the maximum voltage transfer ratio can reach 0.987 in the experiments; the total harmonic distortion of the input and output current are reduced, and the losses in the matrix converter are decreased. Moreover, the specific......To increase the voltage transfer ratio of the matrix converter and improve the input/output current performance simultaneously, an over-modulation method based on predictive control is proposed in this paper, where the weighting factor is selected by an automatic adjusting mechanism, which is able...

  5. Electrical signals guided entrapment and controlled release of antibiotics on titanium surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaowen; Wu, Huiping; Li, Yuanyuan; Wei, Xiaoquan; Du, Yumin

    2013-05-01

    Electrical signals are used to trigger the entrapment and release of antibiotics on the surface of titanium plate. The entrapment of antibiotics relies on the electrochemically induced pH gradient generated at the titanium surface that allows the gelation of an aminopolysaccharide chitosan and codeposition of vancomycin, a common antibiotic, within chitosan gel. The release of vancomycin is controlled by an anodic signal imposed to the titanium plate that causes a pH decrease and erosion of chitosan gel. We show that the on demand entrapment and release of vancomycin at the surface of titanium plate is fundamentally altered and controlled by voltage. We expect that this rapid, mild and facile electrochemical process for antibiotics loading and release will find applications in controlled drug release from titanium implants. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Preparation of sustained release matrix pellets by melt agglomeration in the fluidized bed: influence of formulation variables and modelling of agglomerate growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli-Bruns, Anette; Knop, Klaus; Lippold, Bernhard C

    2010-03-01

    The one-step preparation of sustained release matrix pellets, using a melting procedure in a fluidized bed apparatus, was tested in a 2(3) full factorial design of experiments, using microcrystalline wax as lipophilic binder, theophylline as model drug and talc as additional matrix forming agent. The three influence parameters were (A) size of binder particles, (B) fraction of theophylline in solid particles and (C) fraction of microcrystalline wax in formulation. The response variables were agglomerate size and size distribution, dissolution time, agglomerate crush resistance, sphericity, yield and porosity. Nearly spherical pellets comprising a smooth, closed surface could be obtained with the used method, exhibiting the hollow core typical for the immersion and layering mechanism. The reproducibility was very good concerning all responses. The size of agglomerates is proportional to the size of the binder particles, which serve as cores for pellet formation in the molten state in the fluidized bed. Additionally, the agglomerate size is influenced by the volume of the solid particles in relation to the binder particles, with more solid particles leading to larger agglomerates and vice versa. Dissolution times vary in a very wide range, resulting from the interplay between amount of drug in relation to the meltable matrix substance microcrystalline wax and the non-meltable matrix substance talc. The change of binder particle size does not lead to a structural change of the matrix; both dissolution times and porosity are not significantly altered. Agglomerate crush resistance is low due to the hollow core of the pellets. However, it is significantly increased if the volume fraction of microcrystalline wax in the matrix is high, which means that the matrix is mechanically better stabilized. A theoretical model has been established to quantitatively explain agglomerate growth and very good accordance of the full particle size distributions between predicted and

  7. Pulsatile protein release from monodisperse liquid-core microcapsules of controllable shell thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yujie; Pack, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Pulsatile delivery of proteins, in which release occurs over a short time after a period of little or no release, is desirable for many applications. This paper investigates the effect of biodegradable polymer shell thickness on pulsatile protein release from biodegradable polymer microcapsules. Methods Using precision particle fabrication (PPF) technology, monodisperse microcapsules were fabricated encapsulating bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a liquid core surrounded by a drug-free poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) shell of uniform, controlled thickness from 14 to 19 μm. Results When using high molecular weight PLG (Mw 88 kDa), microparticles exhibited the desired core-shell structure with high BSA loading and encapsulation efficiency (55-65%). These particles exhibited very slow release of BSA for several weeks followed by rapid release of 80-90% of the encapsulated BSA within seven days. Importantly, with increasing shell thickness the starting time of the pulsatile release could be controlled from 25 to 35 days. Conclusions Biodegradable polymer microcapsules with precisely controlled shell thickness provide pulsatile release with enhanced control of release profiles. PMID:24831313

  8. Releases of natural enemies in Hawaii since 1980 for classical biological control of weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Conant; J. N. Garcia; M. T. Johnson; W. T. Nagamine; C. K. Hirayama; G. P. Markin; R. L. Hill

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive review of biological control of weeds in Hawaii was last published in 1992, covering 74 natural enemy species released from 1902 through 1980. The present review summarizes releases of 21 natural enemies targeting seven invasive weeds from 1981 to 2010. These projects were carried out by Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA), USDA Forest Service (USFS...

  9. Using polymer-coated controlled-release fertilizers in the nursery and after outplanting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    Controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) are the newest and most technically advanced way of supplying mineral nutrients to nursery crops. Compared to conventional fertilizers, their gradual pattern of nutrient release better meets plant needs, minimizes leaching, and therefore improves fertilizer use efficiency. In our review of the literature, we found many terms used...

  10. Coordinated coupling control of tethered space robot using releasing characteristics of space tether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Panfeng; Zhang, Fan; Xu, Xiudong; Meng, Zhongjie; Liu, Zhengxiong; Hu, Yongxin

    2016-04-01

    Tethered space robot (TSR) is a new concept of space robot, which is released from the platform satellite, and retrieved via connected tether after space debris capture. In this paper, we propose a new coordinate control scheme for optimal trajectory and attitude tracking, and use releasing motor torque to instead the tension force, since it is difficult to track in practical. Firstly, the 6-DOF dynamics model of TSR is derived, in which the dynamics of tether releasing system is taken into account. Then, we propose and design the coordinated coupled controller, which is composed of a 6-DOF sliding mode controller and a PD controller tether's releasing. Thrust is treated as control input of the 6-DOF sliding mode controller to control the in-plane and out-of-plane angle of the tether and attitude angles of the TSR. The torque of releasing motor is used as input of PD controller, which controls the length rate of space tether. After the verification of the control scheme, finally, the simulation experiment is presented in order to validate the effectiveness of this control method. The results show that TSR can track the optimal approaching trajectory accurately. Simultaneously, the attitude angles can be changed to the desired attitude angles in control period, and the terminal accuracy is ±0.3°.

  11. Design of matrix irradiation system for external tissue phototherapy with temperature control

    Science.gov (United States)

    López S., F. Yonadab; Stolik Isakina, Suren; de La Rosa Vázquez, José Manuel

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a matrix irradiation system for studies and application of dermatological phototherapies with temperature control. The developed system has a power control to irradiate the target tissue with an adequate power density. Also, the irradiation time it is automated. Temperature infrared sensor is used in the irradiated sample to control the temperature. The temperature control allows the study of photodynamic therapy effects in synergy with the thermotherapy effects in the treatment of different diseases in external tissue.

  12. [The randomized controlled trial of the prison-based Japanese Matrix Program (J-MAT) for methamphetamine abusers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Takayuki

    2012-12-01

    Methamphetamine use is subject to severe criminal punishment in Japan and approximately 22% of the prison population were confined for violations of the stimulants control law in 2009. Although the high recidivism rate is also a problem, no systematic treatment has been conducted in prison. Therefore, the development of the prison-based treatment program is necessary. In this study, the prison-based program was developed based on the Matrix Model, which is the cognitive-behavioral treatment for amphetamine users developed in the US. The program was tailored in order to address the treatment needs of the Japanese amphetamine users considering Japanese culture and the prison climate. The randomized controlled trial was conducted in order to evaluate the effectiveness the Japanese Matrix program (J-MAT). 60 prisoners were randomly assigned either to the J-MAT or the control groups and those who in the J-MAT group received the program once a week for 12 weeks. The abstinence rate could not be used as the outcome measure because the participants could not be followed after the release from prison due to the legal reasons. Therefore, the psychological variables including coping skills, self-efficacy and motivation were used as outcome measures, which are considered as the important predictive factors of abstinence. 93.3% of the J-MAT participants completed the program. The coping skills of the treated prisoners were improved significantly after treatment comparing to the control (F (1, 27) = 9.03, p < .001), however other psychological variables were not significantly improved. The results suggested the effectiveness of the J-MAT because both treatment completion and coping skills are powerful predictors of abstinence. Further study is required and in which the participants should be followed after the completion of treatment in order to compare the relapse rates between the groups and to measure the long-term treatment gain.

  13. Immobilization and controlled release of drug using plasma polymerized thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myung, Sung-Woon [Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, MRC Center, Chosun University, 309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sang-Chul [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sunchon National University, Sunchon 540-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Hoon, E-mail: kim5055@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, MRC Center, Chosun University, 309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-01

    In this study, plasma polymerization of acrylic acid was employed to immobilize drug and control its release. Doxorubicin (DOX) was immobilized covalently on the glass surface deposited with plasma polymerized acrylic acid (PPAAc) thin film containing the carboxylic group. At first, the PPAAc thin film was coated on a glass surface at a pressure of 1.33 Pa and radio frequency (RF) discharge power of 20 W for 10 min. DOX was immobilized on the PPAAc deposition in a two environment of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions. The DOX immobilized surface was characterized by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The DOX molecules were more immobilized in PBS than DMSO solution. The different immobilization and release profiles of DOX result from the solubility of hydrophobic DOX in aqueous and organic solutions. Second, in order to control the release of the drug, PPAAc thin film was covered over DOX dispersed layer. Different thicknesses and cross-linked PPAAc thin films by adjusting deposition time and RF discharge power were covered on the DOX layer dispersed. PPAAc thin film coated DOX layer reduced the release rate of DOX. The thickness control of plasma deposition allows controlling the release rate of drug. - Highlights: • Doxorubicin was immobilized on the surface of plasma polymerized acrylic acid thin film. • Release profile of doxorubicin was affected by aqueous and organic solutions. • Plasma polymerized acrylic acid thin film can be used to achieve controlled release.

  14. Immobilization and controlled release of drug using plasma polymerized thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Sung-Woon; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Byung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, plasma polymerization of acrylic acid was employed to immobilize drug and control its release. Doxorubicin (DOX) was immobilized covalently on the glass surface deposited with plasma polymerized acrylic acid (PPAAc) thin film containing the carboxylic group. At first, the PPAAc thin film was coated on a glass surface at a pressure of 1.33 Pa and radio frequency (RF) discharge power of 20 W for 10 min. DOX was immobilized on the PPAAc deposition in a two environment of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions. The DOX immobilized surface was characterized by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The DOX molecules were more immobilized in PBS than DMSO solution. The different immobilization and release profiles of DOX result from the solubility of hydrophobic DOX in aqueous and organic solutions. Second, in order to control the release of the drug, PPAAc thin film was covered over DOX dispersed layer. Different thicknesses and cross-linked PPAAc thin films by adjusting deposition time and RF discharge power were covered on the DOX layer dispersed. PPAAc thin film coated DOX layer reduced the release rate of DOX. The thickness control of plasma deposition allows controlling the release rate of drug. - Highlights: • Doxorubicin was immobilized on the surface of plasma polymerized acrylic acid thin film. • Release profile of doxorubicin was affected by aqueous and organic solutions. • Plasma polymerized acrylic acid thin film can be used to achieve controlled release

  15. Active compensation of wavefront aberrations by controllable heating of lens with electric film heater matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Hou, Lv; Zhou, Xinglin

    2016-08-20

    We present a new apparatus for active compensation of wavefront aberrations by controllable heating of a lens using a film heater matrix. The annular electric film heater matrix, comprising 24 individual heaters, is attached to the periphery of a lens. Utilizing the linear superposition, and wavefront change proportional to the heating energy properties induced by heating, a controllable wavefront can be defined by solving a linear function. The two properties of wavefront change of a lens have been confirmed through a specially designed experiment. The feasibility of the compensation method is validated by compensating the wavefront of a plate lens. The results show that the wavefront of the lens changes from 12.52 to 2.95 nm rms after compensation. With a more precise electric controlling board, better results could be achieved.

  16. Self-assembled nanoparticles of glycol chitosan – Ergocalciferol succinate conjugate, for controlled release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinones, Javier Perez; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager; Kjems, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Glycol chitosan was linked to vitamin D2 hemisuccinate (ergocalciferol hemisuccinate) for controlled release through water-soluble carbodiimide activation. The resulting conjugate formed self-assembled nanoparticles in aqueous solution with particle size of 279 nm and ergocalciferol hemisuccinate...

  17. Releasable Kinetic Energy-Based Inertial Control of a DFIG Wind Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jinsik; Muljadi, Eduard; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbine generators (WTGs) in a wind power plant (WPP) contain different levels of releasable kinetic energy (KE) because of the wake effects. This paper proposes a releasable KE-based inertial control scheme for a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) WPP that differentiates the contributions...... of the WTGs depending on their stored KE. The proposed KE-based gain scheme aims to make use of the releasable KE in a WPP to raise the frequency nadir. To achieve this, two additional loops for the inertial control are implemented in each DFIG controller: the rate of change of frequency and droop loops....... The proposed scheme adjusts the two loop gains in a DFIG controller depending on its rotor speed so that a DFIG operating at a higher rotor speed releases more KE. The performance of the proposed scheme was investigated under various wind conditions. The results clearly indicate that the proposed scheme...

  18. Nanocapsule@xerogel microparticles containing sodium diclofenac: a new strategy to control the release of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Letícia Sias; Silveira, Rodrigo Paulo; Deboni, Alberto Marçal; Benvenutti, Edilson Valmir; Costa, Tânia M H; Guterres, Sílvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R

    2008-06-24

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potentiality to control the drug release of a new architecture of microparticles organized at the nanoscopic scale by assembling polymeric nanocapsules at the surface of drug-loaded xerogels. Xerogel was prepared by sol-gel method using sodium diclofenac, as hydrophilic drug model, and coated by spray-drying. After coating, the surface areas decreased from 82 to 28 m(2)/g, the encapsulation efficiency was 71% and SEM analysis showed irregular microparticles coated by the nanocapsules. Formulation showed satisfactory gastro-resistance presenting drug release lower than 3% (60 min) in acid medium. In water, the pure drug dissolved 92% after 5 min, uncoated drug-loaded xerogel released 60% and nanocapsule coated drug-loaded xerogel 36%. After 60 min, uncoated drug-loaded xerogel released 82% and nanocapsule coated drug-loaded xerogel 62%. In conclusion, the new system was able to control the release of the hydrophilic drug model.

  19. Controlled-release approaches towards the chemotherapy of tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B; Al Ali, Samer Hasan Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is notorious for its lethality to humans. Despite technological advances, the tubercle bacillus continues to threaten humans. According to the World Health Organization’s 2011 global report on TB, 8.8 million cases of TB were reported in 2010, with a loss of 1.7 million human lives. As drug-susceptible TB requires long-term treatment of between 6 and 9 months, patient noncompliance remains the most important reason for treatment failure. For multidrug-resistant TB, patients must take second-line anti-TB drugs for 18–24 months and many adverse effects are associated with these drugs. Drug-delivery systems (DDSs) seem to be the most promising option for advancement in the treatment of TB. DDSs reduce the adverse effects of drugs and their dosing frequency as well as shorten the treatment period, and hence improve patient compliance. Further advantages of these systems are that they target the disease area, release the drugs in a sustained manner, and are biocompatible. In addition, targeted delivery systems may be useful in dealing with extensively drug-resistant TB because many side effects are associated with the drugs used to cure the disease. In this paper, we discuss the DDSs developed for the targeted and slow delivery of anti-TB drugs and their possible advantages and disadvantages. PMID:23091386

  20. Design Of Multivariable Fractional Order Pid Controller Using Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivananaithaperumal Sudalaiandi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automatic tuning of multivariable Fractional-Order Proportional, Integral and Derivative controller (FO-PID parameters using Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMAES algorithm. Decoupled multivariable FO-PI and FO-PID controller structures are considered. Oustaloup integer order approximation is used for the fractional integrals and derivatives. For validation, two Multi-Input Multi- Output (MIMO distillation columns described byWood and Berry and Ogunnaike and Ray are considered for the design of multivariable FO-PID controller. Optimal FO-PID controller is designed by minimizing Integral Absolute Error (IAE as objective function. The results of previously reported PI/PID controller are considered for comparison purposes. Simulation results reveal that the performance of FOPI and FO-PID controller is better than integer order PI/PID controller in terms of IAE. Also, CMAES algorithm is suitable for the design of FO-PI / FO-PID controller.

  1. Laser-activated nano-biomaterials for tissue repair and controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteini, P; Ratto, F; Rossi, F; Pini, R [Institute of Applied Physics ' Nello Carrara' , National Research Council, via Madonna del Piano 10 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2014-07-31

    We present recent achievements of minimally invasive welding of biological tissue and controlled drug release based on laser-activated nano-biomaterials. In particular, we consider new advancements in the biomedical application of near-IR absorbing gold nano-chromophores as an original solution for the photothermal repair of surgical incisions and as nanotriggers of controlled drug release from hybrid biopolymer scaffolds. (laser biophotonics)

  2. Mitofilin regulates cytochrome c release during apoptosis by controlling mitochondrial cristae remodeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui-feng; Zhao, Guo-wei; Liang, Shu-ting; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Li-hong [National Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), 5 Dong Dan San Tiao, Beijing 100005 (China); Chen, Hou-zao, E-mail: houzao@gmail.com [National Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), 5 Dong Dan San Tiao, Beijing 100005 (China); Liu, De-pei, E-mail: liudp@pumc.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), 5 Dong Dan San Tiao, Beijing 100005 (China)

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitofilin deficiency caused disruption of the cristae structures in HeLa cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitofilin deficiency reduced cell proliferation and increased cell sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitofilin deficiency accelerated the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitofilin deficiency accelerated STS-induced intrinsic apoptotic pathway without interfering with the activation of Bax. -- Abstract: Mitochondria amplify caspase-dependent apoptosis by releasing proapoptotic proteins, especially cytochrome c. This process is accompanied by mitochondrial cristae remodeling. Our studies demonstrated that mitofilin, a mitochondrial inner membrane protein, acted as a cristae controller to regulate cytochrome c release during apoptosis. Knockdown of mitofilin in HeLa cells with RNAi led to fragmentation of the mitochondrial network and disorganization of the cristae. Mitofilin-deficient cells showed cytochrome c redistribution between mitochondrial cristae and the intermembrane space (IMS) upon intrinsic apoptotic stimuli. In vitro cytochrome c release experiments further confirmed that, compared with the control group, tBid treatment led to an increase in cytochrome c release from mitofilin-deficient mitochondria. Furthermore, the cells with mitofilin knockdown were more prone to apoptosis by accelerating cytochrome c release upon the intrinsic apoptotic stimuli than controls. Moreover, mitofilin deficiency did not interfere with the activation of proapoptotic member Bax upon intrinsic apoptotic stimuli. Thus, mitofilin distinctly functions in cristae remodeling and controls cytochrome c release during apoptosis.

  3. Brain pericytes among cells constituting the blood-brain barrier are highly sensitive to tumor necrosis factor-α, releasing matrix metalloproteinase-9 and migrating in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyaji Haruki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 in the plasma and brain is associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption through proteolytic activity in neuroinflammatory diseases. MMP-9 is present in the brain microvasculature and its vicinity, where brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs, pericytes and astrocytes constitute the BBB. Little is known about the cellular source and role of MMP-9 at the BBB. Here, we examined the ability of pericytes to release MMP-9 and migrate in response to inflammatory mediators in comparison with BMECs and astrocytes, using primary cultures isolated from rat brains. Methods The culture supernatants were collected from primary cultures of rat brain endothelial cells, pericytes, or astrocytes. MMP-9 activities and levels in the supernatants were measured by gelatin zymography and western blot, respectively. The involvement of signaling molecules including mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt in the mediation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α-induced MMP-9 release was examined using specific inhibitors. The functional activity of MMP-9 was evaluated by a cell migration assay. Results Zymographic and western blot analyses demonstrated that TNF-α stimulated pericytes to release MMP-9, and this release was much higher than from BMECs or astrocytes. Other inflammatory mediators [interleukin (IL-1β, interferon-γ, IL-6 and lipopolysaccharide] failed to induce MMP-9 release from pericytes. TNF-α-induced MMP-9 release from pericytes was found to be mediated by MAPKs and PI3K. Scratch wound healing assay showed that in contrast to BMECs and astrocytes the extent of pericyte migration was significantly increased by TNF-α. This pericyte migration was inhibited by anti-MMP-9 antibody. Conclusion These findings suggest that pericytes are most sensitive to TNF-α in terms of MMP-9 release, and are the major source of MMP-9 at the BBB. This pericyte

  4. Controlled-release approaches towards the chemotherapy of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifullah B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bullo Saifullah,1 Mohd Zobir B Hussein,1,2 Samer Hasan Hussein Al Ali11Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, MalaysiaAbstract: Tuberculosis (TB, caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is notorious for its lethality to humans. Despite technological advances, the tubercle bacillus continues to threaten humans. According to the World Health Organization's 2011 global report on TB, 8.8 million cases of TB were reported in 2010, with a loss of 1.7 million human lives. As drug-susceptible TB requires long-term treatment of between 6 and 9 months, patient noncompliance remains the most important reason for treatment failure. For multidrug-resistant TB, patients must take second-line anti-TB drugs for 18–24 months and many adverse effects are associated with these drugs. Drug-delivery systems (DDSs seem to be the most promising option for advancement in the treatment of TB. DDSs reduce the adverse effects of drugs and their dosing frequency as well as shorten the treatment period, and hence improve patient compliance. Further advantages of these systems are that they target the disease area, release the drugs in a sustained manner, and are biocompatible. In addition, targeted delivery systems may be useful in dealing with extensively drug-resistant TB because many side effects are associated with the drugs used to cure the disease. In this paper, we discuss the DDSs developed for the targeted and slow delivery of anti-TB drugs and their possible advantages and disadvantages.Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, drug-delivery system, targeted delivery, anti-TB drug, TB, patient compliance

  5. Polyvinyl alcohol composite nanofibres containing conjugated levofloxacin-chitosan for controlled drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalvandi, Javid; White, Max; Gao, Yuan; Truong, Yen Bach; Padhye, Rajiv; Kyratzis, Ilias Louis

    2017-01-01

    A range of biodegradable drug-nanofibres composite mats have been reported as drug delivery systems. However, their main disadvantage is the rapid release of the drug immediately after application. This paper reports an improved system based on the incorporation of drug conjugated-chitosan into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers. The results showed that controlled release of levofloxacin (LVF) could be achieved by covalently binding LVF to low molecular weight chitosan (CS) via a cleavable amide bond and then blending the conjugated CS with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibres prior to electrospinning. PVA/LVF and PVA-CS/LVF nanofibres were fabricated as controls. The conjugated CS-LVF was characterized by FTIR, DSC, TGA and 1 H NMR. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the blended CS-PVA nanofibres had a reduced fibre diameter compared to the controls. Drug release profiles showed that burst release was decreased from 90% in the control PVA/LVF electrospun mats to 27% in the PVA/conjugated CS-LVF mats after 8 h in phosphate buffer at 37 °C. This slower release is due to the cleavable bond between LVF and CS that slowly hydrolysed over time at neutral pH. The results indicate that conjugation of the drug to the polymer backbone is an effective way of minimizing burst release behaviour and achieving sustained release of the drug, LVF. - Highlights: • A novel drug delivery system for controlled release of drug was designed. • Composite PVA/conjugated CS-LVF nanofibres was fabricated by electrospinning. • Conjugated chitosan and composite nanofibres were characterized by various techniques. • Release profiles of drug were significantly improved in composite nanofibres containing drug conjugated chitosan.

