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Sample records for control input composition

  1. A parallel input composite transimpedance amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D. J.; Kim, C.

    2018-01-01

    A new approach to high performance current to voltage preamplifier design is presented. The design using multiple operational amplifiers (op-amps) has a parasitic capacitance compensation network and a composite amplifier topology for fast, precision, and low noise performance. The input stage consisting of a parallel linked JFET op-amps and a high-speed bipolar junction transistor (BJT) gain stage driving the output in the composite amplifier topology, cooperating with the capacitance compensation feedback network, ensures wide bandwidth stability in the presence of input capacitance above 40 nF. The design is ideal for any two-probe measurement, including high impedance transport and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements.

  2. How depositional conditions control input, composition, and degradation of organic matter in sediments from the Chilean coastal upwelling region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niggemann, Jutta; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Lomstein, Bente Aagaard

    2007-01-01

    investigated for excess 210Pb (210Pbxs) activity, total organic and total inorganic carbon concentrations (TOC and TIC, respectively), C/N-ratios, organic carbon isotopic compositions (d13C), chlorin concentrations, Chlorin Indices (CI), and sulfate reduction rates (SRR). Sediment accumulation rates obtained...... m‑2 d‑1), which was partly due to the greater water depth of most of the sediments investigated in the northern region and consistent with a lower quality of the sedimentary OM at 23°S. Reaction rate constants for TOC degradation that were obtained from measured SRR (kSRR; 0.0004‑0.0022 yr‑1) showed...... a good correspondence to kTOC that were derived from the depth profiles of TOC (0.0003‑0.0014 yr‑1). Both, kSRR and kTOC, reflect differences in OM composition. At 36°S they were related to the degradation state of bulk OM (represented by C/N-ratios), whereas near 23°S they were related to the freshness...

  3. Leaders’ receptivity to subordinates’ creative input: the role of achievement goals and composition of creative input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.

    2015-01-01

    We identified leaders’ achievement goals and composition of creative input as important factors that can clarify when and why leaders are receptive to, and supportive of, subordinates’ creative input. As hypothesized, in two experimental studies, we found that relative to mastery goal leaders,

  4. Controlling uncertain neutral dynamic systems with delay in control input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju H.; Kwon, O.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives a novel criterion for the asymptotic stabilization of the zero solutions of a class of neutral systems with delays in control input. By constructing Lyapunov functionals, we have obtained the criterion which is expressed in terms of matrix inequalities. The solutions of the inequalities can be easily solved by efficient convex optimization algorithms. A numerical example is included to illustrate the design procedure of the proposed method

  5. Effect of different input management on weed composition, diversity and density of corn field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surur Khoramdel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of input intensity on species diversity, composition and density of weeds in corn (Zea mays L., an experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during the year 2009. Treatments included low input, medium input and high input systems. Low input received 30 tonha-1or 30 tonha-1 compost, zero tillage and hand weeding (twice. Medium input was based on 15 tonha-1 manure, 150 kgha-1 urea as chemical fertilizer, twice tillage operations and 2, 4-D (1.5 Lha-1, at five leaves emergence as an herbicide and hand weeding (once. High input received 300 kgha-1 urea, four tillage operations and Paraquat (2 Lha-1, after planting and 2, 4-D (1.5 Lha-1, at five leaves emergence. Manure and compost were applied in the planting time. Weed samplings were done in three stages (early, mid and late growing season. Results indicated that the highest and the lowest weed species diversity and density were observed in low input based on manure and high input systems, respectively. The highest range of weed relative density was obtained for black nightshade (Solanum nigrum with 9.09-75.00%. The highest number of species was observed in low input based on manure. Also, management practices affected weed dry matter and diversity indices. The highest and the lowest amounts of weed dry matter were observed in low input based on manure and high input systems, respectively. In the first, second and the third stages of sampling, the maximum and the minimum amounts of Margalef index were observed in low input based on manure (with 5.3, 5.4 and 3.3, respectively and high input systems (with 0.8, 2.3 and 2.6, respectively. In the first, second and the third stages of sampling, the highest and the lowest values of Shannon index were observed in low input based on manure (with 0.6, 0.7 and 0.5 respectively and high input (with 0

  6. Development the Controller Input Power of Peripheral Interfacing Controller Using Other Micro controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syirrazie Che Soh; Harzawardi Hashim; Nor Arymaswati Abdullah; Nur Aira Abdul Rahman; Mohd Ashhar Khalid

    2011-01-01

    This Controller Input Power of a Peripheral Interfacing Controller was developed using the other micro controller. This paper discuss the switching technique are practiced using proper electronic device to develop the controller, thus enable to control the input power of a PIC in order to expand their interfacing capacity and control. This may allow the PIC could be used to acquire input and control output signal from electronic and electromechanical device and instrument as well as software in wide scale and application. (author)

  7. Input/Output linearizing control of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez C, V.

    1994-01-01

    The feedback linearization technique is an approach to nonlinear control design. The basic idea is to transform, by means of algebraic methods, the dynamics of a nonlinear control system into a full or partial linear system. As a result of this linearization process, the well known basic linear control techniques can be used to obtain some desired dynamic characteristics. When full linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-state linearization, whereas when partial linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-output linearization. We will deal with the latter. By means of input-output linearization, the dynamics of a nonlinear system can be decomposed into an external part (input-output), and an internal part (unobservable). Since the external part consists of a linear relationship among the output of the plant and the auxiliary control input mentioned above, it is easy to design such an auxiliary control input so that we get the output to behave in a predetermined way. Since the internal dynamics of the system is known, we can check its dynamics behavior on order of to ensure that the internal states are bounded. The linearization method described here can be applied to systems with one-input/one-output, as well as to systems with multiple-inputs/multiple-outputs. Typical control problems such as stabilization and reference path tracking can be solved using this technique. In this work, the input/output linearization theory is presented, as well as the problem of getting the output variable to track some desired trayectories. Further, the design of an input/output control system applied to the nonlinear model of a research nuclear reactor is included, along with the results obtained by computer simulation. (Author)

  8. Heat input control in coke ovens battery using artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R.; Kannan, C.; Sistla, S.; Kumar, D. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

    2005-07-01

    Controlled heating is very essential for producing coke with certain desired properties. Controlled heating involves controlling the heat input into the battery dynamically depending on the various process parameters like current battery temperature, the set point of battery temperature, moisture in coal, ambient temperature, coal fineness, cake breakage etc. An artificial intelligence (AI) based heat input control has been developed in which currently some of the above mentioned process parameters are considered and used for calculating the pause time which is applied between reversal during the heating process. The AI based model currently considers 3 input variables, temperature deviation history, current deviation of the battery temperature from the target temperature and the actual heat input into the battery. Work is in progress to control the standard deviation of coke end temperature using this model. The new system which has been developed in-house has replaced Hoogovens supplied model. 7 figs.

  9. Input shaping control with reentry commands of prescribed duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valášek M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Control of flexible mechanical structures often deals with the problem of unwanted vibration. The input shaping is a feedforward method based on modification of the input signal so that the output performs the demanded behaviour. The presented approach is based on a finite-time Laplace transform. It leads to no-vibration control signal without any limitations on its time duration because it is not strictly connected to the system resonant frequency. This idea used for synthesis of control input is extended to design of dynamical shaper with reentry property that transform an arbitrary input signal to the signal that cause no vibration. All these theoretical tasks are supported by the results of simulation experiments.

  10. Investigating gaze-controlled input in a cognitive selection test

    OpenAIRE

    Gayraud, Katja; Hasse, Catrin; Eißfeldt, Hinnerk; Pannasch, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    In the field of aviation, there is a growing interest in developing more natural forms of interaction between operators and systems to enhance safety and efficiency. These efforts also include eye gaze as an input channel for human-machine interaction. The present study investigates the application of gaze-controlled input in a cognitive selection test called Eye Movement Conflict Detection Test. The test enables eye movements to be studied as an indicator for psychological test performance a...

  11. Fault tolerant control of wind turbines using unknown input observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a scheme for accommodating faults in the rotor and generator speed sensors in a wind turbine. These measured values are important both for the wind turbine controller as well as the supervisory control of the wind turbine. The scheme is based on unknown input observers, which...

  12. Input Shaping enhanced Active Disturbance Rejection Control for a twin rotor multi-input multi-output system (TRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Cui, Jianwei; Lao, Dazhong; Li, Donghai; Chen, Junhui

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a composite control based on Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) and Input Shaping is presented for TRMS with two degrees of freedom (DOF). The control tasks consist of accurately tracking desired trajectories and obtaining disturbance rejection in both horizontal and vertical planes. Due to un-measurable states as well as uncertainties stemming from modeling uncertainty and unknown disturbance torques, ADRC is employed, and feed-forward Input Shaping is used to improve the dynamical response. In the proposed approach, because the coupling effects are maintained in controller derivation, there is no requirement to decouple the TRMS into horizontal and vertical subsystems, which is usually performed in the literature. Finally, the proposed method is implemented on the TRMS platform, and the results are compared with those of PID and ADRC in a similar structure. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The operation of the controller allows for an excellent set-point tracking behavior and disturbance rejection with system nonlinearity and complex coupling conditions. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using dynamic input allocation for elongation control at FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncagni, L.; Galeani, S.; Granucci, G.; Varano, G.; Vitale, V.; Zaccarian, L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we exploit the dynamic allocation scheme for input redundant control systems proposed in to achieve elongation control on FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade). The scheme first serves as a means for regulating the current in the F coils. Then, due to the quasi-static relationship between the plasma elongation and the F coils current, elongation control is achieved by suitably generalizing the allocation scheme. Both simulation and experimental results are reported.

  14. Robust chaos synchronization using input-to-state stable control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we propose a new input-to-state stable (ISS) synchronization method for a general class of chaotic systems with disturbances. Based on Lyapunov theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, for the first time, the ISS synchronization controller is presented not only to guarantee the asymptotic ...

  15. Method for evaluating operator inputs to digital controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Most industrial processes employ operator-interactive control systems. The performance of these control systems is influenced by the choice of control station (device through which operator enters control commands). While the importance of proper control-station selection is widely accepted, standard and simple selection methods are not available for the control station using color-graphics terminals. This paper describes a unique facility for evaluating the effectiveness of various control stations. In the facility, a process is simulated on a hybrid computer, color-graphics display terminals provide information to the operator, and different control stations accept input commands to control the simulation. Tests are being conducted to evaluate a keyboard, a graphics tablet, and a CRT touch panel for use as control stations on a nuclear power plant. Preliminary results indicate that our facility can be used to determine those situations where each type of station is advantageous

  16. On Optimal Input Design for Feed-forward Control

    OpenAIRE

    Hägg, Per; Wahlberg, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers optimal input design when the intended use of the identified model is to construct a feed-forward controller based on measurable disturbances. The objective is to find a minimum power excitation signal to be used in a system identification experiment, such that the corresponding model-based feed-forward controller guarantees, with a given probability, that the variance of the output signal is within given specifications. To start with, some low order model problems are an...

  17. Adaptive nonlinear control using input normalized neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeghim, Henzeh; Seo, In Ho; Bang, Hyo Choong

    2008-01-01

    An adaptive feedback linearization technique combined with the neural network is addressed to control uncertain nonlinear systems. The neural network-based adaptive control theory has been widely studied. However, the stability analysis of the closed-loop system with the neural network is rather complicated and difficult to understand, and sometimes unnecessary assumptions are involved. As a result, unnecessary assumptions for stability analysis are avoided by using the neural network with input normalization technique. The ultimate boundedness of the tracking error is simply proved by the Lyapunov stability theory. A new simple update law as an adaptive nonlinear control is derived by the simplification of the input normalized neural network assuming the variation of the uncertain term is sufficiently small

  18. Distributed Optimal Consensus Control for Multiagent Systems With Input Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaipin; Yue, Dong; Zhao, Wei; Hu, Songlin; Dou, Chunxia; Huaipin Zhang; Dong Yue; Wei Zhao; Songlin Hu; Chunxia Dou; Hu, Songlin; Zhang, Huaipin; Dou, Chunxia; Yue, Dong; Zhao, Wei

    2018-06-01

    This paper addresses the problem of distributed optimal consensus control for a continuous-time heterogeneous linear multiagent system subject to time varying input delays. First, by discretization and model transformation, the continuous-time input-delayed system is converted into a discrete-time delay-free system. Two delicate performance index functions are defined for these two systems. It is shown that the performance index functions are equivalent and the optimal consensus control problem of the input-delayed system can be cast into that of the delay-free system. Second, by virtue of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations, an optimal control policy for each agent is designed based on the delay-free system and a novel value iteration algorithm is proposed to learn the solutions to the HJB equations online. The proposed adaptive dynamic programming algorithm is implemented on the basis of a critic-action neural network (NN) structure. Third, it is proved that local consensus errors of the two systems and weight estimation errors of the critic-action NNs are uniformly ultimately bounded while the approximated control policies converge to their target values. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed method.

  19. Control of Thermodynamical System with Input-Dependent State Delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Krstic, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    We consider control of a cooling system with several consumers that require cooling from a common source. The flow feeding coolant to the consumers can be controlled, but due to significant physical distances between the common source and the consumers, the coolant flow takes a non......-negligible amount of time to travel to the consumers, giving rise to input-dependent state delays. We first present a simple bilinear model of the system, followed by a state feedback control design that is able to stabilize the system at a chosen equilibrium in spite of the delays. We also present a heuristic...

  20. An input shaping controller enabling cranes to move without sway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, N.; Singhose, W.; Kriikku, E.

    1997-01-01

    A gantry crane at the Savannah River Technology Center was retrofitted with an Input Shaping controller. The controller intercepts the operator's pendant commands and modifies them in real time so that the crane is moved without residual sway in the suspended load. Mechanical components on the crane were modified to make the crane suitable for the anti-sway algorithm. This paper will describe the required mechanical modifications to the crane, as well as, a new form of Input Shaping that was developed for use on the crane. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the effectiveness of the new process. Several practical considerations will be discussed including a novel (patent pending) approach for making small, accurate moves without residual oscillations

  1. Prediction-Based Control for Nonlinear Systems with Input Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Estrada-Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has two primary objectives. First, it presents a state prediction strategy for a class of nonlinear Lipschitz systems subject to constant time delay in the input signal. As a result of a suitable change of variable, the state predictor asymptotically provides the value of the state τ units of time ahead. Second, it proposes a solution to the stabilization and trajectory tracking problems for the considered class of systems using predicted states. The predictor-controller convergence is proved by considering a complete Lyapunov functional. The proposed predictor-based controller strategy is evaluated using numerical simulations.

  2. Robust synergetic control design under inputs and states constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, Saeid; Araújo, Rui; Sadati, Jalil

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a novel robust-constrained control methodology for discrete-time linear parameter-varying (DT-LPV) systems is proposed based on a synergetic control theory (SCT) approach. It is shown that in DT-LPV systems without uncertainty, and for any unmeasured bounded additive disturbance, the proposed controller accomplishes the goal of stabilising the system by asymptotically driving the error of the controlled variable to a bounded set containing the origin and then maintaining it there. Moreover, given an uncertain DT-LPV system jointly subject to unmeasured and constrained additive disturbances, and constraints in states, input commands and reference signals (set points), then invariant set theory is used to find an appropriate polyhedral robust invariant region in which the proposed control framework is guaranteed to robustly stabilise the closed-loop system. Furthermore, this is achieved even for the case of varying non-zero control set points in such uncertain DT-LPV systems. The controller is characterised to have a simple structure leading to an easy implementation, and a non-complex design process. The effectiveness of the proposed method and the implications of the controller design on feasibility and closed-loop performance are demonstrated through application examples on the temperature control on a continuous-stirred tank reactor plant, on the control of a real-coupled DC motor plant, and on an open-loop unstable system example.

