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Sample records for control multiple physiological

  1. Multiple regression for physiological data analysis: the problem of multicollinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinker, B K; Glantz, S A

    1985-07-01

    Multiple linear regression, in which several predictor variables are related to a response variable, is a powerful statistical tool for gaining quantitative insight into complex in vivo physiological systems. For these insights to be correct, all predictor variables must be uncorrelated. However, in many physiological experiments the predictor variables cannot be precisely controlled and thus change in parallel (i.e., they are highly correlated). There is a redundancy of information about the response, a situation called multicollinearity, that leads to numerical problems in estimating the parameters in regression equations; the parameters are often of incorrect magnitude or sign or have large standard errors. Although multicollinearity can be avoided with good experimental design, not all interesting physiological questions can be studied without encountering multicollinearity. In these cases various ad hoc procedures have been proposed to mitigate multicollinearity. Although many of these procedures are controversial, they can be helpful in applying multiple linear regression to some physiological problems.

  2. Towards Integration of Biological and Physiological Functions at Multiple Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taishin eNomura

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An aim of systems physiology today can be stated as to establish logical and quantitative bridges between phenomenological attributes of physiological entities such as cells and organs and physical attributes of biological entities, i.e., biological molecules, allowing us to describe and better understand physiological functions in terms of underlying biological functions. This article illustrates possible schema that can be used for promoting systems physiology by integrating quantitative knowledge of biological and physiological functions at multiple levels of time and space with the use of information technology infrastructure. Emphasis will be made for systematic, modular, hierarchical, and standardized descriptions of mathematical models of the functions and advantages for the use of them.

  3. Multiple Hierarchies and Organizational Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Peter B.

    1975-01-01

    Uses a control-loss model to explore the effects of multiple channels in formal organizations, and presents an argument for the superior control properties of dual hierarchies. Two variant forms of multiple hierarchies are considered. (Author)

  4. Flexible carbon nanotube nanocomposite sensor for multiple physiological parameter monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2016-10-16

    The paper presents the design, development, and fabrication of a flexible and wearable sensor based on carbon nanotube nanocomposite for monitoring specific physiological parameters. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used as the substrate with a thin layer of a nanocomposite comprising functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and PDMS as electrodes. The sensor patch functionalized on strain-sensitive capacitive sensing from interdigitated electrodes which were patterned with a laser on the nanocomposite layer. The thickness of the electrode layer was optimized regarding strain and conductivity. The sensor patch was connected to a monitoring device from one end and attached to the body on the other for examining purposes. Experimental results show the capability of the sensor patch used to detect respiration and limb movements. This work is a stepping stone of the sensing system to be developed for multiple physiological parameters.

  5. Flexible carbon nanotube nanocomposite sensor for multiple physiological parameter monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the design, development, and fabrication of a flexible and wearable sensor based on carbon nanotube nanocomposite for monitoring specific physiological parameters. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used as the substrate with a thin layer of a nanocomposite comprising functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and PDMS as electrodes. The sensor patch functionalized on strain-sensitive capacitive sensing from interdigitated electrodes which were patterned with a laser on the nanocomposite layer. The thickness of the electrode layer was optimized regarding strain and conductivity. The sensor patch was connected to a monitoring device from one end and attached to the body on the other for examining purposes. Experimental results show the capability of the sensor patch used to detect respiration and limb movements. This work is a stepping stone of the sensing system to be developed for multiple physiological parameters.

  6. Determination of chromosomes that control physiological traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of chromosomes that control physiological traits associated with salt tolerance in barley at the seedling stage. ... The phenotypic traits under study included: chlorophyll contents, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fo, Fv, Fv/Fm), proline and carbohydrate rates, relative water content (RWC) and dry and wet weight of ...

  7. Oscillation and chaos in physiological control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, M C; Glass, L

    1977-07-15

    First-order nonlinear differential-delay equations describing physiological control systems are studied. The equations display a broad diversity of dynamical behavior including limit cycle oscillations, with a variety of wave forms, and apparently aperiodic or "chaotic" solutions. These results are discussed in relation to dynamical respiratory and hematopoietic diseases.

  8. Multiple nuclear ADC controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovett, A; Rapaport, M S [Center for Nuclear Research, Soreq (Israel)

    1980-12-01

    A controller for an on-line three parameter coincidence and multispectra scaling system has been developed. It has been designed to control, event-by-event, the outputs of three nuclear analog-to-digital converters used at the SOLIS facility. The system utilizes an HP minicomputer with a 32k-word core memory, a disc drive and magnetic tape units.

  9. Birth Control - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Methods - English PDF How to Switch Birth Control Methods - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) ... Reproductive Health Access Project Non-Contraceptive Indications for Hormonal Contraceptive Products - English PDF Non- ...

  10. Noninvasive optical monitoring multiple physiological parameters response to cytokine storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zebin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Cancer and other disease originated by immune or genetic problems have become a main cause of death. Gene/cell therapy is a highlighted potential method for the treatment of these diseases. However, during the treatment, it always causes cytokine storm, which probably trigger acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure. Here we developed a point-of-care device for noninvasive monitoring cytokine storm induced multiple physiological parameters simultaneously. Oxy-hemoglobin, deoxy-hemoglobin, water concentration and deep-tissue/tumor temperature variations were simultaneously measured by extended near infrared spectroscopy. Detection algorithms of symptoms such as shock, edema, deep-tissue fever and tissue fibrosis were developed and included. Based on these measurements, modeling of patient tolerance and cytokine storm intensity were carried out. This custom device was tested on patients experiencing cytokine storm in intensive care unit. The preliminary data indicated the potential of our device in popular and milestone gene/cell therapy, especially, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell immunotherapy (CAR-T).

  11. Physiological control of behaviour in tephritid fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Eric B.

    2000-01-01

    Studies on the behaviour of tephritid fruit flies have historically focused on the interaction of external stimuli such as temperature, semiochemicals, seasonality, etc., or the interactions of flies between and among species for a number of observed behaviours such as mating, pheromone calling and oviposition. While descriptive behaviour represent much of what we know about these pest species, less is known about the underlying physiological mechanisms which function in priming or modulation of the observed behaviour. Central to our understanding of tephritid behaviour are the multiple and often complex internal factors which are involved, and the path/mechanisms by which external stimuli result in observed behaviour. Tephritid fruit fly physiology is a vastly understudied research area which may provide important information on how peripheral receptors receive information, the transduction and coding of information centrally and how behaviour is regulated biochemically. The integration of physiology disciplines to help explain behaviour is central to the goal of developing new technology which may be useful in fruit fly control. In our laboratory, we have been studying the mechanisms of chemoreception and its link to behaviour in tephritids in such areas as olfaction, feeding, mating and oviposition. Our approach has been that tephritid behaviour can be largely influenced by their peripheral receptors which are responsible for receiving olfactory, gustatory, visual and tactile information inputs and their physiological state which controls internal modulation of behaviour. Thus, differences in behaviour between species might be explained on the basis of differences in their peripheral receptors, and the plasticity in which observed behaviour vary between the same species could very well be attributed to changes in their physiological state that are not readily apparent merely from visual observation. The importance of the physiological state in behavioural

  12. Vegetation physiology controls continental water cycle responses to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemordant, L. A.; Swann, A. L. S.; Cook, B.; Scheff, J.; Gentine, P.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract per se:Predicting how climate change will affect the hydrologic cycle is of utmost importance for ecological systems and for human life and activities. A typical perspective is that global warming will cause an intensification of the mean state, the so-called "dry gets drier, wet gets wetter" paradigm. While this result is robust over the oceans, recent works suggest it may be less appropriate for terrestrial regions. Using Earth System Models (ESMs) with decoupled surface (vegetation physiology, PHYS) and atmospheric (radiative, ATMO) CO2 responses, we show that the CO2 physiological response dominates the change in the continental hydrologic cycle compared to radiative and precipitation changes due to increased atmospheric CO2, counter to previous assumptions. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we estimate the individual contribution of each of the three main drivers, precipitation, radiation and physiological CO2 forcing (see attached figure). Our analysis reveals that physiological effects dominate changes for 3 key indicators of dryness and/or vegetation stress (namely LAI, P-ET and EF) over the largest fraction of the globe, except for soil moisture which exhibits a more complex response. This highlights the key role of vegetation in controlling future terrestrial hydrologic response.Legend of the Figure attached:Decomposition along the three main drivers of LAI (a), P-ET (b), EF (c) in the control run. Green quantifies the effect of the vegetation physiology based on the run PHYS; red and blue quantify the contribution of, respectively, net radiation and precipitation, based on multiple linear regression in ATMO. Pie charts show for each variable the fraction (labelled in %) of land under the main influence (more than 50% of the changes is attributed to this driver) of one the three main drivers (green for grid points dominated by vegetation physiology, red for grid points dominated by net radiation, and blue for grid points dominated by the

  13. TAM receptors regulate multiple features of microglial physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourgeaud, Lawrence; Través, Paqui G; Tufail, Yusuf; Leal-Bailey, Humberto; Lew, Erin D; Burrola, Patrick G; Callaway, Perri; Zagórska, Anna; Rothlin, Carla V; Nimmerjahn, Axel; Lemke, Greg

    2016-04-14

    Microglia are damage sensors for the central nervous system (CNS), and the phagocytes responsible for routine non-inflammatory clearance of dead brain cells. Here we show that the TAM receptor tyrosine kinases Mer and Axl regulate these microglial functions. We find that adult mice deficient in microglial Mer and Axl exhibit a marked accumulation of apoptotic cells specifically in neurogenic regions of the CNS, and that microglial phagocytosis of the apoptotic cells generated during adult neurogenesis is normally driven by both TAM receptor ligands Gas6 and protein S. Using live two-photon imaging, we demonstrate that the microglial response to brain damage is also TAM-regulated, as TAM-deficient microglia display reduced process motility and delayed convergence to sites of injury. Finally, we show that microglial expression of Axl is prominently upregulated in the inflammatory environment that develops in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Together, these results establish TAM receptors as both controllers of microglial physiology and potential targets for therapeutic intervention in CNS disease.

  14. MULTIPLE ECH LAUNCHER CONTROL SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREEN, M.T.; PONCE, D.; GRUNLOH, H.J.; ELLIS, R.A.; GROSNICKLE, W.H.; HUMPHREY, R.L.

    2004-03-01

    OAK-B135 The addition of new, high power gyrotrons to the heating and current drive arsenal at DIII-D, required a system upgrade for control of fully steerable ECH Launchers. Each launcher contains two pointing mirrors with two degrees of mechanical freedom. The two flavors of motion are called facet and tilt. Therefore up to four channels of motion per launcher need to be controlled. The system utilizes absolute encoders to indicate mirror position and therefore direction of the microwave beam. The launcher movement is primarily controlled by PLC, but future iterations of design, may require this control to be accomplished by a CPU on fast bus such as Compact PCI. This will be necessary to accomplish real time position control. Safety of equipment and personnel is of primary importance when controlling a system of moving parts. Therefore multiple interlocks and fault status enunciators have been implemented. This paper addresses the design of a Multiple ECH Launcher Control System, and characterizes the flexibility needed to upgrade to a real time position control system in the future

  15. The hypocretins/orexins: integrators of multiple physiological functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingcheng; Hu, Zhian; Lecea, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The hypocretins (Hcrts), also known as orexins, are two peptides derived from a single precursor produced in the posterior lateral hypothalamus. Over the past decade, the orexin system has been associated with numerous physiological functions, including sleep/arousal, energy homeostasis, endocrine, visceral functions and pathological states, such as narcolepsy and drug abuse. Here, we review the discovery of Hcrt/orexins and their receptors and propose a hypothesis as to how the orexin system orchestrates these multifaceted physiological functions. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Orexin Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-2 PMID:24102345

  16. Life under Multiple Extreme Conditions: Diversity and Physiology of the Halophilic Alkalithermophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegel, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Around the world, there are numerous alkaline, hypersaline environments that are heated either geothermally or through intense solar radiation. It was once thought that such harsh environments were inhospitable and incapable of supporting a variety of life. However, numerous culture-dependent and -independent studies revealed the presence of an extensive diversity of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and archaea that survive and grow under these multiple harsh conditions. This diversity includes the halophilic alkalithermophiles, a novel group of polyextremophiles that require for growth and proliferation the multiple extremes of high salinity, alkaline pH, and elevated temperature. Life under these conditions undoubtedly involves the development of unique physiological characteristics, phenotypic properties, and adaptive mechanisms that enable control of membrane permeability, control of intracellular osmotic balance, and stability of the cell wall, intracellular proteins, and other cellular constituents. This minireview highlights the ecology and growth characteristics of the extremely halophilic alkalithermophiles that have been isolated thus far. Biochemical, metabolic, and physiological properties of the extremely halophilic alkalithermophiles are described, and their roles in resistance to the combined stressors of high salinity, alkaline pH, and high temperature are discussed. The isolation of halophilic alkalithermophiles broadens the physicochemical boundaries for life and extends the boundaries for the combinations of the maximum salinity, pH, and temperature that can support microbial growth. PMID:22492435

  17. The Multiple Control of Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C.; Sundberg, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms "convergent…

  18. Variable setpoint as a relaxing component in physiological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risvoll, Geir B; Thorsen, Kristian; Ruoff, Peter; Drengstig, Tormod

    2017-09-01

    Setpoints in physiology have been a puzzle for decades, and especially the notion of fixed or variable setpoints have received much attention. In this paper, we show how previously presented homeostatic controller motifs, extended with saturable signaling kinetics, can be described as variable setpoint controllers. The benefit of a variable setpoint controller is that an observed change in the concentration of the regulated biochemical species (the controlled variable) is fully characterized, and is not considered a deviation from a fixed setpoint. The variation in this biochemical species originate from variation in the disturbances (the perturbation), and thereby in the biochemical species representing the controller (the manipulated variable). Thus, we define an operational space which is spanned out by the combined high and low levels of the variations in (1) the controlled variable, (2) the manipulated variable, and (3) the perturbation. From this operational space, we investigate whether and how it imposes constraints on the different motif parameters, in order for the motif to represent a mathematical model of the regulatory system. Further analysis of the controller's ability to compensate for disturbances reveals that a variable setpoint represents a relaxing component for the controller, in that the necessary control action is reduced compared to that of a fixed setpoint controller. Such a relaxing component might serve as an important property from an evolutionary point of view. Finally, we illustrate the principles using the renal sodium and aldosterone regulatory system, where we model the variation in plasma sodium as a function of salt intake. We show that the experimentally observed variations in plasma sodium can be interpreted as a variable setpoint regulatory system. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  19. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium. Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium on “Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, July 10 to 14, 2011. The objective of the symposium w...

  20. Assessing interactions among multiple physiological systems during walking outside a laboratory: An Android based gait monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejdić, E.; Millecamps, A.; Teoli, J.; Rothfuss, M. A.; Franconi, N. G.; Perera, S.; Jones, A. K.; Brach, J. S.; Mickle, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Gait function is traditionally assessed using well-lit, unobstructed walkways with minimal distractions. In patients with subclinical physiological abnormalities, these conditions may not provide enough stress on their ability to adapt to walking. The introduction of challenging walking conditions in gait can induce responses in physiological systems in addition to the locomotor system. There is a need for a device that is capable of monitoring multiple physiological systems in various walking conditions. To address this need, an Android-based gait-monitoring device was developed that enabled the recording of a patient's physiological systems during walking. The gait-monitoring device was tested during self-regulated overground walking sessions of fifteen healthy subjects that included 6 females and 9 males aged 18 to 35 years. The gait-monitoring device measures the patient's stride interval, acceleration, electrocardiogram, skin conductance and respiratory rate. The data is stored on an Android phone and is analyzed offline through the extraction of features in the time, frequency and time-frequency domains. The analysis of the data depicted multisystem physiological interactions during overground walking in healthy subjects. These interactions included locomotion-electrodermal, locomotion-respiratory and cardiolocomotion couplings. The current results depicting strong interactions between the locomotion system and the other considered systems (i.e., electrodermal, respiratory and cardivascular systems) warrant further investigation into multisystem interactions during walking, particularly in challenging walking conditions with older adults. PMID:26390946

  1. Multiplicity Control in Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribbie, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Researchers conducting structural equation modeling analyses rarely, if ever, control for the inflated probability of Type I errors when evaluating the statistical significance of multiple parameters in a model. In this study, the Type I error control, power and true model rates of famsilywise and false discovery rate controlling procedures were…

  2. Presbypropria: the effects of physiological ageing on proprioceptive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Olivier, Isabelle; Chenu, Olivier; Nougier, Vincent

    2012-10-01

    Several changes in the human sensory systems, like presbycusis or presbyopia, are well-known to occur with physiological ageing. A similar change is likely to occur in proprioception, too, but there are strong and unexplained discrepancies in the literature. It was proposed that assessment of the attentional cost of proprioceptive control could provide information able to unify these previous studies. To this aim, 15 young adults and 15 older adults performed a position matching task in single and dual-task paradigms with different difficulty levels of the secondary task (congruent and incongruent Stroop-type tasks) to assess presumed age-related deficits in proprioceptive control. Results showed that proprioceptive control was as accurate and as consistent in older as in young adults for a single proprioceptive task. However, performing a secondary cognitive task and increasing the difficulty of this secondary task evidenced both a decreased matching performance and/or an increased attentional cost of proprioceptive control in older adults as compared to young ones. These results advocated for an impaired proprioception in physiological ageing.

  3. Control of multiple robots using vision sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Aranda, Miguel; Sagüés, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This monograph introduces novel methods for the control and navigation of mobile robots using multiple-1-d-view models obtained from omni-directional cameras. This approach overcomes field-of-view and robustness limitations, simultaneously enhancing accuracy and simplifying application on real platforms. The authors also address coordinated motion tasks for multiple robots, exploring different system architectures, particularly the use of multiple aerial cameras in driving robot formations on the ground. Again, this has benefits of simplicity, scalability and flexibility. Coverage includes details of: a method for visual robot homing based on a memory of omni-directional images a novel vision-based pose stabilization methodology for non-holonomic ground robots based on sinusoidal-varying control inputs an algorithm to recover a generic motion between two 1-d views and which does not require a third view a novel multi-robot setup where multiple camera-carrying unmanned aerial vehicles are used to observe and c...

  4. Conceptual design of multiple parallel switching controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugolini, D.; Yoshikawa, S.; Ozawa, K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the conceptual design and the development of a preliminary model of a multiple parallel switching (MPS) controller. The introduction of several advanced controllers has widened and improved the control capability of nonlinear dynamical systems. However, it is not possible to uniquely define a controller that always outperforms the others, and, in many situations, the controller providing the best control action depends on the operating conditions and on the intrinsic properties and behavior of the controlled dynamical system. The desire to combine the control action of several controllers with the purpose to continuously attain the best control action has motivated the development of the MPS controller. The MPS controller consists of a number of single controllers acting in parallel and of an artificial intelligence (AI) based selecting mechanism. The AI selecting mechanism analyzes the output of each controller and implements the one providing the best control performance. An inherent property of the MPS controller is the possibility to discard unreliable controllers while still being able to perform the control action. To demonstrate the feasibility and the capability of the MPS controller the simulation of the on-line operation control of a fast breeder reactor (FBR) evaporator is presented. (author)

  5. Delegation control of multiple unmanned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Susan R.; Shively, Robert J.

    2010-04-01

    Maturing technologies and complex payloads coupled with a future objective to reduce the logistics burden of current unmanned aerial systems (UAS) operations require a change to the 2-crew employment paradigm. Increased automation and operator supervisory control of unmanned systems have been advocated to meet the objective of reducing the crew requirements, while managing future technologies. Specifically, a delegation control employment strategy has resulted in reduced workload and higher situation awareness for single operators controlling multiple unmanned systems in empirical studies1,2. Delegation control is characterized by the ability for an operator to call a single "play" that initiates prescribed default actions for each vehicle and associated sensor related to a common mission goal. Based upon the effectiveness of delegation control in simulation, the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) developed a Delegation Control (DelCon) operator interface with voice recognition implementation for play selection, real-time play modification, and play status with automation transparency to enable single operator control of multiple unmanned systems in flight. AFDD successfully demonstrated delegation control in a Troops-in-Contact mission scenario at Ft. Ord in 2009. This summary showcases the effort as a beneficial advance in single operator control of multiple UAS.

  6. The interactive effects of multiple stressors on physiological stress responses and club cell investment in fathead minnows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manek, Aditya K.; Ferrari, Maud C.O.; Niyogi, Som; Chivers, Douglas P.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have dramatically increased over the past decades, with the consequence that many organisms are simultaneously exposed to multiple stressors. Understanding how organisms respond to these stressors is a key focus for scientists from many disciplines. Here we investigated the interactive effects of two stressors, UV radiation (UVR) and cadmium (Cd) exposure on a common freshwater fish, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). UVR is known to influence the density of epidermal club cells (ECCs), which are not only a key component of the innate immune system of fishes, but are also the source of chemical alarm cues that serve to warn other fishes of nearby predators. In contrast, Cd impairs the physiological stress response and ability of fish to respond to alarm cues. We used an integrative approach to examine physiological stress response as well as investment in ECCs. Fish exposed to UVR had higher levels of cortisol than non-exposed controls, but Cd reduced cortisol levels substantially for fish exposed to UVR. Fish exposed to UVR, either in the presence or absence of Cd, showed consistent decreases in ECC investment compared to non-exposed controls. Despite differences in ECC number, there was no difference in the potency of alarm cues prepared from the skin of UVR and Cd exposed or non-exposed fish indicating that UVR and Cd exposure combined may have little influence on chemically-mediated predator–prey interactions. - Highlights: • UV radiation caused a physiological stress response (cortisol release) in fish. • Cd reduced cortisol levels substantially for fish exposed to UV. • Fish exposed to UV, with or without Cd, showed decreases in club cell investment. • There was no difference in alarm cues potency from UV and Cd exposed fish. • Our work highlights the difficulty of untangling effects of multiple stressors

  7. The interactive effects of multiple stressors on physiological stress responses and club cell investment in fathead minnows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manek, Aditya K., E-mail: aditya.manek@usask.ca [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5E2 SK (Canada); Ferrari, Maud C.O. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, WCVM, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4 (Canada); Niyogi, Som; Chivers, Douglas P. [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5E2 SK (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities have dramatically increased over the past decades, with the consequence that many organisms are simultaneously exposed to multiple stressors. Understanding how organisms respond to these stressors is a key focus for scientists from many disciplines. Here we investigated the interactive effects of two stressors, UV radiation (UVR) and cadmium (Cd) exposure on a common freshwater fish, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). UVR is known to influence the density of epidermal club cells (ECCs), which are not only a key component of the innate immune system of fishes, but are also the source of chemical alarm cues that serve to warn other fishes of nearby predators. In contrast, Cd impairs the physiological stress response and ability of fish to respond to alarm cues. We used an integrative approach to examine physiological stress response as well as investment in ECCs. Fish exposed to UVR had higher levels of cortisol than non-exposed controls, but Cd reduced cortisol levels substantially for fish exposed to UVR. Fish exposed to UVR, either in the presence or absence of Cd, showed consistent decreases in ECC investment compared to non-exposed controls. Despite differences in ECC number, there was no difference in the potency of alarm cues prepared from the skin of UVR and Cd exposed or non-exposed fish indicating that UVR and Cd exposure combined may have little influence on chemically-mediated predator–prey interactions. - Highlights: • UV radiation caused a physiological stress response (cortisol release) in fish. • Cd reduced cortisol levels substantially for fish exposed to UV. • Fish exposed to UV, with or without Cd, showed decreases in club cell investment. • There was no difference in alarm cues potency from UV and Cd exposed fish. • Our work highlights the difficulty of untangling effects of multiple stressors.

  8. The benefit of self-testing and interleaving for synthesizing concepts across multiple physiology texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderholm, Tracy; Dobson, John; Yarbrough, Mary Beth

    2016-09-01

    A testing-based learning strategy is one that relies on the act of recalling (i.e., testing) information after exposure, and interleaving is a strategy in which the learning materials are presented in a serial order (e.g., texts 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3) versus a blocked order (e.g., texts 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3). Although both learning strategies have been thoroughly investigated, few studies have examined their additive effect with higher-order cognitive tasks such as the ability to identify themes across multiple texts, and none of those did so using physiology information. The purpose of the present study was to compare recall and thematic processing across five different physiology texts. Participants were randomly assigned to learn the texts using one of the following four learning strategies: 1) study-study-study (S-S-S) using a blocked order, 2) S-S-S using an interleaved order, 3) study-test-study (S-T-S) using a blocked order, and 4) S-T-S using an interleaved order. Over the course of the following week, the S-T-S groups had more stable recall of key text ideas compared with the S-S-S groups, and the S-T-S group had more stable recall of thematic information than the S-S-S group when interleaving was used as the presentation order. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  9. Correlation analysis of the physiological factors controlling fundamental voice frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, J E

    1978-01-01

    A technique has been developed to obtain a quantitative measure of correlation between electromyographic (EMG) activity of various laryngeal muscles, subglottal air pressure, and the fundamental frequency of vibration of the vocal folds (Fo). Data were collected and analyzed on one subject, a native speaker of American English. The results show that an analysis of this type can provide a useful measure of correlation between the physiological and acoustical events in speech and, furthermore, can yield detailed insights into the organization and nature of the speech production process. In particular, based on these results, a model is suggested of Fo control involving laryngeal state functions that seems to agree with present knowledge of laryngeal control and experimental evidence.

  10. Multiple model adaptive control with mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Matthew

    Despite the remarkable theoretical accomplishments and successful applications of adaptive control, the field is not sufficiently mature to solve challenging control problems requiring strict performance and safety guarantees. Towards addressing these issues, a novel deterministic multiple-model adaptive control approach called adaptive mixing control is proposed. In this approach, adaptation comes from a high-level system called the supervisor that mixes into feedback a number of candidate controllers, each finely-tuned to a subset of the parameter space. The mixing signal, the supervisor's output, is generated by estimating the unknown parameters and, at every instant of time, calculating the contribution level of each candidate controller based on certainty equivalence. The proposed architecture provides two characteristics relevant to solving stringent, performance-driven applications. First, the full-suite of linear time invariant control tools is available. A disadvantage of conventional adaptive control is its restriction to utilizing only those control laws whose solutions can be feasibly computed in real-time, such as model reference and pole-placement type controllers. Because its candidate controllers are computed off line, the proposed approach suffers no such restriction. Second, the supervisor's output is smooth and does not necessarily depend on explicit a priori knowledge of the disturbance model. These characteristics can lead to improved performance by avoiding the unnecessary switching and chattering behaviors associated with some other multiple adaptive control approaches. The stability and robustness properties of the adaptive scheme are analyzed. It is shown that the mean-square regulation error is of the order of the modeling error. And when the parameter estimate converges to its true value, which is guaranteed if a persistence of excitation condition is satisfied, the adaptive closed-loop system converges exponentially fast to a closed

  11. ASSISTments Dataset from Multiple Randomized Controlled Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selent, Douglas; Patikorn, Thanaporn; Heffernan, Neil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a dataset consisting of data generated from 22 previously and currently running randomized controlled experiments inside the ASSISTments online learning platform. This dataset provides data mining opportunities for researchers to analyze ASSISTments data in a convenient format across multiple experiments at the same time.…

  12. Cooperative Control of Multiple Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-03

    I I Final Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Cooperative Control of Multiple Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles F49620-01-1-0337 6. AUTHOR(S... Autonomous Vehicles Final Report Kendall E. Nygard Department of Computer Science and Operations Research North Dakota State University Fargo, ND 58105-5164

  13. Where have the organizers gone? - The growth control system as a foundation of physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhimin; Shang, Charles

    2017-01-01

    A model of growth control system suggests that the organizers in embryogenesis continue to exist and partially retain their function after embryogenesis. The organizers are the macroscopic singular points of the morphogen gradient and bioelectric fields. They have higher metabolic rate, higher density of gap junctions and stem cells than the surrounding tissue. The growth control model predicts that the organizers are likely to exist at the extreme points of surface or interface curvature of the body. Changes in bioelectric field at organizers precede the morphological and anatomical changes in morphogenesis and pathogenesis. Subtle perturbations at organizers can cause long lasting systemic effects. These features of organizers can be used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes such as regenerative medicine. There is increasing evidence that acupuncture points are likely to have originated from organizers in embryogenesis. Many corollaries and predictions of the growth control model have been independently confirmed in developmental biology, physiology, as well as basic and clinical acupuncture research. This model set the first example of a truly integrative biological basis of acupuncture and conventional biomedical sciences which has met the gold standard of science with multiple confirmed predictions in both fields. The growth control system is embedded in various physiological systems and is part of the foundation of physiology and pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Distributed Autonomous Control of Multiple Spacecraft During Close Proximity Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCamish, Shawn B

    2007-01-01

    This research contributes to multiple spacecraft control by developing an autonomous distributed control algorithm for close proximity operations of multiple spacecraft systems, including rendezvous...

  15. Multiple levels of epigenetic control for bone biology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecino, Martin; Stein, Gary; Stein, Janet; Zaidi, Kaleem; Aguilar, Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Multiple dimensions of epigenetic control contribute to regulation of gene expression that governs bone biology and pathology. Once confined to DNA methylation and a limited number of post-translational modifications of histone proteins, the definition of epigenetic mechanisms is expanding to include contributions of non-coding RNAs and mitotic bookmarking, a mechanism for retaining phenotype identity during cell proliferation. Together these different levels of epigenetic control of physiological processes and their perturbations that are associated with compromised gene expression during the onset and progression of disease, have contributed to an unprecedented understanding of the activities (operation) of the genomic landscape. Here, we address general concepts that explain the contribution of epigenetic control to the dynamic regulation of gene expression during eukaryotic transcription. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Epigenetics and Bone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Decentralized fuzzy control of multiple nonholonomic vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driessen, B.J.; Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.

    1997-09-01

    This work considers the problem of controlling multiple nonholonomic vehicles so that they converge to a scent source without colliding with each other. Since the control is to be implemented on simple 8-bit microcontrollers, fuzzy control rules are used to simplify a linear quadratic regulator control design. The inputs to the fuzzy controllers for each vehicle are the (noisy) direction to the source, the distance to the closest neighbor vehicle, and the direction to the closest vehicle. These directions are discretized into four values: Forward, Behind, Left, and Right, and the distance into three values: Near, Far, Gone. The values of the control at these discrete values are obtained based on the collision-avoidance repulsive forces and the change of variables that reduces the motion control problem of each nonholonomic vehicle to a nonsingular one with two degrees of freedom, instead of three. A fuzzy inference system is used to obtain control values for inputs between the small number of discrete input values. Simulation results are provided which demonstrate that the fuzzy control law performs well compared to the exact controller. In fact, the fuzzy controller demonstrates improved robustness to noise.

  17. Exercise and multiple sclerosis: physiological, psychological, and quality of life issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, G; Andersen, M B

    2001-12-01

    The case for the benefits of physical activity has been well documented in healthy individuals, and the potential for reducing the risk of mental and physical ill health is substantial. Yet, individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) have long been advised to avoid participation in exercise in order to minimise the risk of exacerbations and symptoms of fatigue. There is, however, increasing interest in how acute and chronic exercise affect physiological and psychological functioning in MS. Much of the research has examined physiological tolerance to exercise and focused on responses in terms of heart rate, blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle function, and symptom stability. Little research has focused on understanding how exercise affects psychosocial functioning and brings about changes in depression, affect, mood, well-being, and quality of life. This paper provides a summary of the research exploring the efficacy of physical activity for people with MS. In addition, the key issues that face clinical practice are examined, and considerations for research are discussed.

  18. [Construction and analysis of a monitoring system with remote real-time multiple physiological parameters based on cloud computing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lingyun; Li, Lianjie; Meng, Chunyan

    2014-12-01

    There have been problems in the existing multiple physiological parameter real-time monitoring system, such as insufficient server capacity for physiological data storage and analysis so that data consistency can not be guaranteed, poor performance in real-time, and other issues caused by the growing scale of data. We therefore pro posed a new solution which was with multiple physiological parameters and could calculate clustered background data storage and processing based on cloud computing. Through our studies, a batch processing for longitudinal analysis of patients' historical data was introduced. The process included the resource virtualization of IaaS layer for cloud platform, the construction of real-time computing platform of PaaS layer, the reception and analysis of data stream of SaaS layer, and the bottleneck problem of multi-parameter data transmission, etc. The results were to achieve in real-time physiological information transmission, storage and analysis of a large amount of data. The simulation test results showed that the remote multiple physiological parameter monitoring system based on cloud platform had obvious advantages in processing time and load balancing over the traditional server model. This architecture solved the problems including long turnaround time, poor performance of real-time analysis, lack of extensibility and other issues, which exist in the traditional remote medical services. Technical support was provided in order to facilitate a "wearable wireless sensor plus mobile wireless transmission plus cloud computing service" mode moving towards home health monitoring for multiple physiological parameter wireless monitoring.

  19. Multiple descriptions for packetized predictive control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jan; Quevedo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    be reliably reconstructed at the plant side. For the particular case of LTI plant models and i.i.d. channels, we show that the overall system forms a Markov jump linear system. We provide conditions for mean square stability and derive upper bounds on the operational bit rate of the quantizer to guarantee......In this paper, we propose to use multiple descriptions (MDs) to achieve a high degree of robustness towards random packet delays and erasures in networked control systems. In particular, we consider the scenario, where a data-rate limited channel is located between the controller and the plant...

  20. Multiple regulatory roles of the mouse transmembrane adaptor protein NTAL in gene transcription and mast cell physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Polakovicova

    Full Text Available Non-T cell activation linker (NTAL; also called LAB or LAT2 is a transmembrane adaptor protein that is expressed in a subset of hematopoietic cells, including mast cells. There are conflicting reports on the role of NTAL in the high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcεRI signaling. Studies carried out on mast cells derived from mice with NTAL knock out (KO and wild type mice suggested that NTAL is a negative regulator of FcεRI signaling, while experiments with RNAi-mediated NTAL knockdown (KD in human mast cells and rat basophilic leukemia cells suggested its positive regulatory role. To determine whether different methodologies of NTAL ablation (KO vs KD have different physiological consequences, we compared under well defined conditions FcεRI-mediated signaling events in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs with NTAL KO or KD. BMMCs with both NTAL KO and KD exhibited enhanced degranulation, calcium mobilization, chemotaxis, tyrosine phosphorylation of LAT and ERK, and depolymerization of filamentous actin. These data provide clear evidence that NTAL is a negative regulator of FcεRI activation events in murine BMMCs, independently of possible compensatory developmental alterations. To gain further insight into the role of NTAL in mast cells, we examined the transcriptome profiles of resting and antigen-activated NTAL KO, NTAL KD, and corresponding control BMMCs. Through this analysis we identified several genes that were differentially regulated in nonactivated and antigen-activated NTAL-deficient cells, when compared to the corresponding control cells. Some of the genes seem to be involved in regulation of cholesterol-dependent events in antigen-mediated chemotaxis. The combined data indicate multiple regulatory roles of NTAL in gene expression and mast cell physiology.

  1. The barley anion channel, HvALMT1, has multiple roles in guard cell physiology and grain metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Muyun; Gruber, Benjamin D; Delhaize, Emmanuel; White, Rosemary G; James, Richard A; You, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zhenming; Ryan, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The barley (Hordeum vulgare) gene HvALMT1 encodes an anion channel in guard cells and in certain root tissues indicating that it may perform multiple roles. The protein localizes to the plasma membrane and facilitates malate efflux from cells when constitutively expressed in barley plants and Xenopus oocytes. This study investigated the function of HvALMT1 further by identifying its tissue-specific expression and by generating and characterizing RNAi lines with reduced HvALMT1 expression. We show that transgenic plants with 18-30% of wild-type HvALMT1 expression had impaired guard cell function. They maintained higher stomatal conductance in low light intensity and lost water more rapidly from excised leaves than the null segregant control plants. Tissue-specific expression of HvALMT1 was investigated in developing grain and during germination using transgenic barley lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) with the HvALMT1 promoter. We found that HvALMT1 is expressed in the nucellar projection, the aleurone layer and the scutellum of developing barley grain. Malate release measured from isolated aleurone layers prepared from imbibed grain was significantly lower in the RNAi barley plants compared with control plants. These data provide molecular and physiological evidence that HvALMT1 functions in guard cells, in grain development and during germination. We propose that HvALMT1 releases malate and perhaps other anions from guard cells to promote stomatal closure. The likely roles of HvALMT1 during seed development and grain germination are also discussed. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. Controllability of partial differential equations governed by multiplicative controls

    CERN Document Server

    Khapalov, Alexander Y

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this monograph is to address the issue of the global controllability of partial differential equations in the context of multiplicative (or bilinear) controls, which enter the model equations as coefficients. The mathematical models we examine include the linear and nonlinear parabolic and hyperbolic PDE's, the Schrödinger equation, and coupled hybrid nonlinear distributed parameter systems modeling the swimming phenomenon. The book offers a new, high-quality and intrinsically nonlinear methodology to approach the aforementioned highly nonlinear controllability problems.

  3. Multiple sclerosis in the Faroe Islands. 7. Results of a case control questionnaire with multiple controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzke, J F; Hyllested, K; Arbuckle, J D

    1997-01-01

    Detailed questionnaires were completed in 1978-79 by 23 of the 28 then known resident Faroese multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and 127 controls. These controls were divided into 69 Group A (patient sibs and other relatives), 37 Group B (matched neighbor controls, their spouses and sibs, plus...... facilities, and nature of house construction or heating. Detailed dietary histories, available for half the subjects, revealed no differences, cases versus controls, for four age periods between age 0 and 30 years, and for 16 specified foodstuffs. Animal exposures showed overall no consistent differences...

  4. Active control of multiple resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Yadikin, D.; Gregoratto, D.; Paccagnella, R.; Liu, Y. Q.; Bolzonella, T.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.; Kuldkepp, M.; Manduchi, G.; Marchiori, G.; Marrelli, L.; Partin, P.; Menmuir, S.; Ortolani, S.; Rachlew, E.; Spizzo, S.; Zanca, P.

    2005-01-01

    Active magnetic feedback suppression of resistive wall modes is of common interest for several fusion concepts relying on close conducting walls for stabilization of ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. In the advanced tokamak without plasma rotation the kink mode is not completely stabilized, but rather converted into an unstable resistive wall mode (RWM) with a growth time comparable to the wall magnetic flux penetration time. The reversed field pinch (RFP) is similar to the advanced tokamak in the sense that it uses a conducting wall for kink mode stabilization. Also both configurations are susceptible to resonant field error amplification of marginally stable modes. However, the RFP has a different RWM spectrum and, in general, a range of modes is unstable. Hence, the requirement for simultaneous feedback stabilization of multiple independent RWMs arises for the RFP configuration. Recent experiments on RWM feedback stabilization, performed in the RFP device EXTRAP T2R [1], are presented. The experimental results obtained are the first demonstration of simultaneous feedback control of multiple independent RWMs [2]. Using an array of active magnetic coils, a reproducible suppression of several RWMs is achieved for the duration of the discharge, 3-5 wall times, through feedback action. An array with 64 active saddle coils at 4 poloidal times 16 toroidal positions is used. The important issues of side band generation by the active coil array and the accompanying coupling of different unstable modes through the feedback action are addressed in this study. Open loop control experiments have been carried out to quantitatively study resonant field error amplification. (Author)

  5. Relationship Between Physiological and Perceived Fall Risk in People With Multiple Sclerosis: Implications for Assessment and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Hilary; Cameron, Michelle; Hoang, Phu; Lord, Stephen; Shaw, Steve; Freeman, Jennifer

    2018-04-24

    This study evaluated the relationship between physiological and perceived fall risk in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Secondary analysis of data from prospective cohort studies undertaken in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Community. Ambulatory people with MS (N=416) (age 51.5±12.0 years; 73% female; 62% relapsing-remitting MS; 13.7±9.9 years disease duration). Not applicable. All participants completed measures of physiological (Physiological Profile Assessment [PPA]) and perceived (Falls Efficacy Scale-international [FESi]) fall risk and prospectively recorded falls for 3 months. 155 (37%) of the participants were recurrent fallers (≥2 falls). Mean PPA and FESi scores were high (PPA 2.14±1.87, FESi 34.27±11.18). The PPA and the FESi independently predicted faller classification in logistic regression, which indicated that the odds of being classified as a recurrent faller significantly increased with increasing scores (PPA odds ratio [OR] 1.30 [95% CI 1.17-1.46], FESi OR 1.05 [95% CI 1.03-1.07]). Classification and regression tree analysis divided the sample into four groups based on cutoff values for the PPA: (1) low physiological/low perceived risk (PPA 27.5), (3) high physiological/low perceived risk (PPA >2.83, FESi 35.5). Over 50% of participants had a disparity between perceived and physiological fall risk; most were in group 2. It is possible that physiological risk factors not detected by the PPA may also be influential. This study highlights the importance of considering both physiological and perceived fall risk in MS and the need for further research to explore the complex interrelationships of perceptual and physiological risk factors in this population. This study also supports the importance of developing behavioral and physical interventions that can be tailored to the individual's needs. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB/PK) model for multiple exposure routes for soman in multiple species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweeney, R.E.; Langenberg, J.P.; Maxwell, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB/PK) model has been developed in advanced computer simulation language (ACSL) to describe blood and tissue concentration-time profiles of the C(±)P(-) stereoisomers of soman after inhalation, subcutaneous and intravenous exposures at low (0.8-1.0 × LD50),

  7. A female sex offender with multiple paraphilias: a psychologic, physiologic (laboratory sexual arousal) and endocrine case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A J; Swaminath, S; Baxter, D; Poulin, C

    1990-05-01

    A 20 year old female pedophile exhibiting multiple paraphilias and who had been both a victim of incest and an active participant, undertook extensive clinical, psychometric, endocrine and laboratory sexual arousal studies. Her psychiatric, psychometric and physiologic arousal profiles showed similarities to those of a sizable proportion of male child molesters, especially incestors. It is suggested that laboratory arousal tests (using the vaginal photoplethysmograph) may have a role in the assessment of some female sex offenders.

  8. Nuclear techniques in plant pathology 1. Plant disease control and physiology of parasitism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menten, J.O.M.; Ando, A.; Tulmann Neto, A.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are advantageously used in several areas of plant pathology. Among them are: induction of mutation for disease resistance, studies with pesticides, disease control through pathogen inactivation, induction of variability and stimulation in pathogens and natural enemies, studies of microorganism physiology and diseased plant physiology, effect of gamma radiation on pesticides, technology of pesticides application, etc. (Author) [pt

  9. Relative null controllability of linear systems with multiple delays in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    varying multiple delays in state and control are developed. If the uncontrolled system is uniformly asymptotically stable, and if the linear system is controllable, then the linear system is null controllable. Journal of the Nigerian Association of ...

  10. Optimization of Inventories for Multiple Companies by Fuzzy Control Method

    OpenAIRE

    Kawase, Koichi; Konishi, Masami; Imai, Jun

    2008-01-01

    In this research, Fuzzy control theory is applied to the inventory control of the supply chain between multiple companies. The proposed control method deals with the amountof inventories expressing supply chain between multiple companies. Referring past demand and tardiness, inventory amounts of raw materials are determined by Fuzzy inference. The method that an appropriate inventory control becomes possible optimizing fuzzy control gain by using SA method for Fuzzy control. The variation of ...

  11. Inventory control with multiple setup costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alp, O.; Huh, W.T.; Tan, T.

    2014-01-01

    We consider an infinite-horizon, periodic-review, single-item production/inventory system with random demand and backordering, where multiple setups are allowed in any period and a separate fixed cost is associated for each setup. Contrary to the majority of the literature on this topic, we do not

  12. Physiological Feedback Control 2011-2012 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    Desai, James R. Baker Jr., Bradford G. Orr, Mark M. Banaszak Holl. The effect of mass transport in the synthesis of partially acetylated dendrimer ...Invention Title: UM 3709 – Dendrimeric Prodrug as a Controlled Release Formulation in Pain Management – Patent Title: Dendrimer Conjugates Patent... Dendrimeric Prodrug as a Controlled Release Formulation in Pain Management – Patent Title: Dendrimer Conjugates Patent/Application Numbers: 61/101,461; 12

  13. Hierarchical Control for Multiple DC Microgrids Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Qobad; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a distributed hierarchical control framework to ensure reliable operation of dc Microgrid (MG) clusters. In this hierarchy, primary control is used to regulate the common bus voltage inside each MG locally. An adaptive droop method is proposed for this level which determines...

  14. Multiple Days of Heat Exposure on Firefighters' Work Performance and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Brianna; Snow, Rod; Vincent, Grace; Tran, Jacqueline; Wolkow, Alexander; Aisbett, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the accumulated effect of ambient heat on the performance of, and physiological and perceptual responses to, intermittent, simulated wildfire fighting tasks over three consecutive days. Firefighters (n = 36) were matched and allocated to either the CON (19°C) or HOT (33°C) condition. They performed three days of intermittent, self-paced simulated firefighting work, interspersed with physiological testing. Task repetitions were counted (and converted to distance or area) to determine work performance. Participants were asked to rate their perceived exertion and thermal sensation after each task. Heart rate, core temperature (Tc), and skin temperature (Tsk) were recorded continuously throughout the simulation. Fluids were consumed ad libitum. Urine volume was measured throughout, and urine specific gravity (USG) analysed, to estimate hydration. All food and fluid consumption was recorded. There was no difference in work output between experimental conditions. However, significant variation in performance responses between individuals was observed. All measures of thermal stress were elevated in the HOT, with core and skin temperature reaching, on average, 0.24 ± 0.08°C and 2.81 ± 0.20°C higher than the CON group. Participants' doubled their fluid intake in the HOT condition, and this was reflected in the USG scores, where the HOT participants reported significantly lower values. Heart rate was comparable between conditions at nearly all time points, however the peak heart rate reached each circuit was 7 ± 3% higher in the CON trial. Likewise, RPE was slightly elevated in the CON trial for the majority of tasks. Participants' work output was comparable between the CON and HOT conditions, however the performance change over time varied significantly between individuals. It is likely that the increased fluid replacement in the heat, in concert with frequent rest breaks and task rotation, assisted with the regulation of physiological responses

  15. Multiple Days of Heat Exposure on Firefighters’ Work Performance and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Brianna; Snow, Rod; Vincent, Grace; Tran, Jacqueline; Wolkow, Alexander; Aisbett, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the accumulated effect of ambient heat on the performance of, and physiological and perceptual responses to, intermittent, simulated wildfire fighting tasks over three consecutive days. Firefighters (n = 36) were matched and allocated to either the CON (19°C) or HOT (33°C) condition. They performed three days of intermittent, self-paced simulated firefighting work, interspersed with physiological testing. Task repetitions were counted (and converted to distance or area) to determine work performance. Participants were asked to rate their perceived exertion and thermal sensation after each task. Heart rate, core temperature (Tc), and skin temperature (Tsk) were recorded continuously throughout the simulation. Fluids were consumed ad libitum. Urine volume was measured throughout, and urine specific gravity (USG) analysed, to estimate hydration. All food and fluid consumption was recorded. There was no difference in work output between experimental conditions. However, significant variation in performance responses between individuals was observed. All measures of thermal stress were elevated in the HOT, with core and skin temperature reaching, on average, 0.24 ± 0.08°C and 2.81 ± 0.20°C higher than the CON group. Participants’ doubled their fluid intake in the HOT condition, and this was reflected in the USG scores, where the HOT participants reported significantly lower values. Heart rate was comparable between conditions at nearly all time points, however the peak heart rate reached each circuit was 7 ± 3% higher in the CON trial. Likewise, RPE was slightly elevated in the CON trial for the majority of tasks. Participants’ work output was comparable between the CON and HOT conditions, however the performance change over time varied significantly between individuals. It is likely that the increased fluid replacement in the heat, in concert with frequent rest breaks and task rotation, assisted with the regulation of physiological

  16. Multiple Days of Heat Exposure on Firefighters' Work Performance and Physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Larsen

    Full Text Available This study assessed the accumulated effect of ambient heat on the performance of, and physiological and perceptual responses to, intermittent, simulated wildfire fighting tasks over three consecutive days. Firefighters (n = 36 were matched and allocated to either the CON (19°C or HOT (33°C condition. They performed three days of intermittent, self-paced simulated firefighting work, interspersed with physiological testing. Task repetitions were counted (and converted to distance or area to determine work performance. Participants were asked to rate their perceived exertion and thermal sensation after each task. Heart rate, core temperature (Tc, and skin temperature (Tsk were recorded continuously throughout the simulation. Fluids were consumed ad libitum. Urine volume was measured throughout, and urine specific gravity (USG analysed, to estimate hydration. All food and fluid consumption was recorded. There was no difference in work output between experimental conditions. However, significant variation in performance responses between individuals was observed. All measures of thermal stress were elevated in the HOT, with core and skin temperature reaching, on average, 0.24 ± 0.08°C and 2.81 ± 0.20°C higher than the CON group. Participants' doubled their fluid intake in the HOT condition, and this was reflected in the USG scores, where the HOT participants reported significantly lower values. Heart rate was comparable between conditions at nearly all time points, however the peak heart rate reached each circuit was 7 ± 3% higher in the CON trial. Likewise, RPE was slightly elevated in the CON trial for the majority of tasks. Participants' work output was comparable between the CON and HOT conditions, however the performance change over time varied significantly between individuals. It is likely that the increased fluid replacement in the heat, in concert with frequent rest breaks and task rotation, assisted with the regulation of

  17. Insect vectors of Leishmania: distribution, physiology and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Umakant; Singh, Sarman

    2008-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a deadly vector-borne disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality in Africa, Asia, Latin America and Mediterranean regions. The causative agent of leishmaniasis is transmitted from man to man by a tiny insect called sandfly. Approximately, 600 species of sandflies are known but only 10% of these act as disease vectors. Further, only 30 species of these are important from public health point. Fauna of Indian sub-zone is represented by 46 species, of these, 11 belong to Phlebotomine species and 35 to Sergentomyia species. Phlebotomus argentipes is the proven vector of kala-azar or visceral leishmaniasis in India. This review gives an insight into the insect vectors of human leishmaniasis, their geographical distribution, recent taxonomic classification, habitat, and different control measures including indoor residual spraying (IRS), insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs), environmental management, biological control, and emerging resistance to DDT. Role of satellite remote sensing for early prediction of the disease by identifying the sandflygenic conditions cannot be undermined. The article also underlines the importance of synthetic pheromones which can be used in near future for the control of these vectors.

  18. Multiple Property Cross Direction Control of Paper Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Ohenoja

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross direction (CD control in sheet-forming process forms a challenging problem with high dimensions. Accounting the interactions between different properties and actuators, the dimensionality increases further and also computational issues arise. We present a multiple property controller feasible to be used especially with imaging measurements that provide high sampling frequency and therefore enable short control interval. The simulation results state the benefits of multiple property CD control over single property control and single property control using full feedforward compensation. The controller presented may also be tuned in automated manner and the results demonstrate the effect of tuning on input saturation.

  19. Supporting multiple control systems at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicklaus, Dennis J.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    The Fermilab control system, ACNET, is used for controlling the Tevatron and all of its pre-accelerators. However, other smaller experiments at Fermilab have been using different controls systems, in particular DOOCS and EPICS. This paper reports some of the steps taken at Fermilab to integrate support for these outside systems. We will describe specific tools that we have built or adapted to facilitate interaction between the architectures. We also examine some of the difficulties that arise from managing this heterogeneous environment. Incompatibilities as well as common elements will be described.

  20. Managers’ Use of Multiple Management Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Jeanette

    This dissertation addresses the topic Management Control Systems (MCS) as a Package. Many research studies investigate management and control systems individually, whereas fewer research studies take a holistic view and include a larger part of all the MCS managers use to guide and direct...... subordinates behaviour in the best interest of their companies. In the MCS literature, it is stressed that knowledge is particularly lacking about how managers design and use MCS as a package, and the effectiveness of using the MCS. This dissertation responds to this call by carrying out a large survey among...... executive managers in large companies, a survey that investigates the subject: Effective Management and Control Systems. The focus in the survey is to explore how executive management in large companies design and use their management control systems package. Further, this study is supplemented...

  1. Flight mission control for multiple spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert E.

    1990-10-01

    A plan developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for mission control of unmanned spacecraft is outlined. A technical matrix organization from which, in the past, project teams were formed to uniquely support a mission is replaced in this new plan. A cost effective approach was needed to make best use of limited resources. Mission control is a focal point operations and a good place to start a multimission concept. Co-location and sharing common functions are the keys to obtaining efficiencies at minimum additional risk. For the projects, the major changes are sharing a common operations area and having indirect control of personnel. The plan identifies the still direct link for the mission control functions. Training is a major element in this plan. Personnel are qualified for a position and certified for a mission. This concept is more easily accepted by new missions than the ongoing missions.

  2. Simultaneous Multiple-Location Separation Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, David (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method of controlling a shear layer for a fluid dynamic body introduces first periodic disturbances into the fluid medium at a first flow separation location. Simultaneously, second periodic disturbances are introduced into the fluid medium at a second flow separation location. A phase difference between the first and second periodic disturbances is adjusted to control flow separation of the shear layer as the fluid medium moves over the fluid dynamic body.

  3. Least squares reverse time migration of controlled order multiples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Imaging using the reverse time migration of multiples generates inherent crosstalk artifacts due to the interference among different order multiples. Traditionally, least-square fitting has been used to address this issue by seeking the best objective function to measure the amplitude differences between the predicted and observed data. We have developed an alternative objective function by decomposing multiples into different orders to minimize the difference between Born modeling predicted multiples and specific-order multiples from observational data in order to attenuate the crosstalk. This method is denoted as the least-squares reverse time migration of controlled order multiples (LSRTM-CM). Our numerical examples demonstrated that the LSRTM-CM can significantly improve image quality compared with reverse time migration of multiples and least-square reverse time migration of multiples. Acknowledgments This research was funded by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41430321 and 41374138).

  4. a New Approach to Physiologic Triggering in Medical Imaging Using Multiple Heart Sounds Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groch, Mark Walter

    A new method for physiological synchronization of medical image acquisition using both the first and second heart sound has been developed. Heart sounds gating (HSG) circuitry has been developed which identifies, individually, both the first (S1) and second (S2) heart sounds from their timing relationship alone, and provides two synchronization points during the cardiac cycle. Identification of first and second heart sounds from their timing relationship alone and application to medical imaging has, heretofore, not been performed in radiology or nuclear medicine. The heart sounds are obtained as conditioned analog signals from a piezoelectric transducer microphone placed on the patient's chest. The timing relationships between the S1 to S2 pulses and the S2 to S1 pulses are determined using a logic scheme capable of distinguishing the S1 and S2 pulses from the heart sounds themselves, using their timing relationships, and the assumption that initially the S1-S2 interval will be shorter than the S2-S1 interval. Digital logic circuitry is utilized to continually track the timing intervals and extend the S1/S2 identification to heart rates up to 200 beats per minute (where the S1-S2 interval is not shorter than the S2-S1 interval). Clinically, first heart sound gating may be performed to assess the systolic ejection portion of the cardiac cycle, with S2 gating utilized for reproduction of the diastolic filling portion of the cycle. One application of HSG used for physiologic synchronization is in multigated blood pool (MGBP) imaging in nuclear medicine. Heart sounds gating has been applied to twenty patients who underwent analysis of ventricular function in Nuclear Medicine, and compared to conventional ECG gated MGBP. Left ventricular ejection fractions calculated from MGBP studies using a S1 and a S2 heart sound trigger correlated well with conventional ECG gated acquisitions in patients adequately gated by HSG and ECG. Heart sounds gating provided superior

  5. Physiological Correlates of Multiple Parasitic Infections in Side-Blotched Lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Austin R; Durso, Andrew M; Smith, Geoffrey D; Skinner, Heather M; French, Susannah S

    We investigated the presence of ectoparasites and hemoparasites in side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) across a large part of their range and measured how parasitic infection related to several key physiological indicators of health. Blood samples were collected from 132 lizards from central Arizona, southern Utah, and eastern Oregon. Hemoparasites were found in 22 individuals (3.2% prevalence in Arizona, 19.1% in Utah, and 6.3% in Oregon), and ectoparasites were found on 51 individuals (56.3% prevalence in Arizona, 56.1% in Utah, and 6.7% in Oregon), with 11 individuals infected with both. Hemoparasites and ectoparasites were found in all three states. Immunocompetence was higher in individuals infected with both hemoparasites and ectoparasites. Body condition, glucocorticoid levels, and reproductive investment were not related to infection status. Our study provides evidence that parasitic infection is associated with an active immune system in wild reptiles but may not impose other costs usually associated with parasites.

  6. Ecosystem and physiological controls over methane production in northern wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, David W.; Holland, Elisabeth A.; Schimel, David S.

    1994-01-01

    Peat chemistry appears to exert primary control over methane production rates in the Canadian Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES) area. We determined laboratory methane production rate potentials in anaerobic slurries of samples collected from a transect of sites through the NOWES study area. We related methane production rates to indicators of resistance to microbial decay (peat C: N and lignin: N ratios) and experimentally manipulated substrate availability for methanogenesis using ethanol (EtOH) and plant litter. We also determined responses of methane production to pH and temperature. Methane production potentials declined along the gradient of sites from high rates in the coastal fens to low rates in the interior bogs and were generally highest in surface layers. Strong relationships between CH4 production potentials and peat chemistry suggested that methanogenesis was limited by fermentation rates. Methane production at ambient pH responded strongly to substrate additions in the circumneutral fens with narrow lignin: N and C: N ratios (delta CH4/delta EtOH = 0.9-2.3 mg/g) and weakly in the acidic bogs with wide C: N and lignin: N ratios (delta CH4/delta EtOH = -0.04-0.02 mg/g). Observed Q(sub 10) values ranged from 1.7 to 4.7 and generally increased with increasing substrate availability, suggesting that fermentation rates were limiting. Titration experiments generally demonstrated inhibition of methanogenesis by low pH. Our results suggest that the low rates of methane emission observed in interior bogs during NOWES likely resulted from pH and substrate quality limitation of the fermentation step in methane production and thus reflect intrinsically low methane production potentials. Low methane emission rates observed during NOWES will likely be observed in other northern wetland regions with similar vegetation chemistry.

  7. Control of multiple filamentation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibich, Gadi; Eisenmann, Shmuel; Ilan, Boaz; Zigler, Arie

    2004-08-01

    In this Letter we provide what is believed to be the first experimental evidence of suppression of the number of filaments for high-intensity laser pulses propagating in air by beam astigmatism. We also show that the number, pattern, and spatial stability of the filaments can be controlled by varying the angle that a focusing lens makes with the axial direction of propagation. This new methodology can be useful for applications involving atmospheric propagation, such as remote sensing.

  8. Stator for a rotating electrical machine having multiple control windings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manoj R.; Lewandowski, Chad R.

    2001-07-17

    A rotating electric machine is provided which includes multiple independent control windings for compensating for rotor imbalances and for levitating/centering the rotor. The multiple independent control windings are placed at different axial locations along the rotor to oppose forces created by imbalances at different axial locations along the rotor. The multiple control windings can also be used to levitate/center the rotor with a relatively small magnetic field per unit area since the rotor and/or the main power winding provides the bias field.

  9. Control of Multiple Robotic Sentry Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.; Klarer, P.; Lewis, C.

    1999-04-01

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories is developing and testing the feasibility of using of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform surround and diversion tasks. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight ''Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rover'' (RATLER{trademark}) vehicles, a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. We have also demonstrated the ability to drive multiple vehicles in formation via tele-operation or by waypoint GPS navigation. This is currently being extended to include mission planning capabilities. At the base-station, the operator can draw on an aerial map the goal regions to be surrounded and the repulsive regions to be avoided. A potential field path planner automatically generates a path from the vehicles' current position to the goal regions while avoiding the repulsive regions and the other vehicles. This path is previewed to the operator before the regions are downloaded to the vehicles. The same potential field path planner resides on the vehicle, except additional repulsive forces from on-board proximity sensors guide the vehicle away from unplanned obstacles.

  10. Multiple Model Approaches to Modelling and Control,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the ease with which prior knowledge can be incorporated. It is interesting to note that researchers in Control Theory, Neural Networks,Statistics, Artificial Intelligence and Fuzzy Logic have more or less independently developed very similar modelling methods, calling them Local ModelNetworks, Operating......, and allows direct incorporation of high-level and qualitative plant knowledge into themodel. These advantages have proven to be very appealing for industrial applications, and the practical, intuitively appealing nature of the framework isdemonstrated in chapters describing applications of local methods...... to problems in the process industries, biomedical applications and autonomoussystems. The successful application of the ideas to demanding problems is already encouraging, but creative development of the basic framework isneeded to better allow the integration of human knowledge with automated learning...

  11. Development of a cerebral circulation model for the automatic control of brain physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsuki, T

    2015-01-01

    In various clinical guidelines of brain injury, intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and brain temperature (BT) are essential targets for precise management for brain resuscitation. In addition, the integrated automatic control of BT, ICP, and CBF is required for improving therapeutic effects and reducing medical costs and staff burden. Thus, a new model of cerebral circulation was developed in this study for integrative automatic control. With this model, the CBF and cerebral perfusion pressure of a normal adult male were regionally calculated according to cerebrovascular structure, blood viscosity, blood distribution, CBF autoregulation, and ICP. The analysis results were consistent with physiological knowledge already obtained with conventional studies. Therefore, the developed model is potentially available for the integrative control of the physiological state of the brain as a reference model of an automatic control system, or as a controlled object in various control simulations.