  6. A review of mathematical modeling and simulation of controlled-release fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Sayed Ameenuddin; Razali, Radzuan; KuShaari, KuZilati; Mansor, Nurlidia; Azeem, Babar; Ford Versypt, Ashlee N

    2018-02-10

    Nutrients released into soils from uncoated fertilizer granules are lost continuously due to volatilization, leaching, denitrification, and surface run-off. These issues have caused economic loss due to low nutrient absorption efficiency and environmental pollution due to hazardous emissions and water eutrophication. Controlled-release fertilizers (CRFs) can change the release kinetics of the fertilizer nutrients through an abatement strategy to offset these issues by providing the fertilizer content in synchrony with the metabolic needs of the plants. Parametric analysis of release characteristics of CRFs is of paramount importance for the design and development of new CRFs. However, the experimental approaches are not only time consuming, but they are also cumbersome and expensive. Scientists have introduced mathematical modeling techniques to predict the release of nutrients from the CRFs to elucidate fundamental understanding of the dynamics of the release processes and to design new CRFs in a shorter time and with relatively lower cost. This paper reviews and critically analyzes the latest developments in the mathematical modeling and simulation techniques that have been reported for the characteristics and mechanisms of nutrient release from CRFs. The scope of this review includes the modeling and simulations techniques used for coated, controlled-release fertilizers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of sucrose and salts in combination on the drug release behaviour of an HPMC matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Hywel D; Ward, Robert; Hardy, Ian J; Melia, Colin D

    2010-11-01

    Previous work has shown how high concentrations of sugars can accelerate drug release from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) matrices by suppressing polymer hydration. This study investigates the effects of combining sugar and salts, using sucrose, sodium chloride and trisodium citrate, soluble ingredients commonly found in foods. A factorial study showed that each solute suppressed HPMC solution sol-gel transition temperature (a sensitive measure of molecular hydration) independently, and their effects reflected their rank order in the Hofmeister series. In mixtures, the effects were purely additive, with no evidence of antagonism or synergy. In dissolution tests, both salts significantly reduced the threshold sugar concentration required to elicit an acceleration of drug release, and when used in combination, 0.15 M sodium chloride with 0.015 M trisodium citrate reduced the threshold sucrose concentration from 0.7 M to 0.35-0.4 M, a reduction of almost 50%. The results show that food salts can significantly reduce the concentration required for sugar effects on HPMC matrices, and this may be a factor to consider when interpreting their in vivo behaviour in the fed state. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between Surface Properties and In Vitro Drug Release from Compressed Matrix Containing Polymeric Materials with Different Hydrophobicity Degrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian J. Yarce

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is the continuation of a study focused on establishing relations between surface thermodynamic properties and in vitro release mechanisms using a model drug (ampicillin trihydrate, besides analyzing the granulometric properties of new polymeric materials and thus establishing the potential to be used in the pharmaceutical field as modified delivery excipients. To do this, we used copolymeric materials derived from maleic anhydride with decreasing polarity corresponding to poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic acid (hydrophilic, sodium salt of poly(maleic acid-alt-octadecene (amphiphilic, poly(maleic anhydride-alt-octadecene (hydrophobic and the reference polymer hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose (HPMC. Each material alone and in blends underwent spectroscopic characterization by FTIR, thermal characterization by DSC and granulometric characterization using flow and compaction tests. Each tablet was prepared at different polymer ratios of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%, and the surface properties were determined, including the roughness by micro-visualization, contact angle and water absorption rate by the sessile drop method and obtaining Wadh and surface free energy (SFE using the semi-empirical models of Young–Dupré and  Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Käelbe (OWRK, respectively. Dissolution profiles were determined simulating physiological conditions in vitro, where the kinetic models of order-zero, order-one, Higuchi and Korsmeyer–Peppas were evaluated. The results showed a strong relationship between the proportion and nature of the polymer to the surface thermodynamic properties and kinetic release mechanism.

  9. The performance of workload control concepts in job shops : Improving the release method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Land, MJ; Gaalman, GJC

    1998-01-01

    A specific class of production control concepts for jobs shops is based on the principles of workload control. Practitioners emphasise the importance of workload control. However, order release methods that reduce the workload on the shop floor show poor due date performance in job shop simulations.

  10. Bioremediation of a controlled oil release in a wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, M. A.; Bonner, J. S.; Simon, M. A.; McDonald, T. J.; Autenrieth, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    To assess bioremediation as a remedial action in sensitive environments, 18 plots, consisting of a 5m x 5m perimeter and an elevated scaffold system to permit sampling, were oiled with a 'weathered' Arabian light crude oil. The oil was applied evenly onto wetland sediment during low tide. Three treatments, - control, inorganic nutrients, and inorganic nutrients plus nitrate as an alternate electron acceptor - were administered. Sediment samples were analyzed for petroleum chemistry, inorganic nutrients, toxicity and microbial counts. There was no significant difference in test results among the various treatment methods for total extractable materials, however, target compound analysis indicated significant differences in the biodegradation rates for the three treatments. Biodegradation of 95 per cent of target compounds was observed within an average of 167, 80 and 118 days for the control, nutrient, and nutrient plus nitrate treatments, respectively. 12 refs., 6 figs

  11. Microfluidic synthesis of microfibers for magnetic-responsive controlled drug release and cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Sheng Lin

    Full Text Available This study demonstrated the fabrication of alginate microfibers using a modular microfluidic system for magnetic-responsive controlled drug release and cell culture. A novel two-dimensional fluid-focusing technique with multi-inlets and junctions was used to spatiotemporally control the continuous laminar flow of alginate solutions. The diameter of the manufactured microfibers, which ranged from 211 µm to 364 µm, could be well controlled by changing the flow rate of the continuous phase. While the model drug, diclofenac, was encapsulated into microfibers, the drug release profile exhibited the characteristic of a proper and steady release. Furthermore, the diclofenac release kinetics from the magnetic iron oxide-loaded microfibers could be controlled externally, allowing for a rapid drug release by applying a magnetic force. In addition, the successful culture of glioblastoma multiforme cells in the microfibers demonstrated a good structural integrity and environment to grow cells that could be applied in drug screening for targeting cancer cells. The proposed microfluidic system has the advantages of ease of fabrication, simplicity, and a fast and low-cost process that is capable of generating functional microfibers with the potential for biomedical applications, such as drug controlled release and cell culture.

  12. Preparation and characterization of controlled-release fertilizers coated with marine polysaccharide derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Song; Qin, Yukun; Chen, Xiaolin; Xing, Rong'e.; Yu, Huahua; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2017-09-01

    Encapsulation of water-soluble nitrogen fertilizers by membranes can be used to control the release of nutrients to maximize the fertilization effect and reduce environmental pollution. In this research, we formulated a new double-coated controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) by using food-grade microcrystalline wax (MW) and marine polysaccharide derivatives (calcium alginate and chitosan-glutaraldehyde copolymer). The pellets of water-soluble nitrogen fertilizer were coated with the marine polysaccharide derivatives and MW. A convenient and eco-friendly method was used to prepare the CRF. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the morphology and composition of the products. The nitrogen-release properties were determined in water using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The controlled-release properties of the fertilizer were improved dramatically after coating with MW and the marine polysaccharide derivatives. The results show that the double-coated CRFs can release nitrogen in a controlled manner, have excellent controlled-release features, and meet the European Standard for CRFs.

  13. Controlled Release of Lysozyme from Double-Walled Poly(Lactide-Co-Glycolide (PLGA Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaul H. Ansary

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Double-walled microspheres based on poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA are potential delivery systems for reducing a very high initial burst release of encapsulated protein and peptide drugs. In this study, double-walled microspheres made of glucose core, hydroxyl-terminated poly(lactide-co-glycolide (Glu-PLGA, and carboxyl-terminated PLGA were fabricated using a modified water-in-oil-in-oil-in-water (w1/o/o/w2 emulsion solvent evaporation technique for the controlled release of a model protein, lysozyme. Microspheres size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, lysozyme in vitro release profiles, bioactivity, and structural integrity, were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images revealed that double-walled microspheres comprising of Glu-PLGA and PLGA with a mass ratio of 1:1 have a spherical shape and smooth surfaces. A statistically significant increase in the encapsulation efficiency (82.52% ± 3.28% was achieved when 1% (w/v polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and 2.5% (w/v trehalose were incorporated in the internal and external aqueous phase, respectively, during emulsification. Double-walled microspheres prepared together with excipients (PVA and trehalose showed a better control release of lysozyme. The released lysozyme was fully bioactive, and its structural integrity was slightly affected during microspheres fabrication and in vitro release studies. Therefore, double-walled microspheres made of Glu-PLGA and PLGA together with excipients (PVA and trehalose provide a controlled and sustained release for lysozyme.

  14. Solution combustion synthesis of calcium phosphate particles for controlled release of bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Junfeng, E-mail: daidai02304@163.com [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Zhao, Junjie; Qian, Yu; Zhang, Xiali; Zhou, Feifei; Zhang, Hong [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Lu, Hongbin [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Chen, JianHua; Wang, XuHong [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Yu, Wencong [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China)

    2015-05-01

    Four different phase compositions of calcium phosphate (CaP) particles were prepared via a solution combustion method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld analysis results revealed that the variations in the nominal Ca/P (molar) ratios were found to provide a favorable control in the different proportions of CaP materials. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein to study the loading and release behavior. The release profile indicated that the BSA release rates depended on the phase compositions of the CaP particles, and showed an order of TCP-BSA > BCP-1-BSA > BCP-2-BSA > HA-BSA. The results suggested that the BSA protein release rate can be controlled by varying the phase compositions of CaP carriers. Moreover, the release process involved two stages: firstly surface diffusion via ion exchange and secondly intraparticle diffusion. - Highlights: • Solution combustion method was an efficient way to produced CaP powders. • Ca/P (molar) ratios provided a favorable control in the different proportions of phase composition. • BSA release rate varied depending on the phase composition of the CaP particles. • Two kinetic models were chosen to simulate the release kinetics of the drugs from CaP carriers.

  15. Intercalation and controlled release properties of vitamin C intercalated layered double hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiaorui; Lei, Lixu; O'Hare, Dermot; Xie, Juan; Gao, Pengran; Chang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Two drug-inorganic composites involving vitamin C (VC) intercalated in Mg–Al and Mg–Fe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been synthesized by the calcination–rehydration (reconstruction) method. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy indicate a successful intercalation of VC into the interlayer galleries of the LDH host. Studies of VC release from the LDHs in deionised water and in aqueous CO 3 2− solutions imply that Mg 3 Al–VC LDH is a better controlled release system than Mg 3 Fe–VC LDH. Analysis of the release profiles using a number of kinetic models suggests a solution-dependent release mechanism, and a diffusion-controlled deintercalation mechanism in deionised water, but an ion exchange process in CO 3 2− solution. - Graphical abstract: Vitamin C anions have been intercalated in the interlayer space of layered double hydroxide and released in CO 3 2− solution and deionised water. - Highlights: • Vitamin C intercalated Mg–Al and Mg–Fe layered double hydroxides were prepared. • Release property of vitamin C in aqueous CO 3 2− solution is better. • Avrami-Erofe’ev and first-order models provide better fit for release results. • Diffusion-controlled and ion exchange processes occur in deionised water. • An ion exchange process occurs in CO 3 2− solution

  16. Controlled release of chlorhexidine digluconate using β-cyclodextrin and microfibrillated cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoine, Nathalie; Tabary, Nicolas; Desloges, Isabelle; Martel, Bernard; Bras, Julien

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to develop a high-performance delivery system using microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)-coated papers as a controlled release system combined with the well-known drug delivery agent, β-cyclodextrin (βCD). Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), an antibacterial molecule, was mixed with a suspension of MFC or a βCD solution or mixed with both the substances, before coating onto a cellulosic substrate. The intermittent diffusion of CHX (i.e., diffusion interrupted by the renewal of the release medium periodically) was conducted in an aqueous medium, and the release mechanism of CHX was elucidated by field emission gun-scanning electron microscopy, SEM, NMR, and Fourier transform infrared analyses. According to the literature, both βCD and MFC are efficient controlled delivery systems. This study indicated that βCD releases CHX more gradually and over a longer period of time compared to MFC, which is mainly due to the ability of βCD to form an inclusion complex with CHX. Furthermore from the release study, a complementary action when the two compounds were combined was deduced. MFC mainly affected the burst effect, while βCD primarily controlled the amount of CHX released over time. In this paper, two different types of controlled release systems are proposed and compared. Depending on the final application, the use of βCD alone would release low amounts of active molecules over time (slow delivery), whereas the combination of β-cyclodextrin and MFC would be more suitable for the release of higher amounts of active molecules over time (rapid delivery). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Requirements for controlling a repository's releases of carbon-14 dioxide; the high costs and negligible benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, U Sun; Pflum, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    A repository excavated within the unsaturated zone may release carbon (C)-14 dioxide in amounts that exceed limits imposed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The release would not threaten the general population, but may expose some hypothetical maximally exposed individual to 0.0005 millirems/year. Yet a repository's releases of C-14 dioxide are strictly regulated, perhaps unintentionally. The EPA and NRC regulations could force the Department of Energy to design and fabricate an expensive 10,000-year waste package solely for the sake of controlling releases of C-14 dioxide. This paper argues that the repository regulations should exempt releases of C-14 dioxide or at least impose more equitable limits. 21 refs., 1 tab

  18. Application of Transfer Matrix Approach to Modeling and Decentralized Control of Lattice-Based Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Nick; Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Cheung, Kenny; Teodorescu, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a modeling and control of aerostructure developed by lattice-based cellular materials/components. The proposed aerostructure concept leverages a building block strategy for lattice-based components which provide great adaptability to varying ight scenarios, the needs of which are essential for in- ight wing shaping control. A decentralized structural control design is proposed that utilizes discrete-time lumped mass transfer matrix method (DT-LM-TMM). The objective is to develop an e ective reduced order model through DT-LM-TMM that can be used to design a decentralized controller for the structural control of a wing. The proposed approach developed in this paper shows that, as far as the performance of overall structural system is concerned, the reduced order model can be as e ective as the full order model in designing an optimal stabilizing controller.

  19. Corticosteroid solubility and lipid polarity control release from solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Louise B; Magnussson, Emily; Gunnarsson, Linda; Vermehren, Charlotte; Nielsen, Hanne M; Petersson, Karsten

    2010-05-05

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) show promise as a drug delivery system for skin administration. The solid state of the lipid particle enables efficient drug encapsulation and controlled drug release. The present study addresses the influence of lipid composition and drug substance lipid solubility on the in vitro release profile of corticosteroids from SLN for topical administration. Firstly, the effect of lipid composition on the lipid solubility and in vitro release of betamethasone-17-valerate (BMV) was determined by varying the lipid monoglyceride content and the chain length of the fatty acid moiety. Secondly, the effect of drug substance physicochemical properties was determined by studying five different corticosteroid derivatives with different lipophilicity. A high concentration of monoglyceride in SLN increased the amount of BMV released. The corticosteroid release rate depended on the drug substance lipophilicity and it was clear that the release profiles depended on drug partitioning to the aqueous phase as indicated by zero order kinetics. The results emphasize that the corticosteroid solubility in the lipid phase greatly influence drug distribution in the lipid particles and release properties. Thus knowledge of drug substance solubility and lipid polarity contributes to optimize SLN release properties. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrophobic Drug-Loaded PEGylated Magnetic Liposomes for Drug-Controlled Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiansyah, Andri; Yang, Ming-Chien; Liu, Ting-Yu; Kuo, Chih-Yu; Huang, Li-Ying; Chan, Tzu-Yi

    2017-05-01

    Less targeted and limited solubility of hydrophobic-based drug are one of the serious obstacles in drug delivery system. Thus, new strategies to enhance the solubility of hydrophobic drug and controlled release behaviors would be developed. Herein, curcumin, a model of hydrophobic drug, has been loaded into PEGylated magnetic liposomes as a drug carrier platform for drug controlled release system. Inductive magnetic heating (hyperthermia)-stimulated drug release, in vitro cellular cytotoxicity assay of curcumin-loaded PEGylated magnetic liposomes and cellular internalization-induced by magnetic guidance would be investigated. The resultant of drug carriers could disperse homogeneously in aqueous solution, showing a superparamagnetic characteristic and could inductive magnetic heating with external high-frequency magnetic field (HFMF). In vitro curcumin release studies confirmed that the drug carriers exhibited no significant release at 37 °C, whereas exhibited rapid releasing at 45 °C. However, it would display enormous (three times higher) curcumin releasing under the HFMF exposure, compared with that without HFMF exposure at 45 °C. In vitro cytotoxicity test shows that curcumin-loaded PEGylated magnetic liposomes could efficiently kill MCF-7 cells in parallel with increasing curcumin concentration. Fluorescence microscopy observed that these drug carriers could internalize efficiently into the cellular compartment of MCF-7 cells. Thus, it would be anticipated that the novel hydrophobic drug-loaded PEGylated magnetic liposomes in combination with inductive magnetic heating are promising to apply in the combination of chemotherapy and thermotherapy for cancer therapy.

  1. Microfluidic Device for Controllable Chemical Release via Field-Actuated Membrane Incorporating Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    We report a robust magnetic-membrane-based microfluidic platform for controllable chemical release. The magnetic membrane was prepared by mixing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and carbonyl-iron nanoparticles together to obtain a flexible thin film. With combined, simultaneous regulation of magnetic stimulus and mechanical pumping, the desired chemical release rate can easily be realized. For example, the dose release experimental data was well fitted by a mathematical sigmoidal model, exhibiting a typical dose-response relationship, which shows promise in providing significant guidance for on-demand drug delivery. To test the platform’s feasibility, our microfluidic device was employed in an experiment involving Escherichia coli culture under controlled antibiotic ciprofloxacin exposure, and the expected outcomes were successfully obtained. Our experimental results indicate that such a microfluidic device, with high accuracy and easy manipulation properties, can legitimately be characterized as active chemical release system.

  2. Microfluidic Device for Controllable Chemical Release via Field-Actuated Membrane Incorporating Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a robust magnetic-membrane-based microfluidic platform for controllable chemical release. The magnetic membrane was prepared by mixing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and carbonyl-iron nanoparticles together to obtain a flexible thin film. With combined, simultaneous regulation of magnetic stimulus and mechanical pumping, the desired chemical release rate can easily be realized. For example, the dose release experimental data was well fitted by a mathematical sigmoidal model, exhibiting a typical dose-response relationship, which shows promise in providing significant guidance for on-demand drug delivery. To test the platform’s feasibility, our microfluidic device was employed in an experiment involving Escherichia coli culture under controlled antibiotic ciprofloxacin exposure, and the expected outcomes were successfully obtained. Our experimental results indicate that such a microfluidic device, with high accuracy and easy manipulation properties, can legitimately be characterized as active chemical release system.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of a HAp-based biomarker with controlled drug release for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Maykel; Merino, Ulises; Vargas, Susana; Quintanilla, Francisco; Rodríguez, Rogelio

    2016-04-01

    A biocompatible hybrid porous polymer-ceramic material was synthesized to be used as a biomarker in the treatment of breast cancer. This device was equipped with the capacity to release medicaments locally in a controlled manner. The biomaterial was Hydroxyapatite(HAp)-based and had a controlled pore size and pore volume fraction. It was implemented externally using a sharp end and a pair of barbed rings placed opposite each other to prevent relative movement once implanted. The biomarker was impregnated with cis-diamine dichloride platinum (II) [Cl2-Pt-(NH3)2]; the rate of release was obtained using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and release occurred over the course of three months. Different release profiles were obtained as a function of the pore volume fraction. The biomaterial was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Controlled release of simvastatin from biomimetic β-TCP drug delivery system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Chou

    Full Text Available Simvastatin have been shown to induce bone formation and there is currently a urgent need to develop an appropriate delivery system to sustain the release of the drug to increase therapeutic efficacy whilst reducing side effects. In this study, a novel drug delivery system for simvastatin by means of hydrothermally converting marine exoskeletons to biocompatible beta-tricalcium phosphate was investigated. Furthermore, the release of simvastatin was controlled by the addition of an outer apatite coating layer. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and mass spectroscopy confirming the conversion process. The in-vitro dissolution of key chemical compositional elements and the release of simvastatin were measured in simulated body fluid solution showing controlled release with reduction of approximately 25% compared with un-coated samples. This study shows the potential applications of marine structures as a drug delivery system for simvastatin.