  3. File list: InP.Bld.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: InP.Myo.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: InP.Prs.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: InP.Neu.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: InP.Unc.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: InP.Brs.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: InP.ALL.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: InP.Adl.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: InP.Neu.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: InP.Utr.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. File list: InP.ALL.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: InP.Utr.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  5. File list: InP.Unc.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  6. File list: InP.Bon.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: InP.Kid.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Kid.20.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Kidney SRX973437,...X968416,SRX1094507,SRX1094511,SRX1353404,SRX1094515,ERX513120,SRX114492,SRX170378 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Kid.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  9. File list: InP.Unc.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Unc.20.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Unclassified SRX1...3292,ERX026985,SRX1094495,SRX545955,SRX212467 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Unc.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  10. File list: InP.YSt.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.YSt.10.Input_control.AllCell sacCer3 Input control Input control Yeast strain S...,SRX211436 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/InP.YSt.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  11. File list: InP.ALL.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.ALL.10.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control All cell types SRX...2625,SRX564564,SRX115361 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.ALL.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  12. File list: InP.Adl.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adl.05.Input_control.AllCell ce10 Input control Input control Adult SRX005630,S...RX080064,SRX323687,SRX1388754,SRX146417,SRX012296,SRX012299,SRX005633 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/InP.Adl.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  13. File list: InP.ALL.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.ALL.50.Input_control.AllCell sacCer3 Input control Input control All cell types.../dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/InP.ALL.50.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Plc.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Plc.50.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Placenta SRX19004...9,SRX080366 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Plc.50.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  15. File list: InP.Unc.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Unc.05.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Unclassified SRX5...5953,SRX063292,SRX1094492,SRX012413,ERX026985 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Unc.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  16. File list: InP.Plc.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Plc.20.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Placenta SRX112971...02,SRX404310,SRX1072160,SRX871507,SRX192097,SRX192098,SRX192099,SRX204148 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Plc.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  17. File list: InP.Epd.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Epd.50.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Epidermis SRX14260...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Epd.50.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.Neu.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.10.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Neural SRX643470,...RX1035591 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Neu.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  19. File list: InP.Lng.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lng.05.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Lung SRX062977,SRX...SRX213837,SRX213846,SRX213842 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Lng.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  20. File list: InP.YSt.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.YSt.05.Input_control.AllCell sacCer3 Input control Input control Yeast strain S...,SRX211435 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/InP.YSt.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  1. File list: InP.Gon.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.10.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Gonad SRX1002699,...SRX663452,SRX1002710,SRX1002709,SRX1091823,SRX663439,SRX663445,SRX663442 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Gon.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  2. File list: InP.Emb.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.50.Input_control.AllCell ce10 Input control Input control Embryo SRX027097,...331141,SRX982091,SRX331153,SRX331231 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/InP.Emb.50.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  3. File list: InP.PSC.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.PSC.05.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Pluripotent stem c... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.PSC.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  4. File list: InP.Lng.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lng.20.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Lung SRX502813,SR...1772,SRX734236,SRX188957,SRX1004561,SRX497257,SRX497258 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Lng.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  5. File list: InP.Spl.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Spl.10.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Spleen ERX662629,E...242,ERX662616,SRX701169,SRX701170,SRX701168,ERX662615,ERX662625 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Spl.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  6. File list: InP.Pan.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pan.05.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Pancreas SRX19030...0794,SRX188948,SRX190029,SRX199860,SRX026707,SRX825393 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Pan.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  7. File list: InP.Dig.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.10.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Digestive tract S...RX155777,SRX077858,SRX863785,SRX543682,SRX286206,SRX543691 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Dig.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  8. File list: InP.Gon.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.50.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Gonad SRX332361,SR...89,SRX099892,SRX099895 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Gon.50.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  9. File list: InP.Dig.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.50.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Digestive tract S...RX155744,SRX612781,SRX543681,SRX101310,SRX648244,SRX863785 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Dig.50.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  10. File list: InP.Utr.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Utr.50.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Uterus SRX117811,...50615,SRX150616,SRX863779,SRX389283 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Utr.50.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  11. File list: InP.Unc.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Unc.10.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Unclassified SRX1...94492,SRX063292,SRX212465,SRX012413,ERX026985 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Unc.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  12. File list: InP.PSC.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.PSC.20.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Pluripotent stem ...RX342850,ERX342851 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.PSC.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  13. File list: InP.CDV.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.CDV.05.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Cardiovascular SR...SRX190068,SRX220067,SRX190094,SRX080409,SRX190090,SRX699736 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.CDV.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Kid.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Kid.10.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Kidney SRX804277,S...RX085456,SRX143808,SRX804276,SRX286402,SRX286403,SRX062965,SRX804278,SRX1050552 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Kid.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  15. File list: InP.Bld.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.20.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Blood SRX181865,SR...,SRX209471,SRX021428 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Bld.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  16. File list: InP.Bon.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bon.05.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Bone SRX188789,SR...08 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Bon.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  17. File list: InP.Prs.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Prs.20.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Prostate SRX53966...X306505,SRX475374,SRX540851,SRX475375,SRX1098753,SRX334229,SRX176071,SRX315154 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Prs.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.Kid.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Kid.05.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Kidney SRX359412,...X1037589,SRX985312,SRX974385,SRX1094515,SRX003879,SRX1094507,SRX1094511,ERX513120 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Kid.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  19. File list: InP.Gon.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.05.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Gonad SRX332361,SR...03,SRX591716,SRX555507 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Gon.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  20. File list: InP.Adp.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adp.05.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Adipocyte SRX99775...27370 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Adp.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  1. File list: InP.Brs.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Brs.20.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Breast SRX483143,S...SRX396745,SRX403484,SRX1078982,SRX031066,SRX031214 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Brs.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  2. File list: InP.Lar.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lar.20.Input_control.AllCell dm3 Input control Input control Larvae SRX040614,S...457599,SRX1426944,SRX1426946,SRX1426948 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Lar.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  3. File list: InP.Kid.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Kid.05.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Kidney SRX062965,S...RX085456,SRX143808,SRX1050552,SRX286402,SRX804277,SRX804276,SRX286403,SRX804278 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Kid.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  4. File list: InP.Kid.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Kid.20.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Kidney SRX804277,S...RX286402,SRX143808,SRX804276,SRX286403,SRX062965,SRX085456,SRX804278,SRX1050552 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Kid.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  5. File list: InP.ALL.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.ALL.10.Input_control.AllCell dm3 Input control Input control All cell types SRX...,SRX215627,SRX390503,SRX1426952,SRX1426954,SRX1426944,SRX1426946,SRX681798,SRX1426948 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.ALL.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  6. File list: InP.Lar.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lar.05.Input_control.AllCell ce10 Input control Input control Larvae SRX331089,...,SRX015099 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/InP.Lar.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  7. File list: InP.Pup.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.50.Input_control.AllCell dm3 Input control Input control Pupae SRX016163,SR...X016167,SRX016169,SRX016164,SRX016165,SRX016168 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.50.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  8. File list: InP.CDV.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.CDV.10.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Cardiovascular SR...SRX190094,SRX190090,SRX189947,SRX080435,DRX021454,SRX699736 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.CDV.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  9. File list: InP.Epd.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Epd.10.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Epidermis SRX2000...54,SRX189959,SRX080365,SRX573182,SRX573176 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Epd.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  10. File list: InP.Lng.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lng.10.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Lung SRX213845,SRX...RX213842,SRX213846,SRX1528654 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Lng.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  11. File list: InP.YSt.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.YSt.50.Input_control.AllCell sacCer3 Input control Input control Yeast strain S... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/InP.YSt.50.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  12. File list: InP.Myo.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Myo.05.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Muscle SRX018653,...656,SRX038601 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Myo.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  13. File list: InP.Pan.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pan.10.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Pancreas SRX19030...8948,SRX825393,SRX199860,SRX190029,SRX026707,SRX375320 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Pan.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Neu.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.05.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Neural SRX236086,S...X668239,ERX513118,SRX150263,ERX513117 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  15. File list: InP.Gon.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.50.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Gonad SRX1002699,...SRX663452,SRX1002710,SRX1002709,SRX1091823,SRX663439,SRX663445,SRX663442 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Gon.50.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  16. File list: InP.Plc.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Plc.05.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Placenta SRX19004...9,SRX080366 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Plc.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  17. File list: InP.Kid.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Kid.50.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Kidney SRX804277,S...RX286402,SRX143808,SRX804276,SRX286403,SRX062965,SRX085456,SRX804278,SRX1050552 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Kid.50.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.Bon.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bon.10.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Bone SRX188789,SR...64 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Bon.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  19. File list: InP.CDV.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.CDV.50.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Cardiovascular SRX...74,SRX517514,SRX373580,SRX320036,SRX320037,SRX1121694,SRX275462,SRX275461,SRX066549 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.CDV.50.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  20. File list: InP.Gon.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.20.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Gonad SRX1002699,...SRX663452,SRX1002710,SRX1002709,SRX663439,SRX663445,SRX1091823,SRX663442 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Gon.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  1. File list: InP.Oth.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Oth.05.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Others SRX022481,S...1,SRX957691,SRX388797,SRX957693,SRX024355 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Oth.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  2. File list: InP.Dig.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.05.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Digestive tract SR...X885797,SRX885796,SRX885801 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Dig.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  3. File list: InP.ALL.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.ALL.05.Input_control.AllCell sacCer3 Input control Input control All cell types...ERX462363,ERX433715 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/InP.ALL.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  4. File list: InP.Dig.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.20.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Digestive tract S...X077858,SRX286206,SRX124697,SRX1183967,SRX124698,SRX543691 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Dig.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  5. File list: InP.Lng.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lng.10.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Lung SRX502813,SR...74812,SRX016558,SRX734236,SRX038682,SRX497257,SRX497258 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Lng.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  6. File list: InP.Plc.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: InP.Pan.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: InP.Brs.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: InP.ALL.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: InP.Utr.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: InP.Oth.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: InP.Pup.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: InP.Neu.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: InP.Spl.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: InP.Bon.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: InP.Unc.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: InP.Epd.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: InP.Gon.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: InP.Plc.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: InP.YSt.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: InP.Brs.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: InP.Unc.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: InP.Pan.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: InP.Unc.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: InP.Lng.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: InP.PSC.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: InP.Bld.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: InP.ALL.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: InP.CDV.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: InP.Myo.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: InP.Myo.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: InP.Kid.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: InP.Lng.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: InP.Oth.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: InP.Oth.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: InP.Myo.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: InP.Dig.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: InP.ALL.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: InP.Dig.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: InP.Adl.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adl.05.Input_control.AllCell dm3 Input control Input control Adult SRX220301,SR...81442,SRX215625,SRX215627,SRX970862 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Adl.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  2. Labour input in construction of composite structures of the Balakovo NPP reactor compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alasyuk, G.Ya.

    1988-01-01

    Technical-economical results achieved when constructing the Balakovo NPP second unit reactor compartment structures are presented. The obtained data analysis shows that in the case of building the walls of non-sealed reactor compartment section in the form of composite structures the major part of labour input requirements (54-59%) falls at works on production and mounting of these structures, performed at auxiliary plants. Labour input for works performed the construction (unit-cell and space frame mounting, preparation of units for concreting, joint sealing, concrete placement) make up 41-46%, and labour input for enlarged unit-cell mounting make up 8%. Labour input per 1 m 3 of the wall structure with 0.6 and 0.9 m thicness in the monolith option are respectively by 19 an 23% higher than the same indices for composite

  3. Ankylosing Spondylitis and Posture Control: The Role of Visual Input

    OpenAIRE

    De Nunzio, Alessandro Marco; Iervolino, Salvatore; Zincarelli, Carmela; Di Gioia, Luisa; Rengo, Giuseppe; Multari, Vincenzo; Peluso, Rosario; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Pappone, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the motor control during quiet stance in patients with established ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to evaluate the effect of visual input on the maintenance of a quiet posture. Methods. 12 male AS patients (mean age 50.1 ± 13.2 years) and 12 matched healthy subjects performed 2 sessions of 3 trials in quiet stance, with eyes open (EO) and with eyes closed (EC) on a baropodometric platform. The oscillation of the centre of feet pressure (CoP) was acquired. Indices of stab...

  4. Control rod drive WWER 1000 – tuning of input parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov P.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article picks up on the contributions presented at the conferences Computational Mechanics 2005 and 2006, in which a calculational model of an upgraded control rod linear stepping drive for the reactors WWER 1000 (LKP-M/3 was described and results of analysis of dynamical response of its individual parts when moving up- and downwards were included. The contribution deals with the tuning of input parameters of the 3rd generation drive with the objective of reaching its running as smooth as possible so as to get a minimum wear of its parts as a result and hence to achieve maximum life-time.

  5. Reconfigurable Control of Input Affine Nonlinear Systems under Actuator Fault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Mojtaba; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    loop is preserved. The RB is realized by a virtual actuator and a reference model. Using notions of incremental and input-to-state stability (ISS), it is shown that ISS of the closed-loop reconfigured system can be achieved by the separate design of the virtual actuator. The proposed method does...... not need any knowledge of the nominal controller and only assumes that the nominal closed-loop system is ISS. The method is demonstrated on a dynamic positioning system for an offshore supply vessel, where the virtual actuator is designed using backstepping....

  6. Ankylosing Spondylitis and Posture Control: The Role of Visual Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Marco De Nunzio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess the motor control during quiet stance in patients with established ankylosing spondylitis (AS and to evaluate the effect of visual input on the maintenance of a quiet posture. Methods. 12 male AS patients (mean age 50.1 ± 13.2 years and 12 matched healthy subjects performed 2 sessions of 3 trials in quiet stance, with eyes open (EO and with eyes closed (EC on a baropodometric platform. The oscillation of the centre of feet pressure (CoP was acquired. Indices of stability and balance control were assessed by the sway path (SP of the CoP, the frequency bandwidth (FB1 that includes the 80% of the area under the amplitude spectrum, the mean amplitude of the peaks (MP of the sway density curve (SDC, and the mean distance (MD between 2 peaks of the SDC. Results. In severe AS patients, the MD between two peaks of the SDC and the SP of the center of feet pressure were significantly higher than controls during both EO and EC conditions. The MP was significantly reduced just on EC. Conclusions. Ankylosing spondylitis exerts negative effect on postural stability, not compensable by visual inputs. Our findings may be useful in the rehabilitative management of the increased risk of falling in AS.

  7. Ankylosing Spondylitis and Posture Control: The Role of Visual Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nunzio, Alessandro Marco; Iervolino, Salvatore; Zincarelli, Carmela; Di Gioia, Luisa; Rengo, Giuseppe; Multari, Vincenzo; Peluso, Rosario; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Pappone, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the motor control during quiet stance in patients with established ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to evaluate the effect of visual input on the maintenance of a quiet posture. Methods. 12 male AS patients (mean age 50.1 ± 13.2 years) and 12 matched healthy subjects performed 2 sessions of 3 trials in quiet stance, with eyes open (EO) and with eyes closed (EC) on a baropodometric platform. The oscillation of the centre of feet pressure (CoP) was acquired. Indices of stability and balance control were assessed by the sway path (SP) of the CoP, the frequency bandwidth (FB1) that includes the 80% of the area under the amplitude spectrum, the mean amplitude of the peaks (MP) of the sway density curve (SDC), and the mean distance (MD) between 2 peaks of the SDC. Results. In severe AS patients, the MD between two peaks of the SDC and the SP of the center of feet pressure were significantly higher than controls during both EO and EC conditions. The MP was significantly reduced just on EC. Conclusions. Ankylosing spondylitis exerts negative effect on postural stability, not compensable by visual inputs. Our findings may be useful in the rehabilitative management of the increased risk of falling in AS. PMID:25821831

  8. A Design Method of Robust Servo Internal Model Control with Control Input Saturation

    OpenAIRE

    山田, 功; 舩見, 洋祐

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper, we examine a design method of robust servo Internal Model Control with control input saturation. First of all, we clarify the condition that Internal Model Control has robust servo characteristics for the system with control input saturation. From this consideration, we propose new design method of Internal Model Control with robust servo characteristics. A numerical example to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method is shown.

  9. WORKBENCH FOR CONTROL SYSTEMS TRIALS BASED ON VIPA 300 CONTROLLER AND ADVANTECH INPUT/OUTPUT CARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Levinskyi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic is about workbench creation for control systems trials based on VIPA 300 industrial PLC and model of control object which is implemented in MatLab Simulink program on PC. Connection between controller and the PC is provided by the Advantech PCI-1711 input/output card of discrete and analog signals. Object identification,control system synthesis, creation of control device structure and its parametrical identification, as a rule, is done on a PC in a modelling environment, e.g. in MatLab. But often, using this PC modelling, the hardware and software features of algorithms which were obtained during system synthesis are not considered in a specific industrial PLC.It is considered a good idea to use a composite version where obtained algorithms are tested in a real industrial PLC and control object is substituted by a model which is working on a PC in real time scale. In this case software realization of algorithms in a specific PLC are fully taken into account and substitution of real control object by itsmodel considerably reduces the costs for carrying out experiments and allows to study the system behavior when control object parameters and modes of operation vary greatly. The creation of workbench stipulates several stages: configuration and programming of industrial PLC VIPA 313 SC, installation and configuration of Advantech PCI- 1711 input/output card, tuning of Simulink modelling environment for working in real time scale using Real-Time Windows Target Library, testing of workbench by using constant and harmonic signals of different frequencies. Work results of virtual stabilization system are compared with combined version. In virtual stabilization system PID governor and control object are implemented in Simulink. In combined version control object is still implemented in Simulink and PID governor - in VIPA 313 SC controller (using functional block FB58 from Step7 standard library.

  10. Active control of multi-input hydraulic journal bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Jen-Chen; Chen, Chi-Yin; Tu, Jia-Ying

    2016-09-01

    Because of the advantages of high accuracy, high capacity, and low friction, the development of hydrostatic bearing for machine tool receives significant attention in the last decades. The mechanics and mechanical design of hydrostatic journal bearing with capillary restrictors has been discussed in literature. However, pragmatically, the undesired loading effects of cutting force tend to result in resonance and instability of the rotor and damage the shaft during operation. Therefore, multi-input, active flow control using state feedback design is proposed in this paper. To this purpose, the proportional pressure valves are added to the hydraulic system as active control devices, and the linearised models of the bearing and valve are discussed and identified. Simulation and experimental work is conducted to verify the proposed active control and parameter identification techniques. The results show that the unbalance responses of the rotor are reduced by the proposed state feedback controller, which is able to regulate the flow pressure effectively, thus enhancing the stability and accuracy of the hydraulic journal bearing.