  12. Physiological coherence in healthy volunteers during laboratory-induced stress and controlled breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Mejía, Elisa; Torres, Robinson; Restrepo, Diana

    2018-06-01

    Physiological coherence has been related with a general sense of well-being and improvements in health and physical, social, and cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between acute stress, controlled breathing, and physiological coherence, and the degree of body systems synchronization during a coherence-generation exercise. Thirty-four university employees were evaluated during a 20-min test consisting of four stages of 5-min duration each, during which basal measurements were obtained (Stage 1), acute stress was induced using validated mental stressors (Stroop test and mental arithmetic task, during Stage 2 and 3, respectively), and coherence states were generated using a controlled breathing technique (Stage 4). Physiological coherence and cardiorespiratory synchronization were assessed during each stage from heart rate variability, pulse transit time, and respiration. Coherence measurements derived from the three analyzed variables increased during controlled respiration. Moreover, signals synchronized during the controlled breathing stage, implying a cardiorespiratory synchronization was achieved by most participants. Hence, physiological coherence and cardiopulmonary synchronization, which could lead to improvements in health and better life quality, can be achieved using slow, controlled breathing exercises. Meanwhile, coherence measured during basal state and stressful situations did not show relevant differences using heart rate variability and pulse transit time. More studies are needed to evaluate the ability of coherence ratio to reflect acute stress. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. A comparative study of students' performance in preclinical physiology assessed by multiple choice and short essay questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyebola, D D; Adewoye, O E; Iyaniwura, J O; Alada, A R; Fasanmade, A A; Raji, Y

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the performance of medical students in physiology when assessed by multiple choice questions (MCQs) and short essay questions (SEQs). The study also examined the influence of factors such as age, sex, O/level grades and JAMB scores on performance in the MCQs and SEQs. A structured questionnaire was administered to 264 medical students' four months before the Part I MBBS examination. Apart from personal data of each student, the questionnaire sought information on the JAMB scores and GCE O' Level grades of each student in English Language, Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics. The physiology syllabus was divided into five parts and the students were administered separate examinations (tests) on each part. Each test consisted of MCQs and SEQs. The performance in MCQs and SEQs were compared. Also, the effects of JAMB scores and GCE O/level grades on the performance in both the MCQs and SEQs were assessed. The results showed that the students performed better in all MCQ tests than in the SEQs. JAMB scores and O' level English Language grade had no significant effect on students' performance in MCQs and SEQs. However O' level grades in Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics had significant effects on performance in MCQs and SEQs. Inadequate knowledge of physiology and inability to present information in a logical sequence are believed to be major factors contributing to the poorer performance in the SEQs compared with MCQs. In view of the finding of significant association between performance in MCQs and SEQs and GCE O/level grades in science subjects and mathematics, it was recommended that both JAMB results and the GCE results in the four O/level subjects above may be considered when selecting candidates for admission into the medical schools.

  14. Physiological Mechanisms Only Tell Half Story: Multiple Biological Processes are involved in Regulating Freezing Tolerance of Imbibed Lactuca sativa Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Ganesh K; Han, Yingying; Li, Weijie; Song, Danping; Song, Xiaoyan; Shen, Mengqi; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Chenxue; Liu, Baolin

    2017-03-13

    The physiological mechanisms by which imbibed seeds survive freezing temperatures in their natural environment have been categorized as freezing avoidance by supercooling and freezing tolerance by extracellular freeze-desiccation, but the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring seed freezing tolerance is unexplored. In this study, using imbibed Lactuca sativa seeds we show that fast cooled seeds (60 °C h -1 ) suffered significantly higher membrane damage at temperature between -20 °C and -10 °C than slow cooled (3 °Ch -1 ) seeds (P  0.05). However, both SOD activity and accumulation of free proline were induced significantly after slow cooling to -20 °C compared with fast cooling. RNA-seq demonstrated that multiple pathways were differentially regulated between slow and fast cooling. Real-time verification of some differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that fast cooling caused mRNA level changes of plant hormone and ubiquitionation pathways at higher sub-zero temperature, whilst slow cooling caused mRNA level change of those pathways at lower sub-zero ttemperatures. Thus, we conclude that imbibed seed tolerate low temperature not only by physiological mechanisms but also by biochemical and molecular changes.

  15. Shared control of gene expression in bacteria by transcription factors and global physiology of the cell.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berthoumieux, S.; Jong, H. de; Baptist, G.; Pinel, C.; Ranquet, C.; Ropers, D.; Geiselmann, J.

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression is controlled by the joint effect of (i) the global physiological state of the cell, in particular the activity of the gene expression machinery, and (ii) DNA-binding transcription factors and other specific regulators. We present a model-based approach to distinguish between these

  16. Control analysis of the dependence of Escherichia coli physiology on the H+ -ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Michelsen, Ole; Westerhoff, Hans V.

    1993-01-01

    The H+-ATPase plays a central role in Escherichia coli free-energy transduction and hence in E. coli physiology. We here investigate the extent to which this enzyme also controls the growth rate, growth yield, and respiratory rate of E. coli. We modulate the expression of the atp operon and deter...

  17. Operators work reliability current control based on the psychological and physiological criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, A.V.; Burov, A.Yu.; Grigorus', A.G.; Kal'nish, V.V.; Kapshuk, A.P.; Grigor'yants, T.N.; Bobko, N.A.

    1984-01-01

    A possibility of developing highly sensitive criteria for assessment of mental working ability at the expense of profound automated analysis of available psychological and physiological criteria is disclosed; it is a precondition for developing operator is woAking ability control system not requiring additional personnel for its operation

  18. Circadian phase resetting via single and multiple control targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Bagheri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Circadian entrainment is necessary for rhythmic physiological functions to be appropriately timed over the 24-hour day. Disruption of circadian rhythms has been associated with sleep and neuro-behavioral impairments as well as cancer. To date, light is widely accepted to be the most powerful circadian synchronizer, motivating its use as a key control input for phase resetting. Through sensitivity analysis, we identify additional control targets whose individual and simultaneous manipulation (via a model predictive control algorithm out-perform the open-loop light-based phase recovery dynamics by nearly 3-fold. We further demonstrate the robustness of phase resetting by synchronizing short- and long-period mutant phenotypes to the 24-hour environment; the control algorithm is robust in the presence of model mismatch. These studies prove the efficacy and immediate application of model predictive control in experimental studies and medicine. In particular, maintaining proper circadian regulation may significantly decrease the chance of acquiring chronic illness.

  19. Advantages and Disadvantages of Physiological Assessment For Next Generation Control Room Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan Q. Tran; Ronald L. Boring; Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; Bruce P Hallbert; M. David Keller; Tessa M. Anderson

    2007-08-01

    Abstract - We propose using non-obtrusive physiological assessment (e.g., eye tracking,) to assess human information processing errors (e.g., loss of vigilance) and limitations (e.g., workload) for advanced energy systems early in the design process. This physiological approach for assessing risk will circumvent many limitations of current risk methodologies such as subjective rating (e.g., rater’s biases) and performance modeling (e.g., risk assessment is scripted and is based upon the individual modeler’s judgment). Key uses will be to evaluate (early in the design process) novel control room equipment and configurations as well as newly developed automated systems that will inevitably place a high information load on operators. The physiological risk assessment tool will allow better precision in pinpointing problematic design issues and will provide a “real-time” assessment of risk. Furthermore, this physiological approach would extend the state-of-the-art of human reliability methods from a “static” measure to more “dynamic.” This paper will discuss a broad range of the current popular online performance gauges as well as its advantages and disadvantages for use in next generation control room.

  20. Multilateral Telecoordinated Control of Multiple Robots With Uncertain Kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Di-Hua; Xia, Yuanqing

    2017-06-06

    This paper addresses the telecoordinated control of multiple robots in the simultaneous presence of asymmetric time-varying delays, nonpassive external forces, and uncertain kinematics/dynamics. To achieve the control objective, a neuroadaptive controller with utilizing prescribed performance control and switching control technique is developed, where the basic idea is to employ the concept of motion synchronization in each pair of master-slave robots and among all slave robots. By using the multiple Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals method, the state-independent input-to-output practical stability of the closed-loop system is established. Compared with the previous approaches, the new design is straightforward and easier to implement and is applicable to a wider area. Simulation results on three pairs of three degrees-of-freedom robots confirm the theoretical findings.

  1. Performance effect of multiple control forms in a Lean organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Borup; Israelsen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades Lean has developed into a prominent management philosophy reaching beyond shop floor tools. However, substantial support of performance effects from Lean is still scarce and at best with mixed results. Recently, research has turned its focus towards perceiving Lean...... as a control package. In this paper we present statistical support for enhanced performance coming from Lean. Furthermore, our results strongly support the perception of Lean as a set of multiple control forms (output, behavioral, and social controls) that complement each other. Therefore, performance...... is increased if the average level of control forms is increased, and performance is further increased if the control forms are balanced at the same level representing a complementary effect between them. Our data are archival data spanning multiple years in a strong Lean organization. The dependent performance...

  2. A bio-inspired glucose controller based on pancreatic β-cell physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Pau; Georgiou, Pantelis; Oliver, Nick; Johnston, Desmond G; Toumazou, Christofer

    2012-05-01

    Control algorithms for closed-loop insulin delivery in type 1 diabetes have been mainly based on control engineering or artificial intelligence techniques. These, however, are not based on the physiology of the pancreas but seek to implement engineering solutions to biology. Developments in mathematical models of the β-cell physiology of the pancreas have described the glucose-induced insulin release from pancreatic β cells at a molecular level. This has facilitated development of a new class of bio-inspired glucose control algorithms that replicate the functionality of the biological pancreas. However, technologies for sensing glucose levels and delivering insulin use the subcutaneous route, which is nonphysiological and introduces some challenges. In this article, a novel glucose controller is presented as part of a bio-inspired artificial pancreas. A mathematical model of β-cell physiology was used as the core of the proposed controller. In order to deal with delays and lack of accuracy introduced by the subcutaneous route, insulin feedback and a gain scheduling strategy were employed. A United States Food and Drug Administration-accepted type 1 diabetes mellitus virtual population was used to validate the presented controller. Premeal and postmeal mean ± standard deviation blood glucose levels for the adult and adolescent populations were well within the target range set for the controller [(70, 180) mg/dl], with a percent time in range of 92.8 ± 7.3% for the adults and 83.5 ± 14% for the adolescents. This article shows for the first time very good glucose control in a virtual population with type 1 diabetes mellitus using a controller based on a subcellular β-cell model. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  3. Feedforward Control of a 3-D Physiological Articulatory Model for Vowel Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Qiang; Akikazu Nishikido; Jianwu Dang

    2009-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) physiological articulatory model was developed to account for the bio-mechanical properties of the speech organs in speech production. Control of the model to investigate the mechanism of speech production requires an efficient control module to estimate muscle activation patterns, which is used to manipulate the 3-D physiological arUculatory model, according to the desired articulatory posture. For this purpose, a feedforward control strategy was developed by mapping the articulatory target to the corresponding muscle activation pattern via the intrinsic representation of vowel articulation. In this process, the articulatory postures are first mapped to the corresponding intrinsic representations; then, the articulatory postures are clustered in the intrinsic representations space and a nonlinear function is ap-proximated for each cluster to map the intrinsic representation of vowel articulation to the muscle activation pattern by using general regression neural networks (GRNN). The results show that the feedforward control module is able to manipulate the 3-D physiological articulatory model for vowel production with high accu-racy both acoustically and articulatodly.

  4. On-line estimation of physiological states for monitoring and control of bioprocesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velislava N Lyubenova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach for monitoring of main physiological states of a class processes is proposed. This class is characterized by production and consumption of intermediate metabolite related to target product. The balance between these two phenomena is considered as key parameter for recognizing the process physiological states. A general structure of cascade software sensor of the key parameter is derived and applied for process monitoring and control. Two type processes are considered as case study. The first one is mono culture for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the second one is mixed culture for biopolymer production by L. delbrulckii and R. Eutropha. The good properties of the proposed monitoring and control schemes are demonstrated by simulation investigations.

  5. Accelerated spike resampling for accurate multiple testing controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Matthew T

    2013-02-01

    Controlling for multiple hypothesis tests using standard spike resampling techniques often requires prohibitive amounts of computation. Importance sampling techniques can be used to accelerate the computation. The general theory is presented, along with specific examples for testing differences across conditions using permutation tests and for testing pairwise synchrony and precise lagged-correlation between many simultaneously recorded spike trains using interval jitter.

  6. Chance Events in Career Development: Influence, Control and Multiplicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Jim E. H.; Pryor, Robert G. L.; Chan, Eva Wing Man; Rijanto, Jeniyanti

    2009-01-01

    This article reports three studies on the nature and impact of chance events. The first study investigated chance events in terms of the dimensions of influence and control. The second and third studies investigated the effects of multiplicity of chance events on career development are in terms of respondents' own careers and then in terms of…

  7. Metabolomics of Ramadan fasting: an opportunity for the controlled study of physiological responses to food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sweety; Krug, Susanne; Skurk, Thomas; Halama, Anna; Stank, Antonia; Artati, Anna; Prehn, Cornelia; Malek, Joel A; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Adamski, Jerzy; Hauner, Hans; Suhre, Karsten

    2014-06-06

    High-throughput screening techniques that analyze the metabolic endpoints of biological processes can identify the contributions of genetic predisposition and environmental factors to the development of common diseases. Studies applying controlled physiological challenges can reveal dysregulation in metabolic responses that may be predictive for or associated with these diseases. However, large-scale epidemiological studies with well controlled physiological challenge conditions, such as extended fasting periods and defined food intake, pose logistic challenges. Culturally and religiously motivated behavioral patterns of life style changes provide a natural setting that can be used to enroll a large number of study volunteers. Here we report a proof of principle study conducted within a Muslim community, showing that a metabolomics study during the Holy Month of Ramadan can provide a unique opportunity to explore the pre-prandial and postprandial response of human metabolism to nutritional challenges. Up to five blood samples were obtained from eleven healthy male volunteers, taken directly before and two hours after consumption of a controlled meal in the evening on days 7 and 26 of Ramadan, and after an over-night fast several weeks after Ramadan. The observed increases in glucose, insulin and lactate levels at the postprandial time point confirm the expected physiological response to food intake. Targeted metabolomics further revealed significant and physiologically plausible responses to food intake by an increase in bile acid and amino acid levels and a decrease in long-chain acyl-carnitine and polyamine levels. A decrease in the concentrations of a number of phospholipids between samples taken on days 7 and 26 of Ramadan shows that the long-term response to extended fasting may differ from the response to short-term fasting. The present study design is scalable to larger populations and may be extended to the study of the metabolic response in defined patient

  8. Multiple-Input Subject-Specific Modeling of Plasma Glucose Concentration for Feedforward Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Kaylee; Cinar, Ali; Mei, Yong; Roggendorf, Amy; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Quinn, Laurie; Rollins, Derrick K

    2014-11-26

    The ability to accurately develop subject-specific, input causation models, for blood glucose concentration (BGC) for large input sets can have a significant impact on tightening control for insulin dependent diabetes. More specifically, for Type 1 diabetics (T1Ds), it can lead to an effective artificial pancreas (i.e., an automatic control system that delivers exogenous insulin) under extreme changes in critical disturbances. These disturbances include food consumption, activity variations, and physiological stress changes. Thus, this paper presents a free-living, outpatient, multiple-input, modeling method for BGC with strong causation attributes that is stable and guards against overfitting to provide an effective modeling approach for feedforward control (FFC). This approach is a Wiener block-oriented methodology, which has unique attributes for meeting critical requirements for effective, long-term, FFC.

  9. Dynamic coordinated control laws in multiple agent models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, David S.; Schwartz, Ira B.

    2005-01-01

    We present an active control scheme of a kinetic model of swarming. It has been shown previously that the global control scheme for the model, presented in [Systems Control Lett. 52 (2004) 25], gives rise to spontaneous collective organization of agents into a unified coherent swarm, via steering controls and utilizing long-range attractive and short-range repulsive interactions. We extend these results by presenting control laws whereby a single swarm is broken into independently functioning subswarm clusters. The transition between one coordinated swarm and multiple clustered subswarms is managed simply with a homotopy parameter. Additionally, we present as an alternate formulation, a local control law for the same model, which implements dynamic barrier avoidance behavior, and in which swarm coherence emerges spontaneously

  10. Realization of quantum gates with multiple control qubits or multiple target qubits in a cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Muhammad; Irfan, Muhammad; Qamar, Shahid

    2015-06-01

    We propose a scheme to realize a three-qubit controlled phase gate and a multi-qubit controlled NOT gate of one qubit simultaneously controlling n-target qubits with a four-level quantum system in a cavity. The implementation time for multi-qubit controlled NOT gate is independent of the number of qubit. Three-qubit phase gate is generalized to n-qubit phase gate with multiple control qubits. The number of steps reduces linearly as compared to conventional gate decomposition method. Our scheme can be applied to various types of physical systems such as superconducting qubits coupled to a resonator and trapped atoms in a cavity. Our scheme does not require adjustment of level spacing during the gate implementation. We also show the implementation of Deutsch-Joza algorithm. Finally, we discuss the imperfections due to cavity decay and the possibility of physical implementation of our scheme.

  11. The Multiplicity of Controls and the Making of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revellino, Silvana; Mouritsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    are mediated by unique sets of technologies of control. In this process the innovation changes and adapts. This thesis is drawn from the case of Italian Autostrade's innovation Telepass which was an automatic toll collection devise developed to make traffic fast, safe and fluid. Throughout its development...... satisfaction, productivity and highly pointed achievement targets. This multiplicity of controls changed and adapted to the innovation as the innovation unfolds. The controls were part of the innovation more likely than an external device to make it transparent. They engaged the individual trials and changed...

  12. Aromatherapy for reducing colonoscopy related procedural anxiety and physiological parameters: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pei-Hsin; Peng, Yen-Chun; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chang, Chi-Sen; Ou, Ming-Chiu

    2010-01-01

    Colonoscopy is generally tolerated, some patients regarding the procedure as unpleasant and painful and generally performed with the patient sedated and receiving analgesics. The effect of sedation and analgesia for colonoscopy is limited. Aromatherapy is also applied to gastrointestinal endoscopy to reduce procedural anxiety. There is lack of information about aromatherapy specific for colonoscopy. In this study, we aimed to performed a randomized controlled study to investigate the effect of aromatherapy on relieve anxiety, stress and physiological parameters of colonoscopy. A randomized controlled trail was carried out and collected in 2009 and 2010. The participants were randomized in two groups. Aromatherapy was then carried out by inhalation of Sunflower oil (control group) and Neroli oil (Experimental group). The anxiety index was evaluated by State Trait Anxiety Inventory-state (STAI-S) score before aromatherapy and after colonoscopy as well as the pain index for post-procedural by visual analogue scale (VAS). Physiological indicators, such as blood pressure (systolic and diastolic blood pressure), heart rate and respiratory rate were evaluated before and after aromatherapy. Participates in this study were 27 subjects, 13 in control group and 14 in Neroli group with average age 52.26 +/- 17.79 years. There was no significance of procedural anxiety by STAI-S score and procedural pain by VAS. The physiological parameters showed a significant lower pre- and post-procedural systolic blood pressure in Neroli group than control group. Aromatic care for colonoscopy, although with no significant effect on procedural anxiety, is an inexpensive, effective and safe pre-procedural technique that could decrease systolic blood pressure.

  13. System and method for leveraging human physiological traits to control microprocessor frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shye, Alex; Pan, Yan; Scholbrock, Benjamin; Miller, J. Scott; Memik, Gokhan; Dinda, Peter A; Dick, Robert P

    2014-03-25

    A system and method for leveraging physiological traits to control microprocessor frequency are disclosed. In some embodiments, the system and method may optimize, for example, a particular processor-based architecture based on, for example, end user satisfaction. In some embodiments, the system and method may determine, for example, whether their users are satisfied to provide higher efficiency, improved reliability, reduced power consumption, increased security, and a better user experience. The system and method may use, for example, biometric input devices to provide information about a user's physiological traits to a computer system. Biometric input devices may include, for example, one or more of the following: an eye tracker, a galvanic skin response sensor, and/or a force sensor.

  14. Nonresonant Multiple-Pulse Control of Molecular Motions in Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikiforov V.G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the implementation of the multiple-pulse excitation for manipulation of the molecular contributions to the optically-heterodyne-detected optical-Kerr-effect. The key parameters controlling the specificity of the multiple-pulse excitation scenarios are the pulses durations, the delays between pulses, the relation between the pump pulses amplitudes and the pulses polarizations. We model the high-order optical responses and consider some principles of the scenarios construction. We show that it is possible to adjust the excitation scenario in such a way that the some responses can be removed from detected signal along with the enhancement of the interested response amplitude. The theoretical analysis and first experimental data reveal that the multiple-pulse excitation technique can be useful for the selective spectroscopy of the molecular vibrations and rotations in liquid.

  15. Accelerated aging and controlled deterioration for the determination of the physiological potential of onion seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodo Angelica Brod

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available International research on vegetable seed vigor is not at the same level attained for grain crops species. This study was conducted to identify reliable procedures for the accelerated aging and controlled deterioration tests to rank onion (Allium cepa L. seed lots according to their physiological potential. Six seed lots of the cultivars Aurora and Petroline were evaluated in the laboratory for germination, first count, seedling vigor classification, traditional and saturated salt accelerated aging (41masculineC / 48 and 72 h, controlled deterioration (24% of water / 45masculineC / 24 h and seedling emergence tests. Seed moisture content after the saturated salt accelerated aging test was lower and uniform, which is considered an important advantage in comparison to the traditional procedure. The saturated salt accelerated aging (41masculineC / 48 and 72 h and controlled deterioration (moisture content adjusted to 24% / 45masculineC / 24 h tests were the best procedures to assess the physiological potential of onion seeds, and are indicated for use in quality control programs.

  16. Evidence for the different physiological significance of the 6- and 2-minute walk tests in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motl Robert W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers have recently advocated for the 2-minute walk (2MW as an alternative for the 6-minute walk (6MW to assess long distance ambulation in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS. This recommendation has not been based on physiological considerations such as the rate of oxygen consumption (V·O2 over the 6MW range. Objective This study examined the pattern of change in V·O2 over the range of the 6MW in a large sample of persons with MS who varied as a function of disability status. Method Ninety-five persons with clinically-definite MS underwent a neurological examination for generating an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score, and then completion of the 6MW protocol while wearing a portable metabolic unit and an accelerometer. Results There was a time main effect on V·O2 during the 6MW (p = .0001 such that V·O2 increased significantly every 30 seconds over the first 3 minutes of the 6MW, and then remained stable over the second 3 minutes of the 6MW. This occurred despite no change in cadence across the 6MW (p = .84. Conclusions The pattern of change in V·O2 indicates that there are different metabolic systems providing energy for ambulation during the 6MW in MS subjects and steady state aerobic metabolism is reached during the last 3 minutes of the 6MW. By extension, the first 3 minutes would represent a test of mixed aerobic and anaerobic work, whereas the second 3 minutes would represent a test of aerobic work during walking.

  17. Physiological regulation through learnt control of appetites by contingencies among signals from external and internal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, David A

    2008-11-01

    As reviewed by [Cooper, S. J. (2008). From Claude Bernard to Walter Cannon: emergence of the concept of homeostasis. Appetite 51, 419-27.] Claude Bernard's idea of stabilisation of bodily states, as realised in Walter B. Cannon's conception of homeostasis, took mathematical form during the 1940s in the principle that externally originating disturbance of a physiological parameter can feed an informative signal around the brain to trigger counteractive processes--a corrective mechanism known as negative feedback, in practice reliant on feedforward. Three decades later, enough was known of the physiology and psychology of eating and drinking for calculations to show how experimentally demonstrated mechanisms of feedforward that had been learnt from negative feedback combine to regulate exchanges of water and energy between the body and the surroundings. Subsequent systemic physiology, molecular neuroscience and experimental psychology, however, have been traduced by a misconception that learnt controls of intake are 'non-homeostatic', the myth of biological 'set points' and an historic failure to address evidence for the ingestion-adapting information-processing mechanisms on which an operationally integrative theory of eating and drinking relies.

  18. Memory-guided attention: Control from multiple memory systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, J. Benjamin; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2012-01-01

    Attention is strongly influenced by both external stimuli and internal goals. However, this useful dichotomy does not readily capture the ubiquitous and often automatic contribution of past experience stored in memory. We review recent evidence about how multiple memory systems control attention, consider how such interactions are manifested in the brain, and highlight how this framework for ‘memory-guided attention’ might help systematize previous findings and guide future research.

  19. Distributed Autonomous Control of Multiple Spacecraft During Close Proximity Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Neubauer [54][55]. 87 VII. LQR/APF CONTROL ALGORITHM APPROACH The LQR approach can be recursively applied to the multiple spacecraft close... Neubauer and Swartwout’s research [55]. It is generally possible to select a closed map over which the algorithm is stable and robust. For these...can be easily edited and transferred into video format for presentations. Modifications of camera key frames ( camera position and angle) and

  20. Physiological condition of juvenile wading birds in relation to multiple landscape stressors in the Florida Everglades: effects of hydrology, prey availability, and mercury bioaccumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Gawlik, Dale E.; Beerens, James M.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    The physiological condition of juvenile birds can be influenced by multiple ecological stressors, and few studies have concurrently considered the effects of environmental contaminants in combination with ecological attributes that can influence foraging conditions and prey availability. Using three temporally distinct indices of physiological condition, we compared the physiological response of nestling great egrets (Ardea alba) and white ibises (Eudocimus albus) to changing prey availability, hydrology (water depth, recession rate), and mercury exposure in the Florida Everglades. We found that the physiological response of chicks varied between species and among environmental variables. Chick body condition (short-term index) and fecal corticosterone levels (medium-term) were influenced by wetland water depth, prey availability, region, and age, but not by mercury contamination. However, mercury exposure did influence heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in egret chicks, indicating a longer-term physiological response to contamination. Our results indicate that the physiological condition of egret and ibis chicks were influenced by several environmental stressors, and the time frame of the effect may depend on the specialized foraging behavior of the adults provisioning the chicks.

  1. Physiological condition of juvenile wading birds in relation to multiple landscape stressors in the Florida Everglades: effects of hydrology, prey availability, and mercury bioaccumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Herring

    Full Text Available The physiological condition of juvenile birds can be influenced by multiple ecological stressors, and few studies have concurrently considered the effects of environmental contaminants in combination with ecological attributes that can influence foraging conditions and prey availability. Using three temporally distinct indices of physiological condition, we compared the physiological response of nestling great egrets (Ardea alba and white ibises (Eudocimus albus to changing prey availability, hydrology (water depth, recession rate, and mercury exposure in the Florida Everglades. We found that the physiological response of chicks varied between species and among environmental variables. Chick body condition (short-term index and fecal corticosterone levels (medium-term were influenced by wetland water depth, prey availability, region, and age, but not by mercury contamination. However, mercury exposure did influence heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 in egret chicks, indicating a longer-term physiological response to contamination. Our results indicate that the physiological condition of egret and ibis chicks were influenced by several environmental stressors, and the time frame of the effect may depend on the specialized foraging behavior of the adults provisioning the chicks.

  2. Physiological condition of juvenile wading birds in relation to multiple landscape stressors in the Florida Everglades: effects of hydrology, prey availability, and mercury bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Gawlik, Dale E; Beerens, James M; Ackerman, Joshua T

    2014-01-01

    The physiological condition of juvenile birds can be influenced by multiple ecological stressors, and few studies have concurrently considered the effects of environmental contaminants in combination with ecological attributes that can influence foraging conditions and prey availability. Using three temporally distinct indices of physiological condition, we compared the physiological response of nestling great egrets (Ardea alba) and white ibises (Eudocimus albus) to changing prey availability, hydrology (water depth, recession rate), and mercury exposure in the Florida Everglades. We found that the physiological response of chicks varied between species and among environmental variables. Chick body condition (short-term index) and fecal corticosterone levels (medium-term) were influenced by wetland water depth, prey availability, region, and age, but not by mercury contamination. However, mercury exposure did influence heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in egret chicks, indicating a longer-term physiological response to contamination. Our results indicate that the physiological condition of egret and ibis chicks were influenced by several environmental stressors, and the time frame of the effect may depend on the specialized foraging behavior of the adults provisioning the chicks.

  3. Stability analysis of multiple-robot control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, John T.; Kreutz, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    In a space telerobotic service scenario, cooperative motion and force control of multiple robot arms are of fundamental importance. Three paradigms to study this problem are proposed. They are distinguished by the set of variables used for control design. They are joint torques, arm tip force vectors, and an accelerated generalized coordinate set. Control issues related to each case are discussed. The latter two choices require complete model information, which presents practical modeling, computational, and robustness problems. Therefore, focus is on the joint torque control case to develop relatively model independent motion and internal force control laws. The rigid body assumption allows the motion and force control problems to be independently addressed. By using an energy motivated Lyapunov function, a simple proportional derivative plus gravity compensation type of motion control law is always shown to be stabilizing. The asymptotic convergence of the tracing error to zero requires the use of a generalized coordinate with the contact constraints taken into account. If a non-generalized coordinate is used, only convergence to a steady state manifold can be concluded. For the force control, both feedforward and feedback schemes are analyzed. The feedback control, if proper care has been taken, exhibits better robustness and transient performance.

  4. Numerical Oscillations Analysis for Nonlinear Delay Differential Equations in Physiological Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the oscillations of numerical solutions for the nonlinear delay differential equations in physiological control systems. The exponential θ-method is applied to p′(t=β0ωμp(t−τ/(ωμ+pμ(t−τ−γp(t and it is shown that the exponential θ-method has the same order of convergence as that of the classical θ-method. Several conditions under which the numerical solutions oscillate are derived. Moreover, it is proven that every nonoscillatory numerical solution tends to positive equilibrium of the continuous system. Finally, the main results are illustrated with numerical examples.

  5. Autogenic Feedback Training Exercise: Controlling Physiological Responses to Mitigate Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Nia; Spencer, Telissa; Cowings, Patricia; Toscano, William B.

    2018-01-01

    During space travel approximately 50 of the crew experience symptoms of motion sickness that can range from mild forms of nausea or dizziness to severe malaise and vomiting1. Developing an effective treatment for these symptoms has become a priority of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) is a nonpharmacological countermeasure for mitigating motion sickness. It involves training subjects to control physiological responses in high stress environments2. The primary goal of this experiment is to evaluate the effectiveness of AFTE for increasing tolerance to motion sickness in high stress environments.

  6. Overview: clinical and physiological comparison of meditation with other self-control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, D H

    1982-03-01

    In 1977 the American Psychiatric Association called for a critical examination of the clinical effectiveness of meditation. The author provides a review of the literature bearing on clinical and physiological comparisons of meditation with other self-control strategies. He begins by providing a definition of mediation and then cites the literature comparing mediation with such self-regulation strategies as biofeedback, hypnosis, and progressive relaxation. He pays particular attention to the "uniqueness" of mediation as a clinical intervention strategy a well as the adverse effects of meditation. Finally, he offers suggestions and guidelines for future research.

  7. Phase transitions in distributed control systems with multiplicative noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Nicolas; Bamieh, Bassam; Mitra, Partha; Sire, Clément

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary technological challenges often involve many degrees of freedom in a distributed or networked setting. Three aspects are notable: the variables are usually associated with the nodes of a graph with limited communication resources, hindering centralized control; the communication is subject to noise; and the number of variables can be very large. These three aspects make tools and techniques from statistical physics particularly suitable for the performance analysis of such networked systems in the limit of many variables (analogous to the thermodynamic limit in statistical physics). Perhaps not surprisingly, phase-transition like phenomena appear in these systems, where a sharp change in performance can be observed with a smooth parameter variation, with the change becoming discontinuous or singular in the limit of infinite system size. In this paper, we analyze the so called network consensus problem, prototypical of the above considerations, that has previously been analyzed mostly in the context of additive noise. We show that qualitatively new phase-transition like phenomena appear for this problem in the presence of multiplicative noise. Depending on dimensions, and on the presence or absence of a conservation law, the system performance shows a discontinuous change at a threshold value of the multiplicative noise strength. In the absence of the conservation law, and for graph spectral dimension less than two, the multiplicative noise threshold (the stability margin of the control problem) is zero. This is reminiscent of the absence of robust controllers for certain classes of centralized control problems. Although our study involves a ‘toy’ model, we believe that the qualitative features are generic, with implications for the robust stability of distributed control systems, as well as the effect of roundoff errors and communication noise on distributed algorithms.

  8. Motivational intensity modulates the effects of positive emotions on set shifting after controlling physiological arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ya; Siu, Angela F Y

    2015-12-01

    Recent research on the construct of emotion suggests the integration of a motivational dimension into the traditional two-dimension (subjective valence and physiological arousal) model. The motivational intensity of an emotional state should be taken into account while investigating the emotion-cognition relationship. This study examined how positive emotional states varying in motivational intensity influenced set shifting, after controlling the potential confounding impacts of physiological arousal. In Experiment 1, 155 volunteers performed a set-shifting task after being randomly assigned to five states: high- vs. low-motivating positive affect (interest vs. serenity), high- vs. low-motivating negative affect (disgust vs. anxiety), and neutral state. Eighty-five volunteers participated in Experiment 2, which further examined the effects of higher vs. lower degree of interest. Both experiments measured and compared participants' physiological arousal (blood pressure and pulse rate) under the normal and experimental conditions as the covariate. Results showed no difference in switching performance between the neutral and serenity groups. As compared with the neutral state, the high-motivating positive affect significantly increased set-switching reaction time costs, but reduced error rate costs; the higher the motivational intensity, the greater the time-costs impairment. This indicates a role of the high-motivating positive affect in regulating the balance between the flexible and stable cognitive control. Motivational intensity also modulated the effects of negative emotional states, i.e., disgust caused a larger increase in time costs than anxiety. Further exploration into neurobiological mechanisms that may mediate the emotional effects on set shifting is warranted. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The BUMP model of response planning: intermittent predictive control accounts for 10 Hz physiological tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Robin T; Neilson, Peter D

    2010-10-01

    Physiological tremor during movement is characterized by ∼10 Hz oscillation observed both in the electromyogram activity and in the velocity profile. We propose that this particular rhythm occurs as the direct consequence of a movement response planning system that acts as an intermittent predictive controller operating at discrete intervals of ∼100 ms. The BUMP model of response planning describes such a system. It forms the kernel of Adaptive Model Theory which defines, in computational terms, a basic unit of motor production or BUMP. Each BUMP consists of three processes: (1) analyzing sensory information, (2) planning a desired optimal response, and (3) execution of that response. These processes operate in parallel across successive sequential BUMPs. The response planning process requires a discrete-time interval in which to generate a minimum acceleration trajectory to connect the actual response with the predicted future state of the target and compensate for executional error. We have shown previously that a response planning time of 100 ms accounts for the intermittency observed experimentally in visual tracking studies and for the psychological refractory period observed in double stimulation reaction time studies. We have also shown that simulations of aimed movement, using this same planning interval, reproduce experimentally observed speed-accuracy tradeoffs and movement velocity profiles. Here we show, by means of a simulation study of constant velocity tracking movements, that employing a 100 ms planning interval closely reproduces the measurement discontinuities and power spectra of electromyograms, joint-angles, and angular velocities of physiological tremor reported experimentally. We conclude that intermittent predictive control through sequential operation of BUMPs is a fundamental mechanism of 10 Hz physiological tremor in movement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Multiple-Vehicle Longitudinal Collision Mitigation by Coordinated Brake Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yun Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rear-end collision often leads to serious casualties and traffic congestion. The consequences are even worse for multiple-vehicle collision. Many previous works focused on collision warning and avoidance strategies of two consecutive vehicles based on onboard sensor detection only. This paper proposes a centralized control strategy for multiple vehicles to minimize the impact of multiple-vehicle collision based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication technique. The system is defined as a coupled group of vehicles with wireless communication capability and short following distances. The safety relationship can be represented as lower bound limit on deceleration of the first vehicle and upper bound on maximum deceleration of the last vehicle. The objective is to determine the desired deceleration for each vehicle such that the total impact energy is minimized at each time step. The impact energy is defined as the relative kinetic energy between a consecutive pair of vehicles (approaching only. Model predictive control (MPC framework is used to formulate the problem to be constrained quadratic programming. Simulations show its effectiveness on collision mitigation. The developed algorithm has the potential to be used for progressive market penetration of connected vehicles in practice.

  11. Effects of music on physiological and behavioral responses of premature infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Zahra; Eskandari, Narges; Ahmari Tehran, Hoda; Eshagh Hossaini, Seyed Kamal; Sangi, Sareh

    2013-08-01

    Despite persuasive theories about the beneficial effects of music and singing in developmental care for premature infants, few small studies are available in this regard. We conducted this study to investigate the physiological and behavioral responses of premature infants to recorded lullaby music and silence. In a randomized controlled trial, 90 premature infants in the neonatal care unit of a hospital in Qom (Iran) were randomly allocated to intervention (lullaby and silence) or control groups. Lullaby music was played via headphones at a volume of 50-60 dB. In the silence group, headphones were placed on the infants' ears while no music was played. The three groups were surveyed for physiological responses including oxygen saturation, respiratory and heart rates, and behavioral states every five minutes before, during, and after the intervention. The three groups were not significantly different in terms of mean values of respiratory and heart rates, oxygen saturation, and behavioral states of infants. Similarly, no significant within group differences in respiratory and heart rates, oxygen saturation, and behavioral states were observed at different times. Our findings did not support the beneficial effects of music for premature infants. However, music is a noninvasive, non-pharmaceutical, and relatively low-cost intervention that can be implemented at infants' bedside. Thus further research is warranted to determine whether the effects noted in previous studies can be consistently replicated in diverse settings and with diverse groups of preterm infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reliability Analysis Multiple Redundancy Controller for Nuclear Safety Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Gwangseop; Kim, Donghoon; Son, Choulwoong

    2013-01-01

    This controller is configured for multiple modular redundancy (MMR) composed of dual modular redundancy (DMR) and triple modular redundancy (TMR). The architecture of MRC is briefly described, and the Markov model is developed. Based on the model, the reliability and Mean Time To Failure (MTTF) are analyzed. In this paper, the architecture of MRC for nuclear safety systems is described. The MRC is configured for multiple modular redundancy (MMR) composed of dual modular redundancy (DMR) and triple modular redundancy (TMR). Markov models for MRC architecture was developed, and then the reliability was analyzed by using the model. From the reliability analyses for the MRC, it is obtained that the failure rate of each module in the MRC should be less than 2 Χ 10 -4 /hour and the MTTF average increase rate depending on FCF increment, i. e. ΔMTTF/ΔFCF, is 4 months/0.1

  13. The effects of static friction and backlash on extended physiological proprioception control of a powered prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Todd R; Weir, Richard F; Heckathorne, Craig W; Childress, Dudley S

    2005-01-01

    In general, externally powered prostheses do not provide proprioceptive feedback and thus require the user to rely on cognitively expensive visual feedback to effectively control the prosthesis. Applying the concept of extended physiological proprioception (EPP) to externally powered prostheses provides direct feedback to the user's proprioceptive system regarding the position, velocity, and forces applied to the prosthesis. However, electric elbows with EPP controllers developed at the Northwestern University Prosthetics Research Laboratory have exhibited unexplained "jerky" behavior in both clinical fittings and bench-top operation. In addition, the development of limit cycles, a specific type of constant-amplitude oscillation, had been observed in bench-top use of these elbows. Backlash and static friction within the EPP system were found to be primarily responsible for the development of limit cycles. Reducing static friction and backlash improved the system's performance. These results suggest that to most effectively implement EPP, prosthesis manufacturers should design prosthetic components that minimize static friction and backlash.

  14. Gravity Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Gravity Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) team in the SL POCC during the IML-1 mission.

  15. An Overview on SDN Architectures with Multiple Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othmane Blial

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Software-defined networking offers several benefits for networking by separating the control plane from the data plane. However, networks’ scalability, reliability, and availability remain as a big issue. Accordingly, multicontroller architectures are important for SDN-enabled networks. This paper gives a comprehensive overview of SDN multicontroller architectures. It presents SDN and its main instantiation OpenFlow. Then, it explains in detail the differences between multiple types of multicontroller architectures, like the distribution method and the communication system. Furthermore, it provides already implemented and under research examples of multicontroller architectures by describing their design, their communication process, and their performance results.

  16. Research on Healthy Anomaly Detection Model Based on Deep Learning from Multiple Time-Series Physiological Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Health is vital to every human being. To further improve its already respectable medical technology, the medical community is transitioning towards a proactive approach which anticipates and mitigates risks before getting ill. This approach requires measuring the physiological signals of human and analyzes these data at regular intervals. In this paper, we present a novel approach to apply deep learning in physiological signals analysis that allows doctor to identify latent risks. However, extracting high level information from physiological time-series data is a hard problem faced by the machine learning communities. Therefore, in this approach, we apply model based on convolutional neural network that can automatically learn features from raw physiological signals in an unsupervised manner and then based on the learned features use multivariate Gauss distribution anomaly detection method to detect anomaly data. Our experiment is shown to have a significant performance in physiological signals anomaly detection. So it is a promising tool for doctor to identify early signs of illness even if the criteria are unknown a priori.

  17. Physiological monitoring and control in hemodialysis: state of the art and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Matthias

    2006-09-01

    Medical devices for monitoring and feedback control of physiological parameters of the dialysis patient were introduced in the early 1990s. They have a wide range of applications, aiming at increasing the safety and ensuring the efficiency of the treatment, and at an improved restoration of physiological conditions, leading to an overall reduction in morbidity and mortality. Such devices include sensors for the measurement of temperature, optical parameters and sound speed in blood, and electrical characteristics of the human body, and other parameters. Essential for the development of these devices is a detailed understanding of the pathophysiological background of a therapeutical problem. There is still a large potential to introduce new devices for further therapy improvement and automation. Also, the size of the hemodialysis market appears attractive; however, a new product has to meet several specific requirements in order to also become commercially successful. This review describes the therapeutic and technical principles of several available devices, reports on concepts for possible future devices, and presents a short overview on the market environment.

  18. Optically controlled multiple switching operations of DNA biopolymer devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Chao-You; Tu, Waan-Ting; Lin, Yi-Tzu; Fruk, Ljiljana; Hung, Yu-Chueh

    2015-01-01

    We present optically tunable operations of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biopolymer devices, where a single high-resistance state, write-once read-many-times memory state, write-read-erase memory state, and single low-resistance state can be achieved by controlling UV irradiation time. The device is a simple sandwich structure with a spin-coated DNA biopolymer layer sandwiched by two electrodes. Upon irradiation, the electrical properties of the device are adjusted owing to a phototriggered synthesis of silver nanoparticles in DNA biopolymer, giving rise to multiple switching scenarios. This technique, distinct from the strategy of doping of pre-formed nanoparticles, enables a post-film fabrication process for achieving optically controlled memory device operations, which provides a more versatile platform to fabricate organic memory and optoelectronic devices

  19. Optically controlled multiple switching operations of DNA biopolymer devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Chao-You; Tu, Waan-Ting; Lin, Yi-Tzu [Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Fruk, Ljiljana [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Hung, Yu-Chueh, E-mail: ychung@ee.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-21

    We present optically tunable operations of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biopolymer devices, where a single high-resistance state, write-once read-many-times memory state, write-read-erase memory state, and single low-resistance state can be achieved by controlling UV irradiation time. The device is a simple sandwich structure with a spin-coated DNA biopolymer layer sandwiched by two electrodes. Upon irradiation, the electrical properties of the device are adjusted owing to a phototriggered synthesis of silver nanoparticles in DNA biopolymer, giving rise to multiple switching scenarios. This technique, distinct from the strategy of doping of pre-formed nanoparticles, enables a post-film fabrication process for achieving optically controlled memory device operations, which provides a more versatile platform to fabricate organic memory and optoelectronic devices.

  20. [New theory of holistic integrative physiology and medicine. I: New insight of mechanism of control and regulation of breathing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xing-guo

    2015-07-01

    The modern systemic physiology, based on limit-understand functional classification, has significant limitation and one-sidedness. Human being is organic; we should approach the mechanism of control and regulation of breathing integrating all the systems. We use new theory of holistic integrative physiology and medicine to explain the mechanism of control and regulation of breathing. Except the mean level information, the up-down "W" waveform information of arterial blood gas (ABG) is core signal to control and regulate breathing. In order to do so, we must integrate all systems together. New theory will help to explain some unanswered questions in physiology and medicine, for example: fetal does not breathing; how first breath generate; how respiratory rhythm and frequency generate, etc. Breathing is the sign of life. Mechanism of control and regulation of breathing has to integrate respiration, circulation, nerves, metabolism, exercise, sleep and digestion, absorption and elimination and etc altogether.

  1. Physiological closed-loop control in intelligent oxygen therapy: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Morillo, Daniel; Olaby, Osama; Fernandez-Granero, Miguel Angel; Leon-Jimenez, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    Oxygen therapy has become a standard care for the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other hypoxemic chronic lung diseases. In current systems, manually continuous adjustment of O 2 flow rate is a time-consuming task, often unsuccessful, that requires experienced staff. The primary aim of this systematic review is to collate and report on the principles, algorithms and accuracy of autonomous physiological close-loop controlled oxygen devices as well to present recommendations for future research and studies in this area. A literature search was performed on medical database MEDLINE, engineering database IEEE-Xplore and wide-raging scientific databases Scopus and Web of Science. A narrative synthesis of the results was carried out. A summary of the findings of this review suggests that when compared to the conventional manual practice, the closed-loop controllers maintain higher saturation levels, spend less time below the target saturation, and save oxygen resources. Nonetheless, despite of their potential, autonomous oxygen therapy devices are scarce in real clinical applications. Robustness of control algorithms, fail-safe mechanisms, limited reliability of sensors, usability issues and the need for standardized evaluating methods of assessing risks can be among the reasons for this lack of matureness and need to be addressed before the wide spreading of a new generation of automatic oxygen devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Digestive physiology of the pig symposium: secretion of gastrointestinal hormones and eating control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, R E; Feinle-Bisset, C; Geary, N; Beglinger, C

    2013-05-01

    Nutrient ingestion triggers numerous changes in gastrointestinal (GI) peptide hormone secretion that affect appetite and eating. Evidence for these effects comes from research in laboratory animals, healthy humans, and, increasingly, obese patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, which has marked effects on GI hormone function and is currently the most effective therapy for morbid obesity. Increases in cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) and decreases in ghrelin secretion after meals are triggered by changes in the nutrient content of the intestine. One apparent physiological function of each is to initiate a reflex-like feedback control of eating. Here we briefly review this function, with an emphasis on the controls of their secretion. Each is secreted from enteroendocrine cells that are directly or indirectly affected by caloric load, macronutrient composition, and other characteristics of ingested food such as fatty acid chain length. In addition, digestive hydrolysis is a critical mechanism that controls their secretion. Although there are relatively few data in agricultural animals, the generally consistent results across widely divergent mammals suggests that most of the processes described are also likely to be relevant to GI hormone functions and eating in agricultural animals.

  3. Mission control of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles: a workload analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Stephen R; Wickens, Christopher D; Chang, Dervon

    2005-01-01

    With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), 36 licensed pilots flew both single-UAV and dual-UAV simulated military missions. Pilots were required to navigate each UAV through a series of mission legs in one of the following three conditions: a baseline condition, an auditory autoalert condition, and an autopilot condition. Pilots were responsible for (a) mission completion, (b) target search, and (c) systems monitoring. Results revealed that both the autoalert and the autopilot automation improved overall performance by reducing task interference and alleviating workload. The autoalert system benefited performance both in the automated task and mission completion task, whereas the autopilot system benefited performance in the automated task, the mission completion task, and the target search task. Practical implications for the study include the suggestion that reliable automation can help alleviate task interference and reduce workload, thereby allowing pilots to better handle concurrent tasks during single- and multiple-UAV flight control.

  4. Decentralized Formation Flying Control in a Multiple-Team Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Joseph .; Thomas, Stephanie J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the prototype of a system that addresses these objectives-a decentralized guidance and control system that is distributed across spacecraft using a multiple-team framework. The objective is to divide large clusters into teams of manageable size, so that the communication and computational demands driven by N decentralized units are related to the number of satellites in a team rather than the entire cluster. The system is designed to provide a high-level of autonomy, to support clusters with large numbers of satellites, to enable the number of spacecraft in the cluster to change post-launch, and to provide for on-orbit software modification. The distributed guidance and control system will be implemented in an object-oriented style using MANTA (Messaging Architecture for Networking and Threaded Applications). In this architecture, tasks may be remotely added, removed or replaced post-launch to increase mission flexibility and robustness. This built-in adaptability will allow software modifications to be made on-orbit in a robust manner. The prototype system, which is implemented in MATLAB, emulates the object-oriented and message-passing features of the MANTA software. In this paper, the multiple-team organization of the cluster is described, and the modular software architecture is presented. The relative dynamics in eccentric reference orbits is reviewed, and families of periodic, relative trajectories are identified, expressed as sets of static geometric parameters. The guidance law design is presented, and an example reconfiguration scenario is used to illustrate the distributed process of assigning geometric goals to the cluster. Next, a decentralized maneuver planning approach is presented that utilizes linear-programming methods to enact reconfiguration and coarse formation keeping maneuvers. Finally, a method for performing online collision avoidance is discussed, and an example is provided to gauge its performance.

  5. Exploring transcriptional signalling mediated by OsWRKY13, a potential regulator of multiple physiological processes in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xianghua

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice transcription regulator OsWRKY13 influences the functioning of more than 500 genes in multiple signalling pathways, with roles in disease resistance, redox homeostasis, abiotic stress responses, and development. Results To determine the putative transcriptional regulation mechanism of OsWRKY13, the putative cis-acting elements of OsWRKY13-influenced genes were analyzed using the whole genome expression profiling of OsWRKY13-activated plants generated with the Affymetrix GeneChip Rice Genome Array. At least 39 transcription factor genes were influenced by OsWRKY13, and 30 of them were downregulated. The promoters of OsWRKY13-upregulated genes were overrepresented with W-boxes for WRKY protein binding, whereas the promoters of OsWRKY13-downregulated genes were enriched with cis-elements putatively for binding of MYB and AP2/EREBP types of transcription factors. Consistent with the distinctive distribution of these cis-elements in up- and downregulated genes, nine WRKY genes were influenced by OsWRKY13 and the promoters of five of them were bound by OsWRKY13 in vitro; all seven differentially expressed AP2/EREBP genes and six of the seven differentially expressed MYB genes were suppressed by in OsWRKY13-activated plants. A subset of OsWRKY13-influenced WRKY genes were involved in host-pathogen interactions. Conclusion These results suggest that OsWRKY13-mediated signalling pathways are partitioned by different transcription factors. WRKY proteins may play important roles in the monitoring of OsWRKY13-upregulated genes and genes involved in pathogen-induced defence responses, whereas MYB and AP2/EREBP proteins may contribute most to the control of OsWRKY13-downregulated genes.

  6. Controlling energy transfer between multiple dopants within a single nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaio, Jeffrey R.; Sabatier, Clément; Kokuoz, Baris; Ballato, John

    2008-01-01

    Complex core-shell architectures are implemented within LaF3 nanoparticles to allow for a tailored degree of energy transfer (ET) between different rare earth dopants. By constraining specific dopants to individual shells, their relative distance to one another can be carefully controlled. Core-shell LaF3 nanoparticles doped with Tb3+ and Eu3+ and consisting of up to four layers were synthesized with an outer diameter of ≈10 nm. It is found that by varying the thicknesses of an undoped layer between a Tb3+-doped layer and a Eu3+-doped layer, the degree of ET can be engineered to allow for zero, partial, or total ET from a donor ion to an acceptor ion. More specifically, the ratio of the intensities of the 541-nm Tb3+ and 590 nm Eu3+ peaks was tailored from core-shell configuration that restricts ET is used. Beyond simply controlling ET, which can be limiting when designing materials for optical applications, this approach can be used to obtain truly engineered spectral features from nanoparticles and composites made from them. Further, it allows for a single excitation source to yield multiple discrete emissions from numerous lanthanide dopants that heretofore would have been quenched in a more conventional active optical material. PMID:18250307

  7. Animal thermoregulation: a review of insulation, physiology and behaviour relevant to temperature control in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, D J; Pandraud, G; Gilles, J; Fabra-Puchol, M; Henry, P-Y

    2017-12-28

    Birds and mammals have evolved many thermal adaptations that are relevant to the bioinspired design of temperature control systems and energy management in buildings. Similar to many buildings, endothermic animals generate internal metabolic heat, are well insulated, regulate their temperature within set limits, modify microclimate and adjust thermal exchange with their environment. We review the major components of animal thermoregulation in endothermic birds and mammals that are pertinent to building engineering, in a world where climate is changing and reduction in energy use is needed. In animals, adjustment of insulation together with physiological and behavioural responses to changing environmental conditions fine-tune spatial and temporal regulation of body temperature, while also minimizing energy expenditure. These biological adaptations are characteristically flexible, allowing animals to alter their body temperatures to hourly, daily, or annual demands for energy. They exemplify how buildings could become more thermally reactive to meteorological fluctuations, capitalising on dynamic thermal materials and system properties. Based on this synthesis, we suggest that heat transfer modelling could be used to simulate these flexible biomimetic features and assess their success in reducing energy costs while maintaining thermal comfort for given building types.

  8. An Inverse Optimal Control Approach to Explain Human Arm Reaching Control Based on Multiple Internal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Ozgur S; Zhou, Zhehua; Glasauer, Stefan; Wollherr, Dirk

    2018-04-03

    Human motor control is highly efficient in generating accurate and appropriate motor behavior for a multitude of tasks. This paper examines how kinematic and dynamic properties of the musculoskeletal system are controlled to achieve such efficiency. Even though recent studies have shown that the human motor control relies on multiple models, how the central nervous system (CNS) controls this combination is not fully addressed. In this study, we utilize an Inverse Optimal Control (IOC) framework in order to find the combination of those internal models and how this combination changes for different reaching tasks. We conducted an experiment where participants executed a comprehensive set of free-space reaching motions. The results show that there is a trade-off between kinematics and dynamics based controllers depending on the reaching task. In addition, this trade-off depends on the initial and final arm configurations, which in turn affect the musculoskeletal load to be controlled. Given this insight, we further provide a discomfort metric to demonstrate its influence on the contribution of different inverse internal models. This formulation together with our analysis not only support the multiple internal models (MIMs) hypothesis but also suggest a hierarchical framework for the control of human reaching motions by the CNS.

  9. A technological and physiological integrated approach for appetite control : from identification of novel biomarkers to development of new functional ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennella, I.

    2015-01-01

    A technological and physiological integrated approach for appetite control.

    From identification of novel biomarkers to development of new functional ingredients.

    Human dietary behaviour is driven by homeostatic, hedonic and environmental factors.

  10. Manganese in the shell of the bivalve Mytilus edulis: Seawater Mn or physiological control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Pedro S.; Clarke, Leon J.; Kennedy, Hilary; Richardson, Christopher A.

    2016-12-01

    Manganese in the shell calcite of marine bivalves has been suggested to reflect ambient seawater Mn concentrations, thus providing a high-resolution archive of past seawater Mn concentrations. However, a quantitative relationship between seawater Mn and shell Mn/Ca ratios, as well as clear understanding of which process(es) control(s) shell Mn/Ca, are still lacking. Blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were grown in a one-year duration field experiment in the Menai Strait, U.K., to study the relationship between seawater particulate and dissolved Mn2+ concentrations and shell calcite Mn/Ca ratios. Shell Mn/Ca showed a well-defined intra-annual double-peak, with maximum values during early spring and early summer and low values during autumn and winter. Seawater particulate Mn peaked during winter and autumn, with a series of smaller peaks during spring and summer, whereas dissolved Mn2+ exhibited a marked single maximum during late-spring to early-summer, being low during the remainder of the year. Consequently, neither seawater particulate Mn nor dissolved Mn2+ concentrations explain the intra-annual variation of shell Mn/Ca ratios. A physiological control on shell Mn/Ca ratios is evident from the strong similarity and timing of the double-peaked intra-annual variations of Mn/Ca and shell growth rate (SGR), the latter corresponding to periods of increased metabolic activity (as indicated by respiration rate). It is thus likely that in M. edulis SGR influences shell Mn/Ca by altering the concentration or activity of Mn2+ within the extra-pallial fluid (EPF), by changing the flux of Mn into or the proportion of protein bound Mn within the EPF. By linking shell Mn/Ca ratios to the endogenous and environmental factors that determine growth and metabolic activity, this study helps to explain the lack of a consistent relationship between shell Mn/Ca in marine bivalve shell calcite and seawater particulate and dissolved Mn2+ concentrations. The use of Mn content from M. edulis

  11. Climatic and physiological controls on the stable isotope composition of modern and ancient Cupressaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinniker, D.; Tipple, B.; Pagani, M.

    2007-12-01

    Unique and abundant secondary metabolites found in waxes and resins of the Callitroid, Cupressoid, and Taxodioid clades of the Cupressaceae family can be identified and quantified in complex mixtures of sedimentary organic compounds. This unusual feature makes it possible to study relatively simple (taxon-specific) isotope systems back in time across the broad array of environments in which these conifers are found. Work on these systems can potentially provide both robust paleoenvironmental proxies (i.e. for source water δD and growing season relative humidity) and quantitative probes into the ecophysiology of these plants in modern and ancient environments. Our research focuses on three genera representing environmental end-members of Cupressaceae - Juniperus, Thuja, and Chamaecyparis - (1) across geographic and environmental gradients in the field, and (2) in specific Holocene and late Pleistocene environmental records. The latter research focuses on peat cores from New England and Oregon and fossil packrat middens from the southwestern United States. Modern transects highlight the sensitivity of Cupressaceae to climatic variables. These include both variables during growth (relative humidity, soil moisture, etc.) and variables affecting seasonal and diurnal growth rates (temperature, winter precipitation, insolation, microhabitat, etc.). Work on ancient records has demonstrated the sensitivity of these unique taxon-specific archives to both subtle and dramatic climate shifts during the Pleistocene and Holocene. This work will result in an improved understanding of climatic and physiological controls on the stable isotopic composition of modern and ancient Cupressaceae - and by extension, other arborescent gymnosperms and C3 plants - providing a framework for understanding more complexly sourced organic inputs to sediments, coals, and petroleum prior to the advent of C4 plants. This research also has direct implications for stratigraphic stable isotope studies

  12. Physiological and Pathogenic Roles of Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 in Metabolic Regulations via Multiple Signal Transduction Pathway Modulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Nakatsu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prolyl isomerases are divided into three groups, the FKBP family, Cyclophilin and the Parvulin family (Pin1 and Par14. Among these isomerases, Pin1 is a unique prolyl isomerase binding to the motif including pSer/pThr-Pro that is phosphorylated by kinases. Once bound, Pin1 modulates the enzymatic activity, protein stability or subcellular localization of target proteins by changing the cis- and trans-formations of proline. Several studies have examined the roles of Pin1 in the pathogenesis of cancers and Alzheimer’s disease. On the other hand, recent studies have newly demonstrated Pin1 to be involved in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Interestingly, while Pin1 expression is markedly increased by high-fat diet feeding, Pin1 KO mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and diabetic vascular dysfunction. These phenomena result from the binding of Pin1 to several key factors regulating metabolic functions, which include insulin receptor substrate-1, AMPK, Crtc2 and NF-κB p65. In this review, we focus on recent advances in elucidating the physiological roles of Pin1 as well as the pathogenesis of disorders involving this isomerase, from the viewpoint of the relationships between signal transductions and metabolic functions.

  13. Eppur Si Muove: The dynamic nature of physiological control of renal blood flow by the renal sympathetic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Alicia M; Pellegrino, Peter Ricci; Zucker, Irving H

    2017-05-01

    Tubuloglomerular feedback and the myogenic response are widely appreciated as important regulators of renal blood flow, but the role of the sympathetic nervous system in physiological renal blood flow control remains controversial. Where classic studies using static measures of renal blood flow failed, dynamic approaches have succeeded in demonstrating sympathetic control of renal blood flow under normal physiological conditions. This review focuses on transfer function analysis of renal pressure-flow, which leverages the physical relationship between blood pressure and flow to assess the underlying vascular control mechanisms. Studies using this approach indicate that the renal nerves are important in the rapid regulation of the renal vasculature. Animals with intact renal innervation show a sympathetic signature in the frequency range associated with sympathetic vasomotion that is eliminated by renal denervation. In conscious rabbits, this sympathetic signature exerts vasoconstrictive, baroreflex control of renal vascular conductance, matching well with the rhythmic, baroreflex-influenced control of renal sympathetic nerve activity and complementing findings from other studies employing dynamic approaches to study renal sympathetic vascular control. In this light, classic studies reporting that nerve stimulation and renal denervation do not affect static measures of renal blood flow provide evidence for the strength of renal autoregulation rather than evidence against physiological renal sympathetic control of renal blood flow. Thus, alongside tubuloglomerular feedback and the myogenic response, renal sympathetic outflow should be considered an important physiological regulator of renal blood flow. Clinically, renal sympathetic vasomotion may be important for solving the problems facing the field of therapeutic renal denervation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Physiological pseudomyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R

    1990-08-01

    Objective refraction through plus fogging lenses and base-in prisms revealed that normally accommodation is not completely relaxed when the stimulus to accommodation is zero. The myopic shift in the refractive error due to this focus error of accommodation was defined as physiological pseudomyopia. Two previously established features of accommodation are responsible for this behavior: (1) accommodation acts as a proportional control system for steady-state responses; and (2) the rest focus of accommodation is nonzero. It is proposed that the hyperopic shift in refraction observed in cycloplegia is the result of elimination of physiological pseudomyopia.