  5. Preparation of acetylsalicylic acid-acylated chitosan as a novel polymeric drug for drug controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changkun; Wu, Yiguang; Zhao, Liyan; Huang, Xinzheng

    2015-01-01

    The acetylsalicylic acid-acylated chitosan (ASACTS) with high degree of substitution (DS) was successfully synthesized, and characterized with FTIR, (1)H NMR and elemental analysis methods. The optimum synthesis conditions were obtained which gave the highest DS (about 60%) for ASACTS. Its drug release experiments were carried out in simulated gastric and intestine fluids. The results show that the drugs in the form of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and salicylic acid (SA) were released in a controlled manner from ASACTS only in simulated gastric fluid. The release profile can be best fitted with logistic and Weibull model. The research results reveal that ASACTS can be a potential polymeric drug for the controlled release of ASA and SA in the targeted gastric environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. PECTIN MICROGELS CONTAINING SYNTHETIC POLYMERS BASED ON NANOCAPSULES FOR THE CONTROLLED RELEASE OF INDOMETHACIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela HOLBAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanocapsule-based Eudragit RS100 and Eudragit E100 containing indomethacin have been prepared. The nanosuspensions have been included into pectin microgels of different polysaccharide concentrations, 28-61 µm-ranged polymer microgels with size and size polydispersity highly depending on the pectin amount being thus obtained. Study of the drug release revealed that indomethacin was released at a slower and more controlled rate from the microgels containing nanocapsules than from the empty pectin microgels. Also, the rate of released indomethacin increased with the augmentation of pectin amount into the microgels.

  7. E-Control: First Public Release of Remote Control Software for VLBI Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidhardt, Alexander; Ettl, Martin; Rottmann, Helge; Ploetz, Christian; Muehlbauer, Matthias; Hase, Hayo; Alef, Walter; Sobarzo, Sergio; Herrera, Cristian; Himwich, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Automating and remotely controlling observations are important for future operations in a Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). At the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, in cooperation with the Max-Planck-Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, a software extension to the existing NASA Field System has been developed for remote control. It uses the principle of a remotely accessible, autonomous process cell as a server extension for the Field System. The communication is realized for low transfer rates using Remote Procedure Calls (RPC). It uses generative programming with the interface software generator idl2rpc.pl developed at Wettzell. The user interacts with this system over a modern graphical user interface created with wxWidgets. For security reasons the communication is automatically tunneled through a Secure Shell (SSH) session to the telescope. There are already successful test observations with the telescopes at O Higgins, Concepcion, and Wettzell. At Wettzell the software is already used routinely for weekend observations. Therefore the first public release of the software is now available, which will also be useful for other telescopes.

  8. Chitosan/alginate based multilayers to control drug release fromophthalmic lens

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Diana; Pinto, Luís F. V.; Bozukova, Dimitriya; Santos, Luís F.; Serro, Ana Paula; Saramago, Benilde

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the possibility of using layer-by-layer deposition, based in natural polymers (chitosan and alginate), to control the release of different ophthalmic drugs from three types of lens materials: a silicone-based hydrogel recently proposed by our group as drug releasing soft contact lens (SCL) material and two commercially available materials: CI26Y for intraocular lens (IOLs) and Definitive 50 for SCLs. The optimised coating, consisting in one double layer of (algin...

  9. Effect of crosslinking agents on chitosan microspheres in controlled release of diclofenac sodium

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves,Vanessa L.; Laranjeira,Mauro C. M.; Fávere,Valfredo T.; Pedrosa,Rozângela C.

    2005-01-01

    In this work chitosan microspheres were prepared by the simple coacervation method and crosslinked using epichlorhydrin or glutaraldehyde for the controlled release of diclofenac sodium. The effects of the crosslinking agents on chitosan microspheres over a 12-hour period were assessed with regard to swelling, hydrolysis, porosity, crosslinking, impregnation of diclofenac sodium (DS), and consequently to the release of DS in buffer solutions, simulating the gastrointestinal tract. The degree ...

  10. Formulation and evaluation of controlled release dental implants of povidone iodine for periodontitis.

    OpenAIRE

    David A; Kurien S; Udupa N; Verma B

    1994-01-01

    Diseases of the periodontium continue to be one of the man′s most wide spread afflictions. Periodontitis is one of such which is characterised by a periodontal pocket formed due to the inflammatory disease of gingiva and the deeper periodontal tissues. Local controlled release implants of povidone iodine was prepared using various polymers and stability, release characteristics, total drug content etc, were evaluated. The clinical studies of the dental implants were carried out on 10 p...

  11. Living in the matrix: assembly and control of Vibrio cholerae biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschler, Jennifer K.; Zamorano-Sánchez, David; Utada, Andrew S.; Warner, Christopher J. A.; Wong, Gerard C. L.; Linington, Roger G.; Yildiz, Fitnat H.

    2015-01-01

    Preface Nearly all bacteria form biofilms as a strategy for survival and persistence. Biofilms are associated with biotic and abiotic surfaces and are composed of aggregates of cells that are encased by a self-produced or acquired extracellular matrix. Vibrio cholerae has been studied as a model organism for understanding biofilm formation in environmental pathogens, as it spends much of its life cycle outside of the human host in the aquatic environment. Given the important role of biofilm formation in the V. cholerae life cycle, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process and the signals that trigger biofilm assembly or dispersal have been areas of intense investigation over the past 20 years. In this Review, we discuss V. cholerae surface attachment, various matrix components and the regulatory networks controlling biofilm formation. PMID:25895940

  12. Sustained-release of FGF-2 from a hybrid hydrogel of heparin-poloxamer and decellular matrix promotes the neuroprotective effects of proteins after spinal injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu HL

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available  He-Lin Xu,1,* Fu-Rong Tian,1,* Jian Xiao,1,* Pian-Pian Chen,1 Jie Xu,1 Zi-Liang Fan,1 Jing-Jing Yang,1 Cui-Tao Lu,1 Ying-Zheng Zhao1,2 1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 2Hainan Medical College, Haikou, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: The short lifetime of protein-based therapies has largely limited their therapeutic efficacy in injured nervous post-spinal cord injury (post-SCI. Methods: In this study, an affinity-based hydrogel delivery system provided sustained-release of proteins, thereby extending the efficacy of such therapies. The affinity-based hydrogel was constructed using a novel polymer, heparin-poloxamer (HP, as a temperature-sensitive bulk matrix and decellular spinal cord extracellular matrix (dscECM as an affinity depot of drug. By tuning the concentration of HP in formulation, the cold ternary fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2-dscECM-HP solution could rapidly gelatinize into a hydrogel at body temperature. Due to the strong affinity for FGF2, hybrid FGF2-dscECM-HP hydrogel enabled sustained-release of encapsulated FGF2 over an extended period in vitro. Results: Compared to free FGF2, it was observed that both neuron functions and tissue morphology after SCI were clearly recovered in rats treated with FGF2-dscECM-HP hydrogel. Moreover, the expression of neurofilament protein and the density of axons were increased after treatment with hybrid FGF2-dscECM-HP. In addition, the neuroprotective effects of FGF2-dscECM-HP were related to inhibition of chronic endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis.Conclusion: The results revealed that a hybrid hydrogel system may be a potential carrier to deliver macromolecular proteins to the injured site and enhance the therapeutic effects of proteins.Keywords: spinal cord injury, decellularized extracellular matrix, thermosensitive hydrogel, adsorption, basic fibroblast growth factor

  13. Toxic vapor concentrations in the control room following a postulated accidental release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, J.

    1979-05-01

    An acceptable method is presented for calculating the vapor concentrations in a control room as a function of time after a postulated accidental release. Included are the mathematical formulas for computing the rates of vaporization and evaporation of liquid spills, the vapor dispersion in air, and the control room air exchange. A list of toxic chemicals and their physical properties is also given

  14. Controlled release from triple layer, donut-shaped tablets with enteric polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cherng-ju

    2005-10-22

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate triple layer, donut-shaped tablets (TLDSTs) for extended release dosage forms. TLDSTs were prepared by layering 3 powders sequentially after pressing them with a punch. The core tablet consisted of enteric polymers, mainly hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate, and the bottom and top layers were made of a water-insoluble polymer, ethyl cellulose. Drug release kinetics were dependent on the pH of the dissolution medium and the drug properties, such as solubility, salt forms of weak acid and weak base drugs, and drug loading. At a 10% drug loading level, all drugs, regardless of their type or solubility, yielded the same release profiles within an acceptable level of experimental error. As drug loading increased from 10% to 30%, the drug release rate of neutral drugs increased for all except sulfathiazole, which retained the same kinetics as at 10% loading. HCl salts of weak base drugs had much slower release rates than did those of neutral drugs (eg, theophylline) as drug loading increased. The release of labetalol HCl retarded as drug loading increased from 10% to 30%. On the other hand, Na salts of weak acid drugs had much higher release rates than did those of neutral drugs (eg, theophylline). Drug release kinetics were governed by the ionization/erosion process with slight drug diffusion, observing no perfect straight line. A mathematical expression for drug release kinetics (erosion-controlled system) of TLDSTs is presented. In summary, a TLDST is a good design to obtain zero-order or nearly zero-order release kinetics for a wide range of drug solubilities.

  15. Quantification of swelling and erosion in the controlled release of a poorly water-soluble drug using synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xianzhen; Li, Haiyan; Guo, Zhen; Wu, Li; Chen, Fangwei; de Matas, Marcel; Shao, Qun; Xiao, Tiqiao; York, Peter; He, You; Zhang, Jiwen

    2013-10-01

    The hydration layer plays a key role in the controlled drug release of gel-forming matrix tablets. For poorly water-soluble drugs, matrix erosion is considered as the rate limiting step for drug release. However, few investigations have reported on the quantification of the relative importance of swelling and erosion in the release of poorly soluble drugs, and three-dimensional (3D) structures of the hydration layer are poorly understood. Here, we employed synchrotron radiation X-ray computed microtomography with 9-μm resolution to investigate the hydration dynamics and to quantify the relative importance of swelling and erosion on felodipine release by a statistical model. The 3D structures of the hydration layer were revealed by the reconstructed 3D rendering of tablets. Twenty-three structural parameters related to the volume, the surface area (SA), and the specific surface area (SSA) for the hydration layer and the tablet core were calculated. Three dominating parameters, including SA and SSA of the hydration layer (SA hydration layer and SSA hydration layer ) and SA of the glassy core (SA glassy core ), were identified to establish the statistical model. The significance order of independent variables was SA hydration layer > SSA hydration layer > SA glassy core , which quantitatively indicated that the release of felodipine was dominated by a combination of erosion and swelling. The 3D reconstruction and structural parameter calculation methods in our study, which are not available from conventional methods, are efficient tools to quantify the relative importance of swelling and erosion in the controlled release of poorly soluble drugs from a structural point of view.

  16. Modeling, Simulation and Control of Matrix Convert for Variable Speed Wind Turbine System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alizadeh Moghadam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents modeling, simulation and control of matrix converter (MC for variable speed wind turbine (VSWT system including permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG. At a given wind velocity, the power available from a wind turbine is a function of its shaft speed. In order to track maximum power, the MC adjusts the PMSG shaft speed.The proposed control system allowing independent control maximum power point tracking (MPPT of generator side and regulate reactive power of grid side for the operation of the VSWT system. The MPPT is implemented by a new control system. This control system is based on control of zero d-axis current (ZDC. The ZDC control can be realized by transfer the three-phase stator current in the stationary reference frame into d-and q-axis components in the synchronous reference frame. Also this paper is presented, a novel control strategy to regulate the reactive power supplied by a variable speed wind energy conversion system. This control strategy is based on voltage oriented control (VOC. The simulation results based on Simulink/Matlab software show that the controllers can extract maximum power and regulate reactive power under varying wind velocities.

  17. Stability Analysis of Wireless Measurement and Control System Based on Dynamic Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxian SONG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Focus on data packet loss and time delay problems in wireless greenhouse measurement and control system, and temperature and humidity were taken as the research objects, the model of temperature and humidity information transmission was set up by decoupling technology according to the characteristics of wireless greenhouse measurement and control system. According to related theory of exponential stability in network control system, the stability conditions judgment of temperature and humidity control model was established, the linear matrix inequality that time delay and packet loss should satisfy was obtained when wireless measurement and control system was stable operation. The feasibility analysis of linear matrix inequality (LMI was implemented Using LMI toolbox in MATLAB, and the critical values of time delay and packet loss rate were obtained when the system was stable operation. The wireless sensor network control system simulation model with time delay and packet loss was set up using TrueTime toolbox. The simulation results have shown that the system was in a stable state when time delay and packet loss rate obtained were less than the critical values in wireless greenhouse sensor network measurement and control system; With the increase of time delay and packet loss rate, and stable performance drops; When time delay and packet loss rate obtained were more than the critical values, the measurement and control system would be in a state of flux, and when it was serious, even can lead to collapse of the whole system. As a result, the critical values determination of time delay and packet loss rate provided a theoretical basis for establishing stable greenhouse wireless sensor network (WSN measurement and control system in practical application.

  18. Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS): Application source/release control for EPICS R3.11.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieman, B.; Kraimer, M.

    1994-01-01

    This manual describes a set of tools that can be used to develop software for EPICS based control systems. It provides the following features: Multiple applications; the entire system is composed of an arbitrary number of applications: Source/Release Control; all files created or modified by the applications developers can be put under sccs (a UNIX Source/Release control utility): Multiple Developers; it allows a number of applications developers to work separately during the development phase but combine their applications for system testing and for a production system; Makefiles: makefiles are provided to automatically rebuild various application components. For C and state notation programs, Imagefiles are provided

  19. A modified Finite Element-Transfer Matrix for control design of space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, T.-M.; Yousuff, A.; Bahar, L. Y.; Konstandinidis, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Finite Element-Transfer Matrix (FETM) method was developed for reducing the computational efforts involved in structural analysis. While being widely used by structural analysts, this method does, however, have certain limitations, particularly when used for the control design of large flexible structures. In this paper, a new formulation based on the FETM method is presented. The new method effectively overcomes the limitations in the original FETM method, and also allows an easy construction of reduced models that are tailored for the control design. Other advantages of this new method include the ability to extract open loop frequencies and mode shapes with less computation, and simplification of the design procedures for output feedback, constrained compensation, and decentralized control. The development of this new method and the procedures for generating reduced models using this method are described in detail and the role of the reduced models in control design is discussed through an illustrative example.

  20. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of controlled release fluvoxamine for the treatment of generalized social anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenberg, HGM; Stein, DJ; Yang, HC; Li, D; Barbato, LM

    This was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled multicenter study to assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of fluvoxamine in a controlled release (CR) formulation for treatment of generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD). A total of 300 subjects with GSAD were randomly assigned to

  1. A biodegradable device for the controlled release of Piper nigrum (Piperaceae) standardized extract to control Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, Kauê Muller; Oliveira, Joice Guilherme de; Moterle, Diego; Zepon, Karine Modolon; Prophiro, Josiane Somariva; Kanis, Luiz Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The significant increase in dengue, Zika, and chikungunya and the resistance of the Aedes aegypti mosquito to major insecticides emphasize the importance of studying alternatives to control this vector. The aim of this study was to develop a controlled-release device containing Piper nigrum extract and to study its larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Piper nigrum extract was produced by maceration, standardized in piperine, and incorporated into cotton threads, which were inserted into hydrogel cylinders manufactured by the extrusion of carrageenan and carob. The piperine content of the extract and thread reservoirs was quantified by chromatography. The release profile from the device was assessed in aqueous medium and the larvicidal and residual activities of the standardized extract as well as of the controlled-release device were examined in Aedes aegypti larvae. The standardized extract contained 580mg/g of piperine and an LC50 value of 5.35ppm (24h) and the 3 cm thread reservoirs contained 13.83 ± 1.81mg of piperine. The device showed zero-order release of piperine for 16 days. The P. nigrum extract (25ppm) showed maximum residual larvicidal activity for 10 days, decreasing progressively thereafter. The device had a residual larvicidal activity for up to 37 days. The device provided controlled release of Piper nigrum extract with residual activity for 37 days. The device is easy to manufacture and may represent an effective alternative for the control of Aedes aegypti larvae in small water containers.

  2. Reducing Runoff Loss of Applied Nutrients in Oil Palm Cultivation Using Controlled-Release Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled-release fertilizers are expected to minimize nutrient loss from crop fields due to their potential to supply plant-available nutrients in synchrony with crop requirements. The evaluation of the efficiency of these fertilizers in tropical oil palm agroecological conditions is not yet fully explored. In this study, a one-year field trial was conducted to determine the impact of fertilization with water soluble conventional mixture and controlled-release fertilizers on runoff loss of nutrients from an immature oil palm field. Soil and nutrient loss were monitored for one year in 2012/2013 under erosion plots of 16 m2 on 10% slope gradient. Mean sediments concentration in runoff amounted to about 6.41 t ha−1. Conventional mixture fertilizer posed the greatest risk of nutrient loss in runoff following fertilization due to elevated nitrogen (6.97%, potassium (13.37%, and magnesium (14.76% as percentage of applied nutrients. In contrast, this risk decreased with the application of controlled-release fertilizers, representing 0.75–2.44% N, 3.55–5.09% K, and 4.35–5.43% Mg loss. Meanwhile, nutrient loss via eroded sediments was minimal compared with loss through runoff. This research demonstrates that the addition of controlled-release fertilizers reduced the runoff risks of nutrient loss possibly due to their slow-release properties.

  3. Flexible control of cellular encapsulation, permeability, and release in a droplet-templated bifunctional copolymer scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiushui; Chen, Dong; Wu, Jing; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2016-11-01

    Designing cell-compatible, bio-degradable, and stimuli-responsive hydrogels is very important for biomedical applications in cellular delivery and micro-scale tissue engineering. Here, we report achieving flexible control of cellular microencapsulation, permeability, and release by rationally designing a diblock copolymer, alginate-conjugated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (Alg-co-PNiPAM). We use the microfluidic technique to fabricate the bifunctional copolymers into thousands of mono-disperse droplet-templated hydrogel microparticles for controlled encapsulation and triggered release of mammalian cells. In particular, the grafting PNiPAM groups in the synthetic cell-laden microgels produce lots of nano-aggregates into hydrogel networks at elevated temperature, thereafter enhancing the permeability of microparticle scaffolds. Importantly, the hydrogel scaffolds are readily fabricated via on-chip quick gelation by triggered release of Ca 2+ from the Ca-EDTA complex; it is also quite exciting that very mild release of microencapsulated cells is achieved via controlled degradation of hydrogel scaffolds through a simple strategy of competitive affinity of Ca 2+ from the Ca-Alginate complex. This finding suggests that we are able to control cellular encapsulation and release through ion-induced gelation and degradation of the hydrogel scaffolds. Subsequently, we demonstrate a high viability of microencapsulated cells in the microgel scaffolds.

  4. A controlled release of ibuprofen by systematically tailoring the morphology of mesoporous silica materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Fengyu; Zhu Guangshan; Lin Huiming; Zhang Weiwei; Sun Jinyu; Li Shougui; Qiu Shilun

    2006-01-01

    A series of mesoporous silica materials with similar pore sizes, different morphologies and variable pore geometries were prepared systematically. In order to control drug release, ibuprofen was employed as a model drug and the influence of morphology and pore geometry of mesoporous silica on drug release profiles was extensively studied. The mesoporous silica and drug-loaded samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, N 2 adsorption and desorption, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the drug-loading amount was directly correlated to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, pore geometry, and pore volume; while the drug release profiles could be controlled by tailoring the morphologies of mesoporous silica carriers. - Graphical abstract: The release of ibuprofen is controlled by tailoring the morphologies of mesoporous silica. The mesoporous silica and drug-loaded samples are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, N 2 adsorption and desorption, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The drug-loading amount is directly correlated to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, pore geometry, and pore volume; while the drug release profiles can be controlled by tailoring the morphologies of mesoporous silica carriers

  5. Advances in Targeted Pesticides with Environmentally Responsive Controlled Release by Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bingna; Chen, Feifei; Shen, Yue; Qian, Kun; Wang, Yan; Sun, Changjiao; Zhao, Xiang; Cui, Bo; Gao, Fei; Zeng, Zhanghua; Cui, Haixin

    2018-02-11

    Pesticides are the basis for defending against major biological disasters and important for ensuring national food security. Biocompatible, biodegradable, intelligent, and responsive materials are currently an emerging area of interest in the field of efficient, safe, and green pesticide formulation. Using nanotechnology to design and prepare targeted pesticides with environmentally responsive controlled release via compound and chemical modifications has also shown great potential in creating novel formulations. In this review, special attention has been paid to intelligent pesticides with precise controlled release modes that can respond to micro-ecological environment changes such as light-sensitivity, thermo-sensitivity, humidity sensitivity, soil pH, and enzyme activity. Moreover, establishing intelligent and controlled pesticide release technologies using nanomaterials are reported. These technologies could increase pesticide-loading, improve the dispersibility and stability of active ingredients, and promote target ability.

  6. Release from control of inactive material from decommissioning the ASTRA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, A.; Hrnecek, E.; Steger, F.; Kurz, H.; Meyer, F.; Karacson, P.