  11. Compositional Synthesis of Safety Controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, W.

    2012-01-01

    In my thesis I investigate compositional techniques for synthesis of safety controllers. A safety controller, in this context, is a state machine that gives the set of safe control outputs for every possible sequence of observations from the plant under control. Compositionality, in this context,

  12. Quality Control of Biotechnological Inputs DetectingMycoplasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Netto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR as a tool of quality control of bovine sera and cellular cultures used in the biotechnological industry. A total of 46 samples of bovine sera derived from two slaughterhouses and 33 samples of BHK21 cells derived from two biotechnological industries were evaluated using the primers GPO-3 (sense and MGSO (antisense. The PCR technique sensibility analysis showed that 280 bp were amplified for the quantities of 50 ng to 0.006 ng of Micoplasma DNA. The primers specificity was confirmed in the test using Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilisand Candida albicans; except by the positive control, none of the samples showed amplification. The presence of Mycoplasma in bovine sera and in the cultures of BHK21 cells showed that 56.5 and 15.2%, respectively, were contaminated. Thus, it was possible to conclude that PCR was a fast and confident technique to detect mycoplasma and that it could be used to control the quality of immunobiological products and inputs, such as sera and cultures of BHK21 cells.

  13. Receding Horizon H∞ Control for Input-Delayed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Woong Yoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the receding horizon H∞ control (RHHC for input-delayed systems. A new cost function for a finite horizon dynamic game problem is first introduced, which includes two terminal weighting terms parameterized by a positive definite matrix, called a terminal weighing matrix. Secondly, the RHHC is obtained from the solution to the finite dynamic game problem. Thirdly, we propose an LMI condition under which the saddle point value satisfies the nonincreasing monotonicity. Finally, we show the asymptotic stability and H∞ boundedness of the closed-loop system controlled by the proposed RHHC. The proposed RHHC has a guaranteed H∞ performance bound for nonzero external disturbances and the quadratic cost can be improved by adjusting the prediction horizon length for nonzero initial condition and zero disturbance, which is not the case for existing memoryless state-feedback controllers. It is shown through a numerical example that the proposed RHHC is stabilizing and satisfies the infinite horizon H∞ performance bound. Furthermore, the performance in terms of the quadratic cost is shown to be improved by adjusting the prediction horizon length when there exists no external disturbance with nonzero initial condition.

  14. Robotics control using isolated word recognition of voice input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A speech input/output system is presented that can be used to communicate with a task oriented system. Human speech commands and synthesized voice output extend conventional information exchange capabilities between man and machine by utilizing audio input and output channels. The speech input facility is comprised of a hardware feature extractor and a microprocessor implemented isolated word or phrase recognition system. The recognizer offers a medium sized (100 commands), syntactically constrained vocabulary, and exhibits close to real time performance. The major portion of the recognition processing required is accomplished through software, minimizing the complexity of the hardware feature extractor.

  15. Calibration of controlling input models for pavement management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT) is currently using the Deighton Total Infrastructure Management System (dTIMS) software for pavement management. This system is based on several input models which are computational backbones to dev...

  16. Optimal Input Strategy for Plug and Play Process Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Martin Nygaard; Leth, John-Josef; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of optimal operation of a plant, which goal is to maintain production at minimum cost. The system considered in this work consists of a joined plant and redundant input systems. It is assumed that each input system contributes to a flow of goods into the joined pa...... the performance of the plant. The results are applied to a coal fired power plant where an additional new fuel system, gas, becomes available....

  17. Input Files and Procedures for Analysis of SMA Hybrid Composite Beams in MSC.Nastran and ABAQUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.; Patel, Hemant D.

    2005-01-01

    A thermoelastic constitutive model for shape memory alloys (SMAs) and SMA hybrid composites (SMAHCs) was recently implemented in the commercial codes MSC.Nastran and ABAQUS. The model is implemented and supported within the core of the commercial codes, so no user subroutines or external calculations are necessary. The model and resulting structural analysis has been previously demonstrated and experimentally verified for thermoelastic, vibration and acoustic, and structural shape control applications. The commercial implementations are described in related documents cited in the references, where various results are also shown that validate the commercial implementations relative to a research code. This paper is a companion to those documents in that it provides additional detail on the actual input files and solution procedures and serves as a repository for ASCII text versions of the input files necessary for duplication of the available results.

  18. On a multi-channel transportation loss system with controlled input and controlled service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewgeni Dshalalow

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-channel loss queueing system is investigated. The input stream is a controlled point process. The service in each of m parallel channels depends on the state of the system at certain moments of time when input and service may be controlled. To obtain explicitly the limiting distribution of the main process (Zt (the number of busy channels in equilibrium, an auxiliary three dimensional process with two additional components (one of them is a semi-Markov process is treated as semi-regenerative process. An optimization problem is discussed. Simple expressions for an objective function are derived.

  19. Testing accelerometer rectification error caused by multidimensional composite inputs with double turntable centrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, W; Meng, X F; Dong, X M

    2014-12-01

    Rectification error is a critical characteristic of inertial accelerometers. Accelerometers working in operational situations are stimulated by composite inputs, including constant acceleration and vibration, from multiple directions. However, traditional methods for evaluating rectification error only use one-dimensional vibration. In this paper, a double turntable centrifuge (DTC) was utilized to produce the constant acceleration and vibration simultaneously and we tested the rectification error due to the composite accelerations. At first, we deduced the expression of the rectification error with the output of the DTC and a static model of the single-axis pendulous accelerometer under test. Theoretical investigation and analysis were carried out in accordance with the rectification error model. Then a detailed experimental procedure and testing results were described. We measured the rectification error with various constant accelerations at different frequencies and amplitudes of the vibration. The experimental results showed the distinguished characteristics of the rectification error caused by the composite accelerations. The linear relation between the constant acceleration and the rectification error was proved. The experimental procedure and results presented in this context can be referenced for the investigation of the characteristics of accelerometer with multiple inputs.

  20. Development of an Input Suite for an Orthotropic Composite Material Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffarth, Canio; Shyamsunder, Loukham; Khaled, Bilal; Rajan, Subramaniam; Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.; Dubois, Paul; Blankenhorn, Gunther

    2017-01-01

    An orthotropic three-dimensional material model suitable for use in modeling impact tests has been developed that has three major components elastic and inelastic deformations, damage and failure. The material model has been implemented as MAT213 into a special version of LS-DYNA and uses tabulated data obtained from experiments. The prominent features of the constitutive model are illustrated using a widely-used aerospace composite the T800S3900-2B[P2352W-19] BMS8-276 Rev-H-Unitape fiber resin unidirectional composite. The input for the deformation model consists of experimental data from 12 distinct experiments at a known temperature and strain rate: tension and compression along all three principal directions, shear in all three principal planes, and off axis tension or compression tests in all three principal planes, along with other material constants. There are additional input associated with the damage and failure models. The steps in using this model are illustrated composite characterization tests, verification tests and a validation test. The results show that the developed and implemented model is stable and yields acceptably accurate results.

  1. Selection of input devices and controls for modern process control consoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenfuss, O.; Zimmermann, R.

    1975-06-01

    In modern process control consoles man-machine communication is realized more and more by computer driven CRT displays, the most efficient communication system today. This paper describes the most important input devices and controls for such control consoles. A certain number of facts are given, which should be considered during the selection. The aptitude of the described devices for special tasks is discussed and recommendations are given for carrying out a selection. (orig.) [de

  2. Hydraulic actuator mechanism to control aircraft spoiler movements through dual input commands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irick, S. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An aircraft flight spoiler control mechanism is described. The invention enables the conventional, primary spoiler control system to retain its operational characteristics while accommodating a secondary input controlled by a conventional computer system to supplement the settings made by the primary input. This is achieved by interposing springs between the primary input and the spoiler control unit. The springs are selected to have a stiffness intermediate to the greater force applied by the primary control linkage and the lesser resistance offered by the spoiler control unit. Thus, operation of the primary input causes the control unit to yield before the springs, yet, operation of the secondary input, acting directly on the control unit, causes the springs to yield and absorb adjustments before they are transmitted into the primary control system.

  3. Manual input device for controlling a robot arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.J.; Siva, K.V.

    1990-01-01

    A six-axis input device, eg joystick, is supported by a mechanism which enables the joystick to be aligned with any desired orientation, eg parallel to the tool. The mechanism can then be locked to provide a rigid support of the joystick. The mechanism may include three pivotal joints whose axes are perpendicular, each incorporating a clutch. The clutches may be electromagnetic or mechanical and may be operable jointly or independently. The robot arm comprises a base rotatable about a vertical axis, an upper arm, a forearm and a tool or grip rotatable about three perpendicular axes relative to the forearm. (author)

  4. Bi-Objective Optimal Control Modification Adaptive Control for Systems with Input Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new model-reference adaptive control method based on a bi-objective optimal control formulation for systems with input uncertainty. A parallel predictor model is constructed to relate the predictor error to the estimation error of the control effectiveness matrix. In this work, we develop an optimal control modification adaptive control approach that seeks to minimize a bi-objective linear quadratic cost function of both the tracking error norm and predictor error norm simultaneously. The resulting adaptive laws for the parametric uncertainty and control effectiveness uncertainty are dependent on both the tracking error and predictor error, while the adaptive laws for the feedback gain and command feedforward gain are only dependent on the tracking error. The optimal control modification term provides robustness to the adaptive laws naturally from the optimal control framework. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive control approach.

  5. Robust chaos synchronization using input-to-state stable control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... be obtained by solving a convex optimization problem represented by the. LMI. Simulation studies are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ... one is the linear state feedback controller and the other is the nonlinear feedback controller. By the proposed control scheme, the closed-loop error system is ...

  6. Active structural acoustic control of helicopter interior multifrequency noise using input-output-based hybrid control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xunjun; Lu, Yang; Wang, Fengjiao

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the recent advances in reduction of multifrequency noise inside helicopter cabin using an active structural acoustic control system, which is based on active gearbox struts technical approach. To attenuate the multifrequency gearbox vibrations and resulting noise, a new scheme of discrete model predictive sliding mode control has been proposed based on controlled auto-regressive moving average model. Its implementation only needs input/output data, hence a broader frequency range of controlled system is modelled and the burden on the state observer design is released. Furthermore, a new iteration form of the algorithm is designed, improving the developing efficiency and run speed. To verify the algorithm's effectiveness and self-adaptability, experiments of real-time active control are performed on a newly developed helicopter model system. The helicopter model can generate gear meshing vibration/noise similar to a real helicopter with specially designed gearbox and active struts. The algorithm's control abilities are sufficiently checked by single-input single-output and multiple-input multiple-output experiments via different feedback strategies progressively: (1) control gear meshing noise through attenuating vibrations at the key points on the transmission path, (2) directly control the gear meshing noise in the cabin using the actuators. Results confirm that the active control system is practical for cancelling multifrequency helicopter interior noise, which also weakens the frequency-modulation of the tones. For many cases, the attenuations of the measured noise exceed the level of 15 dB, with maximum reduction reaching 31 dB. Also, the control process is demonstrated to be smoother and faster.

  7. Optimal control of LQR for discrete time-varying systems with input delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yue-Zhu; Yang, Zhong-Lian; Yin, Zhi-Xiang; Xu, Feng

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we consider the optimal control problem of linear quadratic regulation for discrete time-variant systems with single input and multiple input delays. An innovative and simple method to derive the optimal controller is given. The studied problem is first equivalently converted into a problem subject to a constraint condition. Last, with the established duality, the problem is transformed into a static mathematical optimisation problem without input delays. The optimal control input solution to minimise performance index function is derived by solving this optimisation problem with two methods. A numerical simulation example is carried out and its results show that our two approaches are both feasible and very effective.

  8. MANAGEMENT TOOLS IN THE SYSTEM OF INPUT CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Lazarev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In article introduction of the international standards in activity of the meat-processing enterprises in connection with Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization is proved. The essence and the economic maintenance of instruments of entrance control reveals. The regulations of entrance control consisting of eight stages, defining execu-tives, their functional duties, forms of results are submitted. The algorithm of func-tioning of the mechanism of entrance control in the form of sequence of actions is de-scribed when carrying out procedure of entrance control.

  9. An improved robust model predictive control for linear parameter-varying input-output models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, H.S.; Hanema, J.; Tóth, R.; Mohammadpour, J.; Meskin, N.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a new robust model predictive control (MPC) scheme to control the discrete-time linear parameter-varying input-output models subject to input and output constraints. Closed-loop asymptotic stability is guaranteed by including a quadratic terminal cost and an ellipsoidal terminal

  10. Fully probabilistic control for stochastic nonlinear control systems with input dependent noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzallah, Randa

    2015-03-01

    Robust controllers for nonlinear stochastic systems with functional uncertainties can be consistently designed using probabilistic control methods. In this paper a generalised probabilistic controller design for the minimisation of the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the actual joint probability density function (pdf) of the closed loop control system, and an ideal joint pdf is presented emphasising how the uncertainty can be systematically incorporated in the absence of reliable systems models. To achieve this objective all probabilistic models of the system are estimated from process data using mixture density networks (MDNs) where all the parameters of the estimated pdfs are taken to be state and control input dependent. Based on this dependency of the density parameters on the input values, explicit formulations to the construction of optimal generalised probabilistic controllers are obtained through the techniques of dynamic programming and adaptive critic methods. Using the proposed generalised probabilistic controller, the conditional joint pdfs can be made to follow the ideal ones. A simulation example is used to demonstrate the implementation of the algorithm and encouraging results are obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. File list: InP.NoD.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.NoD.05.Input_control.AllCell dm3 Input control Input control No description htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.NoD.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  12. File list: InP.NoD.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: InP.EmF.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: InP.NoD.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.NoD.50.Input_control.AllCell dm3 Input control Input control No description htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.NoD.50.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.EmF.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: InP.NoD.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: InP.NoD.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: InP.EmF.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: InP.NoD.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: InP.NoD.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. Effect of heat input on dissimilar welds of ultra high strength steel and duplex stainless steel: Microstructural and compositional analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasalloti, H., E-mail: hamed.tasalloti.kashani@student.lut.fi; Kah, P., E-mail: paul.kah@lut.fi; Martikainen, J., E-mail: jukka.martikainen@lut.fi

    2017-01-15

    The effect of heat input on the microstructure and compositional heterogeneity of welds of direct-quenched ultra high strength steel (Optim 960 QC) and duplex stainless steel (UNS S32205) was studied. The dissimilar welds were made using GMAW with a fully austenitic filler wire. In addition to grain coarsening in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the ferritic side, it was found that an increase in heat input correlatively increased the proportional volume of bainitic to martensitic phases. Coarse ferritic grains were observed in the duplex HAZ. Higher heat input, however, had a beneficial effect on the nucleation of austenite in the HAZ. Heat input had a regulatory effect on grain growth within the austenitic weld and more favorable equiaxed austenite was obtained with higher heat input. On the ferritic side of the welds, macrosegregation in the form of a martensitic intermediate zone was observed for all the cooling rates studied. However, on the duplex side, macrosegregation in the fusion boundary was only noticed with higher cooling rates. Microstructural observations and compositional analysis suggest that higher heat input could be beneficial for the structural integrity of the weld despite higher heat input increasing the extent of adverse coarse grains in the HAZ, especially on the ferritic side. - Highlights: •The effect of heat input on dissimilar welds of UHSS and DSS was studied. •Transmutation of the microstructure was discussed in detail. •The influence of heat input on compositional heterogeneity of welds was described. •Higher heat input enhanced bainitic transformation on the ferritic side. •Macrosegregation was affected by the amount of heat input on the DSS side.

  5. Control of Vibration in Mechanical Systems Using Shaped Reference Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    damping with several discrete actuators. Burke and Hubbard 34! generated a distributed control law by applying a piezoelectric film to the beam that...setpoints from successive memory locations. DATA-kYOVE (- starts servoing to setpoints from successive memory locations for mnicro scified by MN while taking

  6. Controlling Access to Input/Output Peripheral Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Rodionov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author proposes a system that manages information security policy on enterprise. Problems related to managing information security policy on enterprise and access to peripheral devices in computer systems functioning under control of Microsoft Windows NT operating systems are considered.

  7. Control Systems with Saturating Inputs Analysis Tools and Advanced Design

    CERN Document Server

    Corradini, Maria Letizia; Giannoni, Fabio; Orlando, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    This series aims to report new developments in the fields of control and information sciences - quickly, informally and at a high level. The type of material considered for publication includes: 1. Preliminary drafts of monographs and advanced textbooks 2. Lectures on a new field, or presenting a new angle on a classical field 3. Research reports 4. Reports of meetings, provided they are a) of exceptional interest and b) devoted to a specific topic. The timeliness of subject material is very important.

  8. Composition of Sediment Inputs to the Hikurangi Subduction Margin: A Prelude to IODP Expedition 375

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, M.