  15. Method and Apparatus for Encouraging Physiological Self-Regulation Through Modulation of an Operator's Control Input to a Video Game or Training Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsson, Olafur S. (Inventor); Harris, Randall L., Sr. (Inventor); Pope, Alan T. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for modulating the control authority (i.e., control function) of a computer simulation or game input device (e.g., joystick, button control) using physiological information so as to affect the user's ability to impact or control the simulation or game with the input device. One aspect is to use the present invention, along with a computer simulation or game, to affect physiological state or physiological self-regulation according to some programmed criterion (e.g., increase, decrease, or maintain) in order to perform better at the game task. When the affected physiological state or physiological self-regulation is the target of self-regulation or biofeedback training, the simulation or game play reinforces therapeutic changes in the physiological signal(s).

  16. Cenotic and physiological control of the radionuclides migration into system soil-plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravets, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    Some biological - cenotic and physiological - factors which determine the availability of radionuclides for a plant and the general capacity for the accumulation of pollutants were investigated and analysed. Metabolites of soil microorganisms and especially root excretion of higher plants increase the rate of destruction of solid forms of pollution and enhance the leaching of radionuclides from the solid matrix. The following facts were demonstrated in the conditions of contamination heterogeneity of Chernobyl fallout: (i) During the period of vegetation the plants of different species of f. Poacea, 1 .5 to 2.7-fold increase in the chemical mobility and biological availability of radionuclides; (ii) Additional increase in the concentration of soil microorganisms (micromycetes) leads to enhanced contents of the mobile form of the pollutant in soil and increases the level of accumulation of the radionuclides by higher plants; (iii) Increase in the density of sowing (and competition, respectively) of the different species of the plants also leads to an enhanced availability of the radionuclides and 1 .7 to 2.4- fold increase in the level of accumulation of the radionuclides by the plants. Other aspect of formation of the level of plant pollution include the peculiarities of radionuclide absorption and accumulation by the plant biomass. The effects of a high density of sowing, high level of the watering and gamma irradiation on the changes in the level of radionuclide accumulation and, at the same time, the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the plant biomass were investigated in the laboratory and in a greenhouse experiment. In parallel, increased CEC and radionuclide accumulation by a factor of 1.5 to 2.7 was demonstrated. These facts suggest that the biological factors are a powerful tool of control of the pollutants availability and accumulation and may be take into account under development of the modern agricultural technology for clear products formation

  17. Physiological control of dual rotary pumps as a biventricular assist device using a master/slave approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael C; Wilson, Stephen; Bradley, Andrew; Fraser, John; Timms, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Dual rotary left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) can provide biventricular mechanical support during heart failure. Coordination of left and right pump speeds is critical not only to avoid ventricular suction and to match cardiac output with demand, but also to ensure balanced systemic and pulmonary circulatory volumes. Physiological control systems for dual LVADs must meet these objectives across a variety of clinical scenarios by automatically adjusting left and right pump speeds to avoid catastrophic physiological consequences. In this study we evaluate a novel master/slave physiological control system for dual LVADs. The master controller is a Starling-like controller, which sets flow rate as a function of end-diastolic ventricular pressure (EDP). The slave controller then maintains a linear relationship between right and left EDPs. Both left/right and right/left master/slave combinations were evaluated by subjecting them to four clinical scenarios (rest, postural change, Valsalva maneuver, and exercise) simulated in a mock circulation loop. The controller's performance was compared to constant-rotational-speed control and two other dual LVAD control systems: dual constant inlet pressure and dual Frank-Starling control. The results showed that the master/slave physiological control system produced fewer suction events than constant-speed control (6 vs. 62 over a 7-min period). Left/right master/slave control had lower risk of pulmonary congestion than the other control systems, as indicated by lower maximum EDPs (15.1 vs. 25.2-28.4 mm Hg). During exercise, master/slave control increased total flow from 5.2 to 10.1 L/min, primarily due to an increase of left and right pump speed. Use of the left pump as the master resulted in fewer suction events and lower EDPs than when the right pump was master. Based on these results, master/slave control using the left pump as the master automatically adjusts pump speed to avoid suction and increases pump flow

  18. Pain physiology education improves health status and endogenous pain inhibition in fibromyalgia: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oosterwijck, Jessica; Meeus, Mira; Paul, Lorna; De Schryver, Mieke; Pascal, Aurelie; Lambrecht, Luc; Nijs, Jo

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that education on pain physiology can have positive effects on pain, disability, and catastrophization in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders. A double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) was performed to examine whether intensive pain physiology education is also effective in fibromyalgia (FM) patients, and whether it is able to influence the impaired endogenous pain inhibition of these patients. Thirty FM patients were randomly allocated to either the experimental (receiving pain physiology education) or the control group (receiving pacing self-management education). The primary outcome was the efficacy of the pain inhibitory mechanisms, which was evaluated by spatially accumulating thermal nociceptive stimuli. Secondary outcome measures included pressure pain threshold measurements and questionnaires assessing pain cognitions, behavior, and health status. Assessments were performed at baseline, 2 weeks, and 3 months follow-up. Repeated measures ANOVAS were used to reveal possible therapy effects and effect sizes were calculated. After the intervention the experimental group had improved knowledge of pain neurophysiology (Pphysiology. Pain physiology education seems to be a useful component in the treatment of FM patients as it improves health status and endogenous pain inhibition in the long term.

  19. The acute effects of graded physiological strain on soccer kicking performance: a randomized, controlled cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radman, Ivan; Wessner, Barbara; Bachl, Norbert; Ruzic, Lana; Hackl, Markus; Prpic, Tomislav; Markovic, Goran

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the acute effects of graded physiological strain on soccer kicking performance. Twenty-eight semi-professional soccer players completed both experimental and control procedure. The experimental protocol incorporated repeated shooting trials combined with a progressive discontinuous maximal shuttle-run intervention. The initial running velocity was 8 km/h and increasing for 1 km/h every 3 min until exhaustion. The control protocol comprised only eight subsequent shooting trials. The soccer-specific kicking accuracy (KA; average distance from the ball-entry point to the goal center), kicking velocity (KV), and kicking quality (KQ; kicking accuracy divided by the time elapsed from hitting the ball to the point of entry) were evaluated via reproducible and valid test over five individually determined exercise intensity zones. Compared with baseline or exercise at intensities below the second lactate threshold (LT2), physiological exertion above the LT2 (blood lactate > 4 mmol/L) resulted in meaningful decrease in KA (11-13%; p soccer kicking performance. The results suggest that high-intensity physiological exertion above the player's LT2 impairs soccer kicking performance. In contrast, light to moderate physiological stress appears to be neither harmful nor beneficial for kicking performance.

  20. Multiple-source multiple-harmonic active vibration control of variable section cylindrical structures: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxin; Chen, Xuefeng; Gao, Jiawei; Zhang, Xingwu

    2016-12-01

    Air vehicles, space vehicles and underwater vehicles, the cabins of which can be viewed as variable section cylindrical structures, have multiple rotational vibration sources (e.g., engines, propellers, compressors and motors), making the spectrum of noise multiple-harmonic. The suppression of such noise has been a focus of interests in the field of active vibration control (AVC). In this paper, a multiple-source multiple-harmonic (MSMH) active vibration suppression algorithm with feed-forward structure is proposed based on reference amplitude rectification and conjugate gradient method (CGM). An AVC simulation scheme called finite element model in-loop simulation (FEMILS) is also proposed for rapid algorithm verification. Numerical studies of AVC are conducted on a variable section cylindrical structure based on the proposed MSMH algorithm and FEMILS scheme. It can be seen from the numerical studies that: (1) the proposed MSMH algorithm can individually suppress each component of the multiple-harmonic noise with an unified and improved convergence rate; (2) the FEMILS scheme is convenient and straightforward for multiple-source simulations with an acceptable loop time. Moreover, the simulations have similar procedure to real-life control and can be easily extended to physical model platform.

  1. Resilience of Urban Smart Grids Involving Multiple Control Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Theilgaard; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent control of energy distribution grids is implemented via a hierarchy of control loops with different input values and different control targets, which also work on different time-scales. This control is enabled by a bi-directional communication flow, which can be interrupted due to ICT...

  2. Finite Control Set Model Predictive Control for Multiple Distributed Generators Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babqi, Abdulrahman Jamal

    This dissertation proposes two control strategies for AC microgrids that consist of multiple distributed generators (DGs). The control strategies are valid for both grid-connected and islanded modes of operation. In general, microgrid can operate as a stand-alone system (i.e., islanded mode) or while it is connected to the utility grid (i.e., grid connected mode). To enhance the performance of a micrgorid, a sophisticated control scheme should be employed. The control strategies of microgrids can be divided into primary and secondary controls. The primary control regulates the output active and reactive powers of each DG in grid-connected mode as well as the output voltage and frequency of each DG in islanded mode. The secondary control is responsible for regulating the microgrid voltage and frequency in the islanded mode. Moreover, it provides power sharing schemes among the DGs. In other words, the secondary control specifies the set points (i.e. reference values) for the primary controllers. In this dissertation, Finite Control Set Model Predictive Control (FCS-MPC) was proposed for controlling microgrids. FCS-MPC was used as the primary controller to regulate the output power of each DG (in the grid-connected mode) or the voltage of the point of DG coupling (in the islanded mode of operation). In the grid-connected mode, Direct Power Model Predictive Control (DPMPC) was implemented to manage the power flow between each DG and the utility grid. In the islanded mode, Voltage Model Predictive Control (VMPC), as the primary control, and droop control, as the secondary control, were employed to control the output voltage of each DG and system frequency. The controller was equipped with a supplementary current limiting technique in order to limit the output current of each DG in abnormal incidents. The control approach also enabled smooth transition between the two modes. The performance of the control strategy was investigated and verified using PSCAD/EMTDC software

  3. Fall risk and incidence reduction in high risk individuals with multiple sclerosis: a pilot randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Moon, Yaejin; Wajda, Douglas A; Finlayson, Marcia L; McAuley, Edward; Peterson, Elizabeth W; Morrison, Steve; Motl, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    To determine the feasibility of three fall prevention programs delivered over 12 weeks among individuals with multiple sclerosis: (A) a home-based exercise program targeting physiological risk factors; (B) an educational program targeting behavioral risk factors; and (C) a combined exercise-and-education program targeting both factors. Randomized controlled trial. Home-based training with assessments at research laboratory. A total of 103 individuals inquired about the investigation. After screening, 37 individuals with multiple sclerosis who had fallen in the last year and ranged in age from 45-75 years volunteered for the investigation. A total of 34 participants completed postassessment following the 12-week intervention. Participants were randomly assigned into one of four conditions: (1) wait-list control (n = 9); (2) home-based exercise (n = 11); (3) education (n = 9); or (4) a combined exercise and education (n = 8) group. Before and after the 12-week interventions, participants underwent a fall risk assessment as determined by the physiological profile assessment and provided information on their fall prevention behaviors as indexed by the Falls Prevention Strategy Survey. Participants completed falls diaries during the three-months postintervention. A total of 34 participants completed postintervention testing. Procedures and processes were found to be feasible. Overall, fall risk scores were lower in the exercise groups (1.15 SD 1.31) compared with the non-exercise groups (2.04 SD 1.04) following the intervention (p fall prevention behaviors (p > 0.05). Further examination of home-based exercise/education programs for reducing falls in individuals with multiple sclerosis is warranted. A total of 108 participants would be needed in a larger randomized controlled trial.ClinicalTrials.org #NCT01956227. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Review on Control of DC Microgrids and Multiple Microgrid Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Shafiee, Qobad; Ferrari-Trecate, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    This paper performs an extensive review on control schemes and architectures applied to DC microgrids. It covers multi-layer hierarchical control schemes, coordinated control strategies, plug-and-play operations, stability and active damping aspects as well as nonlinear control algorithms....... Islanding detection, protection and microgrid clusters control are also briefly summarized. All the mentioned issues are discussed with the goal of providing control design guidelines for DC microgrids. The future research challenges, from the authors’ point of view, are also provided in the final...

  5. Automatic diagnosis of multiple alarms for reactor-control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimmy, K.L.; Nomm, E.

    1981-01-01

    A system has been developed at the Savannah River Plant to help reactor operators respond to multiple alarms in a developing incident situation. The need for such systems has become evident in recent years, particularly after the three Mile Island incident

  6. Presentation of Malaria Epidemics Using Multiple Optimal Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Ali Lashari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An existing model is extended to assess the impact of some antimalaria control measures, by re-formulating the model as an optimal control problem. This paper investigates the fundamental role of three type of controls, personal protection, treatment, and mosquito reduction strategies in controlling the malaria. We work in the nonlinear optimal control framework. The existence and the uniqueness results of the solution are discussed. A characterization of the optimal control via adjoint variables is established. The optimality system is solved numerically by a competitive Gauss-Seidel-like implicit difference method. Finally, numerical simulations of the optimal control problem, using a set of reasonable parameter values, are carried out to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed control measures.

  7. Multiple Estimation Architecture in Discrete-Time Adaptive Mixing Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Baldi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive mixing control (AMC is a recently developed control scheme for uncertain plants, where the control action coming from a bank of precomputed controller is mixed based on the parameter estimates generated by an on-line parameter estimator. Even if the stability of the control scheme, also in the presence of modeling errors and disturbances, has been shown analytically, its transient performance might be sensitive to the initial conditions of the parameter estimator. In particular, for some initial conditions, transient oscillations may not be acceptable in practical applications. In order to account for such a possible phenomenon and to improve the learning capability of the adaptive scheme, in this paper a new mixing architecture is developed, involving the use of parallel parameter estimators, or multi-estimators, each one working on a small subset of the uncertainty set. A supervisory logic, using performance signals based on the past and present estimation error, selects the parameter estimate to determine the mixing of the controllers. The stability and robustness properties of the resulting approach, referred to as multi-estimator adaptive mixing control (Multi-AMC, are analytically established. Besides, extensive simulations demonstrate that the scheme improves the transient performance of the original AMC with a single estimator. The control scheme and the analysis are carried out in a discrete-time framework, for easier implementation of the method in digital control.

  8. Abscisic acid as an internal integrator of multiple physiological processes modulates leaf senescence onset in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei eSong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that exogenous abscisic acid (ABA promotes leaf abscission and senescence. However, owing to a lack of genetic evidence, ABA function in plant senescence has not been clearly defined. Here, two-leaf early-senescence mutants (eas that were screened by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and named eas1-1 and eas1-2 showed high photosynthetic capacity in the early stage of plant growth compared with the wild type. Gene mapping showed that eas1-1 and eas1-2 are two novel ABA2 allelic mutants. Under unstressed conditions, the eas1 mutations caused plant dwarf, early germination, larger stomatal apertures, and early leaf senescence compared with those of the wild type. Flow cytometry assays showed that the cell apoptosis rate in eas1 mutant leaves was higher than that of the wild type after day 30. A significant increase in the transcript levels of several senescence-associated genes, especially SAG12, was observed in eas1 mutant plants in the early stage of plant growth. More importantly, ABA-activated calcium channel activity in plasma membrane and induced the increase of cytoplasmic calcium concentration in guard cells are suppressed due to the mutation of EAS1. In contrast, the eas1 mutants lost chlorophyll and ion leakage significant faster than in the wild type under treatment with calcium channel blocker. Hence, our results indicate that endogenous ABA level is an important factor controlling the onset of leaf senescence through Ca2+ signaling.

  9. Multiple Model Adaptive Control Using Dual Youla-Kucera Factorisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    We propose a multi-model adaptive control scheme for uncertain linear plants based on the concept of model unfalsification. The approach relies on examining the ability of a pre-computed set of plant-controller candidates and choosing the one that is best able to reproduce observed in- and output...

  10. Analysis of Grassland Ecosystem Physiology at Multiple Scales Using Eddy Covariance, Stable Isotope and Remote Sensing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, L. B.; Geske, N.; Emrick, C.; Johnson, B. G.

    2006-12-01

    Grassland ecosystems typically exhibit very large annual fluctuations in above-ground biomass production and net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Eddy covariance flux measurements, plant stable isotope analyses, and canopy spectral reflectance techniques have been applied to study environmental constraints on grassland ecosystem productivity and the acclimation responses of the ecosystem at a site near Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada. We have observed substantial interannual variation in grassland productivity during 1999-2005. In addition, there was a strong correlation between peak above-ground biomass production and NEP calculated from eddy covariance measurements. Interannual variation in NEP was strongly controlled by the total amount of precipitation received during the growing season (April-August). We also observed significant positive correlations between a multivariate ENSO index and total growing season precipitation, and between the ENSO index and annual NEP values. This suggested that a significant fraction of the annual variability in grassland productivity was associated with ENSO during 1999-2005. Grassland productivity varies asymmetrically in response to changes in precipitation with increases in productivity during wet years being much more pronounced than reductions during dry years. Strong increases in plant water-use efficiency, based on carbon and oxygen stable isotope analyses, contribute to the resilience of productivity during times of drought. Within a growing season increased stomatal limitation of photosynthesis, associated with improved water-use efficiency, resulted in apparent shifts in leaf xanthophyll cycle pigments and changes to the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) calculated from hyper-spectral reflectance measurements conducted at the canopy-scale. These shifts in PRI were apparent before seasonal drought caused significant reductions in leaf area index (LAI) and changes to canopy-scale "greenness" based on NDVI values. With

  11. High dietary fat and sucrose results in an extensive and time-dependent deterioration in health of multiple physiological systems in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchfield, James G; Kebede, Melkam A; Meoli, Christopher C; Stöckli, Jacqueline; Whitworth, P Tess; Wright, Amanda L; Hoffman, Nolan J; Minard, Annabel Y; Ma, Xiuquan; Krycer, James R; Nelson, Marin E; Tan, Shi-Xiong; Yau, Belinda; Thomas, Kristen C; Wee, Natalie K Y; Khor, Ee-Cheng; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Vissel, Bryce; Biden, Trevor J; Baldock, Paul A; Hoehn, Kyle L; Cantley, James; Cooney, Gregory J; James, David E; Fazakerley, Daniel J

    2018-04-13

    Obesity is associated with metabolic dysfunction, including insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and with disorders such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and neurodegeneration. Typically, these pathologies are examined in discrete model systems and with limited temporal resolution, and whether these disorders co-occur is therefore unclear. To address this question, here we examined multiple physiological systems in male C57BL/6J mice following prolonged exposure to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFHSD). HFHSD-fed mice rapidly exhibited metabolic alterations, including obesity, hyperleptinemia, physical inactivity, glucose intolerance, peripheral insulin resistance, fasting hyperglycemia, ectopic lipid deposition, and bone deterioration. Prolonged exposure to HFHSD resulted in morbid obesity, ectopic triglyceride deposition in liver and muscle, extensive bone loss, sarcopenia, hyperinsulinemia, and impaired short-term memory. Although many of these defects are typically associated with aging, HFHSD did not alter telomere length in white blood cells, indicating that this diet did not generally promote all aspects of aging. Strikingly, glucose homeostasis was highly dynamic. Glucose intolerance was evident in HFHSD-fed mice after 1 week and was maintained for 24 weeks. Beyond 24 weeks, however, glucose tolerance improved in HFHSD-fed mice, and by 60 weeks, it was indistinguishable from that of chow-fed mice. This improvement coincided with adaptive β-cell hyperplasia and hyperinsulinemia, without changes in insulin sensitivity in muscle or adipose tissue. Assessment of insulin secretion in isolated islets revealed that leptin, which inhibited insulin secretion in the chow-fed mice, potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the HFHSD-fed mice after 60 weeks. Overall, the excessive calorie intake was accompanied by deteriorating function of numerous physiological systems. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Efficient Control Law Simulation for Multiple Mobile Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driessen, B.J.; Feddema, J.T.; Kotulski, J.D.; Kwok, K.S.

    1998-10-06

    In this paper we consider the problem of simulating simple control laws involving large numbers of mobile robots. Such simulation can be computationally prohibitive if the number of robots is large enough, say 1 million, due to the 0(N2 ) cost of each time step. This work therefore uses hierarchical tree-based methods for calculating the control law. These tree-based approaches have O(NlogN) cost per time step, thus allowing for efficient simulation involving a large number of robots. For concreteness, a decentralized control law which involves only the distance and bearing to the closest neighbor robot will be considered. The time to calculate the control law for each robot at each time step is demonstrated to be O(logN).

  13. Dynamic pipe control with a multiple digit automatic measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenzer, P.

    1984-01-01

    With the flow rotating method, thin-walled pipes can be produced with very tight tolerances and high mechanical sturdiness. The measuring device permits a dynamic control of these pipes, the outer diameter of which can lie between 70 and 300 mm, the length between 500 and 2000 mm and the wall thickness between 0,5 and 10 mm. Depending on the pipe type, up to 27 measurements in a maximum of 5 measuring levels are to be controlled. (orig.) [de

  14. [New theory of holistic integrative physiology and medicine. II: New insight of the control and regulation of circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xing-guo

    2015-07-01

    The interpretation of control and regulation of circulatory parameters in traditional physiology has some limitations. Human being is an organic, circulatory control and regulation should involve all the systems. Based upon the theory of holistic integrative physiology and medicine, we approach to explain the circulatory control and regulation from its purpose. The main purpose of circulation is to maintain a stable metabolism of cells, i.e. transport oxygen (from lung) and nutrients (from gastrointestinal tract) to cells, and return carbon dioxide and metabolic products back for elimination. Based on this goal, all respiration and gastrointestinal digestion, absorption, urinary excretion, etc. are integrative together for regulation to maintain the supply-demand balance at any metabolic status of resting, exercise and sleep. So that, we can explain many existing problems and questions, for example: why and how the foramen ovale closed after birth; mechanism of Cheyne-Stokes respiration; blood flow redistribution during exercise; variabilities of systolic blood pressure, heart rate and autonomic tone. The circulatory control and regulation is the integration of all systems of the body.

  15. Hierarchical Control for Multiple DC-Microgrids Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Qobad; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    DC microgrids (MGs) have gained research interest during the recent years because of many potential advantages as compared to the ac system. To ensure reliable operation of a low-voltage dc MG as well as its intelligent operation with the other DC MGs, a hierarchical control is proposed in this p......DC microgrids (MGs) have gained research interest during the recent years because of many potential advantages as compared to the ac system. To ensure reliable operation of a low-voltage dc MG as well as its intelligent operation with the other DC MGs, a hierarchical control is proposed...

  16. Cooperative Control for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles Using Descriptor Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Niccolini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a novel methodology for the control management of a swarm of autonomous vehicles. The vehicles, or agents, may have different skills, and be employed for different missions. The methodology is based on the definition of descriptor functions that model the capabilities of the single agent and each task or mission. The swarm motion is controlled by minimizing a suitable norm of the error between agents’ descriptor functions and other descriptor functions which models the entire mission. The validity of the proposed technique is tested via numerical simulation, using different task assignment scenarios.

  17. Multiple Model Adaptive Attitude Control of LEO Satellite with Angular Velocity Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrooei, Abolfazl; Kazemi, Mohammad Hosein

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the multiple model adaptive control is utilized to improve the transient response of attitude control system for a rigid spacecraft. An adaptive output feedback control law is proposed for attitude control under angular velocity constraints and its almost global asymptotic stability is proved. The multiple model adaptive control approach is employed to counteract large uncertainty in parameter space of the inertia matrix. The nonlinear dynamics of a low earth orbit satellite is simulated and the proposed control algorithm is implemented. The reported results show the effectiveness of the suggested scheme.

  18. An agent-based negotiation approach for balancing multiple coupled control domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Umair, Aisha; Clausen, Anders; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    Solving multi-objective multi-issue negotiation problems involving interdependent issues distributed among multiple control domains is inherent to most non-trivial cyber-physical systems. In these systems, the coordinated operation of interconnected subsystems performing autonomous control....... The proposed approach can solve negotiation problems with interdependent issues across multiple coupled control domains. We demonstrate our approach by solving a coordination problem where a Combined Heat and Power Plant must allocate electricity for three commercial greenhouses to ensure the required plant...

  19. Synthesis for robust synchronization of chaotic systems under output feedback control with multiple random delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Guilin; Wang Qingguo; Lin Chong; Han Xu; Li Guangyao

    2006-01-01

    Synchronization under output feedback control with multiple random time delays is studied, using the paradigm in nonlinear physics-Chua's circuit. Compared with other synchronization control methods, output feedback control with multiple random delay is superior for a realistic synchronization application to secure communications. Sufficient condition for global stability of delay-dependent synchronization is established based on the LMI technique. Numerical simulations fully support the analytical approach, in spite of the random delays

  20. Co-administration of Albendazole and Levamisole to control multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albendazole (ABZ) and levamisole (LEV) were co-administered to evaluate their ability to control natural helminth infections in a sheep farm where resistance to the individual anthelmintic had previously been reported. Thirty two sheep of mixed ages and sex were randomly allocated to four equal groups. Group 1 and 2 ...

  1. Multiple Primary LED Lamp Colour Controller with Inherent Brightness Limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barcena, R.; Ackermann, B.

    2007-01-01

    There is a strong interest in using LEDs for general illumination due to the potential they offer for energy saving, environmental friendliness, new opportunities in lighting design, and control of the intensity, colour, and spatial distribution of light. General illumination requires primarily

  2. Quality control for retinal OCT in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schippling, S; Balk, Lj; Costello, F

    2015-01-01

    to provide guidance on the use of validated quality control (QC) criteria for the use of OCT in MS research and clinical trials. METHODS: A prospective multi-centre (n = 13) study. Peripapillary ring scan QC rating of an OCT training set (n = 50) was followed by a test set (n = 50). Inter-rater agreement...

  3. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Physiology Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy ...

  4. Controls of Multiple Stressors on the Black Sea Fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temel Oguz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Black Sea is one of the most severely degraded and exploited large marine ecosystems in the world. For the last 50 years after the depletion of large predatory fish stocks, anchovy (with the partial contribution of sprat has been acting as the main top predator species and experienced a major stock collapse at the end of 1990s. After the collapse, eastern part of the southern Black Sea became the only region sustaining relatively high anchovy catch (400,000 tons whereas the total catch within the rest of the sea was reduced to nearly its one-third. The lack of recovery of different fish stocks under a slow ecosystem rehabilitation may be attributed, on the one hand, to inappropriate management measures and the lack of harmonized fishery policy among the riparian countries. On the other hand, impacts of multiple stressors (eutrophication, alien species invasions, natural climatic variations on the food web may contribute to resilience of the system toward its recovery. The overfishing/recovery problem therefore cannot be isolated from rehabilitation efforts devoted to the long-term chronic degradation of the food web structure, and alternative fishery-related management measures must be adopted as a part of a comprehensive ecosystem-based management strategy. The present study provides a data-driven ecosystem assessment, underlines the key environmental issues and threats, and points to the critical importance of holistic approach to resolve the fishery-ecosystem interactions. It also stresses the transboundary nature of the problem.

  5. Assessing human variability in kinetics for exposures to multiple environmental chemicals: a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling case study with dichloromethane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcke, Mathieu; Haddad, Sami

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the magnitude of interindividual variability in internal dose for inhalation exposure to single versus multiple chemicals. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for adults (AD), neonates (NEO), toddlers (TODD), and pregnant women (PW) were used to simulate inhalation exposure to "low" (RfC-like) or "high" (AEGL-like) air concentrations of benzene (Bz) or dichloromethane (DCM), along with various levels of toluene alone or toluene with ethylbenzene and xylene. Monte Carlo simulations were performed and distributions of relevant internal dose metrics of either Bz or DCM were computed. Area under the blood concentration of parent compound versus time curve (AUC)-based variability in AD, TODD, and PW rose for Bz when concomitant "low" exposure to mixtures of increasing complexities occurred (coefficient of variation (CV) = 16-24%, vs. 12-15% for Bz alone), but remained unchanged considering DCM. Conversely, AUC-based CV in NEO fell (15 to 5% for Bz; 12 to 6% for DCM). Comparable trends were observed considering production of metabolites (AMET), except for NEO's CYP2E1-mediated metabolites of Bz, where an increased CV was observed (20 to 71%). For "high" exposure scenarios, Cmax-based variability of Bz and DCM remained unchanged in AD and PW, but decreased in NEO (CV= 11-16% to 2-6%) and TODD (CV= 12-13% to 7-9%). Conversely, AMET-based variability for both substrates rose in every subpopulation. This study analyzed for the first time the impact of multiple exposures on interindividual variability in toxicokinetics. Evidence indicates that this impact depends upon chemical concentrations and biochemical properties, as well as the subpopulation and internal dose metrics considered.

  6. Stochastic control of living systems: Normalization of physiological functions by magnetic field with 1/f power spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzalevskaya, N. I.; Uritsky, V. M.; Korolyov, E. V.; Reschikov, A. M.; Timoshinov, G. P.

    1993-08-01

    For the first time correcting stochastic control of physiological status of living systems by weak low-frequency fluctuating magnetic field with 1/f spectrum (1/f MF) is demonstrated experimentally. The correction was observed in all main systems, including cardiovascular, central nervous, immunity systems of experimental animals. Pronounced prophylactic and therapeutic influence of 1/f MF on malignant growth and radiation disease was discovered. Theoretical interpretation of the results obtained is based upon the notion of fundamental role of 1/f fluctuations in homeostasis of living systems.

  7. Pointright: a system to redirect mouse and keyboard control among multiple machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Bradley E [Palo Alto, CA; Winograd, Terry A [Stanford, CA; Hutchins, Gregory M [Mountain View, CA

    2008-09-30

    The present invention provides a software system, PointRight, that allows for smooth and effortless control of pointing and input devices among multiple displays. With PointRight, a single free-floating mouse and keyboard can be used to control multiple screens. When the cursor reaches the edge of a screen it seamlessly moves to the adjacent screen and keyboard control is simultaneously redirected to the appropriate machine. Laptops may also redirect their keyboard and pointing device, and multiple pointers are supported simultaneously. The system automatically reconfigures itself as displays go on, go off, or change the machine they display.

  8. Cohesive Motion Control Algorithm for Formation of Multiple Autonomous Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabrata Atta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a motion control strategy for a rigid and constraint consistent formation that can be modeled by a directed graph whose each vertex represents individual agent kinematics and each of directed edges represents distance constraints maintained by an agent, called follower, to its neighbouring agent. A rigid and constraint consistent graph is called persistent graph. A persistent graph is minimally persistent if it is persistent, and no edge can be removed without losing its persistence. An acyclic (free of cycles in its sensing pattern minimally persistent graph of Leader-Follower structure has been considered here which can be constructed from an initial Leader-Follower seed (initial graph with two vertices, one is Leader and another one is First Follower and one edge in between them is directed towards Leader by Henneberg sequence (a procedure of growing a graph containing only vertex additions. A set of nonlinear optimization-based decentralized control laws for mobile autonomous point agents in two dimensional plane have been proposed. An infinitesimal deviation in formation shape created continuous motion of Leader is compensated by corresponding continuous motion of other agents fulfilling the shortest path criteria.

  9. Intraintestinal drainage as a damage control surgery adjunct in a hypothermic traumatic shock swine model with multiple bowel perforations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wu; Ding, Weiwei; Liu, Xingdong; Kao, Xiaomin; Xu, Xingwei; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2014-11-01

    Temporary bowel ligation (TL) has been proposed to prevent contamination as a damage control procedure in multiple bowel perforations. However, bacteria translocation and intestinal ischemia may develop in a prolonged duration. We here hypothesized that intraintestinal drainage combined with temporary ligation (D-TL) would decrease intestinal injury and improve survivals in a gunshot multiple bowel perforation swine model in the setting of a damage control surgery. The abdomen was shot one time with an experimental modified gun whereas pigs were hemorrhaged to a mean arterial pressure of 40 mm Hg and maintained in shock for 40 min. Cold lactated Ringer solution was gradually infused to induce hypothermia. Animals were randomized to primary anastomosis, TL and intraintestinal D-TL groups (n = 8). Animals were resuscitated for 12 h with the shed blood and lactated Ringer solution. Delayed anastomosis was performed in TL and D-TL animals after resuscitation. Surviving animals were humanely killed 24 h after operation. Systemic hemodynamic parameters were recorded and blood samples were obtained for biochemical assays. Intra-abdominal pressure, portal vein and peripheral vein bacterial cultures, small intestine hematoxylin-eosin staining, and transmission electron microscopy examination were performed at 0, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h after the surgery. All animals suffered extreme physiologic conditions as follows: hypothermia, severe acidosis, hypotension, and depressed cardiac output. Compared with the primary anastomosis and TL group, D-TL animals required less resuscitation fluid, suffered a lower intra-abdominal hypertension and bacterial translocation, normalized lactate levels faster, had lower serum creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase levels and tissue TNF-α level, and nuclear factor-kB activations and thus had greater early survival. Compared with primary intestinal anastomosis and TL, rapid bowel ligation combined with intraintestinal drainage as a damage

  10. Study of physiological properties of some probiotics in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria by Flora Danica Ch. Hansen commercial starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA PARASCHIV

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the growth ability and stability of probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus (commercial code La-5®, Lactobacillus casei ssp. paracasei (commercial code L. casei 431® and Bifidobacterium bifidus (commercial code BB-12® in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic bacteria, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides spp. cremoris, as Flora Danica Chr. Hansen commercial starters. Under the controlled fermentative conditions described below, a good starter combination, for the high rate of cells multiplication and for the good viability during storage, was identified in the mixture of L. casei 431®, BB-12® and Flora Danica, in ratio of 1:1:1 (9 log CFU/mL for each starter culture.

  11. H-infty Control of systems with multiple i/o delays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agoes Ariffin Moelja, A.A.; Meinsma, Gjerrit; Mirkin, Leonid

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the standard (four-block) H-infty control problem for systems with multiple i/o delays in the feedback loop is studied. The central idea is to see the multiple delay operator as a special series connection of elementary delay operators, called the adobe delay operators. The adobe delay

  12. Multiple Acid Sensors Control Helicobacter pylori Colonization of the Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Julie Y; Goers Sweeney, Emily; Guillemin, Karen; Amieva, Manuel R

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori's ability to respond to environmental cues in the stomach is integral to its survival. By directly visualizing H. pylori swimming behavior when encountering a microscopic gradient consisting of the repellent acid and attractant urea, we found that H. pylori is able to simultaneously detect both signals, and its response depends on the magnitudes of the individual signals. By testing for the bacteria's response to a pure acid gradient, we discovered that the chemoreceptors TlpA and TlpD are each independent acid sensors. They enable H. pylori to respond to and escape from increases in hydrogen ion concentration near 100 nanomolar. TlpD also mediates attraction to basic pH, a response dampened by another chemoreceptor TlpB. H. pylori mutants lacking both TlpA and TlpD (ΔtlpAD) are unable to sense acid and are defective in establishing colonization in the murine stomach. However, blocking acid production in the stomach with omeprazole rescues ΔtlpAD's colonization defect. We used 3D confocal microscopy to determine how acid blockade affects the distribution of H. pylori in the stomach. We found that stomach acid controls not only the overall bacterial density, but also the microscopic distribution of bacteria that colonize the epithelium deep in the gastric glands. In omeprazole treated animals, bacterial abundance is increased in the antral glands, and gland colonization range is extended to the corpus. Our findings indicate that H. pylori has evolved at least two independent receptors capable of detecting acid gradients, allowing not only survival in the stomach, but also controlling the interaction of the bacteria with the epithelium.

  13. Multiple cognitive control mechanisms associated with the nature of conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chobok; Chung, Chongwook; Kim, Jeounghoon

    2010-06-07

    Cognitive control is required to regulate conflict. The conflict monitoring theory suggests that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is involved in detecting response conflict and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plays a critical role in regulating conflict. Recent studies, however, have suggested that rostral dACC (rdACC) responds to response conflict whereas caudal dACC (cdACC) is associated with perceptual conflict. Moreover, DLPFC has been engaged only in regulation of response conflict. A neural network involved in perceptual conflict, however, remains unclear. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in an attempt to reveal monitor-controller networks corresponding to either perceptual conflict or response conflict. A version of the Stroop color matching task was used to manipulate perceptual conflict, response conflict was manipulated by an arrow. The results demonstrated that rdACC and DLPFC were engaged in response conflict whereas cdACC and the dorsal portion of premotor cortex (pre-PMd) were involved in perceptual conflict. Interestingly, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) was activated by both types of conflict. Correlation analyses between behavioral conflict effects and neural responses demonstrated that rdACC and DLPFC were associated with response conflict whereas cdACC and pre-PMd were associated with perceptual conflict. PPC was not correlated with either perceptual conflict or response conflict. We suggest that cdACC and pre-PMd play critical roles in perceptual conflict processing, and this network is independent from the rdACC/DLPFC network for response conflict processing. We also discussed the function of PPC in conflict processing. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The interaction of psychological and physiological homeostatic drives and role of general control principles in the regulation of physiological systems, exercise and the fatigue process - The Integrative Governor theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair Gibson, A; Swart, J; Tucker, R

    2018-02-01

    Either central (brain) or peripheral (body physiological system) control mechanisms, or a combination of these, have been championed in the last few decades in the field of Exercise Sciences as how physiological activity and fatigue processes are regulated. In this review, we suggest that the concept of 'central' or 'peripheral' mechanisms are both artificial constructs that have 'straight-jacketed' research in the field, and rather that competition between psychological and physiological homeostatic drives is central to the regulation of both, and that governing principles, rather than distinct physical processes, underpin all physical system and exercise regulation. As part of the Integrative Governor theory we develop in this review, we suggest that both psychological and physiological drives and requirements are underpinned by homeostatic principles, and that regulation of the relative activity of each is by dynamic negative feedback activity, as the fundamental general operational controller. Because of this competitive, dynamic interplay, we propose that the activity in all systems will oscillate, that these oscillations create information, and comparison of this oscillatory information with either prior information, current activity, or activity templates create efferent responses that change the activity in the different systems in a similarly dynamic manner. Changes in a particular system are always the result of perturbations occurring outside the system itself, the behavioural causative 'history' of this external activity will be evident in the pattern of the oscillations, and awareness of change occurs as a result of unexpected rather than planned change in physiological activity or psychological state.

  15. Isometric Exercise for the Cervical Extensors Can Help Restore Physiological Lordosis and Reduce Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpayci, Mahmut; İlter, Server

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether isometric neck extension exercise restores physiological cervical lordosis and reduces pain. Sixty-five patients with loss of cervical lordosis were randomly assigned to exercise (27 women, 7 men; mean age, 32.82 ± 8.83 yrs) and control (26 women, 5 men; mean age, 33.48 ± 9.67 yrs) groups. Both groups received nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for 10 days. The exercise group received additional therapy as a home exercise program, which consisted of isometric neck extension for 3 mos. Neck pain severity and cervical lordosis were measured at baseline and at 3 mos after baseline. Compared with baseline levels, cervical lordosis angle was significantly improved in the exercise group (P cervical lordosis angle returned to physiological conditions (85.2% vs. 22.5%; P pain intensity was significantly reduced in both groups compared with baseline levels (for all, P pain was about twice in the exercise group compared with the control group (P cervical lordosis and pain.

  16. Impulses of physiology and psychology for the design of central control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz, C.

    1980-01-01

    Subsequent to a presentation of the man-machine-system in process control, the various operational steps are described. The problems of control are derived from the tasks to be accomplished by the operator. Measures are presented and discussed to overcome the stages of low demand and high demand on the operator's attention. (orig.) [de

  17. On the diversity of multiple optimal controls for quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shir, O M; Baeck, Th; Beltrani, V; Rabitz, H; Vrakking, M J J

    2008-01-01

    This study presents simulations of optimal field-free molecular alignment and rotational population transfer (starting from the J = 0 rotational ground state of a diatomic molecule), optimized by means of laser pulse shaping guided by evolutionary algorithms. Qualitatively different solutions are obtained that optimize the alignment and population transfer efficiency to the maximum extent that is possible given the existing constraints on the optimization due to the finite bandwidth and energy of the laser pulse, the finite degrees of freedom in the laser pulse shaping and the evolutionary algorithm employed. The effect of these constraints on the optimization process is discussed at several levels, subject to theoretical as well as experimental considerations. We show that optimized alignment yields can reach extremely high values, even with severe constraints being present. The breadth of optimal controls is assessed, and a correlation is found between the diversity of solutions and the difficulty of the problem. In the pulse shapes that optimize dynamic alignment we observe a transition between pulse sequences that maximize the initial population transfer from J = 0 to J = 2 and pulse sequences that optimize the transfer to higher rotational levels

  18. Multiple controls affect arsenite oxidase gene expression in Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppée Jean-Yves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both the speciation and toxicity of arsenic are affected by bacterial transformations, i.e. oxidation, reduction or methylation. These transformations have a major impact on environmental contamination and more particularly on arsenic contamination of drinking water. Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans has been isolated from an arsenic- contaminated environment and has developed various mechanisms for coping with arsenic, including the oxidation of As(III to As(V as a detoxification mechanism. Results In the present study, a differential transcriptome analysis was used to identify genes, including arsenite oxidase encoding genes, involved in the response of H. arsenicoxydans to As(III. To get insight into the molecular mechanisms of this enzyme activity, a Tn5 transposon mutagenesis was performed. Transposon insertions resulting in a lack of arsenite oxidase activity disrupted aoxR and aoxS genes, showing that the aox operon transcription is regulated by the AoxRS two-component system. Remarkably, transposon insertions were also identified in rpoN coding for the alternative N sigma factor (σ54 of RNA polymerase and in dnaJ coding for the Hsp70 co-chaperone. Western blotting with anti-AoxB antibodies and quantitative RT-PCR experiments allowed us to demonstrate that the rpoN and dnaJ gene products are involved in the control of arsenite oxidase gene expression. Finally, the transcriptional start site of the aoxAB operon was determined using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE and a putative -12/-24 σ54-dependent promoter motif was identified upstream of aoxAB coding sequences. Conclusion These results reveal the existence of novel molecular regulatory processes governing arsenite oxidase expression in H. arsenicoxydans. These data are summarized in a model that functionally integrates arsenite oxidation in the adaptive response to As(III in this microorganism.

  19. An electromechanical swing-phase-controlled prosthetic knee joint for conversion of physiological energy to electrical energy: feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrysek, Jan; Chau, Gilbert

    2007-12-01

    Microprocessor-controlled prostheses facilitate a more natural and efficient gait for individuals with above-knee amputations by continually adjusting the level of swing-phase damping. One caveat associated with these technologies is that the user must charge the onboard batteries on a daily basis. It is, therefore, the aim of this study to examine the feasibility of using an electromechanical system to provide prosthetic swing-phase damping and, concomitantly, the function of converting physiological energy that is normally dissipated during the swing phase, to electrical energy. Gait data from a single subject and data from a kinematic simulator were used to develop an empirical model. The findings in this study indicate that an electromagnetic system has appropriate characteristics for use in swing-phase control and also has the potential to recover energy under particular conditions.

  20. Semi-active control of a cable-stayed bridge under multiple-support excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ze-Bing; Huang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Hong-Xia

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents a semi-active strategy for seismic protection of a benchmark cable-stayed bridge with consideration of multiple-support excitations. In this control strategy, Magnetorheological (MR) dampers are proposed as control devices, a LQG-clipped-optimal control algorithm is employed. An active control strategy, shown in previous researches to perform well at controlling the benchmark bridge when uniform earthquake motion was assumed, is also used in this study to control this benchmark bridge with consideration of multiple-support excitations. The performance of active control system is compared to that of the presented semi-active control strategy. Because the MR fluid damper is a controllable energy- dissipation device that cannot add mechanical energy to the structural system, the proposed control strategy is fail-safe in that bounded-input, bounded-output stability of the controlled structure is guaranteed. The numerical results demonstrated that the performance of the presented control design is nearly the same as that of the active control system; and that the MR dampers can effectively be used to control seismically excited cable-stayed bridges with multiple-support excitations.

  1. Importance of temperature control for HEFLEX, a biological experiment for Spacelab 1. [plant gravitational physiology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of temperature control to HEFLEX, a Spacelab experiment designed to measure kinetic properties of Helianthis nutation in a low-g environment, is discussed. It is argued that the development of the HEFLEX experiment has been severely hampered by the inadequate control of ambient air temperature provided by the spacecraft module design. A worst case calculation shows that delivery of only 69% of the maximum yield of useful data from the HEFLEX system is guaranteed; significant data losses from inadequate temperature control are expected. The magnitude of the expected data losses indicates that the cost reductions associated with imprecise temperature controls may prove to be a false economy in the long term.

  2. Physiological complexity and system adaptability: evidence from postural control dynamics of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Brad; Costa, Madalena D; Hu, Kun; Newton, Elizabeth; Starobinets, Olga; Kang, Hyun Gu; Peng, C K; Novak, Vera; Lipsitz, Lewis A

    2010-12-01

    The degree of multiscale complexity in human behavioral regulation, such as that required for postural control, appears to decrease with advanced aging or disease. To help delineate causes and functional consequences of complexity loss, we examined the effects of visual and somatosensory impairment on the complexity of postural sway during quiet standing and its relationship to postural adaptation to cognitive dual tasking. Participants of the MOBILIZE Boston Study were classified into mutually exclusive groups: controls [intact vision and foot somatosensation, n = 299, 76 ± 5 (SD) yr old], visual impairment only (Postural sway (i.e., center-of-pressure) dynamics were assessed during quiet standing and cognitive dual tasking, and a complexity index was quantified using multiscale entropy analysis. Postural sway speed and area, which did not correlate with complexity, were also computed. During quiet standing, the complexity index (mean ± SD) was highest in controls (9.5 ± 1.2) and successively lower in the visual (9.1 ± 1.1), somatosensory (8.6 ± 1.6), and combined (7.8 ± 1.3) impairment groups (P = 0.001). Dual tasking resulted in increased sway speed and area but reduced complexity (P postural sway speed from quiet standing to dual-tasking conditions. Sensory impairments contributed to decreased postural sway complexity, which reflected reduced adaptive capacity of the postural control system. Relatively low baseline complexity may, therefore, indicate control systems that are more vulnerable to cognitive and other stressors.

  3. A New Attribute Control Chart using Multiple Dependent State Repetitive Sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Aldosari, Mansour Sattam; Aslam, Muhammad; Jun, Chi-Hyuck

    2017-01-01

    In this manuscript, a new attribute control chart using multiple dependent state repetitive sampling is designed. The operational procedure and structure of the proposed control chart is given. The required measures to determine the average run length (ARL) for in-control and out-of-control processes are given. Tables of ARLs are reported for various control chart parameters. The proposed control chart is more sensitive in detecting a small shift in the process as compared to the existing attribute control charts. The simulation study shows the efficiency of the proposed chart over the existing charts. An example is given for the illustration purpose.

  4. A New Attribute Control Chart using Multiple Dependent State Repetitive Sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Aldosari, Mansour Sattam

    2017-03-25

    In this manuscript, a new attribute control chart using multiple dependent state repetitive sampling is designed. The operational procedure and structure of the proposed control chart is given. The required measures to determine the average run length (ARL) for in-control and out-of-control processes are given. Tables of ARLs are reported for various control chart parameters. The proposed control chart is more sensitive in detecting a small shift in the process as compared to the existing attribute control charts. The simulation study shows the efficiency of the proposed chart over the existing charts. An example is given for the illustration purpose.

  5. Musculoskeletal model-based control interface mimics physiologic hand dynamics during path tracing task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Dustin L.; (Helen Huang, He

    2017-06-01

    Objective. We investigated the feasibility of a novel, customizable, simplified EMG-driven musculoskeletal model for estimating coordinated hand and wrist motions during a real-time path tracing task. Approach. A two-degree-of-freedom computational musculoskeletal model was implemented for real-time EMG-driven control of a stick figure hand displayed on a computer screen. After 5-10 minutes of undirected practice, subjects were given three attempts to trace 10 straight paths, one at a time, with the fingertip of the virtual hand. Able-bodied subjects completed the task on two separate test days. Main results. Across subjects and test days, there was a significant linear relationship between log-transformed measures of accuracy and speed (Pearson’s r  =  0.25, p  bodied subjects in 8 of 10 trials. For able-bodied subjects, tracing accuracy was lower at the extremes of the model’s range of motion, though there was no apparent relationship between tracing accuracy and fingertip location for the amputee. Our result suggests that, unlike able-bodied subjects, the amputee’s motor control patterns were not accustomed to the multi-joint dynamics of the wrist and hand, possibly as a result of post-amputation cortical plasticity, disuse, or sensory deficits. Significance. To our knowledge, our study is one of very few that have demonstrated the real-time simultaneous control of multi-joint movements, especially wrist and finger movements, using an EMG-driven musculoskeletal model, which differs from the many data-driven algorithms that dominate the literature on EMG-driven prosthesis control. Real-time control was achieved with very little training and simple, quick (~15 s) calibration. Thus, our model is potentially a practical and effective control platform for multifunctional myoelectric prostheses that could restore more life-like hand function for individuals with upper limb amputation.

  6. Effects of worry on physiological and subjective reactivity to emotional stimuli in generalized anxiety disorder and nonanxious control participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llera, Sandra J; Newman, Michelle G

    2010-10-01

    The present study examined the effect of worry versus relaxation and neutral thought activity on both physiological and subjective responding to positive and negative emotional stimuli. Thirty-eight participants with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and 35 nonanxious control participants were randomly assigned to engage in worry, relaxation, or neutral inductions prior to sequential exposure to each of four emotion-inducing film clips. The clips were designed to elicit fear, sadness, happiness, and calm emotions. Self reported negative and positive affect was assessed following each induction and exposure, and vagal activity was measured throughout. Results indicate that worry (vs. relaxation) led to reduced vagal tone for the GAD group, as well as higher negative affect levels for both groups. Additionally, prior worry resulted in less physiological and subjective responding to the fearful film clip, and reduced negative affect in response to the sad clip. This suggests that worry may facilitate avoidance of processing negative emotions by way of preventing a negative emotional contrast. Implications for the role of worry in emotion avoidance are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Realtime control of multiple-focus phased array heating patterns based on noninvasive ultrasound thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Andrew; Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S

    2012-01-01

    A system for the realtime generation and control of multiple-focus ultrasound phased-array heating patterns is presented. The system employs a 1-MHz, 64-element array and driving electronics capable of fine spatial and temporal control of the heating pattern. The driver is integrated with a realtime 2-D temperature imaging system implemented on a commercial scanner. The coordinates of the temperature control points are defined on B-mode guidance images from the scanner, together with the temperature set points and controller parameters. The temperature at each point is controlled by an independent proportional, integral, and derivative controller that determines the focal intensity at that point. Optimal multiple-focus synthesis is applied to generate the desired heating pattern at the control points. The controller dynamically reallocates the power available among the foci from the shared power supply upon reaching the desired temperature at each control point. Furthermore, anti-windup compensation is implemented at each control point to improve the system dynamics. In vitro experiments in tissue-mimicking phantom demonstrate the robustness of the controllers for short (2-5 s) and longer multiple-focus high-intensity focused ultrasound exposures. Thermocouple measurements in the vicinity of the control points confirm the dynamics of the temperature variations obtained through noninvasive feedback. © 2011 IEEE

  8. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Physiology and Cognitive Control of Behavior in Stress Inoculated Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Karen J.; Buckmaster, Christine L.; Lindley, Steven E.; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Lyons, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Monkeys exposed to stress inoculation protocols early in life subsequently exhibit diminished neurobiological responses to moderate psychological stressors and enhanced cognitive control of behavior during juvenile development compared to non-inoculated monkeys. The present experiments extended these findings and revealed that stress inoculated…

  9. Multiple single-board-computer system for the KEK positron generator control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Kazuo; Abe, Isamu; Enomoto, Atsushi; Otake, Yuji; Urano, Takao

    1986-01-01

    The KEK positron generator is controlled by means of a distributed microprocessor network. The control system is composed of three kinds of equipment: device controllers for the linac equipment, operation management stations and a communication network. Individual linac equipment has its own microprocessor-based controller. A multiple single board computer (SBC) system is used for communication control and for equipment surveillance; it has a database containing communication and linac equipment status information. The linac operation management that should be the most soft part in the control system, is separated from the multiple SBC system and is carried out by work-stations. The principle that every processor executes only one task is maintained throughout the control system. This made the software architecture very simple. (orig.)

  10. Closed-loop control of renal perfusion pressure in physiological experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Delgado, D U; Bonilla, I; Rodríguez-Martínez, M; Sánchez-Briones, M E; Ruiz-Hernández, E

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the design, experimental modeling, and control of a pump-driven renal perfusion pressure (RPP)-regulatory system to implement precise and relatively fast RPP regulation in rats. The mechatronic system is a simple, low-cost, and reliable device to automate the RPP regulation process based on flow-mediated occlusion. Hence, the regulated signal is the RPP measured in the left femoral artery of the rat, and the manipulated variable is the voltage applied to a dc motor that controls the occlusion of the aorta. The control system is implemented in a PC through the LabView software, and a data acquisition board NI USB-6210. A simple first-order linear system is proposed to approximate the dynamics in the experiment. The parameters of the model are chosen to minimize the error between the predicted and experimental output averaged from eight input/output datasets at different RPP operating conditions. A closed-loop servocontrol system based on a pole-placement PD controller plus dead-zone compensation was proposed for this purpose. First, the feedback structure was validated in simulation by considering parameter uncertainty, and constant and time-varying references. Several experimental tests were also conducted to validate in real time the closed-loop performance for stepwise and fast switching references, and the results show the effectiveness of the proposed automatic system to regulate the RPP in the rat, in a precise, accurate (mean error less than 2 mmHg) and relatively fast mode (10-15 s of response time).

  11. Multiple-state based power control for multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Radio Multi-Channel (MRMC) systems are key to power control problems in wireless mesh networks (WMNs). In this paper, we present asynchronous multiple-state based power control for MRMC WMNs. First, WMN is represented as a set of disjoint...

  12. A simple optical fibre-linked remote control system for multiple devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report on the development of a simple control system which can handle multiple devices through an optical fibre data link. The devices are controlled using a set of DACs through serial data communication via a serial port of a PC. Serial data from the PC get converted to parallel mode using a homemade “serial in ...

  13. Second-Order Controllability of Multi-Agent Systems with Multiple Leaders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bo; Han Xiao; Shi Yun-Tao; Su Hou-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new second-order continuous-time multi-agent model and analyzes the controllability of second-order multi-agent system with multiple leaders based on the asymmetric topology. This paper considers the more general case: velocity coupling topology is different from location coupling topology. Some sufficient and necessary conditions are presented for the controllability of the system with multiple leaders. In addition, the paper studies the controllability of the system with velocity damping gain. Simulation results are given to illustrate the correctness of theoretical results. (paper)

  14. A biomimetic physiological model for human adipose tissue by adipocytes and endothelial cell cocultures with spatially controlled distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Rui; Zhang, Renji; Lin, Feng; Du, Yanan; Luan, Jie

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro model that recapitulates the characteristics of native human adipose tissue would largely benefit pathology studies and therapy development. In this paper, we fabricated a physiological model composed of both human adipocytes and endothelial cells with spatially controlled distribution that biomimics the structure and composition of human adipose tissue. Detailed studies into the cell–cell interactions between the adipocytes and endothelial cells revealed a mutual-enhanced effect which resembles the in vivo routine. Furthermore, comparisons between planar coculture and model coculture demonstrated improved adipocyte function as well as endothelial cell proliferation under the same conditions. This research provided a reliable model for human adipose tissue development studies and potential obesity-related therapy development. (paper)

  15. Effects of two different feeding positions on physiological characteristics and feeding performance of preterm infants: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Burcu Aykanat; Gözen, Duygu; Karatekin, Güner

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled study was to determine the effect of semielevated side-lying (ESL) and semielevated supine (ESU) positions, which are used to bottle-feed preterm infants, on their physiological characteristics and feeding performance. The sample consisted of preterm infants who were born in the 31st gestational week and below, and met the inclusion criteria. A randomization was provided in the sample group with a total of 80 infants including 38 infants in the ESL (experimental) group and 42 infants in the ESU (control) group. Both groups were compared in terms of their SpO2 values, heart rates, and feeding performances before, during, and after the feeding. The data were obtained by using a form for infant descriptive characteristics, feeding follow-up form, a Masimo Radical-7 pulse oximeter device, and a video camera. It was determined that the infants in the ESL group had statistically significantly higher SpO2 values (ESL: 96.77 ± 2.51; ESU: 93.48 ± 5.63) and lower heart rates (ESL: 155.87 ± 11.18; ESU: 164.35 ± 6.00) during the feeding compared to the infants in the ESU group (p ESL group. The ESL position has a more positive effect on oxygen saturation and heart rate of infants and it is more effective in providing a physiological stabilization during the feeding, compared to the ESU position. According to these results, the ESL position can be recommended for preterm feeding. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Method and System for Physiologically Modulating Videogames and Simulations which Use Gesture and Body Image Sensing Control Input Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T. (Inventor); Stephens, Chad L. (Inventor); Habowski, Tyler (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Method for physiologically modulating videogames and simulations includes utilizing input from a motion-sensing video game system and input from a physiological signal acquisition device. The inputs from the physiological signal sensors are utilized to change the response of a user's avatar to inputs from the motion-sensing sensors. The motion-sensing system comprises a 3D sensor system having full-body 3D motion capture of a user's body. This arrangement encourages health-enhancing physiological self-regulation skills or therapeutic amplification of healthful physiological characteristics. The system provides increased motivation for users to utilize biofeedback as may be desired for treatment of various conditions.

  17. The link between antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase and physiological condition of a control population of terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemec, Anita; Lešer, Vladka; Drobne, Damjana

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate if the activities of catalase and glutathione S-transferase in a control population of terrestrial isopods (Porcellio scaber) are correlated with the physiological condition of the isopods. For this purpose, the activities of these enzymes were analysed in isopods from a stock population and in parallel, the physiological condition of the same specimens was assessed using a histological approach based on epithelial thickness and lipid droplets. We found a correlation between antioxidant enzymes and the physiological condition of the isopods. This implies that these enzymes could be used as predictive indicators of the physiological condition in a stock population before comprehensive toxicological studies are conducted and also in control group after the experiment. When a control group is found to be very heterogeneous in terms of physiological condition, the experiment should be repeated with a larger number of experimental animals. The findings of this study will contribute to more accurate experimental design of toxicity tests when using biomarkers. This should encourage other researchers to increase their effort to know the physiological state of their test organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Advanced topics in control and estimation of state-multiplicative noisy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gershon, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Topics in Control and Estimation of State-Multiplicative Noisy Systems begins with an introduction and extensive literature survey. The text proceeds to cover solutions of measurement-feedback control and state problems and the formulation of the Bounded Real Lemma for both continuous- and discrete-time systems. The continuous-time reduced-order and stochastic-tracking control problems for delayed systems are then treated. Ideas of nonlinear stability are introduced for infinite-horizon systems, again, in both the continuous- and discrete-time cases. The reader is introduced to six practical examples of noisy state-multiplicative control and filtering associated with various fields of control engineering. The book is rounded out by a three-part appendix containing stochastic tools necessary for a proper appreciation of the text: a basic introduction to nonlinear stochastic differential equations and aspects of switched systems and peak to peak  optimal control and filtering. Advanced Topics in Contr...

  19. Rice Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.A. Counce; Davidi R. Gealy; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2002-01-01

    Physiology occurs tn physical space through chemical reactions constrained by anatomy and morphology, yet guided by genetics. Physiology has been called the logic of life. Genes encode structural and fimcdonal proteins. These proteins are subsequently processed to produce enzymes that direct and govern the biomechanical processes involved in the physiology of the...

  20. Experiences in simulating and testing coordinated voltage control provided by multiple wind power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlaban, T.; Alonso, O.; Ortiz, D. [Acciona Windpower S.A. (Spain); Peiro, J.; Rivas, R. [Red Electrica de Espana SAU (Spain); Quinonez-Varela, G.; Lorenzo, P. [Acciona Energia S.A. (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    This document presents some field tests performed in a transmission system node in order to check the adequacy of voltage control performance by multiple wind power plants, with an overall capacity of 395 MW. It briefly explains the Spanish TSO motivation towards new voltage control requirements and the necessity of performing such tests in order to set the most convenient voltage control parameters and to verify the stable operation. It presents how different the voltage control capability between modern wind turbines (DFIG) and older ones (SCIG) specifically retrofitted for voltage control is. (orig.)

  1. A Memory/Immunology-Based Control Approach with Applications to Multiple Spacecraft Formation Flying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of formation control for multiple spacecrafts in Planetary Orbital Environment (POE. Due to the presence of diverse interferences and uncertainties in the outer space, such as the changing spacecraft mass, unavailable space parameters, and varying gravity forces, traditional control methods encounter great difficulties in this area. A new control approach inspired by human memory and immune system is proposed, and this approach is shown to be capable of learning from past control experience and current behavior to improve its performance. It demands much less system dynamic information as compared with traditional controls. Both theoretic analysis and computer simulation verify its effectiveness.

  2. A feedback control model for network flow with multiple pure time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, J.