    2003-01-01

    The Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf have been operating a 10 MW ASTRA research reactor from 1960 until 1999. After that date, a submission of the intention to decommission the reactor has been provided to the Competent Authorities. After completion of an Environmental Impact Study by the Competent Authorities and modification of the Permissions for Site Use, the reactor finally entered the decommissioning phase in 2003. Inactive materials from the decommissioning site are expected to be released from control. The procedure for such a release from control agreed upon between the Competent Authorities and ARC Seibersdorf involves a four-step measurement, verification, and certification process detailed in this paper. By September 2003, this four-step procedure has been completed for 16500 kg of steel re-enforced concrete and for 5500 kg of other materials; the release from control of 3000 kg of paraffin and 10000 kg of graphite from the thermal column are planned for the near future. (author)

  7. Advances in Targeted Pesticides with Environmentally Responsive Controlled Release by Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingna Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are the basis for defending against major biological disasters and important for ensuring national food security. Biocompatible, biodegradable, intelligent, and responsive materials are currently an emerging area of interest in the field of efficient, safe, and green pesticide formulation. Using nanotechnology to design and prepare targeted pesticides with environmentally responsive controlled release via compound and chemical modifications has also shown great potential in creating novel formulations. In this review, special attention has been paid to intelligent pesticides with precise controlled release modes that can respond to micro-ecological environment changes such as light-sensitivity, thermo-sensitivity, humidity sensitivity, soil pH, and enzyme activity. Moreover, establishing intelligent and controlled pesticide release technologies using nanomaterials are reported. These technologies could increase pesticide-loading, improve the dispersibility and stability of active ingredients, and promote target ability.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of a HAp-based biomarker with controlled drug release for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Maykel [Dept. of Molecular Engineering of Materials, Center of Applied Physics and Advanced Technology, National Autonomous University of Mexico (CFATA-UNAM), Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Merino, Ulises [Dept. of Molecular Engineering of Materials, Center of Applied Physics and Advanced Technology, National Autonomous University of Mexico (CFATA-UNAM), Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); University of the Valley of Mexico (UVM), Boulevard Villas del Mesón 1000, Juriquilla, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro 76320 (Mexico); Vargas, Susana [Dept. of Molecular Engineering of Materials, Center of Applied Physics and Advanced Technology, National Autonomous University of Mexico (CFATA-UNAM), Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Quintanilla, Francisco [University of the Valley of Mexico (UVM), Boulevard Villas del Mesón 1000, Juriquilla, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro 76320 (Mexico); Rodríguez, Rogelio, E-mail: rogelior@unam.mx [Dept. of Molecular Engineering of Materials, Center of Applied Physics and Advanced Technology, National Autonomous University of Mexico (CFATA-UNAM), Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico)

    2016-04-01

    A biocompatible hybrid porous polymer–ceramic material was synthesized to be used as a biomarker in the treatment of breast cancer. This device was equipped with the capacity to release medicaments locally in a controlled manner. The biomaterial was Hydroxyapatite(HAp)-based and had a controlled pore size and pore volume fraction. It was implemented externally using a sharp end and a pair of barbed rings placed opposite each other to prevent relative movement once implanted. The biomarker was impregnated with cis-diamine dichloride platinum (II) [Cl{sub 2}-Pt-(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]; the rate of release was obtained using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and release occurred over the course of three months. Different release profiles were obtained as a function of the pore volume fraction. The biomaterial was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. - Highlights: • A novel biocompatible hybrid porous polymer–ceramic material was synthesized. • The polymer–ceramic (HAp-based) material was used to prepare a biomarker. • The biomarker was impregnated with cis-diamine dichloride platinum (II). • The rate of cisplatin release was determined using inductively coupled plasma. • The kinetics of the cisplatin release was studied varying the biomarker porosity.

  9. Vibrio vulnificus MO6-24/O Lipopolysaccharide Stimulates Superoxide Anion, Thromboxane B2, Matrix Metalloproteinase-9, Cytokine and Chemokine Release by Rat Brain Microglia in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro M. S. Mayer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although human exposure to Gram-negative Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus lipopolysaccharide (LPS has been reported to result in septic shock, its impact on the central nervous system’s innate immunity remains undetermined. The purpose of this study was to determine whether V. vulnificus MO6-24/O LPS might activate rat microglia in vitro and stimulate the release of superoxide anion (O2−, a reactive oxygen species known to cause oxidative stress and neuronal injury in vivo. Brain microglia were isolated from neonatal rats, and then treated with either V. vulnificus MO6-24/O LPS or Escherichia coli O26:B6 LPS for 17 hours in vitro. O2− was determined by cytochrome C reduction, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and MMP-9 by gelatinase zymography. Generation of cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α, IL-6, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1, chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α/chemokine (C-C motif ligand 3 (CCL3, MIP-2/chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 2 (CXCL2, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-2alpha/beta (CINC-2α/β/CXCL3, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, were determined by specific immunoassays. Priming of rat microglia by V. vulnificus MO6-24/O LPS in vitro yielded a bell-shaped dose-response curve for PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated O2− generation: (1 0.1–1 ng/mL V. vulnificus LPS enhanced O2− generation significantly but with limited inflammatory mediator generation; (2 10–100 ng/mL V. vulnificus LPS maximized O2− generation with concomitant release of thromboxane B2 (TXB2, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, and several cytokines and chemokines; (3 1000–100,000 ng/mL V. vulnificus LPS, with the exception of TXB2, yielded both attenuated O2− production, and a progressive decrease in MMP-9, cytokines and chemokines investigated. Thus concentration-dependent treatment of

  10. Potential for control of Cadra cautella (Walker) by release of fully or partially sterile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brower, J.H.; Tilton, E.W.

    1975-01-01

    Modifications of the sterile-male release technique appear to offer promise for the control of post-harvest lepidopteran pest populations within storage structures. Theoretical models of release strategies for Cadra cautella showed that each method has an 'ideal' flooding ratio. This ratio represents the best balance between extinction in a few generations and minimization of the total number of insects released. From data reported concerning the population dynamics of Cadra cautella in the field an ideal flooding ratio for fully sterile (S) males to fertile (F) males of 97:1 would achieve extinction in 3 generations. Total numbers of males released per 100 native insects that would be needed to achieve extinction at these flooding ratios would be 14,850, 14,900 and 18,500, respectively. (author)

  11. Advances in research of targeting delivery and controlled release of drug-loaded nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Zhonghua

    2003-01-01

    Biochemistry drug, at present, is still the main tool that human struggle to defeat the diseases. So, developing safe and efficacious technique of drug targeting delivery and controlled release is key to enhance curative effect, decrease drug dosage, and lessen its side effect. Drug-loaded nanoparticles, which is formed by conjugate between nanotechnology and modern pharmaceutics, is a new fashioned pharmic delivery carrier. Because of advantages in pharmic targeting transport and controlled or slow release and improving bioavailability, it has been one of developing trend of modern pharmaceutical dosage forms

  12. Controlled release of cytokines using silk-biomaterials for macrophage polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Andrew R D; Spiller, Kara L; Freytes, Donald O; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Kaplan, David L

    2015-12-01

    Polarization of macrophages into an inflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype is important for clearing pathogens and wound repair, however chronic activation of either type of macrophage has been implicated in several diseases. Methods to locally control the polarization of macrophages is of great interest for biomedical implants and tissue engineering. To that end, silk protein was used to form biopolymer films that release either IFN-γ or IL-4 to control the polarization of macrophages. Modulation of the solubility of the silk films through regulation of β-sheet (crystalline) content enabled a short-term release (4-8 h) of either cytokine, with smaller amounts released out to 24 h. Altering the solubility of the films was accomplished by varying the time that the films were exposed to water vapor. The released IFN-γ or IL-4 induced polarization of THP-1 derived macrophages into the M1 or M2 phenotypes, respectively. The silk biomaterials were able to release enough IFN-γ or IL-4 to repolarize the macrophage from M1 to M2 and vice versa, demonstrating the well-established plasticity of macrophages. High β-sheet content films that are not soluble and do not release the trapped cytokines were also able to polarize macrophages that adhered to the surface through degradation of the silk protein. Chemically conjugating IFN-γ to silk films through disulfide bonds allowed for longer-term release to 10 days. The release of covalently attached IFN-γ from the films was also able to polarize M1 macrophages in vitro. Thus, the strategy described here offers new approaches to utilizing biomaterials for directing the polarization of macrophages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical Control of FGF-2 Release for Promoting Calvarial Healing with Adipose Stem Cells*

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan, Matthew D.; Sellmyer, Mark A.; Quarto, Natalina; Ho, Andrew M.; Wandless, Thomas J.; Longaker, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical control of protein secretion using a small molecule approach provides a powerful tool to optimize tissue engineering strategies by regulating the spatial and temporal dimensions that are exposed to a specific protein. We placed fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) under conditional control of a small molecule and demonstrated greater than 50-fold regulation of FGF-2 release as well as tunability, reversibility, and functionality in vitro. We then applied conditional control of FGF-2 se...

  14. Designed formulation based on α-tocopherol anchored on chitosan microspheres for pH-controlled gastrointestinal controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Alexandre G S; Santos, André L F; Nunes, Alecio R; Tavares, Guilherme W; de Almeida, Claudio M

    2012-08-01

    Chitosan microspheres were prepared and vitamin E (α-tocopherol) was anchored onto the polymer. The amount of α-tocopherol entrapped onto a gram of the microspheres based system was 13.4±0.4 mg. The microspheres modified with α-tocopherol were applied to vitamin E controlled release in a simulated gastrointestinal system. Characterizations were carried out by optical microscopy, FTIR and HPLC-UV techniques. For chitosan microspheres based system there was a 4.10% release, while for pure α-tocopherol the release was 25.53%. The percentage of α-tocopherol released at pH 6.8 was 13.10% for chitosan microspheres and 60.00% for free α-tocopherol. At pH 7.4, α-tocopherol release reached 51.30% and 92.88% for chitosan microspheres and pure α-tocopherol, respectively. α-tocopherol immobilized onto chitosan presented three distinct landings at each studied pH, whereas pure α-tocopherol presented only two established solubilization regions, one at pH 1.2, while between pH 6.8 and 7.4 it did not present any difference, establishing after 3.5h. Thus, the immobilization of α-tocopherol onto chitosan microspheres figures it as an efficient controlled release system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A current controlled matrix converter for wind energy conversion systems based on permanent magnet synchronous generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naggar H. Saad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main challenges of wind energy conversion systems (WECS are to maximize the energy capture from the wind and injecting reactive power during the fault. This paper presents a current controlled matrix converter to interface Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators (PMSG based WECS with the grid. To achieve fast dynamic response with reduced current ripples, a hysteresis current control is utilized. The proposed control system decouples the active and reactive components of the PMSG current to extract the maximum power from the wind at a given wind velocity and to inject reactive power to the grid. Reactive power injection during the fault satisfying the grid-codes requirement. The proposed WECS has been modeled and simulated using PSCAD/EMTDC software package.

  16. Linear matrix inequality approach for synchronization control of fuzzy cellular neural networks with mixed time delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramaniam, P.; Kalpana, M.; Rakkiyappan, R.

    2012-01-01

    Fuzzy cellular neural networks (FCNNs) are special kinds of cellular neural networks (CNNs). Each cell in an FCNN contains fuzzy operating abilities. The entire network is governed by cellular computing laws. The design of FCNNs is based on fuzzy local rules. In this paper, a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach for synchronization control of FCNNs with mixed delays is investigated. Mixed delays include discrete time-varying delays and unbounded distributed delays. A dynamic control scheme is proposed to achieve the synchronization between a drive network and a response network. By constructing the Lyapunov—Krasovskii functional which contains a triple-integral term and the free-weighting matrices method an improved delay-dependent stability criterion is derived in terms of LMIs. The controller can be easily obtained by solving the derived LMIs. A numerical example and its simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  17. Intercalation of urea into kaolinite for preparation of controlled release fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdavi Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study urea was intercalated between layers of kaolinite by dry grinding technique to be used for preparing controlled release fertilizer. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD patterns confirmed the intercalation of urea into kaolinite by the significant expansion of the basal spacing of kaolinite layers from 0.710 nm to 1.090 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR also confirmed the hydrogen bonding between urea and kaolinite. Based on CHNS elemental analysis, 20% (wt. urea was intercalated between kaolinite layers. The urea-intercalated kaolinite was mixed with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC binder and was granulated to prepare the nitrogen-based controlled release fertilizer. To study the nitrogen release behavior of granules, ultraviolet/visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy was used through the diacetyl monoxime (DAM colorimetric method. The result of UV-Vis spectroscopy showed that intercalation of urea into kaolinite decreased the nitrogen release from 25.50 to 13.66 % after 24 hours and from 98.15 to 70.01% after 30 days incubation in water. According to the results, the prepared controlled release fertilizer (CRF behaved according to the standard for CRFs.

  18. Nanoscale architectural tuning of parylene patch devices to control therapeutic release rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierstorff, Erik; Lam, Robert; Ho, Dean

    2008-01-01

    The advent of therapeutic functionalized implant coatings has significantly impacted the medical device field by enabling prolonged device functionality for enhanced patient treatment. Incorporation of drug release from a stable, biocompatible surface is instrumental in decreasing systemic application of toxic therapeutics and increasing the lifespan of implants by the incorporation of antibiotics and anti-inflammatories. In this study, we have developed a parylene C-based device for controlled release of Doxorubicin, an anti-cancer chemotherapy and definitive read-out for preserved drug functionality, and further characterized the parylene deposition condition-dependent tunability of drug release. Drug release is controlled by the deposition of a layer of 20-200 nm thick parylene over the drug layer. This places a porous layer above the Doxorubicin, limiting drug elution based on drug accessibility to solvent and the solvent used. An increase in the thickness of the porous top layer prolongs the elution of active drug from the device from, in the conditions tested, the order of 10 min to the order of 2 d in water and from the order of 10 min to no elution in PBS. Thus, the controlled release of an anti-cancer therapeutic has been achieved via scalably fabricated, parylene C-encapsulated drug delivery devices.

  19. Intercalation and controlled release properties of vitamin C intercalated layered double hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xiaorui, E-mail: gxr_1320@sina.com [College of Science, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA (United Kingdom); Lei, Lixu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); O' Hare, Dermot [Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA (United Kingdom); Xie, Juan [College of Science, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038 (China); Gao, Pengran [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Chang, Tao [College of Science, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Two drug-inorganic composites involving vitamin C (VC) intercalated in Mg–Al and Mg–Fe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been synthesized by the calcination–rehydration (reconstruction) method. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy indicate a successful intercalation of VC into the interlayer galleries of the LDH host. Studies of VC release from the LDHs in deionised water and in aqueous CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} solutions imply that Mg{sub 3}Al–VC LDH is a better controlled release system than Mg{sub 3}Fe–VC LDH. Analysis of the release profiles using a number of kinetic models suggests a solution-dependent release mechanism, and a diffusion-controlled deintercalation mechanism in deionised water, but an ion exchange process in CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} solution. - Graphical abstract: Vitamin C anions have been intercalated in the interlayer space of layered double hydroxide and released in CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} solution and deionised water. - Highlights: • Vitamin C intercalated Mg–Al and Mg–Fe layered double hydroxides were prepared. • Release property of vitamin C in aqueous CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} solution is better. • Avrami-Erofe’ev and first-order models provide better fit for release results. • Diffusion-controlled and ion exchange processes occur in deionised water. • An ion exchange process occurs in CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} solution.

  20. Development and in vitro evaluation of extended-release theophylline matrix capsules Desenvolvimento e avaliação in vitro de cápsulas de teofilina de liberação prolongada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Alves Pinheiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymers like cellulose (MethocelTM K100MPRCR, K15MPRCR and E4MCR at different proportions (15-35% were used to slow the release of theophylline (100 mg from capsules. Volumetric method for powder filling capsules was used to prepare the capsules. Drug release from capsules was performed using apparatus 1, at 100 rpm and 900 mL of intestinal medium without enzymes (pH 7.5, at 37 °C, following the USP 28th ed. (Test 8. Dissolution profiles were compared to two batches of commercial extended-release capsules. Capsules compounded with 35% (wt/wt of MethocelTM E4MCR showed dissolution profile according to the official especifications. Similar results were reproduced with other ten compounded batches. Commercial extended-release capsules containing theophylline pellets (100 mg showed quick drug release when submitted to the same test, indicating that, in these conditions, the capsules did not show prolonged release. Mathematical models like zero-order, first-order and Higuchi were applied in kinetic studies of theophylline release from the compounded capsules. Polymers were efficient to control the release of theophylline in capsules involving diffusion and erosion as mechanisms, and that first-order model was the best fitted one for theophylline matrix capsules. These results support that compounded extended-release capsules can be prepared, since the drug release tests can be done.Cápsulas de liberação modificada contendo 100 mg de teofilina foram preparadas com polímeros derivados da celulose (Methocel® K100MPRCR, K15MPRCR e E4MCR em diferentes concentrações, 15-35%, empregando-se o método volumétrico. Estudos de liberação do fármaco foram realizados de acordo com a Farmacopéia Americana 28 ed., (Teste 8, empregando aparato 1, rotação de 100 rpm e temperatura de 37 ºC em 900 mL de meio fluido intestinal sem enzimas (pH 7,5. Os perfis de dissolução foram comparados ao de duas especialidades farmacêuticas comerciais. A formula

  1. Development of novel diclofenac potassium controlled release tablets by wet granulation technique and the effect of co-excipients on in vitro drug release rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shefaatullah; Khan, Gul Majid; Jan, Syed Umer; Shah, Kifayatullah; Hussain, Abid; Khan, Haroon; Khan, Haroon; Khan, Haroon; Khan, Kamran Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the formulation and evaluation of controlled release polymeric tablets of Diclofenac Potassium by wet granulation method for the release rate, release pattern and the mechanism involved in drug release. Formulations having three grades of polymer Ethocel (7P; 7FP, 10P, 10FP, 100P, 100FP) in several drugs to polymer ratios (10:3 and 10:1) were compressed into tablets using wet granulation method. Co-excipients were added to some selected formulations to investigate their enhancement effect on in vitro drug release patterns. In vitro drug release studies were performed using USP Method-1 (Rotating Basket method) and Phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) was used as a dissolution medium. The similarities and dissimilarities of release profiles of test formulations with reference standard were checked using f2 similarity factor and f1 dissimilarity factor. Mathematical/Kinetic models were employed to determine the release mechanism and drug release kinetics.

  2. Dopamine D(1) receptor-mediated control of striatal acetylcholine release by endogenous dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquas, E; Di Chiara, G

    1999-10-27

    The role of dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors in the control of acetylcholine release in the dorsal striatum by endogenous dopamine was investigated by monitoring with microdialysis the effect of the separate or combined administration of the dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist, SCH 39166 ¿(-)-trans-6,7,7a,8,9, 13b-exahydro-3-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-methyl-5H-benzo-[d]-nap hto-[2, 1b]-azepine hydrochloride¿ (50 microg/kg subcutaneous (s.c.)), of the dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor agonist, quinpirole (trans-(-)-4aR, 4a,5,6,7,8,8a,9-octahydro-5-propyl-1H-pyrazolo-(3,4-g)-quinoline hydrochloride) (5 and 10 microg/kg s.c.), and of the D(3) receptor selective agonist, PD 128,907 [S(+)-(4aR,10bR)-3,4,4a, 10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-[1]benzopyrano-[4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin -9-ol hydrochloride] (50 microg/kg s.c.), on in vivo dopamine and acetylcholine release. Microdialysis was performed with a Ringer containing low concentrations (0.01 microM) of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, neostigmine. Quinpirole (10 microg/kg s.c.) decreased striatal dopamine and acetylcholine release. Administration of PD 128,907 (50 microg/kg) decreased dopamine but failed to affect acetylcholine release. SCH 39166 (50 microg/kg s.c.) stimulated dopamine release and reduced acetylcholine release. Pretreatment with quinpirole reduced (5 microg/kg s.c.) or completely prevented (10 microg/kg s.c.) the stimulation of dopamine release elicited by SCH 39166 (50 microg/kg s.c.); on the other hand, pretreatment with quinpirole (5 and 10 microg/kg) potentiated the reduction of striatal acetylcholine release induced by SCH 39166 (50 microg/kg s.c.). Similarly, pretreatment with PD 128,907 (50 microg/kg) which prevented the increase of dopamine release induced by SCH 39166 (50 microg/kg), potentiated the reduction of striatal acetylcholine transmission elicited by SCH 39166. Thus, pretreatment with low doses of quinpirole or PD 128,907 influences in opposite manner the effect of SCH 39166 on striatal dopamine and

  3. Single Layer Extended Release Two-in-One Guaifenesin Matrix Tablet: Formulation Method, Optimization, Release Kinetics Evaluation and Its Comparison with Mucinex® Using Box-Behnken Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morovati, Amirhosein; Ghaffari, Alireza; Erfani Jabarian, Lale; Mehramizi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Guaifenesin, a highly water-soluble active (50 mg/mL), classified as a BCS class I drug. Owing to its poor flowability and compressibility, formulating tablets especially high-dose one, may be a challenge. Direct compression may not be feasible. Bilayer tablet technology applied to Mucinex®, endures challenges to deliver a robust formulation. To overcome challenges involved in bilayer-tablet manufacturing and powder compressibility, an optimized single layer tablet prepared by a binary mixture (Two-in-one), mimicking the dual drug release character of Mucinex ® was purposed. A 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize seven considered dependent variables (Release "%" in 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 h) regarding different levels of independent one (X 1 : Cetyl alcohol, X 2 : Starch 1500 ® , X 3 : HPMC K100M amounts). Two granule portions were prepared using melt and wet granulations, blended together prior to compression. An optimum formulation was obtained (X 1 : 37.10, X 2 : 2, X 3 : 42.49 mg). Desirability function was 0.616. F2 and f1 between release profiles of Mucinex® and the optimum formulation were 74 and 3, respectively. An n-value of about 0.5 for both optimum and Mucinex® formulations showed diffusion (Fickian) control mechanism. However, HPMC K100M rise in 70 mg accompanied cetyl alcohol rise in 60 mg led to first order kinetic (n = 0.6962). The K values of 1.56 represented an identical burst drug releases. Cetyl alcohol and starch 1500 ® modulated guaifenesin release from HPMC K100M matrices, while due to their binding properties, improved its poor flowability and compressibility, too.

  4. Interleukin-1beta-induced release of matrix proteins into culture media causes inhibition of mineralization of nodules formed by periodontal ligament cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, H H; Lin, W L; Cho, M I

    1999-05-01

    media after [35S]-methionine labeling showed their deposition primarily in the mineralized nodules of the Dex group, and their release into the media in the IL-1 group. Immunogold labeling demonstrated the location of OPN and BSP in mineralized nodules of the Dex group, but no significant labeling occurred in the nodule-like structures from the IL-1 group. Interestingly, IL-1 treatment increased the expression of collagenase mRNA by sevenfold, compared with that of the Dex group. These data suggest that the IL-1-induced formation of unmineralized nodules by PDL cells results not so much from the downregulated formation of matrix proteins, which plays a crucial role in the mineralization process, as from their release into the culture media. Finally, collagenase synthesis upregulated by IL-1 may be involved in this process.