    2017-12-01

    Expedition 375 of the International Ocean Discovery Program is scheduled to begin drilling offshore New Zealand in March 2018. Two sites will be cored seaward of the Hikurangi subduction front (subduction inputs), plus one site at the toe of the accretionary prism, and one site in the forearc above a zone of well-documented slow-slip events. One of the challenges during planning for Expedition 375 has been the total absence of pre-existing compositional data from the region; that lack of basic information impacts such tasks as mixing and analysis of appropriate standards for X-ray diffraction, error analysis, computation of accurate normalization factors, and QA/QC. To help overcome those deficiencies, I analyzed a total of 152 samples from ODP Sites 1123 (Quaternary to Eocene), 1124 (Quaternary to Cretaceous), and 1125 (Quaternary to Miocene), plus piston/gravity-core samples from the repositories at Lamont-Doherty, Oregon State, and NIWA. The results reveal an unusually large range of compositions for the bulk sediments. The relative abundance of total clay minerals ranges from 3 to 64 wt%. Quartz ranges from 0 to 39 wt%. Feldspar ranges from 0 to 40 wt%, and calcite ranges from 0 to 93 wt%. Samples from the Hikurangi Plateau and Chatham Rise are carbonate-rich, with many bordering on almost-pure nannofossil chalk. Hemipelagic muds from the floor of Hikurangi Trough, Ruatoria slide, and the landward slope of the trench are fairly uniform, with averages of 36 wt% total clay minerals, 27 wt% quartz, 24 wt% feldspar, and 13 wt% calcite. Unlike many other subduction zones, this diversity of lithologies will save shipboard scientists from repetitive, mind-numbing descriptions and analyses, and shorebased experiments for frictional properties, permeability, and consolidation will need to pay close attention to the compositional attributes of the specimens. In addition, results from the four IODP boreholes can be interpreted within a broader, regional-scale framework of

  9. Divide and control: split design of multi-input DNA logic gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, Yulia V; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M

    2015-01-18

    Logic gates made of DNA have received significant attention as biocompatible building blocks for molecular circuits. The majority of DNA logic gates, however, are controlled by the minimum number of inputs: one, two or three. Here we report a strategy to design a multi-input logic gate by splitting a DNA construct.

  10. H-infinity Control of Linear Systems with Almost Periodic Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mikael

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we consider the class of linear, infinitedimensional systems with bounded input and output operators. Wederive and QTR H-infinity type result, formulated for thecase where the input signals are almost periodic in a generalizedsense. Control probelms, for which this result is relevant...

  11. Anterior Cingulate Cortex Input to the Claustrum Is Required for Top-Down Action Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. White

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Cognitive abilities, such as volitional attention, operate under top-down, executive frontal cortical control of hierarchically lower structures. The circuit mechanisms underlying this process are unresolved. The claustrum possesses interconnectivity with many cortical areas and, thus, is hypothesized to orchestrate the cortical mantle for top-down control. Whether the claustrum receives top-down input and how this input may be processed by the claustrum have yet to be formally tested, however. We reveal that a rich anterior cingulate cortex (ACC input to the claustrum encodes a preparatory top-down information signal on a five-choice response assay that is necessary for optimal task performance. We further show that ACC input monosynaptically targets claustrum inhibitory interneurons and spiny glutamatergic projection neurons, the latter of which amplify ACC input in a manner that is powerfully constrained by claustrum inhibitory microcircuitry. These results demonstrate ACC input to the claustrum is critical for top-down control guiding action. : White et al. show that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC input to the claustrum encodes a top-down preparatory signal on a 5-choice response assay that is critical for task performance. Claustrum microcircuitry amplifies top-down ACC input in a frequency-dependent manner for eventual propagation to the cortex for cognitive control of action. Keywords: 5CSRTT, optogenetics, fiber photometry, microcircuit, attention, bottom-up, sensory cortices, motor cortices

  12. Self-Structured Organizing Single-Input CMAC Control for Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ThanhQuyen Ngo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a self-structured organizing single-input control system based on differentiable cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC for an n-link robot manipulator to achieve the high-precision position tracking. In the proposed scheme, the single-input CMAC controller is solely used to control the plant, so the input space dimension of CMAC can be simplified and no conventional controller is needed. The structure of single-input CMAC will also be self-organized; that is, the layers of single-input CMAC will grow or prune systematically and their receptive functions can be automatically adjusted. The online tuning laws of single-input CMAC parameters are derived in gradient-descent learning method and the discrete-type Lyapunov function is applied to determine the learning rates of proposed control system so that the stability of the system can be guaranteed. The simulation results of robot manipulator are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control methodology.

  13. Design, Fabrication, and Modeling of a Novel Dual-Axis Control Input PZT Gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Yang; Chen, Tsung-Lin

    2017-10-31

    Conventional gyroscopes are equipped with a single-axis control input, limiting their performance. Although researchers have proposed control algorithms with dual-axis control inputs to improve gyroscope performance, most have verified the control algorithms through numerical simulations because they lacked practical devices with dual-axis control inputs. The aim of this study was to design a piezoelectric gyroscope equipped with a dual-axis control input so that researchers may experimentally verify those control algorithms in future. Designing a piezoelectric gyroscope with a dual-axis control input is more difficult than designing a conventional gyroscope because the control input must be effective over a broad frequency range to compensate for imperfections, and the multiple mode shapes in flexural deformations complicate the relation between flexural deformation and the proof mass position. This study solved these problems by using a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material, introducing additional electrodes for shielding, developing an optimal electrode pattern, and performing calibrations of undesired couplings. The results indicated that the fabricated device could be operated at 5.5±1 kHz to perform dual-axis actuations and position measurements. The calibration of the fabricated device was completed by system identifications of a new dynamic model including gyroscopic motions, electromechanical coupling, mechanical coupling, electrostatic coupling, and capacitive output impedance. Finally, without the assistance of control algorithms, the "open loop sensitivity" of the fabricated gyroscope was 1.82 μV/deg/s with a nonlinearity of 9.5% full-scale output. This sensitivity is comparable with those of other PZT gyroscopes with single-axis control inputs.

  14. Design, Fabrication, and Modeling of a Novel Dual-Axis Control Input PZT Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yang Chang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional gyroscopes are equipped with a single-axis control input, limiting their performance. Although researchers have proposed control algorithms with dual-axis control inputs to improve gyroscope performance, most have verified the control algorithms through numerical simulations because they lacked practical devices with dual-axis control inputs. The aim of this study was to design a piezoelectric gyroscope equipped with a dual-axis control input so that researchers may experimentally verify those control algorithms in future. Designing a piezoelectric gyroscope with a dual-axis control input is more difficult than designing a conventional gyroscope because the control input must be effective over a broad frequency range to compensate for imperfections, and the multiple mode shapes in flexural deformations complicate the relation between flexural deformation and the proof mass position. This study solved these problems by using a lead zirconate titanate (PZT material, introducing additional electrodes for shielding, developing an optimal electrode pattern, and performing calibrations of undesired couplings. The results indicated that the fabricated device could be operated at 5.5±1 kHz to perform dual-axis actuations and position measurements. The calibration of the fabricated device was completed by system identifications of a new dynamic model including gyroscopic motions, electromechanical coupling, mechanical coupling, electrostatic coupling, and capacitive output impedance. Finally, without the assistance of control algorithms, the “open loop sensitivity” of the fabricated gyroscope was 1.82 μV/deg/s with a nonlinearity of 9.5% full-scale output. This sensitivity is comparable with those of other PZT gyroscopes with single-axis control inputs.

  15. Dynamics and Embedded Internet of Things Input Shaping Control for Overhead Cranes Transporting Multibody Payloads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Peláez

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Input shaping is an Optimal Control feedforward strategy whose ability to define how and when a flexible dynamical system defined by Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs and computer controlled would move into its operative space, without command induced unwanted dynamics, has been exhaustively demonstrated. This work examines the issue of Embedded Internet of Things (IoT Input Shaping with regard to real time control of multibody oscillatory systems whose dynamics are better described by differential algebraic equations (DAEs. An overhead crane hanging a double link multibody payload has been appointed as a benchmark case; it is a multibody, multimode system. This might be worst scenario to implement Input Shaping. The reasons can be found in the wide array of constraints that arise. Firstly, the reliability of the multibody model was tested on a Functional Mock-Up Interface (FMI with the two link payload suspended from the trolley by comparing the experimental video tapping signals in time domain faced with the signals extracted from the multibody model. The FFTs of the simulated and the experimental signal contain the same frequency harmonics only with somewhat different power due to the real world light damping in the joints. The application of this approach may be extended to other cases i.e., the usefulness of mobile hydraulic cranes is limited because the payload is supported by an overhead cable under tension that allows oscillation to occur during crane motion. If the payload size is not negligible small when compared with the cable length may introduce an additional oscillatory mode that creates a multibody double pendulum. To give the insight into the double pendulum dynamics by Lagrangian methods two slender rods as payloads are analyzed dealing with the overhead crane and a composite revolute-revolute joint is proposed to model the cable of the hydraulic crane, both assumptions facilitates an affordable analysis. This allows

  16. Dynamics and Embedded Internet of Things Input Shaping Control for Overhead Cranes Transporting Multibody Payloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Gerardo; Vaugan, Joshua; Izquierdo, Pablo; Rubio, Higinio; García-Prada, Juan Carlos

    2018-06-04

    Input shaping is an Optimal Control feedforward strategy whose ability to define how and when a flexible dynamical system defined by Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) and computer controlled would move into its operative space, without command induced unwanted dynamics, has been exhaustively demonstrated. This work examines the issue of Embedded Internet of Things (IoT) Input Shaping with regard to real time control of multibody oscillatory systems whose dynamics are better described by differential algebraic equations (DAEs). An overhead crane hanging a double link multibody payload has been appointed as a benchmark case; it is a multibody, multimode system. This might be worst scenario to implement Input Shaping. The reasons can be found in the wide array of constraints that arise. Firstly, the reliability of the multibody model was tested on a Functional Mock-Up Interface (FMI) with the two link payload suspended from the trolley by comparing the experimental video tapping signals in time domain faced with the signals extracted from the multibody model. The FFTs of the simulated and the experimental signal contain the same frequency harmonics only with somewhat different power due to the real world light damping in the joints. The application of this approach may be extended to other cases i.e., the usefulness of mobile hydraulic cranes is limited because the payload is supported by an overhead cable under tension that allows oscillation to occur during crane motion. If the payload size is not negligible small when compared with the cable length may introduce an additional oscillatory mode that creates a multibody double pendulum. To give the insight into the double pendulum dynamics by Lagrangian methods two slender rods as payloads are analyzed dealing with the overhead crane and a composite revolute-revolute joint is proposed to model the cable of the hydraulic crane, both assumptions facilitates an affordable analysis. This allows developing a general

  17. Control Board Digital Interface Input Devices – Touchscreen, Trackpad, or Mouse?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas A. Ulrich; Ronald L. Boring; Roger Lew

    2015-08-01

    The authors collaborated with a power utility to evaluate input devices for use in the human system interface (HSI) for a new digital Turbine Control System (TCS) at a nuclear power plant (NPP) undergoing a TCS upgrade. A standalone dynamic software simulation of the new digital TCS and a mobile kiosk were developed to conduct an input device study to evaluate operator preference and input device effectiveness. The TCS software presented the anticipated HSI for the TCS and mimicked (i.e., simulated) the turbine systems’ responses to operator commands. Twenty-four licensed operators from the two nuclear power units participated in the study. Three input devices were tested: a trackpad, mouse, and touchscreen. The subjective feedback from the survey indicates the operators preferred the touchscreen interface. The operators subjectively rated the touchscreen as the fastest and most comfortable input device given the range of tasks they performed during the study, but also noted a lack of accuracy for selecting small targets. The empirical data suggest the mouse input device provides the most consistent performance for screen navigation and manipulating on screen controls. The trackpad input device was both empirically and subjectively found to be the least effective and least desired input device.

  18. The Boron Isotopic Composition of Elephant Dung: Inputs to the Global Boron Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. B.; Hervig, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    A survey of boron in kerogen showed isotopically light δ11B values (0 to -50%) that are distinctly different from most mineral and natural water B reservoirs. Diagenesis releases this isotopically light B into pore fluids when hydrocarbons are generated, thus enriching oilfield brines in 10B. This observation suggests that borated biomolecules (BM) are primarily tetrahedral favoring 10B, whereas 11B is preferred in trigonal coordination. Plants, with optimal concentrations up to 100ppm, contribute more B than animal remains to sediment. Elephants are one of the largest herbivores on earth, consuming 200 - 250 kg of plant material/day and producing 50 kg of manure/day. They are inefficient at digestion, thus the manure contains >50% undigested plant material. Dung samples are therefore ideal for studying the δ11B of both the food input and digested output of a significant B supply to sedimentary systems. Horse and rabbit manure were studied for comparison to evaluate B isotope variations in the food supply and potential vital effects on the output. B-content and isotopic composition of dung plant material and digested fractions were measured in the solid state by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The digests were rinsed in 1.8% mannitol, a B-complexing agent, to remove surface adsorbed-B, then air dried and Au-coated for charge compensation. Results showed that the elephant diet contains 3-13 ppm B, with an average δ11B of -20 ± 0.8% (1σ), while rabbit food had 88 ppm B with a δ11B of -50 ± 1.3 %. The digested fraction of the elephant dung contains 4-10ppm B with average δ11B values of -12 ± 1.2%. In comparison, horse manure with 11-21 ppm B has a δ11B of -10.7 ± 0.5% and rabbit manure contains 2-3 ppm B with a δ11B of -8.8 ± 1%. Boron isotope compositions of these manures are indistinguishable (within error). Clearly plant material is a major contributor of isotopically light B to sediments. The herbivores studied fractionate their total B intake in

  19. Improved adaptive input voltage control of a solar array interfacing current mode controlled boost power stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitbon, Moshe; Schacham, Shmuel; Suntio, Teuvo; Kuperman, Alon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic generator dynamic resistance online estimation method is proposed. • Control method allowing to achieve nominal performance at all time is presented. • The method is suitable for any type of photovoltaic system. - Abstract: Nonlinear characteristics of photovoltaic generators were recently shown to significantly influence the dynamics of interfacing power stages. Moreover, since the dynamic resistance of photovoltaic generators is both operating point and environmental variables dependent, the combined dynamics exhibits these dependencies as well, burdening control challenge. Typically, linear time invariant input voltage loop controllers (e.g. Proportional-Integrative-Derivative) are utilized in photovoltaic applications, designed according to nominal operating conditions. Nevertheless, since actual dynamics is seldom nominal, closed loop performance of such systems varies as well. In this paper, adaptive control method is proposed, allowing to estimate photovoltaic generator resistance online and utilize it to modify the controller parameters such that closed loop performance remains nominal throughout the whole operation range. Unlike previously proposed method, utilizing double-grid-frequency component for estimation purposes and suffering from various drawbacks such as operation point dependence and applicability to single-phase grid connected systems only, the proposed method is based on harmonic current injection and is independent on operating point and system topology

  20. Analysis and Improvement of Control Algorithm for Operation Mode Transition due to Input Channel Trouble in Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Myunghoon; Kim, Woogoon; Yim, Hyeongsoon

    2016-01-01

    The PI (Proportional plus Integral) controller, which is the essential functional block in control systems, can automatically perform the stable control of an important plant process while reducing the steady state error and improving the transient response. However, if the received input PV (Process Variable) is not normal due to input channel trouble, it will be difficult to control the system automatically. For this reason, many control systems are implemented to change the operation mode from automatic to manual mode in the PI controller when the failed input PV is detected. If the PI controller is in automatic mode for all the time, the control signal varies as the change of the input PV is continuously reflected in the control algorithm. In the other cases, since the controller changes into the manual mode at t=0, the control signal is fixed at the last PI controller output and thus the feedback control is not performed anymore until the operator takes an action such as the operation mode change. As a result of analysis and simulations for the controller’s operation modes in all the cases of input channel trouble, we discovered that it is more appropriate to maintain the automatic mode despite the bad quality in the PV. Therefore, we improved the control system algorithm reflecting the analysis results for the operator’s convenience and the stability of a control system

  1. Analysis and Improvement of Control Algorithm for Operation Mode Transition due to Input Channel Trouble in Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Myunghoon; Kim, Woogoon; Yim, Hyeongsoon [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The PI (Proportional plus Integral) controller, which is the essential functional block in control systems, can automatically perform the stable control of an important plant process while reducing the steady state error and improving the transient response. However, if the received input PV (Process Variable) is not normal due to input channel trouble, it will be difficult to control the system automatically. For this reason, many control systems are implemented to change the operation mode from automatic to manual mode in the PI controller when the failed input PV is detected. If the PI controller is in automatic mode for all the time, the control signal varies as the change of the input PV is continuously reflected in the control algorithm. In the other cases, since the controller changes into the manual mode at t=0, the control signal is fixed at the last PI controller output and thus the feedback control is not performed anymore until the operator takes an action such as the operation mode change. As a result of analysis and simulations for the controller’s operation modes in all the cases of input channel trouble, we discovered that it is more appropriate to maintain the automatic mode despite the bad quality in the PV. Therefore, we improved the control system algorithm reflecting the analysis results for the operator’s convenience and the stability of a control system.

  2. Computational Techniques for Model Predictive Control of Large-Scale Systems with Continuous-Valued and Discrete-Valued Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Kobayashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose computational techniques for model predictive control of large-scale systems with both continuous-valued control inputs and discrete-valued control inputs, which are a class of hybrid systems. In the proposed method, we introduce the notion of virtual control inputs, which are obtained by relaxing discrete-valued control inputs to continuous variables. In online computation, first, we find continuous-valued control inputs and virtual control inputs minimizing a cost function. Next, using the obtained virtual control inputs, only discrete-valued control inputs at the current time are computed in each subsystem. In addition, we also discuss the effect of quantization errors. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by a numerical example. The proposed method enables us to reduce and decentralize the computation load.