    1972-01-01

    A control model describing a network flow hindered by multiple pure time (or transport) delays is formulated. Feedbacks connect each desired output with a single control sector situated at the origin. The dynamic formulation invokes the use of differential difference equations. This causes the characteristic equation of the model to consist of transcendental functions instead of a common algebraic polynomial. A general graphical criterion is developed to evaluate the stability of such a problem. A digital computer simulation confirms the validity of such criterion. An optimal decision making process with multiple delays is presented.

  3. Impulse control disorders are associated with multiple psychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Elina; Kaasinen, Valtteri; Siri, Chiara; Martikainen, Kirsti; Cilia, Roberto; Niemelä, Solja; Joutsa, Juho

    2014-01-01

    Impulse control disorders can have serious adverse consequences to the life of a patient with Parkinson's disease. Although impulse control disorders are common, a possible psychiatric comorbidity has not been fully characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychiatric symptoms exhibited by Parkinson's disease patients with impulse control disorders. The study was conducted as a postal survey to patients in the registry of the Finnish Parkinson Association. A total of 290 Parkinson's disease patients were evaluated for impulse control disorders using the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease. Psychiatric symptoms were systematically screened using the Symptom Checklist 90. We found that 108 of the evaluated patients had one or more impulse control disorders. Patients with impulse control disorders had markedly higher scores for symptoms of psychoticism (Bonferroni corrected p disorder (p impulse control disorders. Impulse control disorders were shown to be independently associated with these symptoms. Patients with multiple impulse control disorders had higher scores for depression and obsessive-compulsive symptoms when compared with patients that exhibited only one impulse control disorder. COUNCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the previous observations that impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease are linked with multiple psychiatric symptoms, including psychoticism, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive symptoms and depression. Clinicians treating these patients should acknowledge the concomitant psychiatric symptoms.

  4. Advances in physiological computing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairclough, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    This edited collection will provide an overview of the field of physiological computing, i.e. the use of physiological signals as input for computer control. It will cover a breadth of current research, from brain-computer interfaces to telemedicine.

  5. Control Strategies for Islanded Microgrid using Enhanced Hierarchical Control Structure with Multiple Current-Loop Damping Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yang; Shen, Pan; Zhao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the modeling, controller design, and stability analysis of the islanded microgrid (MG) using enhanced hierarchical control structure with multiple current loop damping schemes is proposed. The islanded MG is consisted of the parallel-connected voltage source inverters using LCL...... output filters, and the proposed control structure includes: the primary control with additional phase-shift loop, the secondary control for voltage amplitude and frequency restoration, the virtual impedance loops which contains virtual positive- and negative-sequence impedance loops at fundamental...... frequency, and virtual variable harmonic impedance loop at harmonic frequencies, and the inner voltage and current loop controllers. A small-signal model for the primary and secondary controls with additional phase-shift loop is presented, which shows an over-damped feature from eigenvalue analysis...

  6. Controlled multiple neutral planes by low elastic modulus adhesive for flexible organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wansun; Lee, Inhwa; Yoon Kim, Dong; Yu, Youn-Yeol; Jung, Hae-Yoon; Kwon, Seyeoul; Seo Park, Weon; Kim, Taek-Soo

    2017-05-12

    To protect brittle layers in organic photovoltaic devices, the mechanical neutral plane strategy can be adopted through placing the brittle functional materials close to the neutral plane where stress and strain are zero during bending. However, previous research has been significantly limited in the location and number of materials to protect through using a single neutral plane. In this study, multiple neutral planes are generated using low elastic modulus adhesives and are controlled through quantitative analyses in order to protect the multiple brittle materials at various locations. Moreover, the protection of multiple brittle layers at various locations under both concave and convex bending directions is demonstrated. Multilayer structures that have soft adhesives are further analyzed using the finite element method analysis in order to propose guidelines for structural design when employing multiple neutral planes.

  7. Knee flexor strength and balance control impairment may explain declines during prolonged walking in women with mild multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramari, Cintia; Moraes, Andréa G; Tauil, Carlos B; von Glehn, Felipe; Motl, Robert; de David, Ana C

    2018-02-01

    Physiological factors such as muscle weakness and balance could explain declines in walking distance by multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The purpose of this study was to characterize levels and examine associations among decline in walking distance, balance and muscular strength in women with mild MS. Participants included 28 women with mild relapsing-remitting MS and 21 women without MS. We executed the 6-min walk test (6MWT) to verify declines in walking distance. Isokinetic knee flexion (KF) and extension (KE) muscle strength was measured using a dynamometer. Balance was quantified using a force platform, with eyes open and closed, on a rigid and foam surface. The MS patients presented declines in walking, lower KF muscle strength, and worse balance than controls. KF strength and balance correlated with walking in the MS group. The KF strength explained differences between groups in walking. The KF strength and balance presented as predictors of walking slowing down in the 6MWT, in mild MS. Women with mild MS have strength impairment of knee flexor muscles and balance control impairment that may explain walking related motor fatigability during prolonged walking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Determinantes fisiológicos do controle do peso e apetite Physiological determinants of weight and appetite control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleika S. C. Halpern

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A obesidade é um dos principais problemas de saúde pública da atualidade, apresentando etiologia multifatorial. Entre os determinantes fisiológicos do controle do peso e do apetite, estão fatores neuronais, endócrinos, adipocitários e intestinais. A leptina e a insulina são hormônios secretados em proporção à massa adiposa e atuam perifericamente, estimulando o catabolismo. No sistema nervoso central, a insulina e a leptina interagem com receptores hipotalâmicos, favorecendo a saciedade. Indivíduos obesos têm maiores concentrações séricas destes hormônios e apresentam resistência à sua ação. Os peptídeos intestinais, combinados a outros sinais, podem estimular (grelina e orexina ou inibir (CCK, leptina e oximodulina a ingestão alimentar. Todos atuam nos centros hipotalâmicos, que são os grandes responsáveis pelo comportamento alimentar.Obesity is currently one of the main problems of public health, presenting multifactorial etiology. The main involved factors in the control of weight and appetite are neuronal, endocrine, adipocity and intestinal. Leptine and insuline are hormones produced proportionally to adipose mass and act stimulating the catabolism. In the central nervous system, insuline and leptine interact with hypothalamic receivers favoring the satiety. Individuals with obesity have high seric concentrations of these hormones and present resistance to their action. The intestinal peptides, associated with other signals, can stimulate (greline and orexine or inhibit (CKK, leptine and oxymodulin the food intake. All act in the hypothalamic centers, that are the major responsible for the nutrititional behavior.

  9. Home-based exercise program and fall-risk reduction in older adults with multiple sclerosis: phase 1 randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Finlayson, Marcia; McAuley, Edward; Morrison, Steve; Motl, Robert W

    2014-03-01

    To determine the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a home-based exercise intervention targeting fall risk in older adults with multiple sclerosis. A randomized controlled pilot trial. A home-based exercise program. Participants were randomly allocated to either a home-based exercise intervention group (n = 13) or a waiting list control group (n = 14). The exercise group completed exercises targeting lower muscle strength and balance three times a week for 12 weeks. The control group continued normal activity. Fall risk (Physiological Profile Assessment scores), balance (Berg Balance Scale), and walking testing prior to and immediately following the 12-week intervention. Each outcome measure was placed in an analysis of covariance with group as the between-subject factor and baseline values as the covariate. Effect sizes were calculated. Twelve participants from the control group and ten from the exercise group completed the study. There were no related adverse events. Fall risk was found to decrease in the exercise group following the intervention (1.1 SD 1.0 vs. 0.6 SD 0.6) while there was an increase in fall risk in the control group (1.9 SD 1.5 vs. 2.2 SD 1.9). Effect sizes for most outcomes were large (η(2) > 0.15). Home-based exercise was found to be feasible, safe, and effective for reducing physiological fall risk in older adults with multiple sclerosis. Our findings support the implementation of a larger trial to reduce fall risk in persons with multiple sclerosis.

  10. Assessment of Personality Types and Locus of Control in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Mazaheri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease with unknown cause. MS is one of the disabling neurologic diseases in adult especially young range that myelin part of central nervous system (CNS is destructed. The aim of this study was assessment of types A and B personality and internal and external locus of control in multiple sclerosis (MS patients and comparison of the results with control group.Materials & Methods: In a case-control study, 30 patients with MS and 30 normal persons as control group evaluated with neurological examination, Rotter locus of control test and Friedman-Rosenman questionnaire for detection of types A and B personality. We employed to analyze the results.Results: 43 percent and 57 percent of MS patients had internal and external locus of control respectively. 63 percent and 37 percent of MS patients had type A and B personality respectively. 60 percent and 40 percent of control group had internal and external locus of control respectively. 20 percent and 80 percent of control group had type A and B personality respectively. Difference between personality type in two groups was significant (P<0.01.Conclusions: In this study, MS patients had more type A personality in comparison to control group.

  11. Consensus definitions and application guidelines for control groups in cerebrospinal fluid biomarker studies in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teunissen, Charlotte; Menge, Til; Altintas, Ayse

    2013-01-01

    The choice of appropriate control group(s) is critical in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker research in multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a lack of definitions and nomenclature of different control groups and a rationalized application of different control groups. We here propose consensus......). Furthermore, we discuss the application of these control groups in specific study designs, such as for diagnostic biomarker studies, prognostic biomarker studies and therapeutic response studies. Application of these uniform definitions will lead to better comparability of biomarker studies and optimal use...

  12. Robust Fault Tolerant Control for a Class of Time-Delay Systems with Multiple Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyin Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust fault tolerant control (FTC approach is addressed for a class of nonlinear systems with time delay, actuator faults, and multiple disturbances. The first part of the multiple disturbances is supposed to be an uncertain modeled disturbance and the second one represents a norm-bounded variable. First, a composite observer is designed to estimate the uncertain modeled disturbance and actuator fault simultaneously. Then, an FTC strategy consisting of disturbance observer based control (DOBC, fault accommodation, and a mixed H2/H∞ controller is constructed to reconfigure the considered systems with disturbance rejection and attenuation performance. Finally, simulations for a flight control system are given to show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  13. Smart Control of Multiple Evaporator Systems with Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolinar González-Potes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the complete integration of a fuzzy control of multiple evaporator systems with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, in which we study several important aspects for this kind of system, like a detailed analysis of the end-to-end real-time flows over wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSAN, a real-time kernel with an earliest deadline first (EDF scheduler, periodic and aperiodic tasking models for the nodes, lightweight and flexible compensation-based control algorithms for WSAN that exhibit packet dropouts, an event-triggered sampling scheme and design methodologies. We address the control problem of the multi-evaporators with the presence of uncertainties, which was tackled through a wireless fuzzy control approach, showing the advantages of this concept where it can easily perform the optimization for a set of multiple evaporators controlled by the same smart controller, which should have an intelligent and flexible architecture based on multi-agent systems (MAS that allows one to add or remove new evaporators online, without the need for reconfiguring, while maintaining temporal and functional restrictions in the system. We show clearly how we can get a greater scalability, the self-configuration of the network and the least overhead with a non-beacon or unslotted mode of the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol, as well as wireless communications and distributed architectures, which could be extremely helpful in the development process of networked control systems in large spatially-distributed plants, which involve many sensors and actuators. For this purpose, a fuzzy scheme is used to control a set of parallel evaporator air-conditioning systems, with temperature and relative humidity control as a multi-input and multi-output closed loop system; in addition, a general architecture is presented, which implements multiple control loops closed over a communication network, integrating the analysis and validation method for multi

  14. Hydrotherapy for the Treatment of Pain in People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María; Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo A.; Lara-Palomo, Inmaculada; Saavedra-Hernández, Manuel; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating neurological disease. Several studies have reported that complementary and alternative therapies can have positive effects against pain in these patients. Objective. The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of an Ai-Chi aquatic exercise program against pain and other symptoms in MS patients. Methods. In this randomized controlled trial, 73 MS patients were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group for a 20-we...

  15. Use of wiener nonlinear MPC to control a CSTR with multiple steady state

    OpenAIRE

    Lusson Cervantes, A.; Agamennoni, O.E.; Figueroa, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a Nonlinear Model Predictive Control based on a Wiener Model with a Piecewise Linear gain is presented. The major advantages of this algorithm is that it retains all the interesting properties of the classical linear MPC and the computations are easy to solve due to the canonical structure of the nonlinear gain. The proposed control scheme is applied to a nonlinear CSTR that presents multiple steady states.

  16. Towards a decision support system for control of multiple food safety hazards in raw milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Sterrenburg, P.; Haasnoot, W.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Decision support systems (DSS) for controlling multiple food safety hazards in raw milk production have not yet been developed, but the underlying components are fragmentarily available. This article presents the state-of-the-art of essential DSS elements for judging food safety compliance of raw

  17. All Set! Evidence of Simultaneous Attentional Control Settings for Multiple Target Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Jessica L.; Folk, Charles L.; Remington, Roger W.

    2012-01-01

    Although models of visual search have often assumed that attention can only be set for a single feature or property at a time, recent studies have suggested that it may be possible to maintain more than one attentional control setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether spatial attention could be guided by multiple attentional…

  18. Evaluation of biases present in the cohort multiple randomised controlled trial design : a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candlish, Jane; Pate, Alexander; Sperrin, Matthew; Staa, Tjeerd P van

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The cohort multiple randomised controlled trial (cmRCT) design provides an opportunity to incorporate the benefits of randomisation within clinical practice; thus reducing costs, integrating electronic healthcare records, and improving external validity. This study aims to address a key

  19. Comparison of Intelligibility Measures for Adults with Parkinson's Disease, Adults with Multiple Sclerosis, and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipancic, Kaila L.; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study obtained judgments of sentence intelligibility using orthographic transcription for comparison with previously reported intelligibility judgments obtained using a visual analog scale (VAS) for individuals with Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis and healthy controls (K. Tjaden, J. E. Sussman, & G. E. Wilding, 2014).…

  20. Auditory decision aiding in supervisory control of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donmez, Birsen; Cummings, M L; Graham, Hudson D

    2009-10-01

    This article is an investigation of the effectiveness of sonifications, which are continuous auditory alerts mapped to the state of a monitored task, in supporting unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) supervisory control. UAV supervisory control requires monitoring a UAV across multiple tasks (e.g., course maintenance) via a predominantly visual display, which currently is supported with discrete auditory alerts. Sonification has been shown to enhance monitoring performance in domains such as anesthesiology by allowing an operator to immediately determine an entity's (e.g., patient) current and projected states, and is a promising alternative to discrete alerts in UAV control. However, minimal research compares sonification to discrete alerts, and no research assesses the effectiveness of sonification for monitoring multiple entities (e.g., multiple UAVs). The authors conducted an experiment with 39 military personnel, using a simulated setup. Participants controlled single and multiple UAVs and received sonifications or discrete alerts based on UAV course deviations and late target arrivals. Regardless of the number of UAVs supervised, the course deviation sonification resulted in reactions to course deviations that were 1.9 s faster, a 19% enhancement, compared with discrete alerts. However, course deviation sonifications interfered with the effectiveness of discrete late arrival alerts in general and with operator responses to late arrivals when supervising multiple vehicles. Sonifications can outperform discrete alerts when designed to aid operators to predict future states of monitored tasks. However, sonifications may mask other auditory alerts and interfere with other monitoring tasks that require divided attention. This research has implications for supervisory control display design.

  1. The Dynamics and Sliding Mode Control of Multiple Cooperative Welding Robot Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design, dynamic modelling and sliding mode control of multiple cooperative welding robot manipulators (MWRMs. The MWRMs can handle complex tasks that are difficult or even impossible for a single manipulator. The kinematics and dynamics of the MWRMs are studied on the basis of the Denavit-Hartenberg and Lagrange method. Following that, considering the MWRM system with nonlinear and unknown disturbances, a non-singular terminal sliding mode control strategy is designed. By means of the Lyapunov function, the stability of the controller is proved. Simulation results indicate that the good control performance of the MWRMs is achieved by the non-singular terminal sliding mode controller, which also illustrates the correctness of the dynamic modelling and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  2. Front-end module readout and control electronics for the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, M.N.; Allen, M.D.; Boissevain, J.

    1997-11-01

    Front-end module (FEM) readout and control are implemented as modular, high-density, reprogrammable functions in the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector. FEM control is performed by the heap manager, an FPGA-based circuit in the FEM unit. Each FEM has 256 channels of front-end electronics, readout, and control, all located on an MCM. Data readout, formatting, and control are performed by the heap manager along with 4 interface units that reside outside the MVD detector cylinder. This paper discusses the application of a generic heap manager and the addition of 4 interface module types to meet the specific control and data readout needs of the MVD. Unit functioning, interfaces, timing, data format, and communication rates will be discussed in detail. In addition, subsystem issues regarding mode control, serial architecture and functions, error handling, and FPGA implementation and programming will be presented

  3. A pilot randomized control trial investigating the effect of mindfulness practice on pain tolerance, psychological well-being, and physiological activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingston, Jessica; Chadwick, Paul; Meron, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of mindfulness training on pain tolerance, psychological well-being, physiological activity, and the acquisition of mindfulness skills. Methods: Forty-two asymptomatic University students participated in a randomized, single-blind, active control pilot study. ...

  4. Real-Time Optimal Flood Control Decision Making and Risk Propagation Under Multiple Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feilin; Zhong, Ping-An; Sun, Yimeng; Yeh, William W.-G.

    2017-12-01

    Multiple uncertainties exist in the optimal flood control decision-making process, presenting risks involving flood control decisions. This paper defines the main steps in optimal flood control decision making that constitute the Forecast-Optimization-Decision Making (FODM) chain. We propose a framework for supporting optimal flood control decision making under multiple uncertainties and evaluate risk propagation along the FODM chain from a holistic perspective. To deal with uncertainties, we employ stochastic models at each link of the FODM chain. We generate synthetic ensemble flood forecasts via the martingale model of forecast evolution. We then establish a multiobjective stochastic programming with recourse model for optimal flood control operation. The Pareto front under uncertainty is derived via the constraint method coupled with a two-step process. We propose a novel SMAA-TOPSIS model for stochastic multicriteria decision making. Then we propose the risk assessment model, the risk of decision-making errors and rank uncertainty degree to quantify the risk propagation process along the FODM chain. We conduct numerical experiments to investigate the effects of flood forecast uncertainty on optimal flood control decision making and risk propagation. We apply the proposed methodology to a flood control system in the Daduhe River basin in China. The results indicate that the proposed method can provide valuable risk information in each link of the FODM chain and enable risk-informed decisions with higher reliability.

  5. On decentralized adaptive full-order sliding mode control of multiple UAVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xianbo; Liu, Chao; Su, Housheng; Zhang, Qin

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a novel decentralized adaptive full-order sliding mode control framework is proposed for the robust synchronized formation motion of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) subject to system uncertainty. First, a full-order sliding mode surface in a decentralized manner is designed to incorporate both the individual position tracking error and the synchronized formation error while the UAV group is engaged in building a certain desired geometric pattern in three dimensional space. Second, a decentralized virtual plant controller is constructed which allows the embedded low-pass filter to attain the chattering free property of the sliding mode controller. In addition, robust adaptive technique is integrated in the decentralized chattering free sliding control design in order to handle unknown bounded uncertainties, without requirements for assuming a priori knowledge of bounds on the system uncertainties as stated in conventional chattering free control methods. Subsequently, system robustness as well as stability of the decentralized full-order sliding mode control of multiple UAVs is synthesized. Numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control framework to achieve robust 3D formation flight of the multi-UAV system. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vital Recorder—a free research tool for automatic recording of high-resolution time-synchronised physiological data from multiple anaesthesia devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyung-Chul; Jung, Chul-Woo

    2018-01-01

    The current anaesthesia information management system (AIMS) has limited capability for the acquisition of high-quality vital signs data. We have developed a Vital Recorder program to overcome the disadvantages of AIMS and to support research. Physiological data of surgical patients were collected from 10 operating rooms using the Vital Recorder. The basic equipment used were a patient monitor, the anaesthesia machine, and the bispectral index (BIS) monitor. Infusion pumps, cardiac output mon...

  7. Coordinated voltage control for multiple wind plants in Eastern Wyoming. Analysis, field experience and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Nicholas; MacDowell, Jason; Chmiel, Gary; Konopinski, Ryan; Gautam, Durga [GE Energy, Schenectady, NY (United States); Laughter, Grant; Hagen, Dave [PacifiCorp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-07-01

    At high levels of wind power penetration, multiple wind plants may be the predominant generation resource over large geographic areas. Thus, not only do wind plants need to provide a high level of functionality, they must coordinate properly with each other. This paper describes the analysis and field testing of wind plant voltage controllers designed to improve system voltage performance through passive coordination. The described wind power plant controls can coordinate the real and reactive power response of multiple wind turbines and thereby make the plant function as a single ''grid friendly'' power generation source. For this application, involving seven large wind plants with predominantly GE wind turbines in Eastern Wyoming, the voltage portion of the controllers were configured and tuned to allow the collective reactive power response of multiple wind plants in the region to work well together. This paper presents the results of the initial configuration and tuning study, and the results of the subsequent field tuning and testing of the modified controls. The paper also presents some comparisons of the measured field performance with the stability simulation models, which show that the available wind plant models provide accurate, high fidelity results for actual operating conditions of commercial wind power plants. (orig.)

  8. A Telerehabilitation Program Improves Postural Control in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Spanish Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Ortiz-Gutiérrez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Postural control disorders are among the most frequent motor disorder symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis. This study aims to demonstrate the potential improvements in postural control among patients with multiple sclerosis who complete a telerehabilitation program that represents a feasible alternative to physical therapy for situations in which conventional treatment is not available. Fifty patients were recruited. Control group (n = 25 received physiotherapy treatment twice a week (40 min per session. Experimental group (n = 25 received monitored telerehabilitation treatment via videoconference using the Xbox 360® and Kinect console. Experimental group attended 40 sessions, four sessions per week (20 min per session.The treatment schedule lasted 10 weeks for both groups. A computerized dynamic posturography (Sensory Organization Test was used to evaluate all patients at baseline and at the end of the treatment protocol. Results showed an improvement over general balance in both groups. Visual preference and the contribution of vestibular information yielded significant differences in the experimental group. Our results demonstrated that a telerehabilitation program based on a virtual reality system allows one to optimize the sensory information processing and integration systems necessary to maintain the balance and postural control of people with multiple sclerosis. We suggest that our virtual reality program enables anticipatory PC and response mechanisms and might serve as a successful therapeutic alternative in situations in which conventional therapy is not readily available.

  9. A Telerehabilitation Program Improves Postural Control in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Spanish Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Rosa; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto; Galán-del-Río, Fernando; Alguacil-Diego, Isabel María; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Miangolarra-Page, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Postural control disorders are among the most frequent motor disorder symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis. This study aims to demonstrate the potential improvements in postural control among patients with multiple sclerosis who complete a telerehabilitation program that represents a feasible alternative to physical therapy for situations in which conventional treatment is not available. Fifty patients were recruited. Control group (n = 25) received physiotherapy treatment twice a week (40 min per session). Experimental group (n = 25) received monitored telerehabilitation treatment via videoconference using the Xbox 360® and Kinect console. Experimental group attended 40 sessions, four sessions per week (20 min per session).The treatment schedule lasted 10 weeks for both groups. A computerized dynamic posturography (Sensory Organization Test) was used to evaluate all patients at baseline and at the end of the treatment protocol. Results showed an improvement over general balance in both groups. Visual preference and the contribution of vestibular information yielded significant differences in the experimental group. Our results demonstrated that a telerehabilitation program based on a virtual reality system allows one to optimize the sensory information processing and integration systems necessary to maintain the balance and postural control of people with multiple sclerosis. We suggest that our virtual reality program enables anticipatory PC and response mechanisms and might serve as a successful therapeutic alternative in situations in which conventional therapy is not readily available. PMID:24185843

  10. Vital Recorder-a free research tool for automatic recording of high-resolution time-synchronised physiological data from multiple anaesthesia devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung-Chul; Jung, Chul-Woo

    2018-01-24

    The current anaesthesia information management system (AIMS) has limited capability for the acquisition of high-quality vital signs data. We have developed a Vital Recorder program to overcome the disadvantages of AIMS and to support research. Physiological data of surgical patients were collected from 10 operating rooms using the Vital Recorder. The basic equipment used were a patient monitor, the anaesthesia machine, and the bispectral index (BIS) monitor. Infusion pumps, cardiac output monitors, regional oximeter, and rapid infusion device were added as required. The automatic recording option was used exclusively and the status of recording was frequently checked through web monitoring. Automatic recording was successful in 98.5% (4,272/4,335) cases during eight months of operation. The total recorded time was 13,489 h (3.2 ± 1.9 h/case). The Vital Recorder's automatic recording and remote monitoring capabilities enabled us to record physiological big data with minimal effort. The Vital Recorder also provided time-synchronised data captured from a variety of devices to facilitate an integrated analysis of vital signs data. The free distribution of the Vital Recorder is expected to improve data access for researchers attempting physiological data studies and to eliminate inequalities in research opportunities due to differences in data collection capabilities.

  11. Hierarchical Robot Control System and Method for Controlling Select Degrees of Freedom of an Object Using Multiple Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a robot having manipulators for grasping an object using one of a plurality of grasp types during a primary task, and a controller. The controller controls the manipulators during the primary task using a multiple-task control hierarchy, and automatically parameterizes the internal forces of the system for each grasp type in response to an input signal. The primary task is defined at an object-level of control, e.g., using a closed-chain transformation, such that only select degrees of freedom are commanded for the object. A control system for the robotic system has a host machine and algorithm for controlling the manipulators using the above hierarchy. A method for controlling the system includes receiving and processing the input signal using the host machine, including defining the primary task at the object-level of control, e.g., using a closed-chain definition, and parameterizing the internal forces for each of grasp type.

  12. Full-order optimal compensators for flow control: the multiple inputs case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeraro, Onofrio; Pralits, Jan O.

    2018-03-01

    Flow control has been the subject of numerous experimental and theoretical works. We analyze full-order, optimal controllers for large dynamical systems in the presence of multiple actuators and sensors. The full-order controllers do not require any preliminary model reduction or low-order approximation: this feature allows us to assess the optimal performance of an actuated flow without relying on any estimation process or further hypothesis on the disturbances. We start from the original technique proposed by Bewley et al. (Meccanica 51(12):2997-3014, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11012-016-0547-3), the adjoint of the direct-adjoint (ADA) algorithm. The algorithm is iterative and allows bypassing the solution of the algebraic Riccati equation associated with the optimal control problem, typically infeasible for large systems. In this numerical work, we extend the ADA iteration into a more general framework that includes the design of controllers with multiple, coupled inputs and robust controllers (H_{∞} methods). First, we demonstrate our results by showing the analytical equivalence between the full Riccati solutions and the ADA approximations in the multiple inputs case. In the second part of the article, we analyze the performance of the algorithm in terms of convergence of the solution, by comparing it with analogous techniques. We find an excellent scalability with the number of inputs (actuators), making the method a viable way for full-order control design in complex settings. Finally, the applicability of the algorithm to fluid mechanics problems is shown using the linearized Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation and the Kármán vortex street past a two-dimensional cylinder.

  13. Coordinated Formation Control of Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles for Pipeline Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbo Xiang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the control problem of inspecting underwater pipeline on the seabed, with coordinated multiple autonomous underwater vehicles in a formation. Based on the leader-follower strategy, the dedicated nonlinear path following controller is rigorously built on Lyapunov-based design, driving a fleet of vehicles onto assigned parallel paths elevated and offset from the underwater pipeline, while keeping a triangle formation to capture complete 3D images for inspection. Due to the spatial-temporal decoupling characteristics of individual path following controller, the velocities of the followers can be adapted in the coordinated control level, only relying on the information of generalized along-path length from the leader, in order to build the desired formation. Thus, the communication variable broadcast from the leader is kept to a minimum, which is feasible under the severely constraints of acoustic communication bandwidth. Simulation results illustrate the efficiency of coordinated formation controller proposed for underwater pipeline inspection.

  14. Comparison of Masking Level Difference in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghrat Faghihzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurological disorder that involves central nervous system. Studies have showed that multiple sclerosis affects behavioral central auditory tests, such as masking release or masking level difference (MLD. The purpose of this study is to compare the masking level difference between multiple sclerosis patients and normal subjects.Methods: This cross sectional and non-interventional study was conducted on 32 multiple sclerosis patients aged between 20-50 years and 32 controls matched for age and gender in Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. masking level difference test was performed on each subject.Results: The mean masking level difference in the two groups was significantly different (p<0.01 however, gender did not prove to play a role in this difference.Conclusion: As part of the multiple sclerosis diagnosis panel, masking level difference test is an efficient modality for evaluation of hearing impairment and monitoring of rehabilitation progress.

  15. Multiple Model Predictive Hybrid Feedforward Control of Fuel Cell Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Wu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is widely considered as an alternative solution among the family of the sustainable distributed generation. Its load flexibility enables it adjusting the power output to meet the requirements from power grid balance. Although promising, its control is challenging when faced with load changes, during which the output voltage is required to be maintained as constant and fuel utilization rate kept within a safe range. Moreover, it makes the control even more intractable because of the multivariable coupling and strong nonlinearity within the wide-range operating conditions. To this end, this paper developed a multiple model predictive control strategy for reliable SOFC operation. The resistance load is regarded as a measurable disturbance, which is an input to the model predictive control as feedforward compensation. The coupling is accommodated by the receding horizon optimization. The nonlinearity is mitigated by the multiple linear models, the weighted sum of which serves as the final control execution. The merits of the proposed control structure are demonstrated by the simulation results.

  16. Effects of Pilates exercises on sensory interaction, postural control and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysal Tomruk, Melda; Uz, Muhammed Zahid; Kara, Bilge; İdiman, Egemen

    2016-05-01

    Decreased postural control, sensory integration deficits and fatigue are important problems that cause functional impairments in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). To examine the effect of modified clinical Pilates exercises on sensory interaction and balance, postural control and fatigue in pwMS. Eleven patients with multiple sclerosis and 12 healthy matched controls were recruited in this study. Limits of stability and postural stability tests were used to evaluate postural control by Biodex Balance System and sensory interaction assessed. Fatigue was assessed by Modified Fatigue Impact Scale. Pilates exercises were applied two times a week for 10 weeks and measurements were repeated to pwMS after exercise training. Postural control and fatigue (except psychosocial parameter) of pwMS were significantly worser than healthy controls (pPilates training (ppilates exercises (p>0.05). Ten-week Pilates training is effective to improve sensory interaction and to decrease fatigue. Pilates exercises can be applied safely in ambulatory pwMS for enhance sensory interaction and balance and combat fatigue. More investigations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationships between trunk performance, gait and postural control in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Jane E; Stetts, Deborah M; Vallabhajosula, Srikant

    2016-06-30

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system. Compared to healthy individuals, persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) have increased postural sway in quiet stance, decreased gait speed and increased fall incidence. Trunk performance has been implicated in postural control, gait dysfunction, and fall prevention in older adults. However, the relationship of trunk performance to postural control and gait has not been adequately studied in PwMS. To compare trunk muscle structure and performance in PwMS to healthy age and gendered-matched controls (HC); to determine the effects of isometric trunk endurance testing on postural control in both populations; and to determine the relationship of trunk performance with postural control, gait and step activity in PwMS. Fifteen PwMS and HC completed ultrasound imaging of trunk muscles, 10 m walk test, isometric trunk endurance tests, and postural sway test. Participants wore a step activity monitor for 7 days. PwMS had worse isometric trunk endurance compared to HC. PwMS trunk flexion endurance negatively correlated to several postural control measures and positively correlated to gait speed and step activity. Clinicians should consider evaluation and interventions directed at impaired trunk endurance in PwMS.

  18. Design and selection of load control strategies using a multiple objective model and evolutionary algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Alvaro; Antunes, Carlos Henggeler; Martins, Antonio Gomes

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting a multiple objective model to evaluate the attractiveness of the use of demand resources (through load management control actions) by different stakeholders and in diverse structure scenarios in electricity systems. For the sake of model flexibility, the multiple (and conflicting) objective functions of technical, economical and quality of service nature are able to capture distinct market scenarios and operating entities that may be interested in promoting load management activities. The computation of compromise solutions is made by resorting to evolutionary algorithms, which are well suited to tackle multiobjective problems of combinatorial nature herein involving the identification and selection of control actions to be applied to groups of loads. (Author)

  19. A distributed Synchronous reservation multiple access control protocol for mobile Ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yanling; SUN Xianpu; LI Jiandong

    2007-01-01

    This study proposes a new multiple access control protocol named distributed synchronous reservation multiple access control protocol.in which the hidden and exposed terminal problems are solved,and the quality of service(QoS)requirements for real-time traffic are guaranteed.The protocol is founded on time division multiplex address and a different type of traffic is assigned to difierent priority,according to which a node should compete for and reserve the free slots in a different method.Moreover,there is a reservation acknowledgement process before data transmit in each reserved slot,so that the intruded terminal problem is solved.The throughput and average packets drop probability of this protocol are analyzed and simulated in a fully connected network.the results of which indicate that this protocol is efficient enough to support the real-time traffic.and it is more suitable to MANETs.

  20. A multiple-fan active control wind tunnel for outdoor wind speed and direction simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Ying; Meng, Qing-Hao; Luo, Bing; Zeng, Ming

    2018-03-01

    This article presents a new type of active controlled multiple-fan wind tunnel. The wind tunnel consists of swivel plates and arrays of direct current fans, and the rotation speed of each fan and the shaft angle of each swivel plate can be controlled independently for simulating different kinds of outdoor wind fields. To measure the similarity between the simulated wind field and the outdoor wind field, wind speed and direction time series of two kinds of wind fields are recorded by nine two-dimensional ultrasonic anemometers, and then statistical properties of the wind signals in different time scales are analyzed based on the empirical mode decomposition. In addition, the complexity of wind speed and direction time series is also investigated using multiscale entropy and multivariate multiscale entropy. Results suggest that the simulated wind field in the multiple-fan wind tunnel has a high degree of similarity with the outdoor wind field.

  1. Evidence from intrinsic activity that asymmetry of the human brain is controlled by multiple factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hesheng; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Sepulcre, Jorge; Hedden, Trey; Buckner, Randy L

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain and a marker of successful development. Here we provide evidence that multiple mechanisms control asymmetry for distinct brain systems. Using intrinsic activity to measure asymmetry in 300 adults, we mapped the most strongly lateralized brain regions. Both men and women showed strong asymmetries with a significant, but small, group difference. Factor analysis on the asymmetric regions revealed 4 separate factors that each accounted for significant variation across subjects. The factors were associated with brain systems involved in vision, internal thought (the default network), attention, and language. An independent sample of right- and left-handed individuals showed that hand dominance affects brain asymmetry but differentially across the 4 factors supporting their independence. These findings show the feasibility of measuring brain asymmetry using intrinsic activity fluctuations and suggest that multiple genetic or environmental mechanisms control cerebral lateralization.

  2. A nonlinear disturbance-decoupled elevation axis controller for the Multiple Mirror Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dusty; Trebisky, Tom; Powell, Keith

    2008-07-01

    The Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT), upgraded in 2000 to a monolithic 6.5m primary mirror from its original array of six 1.8m primary mirrors, was commissioned with axis controllers designed early in the upgrade process without regard to structural resonances or the possibility of the need for digital filtering of the control axis signal path. Post-commissioning performance issues led us to investigate replacement of the original control system with a more modern digital controller with full control over the system filters and gain paths. This work, from system identification through controller design iteration by simulation, and pre-deployment hardware-in-the-loop testing, was performed using latest-generation tools with Matlab® and Simulink®. Using Simulink's Real Time Workshop toolbox to automatically generate C source code for the controller from the Simulink diagram and a custom target build script, we were able to deploy the new controller into our existing software infrastructure running Wind River's VxWorks™real-time operating system. This paper describes the process of the controller design, including system identification data collection, with discussion of implementation of non-linear control modes and disturbance decoupling, which became necessary to obtain acceptable wind buffeting rejection.

  3. Formation Learning Control of Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles With Heterogeneous Nonlinear Uncertain Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengzhi; Licht, Stephen; He, Haibo

    2017-09-26

    In this paper, a new concept of formation learning control is introduced to the field of formation control of multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), which specifies a joint objective of distributed formation tracking control and learning/identification of nonlinear uncertain AUV dynamics. A novel two-layer distributed formation learning control scheme is proposed, which consists of an upper-layer distributed adaptive observer and a lower-layer decentralized deterministic learning controller. This new formation learning control scheme advances existing techniques in three important ways: 1) the multi-AUV system under consideration has heterogeneous nonlinear uncertain dynamics; 2) the formation learning control protocol can be designed and implemented by each local AUV agent in a fully distributed fashion without using any global information; and 3) in addition to the formation control performance, the distributed control protocol is also capable of accurately identifying the AUVs' heterogeneous nonlinear uncertain dynamics and utilizing experiences to improve formation control performance. Extensive simulations have been conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  4. FPGA implementation of high-frequency multiple PWM for variable voltage variable frequency controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boumaaraf, Abdelâali, E-mail: aboumaaraf@yahoo.fr [Université Abbès Laghrour, Laboratoire des capteurs, Instrumentations et procédés (LCIP), Khenchela (Algeria); University of Farhat Abbas Setif1, Sétif, 19000 (Algeria); Mohamadi, Tayeb [University of Farhat Abbas Setif1, Sétif, 19000 (Algeria); Gourmat, Laïd [Université Abbès Laghrour, Khenchela, 40000 (Algeria)

    2016-07-25

    In this paper, we present the FPGA implementation of the multiple pulse width modulation (MPWM) signal generation with repetition of data segments, applied to the variable frequency variable voltage systems and specially at to the photovoltaic water pumping system, in order to generate a signal command very easily between 10 Hz to 60 Hz with a small frequency and reduce the cost of the control system.

  5. Participant recruitment into a randomised controlled trial of exercise therapy for people with multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Anouska; Humphreys, Liam; Snowdon, Nicky; Sharrack, Basil; Daley, Amanda; Petty, Jane; Woodroofe, Nicola; Saxton, John

    2015-01-01

    Background The success of a clinical trial is often dependant on whether recruitment targets can be met in the required time frame. Despite an increase in research into the benefits of exercise in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), no trial has reported detailed data on effective recruitment strategies for large-scale randomised controlled trials. The main purpose of this report is to provide a detailed outline of recruitment strategies, rates and estimated costs in the Exercise Intervent...

  6. Evidence from intrinsic activity that asymmetry of the human brain is controlled by multiple factors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hesheng; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Sepulcre, Jorge; Hedden, Trey; Buckner, Randy L.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain and a marker of successful development. Here we provide evidence that multiple mechanisms control asymmetry for distinct brain systems. Using intrinsic activity to measure asymmetry in 300 adults, we mapped the most strongly lateralized brain regions. Both men and women showed strong asymmetries with a significant, but small, group difference. Factor analysis on the asymmetric regions revealed 4 separate factors that each ac...

  7. Synthesis of Carbon Dots with Multiple Color Emission by Controlled Graphitization and Surface Functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiang; Qu, Dan; Yang, Dongxue; Nie, Bing; Zhao, Yikang; Fan, Hongyou; Sun, Zaicheng

    2018-01-01

    Multiple-color-emissive carbon dots (CDots) have potential applications in various fields such as bioimaging, light-emitting devices, and photocatalysis. The majority of the current CDots to date exhibit excitation-wavelength-dependent emissions with their maximum emission limited at the blue-light region. Here, a synthesis of multiple-color-emission CDots by controlled graphitization and surface function is reported. The CDots are synthesized through controlled thermal pyrolysis of citric acid and urea. By regulating the thermal-pyrolysis temperature and ratio of reactants, the maximum emission of the resulting CDots gradually shifts from blue to red light, covering the entire light spectrum. Specifically, the emission position of the CDots can be tuned from 430 to 630 nm through controlling the extent of graphitization and the amount of surface functional groups, COOH. The relative photoluminescence quantum yields of the CDots with blue, green, and red emission reach up to 52.6%, 35.1%, and 12.9%, respectively. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the CDots can be uniformly dispersed into epoxy resins and be fabricated as transparent CDots/epoxy composites for multiple-color- and white-light-emitting devices. This research opens a door for developing low-cost CDots as alternative phosphors for light-emitting devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The physiological characteristics of man depend on the intake, metabolism and excretion of stable elements from food, water, and air. The physiological behavior of natural radionuclides and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing and from the utilization of nuclear energy is believed to follow the pattern of stable elements. Hence information on the normal physiological processes occurring in the human body plays an important role in the assessment of the radiation dose received by man. Two important physiological parameters needed for internal dose determination are the pulmonary function and the water balance. In the Coordinated Research Programme on the characterization of Asian population, five participants submitted data on these physiological characteristics - China, India, Japan, Philippines and Viet Nam. During the CRP, data on other pertinent characteristics such as physical and dietary were simultaneously being collected. Hence, the information on the physiological characteristics alone, coming from the five participants were not complete and are probably not sufficient to establish standard values for the Reference Asian Man. Nonetheless, the data collected is a valuable contribution to this research programme

  9. A multiple-time-scale approach to the control of ITBs on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laborde, L.; Mazon, D.; Moreau, D. [EURATOM-CEA Association (DSM-DRFC), CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Moreau, D. [Culham Science Centre, EFDA-JET, Abingdon, OX (United Kingdom); Ariola, M. [EURATOM/ENEA/CREATE Association, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Cordoliani, V. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Tala, T. [EURATOM-Tekes Association, VTT Processes (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    The simultaneous real-time control of the current and temperature gradient profiles could lead to the steady state sustainment of an internal transport barrier (ITB) and so to a stationary optimized plasma regime. Recent experiments in JET have demonstrated significant progress in achieving such a control: different current and temperature gradient target profiles have been reached and sustained for several seconds using a controller based on a static linear model. It's worth noting that the inverse safety factor profile evolves on a slow time scale (resistive time) while the normalized electron temperature gradient reacts on a faster one (confinement time). Moreover these experiments have shown that the controller was sensitive to rapid plasma events such as transient ITBs during the safety factor profile evolution or MHD instabilities which modify the pressure profiles on the confinement time scale. In order to take into account the different dynamics of the controlled profiles and to better react to rapid plasma events the control technique is being improved by using a multiple-time-scale approximation. The paper describes the theoretical analysis and closed-loop simulations using a control algorithm based on two-time-scale state-space model. These closed-loop simulations using the full dynamic but linear model used for the controller design to simulate the plasma response have demonstrated that this new controller allows the normalized electron temperature gradient target profile to be reached faster than the one used in previous experiments. (A.C.)

  10. A multiple-time-scale approach to the control of ITBs on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laborde, L.; Mazon, D.; Moreau, D.; Moreau, D.; Ariola, M.; Cordoliani, V.; Tala, T.

    2005-01-01

    The simultaneous real-time control of the current and temperature gradient profiles could lead to the steady state sustainment of an internal transport barrier (ITB) and so to a stationary optimized plasma regime. Recent experiments in JET have demonstrated significant progress in achieving such a control: different current and temperature gradient target profiles have been reached and sustained for several seconds using a controller based on a static linear model. It's worth noting that the inverse safety factor profile evolves on a slow time scale (resistive time) while the normalized electron temperature gradient reacts on a faster one (confinement time). Moreover these experiments have shown that the controller was sensitive to rapid plasma events such as transient ITBs during the safety factor profile evolution or MHD instabilities which modify the pressure profiles on the confinement time scale. In order to take into account the different dynamics of the controlled profiles and to better react to rapid plasma events the control technique is being improved by using a multiple-time-scale approximation. The paper describes the theoretical analysis and closed-loop simulations using a control algorithm based on two-time-scale state-space model. These closed-loop simulations using the full dynamic but linear model used for the controller design to simulate the plasma response have demonstrated that this new controller allows the normalized electron temperature gradient target profile to be reached faster than the one used in previous experiments. (A.C.)

  11. Simultaneous control of multiple instruments at the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Erik M.; Goodrich, Bret

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is a 4-meter solar observatory under construction at Haleakala, Hawaii. The simultaneous use of multiple instruments is one of the unique capabilities that makes the ATST a premier ground based solar observatory. Control of the instrument suite is accomplished by the Instrument Control System (ICS), a layer of software between the Observatory Control System (OCS) and the instruments. The ICS presents a single narrow interface to the OCS and provides a standard interface for the instruments to be controlled. It is built upon the ATST Common Services Framework (CSF), an infrastructure for the implementation of a distributed control system. The ICS responds to OCS commands and events, coordinating and distributing them to the various instruments while monitoring their progress and reporting the status back to the OCS. The ICS requires no specific knowledge about the instruments. All information about the instruments used in an experiment is passed by the OCS to the ICS, which extracts and forwards the parameters to the appropriate instrument controllers. The instruments participating in an experiment define the active instrument set. A subset of those instruments must complete their observing activities in order for the experiment to be considered complete and are referred to as the must-complete instrument set. In addition, instruments may participate in eavesdrop mode, outside of the control of the ICS. All instrument controllers use the same standard narrow interface, which allows new instruments to be added without having to modify the interface or any existing instrument controllers.

  12. Multiple-Time-Scales Hierarchical Frequency Stability Control Strategy of Medium-Voltage Isolated Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Zhuoli; Yang, Ping; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an islanded medium-voltage (MV) microgrid placed in Dongao Island is presented, which integrates renewable-energy-based distributed generations (DGs), energy storage system (ESS), and local loads. In an isolated microgrid without connection to the main grid to support the frequency......, it is more complex to control and manage. Thus in order to maintain the frequency stability in multiple-time-scales, a hierarchical control strategy is proposed. The proposed control architecture divides the system frequency in three zones: (A) stable zone, (B) precautionary zone and (C) emergency zone...... of Zone B. Theoretical analysis, time-domain simulation and field test results under various conditions and scenarios in the Dongao Island microgrid are presented to prove the validity of the introduced control strategy....

  13. A physical control interface with proprioceptive feedback and multiple degrees of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasey, G. H.; Gow, D.; Sloan, Y.; Meadows, B.

    1991-01-01

    The use of the drug thalidomide by pregnant mothers in Britain resulted in a variety of deformities including the birth of children having no arms. Such children were provided with powered artificial arms with up to five degrees of freedom simultaneously controlled in real time by shoulder movement. The physiological sense of proprioception was extended from the user into the device, reducing the need for visual feedback and conscious control. With the banning of thalidomide, this technique fell into disuse but it is now being re-examined as a control mechanism for other artificial limbs and it may have other medical applications to allow patients to control formerly paralyzed limbs moved by electrical stimulation. It may also have commercial applications in robotic manipulation or physical interaction with virtual environments. To allow it to be investigated further, the original pneumatic control system has recently been converted to an electrical analogue to allow interfacing to electronic and computer-assisted systems. A harness incorporates force-sensitive resistors and linear potentiomenters for sensing position and force at the interface with the skin, and miniature electric motors and lead screws for feeding back to the user the position of the robotic arm and the forces applied to it. In the present system, control is applied to four degrees of freedom using elevation/depression and protraction/reaction of each shoulder so that each collar bone emulates a joystick. However, both electrical and mechanical components have been built in modular form to allow rapid replication and testing of a variety of force and position control strategies.

  14. Vibration control of uncertain multiple launch rocket system using radial basis function neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Rui, Xiaoting

    2018-01-01

    Poor dispersion characteristics of rockets due to the vibration of Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) have always restricted the MLRS development for several decades. Vibration control is a key technique to improve the dispersion characteristics of rockets. For a mechanical system such as MLRS, the major difficulty in designing an appropriate control strategy that can achieve the desired vibration control performance is to guarantee the robustness and stability of the control system under the occurrence of uncertainties and nonlinearities. To approach this problem, a computed torque controller integrated with a radial basis function neural network is proposed to achieve the high-precision vibration control for MLRS. In this paper, the vibration response of a computed torque controlled MLRS is described. The azimuth and elevation mechanisms of the MLRS are driven by permanent magnet synchronous motors and supposed to be rigid. First, the dynamic model of motor-mechanism coupling system is established using Lagrange method and field-oriented control theory. Then, in order to deal with the nonlinearities, a computed torque controller is designed to control the vibration of the MLRS when it is firing a salvo of rockets. Furthermore, to compensate for the lumped uncertainty due to parametric variations and un-modeled dynamics in the design of the computed torque controller, a radial basis function neural network estimator is developed to adapt the uncertainty based on Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, the simulated results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control system and show that the proposed controller is robust with regard to the uncertainty.

  15. Consensus seeking, formation keeping, and trajectory tracking in multiple vehicle cooperative control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei

    Cooperative control problems for multiple vehicle systems can be categorized as either formation control problems with applications to mobile robots, unmanned air vehicles, autonomous underwater vehicles, satellites, aircraft, spacecraft, and automated highway systems, or non-formation control problems such as task assignment, cooperative transport, cooperative role assignment, air traffic control, cooperative timing, and cooperative search. The cooperative control of multiple vehicle systems poses significant theoretical and practical challenges. For cooperative control strategies to be successful, numerous issues must be addressed. We consider three important and correlated issues: consensus seeking, formation keeping, and trajectory tracking. For consensus seeking, we investigate algorithms and protocols so that a team of vehicles can reach consensus on the values of the coordination data in the presence of imperfect sensors, communication dropout, sparse communication topologies, and noisy and unreliable communication links. The main contribution of this dissertation in this area is that we show necessary and/or sufficient conditions for consensus seeking with limited, unidirectional, and unreliable information exchange under fixed and switching interaction topologies (through either communication or sensing). For formation keeping, we apply a so-called "virtual structure" approach to spacecraft formation flying and multi-vehicle formation maneuvers. As a result, single vehicle path planning and trajectory generation techniques can be employed for the virtual structure while trajectory tracking strategies can be employed for each vehicle. The main contribution of this dissertation in this area is that we propose a decentralized architecture for multiple spacecraft formation flying in deep space with formation feedback introduced. This architecture ensures the necessary precision in the presence of actuator saturation, internal and external disturbances, and

  16. Damping-tunable energy-harvesting vehicle damper with multiple controlled generators: Design, modeling and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Longhan; Li, Jiehong; Li, Xiaodong; Huang, Ledeng; Cai, Siqi

    2018-01-01

    Hydraulic dampers are used to decrease the vibration of a vehicle, where vibration energy is dissipated as heat. In addition to resulting in energy waste, the damping coefficient in hydraulic dampers cannot be changed during operation. In this paper, an energy-harvesting vehicle damper was proposed to replace traditional hydraulic dampers. The goal is not only to recover kinetic energy from suspension vibration but also to change the damping coefficient during operation according to road conditions. The energy-harvesting damper consists of multiple generators that are independently controlled by switches. One of these generators connects to a tunable resistor for fine tuning the damping coefficient, while the other generators are connected to a control and rectifying circuit, each of which both regenerates electricity and provides a constant damping coefficient. A mathematical model was built to investigate the performance of the energy-harvesting damper. By controlling the number of switched-on generators and adjusting the value of the external tunable resistor, the damping can be fine tuned according to the requirement. In addition to the capability of damping tuning, the multiple controlled generators can output a significant amount of electricity. A prototype was built to test the energy-harvesting damper design. Experiments on an MTS testing system were conducted, with results that validated the theoretical analysis. Experiments show that changing the number of switched-on generators can obviously tune the damping coefficient of the damper and simultaneously produce considerable electricity.

  17. A study on software-based sensing technology for multiple object control in AR video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungmo; Song, Jae-Gu; Hwang, Dae-Joon; Ahn, Jae Young; Kim, Seoksoo

    2010-01-01

    Researches on Augmented Reality (AR) have recently received attention. With these, the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) market has started to be active and there are numerous efforts to apply this to real life in all sectors of society. To date, the M2M market has applied the existing marker-based AR technology in entertainment, business and other industries. With the existing marker-based AR technology, a designated object can only be loaded on the screen from one marker and a marker has to be added to load on the screen the same object again. This situation creates a problem where the relevant marker'should be extracted and printed in screen so that loading of the multiple objects is enabled. However, since the distance between markers will not be measured in the process of detecting and copying markers, the markers can be overlapped and thus the objects would not be augmented. To solve this problem, a circle having the longest radius needs to be created from a focal point of a marker to be copied, so that no object is copied within the confines of the circle. In this paper, software-based sensing technology for multiple object detection and loading using PPHT has been developed and overlapping marker control according to multiple object control has been studied using the Bresenham and Mean Shift algorithms.

  18. A Study on Software-based Sensing Technology for Multiple Object Control in AR Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoksoo Kim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Researches on Augmented Reality (AR have recently received attention. With these, the Machine-to-Machine (M2M market has started to be active and there are numerous efforts to apply this to real life in all sectors of society. To date, the M2M market has applied the existing marker-based AR technology in entertainment, business and other industries. With the existing marker-based AR technology, a designated object can only be loaded on the screen from one marker and a marker has to be added to load on the screen the same object again. This situation creates a problem where the relevant marker should be extracted and printed in screen so that loading of the multiple objects is enabled. However, since the distance between markers will not be measured in the process of detecting and copying markers, the markers can be overlapped and thus the objects would not be augmented. To solve this problem, a circle having the longest radius needs to be created from a focal point of a marker to be copied, so that no object is copied within the confines of the circle. In this paper, software-based sensing technology for multiple object detection and loading using PPHT has been developed and overlapping marker control according to multiple object control has been studied using the Bresenham and Mean Shift algorithms.

  19. Sliding-mode control of single input multiple output DC-DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Libo; Sun, Yihan; Luo, Tiejian; Wan, Qiyang

    2016-10-01

    Various voltage levels are required in the vehicle mounted power system. A conventional solution is to utilize an independent multiple output DC-DC converter whose cost is high and control scheme is complicated. In this paper, we design a novel SIMO DC-DC converter with sliding mode controller. The proposed converter can boost the voltage of a low-voltage input power source to a controllable high-voltage DC bus and middle-voltage output terminals, which endow the converter with characteristics of simple structure, low cost, and convenient control. In addition, the sliding mode control (SMC) technique applied in our converter can enhance the performances of a certain SIMO DC-DC converter topology. The high-voltage DC bus can be regarded as the main power source to the high-voltage facility of the vehicle mounted power system, and the middle-voltage output terminals can supply power to the low-voltage equipment on an automobile. In the respect of control algorithm, it is the first time to propose the SMC-PID (Proportion Integration Differentiation) control algorithm, in which the SMC algorithm is utilized and the PID control is attended to the conventional SMC algorithm. The PID control increases the dynamic ability of the SMC algorithm by establishing the corresponding SMC surface and introducing the attached integral of voltage error, which endow the sliding-control system with excellent dynamic performance. At last, we established the MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation model, tested performance of the system, and built the hardware prototype based on Digital Signal Processor (DSP). Results show that the sliding mode control is able to track a required trajectory, which has robustness against the uncertainties and disturbances.

  20. Simulation of neutron multiplicity measurements using Geant4. Open source software for nuclear arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuett, Moritz

    2016-07-07

    Nuclear arms control, including nuclear safeguards and verification technologies for nuclear disarmament typically use software as part of many different technological applications. This thesis proposes to use three open source criteria for such software, allowing users and developers to have free access to a program, have access to the full source code and be able to publish modifications for the program. This proposition is presented and analyzed in detail, together with the description of the development of ''Open Neutron Multiplicity Simulation'', an open source software tool to simulate neutron multiplicity measurements. The description includes physical background of the method, details of the developed program and a comprehensive set of validation calculations.

  1. A new adaptive control scheme based on the interacting multiple model (IMM) estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshari, Hamed H.; Al-Ani, Dhafar; Habibi, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an Interacting multiple model (IMM) adaptive estimation approach is incorporated to design an optimal adaptive control law for stabilizing an Unmanned vehicle. Due to variations of the forward velocity of the Unmanned vehicle, its aerodynamic derivatives are constantly changing. In order to stabilize the unmanned vehicle and achieve the control objectives for in-flight conditions, one seeks for an adaptive control strategy that can adjust itself to varying flight conditions. In this context, a bank of linear models is used to describe the vehicle dynamics in different operating modes. Each operating mode represents a particular dynamic with a different forward velocity. These models are then used within an IMM filter containing a bank of Kalman filters (KF) in a parallel operating mechanism. To regulate and stabilize the vehicle, a Linear quadratic regulator (LQR) law is designed and implemented for each mode. The IMM structure determines the particular mode based on the stored models and in-flight input-output measurements. The LQR controller also provides a set of controllers; each corresponds to a particular flight mode and minimizes the tracking error. Finally, the ultimate control law is obtained as a weighted summation of all individual controllers whereas weights are obtained using mode probabilities of each operating mode.

  2. Reserve-building activities in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Ayandeh, Armon; Ramanathan, Murali; Benedict, Ralph; Dwyer, Michael G; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Zivadinov, Robert

    2015-08-12

    Cognitive reserve has been implicated as a possible protective factor in multiple sclerosis (MS) but to date no study has compared reserve-building activities across disease course or to healthy controls. This study aims to describe differences in reserve-building activities across the MS disease course and healthy controls. Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional cohort study that included 276 healthy controls, and subjects with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS; n = 67), relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS; n = 358) and secondary progressive MS (PMS; n = 109). Past reserve-building activities were operationalized as occupational attainment and education. Current activities comprised 6 strenuous and 6 non-strenuous activities, including 5 reserve-building activities and television-watching. Multivariate Analysis of Variance models examined group differences in past and current activities, after adjusting for covariates. There were group differences in past and current reserve-building activities. SPMS patients had lower past reserve-building activities than healthy controls. All forms of MS engaged in fewer strenuous current reserve-building pursuits than healthy controls. RRMS read less than healthy controls. SPMS engaged in fewer job-related non-strenuous activities. All MS groups watched more television than healthy controls. MS patients show significantly fewer past and present reserve-building activities. Although it is difficult to establish causality without future prospective studies, lifestyle-modifying interventions should prioritize expanding MS patients' repertoire of strenuous and non-strenuous activities.

  3. Plant growth regulator interactions in physiological processes for controlling plant regeneration and in vitro development of Tulbaghia simmleri

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumari, A.; Baskaran, P.; Plačková, Lenka; Omámiková, Hana; Nisler, Jaroslav; Doležal, Karel; Van Staden, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 223, APR (2018), s. 65-71 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Endogenous hormone * Exogenous hormone application * In vitro regeneration * Ornamental and medicinal plant * Physiological process * Tulbaghia simmleri Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  4. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  5. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  6. Magic Ring: A Finger-Worn Device for Multiple Appliances Control Using Static Finger Gestures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongjun Huang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An ultimate goal for Ubiquitous Computing is to enable people to interact with the surrounding electrical devices using their habitual body gestures as they communicate with each other. The feasibility of such an idea is demonstrated through a wearable gestural device named Magic Ring (MR, which is an original compact wireless sensing mote in a ring shape that can recognize various finger gestures. A scenario of wireless multiple appliances control is selected as a case study to evaluate the usability of such a gestural interface. Experiments comparing the MR and a Remote Controller (RC were performed to evaluate the usability. From the results, only with 10 minutes practice, the proposed paradigm of gestural-based control can achieve a performance of completing about six tasks per minute, which is in the same level of the RC-based method.

  7. The control system for the multiple-pellet injector on the Joint European Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylor, L.R.; Jernigan, T.C.; Stewart, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    A stand-alone control and data acquisition system for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) multiple-pellet injector installed on the Joint European Torus (JET) has been designed and installed with the injector. This system, which is based on a MicroVAX II computer and a programmable logic controller (PLC), is an upgrade of previous systems designed for ORNL pellet injectors installed on other fusion experiments. The primary control system upgrades are in the user interface, in the automation of sequential injector operation, and in the analysis of the transient data acquired for each pellet fired. The system is integrated into the JET CODAS environment through CAMAC communications modules with customized communications software. Routine operation of the injector is automated and requires no operator intervention. Details of the hardware and software design and the operation of the system are presented in this paper. 4 refs., 3 figs

  8. Improving information retrieval with multiple health terminologies in a quality-controlled gateway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soualmia, Lina F; Sakji, Saoussen; Letord, Catherine; Rollin, Laetitia; Massari, Philippe; Darmoni, Stéfan J

    2013-01-01

    The Catalog and Index of French-language Health Internet resources (CISMeF) is a quality-controlled health gateway, primarily for Web resources in French (n=89,751). Recently, we achieved a major improvement in the structure of the catalogue by setting-up multiple terminologies, based on twelve health terminologies available in French, to overcome the potential weakness of the MeSH thesaurus, which is the main and pivotal terminology we use for indexing and retrieval since 1995. The main aim of this study was to estimate the added-value of exploiting several terminologies and their semantic relationships to improve Web resource indexing and retrieval in CISMeF, in order to provide additional health resources which meet the users' expectations. Twelve terminologies were integrated into the CISMeF information system to set up multiple-terminologies indexing and retrieval. The same sets of thirty queries were run: (i) by exploiting the hierarchical structure of the MeSH, and (ii) by exploiting the additional twelve terminologies and their semantic links. The two search modes were evaluated and compared. The overall coverage of the multiple-terminologies search mode was improved by comparison to the coverage of using the MeSH (16,283 vs. 14,159) (+15%). These additional findings were estimated at 56.6% relevant results, 24.7% intermediate results and 18.7% irrelevant. The multiple-terminologies approach improved information retrieval. These results suggest that integrating additional health terminologies was able to improve recall. Since performing the study, 21 other terminologies have been added which should enable us to make broader studies in multiple-terminologies information retrieval.