  5. Preparation of uniform starch microcapsules by premix membrane emulsion for controlled release of avermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Liu, Baoxia; Yang, Fei; Wang, Xing; Shen, Hong; Wu, Decheng

    2016-01-20

    In recent years, starch microparticles have gained interest in many fields. However, low production, uncontrollable size, and varying size distribution hinder their practical application. Here, we adopt a premix membrane emulsification (PME) method to prepare starch microcapsules at high production rates. The process conditions were optimized to fabricate uniform microcapsules with controllable sizes and narrow size distribution (PDImicrocapsules in situ during the process, we developed a pesticide delivery system that enabled a controlled and consistent release of Av over a period of 2 weeks. Kinetic analysis indicated that the mechanisms of Av release involved non-Fickian and Case-II transport. The diameters (0.70-4.8 μm) of the microcapsules and Av contents (16-47%) were adjusted to achieve suitable release profiles. The results will lay the foundation for further field experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chitosan/TPP microparticles obtained by microemulsion method applied in controlled release of heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Alessandro F; de Oliveira, Daiane M; Pereira, Antonio G B; Rubira, Adley F; Muniz, Edvani C

    2012-12-01

    This work deals with the preparation of chitosan/tripolyphosphate microparticles (CHT/TPP) using microemulsion system based on water/benzyl alcohol. The morphology of the microparticles was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microparticles were also characterized through infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The morphology and crystallinity of microparticles depended mainly on CHT/TPP ratio. Studies of controlled release of HP were evaluated in distilled water and in simulated gastric fluid. Besides, the profile of HP releasing could be tailored by tuning the CHT/TPP molar ratio. Finally, these prospective results allow the particles to be employed as site-specific HP controlled release system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sustained and controlled release of lipophilic drugs from a self-assembling amphiphilic peptide hydrogel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briuglia, Maria-Lucia; Urquhart, Andrew; Lamprou, Dimitrios A.

    2014-01-01

    . In this work, we have investigated the diffusion properties of Pindolol, Quinine and Timolol maleate from RADA16 in PBS and in BSS-PLUS at 37°C. A sustained, controlled, reproducible and efficient drug release has been detected for all the systems, which allows to understand the dependence of release kinetics......Materials which undergo self-assembly to form supramolecular structures can provide alternative strategies to drug loading problems in controlled release application. RADA 16 is a simple and versatile self-assembling peptide with a designed structure formed of two distinct surfaces, one hydrophilic...... and one hydrophobic that are positioned in such a well-ordered fashion allowing precise assembly into a predetermined organization. A "smart" architecture in nanostructures can represent a good opportunity to use RADA16 as a carrier system for hydrophobic drugs solving problems of drugs delivery...

  8. The controlled release of insulin-mimetic metal ions by the multifunction of chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofuji, Kyoko; Qian, Chun-Jun; Murata, Yoshifumi; Kawashima, Susumu

    2005-06-01

    Vanadium, which is an insulin-mimetic metal ion, was efficiently adsorbed on chitosan (CS). The adsorption of vanadium on CS was affected by the vanadium/CS ratio and the initial concentration of vanadium in preparative medium under constant pH condition. The vanadium-CS complex was able to control vanadium release. Moreover, a consistent control of vanadium release was achieved by incorporation of the vanadium-CS complex into a CS gel. After implantation of the CS gel retaining the vanadium-CS complex into diabetic mice, insulin-mimetic efficacy was confirmed by observation of a steady reduction in blood glucose levels. The sustained vanadium release also contributed to minimization of the side-effects. Thus, CS gel retaining the vanadium-CS complex appears promising as a vehicle for vanadium with long-term action and a low toxicity leading to its clinical use.

  9. Synthesis, characterization, and controllable drug release of pH-sensitive hybrid magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Lilin [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering of the Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yuan Jinying [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering of the Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: yuanjy@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Yuan Weizhong; Sui Xiaofeng [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering of the Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wu Sizhu [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Controlled Chemical Reactions, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Li Zhaolong [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering of the Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shen Dezhong [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-09-15

    The synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles coated with pH-sensitive poly((2-dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) for use as novel potential carriers for targeted drug delivery and controllable release is reported. The organic/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles were obtained with a narrow molecular weight distribution. The pH-sensitivity of the nanoparticles was investigated by the measurement of the pH dependence of hydrodynamic radius and the superparamagnetism was illustrated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The behavior of model drug phenolphthalein released from the nanoparticles indicated that the rate of drug release could be effectively controlled by altering the pH values of the environment.

  10. Differential impact of the cheese matrix on the postprandial lipid response: a randomized, crossover, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin-Chartier, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, André J; Maltais-Giguère, Julie; Charest, Amélie; Guinot, Léa; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Labrie, Steve; Britten, Michel; Lamarche, Benoît; Turgeon, Sylvie L; Couture, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    Background: In a simulated gastrointestinal environment, the cheese matrix modulates dairy fat digestion. However, to our knowledge, the impact of the cheese matrix on postprandial lipemia in humans has not yet been evaluated. Objective: In healthy subjects, we compared the impact of dairy fat provided from firm cheese, soft cream cheese, and butter on the postprandial response at 4 h and on the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of plasma triglycerides. Design: Forty-three healthy subjects were recruited to this randomized, crossover, controlled trial. In random order at intervals of 14 d and after a 12-h fast, subjects ingested 33 g fat from a firm cheese (young cheddar), a soft cream cheese (cream cheese), or butter (control) incorporated into standardized meals that were matched for macronutrient content. Plasma concentrations of triglycerides were measured immediately before the meal and 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after the meal. Results: Cheddar cheese, cream cheese, and butter induced similar increases in triglyceride concentrations at 4 h (change from baseline: +59%, +59%, and +62%, respectively; P = 0.9). No difference in the triglyceride iAUC 0-8 h ( P -meal = 0.9) was observed between the 3 meals. However, at 2 h, the triglyceride response caused by the cream cheese (change from baseline: +44%) was significantly greater than that induced by butter (change from baseline: +24%; P = 0.002) and cheddar cheese (change from baseline: +16%; P = 0.0004). At 6 h, the triglyceride response induced by cream cheese was significantly attenuated compared with that induced by cheddar cheese (change from baseline: +14% compared with +42%; P = 0.0004). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the cheese matrix modulates the impact of dairy fat on postprandial lipemia in healthy subjects. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02623790. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Synthesis, characterization, and controlled release antibacterial behavior of antibiotic intercalated Mg–Al layered double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi; Zhang, Dun

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The antibiotic anion released from Mg–Al LDHs provides a controlled release antibacterial activity against the growth of Micrococcus lysodeikticus in 3.5% NaCl solution. Highlights: ► Antibiotic anion intercalated LDHs were synthesized and characterized. ► The ion-exchange one is responsible for the release process. ► The diffusion through particle is the release rate limiting step. ► LDHs loaded with antibiotic anion have high antibacterial capabilities. -- Abstract: Antibiotic–inorganic clay composites including four antibiotic anions, namely, benzoate (BZ), succinate (SU), benzylpenicillin (BP), and ticarcillin (TC) anions, intercalated Mg–Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were synthesized via ion-exchange. Powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectrum analyses showed the successful intercalation of antibiotic anion into the LDH interlayer. BZ and BP anions were accommodated in the interlayer region as a bilayer, whereas SU and TC anions were intercalated in a monolayer arrangement. Kinetic simulation of the release data indicated that ion-exchange was responsible for the release process, and the diffusion through the particles was the rate-limiting step. The antibacterial capabilities of LDHs loaded with antibiotic anion toward Micrococcus lysodeikticus growth were analyzed using a turbidimetric method. Significant high inhibition rate was observed when LDH nanohybrid was introduced in 3.5% NaCl solution. Therefore, this hybrid material may be applied as nanocontainer in active antifouling coating for marine equipment.

  12. Evaluation of tecniques for controlling UF6 release clouds in the GAT environmental chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    Studies designed to characterize the reaction between UF 6 and atmospheric moisture, evaluate environmental variables of UF 6 cloud formation and ultimate cloud fate, and UF 6 release cloud control procedure have been conducted in the 1200 cu. ft. GAT environmental chamber. In earlier chamber experiments, 30 separate UF 6 release tests indicated that variations of atmospheric conditions and sample sizes had no significant effect on UO 2 F 2 particle size distribution, release cloud formation, or cloud settling rates. During the past year, numerous procedures have been evaluated for accelerating UF 6 cloud knockdown in a series of 37 environmental chamber releases. Knockdown procedures included: coarse water spray; air jet; steam spray (electrostatically charged and uncharged); carbon dioxide; Freon-12; fine water mist (uncharged); boric acid mist (charged and uncharged); and an ionized dry air stream. UF 6 hydrolysis cloud settling rates monitored by a laser/powermeter densitometer, indicated the relative effectiveness of various cloud knockdown techniques. Electrostatically charged boric acid/water mist, and electrostatically ionized dry air were both found to be very effective, knocking down the UO 2 F 2 release cloud particles in two to five minutes. Work to adapt these knockdown techniques for use under field conditions is continuing, taking into account recovery of the released uranium as well as nuclear criticality constraints

  13. Synthesis, characterization, and controlled release antibacterial behavior of antibiotic intercalated Mg–Al layered double hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Zhang, Dun, E-mail: zhangdun@qdio.ac.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The antibiotic anion released from Mg–Al LDHs provides a controlled release antibacterial activity against the growth of Micrococcus lysodeikticus in 3.5% NaCl solution. Highlights: ► Antibiotic anion intercalated LDHs were synthesized and characterized. ► The ion-exchange one is responsible for the release process. ► The diffusion through particle is the release rate limiting step. ► LDHs loaded with antibiotic anion have high antibacterial capabilities. -- Abstract: Antibiotic–inorganic clay composites including four antibiotic anions, namely, benzoate (BZ), succinate (SU), benzylpenicillin (BP), and ticarcillin (TC) anions, intercalated Mg–Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were synthesized via ion-exchange. Powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectrum analyses showed the successful intercalation of antibiotic anion into the LDH interlayer. BZ and BP anions were accommodated in the interlayer region as a bilayer, whereas SU and TC anions were intercalated in a monolayer arrangement. Kinetic simulation of the release data indicated that ion-exchange was responsible for the release process, and the diffusion through the particles was the rate-limiting step. The antibacterial capabilities of LDHs loaded with antibiotic anion toward Micrococcus lysodeikticus growth were analyzed using a turbidimetric method. Significant high inhibition rate was observed when LDH nanohybrid was introduced in 3.5% NaCl solution. Therefore, this hybrid material may be applied as nanocontainer in active antifouling coating for marine equipment.

  14. Controlled release of copper from an intrauterine device using a biodegradable polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; B, Bharaniraja; Aprem, Abi Santhosh

    2015-12-01

    The adverse effects of copper intrauterine devices (IUDs) such as abnormal bleeding, pain and cramps may be due in part to the burst release of copper ions during the first few months of usage. This study focuses on controlling the initial burst release of copper ions. This study evaluated in vitro release rates of copper for a period of 1 year from standard CuT380 IUDs (n=6) and from CuT380 IUDs coated with poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) films (n=6). This study characterized the coated device for its morphological changes during degradation of film by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CuT380 IUDs coated with PLGA film with a thickness of 0.10±0.02 mm showed a reduced initial copper release (40-80 mcg/day) compared with uncoated CuT380 IUDs (150-200 mcg/day). Statistically significant (p<.05) results were obtained at different time intervals during the overall study period of 1 year. SEM images showed degradation of coating. Coating a CuT380 IUD with biodegradable polymer reduced the initial copper release without affecting release at 1 year. Clinical trials are required to determine whether this could reduce side effects such as bleeding and pain associated with copper containing IUDs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Controlled release profiles of dipyridamole from biodegradable microspheres on the base of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Novel biodegradable microspheres on the base of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB designed for controlled release of antithrombotic drug, namely dipyridamole (DPD, have been kinetically studied. The profiles of release from the microspheres with different diameters 4, 9, 63, and 92 µm present the progression of nonlinear and linear stages. Diffusionkinetic equation describing both linear (PHB hydrolysis and nonlinear (diffusion stages of the DPD release profiles from the spherical subjects has been written down as the sum of two terms: desorption from the homogeneous sphere in accordance with diffusion mechanism and the zero-order release. In contrast to the diffusivity dependence on microsphere size, the constant characteristics (k of linearity are scarcely affected by the diameter of PHB microparticles. The view of the kinetic profiles as well as the low rate of DPD release are in satisfactory agreement with kinetics of weight loss measured in vitro for the PHB films. Taking into account kinetic results, we suppose that the degradation of both films and PHB microspheres is responsible for the linear stage of DPD release profiles. In the nearest future, combination of biodegradable PHB and DPD as a representative of proliferation cell inhibitors will give possibility to elaborate the novel injectable therapeutic system for a local, long-term, antiproliferative action.

  16. Controlled Release of Benzocaine from Monomer and Copolymer Carriers in Synthetic Gastro-intestinal Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houaria Merine

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available New dosage forms able to control drug release in the gastro-intestinal media have been prepared and investigated in this paper. Two different type of medicinal agent bonding (MA, in our case Benzocaine (Bz, were chosen in order to examine drug release. i MA attached to ethylenic monomer (m,p-vinylbenzaldehyde, condensation reaction. ii The copolymer carrier (Cp is obtained by copolymerizing this monomer. These two carriers were well characterized by microanalysis, FTIR, DSC (Tg and GPC (Ip and the two fraction α and β were calculated from elemental analyses of Cp. The results showed good polydispersity and low average molecular weight. MA linked to an organic product by the azomethine function (C=N, hydrolytically sensitive, allowed controlled release of Bz, from the monomer carrier and from the bending Schiff bases groups. Theoretical and experimental analyses of controlled release of Bz kinetics from monomer and copolymer carriers were conducted for the case of contact with synthetic gastro-intestinal fluids at various pH (1,2; 6,0 and 8,0 at 37°C. The process was found to be controlled by the nature of media (heterogeneous, which involved the preliminary hydrolysis, and the drug (Bz diffusing out of structure of copolymer (Cp to the external aqueous media. The results obtained on the rate of delivery showed a clear difference between pH = 1,2 and pH = 6,0 and 8,0 based on: i The cation of p-aminoniumbenzoic acid (PABAH+ release at pH = 1,2 ii Bz release at pH = 6,0 and 8,0

  17. DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM MATRIX TABLETS WITH NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    R. L. C. Sasidhar et al.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to formulate controlled release matrix tablets of losartan Potassium by using a combination of hydrophilic synthetic polymer like poly (ethylene oxides) and natural gums like xanthan gum, karaya gum and guar gum. A combination of synthetic hydrophobic polymers like methacrylates with synthetic hydrophilic polymer like poly (ethylene oxide) was also used in the preparation of matrix tablets and evaluated for their influence on controlled drug release. The matrix ...

  18. Development of a controlled release formulation by continuous twin screw granulation: Influence of process and formulation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoorne, V; Vanbillemont, B; Vercruysse, J; De Leersnyder, F; Gomes, P; Beer, T De; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2016-05-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of twin screw granulation for the continuous production of controlled release formulations with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose as hydrophilic matrix former. Metoprolol tartrate was included in the formulation as very water soluble model drug. A premix of metoprolol tartrate, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and filler (ratio 20/20/60, w/w) was granulated with demineralized water via twin screw granulation. After oven drying and milling, tablets were produced on a rotary Modul™ P tablet press. A D-optimal design (29 experiments) was used to assess the influence of process (screw speed, throughput, barrel temperature and screw design) and formulation parameters (starch content of the filler) on the process (torque), granule (size distribution, shape, friability, density) and tablet (hardness, friability and dissolution) critical quality attributes. The torque was dominated by the number of kneading elements and throughput, whereas screw speed and filling degree only showed a minor influence on torque. Addition of screw mixing elements after a block of kneading elements improved the yield of the process before milling as it resulted in less oversized granules and also after milling as less fines were present. Temperature was also an important parameter to optimize as a higher temperature yielded less fines and positively influenced the aspect ratio. The shape of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose granules was comparable to that of immediate release formulations. Tensile strength and friability of tablets were not dependent on the process parameters. The use of starch as filler was not beneficial with regard to granule and tablet properties. Complete drug release was obtained after 16-20h and was independent of the design's parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/metribuzin formulations: characterization, controlled release properties, herbicidal activity, and effect on soil microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volova, Tatiana; Zhila, Natalia; Kiselev, Evgeniy; Prudnikova, Svetlana; Vinogradova, Olga; Nikolaeva, Elena; Shumilova, Anna; Shershneva, Anna; Shishatskaya, Ekaterina

    2016-12-01

    Slow-release formulations of the herbicide metribuzin (MET) embedded in the polymer matrix of degradable poly-3-hydroxybutyrate [P(3HB)] in the form of microparticles, films, microgranules, and pellets were developed and tested. The kinetics of polymer degradation, MET release, and accumulation in soil were studied in laboratory soil microecosystems with higher plants. The study shows that MET release can be controlled by using different techniques of constructing formulations and by varying MET loading. MET accumulation in soil occurs gradually, as the polymer is degraded. The average P(3HB) degradation rates were determined by the geometry of the formulation, reaching 0.17, 0.12, 0.04, and 0.05 mg/day after 60 days for microparticles, films, microgranules, and pellets, respectively. The herbicidal activities of P(3HB)/MET formulations and commercial formulation Sencor Ultra were tested on the Agrostis stolonifera and Setaria macrocheata plants. The parameters used to evaluate the herbicidal activity were plant density and the weight of fresh green biomass measured at days 10, 20, and 30 after sowing. All P(3HB)/MET formulations had pronounced herbicidal activity, which varied depending on MET loading and the stage of the experiment. In the early phases of the experiment, the herbicidal effect of P(3HB)/MET formulations with the lowest MET loading (10 %) was comparable with that of the commercial formulation. The herbicidal effect of P(3HB)/MET formulations with higher MET loadings (25 and 50 %) at later stages of the experiment were stronger than the effect of Sencor Ultra.

  20. Characterization of a polyurethane-based controlled release system for local delivery of chlorhexidine diacetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Truc Thanh Ngoc; Padois, Karine; Sonvico, Fabio; Rossi, Alessandra; Zani, Franca; Pirot, Fabrice; Doury, Jacques; Falson, Françoise

    2010-02-01

    Conventional formulations of chlorhexidine usually provide short-term efficiency, requiring repeated applications to maintain antibacterial activity. Therefore, appropriate release system of chlorhexidine controlling local drug delivery would reduce the number of applications and enhance patient compliance. The aim of this study was to develop a controlled release system based on medical polyurethane for the local delivery of chlorhexidine diacetate (CDA). CDA-loaded polyurethane films (CDA-Films) and CDA-loaded polyurethane sandwiches (CDA-Sandwiches) were obtained by casting and solvent evaporation. The physico-chemical aspects of CDA-loaded polyurethane systems were investigated, and the crystalline state of CDA in the polymeric system was highlighted. CDA-Films exhibited appropriate mechanical properties for further applications. Drug release was measured in two different media: (i) distilled water and (ii) physiological saline solution to mimic in vivo conditions. Drug release studies were performed up to 11days on CDA-Films and 29days for CDA-Sandwiches. Release of CDA depended on drug loading and the structure of the system. In particular, release of CDA from the sandwich system followed zero-order kinetic. The release rate was significantly lower in physiological solution. Antibacterial studies were carried out on CDA-Films against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis showing 35days persisting antibacterial activity. In conclusion, the polyurethane-based system developed in this study is potentially useful as a local delivery system for CDA and could be used not only in surgery but also in dental and clinical applications. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dynamics of controlled release systems based on water-in-water emulsions: A general theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Phase-separated biopolymer solutions, and aqueous dispersions of hydrogel beads, liposomes, polymersomes, aqueous polymer microcapsules, and colloidosomes are all examples of water-in-water emulsions. These systems can be used for encapsulation and controlled release purposes, in for example food or

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Oxidized Starch Polymer Microgels for Encapsulation and Controlled Release of Functional Ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yuan; de Vries, Renko; Slaghek, Ted; Timmermans, Johan; Stuart, Martien A. Cohen; Norde, Willem

    A novel biocompatible and biodegradable microgel system has been developed for controlled uptake and release of especially proteins. It contains TEMPO-oxidized potato starch polymers, which are chemically cross-linked by sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). Physical chemical properties have been

  3. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Tamsulosin in its Modified-Release and Oral Controlled Absorption System Formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco-Salinas, Gabriela; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Michel, Martin C.

    2010-01-01

    Tamsulosin is an alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist used for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms that are suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia. It is mostly used in a modified-release (M R) Formulation. but an oral controlled absorption system (OCAS) and a 'without-water' tablet

  4. Timing of insertion of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Pahh; Geomini, Pmaj; Herman, M C; Veersema, S; Bongers, M Y

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess whether patient-perceived pain during the insertion of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) depends on the timing during the menstrual cycle. DESIGN: A stratified two-armed non-inferiority randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Large

  5. Biological control of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in Florida: Post-release evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was released as a biological control agent against tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae)) in Sumter County, FL in 2006. Evaluation of beetle feeding damage to TSA plants and changes in the beetle po...

  6. Series elasticity of the human triceps surae muscle : Measurement by controlled-release vs. resonance methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, AL; Boom, H; Robinson, C; Rutten, W; Neuman, M; Wijkstra, H

    1997-01-01

    With a newly developed Controlled-Release Ergometer the complete characteristic of the series elastic component can be measured in human muscles. Previous estimates were based on the resonance method: muscle elasticity was assessed from the resonance frequency of the muscle elasticity connected to a

  7. Drug release control in delivery system for biodegradable polymer drugs by γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Sumie; Azo, Yukio; Kojima, Shigeo

    1997-01-01

    Characterizations of the drug release from microsphere and hydrogel preparation made from biodegradable polymers were investigated aiming at development of a drug delivery system which allows an optimum drug delivery and the identification of the factors which control its delivery. Poly-lactic acid microspheres containing 10% of progesterone were produced from poly DL-lactic acid and exposed to γ-ray at 5-1000 kGy. And its glass transition temperature (Tg) was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The temperature was gradually lowered with an increase in the dose of radiation. Tg of the microsphere exposed at 1000 kGy was lower by 10degC compared with the untreated one, showing that Tg control is possible without changing the size distribution of microsphere. Then, the amount of progesterone released from microsphere was determined. The release rate of the drug linearly increased with a square root of radiation time. These results indicate that the control of drug release rate is possible through controling the microsphere's Tg by γ-ray radiation. (M.N.)