  3. Soil organic carbon dynamics jointly controlled by climate, carbon inputs, soil properties and soil carbon fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhongkui; Feng, Wenting; Luo, Yiqi; Baldock, Jeff; Wang, Enli

    2017-10-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics are regulated by the complex interplay of climatic, edaphic and biotic conditions. However, the interrelation of SOC and these drivers and their potential connection networks are rarely assessed quantitatively. Using observations of SOC dynamics with detailed soil properties from 90 field trials at 28 sites under different agroecosystems across the Australian cropping regions, we investigated the direct and indirect effects of climate, soil properties, carbon (C) inputs and soil C pools (a total of 17 variables) on SOC change rate (r C , Mg C ha -1  yr -1 ). Among these variables, we found that the most influential variables on r C were the average C input amount and annual precipitation, and the total SOC stock at the beginning of the trials. Overall, C inputs (including C input amount and pasture frequency in the crop rotation system) accounted for 27% of the relative influence on r C , followed by climate 25% (including precipitation and temperature), soil C pools 24% (including pool size and composition) and soil properties (such as cation exchange capacity, clay content, bulk density) 24%. Path analysis identified a network of intercorrelations of climate, soil properties, C inputs and soil C pools in determining r C . The direct correlation of r C with climate was significantly weakened if removing the effects of soil properties and C pools, and vice versa. These results reveal the relative importance of climate, soil properties, C inputs and C pools and their complex interconnections in regulating SOC dynamics. Ignorance of the impact of changes in soil properties, C pool composition and C input (quantity and quality) on SOC dynamics is likely one of the main sources of uncertainty in SOC predictions from the process-based SOC models. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The Relationship between Creative Personality Composition, Innovative Team Climate, and Team Innovativeness: An Input-Process-Output Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathisen, Gro Ellen; Martinsen, Oyvind; Einarsen, Stale

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between creative personality composition, innovative team climate, and team innovation based on an input-process-output model. We measured personality with the Creative Person Profile, team climate with the Team Climate Inventory, and team innovation through team-member and supervisor reports of team…

  5. H∞ Loop Shaping Control of Input Saturated Systems with Norm-Bounded Parametric Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Lima Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a gain-scheduling control design strategy for a class of linear systems with the presence of both input saturation constraints and norm-bounded parametric uncertainty. LMI conditions are derived in order to obtain a gain-scheduled controller that ensures the robust stability and performance of the closed loop system. The main steps to obtain such a controller are given. Differently from other gain-scheduled approaches in the literature, this one focuses on the problem of H∞ loop shaping control design with input saturation nonlinearity and norm-bounded uncertainty to reduce the effect of the disturbance input on the controlled outputs. Here, the design problem has been formulated in the four-block H∞ synthesis framework, in which it is possible to describe the parametric uncertainty and the input saturation nonlinearity as perturbations to normalized coprime factors of the shaped plant. As a result, the shaped plant is represented as a linear parameter-varying (LPV system while the norm-bounded uncertainty and input saturation are incorporated. This procedure yields a linear parameter-varying structure for the controller that ensures the stability of the polytopic LPV shaped plant from the vertex property. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is illustrated through application to a physical system: a VTOL “vertical taking-off landing” helicopter.

  6. Input-output linearizing tracking control of induction machine with the included magnetic saturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolinar, Drago; Ljusev, Petar; Stumberger, Gorazd

    2003-01-01

    The tracking control design of an induction motor, based on input-output linearisation with magnetic saturation included is addressed. The magnetic saturation is represented by a nonlinear magnetising curve for the iron core and is used in the control, the observer of the state variables......, and in the load torque estimator. An input-output linearising control is used to achieve better tracking performances. It is based on the mixed 'stator current - rotor flux linkage' induction motor model with magnetic saturation considered in the stationary reference frame. Experimental results show...... that the proposed input-output linearising tracking control with saturation included behaves considerably better than the one without saturation, and that it introduces smaller position and speed errors, and better motor stiffness on account of the increased computational complexity....

  7. Impact of magnetic saturation on the input-output linearising tracking control of an induction motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolinar, Drago; Ljusev, Petar; Stumberger, Gorazd

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the tracking control design of an induction motor, based on input-output linearization with magnetic saturation included. Magnetic saturation is represented by the nonlinear magnetizing curve of the iron core and is used in the control design, the observer of state variables......, and in the load torque estimator. An input-output linearising control is used to achieve better tracking performances of the drive. It is based on the mixed ”stator current - rotor flux linkage” induction motor model with magnetic saturation considered in the stationary reference frame. Experimental results show...... that the proposed input-output linearising tracking control with the included saturation behaves considerably better than the one without saturation, and that it introduces smaller position and speed errors, and better motor stiffness on account of the increased computational complexity....

  8. Input-constrained model predictive control via the alternating direction method of multipliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Frison, Gianluca; Andersen, Martin S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm, based on the alternating direction method of multipliers, for the convex optimal control problem arising in input-constrained model predictive control. We develop an efficient implementation of the algorithm for the extended linear quadratic control problem (LQCP......) with input and input-rate limits. The algorithm alternates between solving an extended LQCP and a highly structured quadratic program. These quadratic programs are solved using a Riccati iteration procedure, and a structure-exploiting interior-point method, respectively. The computational cost per iteration...... is quadratic in the dimensions of the controlled system, and linear in the length of the prediction horizon. Simulations show that the approach proposed in this paper is more than an order of magnitude faster than several state-of-the-art quadratic programming algorithms, and that the difference in computation...

  9. PC-based input/output controllers from a VME perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been widely adopted in the accelerator community. Although EPICS is available on many platforms, the majority of sites have deployed VME- or VXI-based input output controllers running the vxWorks real time operating system. Recently, a hybrid approach using vxWorks on both PC and traditional platforms is being implemented at LANL. To illustrate these developments the author compares his recent experience deploying PC-based EPICS input output controllers with experience deploying similar systems based on traditional EPICS platforms

  10. Aspects of input processing in the numerical control of electron beam machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    A high-performance Numerical Control has been developed for an Electron Beam Machine. The system is structured into 3 hierarchial levels: Input Processing, Realtime Processing (such as Geometry Interpolation) and the Interfaces to the Electron Beam Machine. The author considers the Input Processing. In conventional Numerical Controls the Interfaces to the control is given by the control language as defined in DIN 66025. State of the art in NC-technology offers programming systems of differing competence covering the spectra between manual programming in the control language to highly sophisticated systems such as APT. This software interface has been used to define an Input Processor that in cooperation with the Hostcomputer meets the requirements of a sophisticated NC-system but at the same time provides a modest stand-alone system with all the basic functions such as interactive program-editing, program storage, program execution simultaneous with the development of another program, etc. Software aspects such as adapting DIN 66025 for Electron Beam Machining, organisation and modularisation of Input Processor Software has been considered and solutions have been proposed. Hardware aspects considered are interconnections of the Input Processor with the Host and the Realtime Processors. Because of economical and development-time considerations, available software and hardware has been liberally used and own development has been kept to a minimum. The proposed system is modular in software and hardware and therefore very flexible and open-ended to future expansion. (Auth.)

  11. Robust adaptive backstepping neural networks control for spacecraft rendezvous and docking with input saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kewei; Huo, Wei

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a robust adaptive neural networks control strategy for spacecraft rendezvous and docking with the coupled position and attitude dynamics under input saturation. Backstepping technique is applied to design a relative attitude controller and a relative position controller, respectively. The dynamics uncertainties are approximated by radial basis function neural networks (RBFNNs). A novel switching controller consists of an adaptive neural networks controller dominating in its active region combined with an extra robust controller to avoid invalidation of the RBFNNs destroying stability of the system outside the neural active region. An auxiliary signal is introduced to compensate the input saturation with anti-windup technique, and a command filter is employed to approximate derivative of the virtual control in the backstepping procedure. Globally uniformly ultimately bounded of the relative states is proved via Lyapunov theory. Simulation example demonstrates effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Absolute Stability Analysis in Fuzzy Control Systems with Parametric Uncertainties and Reference Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing-Fei; Ma, Li-Shan; Perng, Jau-Woei

    This study analyzes the absolute stability in P and PD type fuzzy logic control systems with both certain and uncertain linear plants. Stability analysis includes the reference input, actuator gain and interval plant parameters. For certain linear plants, the stability (i.e. the stable equilibriums of error) in P and PD types is analyzed with the Popov or linearization methods under various reference inputs and actuator gains. The steady state errors of fuzzy control systems are also addressed in the parameter plane. The parametric robust Popov criterion for parametric absolute stability based on Lur'e systems is also applied to the stability analysis of P type fuzzy control systems with uncertain plants. The PD type fuzzy logic controller in our approach is a single-input fuzzy logic controller and is transformed into the P type for analysis. In our work, the absolute stability analysis of fuzzy control systems is given with respect to a non-zero reference input and an uncertain linear plant with the parametric robust Popov criterion unlike previous works. Moreover, a fuzzy current controlled RC circuit is designed with PSPICE models. Both numerical and PSPICE simulations are provided to verify the analytical results. Furthermore, the oscillation mechanism in fuzzy control systems is specified with various equilibrium points of view in the simulation example. Finally, the comparisons are also given to show the effectiveness of the analysis method.

  13. Input preshaping with frequency domain information for flexible-link manipulator control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzes, Anthony; Englehart, Matthew J.; Yurkovich, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    The application of an input preshaping scheme to flexible manipulators is considered. The resulting control corresponds to a feedforward term that convolves in real-time the desired reference input with a sequence of impulses and produces a vibration free output. The robustness of the algorithm with respect to injected disturbances and modal frequency variations is not satisfactory and can be improved by convolving the input with a longer sequence of impulses. The incorporation of the preshaping scheme to a closed-loop plant, using acceleration feedback, offers satisfactory disturbance rejection due to feedback and cancellation of the flexible mode effects due to the preshaping. A frequency domain identification scheme is used to estimate the modal frequencies on-line and subsequently update the spacing between the impulses. The combined adaptive input preshaping scheme provides the fastest possible slew that results in a vibration free output.

  14. Real Time Part Input Control of a Pull Production System by Finding IF-THEN Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Rizauddin; Yamamoto, Hidehiko; Abu Qudeiri, Jaber

    This paper considers the part input problem of a production system where two Flexible Transfer Lines (FTLs) consisting of an up-stream production line and a down-stream production line while operating under Just In Time (JIT) production management. The up-stream production line processes the raw material after receiving them from suppliers, and after processing them, delivers the processed product to a down-stream production line via a conveyer. In this paper, we have proposed a novel idea for a part input real time control system, known as Algorithm for Real Time Control of Part Input Systems (ARTCOPS). The algorithm is useful when FTLs are in operation under a production order that is different from the pre-decided production schedule. Simulations of virtual production systems have been carried out to verify that ARTCOPS is useful in real time control, although the production orders are different from the pre-decided production scheduling.

  15. Multiple-Input Subject-Specific Modeling of Plasma Glucose Concentration for Feedforward Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Kaylee; Cinar, Ali; Mei, Yong; Roggendorf, Amy; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Quinn, Laurie; Rollins, Derrick K

    2014-11-26

    The ability to accurately develop subject-specific, input causation models, for blood glucose concentration (BGC) for large input sets can have a significant impact on tightening control for insulin dependent diabetes. More specifically, for Type 1 diabetics (T1Ds), it can lead to an effective artificial pancreas (i.e., an automatic control system that delivers exogenous insulin) under extreme changes in critical disturbances. These disturbances include food consumption, activity variations, and physiological stress changes. Thus, this paper presents a free-living, outpatient, multiple-input, modeling method for BGC with strong causation attributes that is stable and guards against overfitting to provide an effective modeling approach for feedforward control (FFC). This approach is a Wiener block-oriented methodology, which has unique attributes for meeting critical requirements for effective, long-term, FFC.

  16. Sector-condition-based results for adaptive control and synchronization of chaotic systems under input saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Rehan, Muhammad; Hong, Keum-Shik; Khaliq, Abdul; Saeed-ur-Rehman

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the design of adaptive feedback controllers for two problems (namely, stabilization and synchronization) of chaotic systems with unknown parameters by considering input saturation constraints. A novel generalized sector condition is developed to deal with the saturation nonlinearities for synthesizing the nonlinear and the adaptive controllers for the stabilization and synchronization control objectives. By application of the proposed sector condition and rigorous regional stability analysis, control and adaptation laws are formulated to guarantee local stabilization of a nonlinear system under actuator saturation. Further, simple control and adaptation laws are developed to synchronize two chaotic systems under uncertain parameters and input saturation nonlinearity. Numerical simulation results for Rössler and FitzHugh–Nagumo models are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive stabilization and synchronization control methodologies

  17. Effects of allochthonous inputs in the control of infectious disease of prey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Banshidhar; Poria, Swarup

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •Infected predator–prey model with allochthonous inputs is proposed. •Stability and persistence conditions are derived. •Bifurcation is determined with respect to allochthonous inputs. •Results show that system can not be disease free without allochthonous inputs. •Hopf and its continuation bifurcation is analysed numerically. -- Abstract: Allochthonous inputs are important sources of productivity in many food webs and their influences on food chain model demand further investigations. In this paper, assuming the existence of allochthonous inputs for intermediate predator, a food chain model is formulated with disease in the prey. The stability and persistence conditions of the equilibrium points are determined. Extinction criterion for infected prey population is obtained. It is shown that suitable amount of allochthonous inputs to intermediate predator can control infectious disease of prey population, provided initial intermediate predator population is above a critical value. This critical intermediate population size increases monotonically with the increase of infection rate. It is also shown that control of infectious disease of prey is possible in some cases of seasonally varying contact rate. Dynamical behaviours of the model are investigated numerically through one and two parameter bifurcation analysis using MATCONT 2.5.1 package. The occurrence of Hopf and its continuation curves are noted with the variation of infection rate and allochthonous food availability. The continuation curves of limit point cycle and Neimark Sacker bifurcation are drawn by varying the rate of infection and allochthonous inputs. This study introduces a novel natural non-toxic method for controlling infectious disease of prey in a food chain model

  18. Combining control input with flight path data to evaluate pilot performance in transport aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbatson, Matt; Harris, Don; Huddlestone, John; Sears, Rodney

    2008-11-01

    When deriving an objective assessment of piloting performance from flight data records, it is common to employ metrics which purely evaluate errors in flight path parameters. The adequacy of pilot performance is evaluated from the flight path of the aircraft. However, in large jet transport aircraft these measures may be insensitive and require supplementing with frequency-based measures of control input parameters. Flight path and control input data were collected from pilots undertaking a jet transport aircraft conversion course during a series of symmetric and asymmetric approaches in a flight simulator. The flight path data were analyzed for deviations around the optimum flight path while flying an instrument landing approach. Manipulation of the flight controls was subject to analysis using a series of power spectral density measures. The flight path metrics showed no significant differences in performance between the symmetric and asymmetric approaches. However, control input frequency domain measures revealed that the pilots employed highly different control strategies in the pitch and yaw axes. The results demonstrate that to evaluate pilot performance fully in large aircraft, it is necessary to employ performance metrics targeted at both the outer control loop (flight path) and the inner control loop (flight control) parameters in parallel, evaluating both the product and process of a pilot's performance.

  19. Tracking Controller for Intrinsic Output Saturated Systems in Presence of Amplitude and Rate Input Saturations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chater, E.; Giri, F.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of controlling plants that are subject to multiple saturation constraints. Especially, we are interested in linear systems whose input is subject to amplitude and rate constraints of saturation type. Furthermore, the considered systems output is also subject to an intrinsi...

  20. Design of LQG Controller for Active Suspension without Considering Road Input Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the road conditions are completely unknown in the design of a suspension controller, an improved linear quadratic and Gaussian distributed (LQG controller is proposed for active suspension system without considering road input signals. The main purpose is to optimize the vehicle body acceleration, pitching angular acceleration, displacement of suspension system, and tire dynamic deflection comprehensively. Meanwhile, it will extend the applicability of the LQG controller. Firstly, the half-vehicle and road input mathematical models of an active suspension system are established, with the weight coefficients of each evaluating indicator optimized by using genetic algorithm (GA. Then, a simulation model is built in Matlab/Simulink environment. Finally, a comparison of simulation is conducted to illustrate that the proposed LQG controller can obtain the better comprehensive performance of vehicle suspension system and improve riding comfort and handling safety compared to the conventional one.

  1. Spacecraft reorientation control in presence of attitude constraint considering input saturation and stochastic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu; Ye, Dong; Sun, Zhaowei; Zhang, Shijie

    2018-03-01

    This paper proposes a novel feedback control law for spacecraft to deal with attitude constraint, input saturation, and stochastic disturbance during the attitude reorientation maneuver process. Applying the parameter selection method to improving the existence conditions for the repulsive potential function, the universality of the potential-function-based algorithm is enhanced. Moreover, utilizing the auxiliary system driven by the difference between saturated torque and command torque, a backstepping control law, which satisfies the input saturation constraint and guarantees the spacecraft stability, is presented. Unlike some methods that passively rely on the inherent characteristic of the existing controller to stabilize the adverse effects of external stochastic disturbance, this paper puts forward a nonlinear disturbance observer to compensate the disturbance in real-time, which achieves a better performance of robustness. The simulation results validate the effectiveness, reliability, and universality of the proposed control law.

  2. Optimal Control of a PEM Fuel Cell for the Inputs Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Rubio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The trajectory tracking problem of a proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell is considered. To solve this problem, an optimal controller is proposed. The optimal technique has the objective that the system states should reach the desired trajectories while the inputs are minimized. The proposed controller uses the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman method where its Riccati equation is considered as an adaptive function. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is verified by two simulations.