  9. Management Control in Major Brazilian Multiple Banks: the Impact of Internationalization and Convergence of Accounting Standards on the Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Damasceno Reis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study verifies the impact caused by the processes of globalization and convergence to international accounting standards on the managerial control systems of the largest multiple banks that operate in Brazil. The study was exploratory in nature, with the use of the case study method and the application of questionnaires containing mostly open questions to upper tier executives of four major Brazilian banks. The analysis showed that globalization has resulted in improved control systems and widespread use of information technology. It was also found that the convergence to international accounting standards occurred properly, thanks to the steps taken by the Central Bank that aimed at an agile updating of the Brazilian accounting standards laid down for banks operating in Brazil, in line with international standards. In general, the researched banks did not report a significant impact of convergence to the IFRS on their management control systems; adherence to the international accounting standards has had more significant impacts on information systems, especially regarding the new reporting and transparency standards, rather than on management controls. This result signals that the management control systems of the four banks in the sample are in line with Anthony (1965’s vision, that is, that flexibility to adapt to every change in the external environment might actually increase risks of failure.

  10. Finite-time tracking control for multiple non-holonomic mobile robots based on visual servoing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Meiying; Li, Shihua; Wang, Chaoli

    2013-12-01

    This paper investigates finite-time tracking control problem of multiple non-holonomic mobile robots via visual servoing. It is assumed that the pinhole camera is fixed to the ceiling, and camera parameters are unknown. The desired reference trajectory is represented by a virtual leader whose states are available to only a subset of the followers, and the followers have only interaction. First, the camera-objective visual kinematic model is introduced by utilising the pinhole camera model for each mobile robot. Second, a unified tracking error system between camera-objective visual servoing model and desired reference trajectory is introduced. Third, based on the neighbour rule and by using finite-time control method, continuous distributed cooperative finite-time tracking control laws are designed for each mobile robot with unknown camera parameters, where the communication topology among the multiple mobile robots is assumed to be a directed graph. Rigorous proof shows that the group of mobile robots converges to the desired reference trajectory in finite time. Simulation example illustrates the effectiveness of our method.

  11. Deletion variant near ZNF389 is associated with control of ovine lentivirus in multiple sheep flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S N; Mousel, M R; Reynolds, J O; Herrmann-Hoesing, L M; Knowles, D P

    2014-01-01

    Ovine lentivirus (OvLV) is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus found in many countries that causes interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and cachexia in sheep. There is no preventive vaccine and no cure, but breed differences suggest marker-assisted selective breeding might improve odds of infection and control of OvLV post-infection. Although variants in TMEM154 have consistent association with odds of infection, no variant in any gene has been associated with host control of OvLV post-infection in multiple animal sets. Proviral concentration is a live-animal diagnostic measure of OvLV control post-infection related to severity of OvLV-induced lesions. A recent genome-wide association study identified a region including four zinc finger genes associated with proviral concentration in one Rambouillet flock. To refine this region, we tested additional variants and identified a small insertion/deletion variant near ZNF389 that showed consistent association with proviral concentration in three animal sets (P sheep from multiple locations and management conditions. Strikingly, one flock had exceptionally high prevalence (>87%, including yearlings) and mean proviral concentration (>950 copies/μg), possibly due to needle sharing. The best estimate of proviral concentration by genotype, obtained from all 1310 OvLV-positive animals tested, showed insertion homozygotes had less than half the proviral concentration of other genotypes (P sheep flocks. PMID:24303974

  12. Large Display Interaction via Multiple Acceleration Curves and Multifinger Pointer Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Esakia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large high-resolution displays combine high pixel density with ample physical dimensions. The combination of these factors creates a multiscale workspace where interactive targeting of on-screen objects requires both high speed for distant targets and high accuracy for small targets. Modern operating systems support implicit dynamic control-display gain adjustment (i.e., a pointer acceleration curve that helps to maintain both speed and accuracy. However, large high-resolution displays require a broader range of control-display gains than a single acceleration curve can usably enable. Some interaction techniques attempt to solve the problem by utilizing multiple explicit modes of interaction, where different modes provide different levels of pointer precision. Here, we investigate the alternative hypothesis of using a single mode of interaction for continuous pointing that enables both (1 standard implicit granularity control via an acceleration curve and (2 explicit switching between multiple acceleration curves in an efficient and dynamic way. We evaluate a sample solution that augments standard touchpad accelerated pointer manipulation with multitouch capability, where the choice of acceleration curve dynamically changes depending on the number of fingers in contact with the touchpad. Specifically, users can dynamically switch among three different acceleration curves by using one, two, or three fingers on the touchpad.

  13. High power multiple wavelength diode laser stack for DPSSL application without temperature control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dong; Yin, Xia; Wang, Jingwei; Chen, Shi; Zhan, Yun; Li, Xiaoning; Fan, Yingmin; Liu, Xingsheng

    2018-02-01

    High power diode laser stack is widely used in pumping solid-state laser for years. Normally an integrated temperature control module is required for stabilizing the output power of solid-state laser, as the output power of the solid-state laser highly depends on the emission wavelength and the wavelength shift of diode lasers according to the temperature changes. However the temperature control module is inconvenient for this application, due to its large dimension, high electric power consumption and extra adding a complicated controlling system. Furthermore, it takes dozens of seconds to stabilize the output power when the laser system is turned on. In this work, a compact hard soldered high power conduction cooled diode laser stack with multiple wavelengths is developed for stabilizing the output power of solid-state laser in a certain temperature range. The stack consists of 5 laser bars with the pitch of 0.43mm. The peak output power of each bar in the diode laser stack reaches as much as 557W and the combined lasing wavelength spectrum profile spans 15nm. The solidstate laser, structured with multiple wavelength diode laser stacks, allows the ambient temperature change of 65°C without suddenly degrading the optical performance.

  14. A multiple objective test assembly approach for exposure control problems in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo J.H.M. Eggen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overexposure and underexposure of items in the bank are serious problems in operational computerized adaptive testing (CAT systems. These exposure problems might result in item compromise, or point at a waste of investments. The exposure control problem can be viewed as a test assembly problem with multiple objectives. Information in the test has to be maximized, item compromise has to be minimized, and pool usage has to be optimized. In this paper, a multiple objectives method is developed to deal with both types of exposure problems. In this method, exposure control parameters based on observed exposure rates are implemented as weights for the information in the item selection procedure. The method does not need time consuming simulation studies, and it can be implemented conditional on ability level. The method is compared with Sympson Hetter method for exposure control, with the Progressive method and with alphastratified testing. The results show that the method is successful in dealing with both kinds of exposure problems.

  15. Study of physiological properties of some probiotics in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria by Flora Danica Ch. Hansen commercial starter

    OpenAIRE

    DANIELA PARASCHIV; AIDA VASILE; MADALINA CONSTANTIN; ALEXANDRU CIOBANU; GABRIELA BAHRIM

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the growth ability and stability of probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus (commercial code La-5®), Lactobacillus casei ssp. paracasei (commercial code L. casei 431®) and Bifidobacterium bifidus (commercial code BB-12®) in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic bacteria, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides spp. cremoris, as Flora Danica Chr. Hansen co...

  16. Design of clinical trials involving multiple hypothesis tests with a common control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, I Manjula; Marschner, Ian C

    2017-07-01

    Randomized clinical trials comparing several treatments to a common control are often reported in the medical literature. For example, multiple experimental treatments may be compared with placebo, or in combination therapy trials, a combination therapy may be compared with each of its constituent monotherapies. Such trials are typically designed using a balanced approach in which equal numbers of individuals are randomized to each arm, however, this can result in an inefficient use of resources. We provide a unified framework and new theoretical results for optimal design of such single-control multiple-comparator studies. We consider variance optimal designs based on D-, A-, and E-optimality criteria, using a general model that allows for heteroscedasticity and a range of effect measures that include both continuous and binary outcomes. We demonstrate the sensitivity of these designs to the type of optimality criterion by showing that the optimal allocation ratios are systematically ordered according to the optimality criterion. Given this sensitivity to the optimality criterion, we argue that power optimality is a more suitable approach when designing clinical trials where testing is the objective. Weighted variance optimal designs are also discussed, which, like power optimal designs, allow the treatment difference to play a major role in determining allocation ratios. We illustrate our methods using two real clinical trial examples taken from the medical literature. Some recommendations on the use of optimal designs in single-control multiple-comparator trials are also provided. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Massage therapy and exercise therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahban, Hossein; Rezaie, Solmaz; Goharpey, Shahin

    2013-12-01

    The primary aim was to investigate the comparative effects of massage therapy and exercise therapy on patients with multiple sclerosis. The secondary aim was to investigate whether combination of both massage and exercise has an additive effect. Randomized controlled pilot trial with repeated measurements and blinded assessments. Local Multiple Sclerosis Society. A total of 48 patients with multiple sclerosis were randomly assigned to four equal subgroups labelled as massage therapy, exercise therapy, combined massage-exercise therapy and control group. The treatment group received 15 sessions of supervised intervention for five weeks. The massage therapy group received a standard Swedish massage. The exercise therapy group was given a combined set of strength, stretch, endurance and balance exercises. Patients in the massage-exercise therapy received a combined set of massage and exercise treatments. Patients in the control group were asked to continue their standard medical care. Pain, fatigue, spasticity, balance, gait and quality of life were assessed before and after intervention. Massage therapy resulted in significantly larger improvement in pain reduction (mean change 2.75 points, P = 0.001), dynamic balance (mean change, 3.69 seconds, P = 0.009) and walking speed (mean change, 7.84 seconds, P = 0.007) than exercise therapy. Patients involved in the combined massage-exercise therapy showed significantly larger improvement in pain reduction than those in the exercise therapy (mean change, 1.67 points, P = 0.001). Massage therapy could be more effective than exercise therapy. Moreover, the combination of massage and exercise therapy may be a little more effective than exercise therapy alone.

  18. Traffic Management by Using Admission Control Methods in Multiple Node IMS Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Chamraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with Admission Control methods (AC as a possible solution for traffic management in IMS networks (IP Multimedia Subsystem - from the point of view of an efficient redistribution of the available network resources and keeping the parameters of Quality of Service (QoS. The paper specifically aims at the selection of the most appropriate method for the specific type of traffic and traffic management concept using AC methods on multiple nodes. The potential benefit and disadvantage of the used solution is evaluated.

  19. Tunable arbitrary unitary transformer based on multiple sections of multicore fibers with phase control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junhe; Wu, Jianjie; Hu, Qinsong

    2018-02-05

    In this paper, we propose a novel tunable unitary transformer, which can achieve arbitrary discrete unitary transforms. The unitary transformer is composed of multiple sections of multi-core fibers with closely aligned coupled cores. Phase shifters are inserted before and after the sections to control the phases of the waves in the cores. A simple algorithm is proposed to find the optimal phase setup for the phase shifters to realize the desired unitary transforms. The proposed device is fiber based and is particularly suitable for the mode division multiplexing systems. A tunable mode MUX/DEMUX for a three-mode fiber is designed based on the proposed structure.

  20. Multiple shooting applied to robust reservoir control optimization including output constraints on coherent risk measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codas, Andrés; Hanssen, Kristian G.; Foss, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    The production life of oil reservoirs starts under significant uncertainty regarding the actual economical return of the recovery process due to the lack of oil field data. Consequently, investors and operators make management decisions based on a limited and uncertain description of the reservoir....... In this work, we propose a new formulation for robust optimization of reservoir well controls. It is inspired by the multiple shooting (MS) method which permits a broad range of parallelization opportunities and output constraint handling. This formulation exploits coherent risk measures, a concept...

  1. Exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The passing of Professor Bengt Saltin on September 12, 2014 truly marks the end of an era. As editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology and one of Bengt’s many collaborators and colleagues, I wanted the Journal to celebrate his many seminal contributions by means of an Editorial. Professor Bent...

  2. Multiple model predictive control for optimal drug administration of mixed immunotherapy and chemotherapy of tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, N; Ozgoli, S; Ramezani, A

    2017-06-01

    Mixed immunotherapy and chemotherapy of tumours is one of the most efficient ways to improve cancer treatment strategies. However, it is important to 'design' an effective treatment programme which can optimize the ways of combining immunotherapy and chemotherapy to diminish their imminent side effects. Control engineering techniques could be used for this. The method of multiple model predictive controller (MMPC) is applied to the modified Stepanova model to induce the best combination of drugs scheduling under a better health criteria profile. The proposed MMPC is a feedback scheme that can perform global optimization for both tumour volume and immune competent cell density by performing multiple constraints. Although current studies usually assume that immunotherapy has no side effect, this paper presents a new method of mixed drug administration by employing MMPC, which implements several constraints for chemotherapy and immunotherapy by considering both drug toxicity and autoimmune. With designed controller we need maximum 57% and 28% of full dosage of drugs for chemotherapy and immunotherapy in some instances, respectively. Therefore, through the proposed controller less dosage of drugs are needed, which contribute to suitable results with a perceptible reduction in medicine side effects. It is observed that in the presence of MMPC, the amount of required drugs is minimized, while the tumour volume is reduced. The efficiency of the presented method has been illustrated through simulations, as the system from an initial condition in the malignant region of the state space (macroscopic tumour volume) transfers into the benign region (microscopic tumour volume) in which the immune system can control tumour growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessments at multiple levels of biological organization allow for an integrative determination of physiological tolerances to turbidity in an endangered fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenbein, Matthias; Fangue, Nann A; Geist, Juergen; Komoroske, Lisa M; Truong, Jennifer; McPherson, Rina; Connon, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Turbidity can influence trophic levels by altering species composition and can potentially affect fish feeding strategies and predator-prey interactions. The estuarine turbidity maximum, described as an area of increased suspended particles, phytoplankton and zooplankton, generally represents a zone with higher turbidity and enhanced food sources important for successful feeding and growth in many fish species. The delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) is an endangered, pelagic fish species endemic to the San Francisco Estuary and Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, USA, where it is associated with turbid waters. Turbidity is known to play an important role for the completion of the species' life cycle; however, turbidity ranges in the Delta are broad, and specific requirements for this fish species are still unknown. To evaluate turbidity requirements for early life stages, late-larval delta smelt were maintained at environmentally relevant turbidity levels ranging from 5 to 250 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) for 24 h, after which a combination of physiological endpoints (molecular biomarkers and cortisol), behavioural indices (feeding) and whole-organism measures (survival) were determined. All endpoints delivered consistent results and identified turbidities between 25 and 80 NTU as preferential. Delta smelt survival rates were highest between 12 and 80 NTU and feeding rates were highest between 25 and 80 NTU. Cortisol levels indicated minimal stress between 35 and 80 NTU and were elevated at low turbidities (5, 12 and 25 NTU). Expression of stress-related genes indicated significant responses for gst, hsp70 and glut2 in high turbidities (250 NTU), and principal component analysis on all measured genes revealed a clustering of 25, 35, 50 and 80 NTU separating the medium-turbidity treatments from low- and high-turbidity treatments. Taken together, these data demonstrate that turbidity levels that are either too low or too high affect delta

  4. Hybrid Control System for Greater Resilience Using Multiple Isolation and Building Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Taniguchi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An innovative hybrid control building system of multiple isolation and connection is proposed and investigated using both time-history and input energy responses for various types of ground motions together with transfer functions. It is concerned that the seismic displacement response at the base-isolation layer of the existing base-isolated buildings may extremely increase under long-period and long-duration ground motions which are getting great attention recently. In order to enhance the seismic performance of those base-isolated buildings, a novel hybrid system of multiple isolation and building-connection is proposed and compared with other structural systems such as an independent multiple isolation system, a hybrid system of base-isolation and building-connection. Furthermore, the robustness of seismic responses of the proposed hybrid system for various types of ground motion is discussed through the comparison of various structural systems including non-hybrid systems. Finally the optimal connection damper location is investigated using a sensitivity-type optimization approach.

  5. Identifying multiple timescale rainfall controls on Mojave Desert ecohydrology using an integrated data and modeling approach for Larrea tridentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal; Bedford, David R.; Miller, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The perennial shrub Larrea tridentata is widely successful in North American warm deserts but is also susceptible to climatic perturbations. Understanding its response to rainfall variability requires consideration of multiple timescales. We examine intra-annual to multi-year relationships using model simulations of soil moisture and vegetation growth over 50 years in the Mojave National Preserve in southeastern California (USA). Ecohydrological model parameters are conditioned on field and remote sensing data using an ensemble Kalman filter. Although no specific periodicities were detected in the rainfall record, simulated leaf-area-index exhibits multi-year dynamics that are driven by multi-year (∼3-years) rains, but with up to a 1-year delay in peak response. Within a multi-year period, Larrea tridentata is more sensitive to winter rains than summer. In the most active part of the root zone (above ∼80 cm), >1-year average soil moisture drives vegetation growth, but monthly average soil moisture is controlled by root uptake. Moisture inputs reach the lower part of the root zone (below ∼80 cm) infrequently, but once there they can persist over a year to help sustain plant growth. Parameter estimates highlight efficient plant physiological properties facilitating persistent growth and high soil hydraulic conductivity allowing deep soil moisture stores. We show that soil moisture as an ecological indicator is complicated by bidirectional interactions with vegetation that depend on timescale and depth. Under changing climate, Larrea tridentata will likely be relatively resilient to shorter-term moisture variability but will exhibit higher sensitivity to shifts in seasonal to multi-year moisture inputs.

  6. Fermentation pH influences the physiological-state dynamics of Lactobacillus bulgaricus CFL1 during pH-controlled culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rault, Aline; Bouix, Marielle; Béal, Catherine

    2009-07-01

    This study aims at better understanding the effects of fermentation pH and harvesting time on Lactobacillus bulgaricus CFL1 cellular state in order to improve knowledge of the dynamics of the physiological state and to better manage starter production. The Cinac system and multiparametric flow cytometry were used to characterize and compare the progress of the physiological events that occurred during pH 6 and pH 5 controlled cultures. Acidification activity, membrane damage, enzymatic activity, cellular depolarization, intracellular pH, and pH gradient were determined and compared during growing conditions. Strong differences in the time course of viability, membrane integrity, and acidification activity were displayed between pH 6 and pH 5 cultures. As a main result, the pH 5 control during fermentation allowed the cells to maintain a more robust physiological state, with high viability and stable acidification activity throughout growth, in opposition to a viability decrease and fluctuation of activity at pH 6. This result was mainly explained by differences in lactate concentration in the culture medium and in pH gradient value. The elevated content of the ionic lactate form at high pH values damaged membrane integrity that led to a viability decrease. In contrast, the high pH gradient observed throughout pH 5 cultures was associated with an increased energetic level that helped the cells maintain their physiological state. Such results may benefit industrial starter producers and fermented-product manufacturers by allowing them to better control the quality of their starters, before freezing or before using them for food fermentation.

  7. Analysis of the immune system of multiple myeloma patients achieving long-term disease control by multidimensional flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa de Magalhães, Roberto J.; Vidriales, María-Belén; Paiva, Bruno; Fernandez-Gimenez, Carlos; García-Sanz, Ramón; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Gutierrez, Norma C.; Lecrevisse, Quentin; Blanco, Juan F; Hernández, Jose; de las Heras, Natalia; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Roig, Monica; Costa, Elaine Sobral; Ocio, Enrique M.; Perez-Andres, Martin; Maiolino, Angelo; Nucci, Marcio; De La Rubia, Javier; Lahuerta, Juan-Jose; San-Miguel, Jesús F.; Orfao, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma remains largely incurable. However, a few patients experience more than 10 years of relapse-free survival and can be considered as operationally cured. Interestingly, long-term disease control in multiple myeloma is not restricted to patients with a complete response, since some patients revert to having a profile of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We compared the distribution of multiple compartments of lymphocytes and dendritic cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control (n=28), patients with newly diagnosed monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (n=23), patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma (n=23), and age-matched healthy adults (n=10). Similarly to the patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and symptomatic multiple myeloma, patients with long-term disease control showed an expansion of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and natural killer cells. However, the numbers of bone marrow T-regulatory cells were lower in patients with long-term disease control than in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma. It is noteworthy that B cells were depleted in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, but recovered in both the bone marrow and peripheral blood of patients with long-term disease control, due to an increase in normal bone marrow B-cell precursors and plasma cells, as well as pre-germinal center peripheral blood B cells. The number of bone marrow dendritic cells and tissue macrophages differed significantly between patients with long-term disease control and those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, with a trend to cell count recovering in the former group of patients towards levels similar to those found in healthy adults. In summary, our results indicate that multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control have a constellation of unique immune changes

  8. The relationships between environmental and physiological heat stress indices in Muslim women under the controlled thermal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peymaneh Habibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between environmental and physiological heat stress indices based on heart rate (HR, oral temperature for the estimation of heat strain, in veiled women in hot-dry condition in the climate chamber. Materials and Methods: The experimental study was carried out on 36 healthy Muslim women in hot-dry climatic conditions (wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT = 22-32°C in low workload for 2 h. The HR, oral temperature and WBGT index were measured. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation tests. Results: The results of the Pearson test indicated that physiological strain index was a high correlation (r = 0.975 with WBGT index (P < 0.05. Also, there was a good correlation among WBGT and HR (r = 0.779 and oral temperature (r = 0.981. Conclusion: The findings of this study illustrated that there is a good correlation between environmental and physiological heat stress indices in veiled women with Islamic clothing at the low workload over the action limit (WBGT = 31°C. So that it can be concluded that the WBGT 22-32°C is a good indicator of the heat strain in veiled women with Islamic clothing.

  9. Coordination of networked systems on digraphs with multiple leaders via pinning control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Lewis, Frank L.

    2012-02-01

    It is well known that achieving consensus among a group of multi-vehicle systems by local distributed control is feasible if and only if all nodes in the communication digraph are reachable from a single (root) node. In this article, we take into account a more general case that the communication digraph of the networked multi-vehicle systems is weakly connected and has two or more zero-in-degree and strongly connected subgraphs, i.e. there are two or more leader groups. Based on the pinning control strategy, the feasibility problem of achieving second-order controlled consensus is studied. At first, a necessary and sufficient condition is given when the topology is fixed. Then the method to design the controller and the rule to choose the pinned vehicles are discussed. The proposed approach allows us to extend several existing results for undirected graphs to directed balanced graphs. A sufficient condition is proposed in the case where the coupling topology is variable. As an illustrative example, a second-order controlled consensus scheme is applied to coordinate the movement of networked multiple mobile robots.

  10. Flocking Control of Multiple Mobile Agents with the Rules of Avoiding Collision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the flocking and the coordinative control problems of multiple mobile agents with the rules of avoiding collision. We propose a set of control laws using hysteresis in adding new links and applying new potential function to guarantee that the fragmentation of the network can be avoided, under which all agents approach a common velocity vector, and asymptotically converge to a fixed value of interagent distances and collisions between agents can be avoided throughout the motion. Furthermore, we extend the flocking algorithm to solve the flocking situation of the group with a virtual leader agent. The laws can make all agents asymptotically approach the virtual leader and collisions can be avoided between agents in the motion evolution. Finally, some numerical simulations are showed to illustrate the theoretical results.

  11. Has dopamine a physiological role in the control of sexual behavior? A critical review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Raúl G; Agmo, Anders

    2004-06-01

    The role of dopaminergic systems in the control of sexual behavior has been a subject of study for at least 40 years. Not surprisingly, reviews of the area have been published at variable intervals. However, the earlier reviews have been summaries of published research rather than a critical analysis of it. They have focused upon the conclusions presented in the original research papers rather than on evaluating the reliability and functional significance of the data reported to support these conclusions. During the last few years, important new knowledge concerning dopaminergic systems and their behavioral functions as well as the possible role of these systems in sexual behavior has been obtained. For the first time, it is now possible to integrate the data obtained in studies of sexual behavior into the wider context of general dopaminergic functions. To make this possible, we first present an analysis of the nature and organization of sexual behavior followed by a summary of current knowledge about the brain structures of crucial importance for this behavior. We then proceed with a description of the dopaminergic systems within or projecting to these structures. Whenever possible, we also try to include data on the electrophysiological actions of dopamine. Thereafter, we proceed with analyses of pharmacological data and release studies, both in males and in females. Consistently throughout this discussion, we make an effort to distinguish pharmacological effects on sexual behavior from a possible physiological role of dopamine. By pharmacological effects, we mean here drug-induced alterations in behavior that are not the result of the normal actions of synaptically released dopamine in the untreated animal. The conclusion of this endeavor is that pharmacological effects of dopaminergic drugs are variable in both males and females, independently of whether the drugs are administered systemically or intracerebrally. We conclude that the pharmacological data

  12. Improvements in cognition, quality of life, and physical performance with clinical Pilates in multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    K???k, Fadime; Kara, Bilge; Poyraz, Esra ?o?kuner; ?diman, Egemen

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of clinical Pilates in multiple sclerosis patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty multiple sclerosis patients were enrolled in this study. The participants were divided into two groups as the clinical Pilates and control groups. Cognition (Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite), balance (Berg Balance Scale), physical performance (timed performance tests, Timed up and go test), tiredness (Modified Fatigue Impact scale), depression ...

  13. Channel selection for simultaneous and proportional myoelectric prosthesis control of multiple degrees-of-freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Han-Jeong; Hahne, Janne Mathias; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Recent studies have shown the possibility of simultaneous and proportional control of electrically powered upper-limb prostheses, but there has been little investigation on optimal channel selection. The objective of this study is to find a robust channel selection method and the channel subsets most suitable for simultaneous and proportional myoelectric prosthesis control of multiple degrees-of-freedom (DoFs). Approach. Ten able-bodied subjects and one person with congenital upper-limb deficiency took part in this study, and performed wrist movements with various combinations of two DoFs (flexion/extension and radial/ulnar deviation). During the experiment, high density electromyographic (EMG) signals and the actual wrist angles were recorded with an 8 × 24 electrode array and a motion tracking system, respectively. The wrist angles were estimated from EMG features with ridge regression using the subsets of channels chosen by three different channel selection methods: (1) least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), (2) sequential feature selection (SFS), and (3) uniform selection (UNI). Main results. SFS generally showed higher estimation accuracy than LASSO and UNI, but LASSO always outperformed SFS in terms of robustness, such as noise addition, channel shift and training data reduction. It was also confirmed that about 95% of the original performance obtained using all channels can be retained with only 12 bipolar channels individually selected by LASSO and SFS. Significance. From the analysis results, it can be concluded that LASSO is a promising channel selection method for accurate simultaneous and proportional prosthesis control. We expect that our results will provide a useful guideline to select optimal channel subsets when developing clinical myoelectric prosthesis control systems based on continuous movements with multiple DoFs.

  14. A full scope nuclear power plant simulator for multiple reactor types with virtual control panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Hisanori; Ueda, Hiroki; Kato, Takahisa

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes a full scope nuclear power plant simulator for multiple reactor types with virtual control panels which Toshiba developed and delivered. After the Fukushima DAIICHI nuclear power plants accident, it is required that all the people who are engaged in the design, manufacturing, operation, maintenance, management and regulation for the nuclear power plant should learn the wide and deep knowledge about the nuclear power plant design including the severe accident. For this purpose, the training with a full scope simulator is one of the most suitable ways. However the existing full scope simulators which are consist of the control panels replica of the referenced plants are costly and they are hard to remodel to fit to the real plant of the latest condition. That's why Toshiba developed and delivered the new concept simulator system which covers multiple referenced plants even though they have different design like BWR and PWR. The control panels of the simulator are made by combining 69 large Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) panels with touch screen instead of a control panel replica of referenced plant. The screen size of the each panel is 42 inches and 3 displays are arranged in tandem for one unit and 23 units are connected together. Each panel displays switches, indicators, recorders and lamps with the Computer Graphics (CG) and trainees operate them with touch operations. The simulator includes a BWR and a PWR simulator model, which enable trainees to learn the wide and deep knowledge about the nuclear power plant of BWR and PWR reactor types. (author)

  15. Selective control of multiple ferroelectric switching pathways using a trailing flexoelectric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Min; Wang, Bo; Das, Saikat; Chae, Seung Chul; Chung, Jin-Seok; Yoon, Jong-Gul; Chen, Long-Qing; Yang, Sang Mo; Noh, Tae Won

    2018-05-01

    Flexoelectricity is an electromechanical coupling between electrical polarization and a strain gradient1 that enables mechanical manipulation of polarization without applying an electrical bias2,3. Recently, flexoelectricity was directly demonstrated by mechanically switching the out-of-plane polarization of a uniaxial system with a scanning probe microscope tip3,4. However, the successful application of flexoelectricity in low-symmetry multiaxial ferroelectrics and therefore active manipulation of multiple domains via flexoelectricity have not yet been achieved. Here, we demonstrate that the symmetry-breaking flexoelectricity offers a powerful route for the selective control of multiple domain switching pathways in multiaxial ferroelectric materials. Specifically, we use a trailing flexoelectric field that is created by the motion of a mechanically loaded scanning probe microscope tip. By controlling the SPM scan direction, we can deterministically select either stable 71° ferroelastic switching or 180° ferroelectric switching in a multiferroic magnetoelectric BiFeO3 thin film. Phase-field simulations reveal that the amplified in-plane trailing flexoelectric field is essential for this domain engineering. Moreover, we show that mechanically switched domains have a good retention property. This work opens a new avenue for the deterministic selection of nanoscale ferroelectric domains in low-symmetry materials for non-volatile magnetoelectric devices and multilevel data storage.

  16. Reductions in dead space ventilation with nasal high flow depend on physiological dead space volume: metabolic hood measurements during sleep in patients with COPD and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biselli, Paolo; Fricke, Kathrin; Grote, Ludger; Braun, Andrew T; Kirkness, Jason; Smith, Philip; Schwartz, Alan; Schneider, Hartmut

    2018-05-01

    Nasal high flow (NHF) reduces minute ventilation and ventilatory loads during sleep but the mechanisms are not clear. We hypothesised NHF reduces ventilation in proportion to physiological but not anatomical dead space.11 subjects (five controls and six chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients) underwent polysomnography with transcutaneous carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) monitoring under a metabolic hood. During stable non-rapid eye movement stage 2 sleep, subjects received NHF (20 L·min -1 ) intermittently for periods of 5-10 min. We measured CO 2 production and calculated dead space ventilation.Controls and COPD patients responded similarly to NHF. NHF reduced minute ventilation (from 5.6±0.4 to 4.8±0.4 L·min -1 ; pspace ventilation (from 2.5±0.4 to 1.6±0.4 L·min -1 ; pspace ventilation correlated with baseline physiological dead space fraction (r 2 =0.36; pspace volume.During sleep, NHF decreases minute ventilation due to an overall reduction in dead space ventilation in proportion to the extent of baseline physiological dead space fraction. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  17. $H^\\infty$ control of systems with multiple I/O delays via decomposition to adobe problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinsma, Gjerrit; Mirkin, Leonid

    In this paper, the standard (four-block) $H^\\infty$ control problem for systems with multiple input-output delays in the feedback loop is studied. The central idea is to see the multiple delay operator as a special series connection of elementary delay operators, called the adobe delay operators.

  18. Environmental physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Summaries of research projects conducted during 1978 and 1979 are presented. Subject areas include: the effects of environmental pollutants on homeostasis of the hematopoietic system; pollutant effects on steroid metabolism; pollutant effects on pulmonary macrophages; effects of toxic gases on lung cells; the development of immunological methods for assessing lung damage at the cellular level; the response of erythropoietin concentration to various physiological changes; and the study of actinide metabolism in monkey skeletons

  19. Optimal planning approaches with multiple impulses for rendezvous based on hybrid genetic algorithm and control method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JingRui Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we focus on safe and effective completion of a rendezvous and docking task by looking at planning approaches and control with fuel-optimal rendezvous for a target spacecraft running on a near-circular reference orbit. A variety of existent practical path constraints are considered, including the constraints of field of view, impulses, and passive safety. A rendezvous approach is calculated by using a hybrid genetic algorithm with those constraints. Furthermore, a control method of trajectory tracking is adopted to overcome the external disturbances. Based on Clohessy–Wiltshire equations, we first construct the mathematical model of optimal planning approaches of multiple impulses with path constraints. Second, we introduce the principle of hybrid genetic algorithm with both stronger global searching ability and local searching ability. We additionally explain the application of this algorithm in the problem of trajectory planning. Then, we give three-impulse simulation examples to acquire an optimal rendezvous trajectory with the path constraints presented in this article. The effectiveness and applicability of the tracking control method are verified with the optimal trajectory above as control objective through the numerical simulation.

  20. Comparison of Personality Characteristics and Coping Strategies in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis and Control Group

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    Mohammadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The present study aimed to investigate personality traits and coping strategies in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS who were admitted to Sina hospital compared with healthy individuals. Objectives The aim of the present study was to compare personality characteristics and coping strategies between patients with MS and healthy controls. Materials and Methods The study sample included 55 patients with MS and 57 matched healthy control individuals. The data were gathered via a demographic form, the ways of coping questionnaire, and the NEO five-factor inventory. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and logistic regression. Results No significant differences in personality characteristics were observed between patients and healthy controls (all P > 0.05. Only the coping strategy subscale of Distancing was significant between patients and healthy controls (P 0.05. Only the Neuroticism personality trait and the Distancing coping strategy were predictive of group membership (i.e., healthy or patient. Conclusions Our study suggests that the personality traits of patients with MS and healthy individuals are not significantly different. Patients with MS are likely to use the same coping strategies as healthy individuals, except in the subscale of Distancing.

  1. Ultrasonographic evaluation of cerebral arterial and venous haemodynamics in multiple sclerosis: a case-control study.

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    Pasquale Marchione

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although recent studies excluded an association between Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency and Multiple Sclerosis (MS, controversial results account for some cerebrovascular haemodynamic impairment suggesting a dysfunction of cerebral autoregulation mechanisms. The aim of this cross-sectional, case-control study is to evaluate cerebral arterial inflow and venous outflow by means of a non-invasive ultrasound procedure in Relapsing Remitting (RR, Primary Progressive (PP Multiple Sclerosis and age and sex-matched controls subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All subjects underwent a complete extra-intracranial arterial and venous ultrasound assessment with a color-coded duplex sonography scanner and a transcranial doppler equipment, in both supine and sitting position by means of a tilting chair. Basal arterial and venous morphology and flow velocities, postural changes in mean flow velocities (MFV of middle cerebral arteries (MCA, differences between cerebral venous outflow (CVF in clinostatism and in the seated position (ΔCVF and non-invasive cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP were evaluated. RESULTS: 85 RR-MS, 83 PP-MS and 82 healthy controls were included. ΔCVF was negative in 45/85 (52.9% RR-MS, 63/83 (75.9% PP-MS (p = 0.01 and 11/82 (13.4% controls (p<0.001, while MFVs on both MCAs in sitting position were significantly reduced in RR-MS and PP-MS patients than in control, particularly in EDSS ≥ 5 subgroup (respectively, 42/50, 84% vs. 66/131, 50.3%, p<0.01 and 48.3 ± 2 cm/s vs. 54.6 ± 3 cm/s, p = 0.01. No significant differences in CPP were observed within and between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The quantitative evaluation of cerebral blood flow (CBF and CVF and their postural dependency may be related to a dysfunction of autonomic nervous system that seems to characterize more disabled MS patients. It's not clear whether the altered postural control of arterial inflow and venous outflow is a specific MS condition or simply an

  2. Molecular evolution of multiple-level control of heme biosynthesis pathway in animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, Wen-Shyong; Chu, Ying; Lin, Tzung-Yi; Hu, Chin-Hwa; Pai, Tun-Wen; Liu, Hsin-Fu; Lin, Han-Jia; Cases, Ildeofonso; Rojas, Ana; Sanchez, Mayka; You, Zong-Ye; Hsu, Ming-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of enzymes in a metabolic pathway can occur not only through changes in amino acid sequences but also through variations in transcriptional activation, mRNA splicing and mRNA translation. The heme biosynthesis pathway, a linear pathway comprised of eight consecutive enzymes in animals, provides researchers with ample information for multiple types of evolutionary analyses performed with respect to the position of each enzyme in the pathway. Through bioinformatics analysis, we found that the protein-coding sequences of all enzymes in this pathway are under strong purifying selection, from cnidarians to mammals. However, loose evolutionary constraints are observed for enzymes in which self-catalysis occurs. Through comparative genomics, we found that in animals, the first intron of the enzyme-encoding genes has been co-opted for transcriptional activation of the genes in this pathway. Organisms sense the cellular content of iron, and through iron-responsive elements in the 5' untranslated regions of mRNAs and the intron-exon boundary regions of pathway genes, translational inhibition and exon choice in enzymes may be enabled, respectively. Pathway product (heme)-mediated negative feedback control can affect the transport of pathway enzymes into the mitochondria as well as the ubiquitin-mediated stability of enzymes. Remarkably, the positions of these controls on pathway activity are not ubiquitous but are biased towards the enzymes in the upstream portion of the pathway. We revealed that multiple-level controls on the activity of the heme biosynthesis pathway depend on the linear depth of the enzymes in the pathway, indicating a new strategy for discovering the molecular constraints that shape the evolution of a metabolic pathway.

  3. Sympathetic skin response in multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis of case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritella, Nicolò; Mendozzi, Laura; Garegnani, Massimo; Gilardi, Elisabetta; Nemni, Raffaello; Pugnetti, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    The usefulness of sympathetic skin responses (SSR) in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been advocated by several studies in the last 20 years; however, due to a great heterogeneity of findings, a comprehensive meta-analysis of case-control studies is in order to pinpoint consistencies and investigate the causes of discrepancies. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases for case-control studies comparing SSR absence frequency and latency between patients with MS and healthy controls. Thirteen eligible studies including 415 MS patients and 331 healthy controls were identified. The pooled analysis showed that SSR can be always obtained in healthy controls while 34% of patients had absent SSRs in at least one limb (95% CI 22-47%; p studies (I 2  = 90.3%). Patients' age explained 22% of the overall variability and positive correlations were found with Expanded Disability Status Scale and disease duration. The pooled mean difference of SSR latency showed a significant increase in patients on both upper (193 ms; 95% CI 120-270 ms) and lower (350 ms; 95% CI 190-510 ms) extremities. We tested the discriminatory value of SSR latency thresholds defined as the 95% confidence interval (CI) upper bound of the healthy controls, and validated the results on a new dataset. The lower limb threshold of 1.964 s produces the best results in terms of sensitivity 0.86, specificity 0.67, positive predicted value 0.75 and negative predicted value 0.80. Despite a considerable heterogeneity of findings, there is evidence that SSR is a useful tool in MS.

  4. Neural-adaptive control of single-master-multiple-slaves teleoperation for coordinated multiple mobile manipulators with time-varying communication delays and input uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijun; Su, Chun-Yi

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, adaptive neural network control is investigated for single-master-multiple-slaves teleoperation in consideration of time delays and input dead-zone uncertainties for multiple mobile manipulators carrying a common object in a cooperative manner. Firstly, concise dynamics of teleoperation systems consisting of a single master robot, multiple coordinated slave robots, and the object are developed in the task space. To handle asymmetric time-varying delays in communication channels and unknown asymmetric input dead zones, the nonlinear dynamics of the teleoperation system are transformed into two subsystems through feedback linearization: local master or slave dynamics including the unknown input dead zones and delayed dynamics for the purpose of synchronization. Then, a model reference neural network control strategy based on linear matrix inequalities (LMI) and adaptive techniques is proposed. The developed control approach ensures that the defined tracking errors converge to zero whereas the coordination internal force errors remain bounded and can be made arbitrarily small. Throughout this paper, stability analysis is performed via explicit Lyapunov techniques under specific LMI conditions. The proposed adaptive neural network control scheme is robust against motion disturbances, parametric uncertainties, time-varying delays, and input dead zones, which is validated by simulation studies.

  5. [New theory of holistic integrative physiology and medicine. III: New insight of neurohumoral mechanism and pattern of control and regulation for core axe of respiration, circulation and metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xing-guo

    2015-07-01

    Systemic mechanism of neurohumoral control and regulation for human is limited. We used the new theory of holistic integrative physiology and medicine to approach the mechanism and pattern of neurohumoral control and regulation for life. As the core of human life, there are two core axes of functions. The first one is the common goal of respiration and circulation to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide for cells, and the second one is the goal of gastrointestinal tract and circulation to transport energy material and metabolic product for cells. These two core axes maintain the metabolism. The neurohumoral regulation is holistically integrated and unified for all functions in human body. We simplified explain the mechanism of neurohumoral control and regulation life (respiration and circulation) as the example pattern of sound system. Based upon integrated regulation of life, we described the neurohumoral pattern to control respiration and circulation.

  6. Time-varying motor control of autotomized leopard gecko tails: multiple inputs and behavioral modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Timothy E; Russell, Anthony P

    2012-02-01

    Autotomy (voluntary loss of an appendage) is common among diverse groups of vertebrates and invertebrates, and much attention has been given to ecological and developmental aspects of tail autotomy in lizards. Although most studies have focused on the ramifications for the lizard (behavior, biomechanics, energetics, etc.), the tail itself can exhibit interesting behaviors once segregated from the body. For example, recent work highlighted the ability of leopard gecko tails to jump and flip, in addition to being able to swing back and forth. Little is known, however, about the control mechanisms underlying these movements. Using electromyography, we examined the time-varying in vivo motor patterns at four sites (two proximal and two distal) in the tail of the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, following autotomy. Using these data we tested the hypothesis that the disparity in movements results simply from overlapping pattern generators within the tail. We found that burst duration, but not cycle duration, of the rhythmic swings reached a plateau at approximately 150 s following autotomy. This is likely because of physiological changes related to muscle fatigue and ischemia. For flips and jumps, burst and cycle duration exhibited no regular pattern. The coefficient of variation in motor patterns was significantly greater for jumps and flips than for rhythmic swings. This supports the conclusion that the different tail behaviors do not stem from overlapping pattern generators, but that they rely upon independent neural circuits. The signal controlling jumps and flips may be modified by sensory information from the environment. Finally, we found that jumps and flips are initiated using relatively synchronous activity between the two sides of the tail. In contrast, alternating activation of the right and left sides of the tail result in rhythmic swings. The mechanism underlying this change in tail behavior is comparable to locomotor gait changes in vertebrates.

  7. Use of Gentamicine sulfate for the control of Pantoea agglomerans, contaminant of the Solanum tuberosum L cv. Desirée in vitro multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelenys Alvarado-Capó

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial contamination is one of the principal problems of plant tissue culture. The use of natural or synthetic antimicrobial substances represent an alternative for it solution. In potato micropropagation bacterial contamination produce serious damages. In this paper the effect of Gentamicine sulfate on control of high frequently contaminant was evaluated. The microorganism was isolated from media culture of potato cv. Desirée in vitro plants in multiplication stage. Traditional tintorial, bioquemical and physiological test were performed for bacteria identification together with BIOLOG bacteria identification system. Besides, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of Gentamicine sulfate were determined and it antimicrobial and phytotoxic effect in multiplication stage were evaluated too. Pantoea agglomerans was identificated as potato contaminant and show sensibility to Gentamicine sulfate. The MIC was 0.625 mg.l-1 and the MBC was 1.25 mg.l-1. The antibiotics controlled the contamination in the 80% of contaminated explants without phytotoxicity at 2.5 mg.l-1. Key words: bacteria, in vitro culture, microbial contamination, potato

  8. Participant recruitment into a randomised controlled trial of exercise therapy for people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anouska; Humphreys, Liam; Snowdon, Nicky; Sharrack, Basil; Daley, Amanda; Petty, Jane; Woodroofe, Nicola; Saxton, John

    2015-10-15

    The success of a clinical trial is often dependant on whether recruitment targets can be met in the required time frame. Despite an increase in research into the benefits of exercise in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), no trial has reported detailed data on effective recruitment strategies for large-scale randomised controlled trials. The main purpose of this report is to provide a detailed outline of recruitment strategies, rates and estimated costs in the Exercise Intervention for Multiple Sclerosis (ExIMS) trial to identify best practices for future trials involving multiple sclerosis (MS) patient recruitment. The ExIMS researchers recruited 120 PwMS to participate in a 12-week exercise intervention. Participants were randomly allocated to either exercise or usual-care control groups. Participants were sedentary, aged 18-65 years and had Expanded Disability Status Scale scores of 1.0-6.5. Recruitment strategies included attendance at MS outpatient clinics, consultant mail-out and trial awareness-raising activities. A total of 120 participants were recruited over the course of 34 months. To achieve this target, 369 potentially eligible and interested participants were identified. A total of 60 % of participants were recruited via MS clinics, 29.2 % from consultant mail-outs and 10.8 % through trial awareness. The randomisation yields were 33.2 %, 31.0 % and 68.4 % for MS clinic, consultant mail-outs and trial awareness strategies, respectively. The main reason for ineligibility was being too active (69.2 %), whilst for eligible participants the most common reason for non-participation was the need to travel to the study site (15.8 %). Recruitment via consultant mail-out was the most cost-effective strategy, with MS clinics being the most time-consuming and most costly. To reach recruitment targets in a timely fashion, a variety of methods were employed. Although consultant mail-outs were the most cost-effective recruitment strategy, use of this

  9. Short-term exposure to mobile phone base station signals does not affect cognitive functioning or physiological measures in individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltiti, Stacy; Wallace, Denise; Ridgewell, Anna; Zougkou, Konstantina; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Fox, Elaine

    2009-10-01

    Individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields often report cognitive impairments that they believe are due to exposure to mobile phone technology. Previous research in this area has revealed mixed results, however, with the majority of research only testing control individuals. Two studies using control and self-reported sensitive participants found inconsistent effects of mobile phone base stations on cognitive functioning. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether short-term (50 min) exposure at 10 mW/m(2) to typical Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station signals affects attention, memory, and physiological endpoints in sensitive and control participants. Data from 44 sensitive and 44 matched-control participants who performed the digit symbol substitution task (DSST), digit span task (DS), and a mental arithmetic task (MA), while being exposed to GSM, UMTS, and sham signals under double-blind conditions were analyzed. Overall, cognitive functioning was not affected by short-term exposure to either GSM or UMTS signals in the current study. Nor did exposure affect the physiological measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP), heart rate (HR), and skin conductance (SC) that were taken while participants performed the cognitive tasks.

  10. Human placenta-derived cells (PDA-001) for the treatment of adults with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lublin, Fred D; Bowen, James D; Huddlestone, John; Kremenchutzky, Marcelo; Carpenter, Adam; Corboy, John R; Freedman, Mark S; Krupp, Lauren; Paulo, Corri; Hariri, Robert J; Fischkoff, Steven A

    2014-11-01

    Infusion of PDA-001, a preparation of mesenchymal-like cells derived from full-term human placenta, is a new approach in the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis. This safety study aimed to rule out the possibility of paradoxical exacerbation of disease activity by PDA-001 in patients with multiple sclerosis. This was a phase 1b, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-dose ranging study including patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis or secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. The study was conducted at 6 sites in the United States and 2 sites in Canada. Patients were randomized 3:1 to receive 2 low-dose infusions of PDA-001 (150×10(6) cells) or placebo, given 1 week apart. After completing this cohort, subsequent patients received high-dose PDA-001 (600×10(6) cells) or placebo. Monthly brain magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed. The primary end point was ruling out the possibility of paradoxical worsening of MS disease activity. This was monitored using Cutter׳s rule (≥5 new gadolinium lesions on 2 consecutive scans) by brain magnetic resonance imaging on a monthly basis for six months and also the frequency of multiple sclerosis relapse. Ten patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 6 with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis were randomly assigned to treatment: 6 to low-dose PDA-001, 6 to high-dose PDA-001, and 4 to placebo. No patient met Cutter׳s rule. One patient receiving high-dose PDA-001 had an increase in T2 and gadolinium lesions and in Expanded Disability Status Scale score during a multiple sclerosis flare 5 months after receiving PDA-001. No other patient had an increase in Expanded Disability Status Scale score>0.5, and most had stable or decreasing Expanded Disability Status Scale scores. With high-dose PDA-001, 1 patient experienced a grade 1 anaphylactoid reaction and 1 had grade 2 superficial thrombophlebitis. Other adverse events were mild to moderate and included

  11. Light therapy for multiple sclerosis-associated fatigue: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J; Manalo, Natalie C; Grundy, Sara J; Houghton, Melissa A; Hotan, Gladia C; Erickson, Hans; Videnovic, Aleksandar

    2017-09-01

    Fatigue is the most commonly reported symptom among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, more than a quarter of whom consider fatigue to be their most disabling symptom. However, there are few effective treatment options for fatigue. We aim to investigate whether supplemental exposure to bright white light will reduce MS-associated fatigue. Eligible participants will have clinically confirmed multiple sclerosis based on the revised McDonald criteria (2010) and a score ≥36 on the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Participants will be randomized 1:1 to bright white light (10,000 lux; active condition) or dim red light (treatment period, and a 4-week washout period. Participants will record their sleep duration, exercise, caffeine, and medication intake daily. Participants will record their fatigue using the Visual Analogue Fatigue Scale (VAFS) 4 times every third day, providing snapshots of their fatigue level at different times of day. Participants will self-report their fatigue severity using FSS on 3 separate visits: at baseline (week 0), following completion of the treatment phase (week 6), and at study completion (week 10). The primary outcome will be the change in the average FSS score after light therapy. We will perform an intention-to-treat analysis, comparing the active and control groups to assess the postintervention difference in fatigue levels reported on FSS. Secondary outcome measures include change in global VAFS scores during the light therapy and self-reported quality of life in the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54. We present a study design and rationale for randomizing a nonpharmacological intervention for MS-associated fatigue, using bright light therapy. The study limitations relate to the logistical issues of a self-administered intervention requiring frequent participant self-report in a relapsing condition. Ultimately, light therapy for the treatment of MS-associated fatigue may provide a low-cost, noninvasive, self-administered treatment

  12. Improvements in cognition, quality of life, and physical performance with clinical Pilates in multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Fadime; Kara, Bilge; Poyraz, Esra Çoşkuner; İdiman, Egemen

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of clinical Pilates in multiple sclerosis patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty multiple sclerosis patients were enrolled in this study. The participants were divided into two groups as the clinical Pilates and control groups. Cognition (Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite), balance (Berg Balance Scale), physical performance (timed performance tests, Timed up and go test), tiredness (Modified Fatigue Impact scale), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and quality of life (Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life Questionnaire) were measured before and after treatment in all participants. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in balance, timed performance, tiredness and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite tests between before and after treatment in the clinical Pilates group. We also found significant differences in timed performance tests, the Timed up and go test and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite between before and after treatment in the control group. According to the difference analyses, there were significant differences in Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite and Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life Questionnaire scores between the two groups in favor of the clinical Pilates group. There were statistically significant clinical differences in favor of the clinical Pilates group in comparison of measurements between the groups. Clinical Pilates improved cognitive functions and quality of life compared with traditional exercise. [Conclusion] In Multiple Sclerosis treatment, clinical Pilates should be used as a holistic approach by physical therapists.

  13. A Limb Action Detector Enabling People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Limb Action with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using limb action with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller and a newly developed limb action detection program (LADP, i.e., a new software program that turns a Wii Remote Controller into a precise limb action detector). This study was…

  14. Multiple memory systems, multiple time points: how science can inform treatment to control the expression of unwanted emotional memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Renée M; Lau-Zhu, Alex; Henson, Richard N; Holmes, Emily A

    2018-03-19

    Memories that have strong emotions associated with them are particularly resilient to forgetting. This is not necessarily problematic, however some aspects of memory can be. In particular, the involuntary expression of those memories, e.g. intrusive memories after trauma, are core to certain psychological disorders. Since the beginning of this century, research using animal models shows that it is possible to change the underlying memory, for example by interfering with its consolidation or reconsolidation. While the idea of targeting maladaptive memories is promising for the treatment of stress and anxiety disorders, a direct application of the procedures used in non-human animals to humans in clinical settings is not straightforward. In translational research, more attention needs to be paid to specifying what aspect of memory (i) can be modified and (ii) should be modified. This requires a clear conceptualization of what aspect of memory is being targeted, and how different memory expressions may map onto clinical symptoms. Furthermore, memory processes are dynamic, so procedural details concerning timing are crucial when implementing a treatment and when assessing its effectiveness. To target emotional memory in its full complexity, including its malleability, science cannot rely on a single method, species or paradigm. Rather, a constructive dialogue is needed between multiple levels of research, all the way 'from mice to mental health'.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Of mice and mental health: facilitating dialogue between basic and clinical neuroscientists'. © 2018 The Authors.

  15. Decentralized Model Predictive Control for Cooperative Multiple Vehicles Subject to Communication Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjat A. Izadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The decentralized model predictive control (DMPC of multiple cooperative vehicles with the possibility of communication loss/delay is investigated. The neighboring vehicles exchange their predicted trajectories at every sample time to maintain the cooperation objectives. In the event of a communication loss (packet dropout, the most recent available information, which is potentially delayed, is used. Then the communication loss problem changes to a cooperative problem when random large communication delays are present. Such large communication delays can lead to poor cooperation performance and unsafe behaviors such as collisions. A new DMPC approach is developed to improve the cooperation performance and achieve safety in the presence of the large communication delays. The proposed DMPC architecture estimates the tail of neighbor's trajectory which is not available due to the large communication delays for improving the performance. The concept of the tube MPC is also employed to provide the safety of the fleet against collisions, in the presence of large intervehicle communication delays. In this approach, a tube shaped trajectory set is assumed around the trajectory of the neighboring vehicles whose trajectory is delayed/lost. The radius of tube is a function of the communication delay and vehicle's maneuverability (in the absence of model uncertainty. The simulation of formation problem of multiple vehicles is employed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  16. Structural controls on the megathrust segmentation of the Middle America Trench from multiple geophysical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naif, S.; Bassett, D.

    2016-12-01

    Subduction zone megathrusts display complex seismogenic behaviors that vary at intra- and inter-margin scales. Many different physical properties have been proposed to be primarily responsible for this behavior, such as the composition of subducted sediments, the hydration state of the incoming oceanic plate, and the pore-fluid pressure at the plate interface. Here, we focus on the northern Middle America Trench and show that subducting plate structures control megathrust segmentation. We analyze multiple types of seafloor geophysical observations and compare them to the distinct behavioral and spatial characteristics of the 1992 Nicaragua (Mw7.6), 2012 El Salvador (Mw7.3), 2012 Guatemala (Mw7.4), and 2012 Costa Rica (Mw7.6) events. The residual topography, residual gravity, and magnetic anomaly structure of the incoming oceanic plate and forearc seafloor are correlated. The forearc is composed of multiple unique segments that are bounded by subducting fracture zones. These boundaries correlate with foreshock and aftershock seismicity and also coincide with the hypocenter of all four earthquakes. The relationship between observed structures, earthquake slip inversions, and radiated energy of the four large events will be discussed.

  17. Glucose uptake heterogeneity of the leg muscles is similar between patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindred, John H; Ketelhut, Nathaniel B; Rudroff, Thorsten

    2015-02-01

    Difficulties in ambulation are one of the main problems reported by patients with multiple sclerosis. A previous study by our research group showed increased recruitment of muscle groups during walking, but the influence of skeletal muscle properties, such as muscle fiber activity, has not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this investigation was to use the novel method of calculating glucose uptake heterogeneity in the leg muscles of patients with multiple sclerosis and compare these results to healthy controls. Eight patients with multiple sclerosis (4 men) and 8 healthy controls (4 men) performed 15 min of treadmill walking at a comfortable self-selected speed following muscle strength tests. Participants were injected with ≈ 8 mCi of [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose during walking after which positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging was performed. No differences in muscle strength were detected between multiple sclerosis and control groups (P>0.27). Within the multiple sclerosis, group differences in muscle volume existed between the stronger and weaker legs in the vastus lateralis, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus (Pmuscle group or individual muscle of the legs (P>0.16, P≥0.05). Patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls showed similar muscle fiber activity during walking. Interpretations of these results, with respect to our previous study, suggest that walking difficulties in patients with multiple sclerosis may be more associated with altered central nervous system motor patterns rather than alterations in skeletal muscle properties. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Multimodal exercise training in multiple sclerosis: A randomized controlled trial in persons with substantial mobility disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M; Bollaert, Rachel E; Pilutti, Lara A; Peterson, Melissa L; Baynard, Tracy; Fernhall, Bo; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W

    2017-10-01

    Mobility disability is a common, debilitating feature of multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise training has been identified as an approach to improve MS-related mobility disability. However, exercise randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on mobility in MS have generally not selectively targeted those with the onset of irreversible mobility disability. The current multi-site RCT compared the efficacy of 6-months of supervised, multimodal exercise training with an active control condition for improving mobility, gait, physical fitness, and cognitive outcomes in persons with substantial MS-related mobility disability. 83 participants with substantial MS-related mobility disability underwent initial mobility, gait, fitness, and cognitive processing speed assessments and were randomly assigned to 6-months of supervised multimodal (progressive aerobic, resistance, and balance) exercise training (intervention condition) or stretching-and-toning activities (control condition). Participants completed the same outcome assessments halfway through and immediately following the 6-month study period. There were statistically significant improvements in six-minute walk performance (F(2158)=3.12, p=0.05, η p 2 =0.04), peak power output (F(2150)=8.16, pmobility disability. This is critical for informing the development of multi-site exercise rehabilitation programs in larger samples of persons with MS-related mobility disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tracking Control Based on Recurrent Neural Networks for Nonlinear Systems with Multiple Inputs and Unknown Deadzone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Humberto Pérez-Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of trajectory tracking for a broad class of uncertain nonlinear systems with multiple inputs each one subject to an unknown symmetric deadzone. On the basis of a model of the deadzone as a combination of a linear term and a disturbance-like term, a continuous-time recurrent neural network is directly employed in order to identify the uncertain dynamics. By using a Lyapunov analysis, the exponential convergence of the identification error to a bounded zone is demonstrated. Subsequently, by a proper control law, the state of the neural network is compelled to follow a bounded reference trajectory. This control law is designed in such a way that the singularity problem is conveniently avoided and the exponential convergence to a bounded zone of the difference between the state of the neural identifier and the reference trajectory can be proven. Thus, the exponential convergence of the tracking error to a bounded zone and the boundedness of all closed-loop signals can be guaranteed. One of the main advantages of the proposed strategy is that the controller can work satisfactorily without any specific knowledge of an upper bound for the unmodeled dynamics and/or the disturbance term.

  20. Discrete event command and control for networked teams with multiple missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Frank L.; Hudas, Greg R.; Pang, Chee Khiang; Middleton, Matthew B.; McMurrough, Christopher

    2009-05-01

    During mission execution in military applications, the TRADOC Pamphlet 525-66 Battle Command and Battle Space Awareness capabilities prescribe expectations that networked teams will perform in a reliable manner under changing mission requirements, varying resource availability and reliability, and resource faults. In this paper, a Command and Control (C2) structure is presented that allows for computer-aided execution of the networked team decision-making process, control of force resources, shared resource dispatching, and adaptability to change based on battlefield conditions. A mathematically justified networked computing environment is provided called the Discrete Event Control (DEC) Framework. DEC has the ability to provide the logical connectivity among all team participants including mission planners, field commanders, war-fighters, and robotic platforms. The proposed data management tools are developed and demonstrated on a simulation study and an implementation on a distributed wireless sensor network. The results show that the tasks of multiple missions are correctly sequenced in real-time, and that shared resources are suitably assigned to competing tasks under dynamically changing conditions without conflicts and bottlenecks.

  1. Hydrotherapy for the Treatment of Pain in People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaida María Castro-Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic demyelinating neurological disease. Several studies have reported that complementary and alternative therapies can have positive effects against pain in these patients. Objective. The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of an Ai-Chi aquatic exercise program against pain and other symptoms in MS patients. Methods. In this randomized controlled trial, 73 MS patients were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group for a 20-week treatment program. The experimental group underwent 40 sessions of Ai-Chi exercise in swimming pool and the control group 40 sessions of abdominal breathing and contraction-relaxation exercises in therapy room. Outcome variables were pain, disability, spasm, depression, fatigue, and autonomy, which were assessed before the intervention and immediately and at 4 and 10 weeks after the last treatment session. Results. The experimental group showed a significant (P<0.028 and clinically relevant decrease in pain intensity versus baseline, with an immediate posttreatment reduction in median visual analogue scale scores of 50% that was maintained for up to 10 weeks. Significant improvements were also observed in spasm, fatigue, disability, and autonomy. Conclusion. According to these findings, an Ai-Chi aquatic exercise program improves pain, spasms, disability, fatigue, depression, and autonomy in MS patients.

  2. Hydrotherapy for the treatment of pain in people with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María; Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo A; Lara-Palomo, Inmaculada; Saavedra-Hernández, Manuel; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating neurological disease. Several studies have reported that complementary and alternative therapies can have positive effects against pain in these patients. Objective. The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of an Ai-Chi aquatic exercise program against pain and other symptoms in MS patients. Methods. In this randomized controlled trial, 73 MS patients were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group for a 20-week treatment program. The experimental group underwent 40 sessions of Ai-Chi exercise in swimming pool and the control group 40 sessions of abdominal breathing and contraction-relaxation exercises in therapy room. Outcome variables were pain, disability, spasm, depression, fatigue, and autonomy, which were assessed before the intervention and immediately and at 4 and 10 weeks after the last treatment session. Results. The experimental group showed a significant (P < 0.028) and clinically relevant decrease in pain intensity versus baseline, with an immediate posttreatment reduction in median visual analogue scale scores of 50% that was maintained for up to 10 weeks. Significant improvements were also observed in spasm, fatigue, disability, and autonomy. Conclusion. According to these findings, an Ai-Chi aquatic exercise program improves pain, spasms, disability, fatigue, depression, and autonomy in MS patients.