  8. Design Project on Controlled-Release Drug Delivery Devices: Implementation, Management, and Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingxing; Liang, Youyun; Tong, Yen Wah; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    A design project that focuses on the subject of controlled-release drug delivery devices is presented for use in an undergraduate course on mass transfer. The purpose of the project is to introduce students to the various technologies used in the fabrication of drug delivery systems and provide a practical design exercise for understanding the…

  9. Substrates and controlled-release fertilizations on the quality of eucalyptus cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson B. G. da Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To produce cuttings with quality, the most appropriate nutritional management strategies should be sought to reduce wastage of fertilizer, while accounting for the characteristics of each substrate. This study evaluated the effect of substrates and doses of controlled-release fertilizer on the quality of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake cuttings. The substrates consisted of several mixtures: vermiculite+carbonized rice chaff+coconut fibre (1:1:1; vermiculite+coconut fibre (1:1; and vermiculite+carbonized rice chaff (1:1. These mixtures were added to 2, 4, 6 and 8 kg of controlled-release fertilizer per cubic meter of substrate. The substrates that do not support root development and have lower water retention, independently of the dose of controlled-release fertilizer, reduce the quality of the root system. For substrates with proper values of water retention, such as vermiculite+coconut fibre (1:1 and vermiculite+carbonised rice chaff+coconut fibre (1:1:1, the utilization of dose 2 kg of controlled-release fertilizer to each cubic meter is enough to promote cuttings with greater quality of the root systems and proper heights and stem diameters.

  10. EVALUATION OF BIOREMEDIATION STRATEGIES OF A CONTROLLED OIL RELEASE IN A WETLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    A controlled petroleum release was conducted to evaluate bioremediation in a wetland near Houston, Texas. The 140-day study was conducted using a randomized, complete block design to test three treatments with six replicates per treatment. The three treatment strategies were in...

  11. Controlled release of Pantoea agglomerans E325 for biocontrol of fire blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microencapsulation and controlled release of Pantoea agglomerans strain E325 (E325), which is an antagonist to bacterial pathogen (Erwinia amylovora) of fire blight, a devastating disease of apple and pear, have been investigated. Uniform core-shell alginate microcapsules (AMCs), 60-300 µm in diamet...

  12. Preparation and characterization of oxidized starch polymer microgels for encapsulation and controlled release of functional ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Vries, R. de; Slaghek, T.; Timmermans, J.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Norde, W.

    2009-01-01

    A novel biocompatible and biodegradable microgel system has been developed for controlled uptake and release of especially proteins. It contains TEMPO-oxidized potato starch polymers, which are chemically cross-linked by sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). Physical chemical properties have been

  13. Microencapsulation of Zataria multiflora thyme essential oil to improve its antifungal efficiency by controlled release mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyedmahmoud miri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research is enhancing the thyme essential oil efficacy by microencapsulation technique with emphasis on controlled released mechanism. First, essential oil was extracted by hydro-distillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 4 h. Then, core-shell microcapsules were prepared using solvent evaporation method with oil in water emulsion system. To measure the efficacy of encapsulated thyme oil, UV-visible spectrometer was used and was found to be 67 percent. The size and shape of oil droplets in emulsion were observed with optical microscope and the morphology of the polymer capsules was observed with scanning electron microscope. Release kinetics in both free and encapsulated forms showed that all components of free oil evaporated into atmosphere, while just 6 percent of capsules evaporated in the same condition. So, microencapsulation method increased the efficacy of the essential oil with controlled release mechanism. Filter paper disk test was performed to investigate the fungicide effects of thyme oil in both free and capsulated forms before and after leaching test. Results revealed that there are no significant differences between control samples and those treated by free oil especially after leaching test. In contrast, the samples treated by microencapsulated thyme oil showed much more resistance against Aspergillusniger mold indicating that the controlled release mechanism can prevent mold growth on filter paper disk and therefore improved the oil efficacy.

  14. Poly lactic acid based injectable delivery systems for controlled release of a model protein, lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tahami, Khaled; Meyer, Amanda; Singh, Jagdish

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the critical formulation parameters (i.e., polymer concentration, polymer molecular weight, and solvent nature) affecting the controlled delivery of a model protein, lysozyme, from injectable polymeric implants. The conformational stability and biological activity of the released lysozyme were also investigated. Three formulations containing 10%, 20%, and 30% (w/v) poly lactic acid (PLA) in triacetin were investigated. It was found that increasing polymer concentration in the formulations led to a lower burst effect and a slower release rate. Formulation with a high molecular weight polymer showed a greater burst effect as compared to those containing low molecular weight. Conformational stability and biological activity of released samples were studied by differential scanning calorimeter and enzyme activity assay, respectively. The released samples had significantly (P solution kept at same conditions). Increasing polymer concentration increased both the conformational stability and the biological activity of released lysozyme. In conclusion, phase sensitive polymer-based delivery systems were able to deliver a model protein, lysozyme, in a conformationally stable and biologically active form at a controlled rate over an extended period.

  15. Human abuse potential of immediate-release/extended-release versus immediate-release hydrocodone bitartrate/acetaminophen: a randomized controlled trial in recreational users of prescription opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarakonda, Krishna; Kostenbader, Kenneth; Zheng, Yanping; Montgomery, Jeannie B; Barrett, Thomas; Young, Jim L; Webster, Lynn R

    2015-01-01

    The abuse potential of prescription opioids is well established. This study compared positive, subjective drug effects of single, equal doses of biphasic immediate release (IR)/extended release (ER) hydrocodone bitartrate (HB)/acetaminophen (acetyl-p-aminophenol [APAP]) 7.5/325 mg tablets versus IR HB/APAP 7.5/325-mg tablets and placebo. Healthy adult recreational users of prescription opioids entered this randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active- and placebo-controlled, seven-way crossover study. Participants received single, total doses of IR/ER HB/APAP 22.5/975 mg (intact; three active tablets) and 45/1950 mg (intact and crushed [encapsulated]; six active tablets), IR HB/APAP 22.5/975 mg (intact; three active tablets) and 45/1950 mg (intact and crushed [encapsulated]; six active tablets), and placebo. Peak subjective effects (E(max)); time to peak effects (TE(max)); and area under the drug-effect curves for drug liking, high, and good drug effects were measured using visual analog scales. Median values with 95% confidence interval (CI) were compared using analysis of variance. Among completers (n = 52), IR/ER HB/APAP produced delayed and lower peak effects compared to equal doses of IR HB/APAP. Comparing intact tablets, the drug liking E(max) (median [95% CI]) was significantly lower for IR/ER HB/APAP 45/1950 mg (78.0 [73.0, 81.0]) than an equal dose of IR HB/APAP (89.5 [85.0, 93.0]; difference, -8.5 [-12.0, -6.0]; P effects compared with an equal dose of crushed IR HB/APAP and intact IR/ER HB/APAP. IR/ER HB/APAP resulted in lower subjective positive drug effects than an equal dose of IR HB/APAP. Crushing IR/ER HB/APAP also delayed the onset of subjective effects compared with intact IR/ER HB/APAP. These findings suggest that biphasic IR/ER HB/APAP has lower abuse potential than IR HB/APAP in single equal doses. This Phase I clinical trial conducted in the USA was not registered.

  16. Formulation design and development of matrix diffusion controlled transdermal drug delivery of glimepiride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram MR

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Rouf Akram,1 Mahmood Ahmad,1 Asad Abrar,1 Rai Muhammad Sarfraz,2 Asif Mahmood3 1Faculty of Pharmacy & Alternative Medicine, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan; 3Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan Background: The present work was conducted to prepare and evaluate transdermal patches with optimization of suitable polymeric blend of poly(meth acrylates (Eudragit® (Ammonio Methacrylate Copolymer Ph Eur for sustained transdermal delivery of glimepiride. Method: Polymeric matrix transdermal films were prepared by using Ammonio Methacrylate Copolymer Ph Eur RL 100 and Ammonio Methacrylate Copolymer Ph Eur RS 100 as the film former, and dibutyl phthalate (30% w/w as the plasticizer. Patches were characterized by physical appearance, thickness, weight variation, folding endurance, percentage erosion, swelling index, moisture content, and moisture uptake capacity. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of physical mixtures of contents were performed to identify any chemical and physical interaction between drug and excipients. Five different enhancers (isopropyl myristate [IPM], Span® 80, Tween® 20, eucalyptus oil, and limonene were employed at three different concentrations of polymer (2%, 5%, and 10% w/w in order to enhance permeation through rabbit skin. In vitro drug release studies were performed at pH 7.4, and scanning electron microscopy was conducted to elucidate surface morphology before and after the drug release. In vitro permeation studies through rabbit skin were performed on Franz diffusion cells and permeation kinetics followed the Higuchi model. Results: Results of in vitro permeation studies revealed that these enhancers not only increased drug release but also augmented the skin permeation of glimepiride. Conclusion: IPM was the most effective enhancer with

  17. Open-Switch Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant for Matrix Converter with Finite Control Set-Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Tao; Dan, Hanbing; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    To improve the reliability of the matrix converter (MC), a fault diagnosis method to identify single open-switch fault is proposed in this paper. The introduced fault diagnosis method is based on finite control set-model predictive control (FCS-MPC), which employs a time-discrete model of the MC...... topology and a cost function to select the best switching state for the next sampling period. The proposed fault diagnosis method is realized by monitoring the load currents and judging the switching state to locate the faulty switch. Compared to the conventional modulation strategies such as carrier......-switch fault conditions without any redundant hardware, a fault tolerant strategy based on predictive control is also studied. The fault tolerant strategy is to select the most appropriate switching state, associated with the remaining normal switches of the MC. Experiment results are presented to show...

  18. Release and distribution of Lilioceris cheni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of air potato (Dioscorea bulbilfera: Dioscoreaceae), in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 2012 to 2015, 429,668 Lilioceris cheni Gressit and Kimoto (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were released in Florida for biological control of air potato [Dioscorea bulbilfera L. (Dioscoreaceae)]. The spatial distribution of releases was highly aggregated, with several areas of high density releases ...

  19. Hydrologically Controlled Arsenic Release in Deltaic Wetlands and Coastal Riparian Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, J.; LeMonte, J. J.; Yu, X.; Schaefer, M.; Kocar, B. D.; Benner, S. G.; Rinklebe, J.; Tappero, R.; Michael, H. A.; Fendorf, S. E.; Sparks, D. L.

    2016-12-01

    Wetland and riparian zone hydrology exerts critical controls on the biogeochemical cycling of metal contaminants including arsenic. The role of wetlands in driving geogenic arsenic release to groundwater has been debated in the deltas of South and Southeast Asia where the largest impacted human population resides. In addition, groundwater in coastal areas worldwide, such as those in South and Southeast Asia and the Mid-Atlantic of the U.S., is at risk to largely unexplored biogeochemical and hydrologic impacts of projected sea level rise. First, we present data from fresh-sediment incubations, in situ model sediment incubations and a controlled field experiment with manipulated wetland hydrology and organic carbon inputs in the minimally disturbed upper Mekong Delta. Here we show that arsenic release is limited to near-surface sediments of permanently saturated wetlands where both organic carbon and arsenic-bearing solids are sufficiently reactive for microbial oxidation of organic carbon and reduction of arsenic-bearing iron oxides. In contrast, within the deeper aquifer or seasonally saturated sediments, reductive dissolution of iron oxides is observed only when either more reactive exogenous forms of iron oxides or organic carbon are added, revealing a potential thermodynamic restriction to microbial metabolism. Second, in order to assess the potential impacts of sea level rise on arsenic release to groundwater, we determined the changes in arsenic speciation and partitioning in sediment collected from an anthropogenically contaminated coastal riparian zone under controlled Eh regimes in both seawater and freshwater systems. Here we show greater arsenic release under anoxic/suboxic conditions in the freshwater system than in the seawater system, potentially due to high salinity induced microbial inhibition. Collectively, our work shows that shifting hydrologic conditions in deltaic wetlands and tidally influenced zones impacts the extent of arsenic release to

  20. Oral controlled release drug delivery system and Characterization of oral tablets; A review

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Zaman; Junaid Qureshi; Hira Ejaz; Rai Muhammad Sarfraz; Hafeez ullah Khan; Fazal Rehman Sajid; Muhammad Shafiq ur Rehman

    2016-01-01

    Oral route of drug administration is considered as the safest and easiest route of drug administration. Control release drug delivery system is the emerging trend in the pharmaceuticals and the oral route is most suitable for such kind of drug delivery system. Oral route is more convenient for It all age group including both pediatric and geriatrics. There are various systems which are adopted to deliver drug in a controlled manner to different target sites through oral route. It includes dif...

  1. Endocannabinoids control vesicle release mode at midbrain periaqueductal grey inhibitory synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrey, Karin R; Drew, Geoffrey M; Jeong, Hyo-Jin; Lau, Benjamin K; Vaughan, Christopher W

    2017-01-01

    The midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) forms part of an endogenous analgesic system which is tightly regulated by the neurotransmitter GABA. The role of endocannabinoids in regulating GABAergic control of this system was examined in rat PAG slices. Under basal conditions GABAergic neurotransmission onto PAG output neurons was multivesicular. Activation of the endocannabinoid system reduced GABAergic inhibition by reducing the probability of release and by shifting release to a univesicular mode. Blockade of endocannabinoid system unmasked a tonic control over the probability and mode of GABA release. These findings provides a mechanistic foundation for the control of the PAG analgesic system by disinhibition. The midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) has a crucial role in coordinating endogenous analgesic responses to physiological and psychological stressors. Endocannabinoids are thought to mediate a form of stress-induced analgesia within the PAG by relieving GABAergic inhibition of output neurons, a process known as disinhibition. This disinhibition is thought to be achieved by a presynaptic reduction in GABA release probability. We examined whether other mechanisms have a role in endocannabinoid modulation of GABAergic synaptic transmission within the rat PAG. The group I mGluR agonist DHPG ((R,S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine) inhibited evoked IPSCs and increased their paired pulse ratio in normal external Ca 2+ , and when release probability was reduced by lowering Ca 2+ . However, the effect of DHPG on the coefficient of variation and kinetics of evoked IPSCs differed between normal and low Ca 2+ . Lowering external Ca 2+ had a similar effect on evoked IPSCs to that observed for DHPG in normal external Ca 2+ . The low affinity GABA A receptor antagonist TPMPA ((1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid) inhibited evoked IPSCs to a greater extent in low than in normal Ca 2+ . Together these findings indicate that the normal mode of GABA release is

  2. Green tea in transdermal formulation: HPLC method for quality control and in vitro drug release assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Campos Alves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available RP-HPLC based analytical method for use in both quality control of green tea in a semisolid formulation and for in vitro drug release assays was developed and validated. The method was precise (CV 0.99, robust, and specific for the determination of epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG, caffeine (CAF, and gallic acid (GA. In a diffusion cell chamber, the release rate of EGCG was 8896.01 µg cm-2. This data showed that EGCG will be able to exert its systemic activity when delivered though the transdermal formulation, due to its good flux rates with the synthetic membrane.

  3. Building Adjustable Pre-storm Reservoir Flood-control Release Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shun-Nien; Chang, Li-Chiu; Chang, Fi-John; Hsieh, Cheng-Daw

    2017-04-01

    Typhoons hit Taiwan several times every year, which could cause serious flood disasters. Because mountainous terrains and steep landforms can rapidly accelerate the speed of flood flow during typhoon events, rivers cannot be a stable source of water supply. Reservoirs become the most effective floodwater storage facilities for alleviating flood damages in Taiwan. The pre-storm flood-control release can significantly increase reservoir storage capacity available to store floodwaters for reducing downstream flood damage, while the uncertainties of total forecasted rainfalls are very high in different stages of an oncoming typhoon, which may cause the risk of water shortage in the future. This study proposes adjustable pre-storm reservoir flood-control release rules in three designed operating stages with various hydrological conditions in the Feitsui Reservoir, a pivot reservoir for water supply to Taipei metropolitan in Taiwan, not only to reduce the risk of reservoir flood control and downstream flooding but also to consider water supply. The three operating stages before an oncoming typhoon are defined upon the timings when: (1) typhoon news is issued (3-7days before typhoon hit); (2) the sea warning is issued (2-4 days before typhoon hit); and (3) the land warning is issued (1-2 days before typhoon hit). We simulate 95 historical typhoon events with 3000 initial water levels and build some pre-storm flood-control release rules to adjust the amount of pre-release based on the total forecasted rainfalls at different operating stages. A great number of simulations (68.4 millions) are conducted to extract their major consequences and then build the adjustable pre-storm reservoir flood-control release rules. Accordingly, given a total forecasted rainfall and a water level, reservoir decision makers can easily identify the corresponding rule to tell the amount of pre-release in any stage. The results show that the proposed adjustable pre-release rules can effectively

  4. Chitosan/alginate based multilayers to control drug release from ophthalmic lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diana; Pinto, Luís F V; Bozukova, Dimitriya; Santos, Luís F; Serro, Ana Paula; Saramago, Benilde

    2016-11-01

    In this study we investigated the possibility of using layer-by-layer deposition, based in natural polymers (chitosan and alginate), to control the release of different ophthalmic drugs from three types of lens materials: a silicone-based hydrogel recently proposed by our group as drug releasing soft contact lens (SCL) material and two commercially available materials: CI26Y for intraocular lens (IOLs) and Definitive 50 for SCLs. The optimised coating, consisting in one double layer of (alginate - CaCl2)/(chitosan+glyoxal) topped with a final alginate-CaCl2 layer to avoid chitosan degradation by tear fluid proteins, proved to have excellent features to control the release of the anti-inflammatory, diclofenac, while keeping or improving the physical properties of the lenses. The coating leads to a controlled release of diclofenac from SCL and IOL materials for, at least, one week. Due to its high hydrophilicity (water contact angle≈0) and biocompatibility, it should avoid the use of further surface treatments to enhance the useŕs comfort. However, the barrier effect of this coating is specific for diclofenac, giving evidence to the need of optimizing the chemical composition of the layers in view of the desired drug. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Design of a gastroretentive mucoadhesive dosage form of furosemide for controlled release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad S. Darandale

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop and characterize a gastroretentive dosage form suitable for controlled drug release. It consists of a drug loaded polymeric film made up of a bilayer of immediate (IR and controlled release (CR layers folded into a hard gelatin capsule. Gastroretention results from unfolding and swelling of the film and its bioadhesion to the gastric mucosa. Furosemide, a drug with a narrow absorption window, was selected as the model drug. Inclusion of hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin in both layers and Carbopol® 971P NF in the CR layer of the bilayer film resulted in optimum drug release, bioadhesion and mechanical properties. The film with zig-zag folding in the capsule was shown to unfold and swell under acidic conditions and provide IR of drug over 1 h and CR for up to 12 h in acidic medium. X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy revealed uniform dispersion of furosemide in the polymeric matrices. The results indicate the dosage form is gastroretentive and can provide controlled release of drugs with narrow therapeutic windows.

  6. Linear matrix inequality-based nonlinear adaptive robust control with application to unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, David William

    Unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) are gaining popularity in civil and commercial applications as their lightweight on-board computers become more powerful and affordable, their power storage devices improve, and the Federal Aviation Administration addresses the legal and safety concerns of integrating UASs in the national airspace. Consequently, many researchers are pursuing novel methods to control UASs in order to improve their capabilities, dependability, and safety assurance. The nonlinear control approach is a common choice as it offers several benefits for these highly nonlinear aerospace systems (e.g., the quadrotor). First, the controller design is physically intuitive and is derived from well known dynamic equations. Second, the final control law is valid in a larger region of operation, including far from the equilibrium states. And third, the procedure is largely methodical, requiring less expertise with gain tuning, which can be arduous for a novice engineer. Considering these facts, this thesis proposes a nonlinear controller design method that combines the advantages of adaptive robust control (ARC) with the powerful design tools of linear matrix inequalities (LMI). The ARC-LMI controller is designed with a discontinuous projection-based adaptation law, and guarantees a prescribed transient and steady state tracking performance for uncertain systems in the presence of matched disturbances. The norm of the tracking error is bounded by a known function that depends on the controller design parameters in a known form. Furthermore, the LMI-based part of the controller ensures the stability of the system while overcoming polytopic uncertainties, and minimizes the control effort. This can reduce the number of parameters that require adaptation, and helps to avoid control input saturation. These desirable characteristics make the ARC-LMI control algorithm well suited for the quadrotor UAS, which may have unknown parameters and may encounter external

  7. Controlled-release oxycodone relieves neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial in painful diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C Peter N; Moulin, Dwight; Watt-Watson, Judith; Gordon, Allan; Eisenhoffer, John

    2003-09-01

    Painful neuropathy is one of the most common long-term complications of diabetes mellitus and often proves difficult to relieve. Patients with diabetic neuropathy with moderate or greater pain for at least 3 months, were evaluated for efficacy, safety and health-related quality of life (QOL) while receiving controlled-release (CR) oxycodone (OxyContin) or active placebo. Patients underwent washout from all opioids 2-7 days before randomization to 10 mg CR oxycodone or active placebo (0.25 mg benztropine) q12h. The dose was increased, approximately weekly, to a maximum of 40 mg q12h CR oxycodone or 1 mg q12h benztropine, with crossover to the alternate treatment after a maximum of 4 weeks. Acetaminophen, 325-650 mg q4-6h prn was provided as rescue. Thirty-six patients were evaluable for efficacy (21 men, 15 women, mean age 63.0+/-9.4 years). CR oxycodone resulted in significantly lower (P=0.0001) mean daily pain (21.8+/-20.7 vs. 48.6+/-26.6 mm VAS), steady pain (23.5+/-23.0 vs. 47.6+/-30.7 mm VAS), brief pain (21.8+/-23.5 vs. 46.7+/-30.8 mm VAS), skin pain (14.3+/-20.4 vs. 43.2+/-31.3 mm VAS), and total pain and disability (16.8+/-15.6 vs. 25.2+/-16.7; P=0.004). Scores from 6 of the 8 SF-36 domains and both summary scales, Standardized Physical Component (P=0.0002) and Standardized Mental Component (P=0.0338) were significantly better during CR oxycodone treatment. The number needed to treat to obtain one patient with at least 50% pain relief is 2.6 and clinical effectiveness scores favoured treatment with CR oxycodone over placebo (P=0.0001). CR oxycodone is effective and safe for the management of painful diabetic neuropathy and improves QOL.

  8. Controlling the release of active compounds from the inorganic carrier halloysite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tescione, F.; Buonocore, G. G.; Stanzione, M.; Oliviero, M.; Lavorgna, M.