  3. State-Feedback Control for Fractional-Order Nonlinear Systems Subject to Input Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a state-feedback control method for fractional-order nonlinear systems subject to input saturation. First, a sufficient condition is derived for the asymptotical stability of a class of fractional-order nonlinear systems. Then based on Gronwall-Bellman lemma and a sector bounded condition of the saturation function, a linear state-feed back controller is designed. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to show the validity of the proposed method.

  4. Combined Influence of Landscape Composition and Nutrient Inputs on Lake Trophic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentration of chlorophyll a is a measure of the biological productivity of a lake and is largely (but not exclusively) determined by available nutrients. As nutrient inputs increase, productivity increases and lakes transition from low trophic state (e.g. oligotrophic) to...

  5. Optimal input shaping for Fisher identifiability of control-oriented lithium-ion battery models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberger, Michael J.

    This dissertation examines the fundamental challenge of optimally shaping input trajectories to maximize parameter identifiability of control-oriented lithium-ion battery models. Identifiability is a property from information theory that determines the solvability of parameter estimation for mathematical models using input-output measurements. This dissertation creates a framework that exploits the Fisher information metric to quantify the level of battery parameter identifiability, optimizes this metric through input shaping, and facilitates faster and more accurate estimation. The popularity of lithium-ion batteries is growing significantly in the energy storage domain, especially for stationary and transportation applications. While these cells have excellent power and energy densities, they are plagued with safety and lifespan concerns. These concerns are often resolved in the industry through conservative current and voltage operating limits, which reduce the overall performance and still lack robustness in detecting catastrophic failure modes. New advances in automotive battery management systems mitigate these challenges through the incorporation of model-based control to increase performance, safety, and lifespan. To achieve these goals, model-based control requires accurate parameterization of the battery model. While many groups in the literature study a variety of methods to perform battery parameter estimation, a fundamental issue of poor parameter identifiability remains apparent for lithium-ion battery models. This fundamental challenge of battery identifiability is studied extensively in the literature, and some groups are even approaching the problem of improving the ability to estimate the model parameters. The first approach is to add additional sensors to the battery to gain more information that is used for estimation. The other main approach is to shape the input trajectories to increase the amount of information that can be gained from input

  6. Adaptive fuzzy sliding-mode control for multi-input multi-output chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poursamad, Amir; Markazi, Amir H.D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an adaptive fuzzy sliding-mode control algorithm for controlling unknown or uncertain, multi-input multi-output (MIMO), possibly chaotic, dynamical systems. The control approach encompasses a fuzzy system and a robust controller. The fuzzy system is designed to mimic an ideal sliding-mode controller, and the robust controller compensates the difference between the fuzzy controller and the ideal one. The parameters of the fuzzy system, as well as the uncertainty bound of the robust controller, are tuned adaptively. The adaptive laws are derived in the Lyapunov sense to guarantee the asymptotic stability and tracking of the controlled system. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by applying it to some well-known chaotic systems.

  7. Multi input single output model predictive control of non-linear bio-polymerization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arumugasamy, Senthil Kumar; Ahmad, Z. [School of Chemical Engineering, Univerisiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan,14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    This paper focuses on Multi Input Single Output (MISO) Model Predictive Control of bio-polymerization process in which mechanistic model is developed and linked with the feedforward neural network model to obtain a hybrid model (Mechanistic-FANN) of lipase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) for Poly (ε-caprolactone) production. In this research, state space model was used, in which the input to the model were the reactor temperatures and reactor impeller speeds and the output were the molecular weight of polymer (M{sub n}) and polymer polydispersity index. State space model for MISO created using System identification tool box of Matlab™. This state space model is used in MISO MPC. Model predictive control (MPC) has been applied to predict the molecular weight of the biopolymer and consequently control the molecular weight of biopolymer. The result shows that MPC is able to track reference trajectory and give optimum movement of manipulated variable.

  8. Integral force feedback control with input shaping: Application to piezo-based scanning systems in ECDLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Liu, Zhigang; Zhu, Yu; Bu, Mingfan; Hong, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a hybrid control system is developed by integrating the closed-loop force feedback and input shaping method to overcome the problem of the hysteresis and dynamic behavior in piezo-based scanning systems and increase the scanning speed of tunable external cavity diode lasers. The flexible hinge and piezoelectric actuators are analyzed, and a dynamic model of the scanning systems is established. A force sensor and an integral controller are utilized in integral force feedback (IFF) to directly augment the damping of the piezoelectric scanning systems. Hysteresis has been effectively eliminated, but the mechanical resonance is still evident. Noticeable residual vibration occurred after the inflection points and then gradually disappeared. For the further control of mechanical resonance, based on the theory of minimum-acceleration trajectory planning, the time-domain input shaping method was developed. The turning sections of a scanning trajectory are replaced by smooth curves, while the linear sections are retained. The IFF method is combined with the input shaping method to control the non-linearity and mechanical resonance in high-speed piezo-based scanning systems. Experiments are conducted, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

  9. Integral force feedback control with input shaping: Application to piezo-based scanning systems in ECDLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Liu, Zhigang; Zhu, Yu; Bu, Mingfan; Hong, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a hybrid control system is developed by integrating the closed-loop force feedback and input shaping method to overcome the problem of the hysteresis and dynamic behavior in piezo-based scanning systems and increase the scanning speed of tunable external cavity diode lasers. The flexible hinge and piezoelectric actuators are analyzed, and a dynamic model of the scanning systems is established. A force sensor and an integral controller are utilized in integral force feedback (IFF) to directly augment the damping of the piezoelectric scanning systems. Hysteresis has been effectively eliminated, but the mechanical resonance is still evident. Noticeable residual vibration occurred after the inflection points and then gradually disappeared. For the further control of mechanical resonance, based on the theory of minimum-acceleration trajectory planning, the time-domain input shaping method was developed. The turning sections of a scanning trajectory are replaced by smooth curves, while the linear sections are retained. The IFF method is combined with the input shaping method to control the non-linearity and mechanical resonance in high-speed piezo-based scanning systems. Experiments are conducted, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

  10. Does Quality Matter in Labour Input? The Changing Pattern of Labour Composition in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Kam Leong Szeto; Simon McLoughlin

    2008-01-01

    The composition of the New Zealand workforce has changed considerably over the past two decades. Qualification levels have risen, labour force participation has trended upwards for women, immigrants have increasingly been sourced from Asia, and the large baby-boom cohort has contributed to an ageing of the workforce. The question is whether such compositional changes have affected the quality of labour. Our estimates show a large rise in labour quality since 1988 as a result of increasing qua...

  11. Intelligent Overload Control for Composite Web Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenhoff, P.J.; Ostendorf, D.R.; Zivkovic, Miroslav; Meeuwissen, H.B.; Gijsen, B.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze overload control for composite web services in service oriented architectures by an orchestrating broker, and propose two practical access control rules which effectively mitigate the effects of severe overloads at some web services in the composite service. These two rules

  12. Glacier inputs influence organic matter composition and prokaryotic distribution in a high Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard)

    KAUST Repository

    Bourgeois, Solveig

    2016-08-23

    in BPC (~ 0.2–0.3 mg C g DW) by 4.5 and 9 times compared to sediments from the inner and outer stations. δC values in sedimentary organic matter of Kongsfjorden varied between − 23.8 and − 19.3‰ and reflected distinct sources of organic matter between basins. Bacterial total cell numbers in sediments of Kongsfjorden were < 2 × 10 cells ml and the prokaryotic community structure was strongly influenced by the marked environmental biogenic gradients. Overall, the spatial variability prevailed over the seasonal variability in sediments of Kongsfjorden suggesting that glacier inputs prominently control the functioning of this benthic ecosystem and its communities. Regional index terms: Norway, Svalbard, Kongsfjorden.

  13. A policy iteration approach to online optimal control of continuous-time constrained-input systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modares, Hamidreza; Naghibi Sistani, Mohammad-Bagher; Lewis, Frank L

    2013-09-01

    This paper is an effort towards developing an online learning algorithm to find the optimal control solution for continuous-time (CT) systems subject to input constraints. The proposed method is based on the policy iteration (PI) technique which has recently evolved as a major technique for solving optimal control problems. Although a number of online PI algorithms have been developed for CT systems, none of them take into account the input constraints caused by actuator saturation. In practice, however, ignoring these constraints leads to performance degradation or even system instability. In this paper, to deal with the input constraints, a suitable nonquadratic functional is employed to encode the constraints into the optimization formulation. Then, the proposed PI algorithm is implemented on an actor-critic structure to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation associated with this nonquadratic cost functional in an online fashion. That is, two coupled neural network (NN) approximators, namely an actor and a critic are tuned online and simultaneously for approximating the associated HJB solution and computing the optimal control policy. The critic is used to evaluate the cost associated with the current policy, while the actor is used to find an improved policy based on information provided by the critic. Convergence to a close approximation of the HJB solution as well as stability of the proposed feedback control law are shown. Simulation results of the proposed method on a nonlinear CT system illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2013 ISA. All rights reserved.

  14. H∞ memory feedback control with input limitation minimization for offshore jacket platform stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia Sheng

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate a H∞ memory controller with input limitation minimization (HMCIM) for offshore jacket platforms stabilization. The main objective of this study is to reduce the control consumption as well as protect the actuator when satisfying the requirement of the system performance. First, we introduce a dynamic model of offshore platform with low order main modes based on mode reduction method in numerical analysis. Then, based on H∞ control theory and matrix inequality techniques, we develop a novel H∞ memory controller with input limitation. Furthermore, a non-convex optimization model to minimize input energy consumption is proposed. Since it is difficult to solve this non-convex optimization model by optimization algorithm, we use a relaxation method with matrix operations to transform this non-convex optimization model to be a convex optimization model. Thus, it could be solved by a standard convex optimization solver in MATLAB or CPLEX. Finally, several numerical examples are given to validate the proposed models and methods.

  15. Adaptive Neural Output Feedback Control for Uncertain Robot Manipulators with Input Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Mei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive neural output feedback control scheme for uncertain robot manipulators with input saturation using the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN and disturbance observer. First, the RBFNN is used to approximate the system uncertainty, and the unknown approximation error of the RBFNN and the time-varying unknown external disturbance of robot manipulators are integrated as a compounded disturbance. Then, the state observer and the disturbance observer are proposed to estimate the unmeasured system state and the unknown compounded disturbance based on RBFNN. At the same time, the adaptation technique is employed to tackle the control input saturation problem. Utilizing the estimate outputs of the RBFNN, the state observer, and the disturbance observer, the adaptive neural output feedback control scheme is developed for robot manipulators using the backstepping technique. The convergence of all closed-loop signals is rigorously proved via Lyapunov analysis and the asymptotically convergent tracking error is obtained under the integrated effect of the system uncertainty, the unmeasured system state, the unknown external disturbance, and the input saturation. Finally, numerical simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive neural output feedback control scheme for uncertain robot manipulators.

  16. Sliding mode control for uncertain unified chaotic systems with input nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, T.-Y.; Hung, M.-L.; Yan, J.-J.; Yang, Y.-S.; Chang, J.-F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the stabilization problem for a class of unified chaotic systems subject to uncertainties and input nonlinearity. Using the sliding mode control technique, a robust control law is established which stabilizes the uncertain unified chaotic systems even when the nonlinearity in the actuators is present. A novel adaptive switching surface is introduced to simplify the task of assigning the stability of the closed-loop system in the sliding mode motion. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed sliding mode control design

  17. EPICS Input/Output Controller (IOC) application developer's guide. APS Release 3.12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraimer, M.R.

    1994-11-01

    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. The basic components are: (OPI) Operator Interface; this is a UNIX based workstation which can run various EPICS tools; (IOC) Input/Output Controller; this is a VME/VXI based chassis containing a Motorola 68xxx processor, various I/O modules, and VME modules that provide access to other I/O buses such as GPIB, (LAN), Local Area Network; and this is the communication network which allows the IOCs and OPIs to communicate. Epics provides a software component, Channel Access, which provides network transparent communication between a Channel Access client and an arbitrary number of Channel Access servers

  18. A controls engineering approach for analyzing airplane input-output characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, P. Douglas

    1991-01-01

    An engineering approach for analyzing airplane control and output characteristics is presented. State-space matrix equations describing the linear perturbation dynamics are transformed from physical coordinates into scaled coordinates. The scaling is accomplished by applying various transformations to the system to employ prior engineering knowledge of the airplane physics. Two different analysis techniques are then explained. Modal analysis techniques calculate the influence of each system input on each fundamental mode of motion and the distribution of each mode among the system outputs. The optimal steady state response technique computes the blending of steady state control inputs that optimize the steady state response of selected system outputs. Analysis of an example airplane model is presented to demonstrate the described engineering approach.

  19. Dynamics of a Stage Structured Pest Control Model in a Polluted Environment with Pulse Pollution Input

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Bing; Xu, Ling; Kang, Baolin

    2013-01-01

    By using pollution model and impulsive delay differential equation, we formulate a pest control model with stage structure for natural enemy in a polluted environment by introducing a constant periodic pollutant input and killing pest at different fixed moments and investigate the dynamics of such a system. We assume only that the natural enemies are affected by pollution, and we choose the method to kill the pest without harming natural enemies. Sufficient conditions for global attractivity ...

  20. Distributed Adaptive Containment Control for a Class of Nonlinear Multiagent Systems With Input Quantization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenliang; Wen, Changyun; Hu, Qinglei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xiuyu

    2018-06-01

    This paper is devoted to distributed adaptive containment control for a class of nonlinear multiagent systems with input quantization. By employing a matrix factorization and a novel matrix normalization technique, some assumptions involving control gain matrices in existing results are relaxed. By fusing the techniques of sliding mode control and backstepping control, a two-step design method is proposed to construct controllers and, with the aid of neural networks, all system nonlinearities are allowed to be unknown. Moreover, a linear time-varying model and a similarity transformation are introduced to circumvent the obstacle brought by quantization, and the controllers need no information about the quantizer parameters. The proposed scheme is able to ensure the boundedness of all closed-loop signals and steer the containment errors into an arbitrarily small residual set. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the scheme.

  1. Full-order optimal compensators for flow control: the multiple inputs case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeraro, Onofrio; Pralits, Jan O.

    2018-03-01

    Flow control has been the subject of numerous experimental and theoretical works. We analyze full-order, optimal controllers for large dynamical systems in the presence of multiple actuators and sensors. The full-order controllers do not require any preliminary model reduction or low-order approximation: this feature allows us to assess the optimal performance of an actuated flow without relying on any estimation process or further hypothesis on the disturbances. We start from the original technique proposed by Bewley et al. (Meccanica 51(12):2997-3014, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11012-016-0547-3), the adjoint of the direct-adjoint (ADA) algorithm. The algorithm is iterative and allows bypassing the solution of the algebraic Riccati equation associated with the optimal control problem, typically infeasible for large systems. In this numerical work, we extend the ADA iteration into a more general framework that includes the design of controllers with multiple, coupled inputs and robust controllers (H_{∞} methods). First, we demonstrate our results by showing the analytical equivalence between the full Riccati solutions and the ADA approximations in the multiple inputs case. In the second part of the article, we analyze the performance of the algorithm in terms of convergence of the solution, by comparing it with analogous techniques. We find an excellent scalability with the number of inputs (actuators), making the method a viable way for full-order control design in complex settings. Finally, the applicability of the algorithm to fluid mechanics problems is shown using the linearized Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation and the Kármán vortex street past a two-dimensional cylinder.

  2. External nitrogen input affects pre- and post-harvest cell wall composition but not the enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldwin, Laetitia Andrée; Glazowska, Sylwia Emilia; Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important crops for food and feed and its straw is a potential feedstock for biorefinery purposes. Nitrogen (N) is an essential input factor in wheat agriculture but no information is available on how it affects straw composition during maturation and at harvest....... To investigate this, we conducted a large scale field experiment in which wheat plants were cultivated at three levels of externally applied N. The plants were harvested at different stages of maturation, spanning green straw at heading (ear emergence) to fully yellow straw at final maturity. Defined parts...

  3. Decentralized control using compositional analysis techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerber, F.; van der Schaft, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Decentralized control strategies aim at achieving a global control target by means of distributed local controllers acting on individual subsystems of the overall plant. In this sense, decentralized control is a dual problem to compositional analysis where a global verification task is decomposed

  4. a Method for Preview Vibration Control of Systems Having Forcing Inputs and Rapidly-Switched Dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElBeheiry, E. M.

    1998-07-01

    In a variety of applications, especially in large scale dynamic systems, the mechanization of different vibration control elements in different locations would be decided by limitations placed on the modal vibration of the system and the inherent dynamic coupling between its modes. Also, the quality of vibration control to the economy of producing the whole system would be another trade-off leading to a mix of passive, active and semi-active vibration control elements in one system. This termactiveis limited to externally powered vibration control inputs and the termsemi-activeis limited to rapidly switched dampers. In this article, an optimal preview control method is developed for application to dynamic systems having active and semi-active vibration control elements mechanized at different locations in one system. The system is then a piecewise (bilinear) controller in which two independent sets of control inputs appear additively and multiplicatively. Calculus of variations along with the Hamiltonian approach are employed for the derivation of this method. In essence, it requires the active elements to be ideal force generators and the switched dampers to have the property of on-line variation of the damping characteristics to pre-determined limits. As the dampers switch during operation the whole system's structure differs, and then values of the active forcing inputs are adapted to match these rapid changes. Strictly speaking, each rapidly switched damper has pre-known upper and lower damping levels and it can take on any in-between value. This in-between value is to be determined by the method as long as the damper tracks a pre-known fully active control demand. In every damping state of each semi-active damper the method provides the optimal matching values of the active forcing inputs. The method is shown to have the feature of solving simple standard matrix equations to obtain closed form solutions. A comprehensive 9-DOF tractor semi-trailer model is used

  5. New Results on Robust Model Predictive Control for Time-Delay Systems with Input Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of model predictive control for a class of nonlinear systems subject to state delays and input constraints. The time-varying delay is considered with both upper and lower bounds. A new model is proposed to approximate the delay. And the uncertainty is polytopic type. For the state-feedback MPC design objective, we formulate an optimization problem. Under model transformation, a new model predictive controller is designed such that the robust asymptotical stability of the closed-loop system can be guaranteed. Finally, the applicability of the presented results are demonstrated by a practical example.