  3. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of multiple environmental factors for swine building assessment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiuju; Ni, Ji-Qin; Su, Zhongbin

    2017-10-15

    In confined swine buildings, temperature, humidity, and air quality are all important for animal health and productivity. However, the current swine building environmental control is only based on temperature; and evaluation and control methods based on multiple environmental factors are needed. In this paper, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) theory was adopted for multi-factor assessment of environmental quality in two commercial swine buildings using real measurement data. An assessment index system and membership functions were established; and predetermined weights were given using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) combined with knowledge of experts. The results show that multi-factors such as temperature, humidity, and concentrations of ammonia (NH 3 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) can be successfully integrated in FCE for swine building environment assessment. The FCE method has a high correlation coefficient of 0.737 compared with the method of single-factor evaluation (SFE). The FCE method can significantly increase the sensitivity and perform an effective and integrative assessment. It can be used as part of environmental controlling and warning systems for swine building environment management to improve swine production and welfare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Vibration control of buildings by using partial floor loads as multiple tuned mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharwat A. Sakr

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Tuned mass dampers (TMDs are considered as the most common control devices used for protecting high-rise buildings from vibrations. Because of their simplicity and efficiency, they have found wide practical applications in high-rise buildings around the world. This paper proposes an innovative technique for using partial floor loads as multiple TMDs at limited number of floors. This technique eliminates complications resulting from the addition of huge masses required for response control and maintains the mass of the original structure without any added loads. The effects of using partial loads of limited floors starting from the top as TMDs on the vibration response of buildings to wind and earthquakes are investigated. The effects of applying the proposed technique to buildings with different heights and characteristics are also investigated. A parametric study is carried out to illustrate how the behavior of a building is affected by the number of stories and the portion of the floor utilized as TMDs. Results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed control technique in enhancing the drift, acceleration, and force response of buildings to wind and earthquakes. The response of buildings to wind and earthquakes was observed to be more enhanced by increasing the story-mass ratios and the number of floor utilized as TMDs.

  5. The Role of Clinical and Instrumented Outcome Measures in Balance Control of Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Kanekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to investigate differences in balance control between individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS and healthy control subjects using clinical scales and instrumented measures of balance and determine relationships between balance measures, fatigue, and disability levels in individuals with MS with and without a history of falls. Method. Twelve individuals with MS and twelve healthy controls were evaluated using the Berg Balance and Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scales, Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance, and Limits of Stability Tests as well as Fatigue Severity Scale and Barthel Index. Results. Mildly affected individuals with MS had significant balance performance deficits and poor balance confidence levels (P<0.05. MS group had higher sway velocities and diminished stability limits (P<0.05, significant sensory impairments, high fatigue and disability levels (P<0.05. Sway velocity was a significant predictor of balance performance and the ability to move towards stability limits for the MS group. For the MS-fallers group, those with lower disability levels had faster movement velocities and better balance performance. Conclusion. Implementation of both clinical and instrumented tests of balance is important for the planning and evaluation of treatment outcomes in balance rehabilitation of people with MS.

  6. Identity crisis: user perspectives on multiplicity and control in federated identitymanagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Steve; Satchell, C; Shanks, G

    2009-01-01

    Federated identity management systems synthesise complex and fragmented user information into a single entity. Literature from the provider’s perspective notes this integration extends many benefits to the end user and the privileges provided by digital identity authentication schemes have been...... well documented from this perspective. Less explored are the perceptions of federation from the user’s perspective. This study reports an empirical user study that examines the relationship between identity and technology using contextual interviews, focus groups and cultural probes. It emerges...... that while current federated systems satisfy user needs by allowing the construction of multiple digital data sets that are moored to a central identifier, they fail to provide the user with control over the capability to act in the ‘hatch’, ‘match’ and ‘dispatch’ phases of the digital identity lifecycle...

  7. Use of multiple water surface flow constructed wetlands for non-point source water pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Yan; Chu, Zhaosheng; He, Yan; Huang, Minsheng

    2018-05-02

    Multiple free water surface flow constructed wetlands (multi-FWS CWs) are a variety of conventional water treatment plants for the interception of pollutants. This review encapsulated the characteristics and applications in the field of ecological non-point source water pollution control technology. The roles of in-series design and operation parameters (hydraulic residence time, hydraulic load rate, water depth and aspect ratio, composition of influent, and plant species) for performance intensification were also analyzed, which were crucial to achieve sustainable and effective contaminants removal, especially the retention of nutrient. The mechanism study of design and operation parameters for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus was also highlighted. Conducive perspectives for further research on optimizing its design/operation parameters and advanced technologies of ecological restoration were illustrated to possibly interpret the functions of multi-FWS CWs.

  8. Using Natural Language to Enable Mission Managers to Control Multiple Heterogeneous UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Puig-Navarro, Javier; Mehdi, S. Bilal; Mcquarry, A. Kyle

    2016-01-01

    The availability of highly capable, yet relatively cheap, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is opening up new areas of use for hobbyists and for commercial activities. This research is developing methods beyond classical control-stick pilot inputs, to allow operators to manage complex missions without in-depth vehicle expertise. These missions may entail several heterogeneous UAVs flying coordinated patterns or flying multiple trajectories deconflicted in time or space to predefined locations. This paper describes the functionality and preliminary usability measures of an interface that allows an operator to define a mission using speech inputs. With a defined and simple vocabulary, operators can input the vast majority of mission parameters using simple, intuitive voice commands. Although the operator interface is simple, it is based upon autonomous algorithms that allow the mission to proceed with minimal input from the operator. This paper also describes these underlying algorithms that allow an operator to manage several UAVs.

  9. Quantized flocking control for second-order multiple agents with obstacle avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunguang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantized flocking control for a group of second-order multiple agents with obstacle avoidance is proposed to address the problem of the exchange of information needed for quantification. With a reasonable assumption, a logarithmic or uniform quantizer is used for the exchange of relative position and velocity information between adjacent agents and the virtual leader, moving at a steady speed along a straight line, and a distributed flocking algorithm with obstacle avoidance capability is designed based on the quantitative information. The Lyapunov stability criterion of nonsmooth systems and the invariance principle are used to prove the stability of these systems. The simulations and experiments are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  10. Optimal Exponential Synchronization of Chaotic Systems with Multiple Time Delays via Fuzzy Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Hsiag Hsiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an effective approach to realize the optimal exponential synchronization of multiple time-delay chaotic (MTDC systems. First, a neural network (NN model is employed to approximate the MTDC system. Then, a linear differential inclusion (LDI state-space representation is established for the dynamics of the NN model. Based on this LDI state-space representation, this study proposes a delay-dependent exponential stability criterion of the error system derived in terms of Lyapunov’s direct method to ensure that the trajectories of the slave system can approach those of the master system. Subsequently, the stability condition of this criterion is reformulated into a linear matrix inequality (LMI. Based on the LMI, a fuzzy controller is synthesized not only to realize the exponential synchronization but also to achieve the optimal performance by minimizing the disturbance attenuation level. Finally, a numerical example with simulations is provided to illustrate the concepts discussed throughout this work.

  11. [Operative treatment strategies for multiple trauma patients : early total care versus damage control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klüter, T; Lippross, S; Oestern, S; Weuster, M; Seekamp, A

    2013-09-01

    The treatment of multiple trauma patients is a great challenge for an interdisciplinary team. After preclinical care and subsequent treatment in the emergency room the order of the interventions is prioritized depending of the individual risk stratification. For planning the surgery management it is essential to distinguish between absolutely essential operations to prevent life-threatening situations for the patient and interventions with shiftable indications, depending on the general condition of the patient. All interventions need to be done without causing significant secondary damage to prohibit hyperinflammation and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The challenge consists in determination of the appropriate treatment at the right point in time. In general the early primary intervention, early total care, is differentiated from the damage control concept.

  12. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  13. Differential controls by climate and physiology over the emission rates of biogenic volatile organic compounds from mature trees in a semi-arid pine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Allyson S D; Young, Lindsay L; Trowbridge, Amy M; Monson, Russell K

    2016-02-01

    Drought has the potential to influence the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from forests and thus affect the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. Our understanding of these influences is limited, in part, by a lack of field observations on mature trees and the small number of BVOCs monitored. We studied 50- to 60-year-old Pinus ponderosa trees in a semi-arid forest that experience early summer drought followed by late-summer monsoon rains, and observed emissions for five BVOCs-monoterpenes, methylbutenol, methanol, acetaldehyde and acetone. We also constructed a throughfall-interception experiment to create "wetter" and "drier" plots. Generally, trees in drier plots exhibited reduced sap flow, photosynthesis, and stomatal conductances, while BVOC emission rates were unaffected by the artificial drought treatments. During the natural, early summer drought, a physiological threshold appeared to be crossed when photosynthesis ≅2 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and conductance ≅0.02 mol m(-2) s(-1). Below this threshold, BVOC emissions are correlated with leaf physiology (photosynthesis and conductance) while BVOC emissions are not correlated with other physicochemical factors (e.g., compound volatility and tissue BVOC concentration) that have been shown in past studies to influence emissions. The proportional loss of C to BVOC emission was highest during the drought primarily due to reduced CO2 assimilation. It appears that seasonal drought changes the relations among BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and conductance. When drought is relaxed, BVOC emission rates are explained mostly by seasonal temperature, but when seasonal drought is maximal, photosynthesis and conductance-the physiological processes which best explain BVOC emission rates-decline, possibly indicating a more direct role of physiology in controlling BVOC emission.

  14. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  15. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  16. A Spanish pillbox app for elderly patients taking multiple medications: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, José Joaquín; Navarro, Isabel; Botella, Federico; Borrás, Fernando; Nuño-Solinís, Roberto; Orozco, Domingo; Iglesias-Alonso, Fuencisla; Pérez-Pérez, Pastora; Lorenzo, Susana; Toro, Nuria

    2014-04-04

    Nonadherence and medication errors are common among patients with complex drug regimens. Apps for smartphones and tablets are effective for improving adherence, but they have not been tested in elderly patients with complex chronic conditions and who typically have less experience with this type of technology. The objective of this study was to design, implement, and evaluate a medication self-management app (called ALICE) for elderly patients taking multiple medications with the intention of improving adherence and safe medication use. A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted with a control and an experimental group (N=99) in Spain in 2013. The characteristics of ALICE were specified based on the suggestions of 3 nominal groups with a total of 23 patients and a focus group with 7 professionals. ALICE was designed for Android and iOS to allow for the personalization of prescriptions and medical advice, showing images of each of the medications (the packaging and the medication itself) together with alerts and multiple reminders for each alert. The randomly assigned patients in the control group received oral and written information on the safe use of their medications and the patients in the experimental group used ALICE for 3 months. Pre and post measures included rate of missed doses and medication errors reported by patients, scores from the 4-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-4), level of independence, self-perceived health status, and biochemical test results. In the experimental group, data were collected on their previous experience with information and communication technologies, their rating of ALICE, and their perception of the level of independence they had achieved. The intergroup intervention effects were calculated by univariate linear models and ANOVA, with the pre to post intervention differences as the dependent variables. Data were obtained from 99 patients (48 and 51 in the control and experimental groups, respectively

  17. Impact of a Pelvic Floor Training Program Among Women with Multiple Sclerosis: A Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Paula Silva; Pegorare, Ana Beatriz Gomes de Souza; Salgado, Pedro Rippel; Casafus, Filemón Silva; Christofoletti, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of two programs for strengthening the pelvic floor on the urinary incontinence of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). This is a prospective study of the clinical trial type, monitored for 6 mos, in which 24 women in the moderate stage of MS participated in a program of exercises for strengthening the pelvic floor-associated (experimental group) or not (control group) with electrotherapy. The variables analyzed were as follows: quality-of-life, overactivity of the bladder, perineal contraction, and level of anxiety and depression. The statistical procedures involved multivariate analyses of repeated measurements, with a significance of 5%. Initial homogeneity being observed in the anthropometric and clinical variables, both protocols resulted in improvements in quality-of-life (P = 0.001), overactive bladder (P = 0.001), perineal contraction (P = 0.004), and level of anxiety (P = 0.001) and depression (P = 0.001), in relation to the initial comparison. The association of electrotherapy with strengthening exercises increased the improvement of the patients regarding overactive bladder (P = 0.039) and perineal contraction (P = 0.001), in comparison with the control group. The results reinforce the benefit of exercises for strengthening the musculature of the pelvic floor in women with overactive bladder in MS and demonstrate a potential of the action when associated with electrotherapy. Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME CME OBJECTIVES:: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) Identify common dysfunctions of the lower urinary tract in women with multiple sclerosis; (2) Discuss the relationship between quality-of-life, level of anxiety and depression, degree of perineal contraction, and overactive bladder; and (3) Recognize the benefits promoted by physical therapy for strengthening the pelvic floor in patients with

  18. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  19. Deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure in patients with multiple sclerosis - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Elisabeth; Wittrin, Anna; Kånåhols, Margareta; Gunnarsson, Martin; Nilsagård, Ylva

    2016-11-01

    Breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure are often recommended to patients with advanced neurological deficits, but the potential benefit in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with mild and moderate symptoms has not yet been investigated in randomized controlled trials. To study the effects of 2 months of home-based breathing exercises for patients with mild to moderate MS on respiratory muscle strength, lung function, and subjective breathing and health status outcomes. Forty-eight patients with MS according to the revised McDonald criteria were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. Patients performing breathing exercises (n = 23) were compared with a control group (n = 25) performing no breathing exercises. The breathing exercises were performed with a positive expiratory pressure device (10-15 cmH 2 O) and consisted of 30 slow deep breaths performed twice a day for 2 months. Respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure at the mouth), spirometry, oxygenation, thoracic excursion, subjective perceptions of breathing and self-reported health status were evaluated before and after the intervention period. Following the intervention, there was a significant difference between the breathing group and the control group regarding the relative change in lung function, favoring the breathing group (vital capacity: P < 0.043; forced vital capacity: P < 0.025). There were no other significant differences between the groups. Breathing exercises may be beneficial in patients with mild to moderate stages of MS. However, the clinical significance needs to be clarified, and it remains to be seen whether a sustainable effect in delaying the development of respiratory dysfunction in MS can be obtained. © 2015 The Authors. The Clinical Respiratory Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Not a single but multiple populations of GABAergic neurons control sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Peyron, Christelle; Fort, Patrice

    2017-04-01

    The role of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) in sleep induction and maintenance is well accepted since most insomnia treatments target GABAa receptors. However, the population(s) of GABAergic neurons involved in the beneficial effect of GABA on sleep remains to be identified. This is not an easy task since GABAergic neurons are widely distributed in all brain structures. A recently growing number of populations of GABAergic neurons have been involved in sleep control. We first review here possible candidates for inducing non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep including the GABAergic neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic area, the parafacial zone in the brainstem, the nucleus accumbens and the cortex. We also discuss the role of several populations of GABAergic neurons in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep control. Indeed, it is well accepted that muscle atonia occurring during REM sleep is due to a GABA/glycinergic hyperpolarization of motoneurons. Recent evidence strongly suggests that these neurons are located in the ventral medullary reticular formation. It has also recently been shown that neurons containing the neuropeptide melanin concentrating hormone and GABA located in the lateral hypothalamic area control REM sleep expression. Finally, a population of REM-off GABAergic neurons located in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray has been shown to gate REM sleep by inhibiting glutamatergic neurons located in the sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus. In summary, recent data clearly indicate that multiple populations of GABAergic neurons located throughout the brain from the cortex to the medulla oblongata control NREM and REM sleep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Falls prevention and balance rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis: a bi-centre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Davide; Rasova, Kamila; Gervasoni, Elisa; Dobrovodská, Gabriela; Montesano, Angelo; Jonsdottir, Johanna

    2018-03-01

    People with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS) have a high incidence of accidental falls that have a potentially detrimental effect on their daily life participation. The effect of balance specific rehabilitation on clinical balance measures and frequency of falls in PwMS was studied. A bi-centre randomised rater-blinded controlled trial. Participants in both groups received 20 treatment sessions. Participants in the intervention group received treatment aimed at improving balance and mobility. Participants in the control group received treatments to reduce limitations at activity and body function level. Primary measures were frequency of fallers (>1 fall in two months) and responders (>3 points improvement) at the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Data was analysed according to an intention to treat approach. One hundred and nineteen participants were randomised. Following treatment frequency of fallers was 22% in the intervention group and 23% in the control group, odds ratio (OR) and (confidence limits): 1.05 (0.41 to 2.77). Responders on the BBS were 28% in the intervention group and 33% in the control group, OR = 0.75 (0.30 to 1.91). At follow up ORs for fallers and responders at BBS were 0.98 (0.48 to 2.01) and 0.79 (0.26 to 2.42), respectively. Twenty sessions 2-3 times/week of balance specific rehabilitation did not reduce fall frequency nor improve balance suggesting the need for more frequent and challenging interventions. Implications for Rehabilitation Programs for balance rehabilitation can improve balance but their effects in fall prevention are unclear. Twenty treatments sessions 2/3 times per week did not reduced frequency of falls in MS. The comparison with similar studies suggests that higher intensity of practice of highly challenging balance activities appears to be critical to maximizing effectiveness.

  2. Cognitive function in multiple sclerosis improves with telerehabilitation: Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh E Charvet

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment affects more than half of all individuals living with multiple sclerosis (MS. We hypothesized that training at home with an adaptive online cognitive training program would have greater cognitive benefit than ordinary computer games in cognitively-impaired adults with MS. This was a double-blind, randomized, active-placebo-controlled trial. Participants with MS were recruited through Stony Brook Medicine and randomly assigned to either the adaptive cognitive remediation (ACR program or active control of ordinary computer games for 60 hours over 12 weeks. Training was remotely-supervised and delivered through a study-provided laptop computer. A computer generated, blocked stratification table prepared by statistician provided the randomization schedule and condition was assigned by a study technician. The primary outcome, administered by study psychometrician, was measured by change in a neuropsychological composite measure from baseline to study end. An intent-to-treat analysis was employed and missing primary outcome values were imputed via Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Participants in the ACR (n = 74 vs. active control (n = 61 training program had significantly greater improvement in the primary outcome of cognitive functioning (mean change in composite z score±SD: 0·25±0·45 vs. 0·09±0·37, p = 0·03, estimated difference = 0·16 with 95% CI: 0·02-0·30, despite greater training time in the active control condition (mean±SD:56·9 ± 34·6 vs. 37·7 ±23 ·8 hours played, p = 0·006. This study provides Class I evidence that adaptive, computer-based cognitive remediation accessed from home can improve cognitive functioning in MS. This telerehabilitation approach allowed for rapid recruitment and high compliance, and can be readily applied to other neurological conditions associated with cognitive dysfunction.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02141386.

  3. Changes of deep gray matter magnetic susceptibility over 2years in multiple sclerosis and healthy control brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Hagemeier

    Full Text Available In multiple sclerosis, pathological changes of both tissue iron and myelin occur, yet these factors have not been characterized in a longitudinal fashion using the novel iron- and myelin-sensitive quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM MRI technique. We investigated disease-relevant tissue changes associated with myelin loss and iron accumulation in multiple sclerosis deep gray matter (DGM over two years. One-hundred twenty (120 multiple sclerosis patients and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in this prospective study. Written informed consent and local IRB approval were obtained from all participants. Clinical testing and QSM were performed both at baseline and at follow-up. Brain magnetic susceptibility was measured in major DGM structures. Temporal (baseline vs. follow-up and cross-sectional (multiple sclerosis vs. controls differences were studied using mixed factorial ANOVA analysis and appropriate t-tests. At either time-point, multiple sclerosis patients had significantly higher susceptibility in the caudate and globus pallidus and lower susceptibility in the thalamus. Over two years, susceptibility increased significantly in the caudate of both controls and multiple sclerosis patients. Inverse thalamic findings among MS patients suggest a multi-phase pathology explained by simultaneous myelin loss and/or iron accumulation followed by iron depletion and/or calcium deposition at later stages. Keywords: Quantitative susceptibility mapping, QSM, Iron, Multiple sclerosis, Longitudinal study

  4. Hippotherapy for patients with multiple sclerosis: A multicenter randomized controlled trial (MS-HIPPO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermöhlen, Vanessa; Schiller, Petra; Schickendantz, Sabine; Drache, Marion; Hussack, Sabine; Gerber-Grote, Andreas; Pöhlau, Dieter

    2017-08-01

    Evidence-based complementary treatment options for multiple sclerosis (MS) are limited. To investigate the effect of hippotherapy plus standard care versus standard care alone in MS patients. A total of 70 adults with MS were recruited in five German centers and randomly allocated to the intervention group (12 weeks of hippotherapy) or the control group. Primary outcome was the change in the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) after 12 weeks, and further outcome measures included fatigue, pain, quality of life, and spasticity. Covariance analysis of the primary endpoint resulted in a mean difference in BBS change of 2.33 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03-4.63, p = 0.047) between intervention ( n = 32) and control ( n = 38) groups. Benefit on BBS was largest for the subgroup with an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) ⩾ 5 (5.1, p = 0.001). Fatigue (-6.8, p = 0.02) and spasticity (-0.9, p = 0.03) improved in the intervention group. The mean difference in change between groups was 12.0 ( p Hippotherapy plus standard care, while below the threshold of a minimal clinically important difference, significantly improved balance and also fatigue, spasticity, and quality of life in MS patients.

  5. Multiple photoreceptor systems control the swim pacemaker activity in box jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Mori, S.

    2009-01-01

    Like all other cnidarian medusae, box jellyfish propel themselves through the water by contracting their bell-shaped body in discrete swim pulses. These pulses are controlled by a swim pacemaker system situated in their sensory structures, the rhopalia. Each medusa has four rhopalia each with a s......Like all other cnidarian medusae, box jellyfish propel themselves through the water by contracting their bell-shaped body in discrete swim pulses. These pulses are controlled by a swim pacemaker system situated in their sensory structures, the rhopalia. Each medusa has four rhopalia each...... with a similar set of six eyes of four morphologically different types. We have examined how each of the four eye types influences the swim pacemaker. Multiple photoreceptor systems, three of the four eye types, plus the rhopalial neuropil, affect the swim pacemaker. The lower lens eye inhibits the pacemaker...... when stimulated and provokes a strong increase in the pacemaker frequency upon light-off. The upper lens eye, the pit eyes and the rhopalial neuropil all have close to the opposite effect. When these responses are compared with all-eye stimulations it is seen that some advanced integration must take...

  6. Multiple chromatographic fingerprinting and its application to the quality control of herbal medicines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Xiaohui [Pharmaceutical Informatics Institute, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cheng Yiyu [Pharmaceutical Informatics Institute, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)]. E-mail: chengyy@zju.edu.cn; Ye Zhengliang [Pharmaceutical Informatics Institute, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Lin Ruichao [National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Beijing 100050 (China); Qian Zhongzhi [Committee of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Beijing 100061 (China)

    2006-01-12

    Recently, chromatographic fingerprinting has become one of the most powerful approaches to quality control of herbal medicines. However, the performance of reported chromatographic fingerprinting constructed by single chromatogram sometimes turns out to be inadequate for complex herbal medicines, such as multi-herb botanical drug products. In this study, multiple chromatographic fingerprinting, which consists of more than one chromatographic fingerprint and represents the whole characteristics of chemical constitutions of the complex medicine, is proposed as a potential strategy in this complicated case. As a typical example, a binary chromatographic fingerprinting of 'Danshen Dropping Pill' (DSDP), the best-sold traditional Chinese medicine in China, was developed. First, two HPLC fingerprints that, respectively, represent chemical characteristics of depsides and saponins of DSDP were developed, which were used to construct binary chromatographic fingerprints of DSDP. Moreover, the authentication and validation of the binary fingerprints were performed. Then, a data-level information fusion method was employed to capture the chemical information encoded in two chromatographic fingerprints. Based on the fusion results, the lot-to-lot consistency and frauds can be determined either using similarity measure or by chemometrics approach. The application of binary chromatographic fingerprinting to consistency assessment and frauds detection of DSDP clearly demonstrated that the proposed method was a powerful approach to quality control of complex herbal medicines.

  7. A case-control study of risk factors for multiple sclerosis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Alvaro; Cook, Stuart D; Maghzi, Amir-Hadi; Divani, Afshin A

    2011-05-01

    Numerous studies have assessed risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS), although none have been conducted previously in Iran. The objective of this study was to study lifestyle and environmental risk factors of MS in the Iranian population. A case-control study, including 394 MS cases and 394 matched controls, was conducted in MS clinics in different Iranian cities. Information on lifestyles, environmental exposures, and past medical history was obtained from medical charts and phone interviews. In multivariable analysis, sunlight exposure was associated with a lower risk of MS: the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of MS associated with a 1-h increment in daily sunlight was 0.62 (0.53-0.73). Smoking was associated with MS risk in women (OR: 6.48, 95% CI: 1.46-28.78), but not in men (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.31-1.68) (p=0.002 for interaction). Finally, past history of common surgical procedures, infectious disorders, or exposure to pets and farm animals was not associated with MS risk. Different modifiable lifestyles, including sunlight exposure and smoking, were associated with lower MS risk in Iran. Interventions aimed at promoting smoking cessation and, more importantly, at increasing exposure to sunlight might contribute to the prevention of MS.

  8. Multiple chromatographic fingerprinting and its application to the quality control of herbal medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xiaohui; Cheng Yiyu; Ye Zhengliang; Lin Ruichao; Qian Zhongzhi

    2006-01-01

    Recently, chromatographic fingerprinting has become one of the most powerful approaches to quality control of herbal medicines. However, the performance of reported chromatographic fingerprinting constructed by single chromatogram sometimes turns out to be inadequate for complex herbal medicines, such as multi-herb botanical drug products. In this study, multiple chromatographic fingerprinting, which consists of more than one chromatographic fingerprint and represents the whole characteristics of chemical constitutions of the complex medicine, is proposed as a potential strategy in this complicated case. As a typical example, a binary chromatographic fingerprinting of 'Danshen Dropping Pill' (DSDP), the best-sold traditional Chinese medicine in China, was developed. First, two HPLC fingerprints that, respectively, represent chemical characteristics of depsides and saponins of DSDP were developed, which were used to construct binary chromatographic fingerprints of DSDP. Moreover, the authentication and validation of the binary fingerprints were performed. Then, a data-level information fusion method was employed to capture the chemical information encoded in two chromatographic fingerprints. Based on the fusion results, the lot-to-lot consistency and frauds can be determined either using similarity measure or by chemometrics approach. The application of binary chromatographic fingerprinting to consistency assessment and frauds detection of DSDP clearly demonstrated that the proposed method was a powerful approach to quality control of complex herbal medicines

  9. Effectiveness of energy conservation management on fatigue and participation in multiple sclerosis: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blikman, Lyan Jm; van Meeteren, Jetty; Twisk, Jos Wr; de Laat, Fred Aj; de Groot, Vincent; Beckerman, Heleen; Stam, Henk J; Bussmann, Johannes Bj

    2017-10-01

    Fatigue is a frequently reported and disabling symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate the effectiveness of an individual energy conservation management (ECM) intervention on fatigue and participation in persons with primary MS-related fatigue. A total of 86 severely fatigued and ambulatory adults with a definite diagnosis of MS were randomized in a single-blind, two-parallel-arm randomized clinical trial to the ECM group or the information-only control group in outpatient rehabilitation departments. Blinded assessments were carried out at baseline and at 8, 16, 26 and 52 weeks after randomization. Primary outcomes were fatigue (fatigue subscale of Checklist Individual Strength - CIS20r) and participation (Impact on Participation and Autonomy scale - IPA). Modified intention-to-treat analysis was based on 76 randomized patients (ECM, n = 36; MS nurse, n=40). No significant ECM effects were found for fatigue (overall difference CIS20r between the groups = -0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI), -3.71 to 2.11) or for four out of five IPA domains. An overall unfavourable effect was found in the ECM group for the IPA domain social relations (difference between the groups = 0.19; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.35). The individual ECM format used in this study did not reduce MS-related fatigue and restrictions in participation more than an information-only control condition.

  10. Availability analysis of safety grade multiple redundant controller used in advanced nuclear safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Kwang Seop; Kim, Dong Hoon; Park, Gee Yong; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2018-01-01

    Highlights: •The multiple redundant controller, SPLC is configured as the combination of DMR and TMR architecture. •We construct the Markov model of SPLC using the concept of the system unavailability rate. •To satisfy the availability requirement of safety grade controller, the fault coverage factor (FCF) should be ≥0.8 and the MTTR of each module should be ≤100 h when FCF is 0.9. •The availability of SPLC is better than that of PLC having iTMR architecture however it is poorer than iTMR considering the off-line test and inspection on the assumption that MTTR of each module is ≤200 h. -- Abstract: We analyze the availability of the Safety Programmable Logic Controller (SPLC) having multiple redundant architectures. In the SPLC, input/output and processor module are configured as triple modular redundancy (TMR), and backplane bus, power and communication modules are configured as dual modular redundancy (DMR). The voting logics for redundant architectures are based on the forwarding error detection. It means that the receivers perform the voting logics based on the status information of transmitters. To analyze the availability of SPLC, we construct the Markov model and simplify the model adopting the system unavailability rate. The results show that the fault coverage factor should be ≥0.8 and Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) should be ≤100 h in order to satisfy the requirement that the availability of the safety grade PLC should be ≥0.995. Also we evaluate the availability of SPLC comparing to other PLCs such as simplex, processor DMR (pDMR) and independent TMR (iTMR) PLCs used in the existing nuclear safety systems. The availability of SPLC is higher than those of the simplex, pDMR but is lower than that of iTMR for one month which is the periodic off-line test and inspection. That’s why the number of redundant modules used in PLC is more dominant to increasing the availability than the number of fault masking methods such as voting logics used

  11. Physiology for engineers applying engineering methods to physiological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to qualitative and quantitative aspects of human physiology. It looks at biological and physiological processes and phenomena, including a selection of mathematical models, showing how physiological problems can be mathematically formulated and studied. It also illustrates how a wide range of engineering and physics topics, including electronics, fluid dynamics, solid mechanics and control theory can be used to describe and understand physiological processes and systems. Throughout the text there are introductions to measuring and quantifying physiological processes using both signal and imaging technologies. Physiology for Engineers describes the basic structure and models of cellular systems, the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and provides an overview of the structure and function of the respiratory and nervous systems. It also includes an introduction to the basic concepts and applications of reacti...

  12. Physiological Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  13. The Ecology of Stress: linking life-history traits with physiological control mechanisms in free-living guanacos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero Aguilar, Ramiro J A; Jahn, Graciela A; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Novaro, Andrés J; Carmanchahi, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Providing the context for the evolution of life-history traits, habitat features constrain successful ecological and physiological strategies. In vertebrates, a key response to life's challenges is the activation of the Stress (HPA) and Gonadal (HPG) axes. Much of the interest in stress ecology is motivated by the desire to understand the physiological mechanisms in which the environment affects fitness. As reported in the literature, several intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect variability in hormone levels. In both social and non-social animals, the frequency and type of interaction with conspecifics, as well as the status in social species, can affect HPA axis activity, resulting in changes in the reproductive success of animals. We predicted that a social environment can affect both guanaco axes by increasing the secretion of testosterone (T) and Glucocorticoid (GCs) in response to individual social interactions and the energetic demands of breeding. Assuming that prolonged elevated levels of GCs over time can be harmful to individuals, it is predicted that the HPA axis suppresses the HPG axis and causes T levels to decrease, as GCs increase. All of the data for individuals were collected by non-invasive methods (fecal samples) to address hormonal activities. This is a novel approach in physiological ecology because feces are easily obtained through non-invasive sampling in animal populations. As expected, there was a marked adrenal ( p -value = .3.4e-12) and gonadal ( p -value = 0.002656) response due to seasonal variation in Lama guanicoe . No significant differences were found in fecal GCs metabolites between males/females*season for the entire study period ( p -value = 0.2839). Despite the seasonal activity variation in the hormonal profiles, our results show a positive correlation ( p -value = 1.952e-11, COR = 0.50) between the adrenal and gonadal system. The marked endocrine ( r 2  = 0.806) and gonad ( r 2  = 0.7231) response due to seasonal

  14. The Ecology of Stress: linking life-history traits with physiological control mechanisms in free-living guanacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro J.A. Ovejero Aguilar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Providing the context for the evolution of life-history traits, habitat features constrain successful ecological and physiological strategies. In vertebrates, a key response to life’s challenges is the activation of the Stress (HPA and Gonadal (HPG axes. Much of the interest in stress ecology is motivated by the desire to understand the physiological mechanisms in which the environment affects fitness. As reported in the literature, several intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect variability in hormone levels. In both social and non-social animals, the frequency and type of interaction with conspecifics, as well as the status in social species, can affect HPA axis activity, resulting in changes in the reproductive success of animals. We predicted that a social environment can affect both guanaco axes by increasing the secretion of testosterone (T and Glucocorticoid (GCs in response to individual social interactions and the energetic demands of breeding. Assuming that prolonged elevated levels of GCs over time can be harmful to individuals, it is predicted that the HPA axis suppresses the HPG axis and causes T levels to decrease, as GCs increase. Methods All of the data for individuals were collected by non-invasive methods (fecal samples to address hormonal activities. This is a novel approach in physiological ecology because feces are easily obtained through non-invasive sampling in animal populations. Results As expected, there was a marked adrenal (p-value = .3.4e−12 and gonadal (p-value = 0.002656 response due to seasonal variation in Lama guanicoe. No significant differences were found in fecal GCs metabolites between males/females*season for the entire study period (p-value = 0.2839. Despite the seasonal activity variation in the hormonal profiles, our results show a positive correlation (p-value = 1.952e−11, COR = 0.50 between the adrenal and gonadal system. The marked endocrine (r2 = 0.806 and gonad (r2 = 0

  15. Multiple hereditary exostoses and ischiofemoral impingement: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoong, Philip; Mansour, Ramy; Teh, James L.

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether there is a significant difference in the ischiofemoral space in patients with multiple hereditary exostoses affecting the proximal femora compared to normal patients. Ischiofemoral impingement is an increasingly recognized cause of hip and buttock pain. This causes narrowing of the ischiofemoral space resulting in an abnormal quadratus femoris muscle. We performed a retrospective search for individuals with MHE with proximal femoral involvement on pelvic MRI over a 7-year period (2006-2013). Suitable patients were age- and sex-matched with a control group. The minimum ischiofemoral space (MIFS) was recorded in each hip, as was the presence of edema and atrophy of quadratus femoris and concomitant hip osteoarthrosis. MRI features suggestive of ischiofemoral impingement were defined as MIFS less than 10 mm or an abnormal quadratus femoris muscle. Twenty-one hips in 11 individuals with MHE were included in the study. A total of 42 hips were analyzed. The mean age was 37 years (range, 13-72 years) and 55 % were male. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the MIHS in individuals with MHE (mean, 10.7 mm, range, 0-21 mm) compared to a control group (mean, 18.1 mm, range, 10.5-26.5 mm). MRI features suggestive of ischiofemoral impingement were seen in 13/21 (62 %) hips in the MHE group and 0/21 (0 %) in the control group. The reduced ischiofemoral space and associated quadratus femoris abnormalities in patients with MHE involving the proximal femora may account for hip/buttock symptoms in the absence of significant degenerative change. (orig.)

  16. Context, emotion, and the strategic pursuit of goals: Interactions among multiple brain systems controlling motivated behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J Gruber

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Motivated behaviour exhibits properties that change with experience and partially dissociate among a number of brain structures. Here, we review evidence from rodent experiments demonstrating that multiple brain systems acquire information in parallel and either cooperate or compete for behavioural control. We propose a conceptual model of systems interaction wherein a ventral emotional memory network involving ventral striatum, amygdala, ventral hippocampus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex triages behavioural responding to stimuli according to their associated affective outcomes. This system engages autonomic and postural responding (avoiding, ignoring, approaching in accordance with associated stimulus valence (negative, neutral, positive, but does not engage particular operant responses. Rather, this emotional system suppresses or invigorates actions that are selected through competition between goal-directed control involving dorsomedial striatum and habitual control involving dorsolateral striatum. The hippocampus provides contextual specificity to the emotional system, and provides an information rich input to the goal-directed system for navigation and discriminations involving ambiguous contexts, complex sensory configurations, or temporal ordering. The rapid acquisition and high capacity for episodic associations in the emotional system may unburden the more complex goal-directed system and reduce interference in the habit system from processing contingencies of neutral stimuli. Interactions among these systems likely involve inhibitory mechanisms and neuromodulation in the basal ganglia to form a dominant response strategy. Innate traits, training methods, and task demands contribute to the nature of these interactions, which can include incidental learning in non-dominant systems. Addition of these features to reinforcement learning models of decision making may better align theoretical predictions with behavioural and neural

  17. Impact of Pilates Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Whitney R D; Andrushko, Justin W; Renshaw, Doug W; Chilibeck, Philip D; Farthing, Jonathan P; Danielson, Jana; Evans, Charity D

    2018-01-01

    Pilates is a series of exercises based on whole-body movement and may improve mobility in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Pilates on walking performance in people with MS. 30 individuals with MS who were not restricted to a wheelchair or scooter (Patient-Determined Disease Steps scale score Pilates (twice weekly) and massage therapy (once weekly) or once-weekly massage therapy only (control group). The Pilates was delivered in a group setting (five to ten participants per session). The primary outcome was change in walking performance (6-Minute Walk Test) after 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included functional ability (Timed Up and Go test), balance (Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale), flexibility (sit and reach test), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), core endurance (plank-hold test), and muscle strength and voluntary activation (quadriceps). Intention-to-treat analysis was performed using a two-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance. Walking distance increased by a mean (SD) of 52.4 (40.2) m in the Pilates group versus 15.0 (34.1) m in the control group (group × time, P = .01). Mean (SD) time to complete the Timed Up and Go test decreased by 1.5 (2.8) seconds in the Pilates group versus an increase of 0.3 (0.9) seconds in the control group (group × time, P = .03). There were no other significant differences between groups over time. Pilates improved walking performance and functional ability in persons with MS and is a viable exercise option to help manage the disease.

  18. False discovery rate control incorporating phylogenetic tree increases detection power in microbiome-wide multiple testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian; Cao, Hongyuan; Chen, Jun

    2017-09-15

    Next generation sequencing technologies have enabled the study of the human microbiome through direct sequencing of microbial DNA, resulting in an enormous amount of microbiome sequencing data. One unique characteristic of microbiome data is the phylogenetic tree that relates all the bacterial species. Closely related bacterial species have a tendency to exhibit a similar relationship with the environment or disease. Thus, incorporating the phylogenetic tree information can potentially improve the detection power for microbiome-wide association studies, where hundreds or thousands of tests are conducted simultaneously to identify bacterial species associated with a phenotype of interest. Despite much progress in multiple testing procedures such as false discovery rate (FDR) control, methods that take into account the phylogenetic tree are largely limited. We propose a new FDR control procedure that incorporates the prior structure information and apply it to microbiome data. The proposed procedure is based on a hierarchical model, where a structure-based prior distribution is designed to utilize the phylogenetic tree. By borrowing information from neighboring bacterial species, we are able to improve the statistical power of detecting associated bacterial species while controlling the FDR at desired levels. When the phylogenetic tree is mis-specified or non-informative, our procedure achieves a similar power as traditional procedures that do not take into account the tree structure. We demonstrate the performance of our method through extensive simulations and real microbiome datasets. We identified far more alcohol-drinking associated bacterial species than traditional methods. R package StructFDR is available from CRAN. chen.jun2@mayo.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Multiple hereditary exostoses and ischiofemoral impingement: a case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoong, Philip; Mansour, Ramy; Teh, James L. [Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Radiology, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    To assess whether there is a significant difference in the ischiofemoral space in patients with multiple hereditary exostoses affecting the proximal femora compared to normal patients. Ischiofemoral impingement is an increasingly recognized cause of hip and buttock pain. This causes narrowing of the ischiofemoral space resulting in an abnormal quadratus femoris muscle. We performed a retrospective search for individuals with MHE with proximal femoral involvement on pelvic MRI over a 7-year period (2006-2013). Suitable patients were age- and sex-matched with a control group. The minimum ischiofemoral space (MIFS) was recorded in each hip, as was the presence of edema and atrophy of quadratus femoris and concomitant hip osteoarthrosis. MRI features suggestive of ischiofemoral impingement were defined as MIFS less than 10 mm or an abnormal quadratus femoris muscle. Twenty-one hips in 11 individuals with MHE were included in the study. A total of 42 hips were analyzed. The mean age was 37 years (range, 13-72 years) and 55 % were male. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the MIHS in individuals with MHE (mean, 10.7 mm, range, 0-21 mm) compared to a control group (mean, 18.1 mm, range, 10.5-26.5 mm). MRI features suggestive of ischiofemoral impingement were seen in 13/21 (62 %) hips in the MHE group and 0/21 (0 %) in the control group. The reduced ischiofemoral space and associated quadratus femoris abnormalities in patients with MHE involving the proximal femora may account for hip/buttock symptoms in the absence of significant degenerative change. (orig.)

  20. The Effects of Forest Therapy on Coping with Chronic Widespread Pain: Physiological and Psychological Differences between Participants in a Forest Therapy Program and a Control Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Woo; Choi, Han; Jeon, Yo-Han; Yoon, Chong-Hyeon; Woo, Jong-Min; Kim, Won

    2016-02-24

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a two-day forest therapy program on individuals with chronic widespread pain. Sixty one employees of a public organization providing building and facilities management services within the Seoul Metropolitan area participated in the study. Participants were assigned to an experimental group (n = 33) who participated in a forest therapy program or a control group (n = 28) on a non-random basis. Pre- and post-measures of heart rate variability (HRV), Natural Killer cell (NK cell) activity, self-reported pain using the visual analog scale (VAS), depression level using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and health-related quality of life measures using the EuroQol Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS) were collected in both groups. The results showed that participants in the forest therapy group, as compared to the control group, showed physiological improvement as indicated by a significant increase in some measures of HRV and an increase in immune competence as indicated by NK cell activity. Participants in the forest therapy group also reported significant decreases in pain and depression, and a significant improvement in health-related quality of life. These results support the hypothesis that forest therapy is an effective intervention to relieve pain and associated psychological and physiological symptoms in individuals with chronic widespread pain.

  1. The Effects of Forest Therapy on Coping with Chronic Widespread Pain: Physiological and Psychological Differences between Participants in a Forest Therapy Program and a Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Woo Han

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of a two-day forest therapy program on individuals with chronic widespread pain. Sixty one employees of a public organization providing building and facilities management services within the Seoul Metropolitan area participated in the study. Participants were assigned to an experimental group (n = 33 who participated in a forest therapy program or a control group (n = 28 on a non-random basis. Pre- and post-measures of heart rate variability (HRV, Natural Killer cell (NK cell activity, self-reported pain using the visual analog scale (VAS, depression level using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and health-related quality of life measures using the EuroQol Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS were collected in both groups. The results showed that participants in the forest therapy group, as compared to the control group, showed physiological improvement as indicated by a significant increase in some measures of HRV and an increase in immune competence as indicated by NK cell activity. Participants in the forest therapy group also reported significant decreases in pain and depression, and a significant improvement in health-related quality of life. These results support the hypothesis that forest therapy is an effective intervention to relieve pain and associated psychological and physiological symptoms in individuals with chronic widespread pain.

  2. The effect of music therapy on depression and physiological parameters in elderly people living in a Turkish nursing home: a randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gök Ugur, Hacer; Yaman Aktaş, Yeşim; Orak, Oya Sevcan; Saglambilen, Okan; Aydin Avci, İlknur

    2017-12-01

    This study was carried out in an effort to determine the effect of music therapy on depression and physiological parameters in elderly people who were living in a nursing home. The study was a randomized controlled trial. The study sample consisted of 64 elderly people who complied with the criteria of inclusion for the study. The data were collected using the 'Elderly Information Form' and 'Geriatric Depression Scale'. The music group listened to music three days in a week during 8 weeks. The depression levels were assessed at baseline (week 0) and follow-up in the eight week. It was found that the difference between post-test depression scores of the two groups was found to be statistically significant (t = -2.86, p depression level and systolic blood pressure in elderly people. The study results implies that music therapy can be an effective practice for public health and home care nurses attempting to reduce depression and control physiological parameters of elderly people.

  3. Teaching physics in a physiologically meaningful manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Plomer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The learning outcome of a physics laboratory course for medical students was examined in an interdisciplinary field study and discussed for the electrical physiology (“Propagation of Excitation and Nerve Cells”. At the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich (LMU at a time about 300 medicine students were assessed in two successive years. Students from the control group worked with standard experiments, while students from the treatment group performed newly developed “addressee-specific” experiments, designed to guide students to transfer physics knowledge to physiological problems. The assessment took place within the laboratory course on physiology, after the students had finished their laboratory classes in physics, and consisted of the construction of a concept map with additional multiple choice questions. The results showed that standard physics experiments are not adequate for teaching students to transfer physical principles to physiology. Introducing new addressee-specific experiments enriched the physics laboratory course by improving student attitudes toward physics and demonstrating better ability of students to relate concepts of physics and medicine, and overall to improve their understanding of the physics taught in the course.

  4. Muscle Synergies Control during Hand-Reaching Tasks in Multiple Directions Post-stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Israely

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A muscle synergies model was suggested to represent a simplifying motor control mechanism by the brainstem and spinal cord. The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of such control mechanisms in the rehabilitation of post-stroke individuals during the execution of hand-reaching movements in multiple directions, compared to non-stroke individuals.Methods: Twelve non-stroke and 13 post-stroke individuals participated in the study. Muscle synergies were extracted from EMG data that was recorded during hand reaching tasks, using the NMF algorithm. The optimal number of synergies was evaluated in both groups using the Variance Accounted For (VAF and the Mean Squared Error (MSE. A cross validation procedure was carried out to define a representative set of synergies. The similarity index and the K-means algorithm were applied to validate the existence of such a set of synergies, but also to compare the modulation properties of synergies for different movement directions between groups. The similarity index and hierarchical cluster analysis were also applied to compare between group synergies.Results: Four synergies were chosen to optimally capture the variances in the EMG data, with mean VAF of 0.917 ± 0.034 and 0.883 ± 0.046 of the data variances, with respective MSE of 0.007 and 0.016, in the control and study groups, respectively. The representative set of synergies was set to be extracted from movement to the center of the reaching space. Two synergies had different muscle activation balance between groups. Seven and 17 clusters partitioned the muscle synergies of the control and study groups. The control group exhibited a gradual change in the activation in the amplitude in the time domain (modulation of synergies, as reflected by the similarity index, whereas the study group exhibited consistently significant differences between all movement directions and the representative set of synergies. The study findings support

  5. A retrospective likelihood approach for efficient integration of multiple omics factors in case-control association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliu, Brunilda; Tsonaka, Roula; Boehringer, Stefan; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine

    2015-03-01

    Integrative omics, the joint analysis of outcome and multiple types of omics data, such as genomics, epigenomics, and transcriptomics data, constitute a promising approach for powerful and biologically relevant association studies. These studies often employ a case-control design, and often include nonomics covariates, such as age and gender, that may modify the underlying omics risk factors. An open question is how to best integrate multiple omics and nonomics information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals based on the phenotype. Recent work on integrative omics have used prospective approaches, modeling case-control status conditional on omics, and nonomics risk factors. Compared to univariate approaches, jointly analyzing multiple risk factors with a prospective approach increases power in nonascertained cohorts. However, these prospective approaches often lose power in case-control studies. In this article, we propose a novel statistical method for integrating multiple omics and nonomics factors in case-control association studies. Our method is based on a retrospective likelihood function that models the joint distribution of omics and nonomics factors conditional on case-control status. The new method provides accurate control of Type I error rate and has increased efficiency over prospective approaches in both simulated and real data. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Control and design of multiple unmanned air vehicles for persistent surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Nikhil

    Control of multiple autonomous aircraft for search and exploration, is a topic of current research interest for applications such as weather monitoring, geographical surveys, search and rescue, tactical reconnaissance, and extra-terrestrial exploration, and the need to distribute sensing is driven by considerations of efficiency, reliability, cost and scalability. Hence, this problem has been extensively studied in the fields of controls and artificial intelligence. The task of persistent surveillance is different from a coverage/exploration problem, in that all areas need to be continuously searched, minimizing the time between visitations to each region in the target space. This distinction does not allow a straightforward application of most exploration techniques to the problem, although ideas from these methods can still be used. The use of aerial vehicles is motivated by their ability to cover larger spaces and their relative insensitivity to terrain. However, the dynamics of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) adds complexity to the control problem. Most of the work in the literature decouples the vehicle dynamics and control policies, but their interaction is particularly interesting for a surveillance mission. Stochastic environments and UAV failures further enrich the problem by requiring the control policies to be robust, and this aspect is particularly important for hardware implementations. For a persistent mission, it becomes imperative to consider the range/endurance constraints of the vehicles. The coupling of the control policy with the endurance constraints of the vehicles is an aspect that has not been sufficiently explored. Design of UAVs for desirable mission performance is also an issue of considerable significance. The use of a single monolithic optimization for such a problem has practical limitations, and decomposition-based design is a potential alternative. In this research high-level control policies are devised, that are scalable, reliable

  7. Paper-Based Digital Microfluidic Chip for Multiple Electrochemical Assay Operated by a Wireless Portable Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruecha, Nipapan; Lee, Jumi; Chae, Heedo

    2017-01-01

    for multiple analysis assays are fabricated by affordable printing techniques. For enhanced sensitivity of the sensor, the working electrode is modified through the electrochemical method, namely by reducing graphene with voltammetry and coating gold nanoparticles by amperometry. Detachable sensor and absorber...... designed portable power supply and wireless control system, the active paper-based chip platform can be utilized as an advanced point-of-care device for multiple assays in digital microfluidics....

  8. The Effect of 12 Weeks Individualized Combined Exercise Rehabilitation Training on Physiological Cost Index (PCI and Walking Speed in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis at all Levels of Physical Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Narimani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Most research on the effects of exercise on people with MS rehabilitation exercises sclerosis (MS  have been carried out on patients with low to moderate disability, but research on patients with different severity of disability (physical disability scale of zero to 10 still has to be carefully considered. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of twelve weeks of rehabilitation exercises personalized compound exercise on physiological cost index (PCI and average speed walking in patients with MS at various levels of disability. Methods: The present research was a semi-experimental practical study. Thus among female patients admitted to the MS Association of Shahrekord city, 96 people were chosen on the basis of physical disability scores and divided into three groups. The first group consisted of less than 5/4 a total of 44 people, the second group between 5/65 and 5/6 up third of each 26 patients were then randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. Afterwards each group was divided randomly into an experimental group and a control group. The first group (the scale of disability less than 4.5, N= 44. The second group (the scale of disability 5 - 6.5, N=26. Also 26 patients were in the third group (the scale of disability 6.5 and above. In addition, they were divided into 6 experimental and control groups. Training programs for experimental groups were 12 weeks, three sessions per week and one hour for each session. Factors such as physiological cost index and walking speed were measured with the appropriate tools before and after training. The experimental groups of 1, 2 and 3 each did their own intervention, while the control groups received only stretching exercises. Analysis of data obtained from 96 patients studied was done using descriptive statistics and the analysis of covariance and paired comparing of the adjusted means (P<0.05. ‌‌‌ Results: A significant difference in walking

  9. Physiological responses to hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Thomas; Thoresen, Marianne

    2015-04-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is the only treatment currently recommended for moderate or severe encephalopathy of hypoxic‒ischaemic origin in term neonates. Though the effects of hypothermia on human physiology have been explored for many decades, much of the data comes from animal or adult studies; the latter originally after accidental hypothermia, followed by application of controlled hypothermia after cardiac arrest or trauma, or during cardiopulmonary bypass. Though this work is informative, the effects of hypothermia on neonatal physiology after perinatal asphyxia must be considered in the context of a prolonged hypoxic insult that has already induced a number of significant physiological sequelae. This article reviews the effects of therapeutic hypothermia on respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic parameters, including glycaemic control and feeding requirements. The potential pitfalls of blood‒gas analysis and overtreatment of physiological changes in cardiovascular parameters are also discussed. Finally, the effects of hypothermia on drug metabolism are covered, focusing on how the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and dosing requirements of drugs frequently used in neonatal intensive care may change during therapeutic hypothermia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism has opposite effects on memory circuits of multiple sclerosis patients and controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Fera

    Full Text Available Episodic memory deficits are frequent symptoms in Multiple Sclerosis and have been associated with dysfunctions of the hippocampus, a key region for learning. However, it is unclear whether genetic factors that influence neural plasticity modulate episodic memory in MS. We thus studied how the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val(66Met genotype, a common polymorphism influencing the hippocampal function in healthy controls, impacted on brain networks underlying episodic memory in patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess how the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val(66Met polymorphism modulated brain regional activity and functional connectivity in 26 cognitively unimpaired Multiple Sclerosis patients and 25 age- and education-matched healthy controls while performing an episodic memory task that included encoding and retrieving visual scenes. We found a highly significant group by genotype interaction in the left posterior hippocampus, bilateral parahippocampus, and left posterior cingulate cortex. In particular, Multiple Sclerosis patients homozygous for the Val(66 allele, relative to Met(66 carriers, showed greater brain responses during both encoding and retrieval while the opposite was true for healthy controls. Furthermore, a robust group by genotype by task interaction was detected for the functional connectivity between the left posterior hippocampus and the ipsilateral posterior cingulate cortex. Here, greater hippocampus-posterior cingulate cortex connectivity was observed in Multiple Sclerosis Met(66 carriers relative to Val(66 homozygous during retrieval (but not encoding while, again, the reverse was true for healthy controls. The Val(66Met polymorphism has opposite effects on hippocampal circuitry underlying episodic memory in Multiple Sclerosis patients and healthy controls. Enhancing the knowledge of how genetic factors influence cognitive functions may improve the clinical

  11. Assessment of operators' mental workload using physiological and subjective measures in cement, city traffic and power plant control centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Majid; Motamedzade, Majid; Heidarimoghadam, Rashid; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Miyake, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the operators' mental workload (MW) of cement, city traffic control and power plant control centers using subjective and objective measures during system vital parameters monitoring. This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2014 to February 2015 at the cement, city traffic control and power plant control centers. Electrocardiography and electroencephalography data were recorded from forty males during performing their daily working in resting, low mental workload (LMW), high mental workload (HMW) and recovery conditions (each block 5 minutes). The NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) was used to evaluate the subjective workload of the operators. The results showed that increasing MW had a significant effect on the operators subjective responses in two conditions ([1,53] = 216.303, P < 0.001, η2 = 0.803). Also,the Task-MW interaction effect on operators subjective responses was significant (F [3, 53] = 12.628,P < 0.001, η2 = 0.417). Analysis of repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that increasing mental demands had a significant effect on heart rate, low frequency/high frequency ratio, theta and alpha band activity. The results suggested that when operators' mental demands especially in traffic control and power plant tasks increased, their mental fatigue and stress level increased and their mental health deteriorated. Therefore, it may be necessary to implement an ergonomic program or administrative control to manage mental probably health in these control centers. Furthermore, by evaluating MW, the control center director can organize the human resources for each MW condition to sustain the appropriate performance as well as improve system functions.

  12. Assessment of operators’ mental workload using physiological and subjective measures in cement, city traffic and power plant control centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Majid; Motamedzade, Majid; Heidarimoghadam, Rashid; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Miyake, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the operators’ mental workload (MW) of cement, city traffic control and power plant control centers using subjective and objective measures during system vital parameters monitoring. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2014 to February 2015 at the cement, city traffic control and power plant control centers. Electrocardiography and electroencephalography data were recorded from forty males during performing their daily working in resting, low mental workload (LMW), high mental workload (HMW) and recovery conditions (each block 5 minutes). The NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) was used to evaluate the subjective workload of the operators. Results: The results showed that increasing MW had a significant effect on the operators subjective responses in two conditions ([1,53] = 216.303, P < 0.001, η2 = 0.803). Also,the Task-MW interaction effect on operators subjective responses was significant (F [3, 53] = 12.628,P < 0.001, η2 = 0.417). Analysis of repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that increasing mental demands had a significant effect on heart rate, low frequency/high frequency ratio, theta and alpha band activity. Conclusion: The results suggested that when operators’ mental demands especially in traffic control and power plant tasks increased, their mental fatigue and stress level increased and their mental health deteriorated. Therefore, it may be necessary to implement an ergonomic program or administrative control to manage mental probably health in these control centers. Furthermore, by evaluating MW, the control center director can organize the human resources for each MW condition to sustain the appropriate performance as well as improve system functions. PMID:27386425

  13. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  14. Food and dietary patterns and multiple sclerosis: a case-control study in Belgrade (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana D. Pekmezovic

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The aetiology of multiple sclerosis (MS is unclear, but numerous studies suggest that different exogenous factors can lead to the development of the disease in genetically susceptible individuals. The objective of this case-control study was to determine the role of food and dietary patterns in patients with MS in the population of Belgrade (Serbia.

    Methods: In this matched case-control study, we included 110 cases with definite MS according to McDonald’s criteria, in whom the onset symptoms occurred up to 2 years prior to the interview, who were followed-up at the Institute of Neurology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade. The identical number of controls from the same institution, individually matched by sex, age and area of residence, was recruited from patients with various non-autoimmune neurological disorders. Dietary information was obtained by using a frequency history approach.

    Results: According to univariate conditional logistic regression analysis the following factors were significantly related to MS: body mass index (BMI less than 25 (OR=2.2, p=0.009, frequent consumption of beef (OR=1.7, p=0.043, chicken (OR=2.0, p=0.045, meat of the lamb (OR=2.1, p=0.013, butter (OR=1.7, p=0.056 and ice-cream (OR=1.8, p=0.031, with dose-response relationship. Consumption of majority of various fruit was more frequently reported by controls. According to multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, BMI less than 25 (OR=2.3, p=0.008, consumption (weekly of beef (OR=2.0, p=0.017 and butter (OR=1.9, p=0.027 was significantly related to MS, while regular consumption of cherry (OR=0.4, p=0.024 had protective role.

    Conclusions: This study might assist in potential defining of the dietary factors that could contribute to the risk of developing MS.

  15. Environmental risk factors in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis in Kayseri: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servin Yeşil Günal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: our purpose is to evaluate the possible relationship between multiple sclerosis (MS and environmental factors in Kayseri.Methods: this case control study was conducted on 100 patients with MS and 100 sex-aged and residential area matched control. Data was collected by using face to face interviews. Questionnaire consisted of two parts. The first part was comprised of items related with the participants’ sociodemographic features. The second part was related with factors thought to be involved in the occurrence or aggravation of the disease. The Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for analysis.Results: logistic regression analysis revealed the following as possible risk factors in MS cases: economic status (Odds Ratio (OR: 0.14 adjusted 7.19; Confidence Interval 95% (CI: 0.05-0.43, having a sensitive personality (OR:4.51; 95% CI: 1.10-18.45, familial history of MS (OR:3.28; 95% CI: 1.3-8.27, history of cranial and spinal injury (OR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.11-8.08, cooking oil consumption (OR:0.07 adjusted 13.5; 95% CI: 0.03-0.20, consumption of legumes and grains (OR: 0.11 adjusted 8.9; 95% CI: 0.03-0.41, and living in dwellings within a distance of 500 meters from transformer basestations (OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 1.54-28.21.Conclusions: we believe that it is necessary to inform the individuals about the risk of MS and their relatives of the results of large-scale joint studies and to offer suggestions based on the data obtained.

  16. A systems biology approach to studying Tai Chi, physiological complexity and healthy aging: design and rationale of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Peter M; Manor, Brad; Novak, Vera; Costa, Madelena D; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Goldberger, Ary L; Ahn, Andrew C; Yeh, Gloria Y; Peng, C-K; Lough, Matthew; Davis, Roger B; Quilty, Mary T; Lipsitz, Lewis A

    2013-01-01

    Aging is typically associated with progressive multi-system impairment that leads to decreased physical and cognitive function and reduced adaptability to stress. Due to its capacity to characterize complex dynamics within and between physiological systems, the emerging field of complex systems biology and its array of quantitative tools show great promise for improving our understanding of aging, monitoring senescence, and providing biomarkers for evaluating novel interventions, including promising mind-body exercises, that treat age-related disease and promote healthy aging. An ongoing, two-arm randomized clinical trial is evaluating the potential of Tai Chi mind-body exercise to attenuate age-related loss of complexity. A total of 60 Tai Chi-naïve healthy older adults (aged 50-79) are being randomized to either six months of Tai Chi training (n=30), or to a waitlist control receiving unaltered usual medical care (n=30). Our primary outcomes are complexity-based measures of heart rate, standing postural sway and gait stride interval dynamics assessed at 3 and 6months. Multiscale entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis are used as entropy- and fractal-based measures of complexity, respectively. Secondary outcomes include measures of physical and psychological function and tests of physiological adaptability also assessed at 3 and 6months. Results of this study may lead to novel biomarkers that help us monitor and understand the physiological processes of aging and explore the potential benefits of Tai Chi and related mind-body exercises for healthy aging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of levetiracetam in central pain in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falah, M; Madsen, C; Holbech, J V

    2012-01-01

    sclerosis. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial with levetiracetam 3000 mg/day versus placebo (6-week treatment periods). Patients with multiple sclerosis, symptoms and signs complying with central neuropathic pain and pain symptoms for more than 6 months, as well....... Twenty-seven patients were included in the data analysis. There were no differences in the ratings of pain relief (levetiracetam 2.4 vs. placebo 2.1, p = 0.169), total pain intensity (levetiracetam 5.3 vs. placebo 5.7, p = 0.147) or any of the other outcome measures (p = 0.086-0.715) in the total sample...... of patients. However, there was significant reduction of pain, increased pain relief and/or more favourable pain relief with levetiracetam than with placebo in patients with lancinating or without touch-evoked pain (p = 0.025-0.046). This study found no effect of the anticonvulsant levetiracetam in non...