    2014-01-01

    Halloysite (HNTs), a natural material characterized by a nanotube structure, has been used as an inorganic carrier of active compounds in several applications from medicine to anticorrosion coatings. In this present work, vanillin (VAN) used as a antimicrobial model, has been encapsulated within HNTs for exploiting its applicability in the active food packaging sector. The molecule release rate has been controlled by crosslinking at the tube ends the loaded vanillin with copper ions, thus producing a stopper network. The vanillin-loaded HNTs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. The antimicrobial release kinetics from the loaded nanoparticles (VAN/HNTs) in water was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. The results show that the vanillin crosslinked with cupper ions is a feasible method to tailor the release rate of antimicrobial model from HTNs nanoparticles

  9. Controlling the release of active compounds from the inorganic carrier halloysite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tescione, F.; Buonocore, G. G.; Stanzione, M.; Oliviero, M.; Lavorgna, M. [National Research Council - Institute of Composites and Biomedical Materials, P.le E. Fermi, 1 80055 Portici (Naples) (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    Halloysite (HNTs), a natural material characterized by a nanotube structure, has been used as an inorganic carrier of active compounds in several applications from medicine to anticorrosion coatings. In this present work, vanillin (VAN) used as a antimicrobial model, has been encapsulated within HNTs for exploiting its applicability in the active food packaging sector. The molecule release rate has been controlled by crosslinking at the tube ends the loaded vanillin with copper ions, thus producing a stopper network. The vanillin-loaded HNTs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. The antimicrobial release kinetics from the loaded nanoparticles (VAN/HNTs) in water was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. The results show that the vanillin crosslinked with cupper ions is a feasible method to tailor the release rate of antimicrobial model from HTNs nanoparticles.

  10. Modified gum Arabic hydrogels as matrices for controlled release of curcumin supramolecular complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerola, Adriana P.; Silva, Danielle C.; Rubira, Adley F.; Muniz, Edvani C.

    2015-01-01

    Modified gum Arabic (GA) hydrogels show a pH-responsive behavior making them excellent matrices to be used for oral administration of drugs. Our goal is to study the behavior of those matrices in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. In this work we will present how the methacrylation degree of GA, by using glycidyl methacrylate, can affect the properties of these hydrogels for controlled release. The drug used in this work is the curcumin (Cur). Cur is associated with numerous pharmacological activities, but their application is limited by the low water solubility. We will present some studies involving the formation of host-guest complexes between Cur and natural cyclodextrins. Both modified GA and hydrogels were characterized by different techniques. The kinetics release of Cur complex-containing modified GA hydrogels was studied to have an insight on the release mechanism and rate constants. Toxicity studies on undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 were also carried out. (author)

  11. pH-Sensitive Amphiphilic Block-Copolymers for Transport and Controlled Release of Oxygen

    KAUST Repository

    Patil, Yogesh Raghunath

    2017-05-31

    Saturated fluorocarbons, their derivatives and emulsions are capable of dissolving anomalously high amounts of oxygen and other gases. The mechanistic aspects of this remarkable effect remain to be explored experimentally. Here, the synthesis of a library of amphiphilic fluorous block-copolymers incorporating different fluorinated monomers is described, and the capacity of these copolymers for oxygen transport in water is systematically investigated. The structure of the fluorous monomer employed was found to have a profound effect on both the oxygen-carrying capacity and the gas release kinetics of the polymer emulsions. Furthermore, the release of O2 from the polymer dispersions could be triggered by changing the pH of the solution. This is the first example of a polymer-based system for controlled release of a non-polar, non-covalently entrapped respiratory gas.

  12. Research and development of controlled release technology for agrochemicals using isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, increasing investment has been made into development of measures to reduce pesticide contamination of food and the environment while at the same time protecting crops and livestock from pest attack. Studies to develop controlled-release technology are frequently carried out with labelled compounds. Radiotracer techniques provide a unique tool in measuring the release rate of the chemical, the stability of the chemical within the formulation and evaluating the effect of environmental factors on the release rate. These technologies and pesticide residue problems were the theme of the Seminar. The Seminar has illustrated the potential value of isotope techniques and has reviewed information on current developments in this field and their relevance to agriculture in developing countries

  13. Coaxial electrospinning multicomponent functional controlled-release vascular graft: Optimization of graft properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Anlin; Luo, Rifang; Li, Jiukai; Mo, Xiumei; Wang, Yunbing; Zhang, Xingdong

    2017-04-01

    Small diameter vascular grafts possessing desirable biocompatibility and suitable mechanical properties have become an urgent clinic demand. Herein, heparin loaded fibrous grafts of collagen/chitosan/poly(l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) were successfully fabricated via coaxial electrospinning. By controlling the concentration of heparin and the ratio of collagen/chitosan/PLCL, most grafts had the heparin encapsulation efficiency higher than 70%, and the heparin presented sustained release for more than 45 days. Particularly, such multicomponent grafts had relative low initial burst release, and after heparin releasing for 3 weeks, the grafts still showed good anti-platelet adhesion ability. In addition, along with the excellent cell biocompatibility, the fabricated grafts possessed suitable mechanical properties including good tensile strength, suture retention strength, burst pressure and compliance which could well match the native blood vessels. Thus, the optimized graft properties could be properly addressed for vascular tissue application via coaxial electrospinning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ethyl cellulose microcapsules for protecting and controlled release of folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasertmanakit, Satit; Praphairaksit, Nalena; Chiangthong, Worawadee; Muangsin, Nongnuj

    2009-01-01

    Ethyl cellulose microcapsules were developed for use as a drug-delivery device for protecting folic acid from release and degradation in the undesirable environmental conditions of the stomach, whilst allowing its release in the intestinal tract to make it available for absorption. The controlled release folic acid-loaded ethyl cellulose microcapsules were prepared by oil-in-oil emulsion solvent evaporation using a mixed solvent system, consisting of a 9:1 (v/v) ratio of acetone:methanol and light liquid paraffin as the dispersed and continuous phase. Span 80 was used as the surfactant to stabilize the emulsion. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the microcapsules had a spherical shape. However, the particulate properties and in vitro release profile depended on the concentrations of the ethyl cellulose, Span 80 emulsifier, sucrose (pore inducer), and folic acid. The average diameter of the microcapsules increased from 300 to 448 microm, whilst the folic acid release rate decreased from 52% to 40%, as the ethyl cellulose concentration was increased from 2.5% to 7.5% (w/v). Increasing the Span 80 concentration from 1% to 4% (v/v) decreased the average diameter of microcapsules from 300 to 141 microm and increased the folic acid release rate from 52% to 79%. The addition of 2.5-7.5% (w/v) of sucrose improved the folic acid release from the microcapsules. The entrapment efficiency was improved from 64% to 88% when the initial folic acid concentration was increased from 1 to 3 mg/ml.

  15. A biodegradable device for the controlled release of Piper nigrum (Piperaceae standardized extract to control Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauê Muller Custódio

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The significant increase in dengue, Zika, and chikungunya and the resistance of the Aedes aegypti mosquito to major insecticides emphasize the importance of studying alternatives to control this vector. The aim of this study was to develop a controlled-release device containing Piper nigrum extract and to study its larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. METHODS: Piper nigrum extract was produced by maceration, standardized in piperine, and incorporated into cotton threads, which were inserted into hydrogel cylinders manufactured by the extrusion of carrageenan and carob. The piperine content of the extract and thread reservoirs was quantified by chromatography. The release profile from the device was assessed in aqueous medium and the larvicidal and residual activities of the standardized extract as well as of the controlled-release device were examined in Aedes aegypti larvae. RESULTS The standardized extract contained 580mg/g of piperine and an LC50 value of 5.35ppm (24h and the 3 cm thread reservoirs contained 13.83 ± 1.81mg of piperine. The device showed zero-order release of piperine for 16 days. The P. nigrum extract (25ppm showed maximum residual larvicidal activity for 10 days, decreasing progressively thereafter. The device had a residual larvicidal activity for up to 37 days. CONCLUSIONS: The device provided controlled release of Piper nigrum extract with residual activity for 37 days. The device is easy to manufacture and may represent an effective alternative for the control of Aedes aegypti larvae in small water containers.

  16. Grafting of GMA and some comonomers onto chitosan for controlled release of diclofenac sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajeev Kr; Lalita; Singh, Anirudh P; Chauhan, Ghanshyam S

    2014-03-01

    In order to develop pH sensitive hydrogels for controlled drug release we have graft copolymerized glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) with comonomers acrylic acid, acrylamide and acrylonitrile, onto chitosan (Ch) by using potassium persulphate (KPS) as free radical initiator in aqueous solution. The optimum percent grafting for GMA was recorded for 1g chitosan at [KPS]=25.00 × 10(-3)mol/L, [GMA]=0.756 × 10(-3)mol/L, reaction temperature=60 °C and reaction time=1h in 20 mL H2O. Binary monomers were grafted for five different concentrations at optimum grafting conditions evaluated for GMA alone onto chitosan. The graft copolymers were characterized by FTIR, XRD, TGA and SEM. The swelling properties of chitosan and graft copolymers were investigated at different pH to define their end uses in sustained release of an anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac sodium. Percent drug release w.r.t. drug loaded in polymeric sample was studied as function of time in buffer solutions of pH 2.0 and 7.4. In vitro release data was analyzed using Fick's Law. Chitosan grafted with binary monomers, GMA-co-AAm and GMA-co-AN showed very good results for sustained release of drug at 7.4 pH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan (ERP and CP) annual review and update for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G.T.; Mamatey, A.; Arnett, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan (ERP and CP), WSRC made a commitment to conduct the following follow-up activities and actions: (1) Complete the action items developed in response to the findings and recommendation of the Environmental Release Prevention Taskteam (WSRC-RP-92-356). (2) Complete all batch and continuous release procedure revisions to incorporate the attributes that WSRC senior management required of each procedure. (3) DOE-SR Assistance Managers and WSRC counterparts to reach consensus and closure on the identified engineered solutions documented in the ERP and CP, develop and drive implementation of facility changes per the agreements. (4) Continue to analyze releases and monitor performance in accordance with the ERP and CP, and utilize the ALARA Release Guides Committee to drive improvements. (5) Conduct annual re-evaluations of the cost benefit analyses of the identified engineered solutions, and identify new options and alternatives for each outfall in response to site mission and facility changes. This report documents the efforts that have been completed over the past year in response to these commitments

  18. Controlled antiseptic/eosin release from chitosan-based hydrogel modified fibrous substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Ilaria; Ayadi, Farouk; Rizzello, Loris; Summa, Maria; Bertorelli, Rosalia; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Brandi, Fernando; Bayer, Ilker S; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2015-10-20

    Fibers of cellulose networks were stably coated with N-methacrylate glycol chitosan (MGC) shells using subsequent steps of dip coating and photo-curing. The photo-crosslinked MGC-coated cellulose networks preserved their fibrous structure. A model hydrophilic antiseptic solution containing eosin, chloroxylenol and propylene glycol was incorporated into the shells to study the drug release dynamics. Detailed drug release mechanism into phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solutions from coated and pristine fibers loaded with the antiseptic was investigated. The results show that the MGC-coated cellulose fibers enable the controlled gradual release of the drug for four days, as opposed to fast, instantaneous release from eosin coated pristine fibers. This release behavior was found to affect the antibacterial efficiency of the fibrous cellulose sheets significantly against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. In the case of the MGC-eosin functionalized system the antibacterial efficiency was as high as 85% and 90%, respectively, while for the eosin coated pristine cellulose system the efficiency was negative, indicating bacterial proliferation. Furthermore, the MGC-eosin system was shown to be efficacious in a model of wound healing in mice, reducing the levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines that modulate early inflammatory phase responses. The results demonstrate good potential of these coated fibers for wound dressing and healing applications. Due to its easy application on common passive commercial fibrous dressings such as gauzes and cotton fibers, the method can render them active dressings in a cost effective way. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Thermo-responsive polymer-functionalized mesoporous carbon for controlled drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shenmin; Chen Chenxin; Chen Zhixin; Liu Xinye; Li Yao; Shi Yang; Zhang Di

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A responsive drug delivery system based on poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) functionalized ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) is developed. → A combination of surface modification of CMK-3 and in situ internal polymerization of PNIPAM was used. → The system exhibited a pronounced transition at around 20-25 deg. C. - Abstract: A novel responsive drug delivery system based on poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) functionalized ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) is developed. The polymer-functionalized CMK-3 was obtained by a combination of simple surface modification of CMK-3 and in situ internal polymerization of PNIPAM. The formation of the PNIPAM inside the CMK-3 was confirmed by thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and N 2 adsorption/desorption measurements. Controlled drug release tests through the porous network of the PNIPAM functionalized CMK-3 were carried out by measuring the uptake and release of ibuprofen in vitro. The release profiles exhibited a pronounced transition at around 20-25 deg. C. This thermo-sensitive release property of this delivery system was further confirmed by temperature-variable hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The internal PNIPAM layers acted as a storage gate as well as a release switch in response to the stimuli of environment.

  20. Thermo-responsive polymer-functionalized mesoporous carbon for controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Shenmin, E-mail: smzhu@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chen Chenxin [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chen Zhixin [Faculty of Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Liu Xinye; Li Yao; Shi Yang; Zhang Di [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A responsive drug delivery system based on poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) functionalized ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) is developed. {yields} A combination of surface modification of CMK-3 and in situ internal polymerization of PNIPAM was used. {yields} The system exhibited a pronounced transition at around 20-25 deg. C. - Abstract: A novel responsive drug delivery system based on poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) functionalized ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) is developed. The polymer-functionalized CMK-3 was obtained by a combination of simple surface modification of CMK-3 and in situ internal polymerization of PNIPAM. The formation of the PNIPAM inside the CMK-3 was confirmed by thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption measurements. Controlled drug release tests through the porous network of the PNIPAM functionalized CMK-3 were carried out by measuring the uptake and release of ibuprofen in vitro. The release profiles exhibited a pronounced transition at around 20-25 deg. C. This thermo-sensitive release property of this delivery system was further confirmed by temperature-variable hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The internal PNIPAM layers acted as a storage gate as well as a release switch in response to the stimuli of environment.

  1. Nanofibrous yet injectable polycaprolactone-collagen bone tissue scaffold with osteoprogenitor cells and controlled release of bone morphogenetic protein-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Gayathri; Bialorucki, Callan [Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Yildirim-Ayan, Eda, E-mail: eda.yildirimayan@utoledo.edu [Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we developed a nanofibrous, yet injectable orthobiologic tissue scaffold that is capable of hosting osteoprogenitor cells and controlling kinetic release profile of the encapsulated pro-osteogenic factor without diminishing its bioactivity over 21 days. This innovative injectable scaffold was synthesized by incorporating electrospun and subsequently O{sub 2} plasma-functionalized polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers within the collagen type-I solution along with MC3T3-E1 cells (pre-osteoblasts) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2). Through changing the PCL nanofiber concentration within the injectable scaffolds, we were able to tailor the mechanical strength, protein retention capacity, bioactivity preservation, and osteoinductive potential of the scaffolds. The nanofibrous internal structure of the scaffold allowed us to use a low dose of BMP2 (200 ng/ml) to achieve osteoblastic differentiation in in vitro culture. The osteogenesis capacity of the injectable scaffolds were evaluated though measuring MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation, ALP activity, matrix mineralization, and early- and late-osteoblast specific gene expression profiles over 21 days. The results demonstrated that the nanofibrous injectable scaffold provides not only an osteoinductive environment for osteoprogenitor cells to differentiate, but also a suitable biomechanical and biochemical environment to act as a reservoir for osteogenic factors with controlled release profile. - Highlights: • Injectable nanofibrous scaffold with osteoprogenitor cells and BMP2 was synthesized. • PCL nanofiber concentration within collagen scaffold affected the BMP2 retention and bioactivity. • Optimal PCL concentration was identified for mechanical stability, injectability, and osteogenic activity. • Scaffolds exhibited long-term osteoinductive capacity for bone repair and regeneration.

  2. The effect of SDF-1α on low dose BMP-2 mediated bone regeneration by release from heparinized mineralized collagen type I matrix scaffolds in a murine critical size bone defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwingenberger, Stefan; Langanke, Robert; Vater, Corina; Lee, Geoffrey; Niederlohmann, Eik; Sensenschmidt, Markus; Jacobi, Angela; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Muders, Michael; Rammelt, Stefan; Knaack, Sven; Gelinsky, Michael; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Goodman, Stuart B; Stiehler, Maik

    2016-09-01

    The treatment of critical size bone defects represents a challenge. The growth factor bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is clinically established but has potentially adverse effects when used at high doses. The aim of this study was to evaluate if stromal derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α) and BMP-2 released from heparinized mineralized collagen type I matrix (MCM) scaffolds have a cumulative effect on bone regeneration. MCM scaffolds were functionalized with heparin, loaded with BMP-2 and/or SDF-1α and implanted into a murine critical size femoral bone defect (control group, low dose BMP-2 group, low dose BMP-2 + SDF-1α group, and high dose BMP-2 group). After 6 weeks, both the low dose BMP-2 + SDF-1α group (5.8 ± 0.6 mm³, p = 0.0479) and the high dose BMP-2 group (6.5 ± 0.7 mm³, p = 0.008) had a significantly increased regenerated bone volume compared to the control group (4.2 ± 0.5 mm³). There was a higher healing score in the low dose BMP-2 + SDF-1α group (median grade 8; Q1-Q3 7-9; p = 0.0357) than in the low dose BMP-2 group (7; Q1-Q3 5-9) histologically. This study showed that release of BMP-2 and SDF-1α from heparinized MCM scaffolds allows for the reduction of the applied BMP-2 concentration since SDF-1α seems to enhance the osteoinductive potential of BMP-2. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2126-2134, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Pharmacokinetic characteristics of a novel controlled-release sprinkle formulation of salbutamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, S; Devane, J; Martin, M

    1991-01-01

    Childhood asthma, which commonly effects between 5 and 12% of children, is often treated with the beta agonist salbutamol which relaxes bronchial smooth muscle, resulting in bronchodilation. Although a popular mode of administration, delivery of salbutamol by aerosol is not often practical, particularly in younger children. A need therefore exists for a pediatric salbutamol dosage form, which not only controls asthma but is also convenient and acceptable to use. Enhanced control of asthma may be achieved using a controlled-release formulation of salbutamol. This also serves to increase patient compliance which may be further improved, in the case of children, by presenting the formulation in a more acceptable paediatric dosage form. In this study, a novel controlled-release sprinkle formulation of salbutamol was compared with a reference salbutamol tablet (Proventil Repetabs). This was conducted as a six subject unblinded, single-dose, cross-over study comparing a single dose (8 mg) of salbutamol sprinkle with a single dose (2 x 4 mg) of the reference tablet. The salbutamol sprinkle was formulated using the controlled-release polymeric micromatrix pharmaZome technology and was administered as a single dose dispersed in a spoonful of jam. The time to peak concentration, half-life and peak-to-trough ratio were similar for both formulations. Mean plasma salbutamol levels and mean peak salbutamol levels were slightly lower for the sprinkle formulation when compared with the reference. This novel sprinkle formulation has potential as an effective controlled-release bronchodilator which also offers distinct advantages for paediatric dosing, in terms of ease and acceptability of administration.

  4. Preparation and properties of a pH sensitive carrier based on three kinds of polymer blend to control the release of 5-amino salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuming; Zhou, Zhengjie; Ding, Hongyan; Zhang, Shujiang

    2014-12-01

    High concentration of 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA) in the distal ileum and colon is necessary for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The control of small molecules, drugs, released from a polymeric matrix remains a great challenge. To study the preparation and properties of a pH-sensitive carrier for targeting delivery of 5-ASA. The carrier was prepared by ternary blends method based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), sodium alginate (SA) and polylactic acid. It was characterized by infrared spectrometry and scanning electronic microscopy. The adsorption and release of 5-ASA in different pH media were investigated. We found out the best ratio of the materials for synthetic carrier. The vector exhibited good performance by the controlled release of the target drug experiment. The adsorption capacity of the carrier for 5-ASA was 70.34% in phosphate buffer saline at pH 1.00, and the release rate was 100.49% in phosphate buffer solution at pH 6.80. PVA is vector backbone of the carrier, and SA plays key role in its pH performance. It is a promising material to effectively deliver 5-ASA to the specific sites of IBD.

  5. Controlled release of bioactive PDGF-AA from a hydrogel/nanoparticle composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott Donaghue, Irja; Shoichet, Molly S

    2015-10-01

    Polymer excipients, such as low molar mass poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), have shown contradictory effects on protein stability when co-encapsulated in polymeric nanoparticles. To gain further insight into these effects, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-AA) was encapsulated in polymeric nanoparticles with vs. without PEG. PDGF-AA is a particularly compelling protein, as it has been demonstrated to promote cell survival and induce the oligodendrocyte differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. Here we show, for the first time, the controlled release of bioactive PDGF-AA from an injectable nanoparticle/hydrogel drug delivery system (DDS). PDGF-AA was encapsulated, with high efficiency, in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles, and its release from the drug delivery system was followed over 21 d. Interestingly, the co-encapsulation of low molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) increased the PDGF-AA loading but, unexpectedly, accelerated the aggregation of PDGF-AA, resulting in reduced activity and detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the absence of PEG, released PDGF-AA remained bioactive as demonstrated with NSPC oligodendrocyte differentiation, similar to positive controls, and significantly different from untreated controls. This work presents a novel delivery method for differentiation factors, such as PDGF-AA, and provides insights into the contradictory effects reported in the literature of excipients, such as PEG, on the loading and release of proteins from polymeric nanoparticles. Previously, the polymer poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) has been used in many biomaterials applications, from surface coatings to the encapsulation of proteins. In this work, we demonstrate that, unexpectedly, low molecular weight PEG has a deleterious effect on the release of the encapsulated protein platelet-derived growth factor AA (PDGF-AA). We also demonstrate release of bioactive PDGF-AA (in the absence of PEG

  6. Controlled Release of Doxorubicin from Doxorubicin/γ-Polyglutamic Acid Ionic Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavik Manocha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of drug/polymer complexes through ionic interactions has proven to be very effective for the controlled release of drugs. The stability of such drug/polymer ionic complexes can be greatly influenced by solution pH and ionic strength. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the potential of γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA as a carrier for the anticancer drug, Doxorubicin (DOX. We investigated the formation of ionic complexes between γ-PGA and DOX using scanning electron microscopy, spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. Our studies demonstrate that DOX specifically interacts with γ-PGA forming random colloidal aggregates and results in almost 100% complexation efficiency. In vitro drug release studies illustrated that these complexes were relatively stable at neutral pH but dissociates slowly under acidic pH environments, facilitating a pH-triggered release of DOX from the complex. Hydrolytic degradation of γ-PGA and DOX/γ-PGA complex was also evaluated in physiological buffer. In conclusion, these studies clearly showed the feasibility of γ-PGA to associate cationic drug such as DOX and that is may serve as a new drug carrier for the controlled release of DOX in malignant tissues.