  6. Prediction Governors for Input-Affine Nonlinear Systems and Application to Automatic Driving Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Minami

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, automatic driving control has attracted attention. To achieve a satisfactory driving control performance, the prediction accuracy of the traveling route is important. If a highly accurate prediction method can be used, an accurate traveling route can be obtained. Despite the considerable efforts that have been invested in improving prediction methods, prediction errors do occur in general. Thus, a method to minimize the influence of prediction errors on automatic driving control systems is required. This need motivated us to focus on the design of a mechanism for shaping prediction signals, which is called a prediction governor. In this study, we first extended our previous study to the input-affine nonlinear system case. Then, we analytically derived a solution to an optimal design problem of prediction governors. Finally, we applied the solution to an automatic driving control system, and demonstrated its usefulness through a numerical example and an experiment using a radio controlled car.

  7. Neural network-based distributed attitude coordination control for spacecraft formation flying with input saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, An-Min; Kumar, Krishna Dev

    2012-07-01

    This brief considers the attitude coordination control problem for spacecraft formation flying when only a subset of the group members has access to the common reference attitude. A quaternion-based distributed attitude coordination control scheme is proposed with consideration of the input saturation and with the aid of the sliding-mode observer, separation principle theorem, Chebyshev neural networks, smooth projection algorithm, and robust control technique. Using graph theory and a Lyapunov-based approach, it is shown that the distributed controller can guarantee the attitude of all spacecraft to converge to a common time-varying reference attitude when the reference attitude is available only to a portion of the group of spacecraft. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed distributed controller.

  8. Hydraulic concrete composition and properties control system

    OpenAIRE

    PSHINKO O.M.; KRASNYUK A.V.; HROMOVA O.V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Scientific work aims at the development and testing of information system to meet the challenges of concrete composition design and control (for railway structures and buildings) based on the physico-analytical method algorithm for hydraulic concrete composition calculation. Methodology. The proposed algorithm of hydraulic concrete composition calculation is based on the physicochemical mechanics and in particular on the rheology of elastic–viscous–plastic bodies. The system of canon...

  9. Adaptive control of a quadrotor aerial vehicle with input constraints and uncertain parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Trong-Toan; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; He, Wei

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of adaptive bounded control for the trajectory tracking of a Quadrotor Aerial Vehicle (QAV) while the input saturations and uncertain parameters with the known bounds are simultaneously taken into account. First, to deal with the underactuated property of the QAV model, we decouple and construct the QAV model as a cascaded structure which consists of two fully actuated subsystems. Second, to handle the input constraints and uncertain parameters, we use a combination of the smooth saturation function and smooth projection operator in the control design. Third, to ensure the stability of the overall system of the QAV, we develop the technique for the cascaded system in the presence of both the input constraints and uncertain parameters. Finally, the region of stability of the closed-loop system is constructed explicitly, and our design ensures the asymptotic convergence of the tracking errors to the origin. The simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. CMOS single-stage input-powered bridge rectifier with boost switch and duty cycle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzuan, Roskhatijah; Mohd Salleh, Mohd Khairul; Hamzah, Mustafar Kamal; Ab Wahab, Norfishah

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a single-stage input-powered bridge rectifier with boost switch for wireless-powered devices such as biomedical implants and wireless sensor nodes. Realised using CMOS process technology, it employs a duty cycle switch control to achieve high output voltage using boost technique, leading to a high output power conversion. It has only six external connections with the boost inductance. The input frequency of the bridge rectifier is set at 50 Hz, while the switching frequency is 100 kHz. The proposed circuit is fabricated on a single 0.18-micron CMOS die with a space area of 0.024 mm2. The simulated and measured results show good agreement.

  11. Observer-Based Perturbation Extremum Seeking Control with Input Constraints for Direct-Contact Membrane Distillation Process

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-01-01

    has pump flow rates as process inputs. The objective of the controller is to optimize the trade-off between the permeate mass flux and the energy consumption by the pumps inside the process. Cases of single and multiple control inputs are considered

  12. Experimental System for Investigation of Visual Sensory Input in Postural Feedback Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Pucik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human postural control system represents a biological feedback system responsible for maintenance of upright stance. Vestibular, proprioceptive and visual sensory inputs provide the most important information into the control system, which controls body centre of mass (COM in order to stabilize the human body resembling an inverted pendulum. The COM can be measured indirectly by means of a force plate as the centre of pressure (COP. Clinically used measurement method is referred to as posturography. In this paper, the conventional static posturography is extended by visual stimulation, which provides insight into a role of visual information in balance control. Visual stimuli have been designed to induce body sway in four specific directions – forward, backward, left and right. Stabilograms were measured using proposed single-PC based system and processed to calculate velocity waveforms and posturographic parameters. The parameters extracted from pre-stimulus and on-stimulus periods exhibit statistically significant differences.

  13. Robust Redundant Input Reliable Tracking Control for Omnidirectional Rehabilitative Training Walker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of robust reliable tracking control on the omnidirectional rehabilitative training walker is examined. The new nonlinear redundant input method is proposed when one wheel actuator fault occurs. The aim of the study is to design an asymptotically stable controller that can guarantee the safety of the user and ensure tracking on a training path planned by a physical therapist. The redundant degrees of freedom safety control and the asymptotically zero state detectable concept of the walker are presented, the model of redundant degree is constructed, and the property of center of gravity constant shift is obtained. A controller that can satisfy asymptotic stability is obtained using a common Lyapunov function for admissible uncertainties resulting from an actuator fault. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method and verify that the walker can provide safe sequential motion when one wheel actuator is at fault.

  14. Adaptive Backstepping-Based Neural Tracking Control for MIMO Nonlinear Switched Systems Subject to Input Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ben; Li, Lu

    2018-06-01

    This brief proposes a new neural-network (NN)-based adaptive output tracking control scheme for a class of disturbed multiple-input multiple-output uncertain nonlinear switched systems with input delays. By combining the universal approximation ability of radial basis function NNs and adaptive backstepping recursive design with an improved multiple Lyapunov function (MLF) scheme, a novel adaptive neural output tracking controller design method is presented for the switched system. The feature of the developed design is that different coordinate transformations are adopted to overcome the conservativeness caused by adopting a common coordinate transformation for all subsystems. It is shown that all the variables of the resulting closed-loop system are semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded under a class of switching signals in the presence of MLF and that the system output can follow the desired reference signal. To demonstrate the practicability of the obtained result, an adaptive neural output tracking controller is designed for a mass-spring-damper system.

  15. Evaluation of head-free eye tracking as an input device for air traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Roland; Causse, Mickaël; Vachon, François; Parise, Robert; Dehais, Frédéric; Terrier, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility to integrate a free head motion eye-tracking system as input device in air traffic control (ATC) activity. Sixteen participants used an eye tracker to select targets displayed on a screen as quickly and accurately as possible. We assessed the impact of the presence of visual feedback about gaze position and the method of target selection on selection performance under different difficulty levels induced by variations in target size and target-to-target separation. We tend to consider that the combined use of gaze dwell-time selection and continuous eye-gaze feedback was the best condition as it suits naturally with gaze displacement over the ATC display and free the hands of the controller, despite a small cost in terms of selection speed. In addition, target size had a greater impact on accuracy and selection time than target distance. These findings provide guidelines on possible further implementation of eye tracking in ATC everyday activity. We investigated the possibility to integrate a free head motion eye-tracking system as input device in air traffic control (ATC). We found that the combined use of gaze dwell-time selection and continuous eye-gaze feedback allowed the best performance and that target size had a greater impact on performance than target distance.

  16. A two-input sliding-mode controller for a planar arm actuated by four pneumatic muscle groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, John H; Quesada, Peter M

    2004-09-01

    Multiple-input sliding-mode techniques are applied to a planar arm actuated by four groups of pneumatic muscle (PM) actuators in opposing pair configuration. The control objective is end-effector tracking of a desired path in Cartesian space. The inputs to the system are commanded input pressure differentials for the two opposing PM groups. An existing model for the muscle is incorporated into the arm equations of motion to arrive at a two-input, two-output nonlinear model of the planar arm that is affine in the input and, therefore, suitable for sliding-mode techniques. Relationships between static input pressures are derived for suitable arm behavior in the absence of a control signal. Simulation studies are reported.

  17. Pitch Channel Control of a REMUS AUV with Input Saturation and Coupling Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nailong Wu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The motion of an underwater vehicle is prone to be affected by time-varying model parameters and the actuator limitation in control practice. Adaptive control is an effective method to deal with the general system dynamic uncertainties and disturbances. However, the effect of disturbances control on transient dynamics is not prominent. In this paper, we redesign the L 1 adaptive control architecture (L1AC with anti-windup (AW compensator to guarantee robust and fast adaption of the underwater vehicle with input saturation and coupling disturbances. To reduce the fluctuation of vehicle states, the Riccati-based AW compensator is utilized to compensate the output signal from L1AC controller via taking proper modification. The proposed method is applied to the pitch channel of REMUS vehicle’s six Degrees Of Freedom (DOF model with strong nonlinearities and compared with L1AC baseline controller. Simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy compared to the original L1AC. Besides, the fluctuation in roll channel coupled with pitch channel is suppressed according to the performances of control tests.

  18. Quadratic obstructions to small-time local controllability for scalar-input systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchard, Karine; Marbach, Frédéric

    2018-03-01

    We consider nonlinear finite-dimensional scalar-input control systems in the vicinity of an equilibrium. When the linearized system is controllable, the nonlinear system is smoothly small-time locally controllable: whatever m > 0 and T > 0, the state can reach a whole neighborhood of the equilibrium at time T with controls arbitrary small in Cm-norm. When the linearized system is not controllable, we prove that: either the state is constrained to live within a smooth strict manifold, up to a cubic residual, or the quadratic order adds a signed drift with respect to it. This drift holds along a Lie bracket of length (2 k + 1), is quantified in terms of an H-k-norm of the control, holds for controls small in W 2 k , ∞-norm and these spaces are optimal. Our proof requires only C3 regularity of the vector field. This work underlines the importance of the norm used in the smallness assumption on the control, even in finite dimension.

  19. Analysis of sensorless control of brushless DC motor using unknown input observer with different gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astik, Mitesh B.; Bhatt, Praghnesh; Bhalja, Bhavesh R.

    2017-03-01

    A sensorless control scheme based on an unknown input observer is presented in this paper in which back EMF of the Brushless DC Motor (BLDC) is continuously estimated from available line voltages and currents. During negative rotation of motor, actual and estimated speed fail to track the reference speed and if the corrective action is not taken by the observer, the motor goes into saturation. To overcome this problem, the speed estimation algorithm has been implemented in this paper to control the dynamic behavior of the motor during negative rotation. The Ackermans method was used to calculate the gains of an unknown input observer which is based on the appropriate choice of the eigenvalues in advance. The criteria to choose eigenvalue is to obtain a balance between faster convergence rate and the least noise level. Simulations have been carried out for different disturbances such as step changes in motor reference speed and load torque. The comparative simulation results clearly depict that the disturbance effects in actual and estimated responses minimizes as observer gain setting increases.

  20. Sliding-mode control of single input multiple output DC-DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Libo; Sun, Yihan; Luo, Tiejian; Wan, Qiyang

    2016-10-01

    Various voltage levels are required in the vehicle mounted power system. A conventional solution is to utilize an independent multiple output DC-DC converter whose cost is high and control scheme is complicated. In this paper, we design a novel SIMO DC-DC converter with sliding mode controller. The proposed converter can boost the voltage of a low-voltage input power source to a controllable high-voltage DC bus and middle-voltage output terminals, which endow the converter with characteristics of simple structure, low cost, and convenient control. In addition, the sliding mode control (SMC) technique applied in our converter can enhance the performances of a certain SIMO DC-DC converter topology. The high-voltage DC bus can be regarded as the main power source to the high-voltage facility of the vehicle mounted power system, and the middle-voltage output terminals can supply power to the low-voltage equipment on an automobile. In the respect of control algorithm, it is the first time to propose the SMC-PID (Proportion Integration Differentiation) control algorithm, in which the SMC algorithm is utilized and the PID control is attended to the conventional SMC algorithm. The PID control increases the dynamic ability of the SMC algorithm by establishing the corresponding SMC surface and introducing the attached integral of voltage error, which endow the sliding-control system with excellent dynamic performance. At last, we established the MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation model, tested performance of the system, and built the hardware prototype based on Digital Signal Processor (DSP). Results show that the sliding mode control is able to track a required trajectory, which has robustness against the uncertainties and disturbances.

  1. Fuzzy Adaptive Compensation Control of Uncertain Stochastic Nonlinear Systems With Actuator Failures and Input Hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhui; Liu, Zhi; Chen, C L Philip; Zhang, Yun

    2017-10-12

    Hysteresis exists ubiquitously in physical actuators. Besides, actuator failures/faults may also occur in practice. Both effects would deteriorate the transient tracking performance, and even trigger instability. In this paper, we consider the problem of compensating for actuator failures and input hysteresis by proposing a fuzzy control scheme for stochastic nonlinear systems. Compared with the existing research on stochastic nonlinear uncertain systems, it is found that how to guarantee a prescribed transient tracking performance when taking into account actuator failures and hysteresis simultaneously also remains to be answered. Our proposed control scheme is designed on the basis of the fuzzy logic system and backstepping techniques for this purpose. It is proven that all the signals remain bounded and the tracking error is ensured to be within a preestablished bound with the failures of hysteretic actuator. Finally, simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results.

  2. Control of cancer growth using single input autonomous fuzzy Nano-particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Razmi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a single input fuzzy controller is applied on autonomous drug-encapsulated nanoparticles (ADENPs to restrict the cancer growth. The proposed ADENPs, swarmly release the drug in local cancerous tissue and effectively decreases the destruction of normal tissue. The amount of released drug is defined considering to feed backed values of tumor growth rate and the used drug. Some significant characteristics of Nano particles compared to Nano-robots is their ability to recognize the cancerous tissue from the normal one and their simple structure. Nano particles became an attractive topic in Nano science and many efforts have been done to manufacture these particles. Simulation results show that the proposed controlling method not only decreases the cancerous tissue effectively but also reduces the side effects of drug impressively.

  3. Adaptive Neural Tracking Control for Discrete-Time Switched Nonlinear Systems with Dead Zone Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jidong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the adaptive neural controllers of subsystems are proposed for a class of discrete-time switched nonlinear systems with dead zone inputs under arbitrary switching signals. Due to the complicated framework of the discrete-time switched nonlinear systems and the existence of the dead zone, it brings about difficulties for controlling such a class of systems. In addition, the radial basis function neural networks are employed to approximate the unknown terms of each subsystem. Switched update laws are designed while the parameter estimation is invariable until its corresponding subsystem is active. Then, the closed-loop system is stable and all the signals are bounded. Finally, to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, an example is employed.

  4. Reinforcement learning for adaptive optimal control of unknown continuous-time nonlinear systems with input constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiong; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, an adaptive reinforcement learning-based solution is developed for the infinite-horizon optimal control problem of constrained-input continuous-time nonlinear systems in the presence of nonlinearities with unknown structures. Two different types of neural networks (NNs) are employed to approximate the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. That is, an recurrent NN is constructed to identify the unknown dynamical system, and two feedforward NNs are used as the actor and the critic to approximate the optimal control and the optimal cost, respectively. Based on this framework, the action NN and the critic NN are tuned simultaneously, without the requirement for the knowledge of system drift dynamics. Moreover, by using Lyapunov's direct method, the weights of the action NN and the critic NN are guaranteed to be uniformly ultimately bounded, while keeping the closed-loop system stable. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the present approach, simulation results are illustrated.

  5. A Zero Input Current Ripple ZVS/ZCS Boost Converter with Boundary-Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ming Lai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, in order to achieve zero ripple conditions, the use of a ripple mirror (RM circuit for the boost converter is proposed. The operation modes are studied and steady-state analyses performed to show the merits of the proposed converter. It is found that the proposed RM circuit technique can provide much better flexibility than the two-phase interleaved boost converter for locating the zero ripple operating point in the design stage. In addition, the choice of using a boundary-mode control is mainly based on the consideration of achieving both ZVS (zero voltage switching/ZCS (zero current switching soft-switching and constant on-time control for the converter. To verify the performance of the proposed converter, a 48 V input and 200 W/200 V output prototype is constructed. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed converter.