  18. [Physiotherapy and neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction in multiple sclerosis patients: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, L; Tombal, B; Opsomer, R-J; Castille, Y; Van Pesch, V; Detrembleur, C

    2014-09-01

    This randomized controlled trial compare the efficacy of pelvic floor muscle training vs. transcutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation. Inclusion criteria were EDSS scoreurinary tract symptoms. Exclusion criteria were multiple sclerosis relapse during the study, active urinary tract infection and pregnancy. The primary outcome was quality of life (SF-Qualiveen questionnaire). Secondary outcomes included overactive bladder (USP questionnaire) score and frequency of urgency episodes (3-day bladder diary). Sample size was calculated after 18 patients were included. Data analysis was blinded. Each patient received 9 sessions of 30 minutes weekly. Patients were randomized in pelvic floor muscles exercises with biofeedback group (muscle endurance and relaxation) or transcutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation group (rectangular alternative biphasic current with low frequency). A total of 31 patients were included. No difference appeared between groups for quality of life, overactive bladder and frequency of urgency episodes (respectively P=0.197, P=0.532 et P=0.788). These parameters were significantly improved in pelvic floor muscle training group (n=16) (respectively P=0.004, P=0.002 et P=0.006) and in transcutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation group (n=15) (respectively P=0.001, P=0.001 et P=0.031). Pelvic floor muscle training and transcutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation improved in the same way symptoms related to urgency in MS patients with mild disability. 2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in pregnancies with multiple sclerosis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Serenat Eris; Yalcin, Yakup; Yavuz, And; Akkurt, Mehmet Ozgur; Sezik, Mekin

    2017-05-24

    To assess whether maternal multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes by determining the clinical course of disease during pregnancy and postpartum throughout a 10-year-period in a single tertiary center. We conducted a case-control study that included pregnancies with a definitive diagnosis of MS (n=43), matched with 100 healthy pregnant women with similar characteristics. Maternal and perinatal data were retrieved from hospital files. Groups were compared with the Mann-Whitney and χ2 tests. Logistic regression models were constructed to determine independent effects. Maternal demographic and baseline laboratory data were similar across the groups. Rates of preterm delivery, fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, stillbirth, cesarean delivery, congenital malformation, and 5-min Apgar score were comparable (P>0.05 for all). General anesthesia during cesarean delivery (96% vs. 39%, P=0.002), urinary tract infection (UTI) (12% vs. 3%, P=0.04), low 1-min Apgar score (21% vs. 9%, P=0.04), and nonbreastfeeding (33% vs. 2%, P=0.001) were more frequent in women with MS. The low 1-min Apgar score and breastfeeding rates were independent of general anesthesia and UTI in regression models. MS during pregnancy was not associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes except UTI, low 1-min Apgar scores, and decreased breastfeeding rates.

  20. Air Traffic Controller Performance and Acceptability of Multiple UAS in a Simulated NAS Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Strybel, Thomas; Chiappe, Dan; Morales, Greg; Battiste, Vernol; Shively, Robert Jay

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that air traffic controllers (ATCos) rated UAS pilot verbal response latencies as acceptable when a 1.5 s delay was added to the UAS pilot responses, but a 5 s delay was rated as mostly unacceptable. In the present study we determined whether a 1.5 s added delay in the UAS pilots' verbal communications would affect ATCos interactions with UAS and other conventional aircraft when the number and speed of the UAS were manipulated. Eight radar-certified ATCos participated in this simulation. The ATCos managed a medium altitude sector containing arrival aircraft, en route aircraft, and one to four UAS. The UAS were conducting a surveillance mission and flew at either a "slow" or "fast" speed. We measured both UAS and conventional pilots' verbal communication latencies, and obtained ATCos' acceptability ratings for these latencies. Although the UAS pilot response latencies were longer than those of conventional pilots, the ATCos rated UAS pilot verbal communication latencies to be as acceptable as those of conventional pilots. Because the overall traffic load within the sector was held constant, ATCos only performed slightly worse when multiple UAS were in their sector compared to when only one UAS was in the sector. Implications of these findings for UAS integration in the NAS are discussed.

  1. Community integration outcomes of people with spinal cord injury and multiple matched controls: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Libby; Enticott, Joanne; Farnworth, Louise; McDonald, Rachael; Migliorini, Christine; Willer, Barry

    2017-06-01

    Australia's National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) is designed to influence home, social and economic participation for Scheme participants. Given the major disability reform underway, this pilot study aimed to: (i) examine community integration outcomes of people with spinal cord injury (SCI); (ii) compare findings with multiple matched controls and (iii) consider findings within the context of Australia's NDIS. Setting: Victoria, Australia. Matched analysis (people with and without SCI). Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ). n = 40 adults with SCI (M age = 52.8 years; 61% male; 77% traumatic SCI). Matched analyses from each SCI subject aged integration (ρ = 0.02). Relative risk of low home integration was significant in the SCI cohort (conditional RR (95% CI) = 3.1 (1.5-6.3), ρ = 0.001). Relative risk of low CIQ total, social integration and productivity scores did not reach significance. This cohort of SCI participants was less integrated into home and productive occupations than matched norms, holding implications for planning and allocation of supports to influence outcomes within an NDIS. Further research is necessary to understand community integration outcomes in larger matched samples. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  2. Body composition differences between adults with multiple sclerosis and BMI-matched controls without MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Brooks C; Young, Hui-Ju; Motl, Robert W

    2018-04-01

    Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) have many health conditions related to overweight and obesity, but little is known about how body composition among those with MS compares to those without MS at the same weight. To compare differences in whole body and regional body composition between persons with and without MS matched for sex and body mass index (BMI). Persons with MS (n = 51) and non-MS controls (n = 51) matched for sex and BMI. Total mass, lean mass, fat mass, and percent body fat (%BF) of total body and arm, leg, and trunk segments were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Men with MS had significantly less whole body lean mass (mean difference: 9933.5 ± 3123.1 g, p MS counterparts. Further, men with MS had significantly lower lean mass in the arm (p = 0.02) and leg (p MS. Men with MS had significantly higher %BF in all three regions (p MS. There were no differences between women with and without MS. We observed significant differences in whole body and regional body composition between BMI-matched men with and without MS. Additional research is needed to further explore differences in body composition, adipose distribution, and the impact of these differences on the health and function of men with MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiple sensors control reciprocal expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa regulatory RNA and virulence genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ventre, I.; Goodman, A.L.; Vallet-Gely, I.

    2006-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is responsible for a wide range of acute and chronic infections. The transition to chronic infections is accompanied by physiological changes in the bacteria favoring formation of biofilm communities. Here we report the identification of LadS, a h...

  4. Quantitative rest activity in ambulatory monitoring as a physiological marker of restless legs syndrome: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuisku, Katinka; Holi, Matti Mikael; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Ahlgren, Aulikki Johanna; Lauerma, Hannu

    2003-04-01

    An objective marker of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is needed for developing diagnostic tools and monitoring symptoms. Actometric ambulatory monitoring of 15 RLS patients and 15 healthy controls was undertaken in order to differentiate between RLS-related motor symptoms and normal motor activity. Nocturnal lower-limb activity per minute differentiated and discriminated between groups with no overlap, whereas the periodic limb movement index and the controlled rest activity during sitting showed less discriminative power. The naturalistic recording of nocturnal activity by actometry may prove useful for assessing the severity of RLS and for finding an objective marker to support the diagnosis of RLS. Copyright 2002 Movement Disorder Society

  5. Randomized placebo-controlled phase II trial of autologous mesenchymal stem cells in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Llufriu

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled studies of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in multiple sclerosis suggested some beneficial effect. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover phase II study we investigated their safety and efficacy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of cumulative number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions (GEL on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at 6 months and at the end of the study.Patients unresponsive to conventional therapy, defined by at least 1 relapse and/or GEL on MRI scan in past 12 months, disease duration 2 to 10 years and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS 3.0-6.5 were randomized to receive IV 1-2×10(6 bone-marrow-derived-MSCs/Kg or placebo. After 6 months, the treatment was reversed and patients were followed-up for another 6 months. Secondary endpoints were clinical outcomes (relapses and disability by EDSS and MS Functional Composite, and several brain MRI and optical coherence tomography measures. Immunological tests were explored to assess the immunomodulatory effects.At baseline 9 patients were randomized to receive MSCs (n = 5 or placebo (n = 4. One patient on placebo withdrew after having 3 relapses in the first 5 months. We did not identify any serious adverse events. At 6 months, patients treated with MSCs had a trend to lower mean cumulative number of GEL (3.1, 95% CI = 1.1-8.8 vs 12.3, 95% CI = 4.4-34.5, p = 0.064, and at the end of study to reduced mean GEL (-2.8±5.9 vs 3±5.4, p = 0.075. No significant treatment differences were detected in the secondary endpoints. We observed a non-significant decrease of the frequency of Th1 (CD4+ IFN-γ+ cells in blood of MSCs treated patients.Bone-marrow-MSCs are safe and may reduce inflammatory MRI parameters supporting their immunomodulatory properties. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01228266.

  6. Aerospace physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This document defines the protocol standards for the Internet Protocol Suite (IPS), which is commonly referred to as Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocols used for data communications within the National Airspace System (...

  7. Evaluation of Hemodynamic Properties of Cerebral Venous Drainage in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Case-Control Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandaghi, Ali Babaei; Amanian, Dayan; Roudbari, Seyed Ali; Kanafi, Alireza Rajabzadeh; Pourghorban, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy control subjects as regards hemodynamics of cerebral venous drainage. Between December 2012 and May 2013, 44 consecutive patients with multiple sclerosis and 44 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects underwent the B-mode, color Doppler, and duplex Doppler evaluations of the internal jugular vein (IJV) and vertebral vein. The following four parameters were investigated: IJV stenosis, reversal of postural control of the cerebral venous outflow pathways, absence of detectable blood flow in the IJVs and/or vertebral veins, and reflux in the IJVs and/or vertebral veins in the sitting or supine position. In the study group, IJV stenosis, postural control reversal of the cerebral venous outflow pathways, and absence of flow in the IJVs and/or vertebral veins were found in 3 (6.8%), 2 (4.5%), and 3 (6.8%) patients, respectively. In the control group, IJV stenosis (P=0.12), postural control reversal of the cerebral venous outflow pathways (P=0.50), and absence of flow (P=0.12) were not detected. Abnormal reflux was found neither in multiple sclerosis patients nor in healthy subjects. No significant difference in the cerebral venous drainage through the IJV or vertebral vein was found between patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy subjects within any of the investigated ultrasonographic parameters

  8. Application of Physiological Self-Regulation and Adaptive Task Allocation Techniques for Controlling Operator Hazardous States of Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Pope, Alan T.; Freeman, Frederick G.

    2001-01-01

    Prinzel, Hadley, Freeman, and Mikulka found that adaptive task allocation significantly enhanced performance only when used at the endpoints of the task workload continuum (i.e., very low or high workload), but that the technique degraded performance if invoked during other levels of task demand. These researchers suggested that other techniques should be used in conjunction with adaptive automation to help minimize the onset of hazardous states of awareness (HSA) and keep the operator 'in-the-loop.' The paper reports on such a technique that uses psychophysiological self-regulation to modulate the level of task engagement. Eighteen participants were assigned to three groups (self-regulation, false feedback, and control) and performed a compensatory tracking task that was cycled between three levels of task difficulty on the basis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) record. Those participants who had received self-regulation training performed significantly better and reported lower NASA-TLX scores than participants in the false feedback and control groups. Furthermore, the false feedback and control groups had significantly more task allocations resulting in return-to-manual performance decrements and higher EEG difference scores. Theoretical and practical implications of these results for adaptive automation are discussed.

  9. Optical Control of Intersubband Absorption in a Multiple Quantum Well-Embedded Semiconductor Microcravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ansheng; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2000-01-01

    Optical intersubband response of a multiple quantum well (MQW)-embedded microcavity driven by a coherent pump field is studied theoretically. The n-type doped MQW structure with three subbands in the conduction band is sandwiched between a semi-infinite medium and a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). A strong pump field couples the two upper subbands and a weak field probes the two lower subbands. To describe the optical response of the MQW-embedded microcavity, we adopt a semi-classical nonlocal response theory. Taking into account the pump-probe interaction, we derive the probe-induced current density associated with intersubband transitions from the single-particle density-matrix formalism. By incorporating the current density into the Maxwell equation, we solve the probe local field exactly by means of Green's function technique and the transfer-matrix method. We obtain an exact expression for the probe absorption coefficient of the microcavity. For a GaAs/Al(sub x)Ga(sub 1-x)As MQW structure sandwiched between a GaAs/AlAs DBR and vacuum, we performed numerical calculations of the probe absorption spectra for different parameters such as pump intensity, pump detuning, and cavity length. We find that the probe spectrum is strongly dependent on these parameters. In particular, we find that the combination of the cavity effect and the Autler-Townes effect results in a triplet in the optical spectrum of the MQW system. The optical absorption peak value and its location can be feasibly controlled by varying the pump intensity and detuning.

  10. Evaluation of biases present in the cohort multiple randomised controlled trial design: a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Candlish

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cohort multiple randomised controlled trial (cmRCT design provides an opportunity to incorporate the benefits of randomisation within clinical practice; thus reducing costs, integrating electronic healthcare records, and improving external validity. This study aims to address a key concern of the cmRCT design: refusal to treatment is only present in the intervention arm, and this may lead to bias and reduce statistical power. Methods We used simulation studies to assess the effect of this refusal, both random and related to event risk, on bias of the effect estimator and statistical power. A series of simulations were undertaken that represent a cmRCT trial with time-to-event endpoint. Intention-to-treat (ITT, per protocol (PP, and instrumental variable (IV analysis methods, two stage predictor substitution and two stage residual inclusion, were compared for various refusal scenarios. Results We found the IV methods provide a less biased estimator for the causal effect when refusal is present in the intervention arm, with the two stage residual inclusion method performing best with regards to minimum bias and sufficient power. We demonstrate that sample sizes should be adapted based on expected and actual refusal rates in order to be sufficiently powered for IV analysis. Conclusion We recommend running both an IV and ITT analyses in an individually randomised cmRCT as it is expected that the effect size of interest, or the effect we would observe in clinical practice, would lie somewhere between that estimated with ITT and IV analyses. The optimum (in terms of bias and power instrumental variable method was the two stage residual inclusion method. We recommend using adaptive power calculations, updating them as refusal rates are collected in the trial recruitment phase in order to be sufficiently powered for IV analysis.

  11. Multiple sclerosis patients have a diminished serologic response to vitamin D supplementation compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Pavan; Steele, Sonya U; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Revirajan, Nisha R; Marcus, Jacqueline; Dembele, Marieme; Cassard, Sandra D; Hollis, Bruce W; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Mowry, Ellen M

    2016-05-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is a risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS), and patients do not always show the expected response to vitamin D supplementation. We aimed to determine if vitamin D supplementation leads to a similar increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25(OH)D) levels in patients with MS and healthy controls (HCs). Participants in this open-label study were female, white, aged 18-60 years, had 25(OH)D levels ⩽ 75 nmol/l at screening, and had relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) or were HCs. Participants received 5000 IU/day of vitamin D3 for 90 days. Utilizing generalized estimating equations we examined the relationship between the primary outcome (serum 25(OH)D level) and the primary (MS versus HC status) and secondary predictors. For this study 27 MS patients and 30 HCs were enrolled. There was no significant difference in baseline 25(OH)D level or demographics except for higher body mass index (BMI) in the MS group (25.3 vs. 23.6 kg/m(2), p=0.035). In total, 24 MS subjects and 29 HCs completed the study. In a multivariate model accounting for BMI, medication adherence, and oral contraceptive use, MS patients had a 16.7 nmol/l (95%CI: 4.2, 29.2, p=0.008) lower increase in 25(OH)D levels compared with HCs. Patients with MS had a lower increase in 25(OH)D levels with supplementation, even after accounting for putative confounders. © The Author(s), 2015.

  12. Design and Integration of an All-Magnetic Attitude Control System for FASTSAT-HSV01's Multiple Pointing Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKock, Brandon; Sanders, Devon; Vanzwieten, Tannen; Capo-Lugo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The FASTSAT-HSV01 spacecraft is a microsatellite with magnetic torque rods as it sole attitude control actuator. FASTSAT s multiple payloads and mission functions require the Attitude Control System (ACS) to maintain Local Vertical Local Horizontal (LVLH)-referenced attitudes without spin-stabilization, while the pointing errors for some attitudes be significantly smaller than the previous best-demonstrated for this type of control system. The mission requires the ACS to hold multiple stable, unstable, and non-equilibrium attitudes, as well as eject a 3U CubeSat from an onboard P-POD and recover from the ensuing tumble. This paper describes the Attitude Control System, the reasons for design choices, how the ACS integrates with the rest of the spacecraft, and gives recommendations for potential future applications of the work.

  13. Randomized controlled trial of skin-to-skin contact from birth versus conventional incubator for physiological stabilization in 1200- to 2199-gram newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, N J; Linley, L L; Fawcus, S R

    2004-06-01

    Conventional care of prematurely born infants involves extended maternal-infant separation and incubator care. Recent research has shown that separation causes adverse effects. Maternal-infant skin-to-skin contact (SSC) provides an alternative habitat to the incubator, with proven benefits for stable prematures; this has not been established for unstable or newborn low-birthweight infants. SSC from birth was therefore compared to incubator care for infants between 1200 and 2199 g at birth. This was a prospective, unblinded, randomized controlled clinical trial; potential subjects were identified before delivery and randomized by computerized minimization technique at 5 min if eligible. Standardized care and observations were maintained for 6 h. Stability was measured in terms of a set of pre-determined physiological parameters, and a composite cardio-respiratory stabilization score (SCRIP). 34 infants were analysed in comparable groups: 3/18 SSC compared to 12/13 incubator babies exceeded the pre-determined parameters (p incubator (maximum 78), mean difference 2.88 (95% CI: 0.3-5.46, p = 0.031). All 18 SSC subjects were stable in the sixth hour, compared to 6/13 incubator infants. Eight out of 13 incubator subjects experienced hypothermia. Newborn care provided by skin-to-skin contact on the mother's chest results in better physiological outcomes and stability than the same care provided in closed servo-controlled incubators. The cardio-respiratory instability seen in separated infants in the first 6 h is consistent with mammalian "protest-despair" biology, and with "hyper-arousal and dissociation" response patterns described in human infants: newborns should not be separated from their mothers.

  14. Internet-based home training is capable to improve balance in multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frevel, D; Mäurer, M

    2015-02-01

    Balance disorders are common in multiple sclerosis. Aim of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of an Internet-based home training program (e-Training) to improve balance in patients with multiple sclerosis. A randomized, controlled study. Academic teaching hospital in cooperation with the therapeutic riding center Gut Üttingshof, Bad Mergentheim. Eighteen multiple sclerosis patients (mean EDSS 3,5) took part in the trial. Outcome of patients using e-Training (N.=9) was compared to the outcome of patients receiving hippotherapy (N.=9), which can be considered as an advanced concept for the improvement of balance and postural control in multiple sclerosis. After simple random allocation patients received hippotherapy or Internet-based home training (balance, postural control and strength training) twice a week for 12 weeks. Assessments were done before and after the intervention and included static and dynamic balance (primary outcome). Isometric muscle strength of the knee and trunk extension/flexion (dynamometer), walking capacity, fatigue and quality of life served as secondary outcome parameters. Both intervention groups showed comparable and highly significant improvement in static and dynamic balance capacity, no difference was seen between the both intervention groups. However looking at fatigue and quality of life only the group receiving hippotherapy improved significantly. Since e-Training shows even comparable effects to hippotherapy to improve balance, we believe that the established Internet-based home training program, specialized on balance and postural control training, is feasible for a balance and strength training in persons with multiple sclerosis. We demonstrated that Internet-based home training is possible in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  15. H-Shaped Multiple Linear Motor Drive Platform Control System Design Based on an Inverse System Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Caiyan; Zhang, Chaoning; Lu, H.

    2017-01-01

    Due to its simple mechanical structure and high motion stability, the H-shaped platform has been increasingly widely used in precision measuring, numerical control machining and semiconductor packaging equipment, etc. The H-shaped platform is normally driven by multiple (three) permanent magnet

  16. Dynamics for a discrete competition and cooperation model of two enterprises with multiple delays and feedback controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a competition and cooperation model of two enterprises with multiple delays and feedback controls. With the aid of the difference inequality theory, we have obtained some sufficient conditions which guarantee the permanence of the model. Under a suitable condition, we prove that the system has global stable periodic solution. The paper ends with brief conclusions.

  17. Multiple Facets of Self-Control in Arab Adolescents: Parallel Pathways to Greater Happiness and Less Physical Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Ronen, Tammie; Agbaria, Qutaiba; Orkibi, Hod; Hamama, Liat

    2018-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of dramatic change that necessitates using skills and strengths to reduce physical aggression and increase happiness. This study examined the multiple facets of self-control skills in achieving both goals simultaneously, in a sample of 248 Arab adolescents in Israel. We conceptualized and tested a new multi-mediator model…

  18. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities Actively Correct Abnormal Standing Posture with a Nintendo Wii Balance Board through Controlling Environmental Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chu, Chiung-Ling

    2010-01-01

    The latest researches adopted software technology turning the Nintendo Wii Balance Board into a high performance change of standing posture (CSP) detector, and assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture). This study extends Wii Balance Board…

  19. Single versus multiple enemies and the impact on biological control of spider mites in cassava fields in West-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzo, A.; Sabelis, M.W.; Hanna, R.

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether to use single or multiple predator species for biological pest control requires manipulative field experiments. We performed such tests in Benin (West Africa) in cassava fields infested by the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa, and the cotton red mite Oligonychus

  20. Modeling freedom from progression for standard-risk medulloblastoma: a mathematical tumor control model with multiple modes of failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Nils Patrik; Vogelius, Ivan R.; Bjørk-Eriksson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    As pediatric medulloblastoma (MB) is a relatively rare disease, it is important to extract the maximum information from trials and cohort studies. Here, a framework was developed for modeling tumor control with multiple modes of failure and time-to-progression for standard-risk MB, using published...

  1. Anti-synchronization control of BAM memristive neural networks with multiple proportional delays and stochastic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Yuan, Manman; Luo, Xiong; Liu, Linlin; Zhang, Yao

    2018-01-01

    Proportional delay is a class of unbounded time-varying delay. A class of bidirectional associative memory (BAM) memristive neural networks with multiple proportional delays is concerned in this paper. First, we propose the model of BAM memristive neural networks with multiple proportional delays and stochastic perturbations. Furthermore, by choosing suitable nonlinear variable transformations, the BAM memristive neural networks with multiple proportional delays can be transformed into the BAM memristive neural networks with constant delays. Based on the drive-response system concept, differential inclusions theory and Lyapunov stability theory, some anti-synchronization criteria are obtained. Finally, the effectiveness of proposed criteria are demonstrated through numerical examples.

  2. Distributed Containment Control for Multiple Unknown Second-Order Nonlinear Systems With Application to Networked Lagrangian Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jie; Ren, Wei; Li, Bing; Ma, Guangfu

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the distributed containment control problem for multiagent systems with unknown nonlinear dynamics. More specifically, we focus on multiple second-order nonlinear systems and networked Lagrangian systems. We first study the distributed containment control problem for multiple second-order nonlinear systems with multiple dynamic leaders in the presence of unknown nonlinearities and external disturbances under a general directed graph that characterizes the interaction among the leaders and the followers. A distributed adaptive control algorithm with an adaptive gain design based on the approximation capability of neural networks is proposed. We present a necessary and sufficient condition on the directed graph such that the containment error can be reduced as small as desired. As a byproduct, the leaderless consensus problem is solved with asymptotical convergence. Because relative velocity measurements between neighbors are generally more difficult to obtain than relative position measurements, we then propose a distributed containment control algorithm without using neighbors' velocity information. A two-step Lyapunov-based method is used to study the convergence of the closed-loop system. Next, we apply the ideas to deal with the containment control problem for networked unknown Lagrangian systems under a general directed graph. All the proposed algorithms are distributed and can be implemented using only local measurements in the absence of communication. Finally, simulation examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithms.

  3. A placebo-controlled trial of oral cladribine for relapsing multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovannoni, Gavin; Comi, Giancarlo; Cook, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Cladribine provides immunomodulation through selective targeting of lymphocyte subtypes. We report the results of a 96-week phase 3 trial of a short-course oral tablet therapy in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis....

  4. Fluoxetine in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (FLUOX-PMS) : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambron, Melissa; Mostert, Jop; Haentjens, Patrick; D'Hooghe, Marie; Nagels, Guy; Willekens, Barbara; Heersema, Dorothea; Debruyne, Jan; Van Hecke, Wim; Algoed, Luc; De Klippel, Nina; Fosselle, Erwin; Laureys, Guy; Merckx, Henri; Van Wijmeersch, Bart; Vanopdenbosch, Ludo; Verhagen, Wim; Hupperts, Raymond; Hengstman, Gerald; Michiels, Veronique; Van Merhaegen-Wieleman, Annick; De Keyser, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background: Currently available disease-modifying treatments acting by modifying the immune response are ineffective in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), which is caused by a widespread axonal degeneration. Mechanisms suspected to be involved in this widespread axonal degeneration are reduced

  5. Characterization of UAV Performance and Development of a Formation Flight Controller for Multiple Small UAVS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Patrick A

    2006-01-01

    ... (UAV). One area of particular interest is using multiple small UAVs cooperatively to improve mission efficiency, as well as perform missions that couldn't be performed using vehicles independently...

  6. Sexual habits before multiple sclerosis: a national case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, O.; Svendsen, Anne Louise; Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2008-01-01

    The trigging off agent for multiple sclerosis (MS) is despite intensive epidemiological and biomedical research still unknown. The disease is typically diagnosed in reproductive age and recent findings have suggested that MS could be a sexually transmitted disease.......The trigging off agent for multiple sclerosis (MS) is despite intensive epidemiological and biomedical research still unknown. The disease is typically diagnosed in reproductive age and recent findings have suggested that MS could be a sexually transmitted disease....

  7. A placebo-controlled trial of oral cladribine for relapsing multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovannoni, Gavin; Comi, Giancarlo; Cook, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Cladribine provides immunomodulation through selective targeting of lymphocyte subtypes. We report the results of a 96-week phase 3 trial of a short-course oral tablet therapy in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.......Cladribine provides immunomodulation through selective targeting of lymphocyte subtypes. We report the results of a 96-week phase 3 trial of a short-course oral tablet therapy in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis....

  8. [Anatomy and physiology of sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cour, F; Droupy, S; Faix, A; Methorst, C; Giuliano, F

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge of the physiology of male and female sexuality has advanced considerably. Initially there is always desire with its biological neuroendocrine components and its emotional field which is particularly marked in women. There is a distinction between "spontaneous" sexual desire related to intrinsic affective, cognitive stimuli, and fantasies, and "reactive" sexual desire in response to physical arousal. There are similarities between men and women concerning the activation of cerebral zones in sexual arousal contexts in laboratory conditions. The neural pathways for sexual arousal are similar between men and women, bringing into play the sympathetic centres of the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord and, at the sacral level, the parasympathetic center and the motoneurons controlling the muscular contractions of the pelviperineal striated muscles. Genital sensitivity is mainly transmitted by the pudendal nerve in both men and women. Sexual arousal in men consists of penile erection, and ejaculation accompanied with orgasm. In women, sexual arousal causes increase in blood to flow to the vagina leading to lubrication and to the vulva leading to the erection of the clitoris and vulvar hyperaemia. The orgasm which can be multiple in women is accompanied by contractions of the striated perineal muscles. Several neurotransmitters are closely involved in the control of sexuality at the central level: dopamine, ocytocin, serotonin, and peripheral: nitric oxide and noradrenaline in men, vasoactive intestinal peptide and neuropeptide Y in women. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Physiological and Histological Alterations in Rats Liver Induced by Sumithion NP 25/2.5 EC, an Insecticide Used in Dengue Fever Vector Control in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlJahdali, Mohammed O.; Bisher, Ameen S. Bin; Zeid, Isam M. Abu

    2009-01-01

    The hepatotoxicity of Sumithion NP 25/2.5 EC, a new formulated organophosphorous insecticide used in dengue fever vector (Aedes aegypti) control in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), was studied in albino rats. Both levels of GPT, GOT and ALP, and the combined histological alterations were assessed after treatment. Rats were daily injected intraperitoneally for two and four weeks with 80 and 200 mg/kg of body weight (1/10 and 1/4 of the LD50, respectively). Significant increase in GPT, GOT and ALP levels relative to the increase of treatment dose and duration time was observed. The time factor effect was remarkably noticed in ALP level fluctuation. These results indicate a remarkable defect in the liver functions induced by Sumithion NP 25/2.5 EC. Also, histological alterations in the treated animal's liver were observed including: blood congestion, fatty degeneration, hepatocytes swelling and necrosis. The liver syndrome's intensity correlated with the increase in dose and duration time. The present results could prove the hepatotoxicity of Sumithion NP 25/2.5 EC and its ability to cause severe physiological and histopathological defects in the liver. Therefore, the chemical control of Aedes aegypti must be reduced and other recommended control strategies should be promoted. (author)

  10. Distributed Model Predictive Control over Multiple Groups of Vehicles in Highway Intelligent Space for Large Scale System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the three time warning distances for solving the large scale system of multiple groups of vehicles safety driving characteristics towards highway tunnel environment based on distributed model prediction control approach. Generally speaking, the system includes two parts. First, multiple vehicles are divided into multiple groups. Meanwhile, the distributed model predictive control approach is proposed to calculate the information framework of each group. Each group of optimization performance considers the local optimization and the neighboring subgroup of optimization characteristics, which could ensure the global optimization performance. Second, the three time warning distances are studied based on the basic principles used for highway intelligent space (HIS and the information framework concept is proposed according to the multiple groups of vehicles. The math model is built to avoid the chain avoidance of vehicles. The results demonstrate that the proposed highway intelligent space method could effectively ensure driving safety of multiple groups of vehicles under the environment of fog, rain, or snow.

  11. 'Scarlett Spur Red Delicious' apple volatile production accompanying physiological disorder development during low pO2 controlled atmosphere storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Christie; Fellman, John K; Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James

    2014-02-19

    Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit volatile production is regulated by a variety of factors including low oxygen storage conditions. This study examined the impact of low pO2 controlled atmospheres on 'Scarlett Spur Red Delicious' apple volatile production and disorder development. Accumulation of apple volatile compounds was characterized during long-term cold storage at 0.5 °C in air or low pO2 (0.3, 0.8, or 1.5 kPa) with 1 kPa CO2. Volatile accumulation differed quantitatively with pO2 as acetaldehyde, ethanol, and ethyl ester accumulation increased with decreased pO2 during the first weeks in storage. Differences in volatile accumulation among atmospheres were evident through 6 months. The rate of ethanol accumulation increased with decreased pO2 and could potentially be used to monitor low O2 stress. Incidence of low oxygen disorders after 9 months was highest in fruit held at the lowest pO2. The sesquiterpene α-farnesene was not detected throughout the storage period.

  12. Evaluation of diverse wheat genotypes for potential biomass production through physiological parameters at seedling stage under controlled environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, G.S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Thirty wheat genotypes from UK, CIMMYT and Pakistan were evaluated under controlled environment conditions for their potential biomass production by measuring stomatal conductance (gs; porometry), leaf photosynthesis (IRGA), carbon isotope discrimination and carbon content (isotope ratio and mass analysis) at Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, UK during 2011. Amongst the dwarf genotypes, Rht2 and Rht3 showed lower stomatal conductance than Seri 32B, Seri 87B and Bathoor-07. For these 5 genotypes and another genotype Inqalab photosynthetic performance was determined by means of IRGA measurements. Of these genotypes Inqalab had the highest photosynthetic activity (A), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (E) and leaf intercellular CO/sub 2/ but it also had the lowest water use efficiency (A/gs) and intrinsic water use efficiency (A/E). Seri-87B had the greatest water use efficiency (A/gs) and intrinsic water use efficiency (A/E). All the Pakistani genotypes had large stomatal conductances and high 13C delta and thus may be expected to produce high biomass under irrigations and optimum inputs. (author)

  13. Dynamic modeling and hierarchical compound control of a novel 2-DOF flexible parallel manipulator with multiple actuation modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong; Song, Yimin; Sun, Tao; Jin, Xueying

    2018-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of rigid-flexible coupling dynamic modeling and active control of a novel flexible parallel manipulator (PM) with multiple actuation modes. Firstly, based on the flexible multi-body dynamics theory, the rigid-flexible coupling dynamic model (RFDM) of system is developed by virtue of the augmented Lagrangian multipliers approach. For completeness, the mathematical models of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and piezoelectric transducer (PZT) are further established and integrated with the RFDM of mechanical system to formulate the electromechanical coupling dynamic model (ECDM). To achieve the trajectory tracking and vibration suppression, a hierarchical compound control strategy is presented. Within this control strategy, the proportional-differential (PD) feedback controller is employed to realize the trajectory tracking of end-effector, while the strain and strain rate feedback (SSRF) controller is developed to restrain the vibration of the flexible links using PZT. Furthermore, the stability of the control algorithm is demonstrated based on the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, two simulation case studies are performed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The results indicate that, under the redundant actuation mode, the hierarchical compound control strategy can guarantee the flexible PM achieves singularity-free motion and vibration attenuation within task workspace simultaneously. The systematic methodology proposed in this study can be conveniently extended for the dynamic modeling and efficient controller design of other flexible PMs, especially the emerging ones with multiple actuation modes.

  14. Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Feedback, D. L.; Feiverson, A. H.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts, S. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J.; Spiering, B. A.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. These physiological changes include sensorimotor disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes might affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on lunar and Martian surfaces. To date, changes in functional performance have not been systematically studied or correlated with physiological changes. To understand how changes in physiological function impact functional performance an interdisciplinary pre/postflight testing regimen (Functional Task Test, FTT) has been developed that systematically evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The overall objectives of the FTT are to: Develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for Constellation. Determine the ability to perform these tasks after flight. Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements. Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures. The functional test battery was designed to address high priority tasks identified by the Constellation program as critical for mission success. The set of functional tests making up the FTT include the: 1) Seat Egress and Walk Test, 2) Ladder Climb Test, 3) Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, 4) Rock Translation Test, 5) Jump Down Test, 6) Torque Generation Test, and 7) Construction Activity Board Test. Corresponding physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, orthostatic intolerance, upper and lower body muscle strength, power, fatigue, control and neuromuscular drive. Crewmembers will perform both functional and physiological tests before and after short (Shuttle) and long-duration (ISS) space flight. Data will be collected on R+0 (Shuttle only), R

  15. Early versus deferred treatment for smoldering multiple myeloma: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjie Gao

    Full Text Available Whether patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM needed to receive early interventional treatment remains controversial. Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis comparing the efficacy and safety of early treatment over deferred treatment for patients with SMM.MEDLINE and Cochrane Library were searched to May 2014 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs that assessed the effect of early treatment over deferred treatment. Primary outcome measure was mortality, and secondary outcome measures were progression, response rate, and adverse events.Overall, 5 trials including 449 patients were identified. There was a markedly reduced risk of disease progression with early treatment (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.07 to 0.24. There were no significant differences in mortality and response rate (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.45 to 1.60, and OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.32 to 1.23, respectively. More patients in the early treatment arm experienced gastrointestinal toxicities (OR = 10.02, 95%CI = 4.32 to 23.23, constipation (OR = 8.58, 95%CI = 3.20 to 23.00 and fatigue or asthenia (OR = 2.72, 95%CI = 1.30 to 5.67. No significant differences were seen with the development of acute leukemia (OR = 2.80, 95%CI = 0.42 to 18.81, hematologic cancer (OR = 2.07, 95%CI = 0.43 to 10.01, second primary tumors (OR = 3.45, 95%CI = 0.81 to 14.68, nor vertebral compression (OR = 0.18, 95%CI = 0.02 to 1.59.Early treatment delayed disease progression but increased the risk of gastrointestinal toxicities, constipation and fatigue or asthenia. The differences on vertebral compression, acute leukemia, hematological cancer and second primary tumors were not statistically significant. Based on the current evidence, early treatment didn't significantly affect mortality and response rate. However, further much larger trials were needed to provide more evidence.

  16. Multiple surface plasmon polaritons modes on thin silver film controlled by a two-dimensional lattice of silver nanodimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ying; Jiang, Yongyuan, E-mail: jiangyy@hit.edu.cn [Harbin Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (China)

    2015-01-15

    We study the optical resonant spectrum of a two-dimensional periodic array of silver nanodimers on a thin silver film using multiple scattering formalism. The excited multiple plasmonic modes on two interfaces of the silver film reveal that the dispersion relationships of surface plasmon polaritons on metallic film are modified by doubly periodic lattice due to the fact that wave vectors matching conditions are satisfied. Moreover, we demonstrate that the plasmonic modes are directly controlled by the thickness of silver film, as well as the gap between nanodimer array and silver film. These effects provide novel high-efficient and steady way for excitation in future plasmonic nanodevices.

  17. Instructions, multiple schedules, and extinction: Distinguishing rule-governed from schedule-controlled behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, S C; Brownstein, A J; Haas, J R; Greenway, D E

    1986-09-01

    Schedule sensitivity has usually been examined either through a multiple schedule or through changes in schedules after steady-state responding has been established. This study compared the effects of these two procedures when various instructions were given. Fifty-five college students responded in two 32-min sessions under a multiple fixed-ratio 18/differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate 6-s schedule, followed by one session of extinction. Some subjects received no instructions regarding the appropriate rates of responding, whereas others received instructions to respond slowly, rapidly, or both. Relative to the schedule in operation, the instructions were minimal, partially inaccurate, or accurate. When there was little schedule sensitivity in the multiple schedule, there was little in extinction. When apparently schedule-sensitive responding occurred in the multiple schedule, however, sensitivity in extinction occurred only if differential responding in the multiple schedule could not be due to rules supplied by the experimenter. This evidence shows that rule-governed behavior that occurs in the form of schedule-sensitive behavior may not in fact become schedule-sensitive even though it makes contact with the scheduled reinforcers.

  18. Solution of Constrained Optimal Control Problems Using Multiple Shooting and ESDIRK Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2012-01-01

    of this paper is the use of ESDIRK integration methods for solution of the initial value problems and the corresponding sensitivity equations arising in the multiple shooting algorithm. Compared to BDF-methods, ESDIRK-methods are advantageous in multiple shooting algorithms in which restarts and frequent...... algorithm. As we consider stiff systems, implicit solvers with sensitivity computation capabilities for initial value problems must be used in the multiple shooting algorithm. Traditionally, multi-step methods based on the BDF algorithm have been used for such problems. The main novel contribution...... discontinuities on each shooting interval are present. The ESDIRK methods are implemented using an inexact Newton method that reuses the factorization of the iteration matrix for the integration as well as the sensitivity computation. Numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the algorithm....

  19. Controlled atmosphere stunning of broiler chickens. I. Effects on behaviour, physiology and meat quality in a pilot scale system at a processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyesinghe, S M; McKeegan, D E F; McLeman, M A; Lowe, J C; Demmers, T G M; White, R P; Kranen, R W; van Bemmel, H; Lankhaar, J A C; Wathes, C M

    2007-08-01

    1. The effects of controlled atmosphere stunning on the behaviour, physiology and carcase and meat quality of broiler chickens were studied experimentally in a pilot scale plant. 2. Gas mixtures tested were: single phase anoxic mixture (90% Ar in air, posture occurred soonest with hypercapnic anoxia with the earliest and most twitching and wing flapping in individuals and earliest leg paddling. Biphasic birds were most alert, exhibited most respiratory disruption and mandibulation, and had the latest loss of posture and fewest, but longest bouts of wing flapping and least leg paddling and twitching. 4. Significant and sudden bradycardia and arrhythmia were evident with all gas mixtures and were not related solely to anoxia or hypercapnia. Birds stunned by Ar anoxia showed a slightly more gradual decline from baseline rates, compared with hypercapnic mixtures. 5. Few differences were found between gas mixes in terms of carcase and meat quality. Initial bleeding rate was slowest in biphasic-stunned birds, but total blood loss was not affected. Acceleration of post-mortem metabolism in anoxic-stunned birds was not sufficient to allow de-boning within 5 h without the risk of tough meat. 6. On welfare grounds and taking into account other laboratory and field studies, a biphasic method (using consecutive phases of anaesthesia and euthanasia) of controlled atmosphere stunning of broilers is potentially more humane than anoxic or hypercapnic anoxic methods using argon or nitrogen.

  20. Effect of a novel two-desk sit-to-stand workplace (ACTIVE OFFICE on sitting time, performance and physiological parameters: protocol for a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schwartz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged sitting is ubiquitous in modern society and linked to several diseases. Height-adjustable desks are being used to decrease worksite based sitting time (ST. Single-desk sit-to-stand workplaces exhibit small ST reduction potential and short-term loss in performance. The aim of this paper is to report the study design and methodology of an ACTIVE OFFICE trial. Design The study was a 1-year three-arm, randomized controlled trial in 18 healthy Austrian office workers. Allocation was done via a regional health insurance, with data collection during Jan 2014 – March 2015. Participants were allocated to either an intervention or control group. Intervention group subjects were provided with traditional or two-desk sit-to-stand workstations in either the first or the second half of the study, while control subjects did not experience any changes during the whole study duration. Sitting time and physical activity (IPAQ-long, cognitive performance (text editing task, Stroop-test, d2R test of attention, workload perception (NASA-TLX and physiological parameters (salivary cortisol, heartrate variability and body weight were measured pre- and post-intervention (23 weeks after baseline for intervention and control periods. Postural changes and sitting/standing time (software logger were recorded at the workplace for the whole intervention period. Discussion This study evaluates the effects of a novel two-desk sit-to-stand workplace on sitting time, physical parameters and work performance of healthy office based workers. If the intervention proves effective, it has a great potential to be implemented in regular workplaces to reduce diseases related to prolonged sitting. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02825303 , July 2016 (retrospectively registered.

  1. Emission Constrained Multiple-Pulse Fuel Injection Optimisation and Control for Fuel-Efficient Diesel Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, X.; Jager, B. de; Willems, F.P.T.

    2015-01-01

    With the application of multiple-pulse fuel injection profiles, the performance of diesel engines is enhanced in terms of low fuel consumption and low engine-out emission levels. However, the calibration effort increases due to a larger number of injection timing parameters. The difficulty of

  2. Emission constrained multiple-pulse fuel injection optimisation and control for fuel-efficient diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, X.; Jager, de A.G.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2015-01-01

    With the application of multiple-pulse fuel injec- tion profiles, the performance of diesel engines is enhanced in terms of low fuel consumption and low engine-out emission levels. However, the calibration effort increases due to a larger number of injection timing parameters. The difficulty of

  3. Defining the Physiological Factors that Contribute to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Arzeno, N.; Buxton, R.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I.; Lawrence, E.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts, S. H.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. These physiological changes include sensorimotor disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes might affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on lunar and Martian surfaces. To date, changes in functional performance have not been systematically studied or correlated with physiological changes. To understand how changes in physiological function impact functional performance an interdisciplinary pre/postflight testing regimen (Functional Task Test, FTT) has been developed that systematically evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The overall objective of the FTT is to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to performance of functional tests that are representative of critical mission tasks. This study will identify which physiological systems contribute the most to impaired performance on each functional test. This will allow us to identify the physiological systems that play the largest role in decrement in functional performance. Using this information we can then design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight. The functional test battery was designed to address high priority tasks identified by the Constellation program as critical for mission success. The set of functional tests making up the FTT include the: 1) Seat Egress and Walk Test, 2) Ladder Climb Test, 3) Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, 4) Rock Translation Test, 5) Jump Down Test, 6) Torque Generation Test, and 7) Construction Activity Board Test. Corresponding physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor

  4. Multiple large solar lentigos on the upper back as clinical markers of past severe sunburn: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derancourt, C; Bourdon-Lanoy, E; Grob, J-J; Guillaume, J-C; Bernard, P; Bastuji-Garin, S

    2007-01-01

    Multiple solar lentigos commonly seen on the upper back and shoulders of adults are classically considered as a sign of photodamage, although epidemiological studies are scarce. To assess whether these lesions are clinical markers of past severe sunburn. A case-control study in two outpatient dermatology clinics in French university hospitals. Past episodes of moderate and severe sunburn were compared between 145 adult patients with multiple solar lentigos on the upper back and 145 matched controls. In multivariate analysis adjusted for potential confounders, recalled episodes of sunburn during childhood, adolescence and adulthood were independently associated with the presence of multiple solar lentigos (adjusted odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals: 2.3 (1.1-5.2) and 28.1 (10.4-75.6) for moderate and severe sunburn, respectively). Multiple solar lentigos on the upper back and shoulders of adults are potential clinical markers of past severe sunburn which may thus be used to identify a population at higher risk of developing cutaneous malignant melanoma.

  5. Systems engineering and integration of control centers in support of multiple programs. [ground control for STS payloads and unmanned vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center's new Multiprogram Control Center (MPCC) addresses the control requirements of complex STS payloads as well as unmanned vehicles. An account is given of the relationship of the MPCC to the STS Mission Control Center, with a view to significant difficulties that may be encountered and solutions thus far devised for generic problems. Examples of MPCC workstation applications encompass telemetry decommutation, engineering unit conversion, data-base management, trajectory processing, and flight design.

  6. Improving Frequency Stability Based on Distributed Control of Multiple Load Aggregators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Cao, Jinde; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    into the traditional centralized proportional-integral-based automatic generation control (AGC) framework, which has formed the coupled secondary frequency control structure. It has been shown that the total power mismatch in each control area is shared with both AGC units and load aggregators, and the system...

  7. Differential physiological responses of dalmatian toadflax, Linaria dalmatica L. Miller, to injury from two insect biological control agents: Implications for decision-making in biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert K. D. Peterson; Sharlene E. Sing; David K. Weaver

    2005-01-01

    Successful biological control of invasive weeds with specialist herbivorous insects is predicated on the assumption that the injury stresses the weeds sufficiently to cause reductions in individual fitness. Because plant gas exchange directly impacts growth and fitness, characterizing how injury affects these primary processes may provide a key indicator of...

  8. Pilates based core stability training in ambulant individuals with multiple sclerosis: protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Jennifer; Fox, Esther; Gear, Margaret; Hough, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background People with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) frequently experience balance and mobility impairments, including reduced trunk stability. Pilates-based core stability training, which is aimed at improving control of the body's stabilising muscles, is popular as a form of exercise with people with MS and therapists. A replicated single case series study facilitated by the Therapists in MS Group in the United Kingdom (UK) provides preliminary evidence that this approach can improve bal...

  9. Stable Flocking of Multiple Agents Based on Molecular Potential Field and Distributed Receding Horizon Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yun-Peng; Duan Hai-Bin; Zhang Xiang-Yin

    2011-01-01

    A novel distributed control scheme to generate stable flocking motion for a group of agents is proposed. In this control scheme, a molecular potential field model is applied as the potential field function because of its smoothness and unique shape. The approach of distributed receding horizon control is adopted to drive each agent to find its optimal control input to lower its potential at every step. Experimental results show that this proposed control scheme can ensure that all agents eventually converge to a stable flocking formation with a common velocity and the collisions can also be avoided at the same time. (general)

  10. Integral sliding mode-based formation control of multiple unertain robots via nonlinear disturbane observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianwei Qian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a control scheme for formation of maneuvers of a team of mobile robots. The control scheme integrates the integral sliding mode control method with the nonlinear disturbance observer technique. The leader–follower formation dynamics suffer from uncertainties originated from the individual robots. The uncertainties challenge the formation control of such robots. Assuming that the uncertainties are unknown but bounded, an nonlinear disturbance observer-based observer is utilized to approximate them. The observer outputs feed on an integral sliding mode control-based controller. The controller and observer are integrated into the control scheme to realize formation maneuvers despite uncertainties. The formation stability is analyzed by means of the Lyapunov’s theorem. In the sense of Lyapunov, not only the convergence of the approximation errors is guaranteed but also such a control scheme can asymptotically stabilize the formation system. Compared to the results by the sole integral sliding mode control, some simulations are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the control scheme.

  11. Quality of life, treatment adherence, and locus of control: multiple family groups for chronic medical illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Larrosa, Silvia

    2013-12-01

    The Multiple Family Groups (MFGs) approach for patients with a chronic medical illness and their families is a structured psychoeducational program that unfolds in six weekly 90-minute sessions. In the MFGs, patients and family members explore new ways to balance illness and nonillness priorities in family life (Steinglass, 1998; Steinglass, 2000 Cuadernos de Terapia Familiar, 44-45, 11; Steinglass, Ostroff, & Steinglass, 2011 Family Process, 50, 393). © FPI, Inc.

  12. A Multiple Data Fusion Approach to Wheel Slip Control for Decentralized Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejun Yin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, active safety control methods for cars, i.e., the antilock braking system (ABS, the traction control system (TCS, and electronic stability control (ESC, govern the wheel slip control based on the wheel slip ratio, which relies on the information from non-driven wheels. However, these methods are not applicable in the cases without non-driven wheels, e.g., a four-wheel decentralized electric vehicle. Therefore, this paper proposes a new wheel slip control approach based on a novel data fusion method to ensure good traction performance in any driving condition. Firstly, with the proposed data fusion algorithm, the acceleration estimator makes use of the data measured by the sensor installed near the vehicle center of mass (CM to calculate the reference acceleration of each wheel center. Then, the wheel slip is constrained by controlling the acceleration deviation between the actual wheel and the reference wheel center. By comparison with non-control and model following control (MFC cases in double lane change tests, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed control method has significant anti-slip effectiveness and stabilizing control performance.

  13. Enhanced Phase-Shifted Current Control for Harmonic Cancellation in Three-Phase Multiple Adjustable Speed Drive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz

    2017-01-01

    A phase-shifted current control can be employed to mitigate certain harmonics induced by the Diode Rectifiers (DR) and Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers (SCR) as the front-ends of multiple parallel Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) systems. However, the effectiveness of the phase-shifted control relies...... on the loading condition of each drive unit as well as the number of drives in parallel. In order to enhance the harmonic cancellation by means of the phase-shifted current control, the currents drawn by the rectifiers should be maintained almost at the same level. Thus, this paper firstly analyzes the impact...... of unequal loading among the parallel drives, and a scheme to enhance the performance is introduced to improve the quality of the total grid current, where partial loading operation should be enabled. Simulation and experimental case studies on multidrive systems have demonstrated that the enhanced phase...

  14. Software-defined networking control plane for seamless integration of multiple silicon photonic switches in Datacom networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yiwen; Hattink, Maarten H N; Samadi, Payman; Cheng, Qixiang; Hu, Ziyiz; Gazman, Alexander; Bergman, Keren

    2018-04-16

    Silicon photonics based switches offer an effective option for the delivery of dynamic bandwidth for future large-scale Datacom systems while maintaining scalable energy efficiency. The integration of a silicon photonics-based optical switching fabric within electronic Datacom architectures requires novel network topologies and arbitration strategies to effectively manage the active elements in the network. We present a scalable software-defined networking control plane to integrate silicon photonic based switches with conventional Ethernet or InfiniBand networks. Our software-defined control plane manages both electronic packet switches and multiple silicon photonic switches for simultaneous packet and circuit switching. We built an experimental Dragonfly network testbed with 16 electronic packet switches and 2 silicon photonic switches to evaluate our control plane. Observed latencies occupied by each step of the switching procedure demonstrate a total of 344 µs control plane latency for data-center and high performance computing platforms.

  15. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormoen, Garth W; Khader, Ayesha; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J T

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor VII-depleted plasma, 7:3 with factor IX- or factor X-depleted plasmas, or 2:8 with factor II-, V- or VIII-depleted plasmas. Addition of coagulation factors VII, X, IX, V and II to depleted plasmas shortened clotting and enzyme initiation times, and increased enzyme generation rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Only additions of factors IX and X from low-normal to high-normal levels shortened clotting times and increased enzyme generation rates. Our results demonstrate that coagulation kinetics for TF particles are controlled by factor IX and X levels within the normal physiological range. We hypothesize that individual patient factor IX and X levels may be prognostic for susceptibility to circulating TF-induced thrombosis. (paper)

  16. Stress-related psycho-physiological disorders: randomized single blind placebo controlled naturalistic study of psychometric evaluation using a radio electric asymmetric treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a radio electric asymmetric treatment on psycho-physiological disorders (PPD). PPD are often stress related and are under the unconscious control of the patient and cannot be traced back to any serious physical disease. The brain stimulation treatment protocol used is called Neuro Psycho Physical Optimization (NPPO) with a Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC) device. Methods Psychological stress and PPD were measured for a group of 888 subjects using the Psychological Stress Measure (PSM) test, a self-administered questionnaire. Data were collected immediately before and after the 4-weeks of REAC treatment cycle. Results This study showed a significant reduction in scores measuring subjective perceptions of stress for subjects treated with a cycle of NPPO REAC treatment. At the end-point the number of subjects reporting symptoms of stress-related PPD on the PSM test was significantly reduced, whereas in the placebo group the difference was not significant. Conclusion A cycle of NPPO treatment with REAC was shown to reduce subjective perceptions of stress measured by the PSM test and in particular on PPD. Trial Registration This trial has been registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) with the number: ACTRN12607000463471. PMID:21771304

  17. An FPGA-Based Multiple-Axis Velocity Controller and Stepping Motors Drives Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Chiu-Keng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A Field Programmable Gate Array based system is a great hardware platform to support the implementation of hardware controllers such as PID controller and fuzzy controller. It is also programmed as hardware accelerator to speed up the mathematic calculation and greatly enhance the performance as applied to motor drive and motion control. Furthermore, the open structure of FPGA-based system is suitable for those designs with the ability of parallel processing or soft code processor embedded. In this paper, we apply the FPGA to a multi-axis velocity controller design. The developed system integrated three functions inside the FPGA chip, which are respectively the stepping motor drive, the multi-axis motion controller and the motion planning. Furthermore, an embedded controller with a soft code processor compatible to 8051 micro-control unit (MCU is built to handle the data transfer between the FPGA board and host PC. The MCU is also used to initialize the motion control and run the interpolator. The designed system is practically applied to a XYZ motion platform which is driven by stepping motors to verify its performance.

  18. Differential effects of common variants in SCN2A on general cognitive ability, brain physiology, and messenger RNA expression in schizophrenia cases and control individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Dwight; Straub, Richard E; Trampush, Joey W; Gao, Yuan; Feng, Ningping; Xie, Bin; Shin, Joo Heon; Lim, Hun Ki; Ursini, Gianluca; Bigos, Kristin L; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Hashimoto, Ryota; Takeda, Masatoshi; Baum, Graham L; Rujescu, Dan; Callicott, Joseph H; Hyde, Thomas M; Berman, Karen F; Kleinman, Joel E; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2014-06-01

    One approach to understanding the genetic complexity of schizophrenia is to study associated behavioral and biological phenotypes that may be more directly linked to genetic variation. To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with general cognitive ability (g) in people with schizophrenia and control individuals. Genomewide association study, followed by analyses in unaffected siblings and independent schizophrenia samples, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of brain physiology in vivo, and RNA sequencing in postmortem brain samples. The discovery cohort and unaffected siblings were participants in the National Institute of Mental Health Clinical Brain Disorders Branch schizophrenia genetics studies. Additional schizophrenia cohorts were from psychiatric treatment settings in the United States, Japan, and Germany. The discovery cohort comprised 339 with schizophrenia and 363 community control participants. Follow-up analyses studied 147 unaffected siblings of the schizophrenia cases and independent schizophrenia samples including a total of an additional 668 participants. Imaging analyses included 87 schizophrenia cases and 397 control individuals. Brain tissue samples were available for 64 cases and 61 control individuals. We studied genomewide association with g, by group, in the discovery cohort. We used selected genotypes to test specific associations in unaffected siblings and independent schizophrenia samples. Imaging analyses focused on activation in the prefrontal cortex during working memory. Brain tissue studies yielded messenger RNA expression levels for RefSeq transcripts. The schizophrenia discovery cohort showed genomewide-significant association of g with polymorphisms in sodium channel gene SCN2A, accounting for 10.4% of g variance (rs10174400, P = 9.27 × 10(-10)). Control individuals showed a trend for g/genotype association with reversed allelic directionality. The genotype-by-group interaction was also genomewide

  19. Comparing Treatment and Control Groups on Multiple Outcomes: Robust Procedures for Testing a Directional Alternative Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lix, Lisa M.; Deering, Kathleen N.; Fouladi, Rachel T.; Manivong, Phongsack

    2009-01-01

    This study considers the problem of testing the difference between treatment and control groups on m [greater than or equal to] 2 measures when it is assumed a priori that the treatment group will perform better than the control group on all measures. Two procedures are investigated that do not rest on the assumptions of covariance homogeneity or…

  20. Protocol for the saMS trial (supportive adjustment for multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy to supportive listening for adjustment to multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCrone Paul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS is an incurable, chronic, potentially progressive and unpredictable disease of the central nervous system. The disease produces a range of unpleasant and debilitating symptoms, which can have a profound impact including disrupting activities of daily living, employment, income, relationships, social and leisure activities, and life goals. Adjusting to the illness is therefore particularly challenging. This trial tests the effectiveness of a Cognitive Behavioural intervention compared to Supportive Listening to assist adjustment in the early stages of MS. Methods/Design This is a two arm randomized multi-centre parallel group controlled trial. 122 consenting participants who meet eligibility criteria will be randomly allocated to receive either Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or Supportive Listening. Eight one hour sessions of therapy (delivered over a period of 10 weeks will be delivered by general nurses trained in both treatments. Self-report questionnaire data will be collected at baseline (0 weeks, mid-therapy (week 5 of therapy, post-therapy (15 weeks and at six months (26 weeks and twelve months (52 weeks follow-up. Primary outcomes are distress and MS-related social and role impairment at twelve month follow-up. Analysis will also consider predictors and mechanisms of change during therapy. In-depth interviews to examine participants' experiences of the interventions will be conducted with a purposively sampled sub-set of the trial participants. An economic analysis will also take place. Discussion This trial is distinctive in its aims in that it aids adjustment to MS in a broad sense. It is not a treatment specifically for depression. Use of nurses as therapists makes the interventions potentially viable in terms of being rolled out in the NHS. The trial benefits from incorporating patient input in the development and evaluation stages. The trial will provide important information about the

  1. Thrust Vector Control of an Upper-Stage Rocket with Multiple Propellant Slosh Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Rubio Hervas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thrust vector control problem for an upper-stage rocket with propellant slosh dynamics is considered. The control inputs are defined by the gimbal deflection angle of a main engine and a pitching moment about the center of mass of the spacecraft. The rocket acceleration due to the main engine thrust is assumed to be large enough so that surface tension forces do not significantly affect the propellant motion during main engine burns. A multi-mass-spring model of the sloshing fuel is introduced to represent the prominent sloshing modes. A nonlinear feedback controller is designed to control the translational velocity vector and the attitude of the spacecraft, while suppressing the sloshing modes. The effectiveness of the controller is illustrated through a simulation example.

  2. Modeling the Effects of Multiple Intervention Strategies on Controlling Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steady Mushayabasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a threat to economic security and infrastructure as well as animal health, in both developed and developing countries. We propose and analyze an optimal control problem where the control system is a mathematical model for FMD that incorporates vaccination and culling of infectious animals. The control functions represent the fraction of animals that are vaccinated during an outbreak, infectious symptomatic animals that are detected and culled, and infectious nonsymptomatic animals that are detected and culled. Our aim was to study how these control measures should be implemented for a certain time period, in order to reduce or eliminate FMD in the community, while minimizing the interventions implementation costs. A cost-effectiveness analysis is carried out, to compare the application of each one of the control measures, separately or in combination.