  7. Development and characterization of molecularly imprinted polymers for controlled release of citalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdouss, Majid; Asadi, Ebadullah; Azodi-Deilami, Saman; Beik-mohammadi, Neda; Aslanzadeh, Saeed Amir

    2011-10-01

    In this work, the use of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for citalolpram as anti-depressant drug was studied. Imprinted polymers were prepared from methacrylic acid (MAA; functional monomer), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA; cross-linker), and citalopram (as a drug template) using bulk polymerization method. The polymeric devices were further characterized by FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and binding experiments. The dissolution media employed in controlled release studies were hydrochloric acid at the pH level of 4.3 and phosphate buffers, at pH levels of 7.2 and 10.1, maintained at 37.0 and 25.0 ± 0.5°C. Results showed the ability of MIP polymers to control the release of citalopram. In all cases, the imprinted polymers showed a higher affinity for citalopram and a slower release rate than the nonimprinted polymers. At the pH level of 4.3 and at the temperature of 25°C, slower release of citalopram imprinted polymer occurred.

  8. Phase sensitive control of vibronic guest-host interaction: Br2 in Ar matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Heide; Héjjas, Mónika; Fushitani, Mizuho; Schwentner, Nikolaus

    2009-07-02

    Vibronic progressions are programmed into a pulse shaper which converts them via the inherent Fourier transformation into a train of femtosecond pulses in time domain for chromophore excitation. Double pulse results agree with phase-sensitive wave packet superposition from a Michelson interferometer which delivers coherence times with high reliability. Spectral resolution of 1 nm and a spacing of around 4 nm within the 20 nm envelope centered at 590 nm delivers a train of seven phase-controlled 40 fs subpulses separated by 250 fs. Combs adjusted to the zero phonon lines (ZPL) and phonon sidebands (PSB) of the B state vibronic progression are reproduced in the chromophore for a coherent subpulse accumulation. B state ZPL wave packet dynamics dominates in pump-probe spectra due to its coherence despite an overwhelming but incoherent A state contribution in absorption. PSB comb accumulation is also phase sensitive and demonstrates coherence within several 100 matrix degrees of freedom in the vicinity.

  9. Physical characterization and kinetic modelling of matrix tablets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To design controlled release ketorolac tromethamol (KT) matrix tablets for increased drug bioavailability. Methods: Waxes (Compritol® ATO 888, Precirol® ATO 5 and stearic acid - SA) and polymers (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose - HPMC and xanthan gum - XG) were used in the preparation of the matrix tablets at ...

  10. Synthesis, characterization, controlled release, and antibacterial studies of a novel streptomycin chitosan magnetic nanoantibiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein-Al-Ali SH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Samer Hasan Hussein-Al-Ali,1 Mohamed Ezzat El Zowalaty,2,6 Mohd Zobir Hussein,3 Maznah Ismail,1,4 Thomas J Webster,5,7 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, 2Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, 3Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, 4Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 5Department of Chemical Engineering and Program in Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 6Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, 7Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: This study describes the preparation, characterization, and controlled release of a streptomycin-chitosan-magnetic nanoparticle-based antibiotic in an effort to improve the treatment of bacterial infections. Specifically, chitosan-magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by an incorporation method and were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Streptomycin was incorporated into the nanoparticles to form a streptomycin-coated chitosan-magnetic nanoparticle (Strep-CS-MNP nanocomposite. The release profiles showed an initially fast release, which became slower as time progressed. The percentage of drug released after 350 minutes was around 100%, and the best fit mathematical model for drug release was the pseudo-second order model. The Strep-CS-MNP nanocomposite showed enhanced antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This study forms a significant basis for further investigation of the Strep-CS-MNP nanocomposite in the treatment of various bacterial infections. Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, streptomycin, nanoantibiotics, chitosan, release

  11. Slow Release Of Reagent Chemicals From Gel Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnam, William J.; Barber, Patrick G.; Coleman, James

    1988-01-01

    Procedure developed for slow release of reagent chemicals into solutions. Simple and inexpensive and not subject to failure of equipment. Use of toothpaste-type tube or pump dispenser conceivably provides more controlled technique for storage and dispensation of gel matrix. Possible uses include controlled, slow release of reagents in chemical reactions, crystal growth, space-flight experiments, and preformed gel medications from packets.

  12. Effect of EDTA on TGF-β1 released from the dentin matrix and its influence on dental pulp stem cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Lidiany Freitas; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Cosme-Silva, Leopoldo; Colombo, Fabio Antonio; Martins, Natália Silva; Oliveira, Thais Marchini; Araujo, Tomaz Henrique; Sakai, Vivien Thiemy

    2016-12-22

    Bioactive molecules stored in dentin, such as transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-b1), may be involved in the signaling events related to dental tissue repair. The authors conducted an in vitro evaluation of the amount of TGF-b1 released from dentin slices after treatment with 10% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and the effect of this growth factor on stem cell migration from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED). Sixty 1-mm-thick tooth slices were prepared with or without the predentin layer, and treated with either 10% EDTA for 1 minute, 2.5% NaOCl for 5 days or kept in PBS. Tooth slice conditioned media were prepared and used for TGF-b1 ELISA and migration assays. Culture medium with different concentrations of recombinant human TGF-b1 (0.5, 1.0, 5.0 or 10.0 ng/mL) was also tested by migration assay. The data were evaluated by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Optical density values corresponding to media conditioned by tooth slices either containing or not containing the predentin layer and treated with 10% EDTA were statistically greater than the other groups and close to 1 ng/mL. Increased rates of migration toward media conditioned by tooth slices containing the predentin layer and treated with PBS, 10% EDTA or 2.5% NaOCl were observed. Recombinant human TGF-b1 also stimulated migration of SHED, irrespective of the concentration used. EDTA may be considered an effective extractant of TGF-b1 from the dentin matrix. However, it does not impact SHED migration, suggesting that other components may account for the cell migration.

  13. Controlled release of multiphoton quantum states from a microwave cavity memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Wolfgang; Axline, Christopher J.; Burkhart, Luke D.; Vool, Uri; Reinhold, Philip; Frunzio, Luigi; Jiang, Liang; Devoret, Michel H.; Schoelkopf, Robert J.

    2017-09-01

    Signal transmission loss in a quantum network can be overcome by encoding quantum states in complex multiphoton fields. But transmitting quantum information encoded in this way requires that locally stored states can be converted to propagating fields. Here we experimentally show the controlled conversion of multiphoton quantum states, such as Schrödinger cat states, from a microwave cavity quantum memory into propagating modes. By parametric conversion using the nonlinearity of a single Josephson junction, we can release the cavity state in ~500 ns, about three orders of magnitude faster than its intrinsic lifetime. This mechanism--which we dub Schrödinger’s catapult--faithfully converts arbitrary cavity fields to travelling signals with an estimated efficiency of >90%, enabling the on-demand generation of complex itinerant quantum states. Importantly, the release process can be precisely controlled on fast timescales, allowing us to generate entanglement between the cavity and the travelling mode by partial conversion.

  14. 25th anniversary article: double emulsion templated solid microcapsules: mechanics and controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sujit S; Abbaspourrad, Alireza; Amstad, Esther; Fan, Jing; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Romanowsky, Mark; Shum, Ho Cheung; Sun, Bingjie; Utada, Andrew S; Windbergs, Maike; Zhou, Shaobing; Weitz, David A

    2014-04-09

    How droplet microfluidics can be used to fabricate solid-shelled microcapsules having precisely controlled release behavior is described. Glass capillary devices enable the production of monodisperse double emulsion drops, which can then be used as templates for microcapsule formation. The exquisite control afforded by microfluidics can be used to tune the compositions and geometrical characteristics of the microcapsules with exceptional precision. The use of this approach to fabricate microcapsules that only release their contents when exposed to a specific stimulus--such as a change in temperature, exposure to light, a change in the chemical environment, or an external stress--only after a prescribed time delay, and at a prescribed rate is reviewed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Research on Improved Control Strategy for STATCOM Based on Virtual Matrix Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xudong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast and accurate detection of reactive current is the precondition for the realization of static synchronous compensator (STATCOM reactive power compensation and harmonic suppression. Aiming at deviation and delay of the traditional reactive current detection algorithm with phase-locked loop (PLL and low-pass filter (LPF of STATCOM, a novel improved reactive current detection algorithm without PLL is proposed, in which the virtual matrix (VM is built to replace the original PLL, and improved current average value filter is used to realize the function of LPF, so as to improve the real-time performance and robustness of reactive current detection. The realization process of VM detection method is derived in this paper, and improved control strategy for STATCOM is designed based on the VM detection method. Simulation analysis of the proposed detection algorithm and control strategy is conducted in Matlab platform so as to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the control strategy. The VM detection has the advantages of simple structure, fast response and easy for digital realization, which provides reference for the improvement of reactive power compensation precision for STATCOM.

  16. Monocyte matrix metalloproteinase production in Type 2 diabetes and controls – a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Isabel R

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary plaque rupture may result from localised over expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs within the plaque by infiltrating monocyte – macrophages. As MMP expression can be promoted by the modified lipoproteins, oxidative stress and hyperglycaemia that characterises Type 2 diabetes, we hypothesised that peripheral monocytes in these patients, exposed to these factors in vivo, would demonstrate increased MMP production compared to controls. Methods We examined peripheral venous monocyte expression of MMP and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 in 18 controls and 22 subjects with Type 2 diabetes and no previous cardiovascular complications. Results No significant difference in MMP-1, 3 or 9 or TIMP-1 production was observed between control and diabetes groups. Conclusions Monocyte MMP-1, 3, and 9, and TIMP-1, production are not abnormal in Type 2 diabetes. This data cannot be extrapolated to monocyte – macrophage behaviour in the vessel wall, but it does suggest MMP and TIMP-1 expression prior to monocyte infiltration and transformation are not abnormal in Type 2 diabetes.

  17. Biomimetic synthesized chiral mesoporous silica: Structures and controlled release functions as drug carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing; Xu, Lu, E-mail: xl2013109@163.com; Yang, Baixue; Bao, Zhihong; Pan, Weisan; Li, Sanming, E-mail: li_sanming2013@163.com

    2015-10-01

    This work initially illustrated the formation mechanism of chiral mesoporous silica (CMS) in a brand new insight named biomimetic synthesis. Three kinds of biomimetic synthesized CMS (B-CMS, including B-CMS1, B-CMS2 and B-CMS3) were prepared using different pH or stirring rate condition, and their characteristics were tested with transmission electron microscope and small angle X-ray diffraction. The model drug indomethacin was loaded into B-CMS and drug loading content was measured using ultraviolet spectroscopy. The result suggested that pH condition influenced energetics of self-assembly process, mainly packing energetics of the surfactant, while stirring rate was the more dominant factor to determine particle length. In application, indomethacin loading content was measured to be 35.3%, 34.8% and 35.1% for indomethacin loaded B-CMS1, indomethacin loaded B-CMS2 and indomethacin loaded B-CMS3. After loading indomethacin into B-CMS carriers, surface area, pore volume and pore diameter of B-CMS carriers were reduced. B-CMS converted crystalline state of indomethacin to amorphous state, leading to the improved indomethacin dissolution. B-CMS1 controlled drug release without burst-release, while B-CMS2 and B-CMS3 released indomethacin faster than B-CMS1, demonstrating that the particle length, the ordered lever of multiple helixes, the curvature degree of helical channels and pore diameter greatly contributed to the release behavior of indomethacin loaded B-CMS. - Highlights: • Chiral mesoporous silica was synthesized using biomimetic method. • pH influenced energetics of self-assembly process of chiral mesoporous silica. • Stirring rate determined the particle length of chiral mesoporous silica. • Controlled release behaviors of chiral mesoporous silica varied based on structures.

  18. Biomimetic synthesized chiral mesoporous silica: Structures and controlled release functions as drug carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Xu, Lu; Yang, Baixue; Bao, Zhihong; Pan, Weisan; Li, Sanming

    2015-01-01

    This work initially illustrated the formation mechanism of chiral mesoporous silica (CMS) in a brand new insight named biomimetic synthesis. Three kinds of biomimetic synthesized CMS (B-CMS, including B-CMS1, B-CMS2 and B-CMS3) were prepared using different pH or stirring rate condition, and their characteristics were tested with transmission electron microscope and small angle X-ray diffraction. The model drug indomethacin was loaded into B-CMS and drug loading content was measured using ultraviolet spectroscopy. The result suggested that pH condition influenced energetics of self-assembly process, mainly packing energetics of the surfactant, while stirring rate was the more dominant factor to determine particle length. In application, indomethacin loading content was measured to be 35.3%, 34.8% and 35.1% for indomethacin loaded B-CMS1, indomethacin loaded B-CMS2 and indomethacin loaded B-CMS3. After loading indomethacin into B-CMS carriers, surface area, pore volume and pore diameter of B-CMS carriers were reduced. B-CMS converted crystalline state of indomethacin to amorphous state, leading to the improved indomethacin dissolution. B-CMS1 controlled drug release without burst-release, while B-CMS2 and B-CMS3 released indomethacin faster than B-CMS1, demonstrating that the particle length, the ordered lever of multiple helixes, the curvature degree of helical channels and pore diameter greatly contributed to the release behavior of indomethacin loaded B-CMS. - Highlights: • Chiral mesoporous silica was synthesized using biomimetic method. • pH influenced energetics of self-assembly process of chiral mesoporous silica. • Stirring rate determined the particle length of chiral mesoporous silica. • Controlled release behaviors of chiral mesoporous silica varied based on structures

  19. Development of controlled release silicone adhesive–based mupirocin patch demonstrates antibacterial activity on live rat skin against Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David SR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sheba R David,1 Nurafiqah Malek,1 Abdul Hanif Mahadi,2 Srikumar Chakravarthi,3 Rajan Rajabalaya1 1PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam; 2Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences (CAMES, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam; 3School of Medicine, Perdana University, Jalan MAEPS Perdana, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Peritonitis is the most serious complication of peritoneal dialysis. Staphylococcus aureus infections could lead to peritonitis which causes reversal of peritoneal dialysis treatment back to hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to develop a controlled release silicone adhesive-based mupirocin patch for prophylactic effect and analyze its antibacterial effectiveness against S. aureus.Methods: The matrix patches were prepared by using different polymers, with and without silicone adhesive, dibutyl sebacate and mupirocin. The patches were characterized for mechanical properties, drug content, moisture content, water absorption capacity and Fourier transform infrared spectrum. In vitro release studies were performed by using Franz diffusion cell. In vitro disk diffusion assay was performed on the Mueller–Hinton Agar plate to measure the zone of inhibition of the patches. The in vivo study was performed on four groups of rats with bacterial counts at three different time intervals, along with skin irritancy and histopathologic studies. Results: The patches showed appropriate average thickness (0.63–1.12 mm, tensile strength (5.08–10.08 MPa and modulus of elasticity (21.53–42.19 MPa. The drug content ranged from 94.5% to 97.4%, while the moisture content and water absorption capacities at two relative humidities (75% and 93% were in the range of 1.082–3.139 and 1.287–4.148 wt%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed that there were no significant interactions between the polymer and the drug

  20. Molecular understanding of sterically controlled compound release through an engineered channel protein (FhuA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauer Bernhard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently we reported a nanocontainer based reduction triggered release system through an engineered transmembrane channel (FhuA Δ1-160; Onaca et al., 2008. Compound fluxes within the FhuA Δ1-160 channel protein are controlled sterically through labeled lysine residues (label: 3-(2-pyridyldithiopropionic-acid-N-hydroxysuccinimide-ester. Quantifying the sterical contribution of each labeled lysine would open up an opportunity for designing compound specific drug release systems. Results In total, 12 FhuA Δ1-160 variants were generated to gain insights on sterically controlled compound fluxes: Subset A six FhuA Δ1-160 variants in which one of the six lysines in the interior of FhuA Δ1-160 was substituted to alanine and Subset B six FhuA Δ1-160 variants in which only one lysine inside the barrel was not changed to alanine. Translocation efficiencies were quantified with the colorimetric TMB (3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine detection system employing horseradish peroxidase (HRP. Investigation of the six subset A variants identified position K556A as sterically important. The K556A substitution increases TMB diffusion from 15 to 97 [nM]/s and reaches nearly the TMB diffusion value of the unlabeled FhuA Δ1-160 (102 [nM]/s. The prominent role of position K556 is confirmed by the corresponding subset B variant which contains only the K556 lysine in the interior of the barrel. Pyridyl labeling of K556 reduces TMB translocation to 16 [nM]/s reaching nearly background levels in liposomes (13 [nM]/s. A first B-factor analysis based on MD simulations confirmed that position K556 is the least fluctuating lysine among the six in the channel interior of FhuA Δ1-160 and therefore well suited for controlling compound fluxes through steric hindrance. Conclusions A FhuA Δ1-160 based reduction triggered release system has been shown to control the compound flux by the presence of only one inner channel sterical hindrance based on 3

  1. Enhancing Vascularization through the Controlled Release of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardi, Silvia; Pandolfi, Laura; Taraballi, Francesca; Wang, Xin; De Rosa, Enrica; Mills, Zachary D; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2017-05-03

    Using delivery systems to control the in vivo release of growth factors (GFs) for tissue engineering applications is extremely desirable as the clinical use of GFs is limited by their fast in vivo turnover. Hence, the development of effective platforms that are able to finely control the release of GFs in vivo remains a challenge. Herein, we investigated the ability of multiscale microspheres, composed by a nanostructured silicon multistage vector (MSV) core and a poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) forming outer shell (PLGA-MSV), to release functional platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) to induce in vivo localized neovascularization. The in vitro release of PDGF-BB was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) over 2 weeks and showed a sustained, zero-order release kinetics. The ability to promote in vivo localized neovascularization was investigated in a subcutaneous injection model in BALB/c mice and followed by intravital microscopy up to 2 weeks. Fully functional newly formed vessels were found within the area where PLGA-MSVs were localized and covered 3.0 ± 0.9 and 19 ± 5.1% at 7 and 14 days, respectively, showing a 6-fold increase in 1 week. The distribution of CD31 + and α-SMA + cells was detected by immunofluorescence on harvested tissues. CD31 was significantly more expressed (4-fold increase) compared to the untreated control. Finally, the level of up-regulation of angiogenesis-associated genes (Vegfa, Vwf, and Col3a1) was assessed by q-PCR, resulting in a significantly higher expression where PLGA-MSVs were localized (Vegfa: 2.32 ± 0.50 at 7 days and 4.37 ± 0.75 at 14 days; Vwf: 4.13 ± 0.82 and 7.74 ± 0.91; Col3a1: 5.43 ± 0.37 and 6.66 ± 0.89). Altogether, our data supported the conclusion that the localized delivery of PDGF-BB from PLGA-MSVs induced the localized de novo formation of fully functional vessels in vivo. With this study, we demonstrated that PLGA-MSV holds promise for accomplishing the controlled

  2. Nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium applied individually or as a slow release or controlled release fertilizer increase growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has restricted concentrated animal feeding operation(CAFO) release of waste products into U.S. waters. These waste products must be disposed of using best management practices. Most of the waste is spread on cropland, but some operations have found ot...

  3. Electrospray synthesis and properties of hierarchically structured PLGA TIPS microspheres for use as controlled release technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Salman A; Ng, Wing H; Bowen, James; Tang, Justin; Gomez, Alessandro; Kenyon, Anthony J; Day, Richard M

    2016-04-01

    Microsphere-based controlled release technologies have been utilized for the long-term delivery of proteins, peptides and antibiotics, although their synthesis poses substantial challenges owing to formulation complexities, lack of scalability, and cost. To address these shortcomings, we used the electrospray process as a reproducible, synthesis technique to manufacture highly porous (>94%) microspheres while maintaining control over particle structure and size. Here we report a successful formulation recipe used to generate spherical poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microspheres using the electrospray (ES) coupled with a novel thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) process with a tailored Liquid Nitrogen (LN2) collection scheme. We show how size, shape and porosity of resulting microspheres can be controlled by judiciously varying electrospray processing parameters and we demonstrate examples in which the particle size (and porosity) affect release kinetics. The effect of electrospray treatment on the particles and their physicochemical properties are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, confocal Raman microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The microspheres manufactured here have successfully demonstrated long-term delivery (i.e. 1week) of an active agent, enabling sustained release of a dye with minimal physical degradation and have verified the potential of scalable electrospray technologies for an innovative TIPS-based microsphere production protocol. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Control of Pan-tilt Mechanism Angle using Position Matrix Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri Maja Saputra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Control of a Pan-Tilt Mechanism (PTM angle for the bomb disposal robot Morolipi-V2 using inertial sensor measurement unit, x-IMU, has been done. The PTM has to be able to be actively controlled both manually and automatically in order to correct the orientation of the moving Morolipi-V2 platform. The x-IMU detects the platform orientation and sends the result in order to automatically control the PTM. The orientation is calculated using the quaternion combined with Madwick and Mahony filter methods. The orientation data that consists of angles of roll (α, pitch (β, and yaw (γ from the x-IMU are then being sent to the camera for controlling the PTM motion (pan & tilt angles after calculating the reverse angle using position matrix method. Experiment results using Madwick and Mahony methods show that the x-IMU can be used to find the robot platform orientation. Acceleration data from accelerometer and flux from magnetometer produce noise with standard deviation of 0.015 g and 0.006 G, respectively. Maximum absolute errors caused by Madgwick and Mahony method with respect to Xaxis are 48.45º and 33.91º, respectively. The x-IMU implementation as inertia sensor to control the Pan-Tilt Mechanism shows a good result, which the probability of pan an