  3. Early rehabilitation in sepsis: a prospective randomised controlled trial investigating functional and physiological outcomes The i-PERFORM Trial (Protocol Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayambu Geetha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with sepsis syndromes in comparison to general intensive care patients can have worse outcomes for physical function, quality of life and survival. Early intensive care rehabilitation can improve the outcome in general Intensive Care Unit (ICU patients, however no investigations have specifically looked at patients with sepsis syndromes. The 'i-PERFORM Trial' will investigate if early targeted rehabilitation is both safe and effective in patients with sepsis syndromes admitted to ICU. Methods/Design A single-centred blinded randomized controlled trial will be conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Participants (n = 252 will include those ≥ 18 years, mechanically ventilated for ≥ 48 hours and diagnosed with a sepsis syndrome. Participants will be randomised to an intervention arm which will undergo an early targeted rehabilitation program according to the level of arousal, strength and cardiovascular stability and a control group which will receive normal care. The primary outcome measures will be physical function tests on discharge from ICU (The Acute Care Index of Function and The Physical Function ICU Test. Health-related quality of life will be measured using the Short Form-36 and the psychological component will be tested using The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Secondary measures will include inflammatory biomarkers; Interleukin-6, Interleukin-10 and Tumour Necrosis Factor-α, peripheral blood mitochondrial DNA content and lactate, fat free muscle mass, tissue oxygenation and microcirculatory flow. Discussion The 'i-PERFORM Trial' will determine whether early rehabilitation for patients with sepsis is effective at improving patient outcomes with functional and physiological parameters reflecting long and short-term effects of early exercise and the safety in its application in critical illness. Trial Registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12610000808044

  4. Novel Control Strategy for Multiple Run-of-the-River Hydro Power Plants to Provide Grid Ancillary Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanpurkar, Manish; Luo, Yusheng; Hovsapian, Rob; Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Koritarov, Vladimir

    2017-05-01

    Electricity generated by Hydropower Plants (HPPs) contributes a considerable portion of bulk electricity generation and delivers it with a low carbon footprint. In fact, HPP electricity generation provides the largest share from renewable energy resources, which includes solar and wind energy. The increasing penetration of wind and solar penetration leads to a lowered inertia in the grid and hence poses stability challenges. In recent years, breakthrough in energy storage technologies have demonstrated the economic and technical feasibility of extensive deployments in power grids. Multiple ROR HPPs if integrated with scalable, multi time-step energy storage so that the total output can be controlled. Although, the size of a single energy storage is far smaller than that of a typical reservoir, cohesively managing multiple sets of energy storage distributed in different locations is proposed. The ratings of storages and multiple ROR HPPs approximately equals the rating of a large, conventional HPP. The challenges associated with the system architecture and operation are described. Energy storage technologies such as supercapacitors, flywheels, batteries etc. can function as a dispatchable synthetic reservoir with a scalable size of energy storage will be integrated. Supercapacitors, flywheels, and battery are chosen to provide fast, medium, and slow responses to support grid requirements. Various dynamic and transient power grid conditions are simulated and performances of integrated ROR HPPs with energy storage is provided. The end goal of this research is to investigate the inertial equivalence of a large, conventional HPP with a unique set of multiple ROR HPPs and optimally rated energy storage systems.

  5. Multiple category-lot quality assurance sampling: a new classification system with application to schistosomiasis control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Olives

    Full Text Available Originally a binary classifier, Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS has proven to be a useful tool for classification of the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni into multiple categories (≤10%, >10 and <50%, ≥50%, and semi-curtailed sampling has been shown to effectively reduce the number of observations needed to reach a decision. To date the statistical underpinnings for Multiple Category-LQAS (MC-LQAS have not received full treatment. We explore the analytical properties of MC-LQAS, and validate its use for the classification of S. mansoni prevalence in multiple settings in East Africa.We outline MC-LQAS design principles and formulae for operating characteristic curves. In addition, we derive the average sample number for MC-LQAS when utilizing semi-curtailed sampling and introduce curtailed sampling in this setting. We also assess the performance of MC-LQAS designs with maximum sample sizes of n=15 and n=25 via a weighted kappa-statistic using S. mansoni data collected in 388 schools from four studies in East Africa.Overall performance of MC-LQAS classification was high (kappa-statistic of 0.87. In three of the studies, the kappa-statistic for a design with n=15 was greater than 0.75. In the fourth study, where these designs performed poorly (kappa-statistic less than 0.50, the majority of observations fell in regions where potential error is known to be high. Employment of semi-curtailed and curtailed sampling further reduced the sample size by as many as 0.5 and 3.5 observations per school, respectively, without increasing classification error.This work provides the needed analytics to understand the properties of MC-LQAS for assessing the prevalance of S. mansoni and shows that in most settings a sample size of 15 children provides a reliable classification of schools.

  6. A New Approach to Adaptive Control of Multiple Scales in Plasma Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelchenko, Yuri

    2007-04-01

    A new approach to temporal refinement of kinetic (Particle-in-Cell, Vlasov) and fluid (MHD, two-fluid) simulations of plasmas is presented: Discrete-Event Simulation (DES). DES adaptively distributes CPU resources in accordance with local time scales and enables asynchronous integration of inhomogeneous nonlinear systems with multiple time scales on meshes of arbitrary topologies. This removes computational penalties usually incurred in explicit codes due to the global Courant-Friedrich-Levy (CFL) restriction on a time-step size. DES stands apart from multiple time-stepping algorithms in that it requires neither selecting a global synchronization time step nor pre-determining a sequence of time-integration operations for individual parts of the system (local time increments need not bear any integer multiple relations). Instead, elements of a mesh-distributed solution self-adaptively predict and synchronize their temporal trajectories by directly enforcing local causality (accuracy) constraints, which are formulated in terms of incremental changes to the evolving solution. Together with flux-conservative propagation of information, this new paradigm ensures stable and fast asynchronous runs, where idle computation is automatically eliminated. DES is parallelized via a novel Preemptive Event Processing (PEP) technique, which automatically synchronizes elements with similar update rates. In this mode, events with close execution times are projected onto time levels, which are adaptively determined by the program. PEP allows reuse of standard message-passing algorithms on distributed architectures. For optimum accuracy, DES can be combined with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) techniques for structured and unstructured meshes. Current examples of event-driven models range from electrostatic, hybrid particle-in-cell plasma systems to reactive fluid dynamics simulations. They demonstrate the superior performance of DES in terms of accuracy, speed and robustness.

  7. H-Shaped Multiple Linear Motor Drive Platform Control System Design Based on an Inverse System Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyan Qin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its simple mechanical structure and high motion stability, the H-shaped platform has been increasingly widely used in precision measuring, numerical control machining and semiconductor packaging equipment, etc. The H-shaped platform is normally driven by multiple (three permanent magnet synchronous linear motors. The main challenges for H-shaped platform-control include synchronous control between the two linear motors in the Y direction as well as total positioning error of the platform mover, a combination of position deviation in X and Y directions. To deal with the above challenges, this paper proposes a control strategy based on the inverse system method through state feedback and dynamic decoupling of the thrust force. First, mechanical dynamics equations have been deduced through the analysis of system coupling based on the platform structure. Second, the mathematical model of the linear motors and the relevant coordinate transformation between dq-axis currents and ABC-phase currents are analyzed. Third, after the main concept of inverse system method being explained, the inverse system model of the platform control system has been designed after defining relevant system variables. Inverse system model compensates the original nonlinear coupled system into pseudo-linear decoupled linear system, for which typical linear control methods, like PID, can be adopted to control the system. The simulation model of the control system is built in MATLAB/Simulink and the simulation result shows that the designed control system has both small synchronous deviation and small total trajectory tracking error. Furthermore, the control program has been run on NI controller for both fixed-loop-time and free-loop-time modes, and the test result shows that the average loop computation time needed is rather small, which makes it suitable for real industrial applications. Overall, it proves that the proposed new control strategy can be used in

  8. Hamster activity and estrous cycles: control by a single versus multiple circadian oscillator(s).

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, M S; Nelson, R J; Zucker, I

    1981-01-01

    Running activity onset and estrous onset were recorded for hamsters exposed to progressively shorter daily light/dark (T) cycles. The period of the estrous cycle was a quadruple multiple of the period of the activity rhythm during entrainment to T cycles of 23.5-21.5 hr. There was no evidence of desynchronization of the activity and estrus rhythms. The very short estrous periods shown during exposure to short T cycles indicate that an intrinsic 96-hr interval for ovarian follicular maturation...

  9. Development of Physics and Control of Multiple Forcing Mechanisms for the Alaska Tsunami Forecast Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahng, B.; Whitmore, P.; Macpherson, K. A.; Knight, W. R.

    2016-12-01

    The Alaska Tsunami Forecast Model (ATFM) is a numerical model used to forecast propagation and inundation of tsunamis generated by earthquakes or other mechanisms in either the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean or Gulf of Mexico. At the U.S. National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC), the use of the model has been mainly for tsunami pre-computation due to earthquakes. That is, results for hundreds of hypothetical events are computed before alerts, and are accessed and calibrated with observations during tsunamis to immediately produce forecasts. The model has also been used for tsunami hindcasting due to submarine landslides and due to atmospheric pressure jumps, but in a very case-specific and somewhat limited manner. ATFM uses the non-linear, depth-averaged, shallow-water equations of motion with multiply nested grids in two-way communications between domains of each parent-child pair as waves approach coastal waters. The shallow-water wave physics is readily applicable to all of the above tsunamis as well as to tides. Recently, the model has been expanded to include multiple forcing mechanisms in a systematic fashion, and to enhance the model physics for non-earthquake events.ATFM is now able to handle multiple source mechanisms, either individually or jointly, which include earthquake, submarine landslide, meteo-tsunami and tidal forcing. As for earthquakes, the source can be a single unit source or multiple, interacting source blocks. Horizontal slip contribution can be added to the sea-floor displacement. The model now includes submarine landslide physics, modeling the source either as a rigid slump, or as a viscous fluid. Additional shallow-water physics have been implemented for the viscous submarine landslides. With rigid slumping, any trajectory can be followed. As for meteo-tsunami, the forcing mechanism is capable of following any trajectory shape. Wind stress physics has also been implemented for the meteo-tsunami case, if required. As an example of multiple

  10. Stress and counterproductive work behavior: multiple relationships between demands, control, and soldier indiscipline over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jennifer S; Sinclair, Robert R; Mohr, Cynthia D; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Salvi, Angela D; Adler, Amy B

    2009-07-01

    Cognitive Resource Theory (CRT) suggests that under high levels of stress, employees are more prone to committing indiscipline. As few studies have examined this relationship over time, the authors conducted a six-wave longitudinal study examining the relationship of soldiers' indiscipline with work demands and control. The study included archival data collected quarterly over 2 years from 1,701 soldiers representing 10 units in garrison (Germany and Italy), in training rotations (Grafenwoehr, Germany), and on peacekeeping deployments (Kosovo, Kuwait). No main effects were found for work overload, and the findings for the moderating effects of control were contradictory. Within each time point, as work overload increased, soldiers who felt less control committed more indiscipline, supporting CRT. Over time, however, as work overload increased, soldiers who perceived less control 6 months earlier committed less indiscipline. Additionally, the authors found reverse causal effects for control such that prior perceptions of a lack of control were associated with indiscipline and prior incidents of indiscipline with less control. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Symmetric caging formation for convex polygonal object transportation by multiple mobile robots based on fuzzy sliding mode control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yanyan; Kim, YoonGu; Wee, SungGil; Lee, DongHa; Lee, SukGyu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of object caging and transporting is considered for multiple mobile robots. With the consideration of minimizing the number of robots and decreasing the rotation of the object, the proper points are calculated and assigned to the multiple mobile robots to allow them to form a symmetric caging formation. The caging formation guarantees that all of the Euclidean distances between any two adjacent robots are smaller than the minimal width of the polygonal object so that the object cannot escape. In order to avoid collision among robots, the parameter of the robots radius is utilized to design the caging formation, and the A⁎ algorithm is used so that mobile robots can move to the proper points. In order to avoid obstacles, the robots and the object are regarded as a rigid body to apply artificial potential field method. The fuzzy sliding mode control method is applied for tracking control of the nonholonomic mobile robots. Finally, the simulation and experimental results show that multiple mobile robots are able to cage and transport the polygonal object to the goal position, avoiding obstacles. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimal Control of a Fed-Batch Fermentation Involving Multiple Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongyang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear dynamical system, in which the feed rates of glycerol and alkali are taken as the control functions, is first proposed to formulate the fed-batch culture of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD production. To maximize the 1,3-PD concentration at the terminal time, a constrained optimal control model is then presented. A solution approach is developed to seek the optimal feed rates based on control vector parametrization method and improved differential evolution algorithm. The proposed methodology yielded an increase by 32.17% of 1,3-PD concentration at the terminal time.

  13. Clinical Control of HIV-1 by Cytotoxic T Cells Specific for Multiple Conserved Epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakoshi, Hayato; Akahoshi, Tomohiro; Koyanagi, Madoka; Chikata, Takayuki; Naruto, Takuya; Maruyama, Rie; Tamura, Yoshiko; Ishizuka, Naoki; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Oka, Shinichi; Takiguchi, Masafumi

    2015-05-01

    Identification and characterization of CD8(+) T cells effectively controlling HIV-1 variants are necessary for the development of AIDS vaccines and for studies of AIDS pathogenesis, although such CD8(+) T cells have been only partially identified. In this study, we sought to identify CD8(+) T cells controlling HIV-1 variants in 401 Japanese individuals chronically infected with HIV-1 subtype B, in which protective alleles HLA-B*57 and HLA-B*27 are very rare, by using comprehensive and exhaustive methods. We identified 13 epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells controlling HIV-1 in Japanese individuals, though 9 of these epitopes were not previously reported. The breadths of the T cell responses to the 13 epitopes were inversely associated with plasma viral load (P = 2.2 × 10(-11)) and positively associated with CD4 count (P = 1.2 × 10(-11)), indicating strong synergistic effects of these T cells on HIV-1 control in vivo. Nine of these epitopes were conserved among HIV-1 subtype B-infected individuals, whereas three out of four nonconserved epitopes were cross-recognized by the specific T cells. These findings indicate that these 12 epitopes are strong candidates for antigens for an AIDS vaccine. The present study highlighted a strategy to identify CD8(+) T cells controlling HIV-1 and demonstrated effective control of HIV-1 by those specific for 12 conserved or cross-reactive epitopes. HLA-B*27-restricted and HLA-B*57-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a key role in controlling HIV-1 in Caucasians and Africans, whereas it is unclear which CTLs control HIV-1 in Asian countries, where HLA-B*57 and HLA-B*27 are very rare. A recent study showed that HLA-B*67:01 and HLA-B*52:01-C*12:02 haplotypes were protective alleles in Japanese individuals, but it is unknown whether CTLs restricted by these alleles control HIV-1. In this study, we identified 13 CTLs controlling HIV-1 in Japan by using comprehensive and exhaustive methods. They included 5 HLA-B*52:01-restricted

  14. Multiple behavior changes in diet and activity: a randomized controlled trial using mobile technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Bonnie; Schneider, Kristin; McFadden, H Gene; Vaughn, Jocelyn; Kozak, Andrea T; Smith, Malaina; Moller, Arlen C; Epstein, Leonard H; Demott, Andrew; Hedeker, Donald; Siddique, Juned; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2012-05-28

    Many patients exhibit multiple chronic disease risk behaviors. Research provides little information about advice that can maximize simultaneous health behavior changes. To test which combination of diet and activity advice maximizes healthy change, we randomized 204 adults with elevated saturated fat and low fruit and vegetable intake, high sedentary leisure time, and low physical activity to 1 of 4 treatments: increase fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity, decrease fat and sedentary leisure, decrease fat and increase physical activity, and increase fruit/vegetable intake and decrease sedentary leisure. Treatments provided 3 weeks of remote coaching supported by mobile decision support technology and financial incentives. During treatment, incentives were contingent on using the mobile device to self-monitor and attain behavioral targets; during follow-up, incentives were contingent only on recording. The outcome was standardized, composite improvement on the 4 diet and activity behaviors at the end of treatment and at 5-month follow-up. Of the 204 individuals randomized, 200 (98.0%) completed follow-up. The increase fruits/vegetables and decrease sedentary leisure treatments improved more than the other 3 treatments (P improved less than the other 3 treatments (P mobile technology and financial incentives holds promise to improve diet and activity. Targeting fruits/vegetables and sedentary leisure together maximizes overall adoption and maintenance of multiple healthy behavior changes.

  15. Nonlinear convergence active vibration absorber for single and multiple frequency vibration control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Yang, Bintang; Guo, Shufeng; Zhao, Wenqiang

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear convergence algorithm for active dynamic undamped vibration absorber (ADUVA). The damping of absorber is ignored in this algorithm to strengthen the vibration suppressing effect and simplify the algorithm at the same time. The simulation and experimental results indicate that this nonlinear convergence ADUVA can help significantly suppress vibration caused by excitation of both single and multiple frequency. The proposed nonlinear algorithm is composed of equivalent dynamic modeling equations and frequency estimator. Both the single and multiple frequency ADUVA are mathematically imitated by the same mechanical structure with a mass body and a voice coil motor (VCM). The nonlinear convergence estimator is applied to simultaneously satisfy the requirements of fast convergence rate and small steady state frequency error, which are incompatible for linear convergence estimator. The convergence of the nonlinear algorithm is mathematically proofed, and its non-divergent characteristic is theoretically guaranteed. The vibration suppressing experiments demonstrate that the nonlinear ADUVA can accelerate the convergence rate of vibration suppressing and achieve more decrement of oscillation attenuation than the linear ADUVA.

  16. Imputation and quality control steps for combining multiple genome-wide datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali S Verma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The electronic MEdical Records and GEnomics (eMERGE network brings together DNA biobanks linked to electronic health records (EHRs from multiple institutions. Approximately 52,000 DNA samples from distinct individuals have been genotyped using genome-wide SNP arrays across the nine sites of the network. The eMERGE Coordinating Center and the Genomics Workgroup developed a pipeline to impute and merge genomic data across the different SNP arrays to maximize sample size and power to detect associations with a variety of clinical endpoints. The 1000 Genomes cosmopolitan reference panel was used for imputation. Imputation results were evaluated using the following metrics: accuracy of imputation, allelic R2 (estimated correlation between the imputed and true genotypes, and the relationship between allelic R2 and minor allele frequency. Computation time and memory resources required by two different software packages (BEAGLE and IMPUTE2 were also evaluated. A number of challenges were encountered due to the complexity of using two different imputation software packages, multiple ancestral populations, and many different genotyping platforms. We present lessons learned and describe the pipeline implemented here to impute and merge genomic data sets. The eMERGE imputed dataset will serve as a valuable resource for discovery, leveraging the clinical data that can be mined from the EHR.

  17. Command and Control Software for Single-Operator Multiple UAS Missions, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Existing command and control (C2) paradigms for UAS platforms are extremely limited and cumbersome, requiring at least a single operator per UAS, if not more than...

  18. Command and Control Software for Single-Operator Multiple UAS Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Existing command and control (C2) paradigms for UAS platforms are extremely limited and cumbersome, requiring at least a single operator per UAS, if not more than...

  19. Consensus Formation Control for a Class of Networked Multiple Mobile Robot Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Sheng

    2012-01-01

    for investigating the sufficient conditions to linear control gain design for the system with constant time delays. Simulation results as well as experimental studies on Pioneer 3 series mobile robots are shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  20. Single Operator Control of Multiple Uninhabited Air Vehicles: Situational Awareness Requirement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sebalj, Derek

    2008-01-01

    ... > 1. The ultimate goal, and the object of much research, is the technology to lower, or even invert the control ratio from many people to one vehicle to one operator of several vehicles, e.g., 1...

  1. Multiple Language Use Influences Oculomotor Task Performance: Neurophysiological Evidence of a Shared Substrate between Language and Motor Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Heidlmayr

    -general executive control involvement in handling multiple language use, leading to a control advantage in bilingualism.

  2. Distributed Cooperative Control of Multiple Nonlinear Systems with Nonholonomic Constraints and Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-04

    this testbed, there are four P3-AT mobile robots. Each robot is equipped with a camera and a laser sensor. Between robots, there is wireless...shows the formation tracking of the 4 followers, the blue spots represent each follower robot, the black spot represent the trajectory of centroid of...P. Jiang, “Lyapunov design of global state and output trackers for nonholonomic control systems,” Int. J. of Control, pp. 744–761, 2000. [97] Y. P

  3. Automation of the software production process for multiple cryogenic control applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fluder, Czeslaw; Lefebvre, Victor; Pezzetti, Marco; Plutecki, Przemyslaw; Tovar-González, Antonio; Wolak, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    The development of process control systems for the cryogenic infrastructure at CERN is based on an automatic software generation approach. The overall complexity of the systems, their frequent evolution as well as the extensive use of databases, repositories, commercial engineering software and CERN frameworks have led to further efforts towards improving the existing automation based software production methodology. A large number of control system upgrades were successfully performed for th...

  4. Multiple independent origins of mitochondrial control region duplications in the order Psittaciformes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirtzinger, Erin E.; Tavares, Erika S.; Gonzales, Lauren A.; Eberhard, Jessica R.; Miyaki, Cristina Y.; Sanchez, Juan J.; Hernandez, Alexis; Müeller, Heinrich; Graves, Gary R.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Wright, Timothy F.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial genomes are generally thought to be under selection for compactness, due to their small size, consistent gene content, and a lack of introns or intergenic spacers. As more animal mitochondrial genomes are fully sequenced, rearrangements and partial duplications are being identified with increasing frequency, particularly in birds (Class Aves). In this study, we investigate the evolutionary history of mitochondrial control region states within the avian order Psittaciformes (parrots and cockatoos). To this aim, we reconstructed a comprehensive multi-locus phylogeny of parrots, used PCR of three diagnostic fragments to classify the mitochondrial control region state as single or duplicated, and mapped these states onto the phylogeny. We further sequenced 44 selected species to validate these inferences of control region state. Ancestral state reconstruction using a range of weighting schemes identified six independent origins of mitochondrial control region duplications within Psittaciformes. Analysis of sequence data showed that varying levels of mitochondrial gene and tRNA homology and degradation were present within a given clade exhibiting duplications. Levels of divergence between control regions within an individual varied from 0–10.9% with the differences occurring mainly between 51 and 225 nucleotides 3′ of the goose hairpin in domain I. Further investigations into the fates of duplicated mitochondrial genes, the potential costs and benefits of having a second control region, and the complex relationship between evolutionary rates, selection, and time since duplication are needed to fully explain these patterns in the mitochondrial genome. PMID:22543055

  5. Automatic feedback to promote safe walking and speech loudness control in persons with multiple disabilities: two single-case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Green, Vanessa A; Alberti, Gloria; Boccasini, Adele; Smaldone, Angela; Oliva, Doretta; Bosco, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    Assessing automatic feedback technologies to promote safe travel and speech loudness control in two men with multiple disabilities, respectively. The men were involved in two single-case studies. In Study I, the technology involved a microprocessor, two photocells, and a verbal feedback device. The man received verbal alerting/feedback when the photocells spotted an obstacle in front of him. In Study II, the technology involved a sound-detecting unit connected to a throat and an airborne microphone, and to a vibration device. Vibration occurred when the man's speech loudness exceeded a preset level. The man included in Study I succeeded in using the automatic feedback in substitution of caregivers' alerting/feedback for safe travel. The man of Study II used the automatic feedback to successfully reduce his speech loudness. Automatic feedback can be highly effective in helping persons with multiple disabilities improve their travel and speech performance.

  6. Development and experimentation of LQR/APF guidance and control for autonomous proximity maneuvers of multiple spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, R.; Lehmann, T.; Romano, M.

    2011-04-01

    This work introduces a novel control algorithm for close proximity multiple spacecraft autonomous maneuvers, based on hybrid linear quadratic regulator/artificial potential function (LQR/APF), for applications including autonomous docking, on-orbit assembly and spacecraft servicing. Both theoretical developments and experimental validation of the proposed approach are presented. Fuel consumption is sub-optimized in real-time through re-computation of the LQR at each sample time, while performing collision avoidance through the APF and a high level decisional logic. The underlying LQR/APF controller is integrated with a customized wall-following technique and a decisional logic, overcoming problems such as local minima. The algorithm is experimentally tested on a four spacecraft simulators test bed at the Spacecraft Robotics Laboratory of the Naval Postgraduate School. The metrics to evaluate the control algorithm are: autonomy of the system in making decisions, successful completion of the maneuver, required time, and propellant consumption.

  7. Pilates exercise training vs. physical therapy for improving walking and balance in people with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalron, Alon; Rosenblum, Uri; Frid, Lior; Achiron, Anat

    2017-03-01

    Evaluate the effects of a Pilates exercise programme on walking and balance in people with multiple sclerosis and compare this exercise approach to conventional physical therapy sessions. Randomized controlled trial. Multiple Sclerosis Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel. Forty-five people with multiple sclerosis, 29 females, mean age (SD) was 43.2 (11.6) years; mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (S.D) was 4.3 (1.3). Participants received 12 weekly training sessions of either Pilates ( n=22) or standardized physical therapy ( n=23) in an outpatient basis. Spatio-temporal parameters of walking and posturography parameters during static stance. Functional tests included the Time Up and Go Test, 2 and 6-minute walk test, Functional Reach Test, Berg Balance Scale and the Four Square Step Test. In addition, the following self-report forms included the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale. At the termination, both groups had significantly increased their walking speed ( P=0.021) and mean step length ( P=0.023). According to the 2-minute and 6-minute walking tests, both groups at the end of the intervention program had increased their walking speed. Mean (SD) increase in the Pilates and physical therapy groups were 39.1 (78.3) and 25.3 (67.2) meters, respectively. There was no effect of group X time in all instrumented and clinical balance and gait measures. Pilates is a possible treatment option for people with multiple sclerosis in order to improve their walking and balance capabilities. However, this approach does not have any significant advantage over standardized physical therapy.

  8. Foraging Value, Risk Avoidance, and Multiple Control Signals: How the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Controls Value-based Decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua W; Alexander, William H

    2017-10-01

    Recent work on the role of the ACC in cognition has focused on choice difficulty, action value, risk avoidance, conflict resolution, and the value of exerting control among other factors. A main underlying question is what are the output signals of ACC, and relatedly, what is their effect on downstream cognitive processes? Here we propose a model of how ACC influences cognitive processing in other brain regions that choose actions. The model builds on the earlier Predicted Response Outcome model and suggests that ACC learns to represent specifically the states in which the potential costs or risks of an action are high, on both short and long timescales. It then uses those cost signals as a basis to bias decisions to minimize losses while maximizing gains. The model simulates both proactive and reactive control signals and accounts for a variety of empirical findings regarding value-based decision-making.

  9. Interferon-beta in multiple sclerosis. Can we control its costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley, K H; Whynes, D K

    1997-03-01

    The recent licensing of interferon-beta for use in patients with multiple sclerosis has caused concern, in view of the equivocal evidence of efficacy, pressure of public expectation towards its use and the high expected cost if widespread use were to be sanctioned. Whether such alarm is justified remains a moot point. Owing to the limited range of circumstances of proven efficacy and the lack of cost-effectiveness data, it remains unclear whether sanctioned usage will proliferate to the anticipated extent. Unit costs may well fall in the future owing to competition in the pharmaceutical market. Interferon-beta is simply one example of a growing trend in actively promoted high-cost preparations over which rationing decisions will have to be reached.

  10. Adaptive Control Design for Autonomous Operation of Multiple Energy Storage Systems in Power Smoothing Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    -pass-filter (HPF) structure. It generates the power reference according to the fluctuating power and provides a stabilization effect. The power and energy supplied by ESS are majorly configured by the cut-off frequency and gain of the HPF. Considering the operational limits on ESS state-of-charge (SoC), this paper...... proposes an adaptive cut-off frequency design method to realize communication-less and autonomous operation of a system with multiple distributed ESS. The experimental results demonstrate that the SoCs of all ESS units are kept within safe margins, while the SoC level and power of the paralleled units...... converge to the final state, providing a natural plug-and-play function....

  11. Active In-Flight Load Redistribution Utilizing Fiber-Optic Shape Sensing and Multiple Control Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Francisco; Martins, Benjamin L.; Richards, W. Lance

    2018-01-01

    Morphing wing technologies have gained research interest in recent years as technological advancements pave the way for such innovations. A key benefit of such a morphing wing concept is the ability of the wing to transition into an optimal configuration at multiple flight conditions. Such a morphing wing will have applications not only in drag reduction but also in flutter suppression and gust alleviation. By manipulating the wing geometry to match a given flight profile it is likely that the wing will yield increases in not just aerodynamic efficiency but also structural efficiency. These structurally efficient designs will likely rely on some type of structural sensing system which will ensure the wing maintains positive margins throughout its flight profile.

  12. Multiple category-lot quality assurance sampling: a new classification system with application to schistosomiasis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olives, Casey; Valadez, Joseph J; Brooker, Simon J; Pagano, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Originally a binary classifier, Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) has proven to be a useful tool for classification of the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni into multiple categories (≤10%, >10 and LQAS (MC-LQAS) have not received full treatment. We explore the analytical properties of MC-LQAS, and validate its use for the classification of S. mansoni prevalence in multiple settings in East Africa. We outline MC-LQAS design principles and formulae for operating characteristic curves. In addition, we derive the average sample number for MC-LQAS when utilizing semi-curtailed sampling and introduce curtailed sampling in this setting. We also assess the performance of MC-LQAS designs with maximum sample sizes of n=15 and n=25 via a weighted kappa-statistic using S. mansoni data collected in 388 schools from four studies in East Africa. Overall performance of MC-LQAS classification was high (kappa-statistic of 0.87). In three of the studies, the kappa-statistic for a design with n=15 was greater than 0.75. In the fourth study, where these designs performed poorly (kappa-statistic less than 0.50), the majority of observations fell in regions where potential error is known to be high. Employment of semi-curtailed and curtailed sampling further reduced the sample size by as many as 0.5 and 3.5 observations per school, respectively, without increasing classification error. This work provides the needed analytics to understand the properties of MC-LQAS for assessing the prevalance of S. mansoni and shows that in most settings a sample size of 15 children provides a reliable classification of schools.

  13. A gene expression system offering multiple levels of regulation: the Dual Drug Control (DDC) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudomoina, Marina; Latypova, Ekaterina; Favorova, Olga O; Golemis, Erica A; Serebriiskii, Ilya G

    2004-04-29

    Whether for cell culture studies of protein function, construction of mouse models to enable in vivo analysis of disease epidemiology, or ultimately gene therapy of human diseases, a critical enabling step is the ability to achieve finely controlled regulation of gene expression. Previous efforts to achieve this goal have explored inducible drug regulation of gene expression, and construction of synthetic promoters based on two-hybrid paradigms, among others. In this report, we describe the combination of dimerizer-regulated two-hybrid and tetracycline regulatory elements in an ordered cascade, placing expression of endpoint reporters under the control of two distinct drugs. In this Dual Drug Control (DDC) system, a first plasmid expresses fusion proteins to DBD and AD, which interact only in the presence of a small molecule dimerizer; a second plasmid encodes a cassette transcriptionally responsive to the first DBD, directing expression of the Tet-OFF protein; and a third plasmid encodes a reporter gene transcriptionally responsive to binding by Tet-OFF. We evaluate the dynamic range and specificity of this system in comparison to other available systems. This study demonstrates the feasibility of combining two discrete drug-regulated expression systems in a temporally sequential cascade, without loss of dynamic range of signal induction. The efficient layering of control levels allowed by this combination of elements provides the potential for the generation of complex control circuitry that may advance ability to regulate gene expression in vivo.

  14. A gene expression system offering multiple levels of regulation: the Dual Drug Control (DDC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golemis Erica A

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether for cell culture studies of protein function, construction of mouse models to enable in vivo analysis of disease epidemiology, or ultimately gene therapy of human diseases, a critical enabling step is the ability to achieve finely controlled regulation of gene expression. Previous efforts to achieve this goal have explored inducible drug regulation of gene expression, and construction of synthetic promoters based on two-hybrid paradigms, among others. Results In this report, we describe the combination of dimerizer-regulated two-hybrid and tetracycline regulatory elements in an ordered cascade, placing expression of endpoint reporters under the control of two distinct drugs. In this Dual Drug Control (DDC system, a first plasmid expresses fusion proteins to DBD and AD, which interact only in the presence of a small molecule dimerizer; a second plasmid encodes a cassette transcriptionally responsive to the first DBD, directing expression of the Tet-OFF protein; and a third plasmid encodes a reporter gene transcriptionally responsive to binding by Tet-OFF. We evaluate the dynamic range and specificity of this system in comparison to other available systems. Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility of combining two discrete drug-regulated expression systems in a temporally sequential cascade, without loss of dynamic range of signal induction. The efficient layering of control levels allowed by this combination of elements provides the potential for the generation of complex control circuitry that may advance ability to regulate gene expression in vivo.

  15. Efficacy of rasagiline in patients with the parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poewe, Werner; Seppi, Klaus; Fitzer-Attas, Cheryl J; Wenning, Gregor K; Gilman, Sid; Low, Phillip A; Giladi, Nir; Barone, Paolo; Sampaio, Cristina; Eyal, Eli; Rascol, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Multiple system atrophy is a complex neurodegenerative disorder for which no effective treatment exists. We aimed to assess the effect of rasagiline on symptoms and progression of the parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy. We did this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial between Dec 15, 2009, and Oct 20, 2011, at 40 academic sites specialised in the care of patients with multiple systemic atrophy across 12 countries. Eligible participants aged 30 years or older with possible or probable parkinsonian variant multiple system atrophy were randomly assigned (1:1), via computer-generated block randomisation (block size of four), to receive either rasagiline 1 mg per day or placebo. Randomisation was stratified by study centre. The investigators, study funder, and personnel involved in patient assessment, monitoring, analysis and data management were masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to study end in total Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS) score (parts I and II). Analysis was by modified intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00977665. We randomly assigned 174 participants to the rasagiline group (n=84) or the placebo group (n=90); 21 (25%) patients in the rasagiline group and 15 (17%) in the placebo group withdrew from the study early. At week 48, patients in the rasagiline group had progressed by an adjusted mean of 7·2 (SE 1·2) total UMSARS units versus 7·8 (1·1) units in those in the placebo group. This treatment difference of -0·60 (95% CI -3·68 to 2·47; p=0·70) was not significant. 68 (81%) patients in the rasagiline group and 67 (74%) patients in the placebo group reported adverse events, and we recorded serious adverse events in 29 (35%) versus 23 (26%) patients. The most common adverse events in the rasagiline group were dizziness (n=10 [12%]), peripheral oedema (n=9 [11%]), urinary tract infections (n=9 [11%]), and orthostatic

  16. Flocking multiple microparticles with automatically controlled optical tweezers: solutions and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haoyao; Wang, Can; Lou, Yunjiang

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents an efficient approach to achieve microparticles flocking with robotics and optical tweezers technologies. All particles trapped by optical tweezers can be automatically moved toward a predefined region without collision. The main contribution of this paper lies in the proposal of several solutions to the flocking manipulation of microparticles in microenvironments. First, a simple flocking controller is proposed to generate the desired positions and velocities for particles' movement. Second, a velocity saturation method is implemented to prevent the desired velocities from exceeding a safe limit. Third, a two-layer control architecture is proposed for the motion control of optical tweezers. This architecture can help make many robotic manipulations achievable under microenvironments. The proposed approach with these solutions can be applied to many bioapplications especially in cell engineering and biomedicine. Experiments on yeast cells with a robot-tweezers system are finally performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. Controlling three-dimensional vortices using multiple and moving external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nirmali Prabha; Dutta, Sumana

    2017-08-01

    Spirals or scroll wave activities in cardiac tissues are the cause of lethal arrhythmias. The external control of these waves is thus of prime interest to scientists and physicians. In this article, we demonstrate the spatial control of scroll waves by using external electric fields and thermal gradients in experiments with the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. We show that a scroll ring can be made to trace cyclic trajectories under a rotating electric field. Application of a thermal gradient in addition to the electric field deflects the motion and changes the nature of the trajectory. Our experimental results are analyzed and corroborated by numerical simulations based on an excitable reaction diffusion model.

  18. A quality control of proteomic experiments based on multiple isotopologous internal standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Bourmaud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The harmonization of proteomics experiments facilitates the exchange and comparison of results. The definition of standards and metrics ensures reliable and consistent data quality. An internal quality control procedure was developed to assess the different steps of a proteomic analysis workflow and perform a system suitability test. The method relies on a straightforward protocol using a simple mixture of exogenous proteins, and the sequential addition of two sets of isotopically labeled peptides added to reference samples. This internal quality control procedure was applied to plasma samples to demonstrate its easy implementation, which makes it generic for most proteomics applications.

  19. Nash Bargaining Game-Theoretic Framework for Power Control in Distributed Multiple-Radar Architecture Underlying Wireless Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Shi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel Nash bargaining solution (NBS-based cooperative game-theoretic framework for power control in a distributed multiple-radar architecture underlying a wireless communication system. Our primary objective is to minimize the total power consumption of the distributed multiple-radar system (DMRS with the protection of wireless communication user’s transmission, while guaranteeing each radar’s target detection requirement. A unified cooperative game-theoretic framework is proposed for the optimization problem, where interference power constraints (IPCs are imposed to protect the communication user’s transmission, and a minimum signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR requirement is employed to provide reliable target detection for each radar. The existence, uniqueness and fairness of the NBS to this cooperative game are proven. An iterative Nash bargaining power control algorithm with low computational complexity and fast convergence is developed and is shown to converge to a Pareto-optimal equilibrium for the cooperative game model. Numerical simulations and analyses are further presented to highlight the advantages and testify to the efficiency of our proposed cooperative game algorithm. It is demonstrated that the distributed algorithm is effective for power control and could protect the communication system with limited implementation overhead.

  20. Using Functional Electrical Stimulation Mediated by Iterative Learning Control and Robotics to Improve Arm Movement for People With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Patrica; Freeman, Chris; Coote, Susan; Demain, Sara; Feys, Peter; Meadmore, Katie; Hughes, Ann-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Few interventions address multiple sclerosis (MS) arm dysfunction but robotics and functional electrical stimulation (FES) appear promising. This paper investigates the feasibility of combining FES with passive robotic support during virtual reality (VR) training tasks to improve upper limb function in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). The system assists patients in following a specified trajectory path, employing an advanced model-based paradigm termed iterative learning control (ILC) to adjust the FES to improve accuracy and maximise voluntary effort. Reaching tasks were repeated six times with ILC learning the optimum control action from previous attempts. A convenience sample of five pwMS was recruited from local MS societies, and the intervention comprised 18 one-hour training sessions over 10 weeks. The accuracy of tracking performance without FES and the amount of FES delivered during training were analyzed using regression analysis. Clinical functioning of the arm was documented before and after treatment with standard tests. Statistically significant results following training included: improved accuracy of tracking performance both when assisted and unassisted by FES; reduction in maximum amount of FES needed to assist tracking; and less impairment in the proximal arm that was trained. The system was well tolerated by all participants with no increase in muscle fatigue reported. This study confirms the feasibility of FES combined with passive robot assistance as a potentially effective intervention to improve arm movement and control in pwMS and provides the basis for a follow-up study.

  1. A tissue dose-based comparative exposure assessment of manganese using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling—The importance of homeostatic control for an essential metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, P. Robinan, E-mail: rgentry@ramboll.com [Ramboll Environ US Corporation, 3701 Armand St., Monroe, LA 71201 (United States); Van Landingham, Cynthia; Fuller, William G. [Ramboll Environ US Corporation, 3701 Armand St., Monroe, LA 71201 (United States); Sulsky, Sandra I. [Ramboll Environ US Corporation, Amherst, MA (United States); Greene, Tracy B. [Ramboll Environ US Corporation, 3701 Armand St., Monroe, LA 71201 (United States); Clewell, Harvey J.; Andersen, Melvin E. [ScitoVation, RTP, NC (United States); Roels, Harry A. [Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Taylor, Michael D. [NIPERA, Durham, NC (United States); Keene, Athena M. [Afton Chemical Corporation, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model (Schroeter et al., 2011) was applied to simulate target tissue manganese (Mn) concentrations following occupational and environmental exposures. These estimates of target tissue Mn concentrations were compared to determine margins of safety (MOS) and to evaluate the biological relevance of applying safety factors to derive acceptable Mn air concentrations. Mn blood concentrations measured in occupational studies permitted verification of the human PBPK models, increasing confidence in the resulting estimates. Mn exposure was determined based on measured ambient air Mn concentrations and dietary data in Canada and the United States (US). Incorporating dietary and inhalation exposures into the models indicated that increases in target tissue concentrations above endogenous levels only begin to occur when humans are exposed to levels of Mn in ambient air (i.e. > 10 μg/m{sup 3}) that are far higher than those currently measured in Canada or the US. A MOS greater than three orders of magnitude was observed, indicating that current Mn air concentrations are far below concentrations that would be required to produce the target tissue Mn concentrations associated with subclinical neurological effects. This application of PBPK modeling for an essential element clearly demonstrates that the conventional application of default factors to “convert” an occupational exposure to an equivalent continuous environmental exposure, followed by the application of safety factors, is not appropriate in the case of Mn. PBPK modeling demonstrates that the relationship between ambient Mn exposures and dose-to-target tissue is not linear due to normal tissue background levels and homeostatic controls. - Highlights: • Manganese is an essential nutrient, adding complexity to its risk assessment. • Nonlinearities in biological processes are important for manganese risk assessment. • A PBPK model was used to estimate target tissue

  2. Low-calorie energy drink improves physiological response to exercise in previously sedentary men: a placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Christopher M; Moon, Jordan R; Smith, Abbie E; Tobkin, Sarah E; Kendall, Kristina L; Graef, Jennifer L; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2010-08-01

    Energy drink use has grown despite limited research to support efficacy or safety and amid concerns when combined with exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of 10 weeks of once-daily energy drink consumption or energy drink consumption with exercise on measures of body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, mood, and safety in previously sedentary males. Thirty-eight males were randomly assigned to energy drink + exercise (EX-A), energy drink (NEX-A), placebo + exercise (EX-B), or placebo (NEX-B). All participants consumed 1 drink per day for 10 weeks; EX-A and EX-B participated in 10 weeks of resistance and endurance exercise. Testing was performed before (PRE) and after (POST) the 10-week intervention. No significant (p > 0.05) changes were observed for body composition, fitness, or strength in NEX-A; however, significantly greater decreases in fat mass and percentage body fat and increases in VO2peak were observed in EX-A versus EX-B. Ventilatory threshold (VT), minute ventilation, VO2 at VT, and power output at VT improved significantly PRE to POST in EX-A but not in EX-B or nonexercising groups. Clinical markers for hepatic, renal, cardiovascular, and immune function, as determined by PRE and POST blood work revealed no adverse effects in response to the energy drink. Mood was not affected by energy drink use. Absent energy restriction or other dietary controls, chronic ingestion of a once-daily low-calorie energy drink appears ineffective at improving body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, or strength in sedentary males. However, when combined with exercise, preworkout energy drink consumption may significantly improve some physiological adaptations to combined aerobic and resistance training.

  3. Mildly disabled persons with multiple sclerosis use similar net joint power strategies as healthy controls when walking speed increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brincks, John; Christensen, Lars Ejsing; Rehnquist, Mette Voigt; Petersen, Jesper; Sørensen, Henrik; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    To improve walking in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), it is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of walking. This study examined strategies in net joint power generated or absorbed by hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, knee extensors, and plantar flexors in mildly disabled persons with MS and healthy controls at different walking speeds. Thirteen persons with MS and thirteen healthy controls participated and peak net joint power was calculated using 3D motion analysis. In general, no differences were found between speed-matched healthy controls and persons with MS, but the fastest walking speed was significantly higher in healthy controls (2.42 m/s vs. 1.70 m/s). The net joint power increased in hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, knee extensors and plantar flexors in both groups, when walking speed increased. Significant correlations between changes in walking speed and changes in net joint power of plantar flexors, hip extensors and hip flexors existed in healthy controls and persons with MS, and in net knee extensor absorption power of persons with MS only. In contrast to previous studies, these findings suggest that mildly disabled persons with MS used similar kinetic strategies as healthy controls to increase walking speed.

  4. Control room conceptual design of nuclear power plant with multiple modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Qianqian; Qu Ronghong; Zhang Liangju

    2014-01-01

    A conceptual design of the control room layout for the nuclear power plant with multiple modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors has been developed. The modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors may need to be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands to realize the economic efficiency. There are many differences between the multi-modular plant and the current NPPs in the control room. These differences may include the staffing level, the human-machine interface design, the operation mode, etc. The potential challenges of the human factor engineering (HFE) in the control room of the multi-modular plant are analyzed, including the operation workload of the multi-modular tasks, how to help the crew to keep situation awareness of all modules, and how to support team work, the control of shared system between modules, etc. A concept design of control room for the multi-modular plant is presented based on the design aspect of HTR-PM (High temperature gas-cooled reactor pebble bed module). HFE issues are considered in the conceptual design of control room for the multi-modular plant and some design strategies are presented. As a novel conceptual design, verifications and validations are needed, and focus of further work is sketch out. (author)

  5. Your Divided Attention, Please! The Maintenance of Multiple Attentional Control Sets over Distinct Regions in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Maha; Pun, Carson; Pratt, Jay; Ferber, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    When non-informative peripheral cues precede a target defined by a specific feature, cues that share the critical feature will capture attention while cues that do not will be effectively ignored. We tested whether different attentional control sets can be simultaneously maintained over distinct regions of space. Participants were instructed to…

  6. Topology identification for multiple-bus DC MicroGrids via primary control perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2017-01-01

    We propose a Least Squares Estimation procedure for estimating the admittance matrix of multi-bus DC MicroGrids (MGs). In the proposed solution, the generators simultaneously inject training signals in the form of small deterministic perturbations of the primary droop control parameters and measure...

  7. Multiple independent origins of mitochondrial control region duplications in the order Psittaciformes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schirtzinger, Erin E.; Tavares, Erika S.; Gonzales, Lauren A.

    2012-01-01

    with increasing frequency, particularly in birds (Class Aves). In this study, we investigate the evolutionary history of mitochondrial control region states within the avian order Psittaciformes (parrots and cockatoos). To this aim, we reconstructed a comprehensive multi-locus phylogeny of parrots, used PCR...

  8. Captopril as a replacement for multiple therapy in hypertension: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodfat, Y; Fidel, J; Bloom, D S

    1985-11-01

    A controlled study was conducted in hypertensive patients to investigate whether captopril can be substituted for the various other antihypertensive drugs (not including diuretics) to reduce side effects and improve the quality of life. Captopril in a twice daily dose of 25-50 mg, was substituted and titrated in 54 patients. Fifty-two patients, matched by age and sex, comprised the control group, and were treated with a variety of agents. During a follow-up of 9 months, 44 of the patients receiving captopril (81%) achieved the goal of supine blood pressure less than 90 mmHg. Captopril was discontinued in two patients due to side effects. Mild proteinuria was observed in two patients. A significant reduction in scores or rates of side effects (numbness, blurred vision, insomnia, vivid dreams, cold extremities, sleepiness, sexual dysfunction and fatigue) and improvement in quality of life (general feeling, mood and concentration) was observed in the study group compared with the control group. Captopril alone in a twice daily dose of 25-50 mg, or in co-treatment with thiazide, provided sustained blood pressure control with minimal side effects and improvement in quality of life compared with the treatment of hypertension with beta-blockers, vasodilators or methyldopa.

  9. Exploring the relationship between socioeconomic status, control beliefs and exercise behavior: a multiple mediator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Terra C; Rodgers, Wendy M; Fraser, Shawn N

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between control beliefs, socioeconomic status and exercise intentions and behavior. Specifically, we examined whether distal and proximal control beliefs mediated the association between socioeconomic status and exercise intentions and behavior. A one time, cross sectional mail out survey (N = 350) was conducted in a large urban Canadian city. Distal (i.e., personal constraints) and proximal (i.e., scheduling self-efficacy) control beliefs mediated the association between socioeconomic status and exercise, explaining approximately 30% of the variance. Proximal control beliefs (i.e., scheduling self-efficacy) partially mediated the association between socioeconomic status and intentions, with the models explaining approximately 50% of the variance. Compared to individuals with lower socioeconomic status, individuals with higher socioeconomic status reported more exercise and stronger intentions to exercise. This was at least partly because higher socioeconomic status respondents reported fewer barriers in their lives, and were more confident to cope with the scheduling demands of exercise.

  10. A randomized controlled trial of single versus multiple health behavior change: promoting physical activity and nutrition among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Sallis, James F

    2004-05-01

    Targeting multiple behaviors for change may provide significant health benefits. This study compared interventions targeting physical activity and nutrition (PAN) concurrently versus physical activity (PA) alone. Adolescents (N=138) were randomized to the PAN or PA intervention or control condition (n=46 per group). Primary outcomes were change in PA accelerometer and 3-day dietary recording from baseline to 3-month follow-up. The PAN and PA interventions were efficacious in supporting boys' (pdecrement to PA promotion when a nutrition intervention was added, neither do they reveal any additional benefit. More studies comparing single versus multibehavioral interventions are needed. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  11. Femtosecond coherent control of absorption and free induction decay in a GaAs multiple quantum well

    CERN Document Server

    Yee, D S

    2000-01-01

    Excitonic polarizations are coherently excited using two phase-locked pulses. By probing the linear propagation of the pulses through a GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well sample, we directly demonstrate the intriguing interaction between the coherent exciton polarizations and the controlling pulses. It is shown that the second pulse can be either strongly amplified by taking up energy gained from the destruction of the exciton polarization or drastically decreased by giving up all its energy to excitons. The temporal signatures of the transmitted pulse shapes agree well with model calculations.

  12. Multiple mobility edges in a 1D Aubry chain with Hubbard interaction in presence of electric field: Controlled electron transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Srilekha; Maiti, Santanu K.; Karmakar, S. N.

    2016-09-01

    Electronic behavior of a 1D Aubry chain with Hubbard interaction is critically analyzed in presence of electric field. Multiple energy bands are generated as a result of Hubbard correlation and Aubry potential, and, within these bands localized states are developed under the application of electric field. Within a tight-binding framework we compute electronic transmission probability and average density of states using Green's function approach where the interaction parameter is treated under Hartree-Fock mean field scheme. From our analysis we find that selective transmission can be obtained by tuning injecting electron energy, and thus, the present model can be utilized as a controlled switching device.

  13. Improved measurements of thermal power and control rods using multiple detectors at the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerovnik Gasper; Snoj Luka; Trkov Andrej; Barbot Loic; Fourmentel Damien; Villard Jean-Francois

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the current bilateral project between CEA Cadarache and JSI is to improve the accuracy of the online thermal power monitoring at the JSI TRIGA reactor. Simultaneously, a new wide range multichannel acquisition system for fission chambers, recently developed by CEA, is tested. In the paper, calculational and experimental power calibration methods are described. The focus is on use of multiple detectors in combination with pre-calculated and pre-measured control rod- position-dependent correction factors to improve the reactor power reading. The system will be implemented and tested at the JSI TRIGA reactor in 2014. (authors)

  14. Multiple component patient safety intervention in English hospitals: controlled evaluation of second phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benning, Amirta; Dixon-Woods, Mary; Nwulu, Ugochi; Ghaleb, Maisoon; Dawson, Jeremy; Barber, Nick; Franklin, Bryony Dean; Girling, Alan; Hemming, Karla; Carmalt, Martin; Rudge, Gavin; Naicker, Thirumalai; Kotecha, Amit; Derrington, M Clare; Lilford, Richard

    2011-02-03

    To independently evaluate the impact of the second phase of the Health Foundation's Safer Patients Initiative (SPI2) on a range of patient safety measures. Design A controlled before and after design. Five substudies: survey of staff attitudes; review of case notes from high risk (respiratory) patients in medical wards; review of case notes from surgical patients; indirect evaluation of hand hygiene by measuring hospital use of handwashing materials; measurement of outcomes (adverse events, mortality among high risk patients admitted to medical wards, patients' satisfaction, mortality in intensive care, rates of hospital acquired infection). Setting NHS hospitals in England. Nine hospitals participating in SPI2 and nine matched control hospitals. The SPI2 intervention was similar to the SPI1, with somewhat modified goals, a slightly longer intervention period, and a smaller budget per hospital. One of the scores (organisational climate) showed a significant (P = 0.009) difference in rate of change over time, which favoured the control hospitals, though the difference was only 0.07 points on a five point scale. Results of the explicit case note reviews of high risk medical patients showed that certain practices improved over time in both control and SPI2 hospitals (and none deteriorated), but there were no significant differences between control and SPI2 hospitals. Monitoring of vital signs improved across control and SPI2 sites. This temporal effect was significant for monitoring the respiratory rate at both the six hour (adjusted odds ratio 2.1, 99% confidence interval 1.0 to 4.3; P = 0.010) and 12 hour (2.4, 1.1 to 5.0; P = 0.002) periods after admission. There was no significant effect of SPI for any of the measures of vital signs. Use of a recommended system for scoring the severity of pneumonia improved from 1.9% (1/52) to 21.4% (12/56) of control and from 2.0% (1/50) to 41.7% (25/60) of SPI2 patients. This temporal change was significant (7.3, 1.4 to 37.7; P

  15. Multiple component patient safety intervention in English hospitals: controlled evaluation of second phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benning, Amirta; Dixon-Woods, Mary; Nwulu, Ugochi; Ghaleb, Maisoon; Dawson, Jeremy; Barber, Nick; Franklin, Bryony Dean; Girling, Alan; Hemming, Karla; Carmalt, Martin; Rudge, Gavin; Naicker, Thirumalai; Kotecha, Amit; Derrington, M Clare

    2011-01-01

    Objective To independently evaluate the impact of the second phase of the Health Foundation’s Safer Patients Initiative (SPI2) on a range of patient safety measures. Design A controlled before and after design. Five substudies: survey of staff attitudes; review of case notes from high risk (respiratory) patients in medical wards; review of case notes from surgical patients; indirect evaluation of hand hygiene by measuring hospital use of handwashing materials; measurement of outcomes (adverse events, mortality among high risk patients admitted to medical wards, patients’ satisfaction, mortality in intensive care, rates of hospital acquired infection). Setting NHS hospitals in England. Participants Nine hospitals participating in SPI2 and nine matched control hospitals. Intervention The SPI2 intervention was similar to the SPI1, with somewhat modified goals, a slightly longer intervention period, and a smaller budget per hospital. Results One of the scores (organisational climate) showed a significant (P=0.009) difference in rate of change over time, which favoured the control hospitals, though the difference was only 0.07 points on a five point scale. Results of the explicit case note reviews of high risk medical patients showed that certain practices improved over time in both control and SPI2 hospitals (and none deteriorated), but there were no significant differences between control and SPI2 hospitals. Monitoring of vital signs improved across control and SPI2 sites. This temporal effect was significant for monitoring the respiratory rate at both the six hour (adjusted odds ratio 2.1, 99% confidence interval 1.0 to 4.3; P=0.010) and 12 hour (2.4, 1.1 to 5.0; P=0.002) periods after admission. There was no significant effect of SPI for any of the measures of vital signs. Use of a recommended system for scoring the severity of pneumonia improved from 1.9% (1/52) to 21.4% (12/56) of control and from 2.0% (1/50) to 41.7% (25/60) of SPI2 patients. This temporal

  16. A pipeline to determine RT-QPCR control genes for evolutionary studies: application to primate gene expression across multiple tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Fedrigo

    Full Text Available Because many species-specific phenotypic differences are assumed to be caused by differential regulation of gene expression, many recent investigations have focused on measuring transcript abundance. Despite the availability of high-throughput platforms, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR is often the method of choice because of its low cost and wider dynamic range. However, the accuracy of this technique heavily relies on the use of multiple valid control genes for normalization. We created a pipeline for choosing genes potentially useful as RT-QPCR control genes for measuring expression between human and chimpanzee samples across multiple tissues, using published microarrays and a measure of tissue-specificity. We identified 13 genes from the pipeline and from commonly used control genes: ACTB, USP49, ARGHGEF2, GSK3A, TBP, SDHA, EIF2B2, GPDH, YWHAZ, HPTR1, RPL13A, HMBS, and EEF2. We then tested these candidate genes and validated their expression stability across species. We established the rank order of the most preferable set of genes for single and combined tissues. Our results suggest that for at least three tissues (cerebral cortex, liver, and skeletal muscle, EIF2B2, EEF2, HMBS, and SDHA are useful genes for normalizing human and chimpanzee expression using RT-QPCR. Interestingly, other commonly used control genes, including TBP, GAPDH, and, especially ACTB do not perform as well. This pipeline could be easily adapted to other species for which expression data exist, providing taxonomically appropriate control genes for comparisons of gene expression among species.

  17. Deficits in medio-lateral balance control and the implications for falls in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S; Rynders, C A; Sosnoff, J J

    2016-09-01

    A major health concern faced by individuals with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the heightened risk of falling. Reasons for this increased risk can often be traced back to declines in neurophysiological mechanisms underlying balance control and/or muscular strength. The aim of this study was to assess differences between persons with MS and age-matched healthy adults in regards to their falls risk, strength, reactions and directional control of balance. Twenty-two persons with multiple sclerosis (mean age 56.3±8.9 years) and 22 age-matched healthy adults (mean age 59.1±7.1 years) participated in the study. Assessments of falls risk, balance, fear of falling, lower limb strength, and reaction time were performed. Balance control was assessed under four conditions where the combined effects of vision (eyes open/closed) and standing surface (firm/pliable surface) were evaluated. Results demonstrated that, in comparison to healthy older adults, persons with MS had a significantly higher falls risk, slower reaction times, and weaker lower- limb strength. For balance, persons with MS exhibited greater overall COP motion in both the medio-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions compared to older adults. Additionally, during more challenging balance conditions, persons from the MS group exhibited greater ML motion compared to sway in the AP direction. Overall, the results confirm that persons with MS are often at a heightened risk of falling, due to the multitude of neuromuscular changes brought about by this disease process. However, the increased ML sway for the MS group could reflect a decreased ability to control side-to-side motion in comparison to controlling AP sway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Generation of multiple analog pulses with different duty cycles within VME control system for ICRH Aditya system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Ramesh; Singh, Manoj; Jadav, H M; Misra, Kishor; Kulkarni, S V, E-mail: rjoshi@ipr.res.i [Institute for plasma research, Bhat, Gandhinagar- 382428 (India)

    2010-02-01

    Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) is a promising heating method for a fusion device due to its localized power deposition profile, a direct ion heating at high density, and established technology for high RF power generation and transmission at low cost. Multiple analog pulse with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for steady state RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya to produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The control system software is based upon single digital pulse operation for RF source. It is planned to integrate multiple analog pulses with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya tokamak. The task of RF ICRH DAC is to control and acquisition of all ICRH system operation with all control loop and acquisition for post analysis of data with java based tool. For pre ionization startup as well as heating experiments using multiple RF Power of different powers and duration. The experiment based upon the idea of using single RF generator to energize antenna inside the tokamak to radiate power twice, out of which first analog pulse will produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The whole system is based on standard client server technology using tcp/ip protocol. DAC Software is based on linux operating system for highly reliable, secure and stable system operation in failsafe manner. Client system is based on tcl/tk like toolkit for user interface with c/c++ like environment which is reliable programming languages widely used on stand alone system operation with server as vxWorks real time operating system like environment. The paper is focused on the Data acquisition and monitoring system software on Aditya RF ICRH System with analog pulses in slave mode with digital pulse in

  19. Generation of multiple analog pulses with different duty cycles within VME control system for ICRH Aditya system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Ramesh; Singh, Manoj; Jadav, H M; Misra, Kishor; Kulkarni, S V

    2010-01-01

    Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) is a promising heating method for a fusion device due to its localized power deposition profile, a direct ion heating at high density, and established technology for high RF power generation and transmission at low cost. Multiple analog pulse with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for steady state RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya to produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The control system software is based upon single digital pulse operation for RF source. It is planned to integrate multiple analog pulses with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya tokamak. The task of RF ICRH DAC is to control and acquisition of all ICRH system operation with all control loop and acquisition for post analysis of data with java based tool. For pre ionization startup as well as heating experiments using multiple RF Power of different powers and duration. The experiment based upon the idea of using single RF generator to energize antenna inside the tokamak to radiate power twice, out of which first analog pulse will produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The whole system is based on standard client server technology using tcp/ip protocol. DAC Software is based on linux operating system for highly reliable, secure and stable system operation in failsafe manner. Client system is based on tcl/tk like toolkit for user interface with c/c++ like environment which is reliable programming languages widely used on stand alone system operation with server as vxWorks real time operating system like environment. The paper is focused on the Data acquisition and monitoring system software on Aditya RF ICRH System with analog pulses in slave mode with digital pulse in

  20. Generation of multiple analog pulses with different duty cycles within VME control system for ICRH Aditya system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ramesh; Singh, Manoj; Jadav, H. M.; Misra, Kishor; Kulkarni, S. V.; ICRH-RF Group

    2010-02-01

    Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) is a promising heating method for a fusion device due to its localized power deposition profile, a direct ion heating at high density, and established technology for high RF power generation and transmission at low cost. Multiple analog pulse with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for steady state RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya to produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The control system software is based upon single digital pulse operation for RF source. It is planned to integrate multiple analog pulses with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya tokamak. The task of RF ICRH DAC is to control and acquisition of all ICRH system operation with all control loop and acquisition for post analysis of data with java based tool. For pre ionization startup as well as heating experiments using multiple RF Power of different powers and duration. The experiment based upon the idea of using single RF generator to energize antenna inside the tokamak to radiate power twise, out of which first analog pulse will produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The whole system is based on standard client server technology using tcp/ip protocol. DAC Software is based on linux operating system for highly reliable, secure and stable system operation in failsafe manner. Client system is based on tcl/tk like toolkit for user interface with c/c++ like environment which is reliable programming languages widely used on stand alone system operation with server as vxWorks real time operating system like environment. The paper is focused on the Data acquisition and monitoring system software on Aditya RF ICRH System with analog pulses in slave mode with digital pulse in