  6. Control of input delayed pneumatic vibration isolation table using adaptive fuzzy sliding mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Khazaee

    Full Text Available AbstractPneumatic isolators are promising candidates for increasing the quality of accurate instruments. For this purpose, higher performance of such isolators is a prerequisite. In particular, the time-delay due to the air transmission is an inherent issue with pneumatic systems, which needs to be overcome using modern control methods. In this paper an adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller is proposed to improve the performance of a pneumatic isolator in the low frequency range, i.e., where the passive techniques have obvious shortcomings. The main idea is to combine the adaptive fuzzy controller with adaptive predictor as a new time delay control technique. The adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control and the adaptive fuzzy predictor help to circumvent the input delay and nonlinearities in such isolators. The main advantage of the proposed method is that the closed-loop system stability is guaranteed under certain conditions. Simulation results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed method, compared with other existing time -delay control methods.

  7. Power Flow Control of a Dual-Input Interleaved Buck/Boost Converter with Galvanic Isolation for Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Zhang, Zhe; Knott, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    DC microgrids or nanogrids have attracted increasing research interest in recent years. Therefore, as a critical component, dc-dc converters with multiple inputs are required. In this paper, a dual-input interleaved buck/boost converter is proposed and its corresponding power flow control methods...

  8. Some aspects of composition of the lower Martian atmosphere: input for MIRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V.; Korablev, O.; Krasnopolsky, V.; Rorin, A.

    Recent spacecraft missions and high-resolution spectroscopic observations from the Earth-based, airborne and spaceborne observatories have justified the chemical contents of the Martian atmosphere at a new level of confidence. Both the lower and middle atmosphere of Mars reveal very limited chemical activity, while the variations of the abundance of minor constituents may be attributed to phase transitions of volatiles. Water vapor, which mixing ratio is controlled by complex hydrological cycle in the lower atmosphere and at the surface of the planet, affects seasonally varying depletion of ozone. Measured ratio of D/H can be explained with general models of the early evolution of the planet, though this estimate in the bulk atmosphere may not be ultimately representative due to altitude dependant fractionation of water isotopes. CO, as a chemically passive nonvolatile component, reveals increase of mixing ratio in the vicinity of winter polar caps during active condensation of the bulk CO2 atmosphere. No reliable evidence o any organicf matter in the atmosphere of Mars has been obtained.

  9. Consideration of Optimal Input on Semi-Active Shock Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In press working, unidirectional transmission of mechanical energy is expected in order to maximize the life of the dies. To realize this transmission, the author has developed a shock control system based on the sliding mode control technique. The controller makes a collision-receiving object effectively deform plastically by adjusting the force of the actuator inserted between the colliding objects, while the deformation of the colliding object is held at the necessity minimum. However, the actuator has to generate a large force corresponding to the impulsive force. Therefore, development of such an actuator is a formidable challenge. The author has proposed a semi-active shock control system in which the impulsive force is adjusted by a brake mechanism, although the system exhibits inferior performance. Thus, the author has also designed an actuator using a friction device for semi-active shock control, and proposed an active seatbelt system as an application. The effectiveness has been confirmed by a numerical simulation and model experiment. In this study, the optimal deformation change of the colliding object is theoretically examined in the case that the collision-receiving object has perfect plasticity and the colliding object has perfect elasticity. As a result, the optimal input condition is obtained so that the ratio of the maximum deformation of the collision-receiving object to the maximum deformation of the colliding object becomes the maximum. Additionally, the energy balance is examined.

  10. Antagonistic control of a dual-input mammalian gene switch by food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mingqi; Ye, Haifeng; Hamri, Ghislaine Charpin-El; Fussenegger, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of mammalian trigger-inducible transgene-control devices that are able to programme complex cellular behaviour. Fruit-based benzoate derivatives licensed as food additives, such as flavours (e.g. vanillate) and preservatives (e.g. benzoate), are a particularly attractive class of trigger compounds for orthogonal mammalian transgene control devices because of their innocuousness, physiological compatibility and simple oral administration. Capitalizing on the genetic componentry of the soil bacterium Comamonas testosteroni, which has evolved to catabolize a variety of aromatic compounds, we have designed different mammalian gene expression systems that could be induced and repressed by the food additives benzoate and vanillate. When implanting designer cells engineered for gene switch-driven expression of the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) into mice, blood SEAP levels of treated animals directly correlated with a benzoate-enriched drinking programme. Additionally, the benzoate-/vanillate-responsive device was compatible with other transgene control systems and could be assembled into higher-order control networks providing expression dynamics reminiscent of a lap-timing stopwatch. Designer gene switches using licensed food additives as trigger compounds to achieve antagonistic dual-input expression profiles and provide novel control topologies and regulation dynamics may advance future gene- and cell-based therapies. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. HYDRAULIC CONCRETE COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Scientific work aims at the development and testing of information system to meet the challenges of concrete composition design and control (for railway structures and buildings based on the physico-analytical method algorithm for hydraulic concrete composition calculation. Methodology. The proposed algorithm of hydraulic concrete composition calculation is based on the physicochemical mechanics and in particular on the rheology of elastic–viscous–plastic bodies. The system of canonical equations consists of the equations for concrete strength, absolute volume, concrete mix consistency as well as the equation for optimal concrete saturation with aggregates while minimizing cement content. The joint solution of these four equations related to composition allows determining for the materials the concrete composition of required strength, concrete workability with minimum cement content. The procedure for calculation of hydraulic concrete composition according to the physico-analytical method consists of two parts: 1 physical, which is laboratory testing of concrete mix components in different concrete compositions; 2 analytical, which represents the calculation algorithm for concrete compositions equivalent in concrete strength and workability that comply with the specific conditions of concrete placing. Findings. To solve the problem of designing the concrete composition with the desired properties for railway structures and buildings it was proposed to use the information technology in the form of a developed computer program whose algorithm includes the physico-analytical method for hydraulic concrete composition determination. Originality. The developed concrete composition design method takes into account the basic properties of raw materials, concrete mix and concrete, which are pre-determined. The distinctive feature of physico-analytical method is obtaining of a set of equivalent compositions with a certain concrete mix

  12. Development of EPICS Input Output Controller and User Interface for the PEFP Low Level RF Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young Gi; Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The Low-Level RF (LLRF) control system of the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) was developed for handling the driving frequency for Quadrupole (RFQ) and the Draft Tube Linac (DTL) cavities in 2006. The RF amplitude and phase of the accelerating field were controlled within 1% and 1 degree by stability requirements, respectively. Operators have been using the LLRF control system under the windows based text console mode as an operator interface. The LLRF control system could not be integrated with Experimental Physics Industrial Control System (EPICS) Input Output Controllers (IOC) for each subsection of PEFP facility. The main objective of this study is to supply operators of the LLRF control system with user friendly and convenient operating environment. The new LLRF control system is composed of a Verse Module Eurocard (VME) baseboard, a PCI Mezzanine Card (PMC), Board Support Package (BSP), EPICS software tool and a Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) VxWorks. A test with a dummy cavity of the new LLRF control system shows that operators can control and monitor operation parameters for a desired feedback action by using EPICS Channel Access (CA).

  13. Development of EPICS Input Output Controller and User Interface for the PEFP Low Level RF Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Gi; Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub

    2010-01-01

    The Low-Level RF (LLRF) control system of the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) was developed for handling the driving frequency for Quadrupole (RFQ) and the Draft Tube Linac (DTL) cavities in 2006. The RF amplitude and phase of the accelerating field were controlled within 1% and 1 degree by stability requirements, respectively. Operators have been using the LLRF control system under the windows based text console mode as an operator interface. The LLRF control system could not be integrated with Experimental Physics Industrial Control System (EPICS) Input Output Controllers (IOC) for each subsection of PEFP facility. The main objective of this study is to supply operators of the LLRF control system with user friendly and convenient operating environment. The new LLRF control system is composed of a Verse Module Eurocard (VME) baseboard, a PCI Mezzanine Card (PMC), Board Support Package (BSP), EPICS software tool and a Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) VxWorks. A test with a dummy cavity of the new LLRF control system shows that operators can control and monitor operation parameters for a desired feedback action by using EPICS Channel Access (CA).

  14. Robust Model Predictive Control of Networked Control Systems under Input Constraints and Packet Dropouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyin Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of robust model predictive control (RMPC for a class of linear time-varying systems with constraints and data losses. We take the polytopic uncertainties into account to describe the uncertain systems. First, we design a robust state observer by using the linear matrix inequality (LMI constraints so that the original system state can be tracked. Second, the MPC gain is calculated by minimizing the upper bound of infinite horizon robust performance objective in terms of linear matrix inequality conditions. The method of robust MPC and state observer design is illustrated by a numerical example.

  15. Postural Control in Bilateral Vestibular Failure: Its Relation to Visual, Proprioceptive, Vestibular, and Cognitive Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Andreas; Wojak, Jann F; Jandl, Nico M; Helmchen, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF) suffer from postural and gait unsteadiness with an increased risk of falls. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential role of otolith, semicircular canal (SSC), visual, proprioceptive, and cognitive influences on the postural stability of BVF patients. Center-of-pressure displacements were recorded by posturography under six conditions: target visibility; tonic head positions in the pitch plane; horizontal head shaking; sensory deprivation; dual task; and tandem stance. Between-group analysis revealed larger postural sway in BVF patients on eye closure; but with the eyes open, BVF did not differ from healthy controls (HCs). Head tilts and horizontal head shaking increased sway but did not differ between groups. In the dual task condition, BVF patients maintained posture indistinguishable from controls. On foam and tandem stance, postural sway was larger in BVF, even with the eyes open. The best predictor for the severity of bilateral vestibulopathy was standing on foam with eyes closed. Postural control of our BVF was indistinguishable from HCs once visual and proprioceptive feedback is provided. This distinguishes them from patients with vestibulo-cerebellar disorders or functional dizziness. It confirms previous reports and explains that postural unsteadiness of BVF patients can be missed easily if not examined by conditions of visual and/or proprioceptive deprivation. In fact, the best predictor for vestibular hypofunction (VOR gain) was examining patients standing on foam with the eyes closed. Postural sway in that condition increased with the severity of vestibular impairment but not with disease duration. In the absence of visual control, impaired otolith input destabilizes BVF with head retroflexion. Stimulating deficient SSC does not distinguish patients from controls possibly reflecting a shift of intersensory weighing toward proprioceptive-guided postural control. Accordingly, proprioceptive

  16. Postural Control in Bilateral Vestibular Failure: Its Relation to Visual, Proprioceptive, Vestibular, and Cognitive Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Sprenger

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF suffer from postural and gait unsteadiness with an increased risk of falls. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential role of otolith, semicircular canal (SSC, visual, proprioceptive, and cognitive influences on the postural stability of BVF patients. Center-of-pressure displacements were recorded by posturography under six conditions: target visibility; tonic head positions in the pitch plane; horizontal head shaking; sensory deprivation; dual task; and tandem stance. Between-group analysis revealed larger postural sway in BVF patients on eye closure; but with the eyes open, BVF did not differ from healthy controls (HCs. Head tilts and horizontal head shaking increased sway but did not differ between groups. In the dual task condition, BVF patients maintained posture indistinguishable from controls. On foam and tandem stance, postural sway was larger in BVF, even with the eyes open. The best predictor for the severity of bilateral vestibulopathy was standing on foam with eyes closed. Postural control of our BVF was indistinguishable from HCs once visual and proprioceptive feedback is provided. This distinguishes them from patients with vestibulo-cerebellar disorders or functional dizziness. It confirms previous reports and explains that postural unsteadiness of BVF patients can be missed easily if not examined by conditions of visual and/or proprioceptive deprivation. In fact, the best predictor for vestibular hypofunction (VOR gain was examining patients standing on foam with the eyes closed. Postural sway in that condition increased with the severity of vestibular impairment but not with disease duration. In the absence of visual control, impaired otolith input destabilizes BVF with head retroflexion. Stimulating deficient SSC does not distinguish patients from controls possibly reflecting a shift of intersensory weighing toward proprioceptive-guided postural control. Accordingly

  17. Postural Control in Bilateral Vestibular Failure: Its Relation to Visual, Proprioceptive, Vestibular, and Cognitive Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Andreas; Wojak, Jann F.; Jandl, Nico M.; Helmchen, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF) suffer from postural and gait unsteadiness with an increased risk of falls. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential role of otolith, semicircular canal (SSC), visual, proprioceptive, and cognitive influences on the postural stability of BVF patients. Center-of-pressure displacements were recorded by posturography under six conditions: target visibility; tonic head positions in the pitch plane; horizontal head shaking; sensory deprivation; dual task; and tandem stance. Between-group analysis revealed larger postural sway in BVF patients on eye closure; but with the eyes open, BVF did not differ from healthy controls (HCs). Head tilts and horizontal head shaking increased sway but did not differ between groups. In the dual task condition, BVF patients maintained posture indistinguishable from controls. On foam and tandem stance, postural sway was larger in BVF, even with the eyes open. The best predictor for the severity of bilateral vestibulopathy was standing on foam with eyes closed. Postural control of our BVF was indistinguishable from HCs once visual and proprioceptive feedback is provided. This distinguishes them from patients with vestibulo-cerebellar disorders or functional dizziness. It confirms previous reports and explains that postural unsteadiness of BVF patients can be missed easily if not examined by conditions of visual and/or proprioceptive deprivation. In fact, the best predictor for vestibular hypofunction (VOR gain) was examining patients standing on foam with the eyes closed. Postural sway in that condition increased with the severity of vestibular impairment but not with disease duration. In the absence of visual control, impaired otolith input destabilizes BVF with head retroflexion. Stimulating deficient SSC does not distinguish patients from controls possibly reflecting a shift of intersensory weighing toward proprioceptive-guided postural control. Accordingly, proprioceptive

  18. Electrical Programming of Soft Matter: Using Temporally Varying Electrical Inputs To Spatially Control Self Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kun; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Jitao; Correa, Santiago O; Shang, Wu; Tsai, Cheng-Chieh; Bentley, William E; Shen, Jana; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Raub, Christopher B; Shi, Xiao-Wen; Payne, Gregory F

    2018-02-12

    The growing importance of hydrogels in translational medicine has stimulated the development of top-down fabrication methods, yet often these methods lack the capabilities to generate the complex matrix architectures observed in biology. Here we show that temporally varying electrical signals can cue a self-assembling polysaccharide to controllably form a hydrogel with complex internal patterns. Evidence from theory and experiment indicate that internal structure emerges through a subtle interplay between the electrical current that triggers self-assembly and the electrical potential (or electric field) that recruits and appears to orient the polysaccharide chains at the growing gel front. These studies demonstrate that short sequences (minutes) of low-power (∼1 V) electrical inputs can provide the program to guide self-assembly that yields hydrogels with stable, complex, and spatially varying structure and properties.

  19. Hierarchical unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maik Hadorn

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic life contains hierarchical vesicular architectures (i.e. organelles that are crucial for material production and trafficking, information storage and access, as well as energy production. In order to perform specific tasks, these compartments differ among each other in their membrane composition and their internal cargo and also differ from the cell membrane and the cytosol. Man-made structures that reproduce this nested architecture not only offer a deeper understanding of the functionalities and evolution of organelle-bearing eukaryotic life but also allow the engineering of novel biomimetic technologies. Here, we show the newly developed vesicle-in-water-in-oil emulsion transfer preparation technique to result in giant unilamellar vesicles internally compartmentalized by unilamellar vesicles of different membrane composition and internal cargo, i.e. hierarchical unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity. The compartmentalized giant unilamellar vesicles were subsequently isolated by a separation step exploiting the heterogeneity of the membrane composition and the encapsulated cargo. Due to the controlled, efficient, and technically straightforward character of the new preparation technique, this study allows the hierarchical fabrication of compartmentalized giant unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity and will ease the development of eukaryotic cell mimics that resemble their natural templates as well as the fabrication of novel multi-agent drug delivery systems for combination therapies and complex artificial microreactors.

  20. Tracking Control Based on Recurrent Neural Networks for Nonlinear Systems with Multiple Inputs and Unknown Deadzone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Humberto Pérez-Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of trajectory tracking for a broad class of uncertain nonlinear systems with multiple inputs each one subject to an unknown symmetric deadzone. On the basis of a model of the deadzone as a combination of a linear term and a disturbance-like term, a continuous-time recurrent neural network is directly employed in order to identify the uncertain dynamics. By using a Lyapunov analysis, the exponential convergence of the identification error to a bounded zone is demonstrated. Subsequently, by a proper control law, the state of the neural network is compelled to follow a bounded reference trajectory. This control law is designed in such a way that the singularity problem is conveniently avoided and the exponential convergence to a bounded zone of the difference between the state of the neural identifier and the reference trajectory can be proven. Thus, the exponential convergence of the tracking error to a bounded zone and the boundedness of all closed-loop signals can be guaranteed. One of the main advantages of the proposed strategy is that the controller can work satisfactorily without any specific knowledge of an upper bound for the unmodeled dynamics and/or the disturbance term.

  1. Adaptive optimal control of unknown constrained-input systems using policy iteration and neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modares, Hamidreza; Lewis, Frank L; Naghibi-Sistani, Mohammad-Bagher

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an online policy iteration (PI) algorithm to learn the continuous-time optimal control solution for unknown constrained-input systems. The proposed PI algorithm is implemented on an actor-critic structure where two neural networks (NNs) are tuned online and simultaneously to generate the optimal bounded control policy. The requirement of complete knowledge of the system dynamics is obviated by employing a novel NN identifier in conjunction with the actor and critic NNs. It is shown how the identifier weights estimation error affects the convergence of the critic NN. A novel learning rule is developed to guarantee that the identifier weights converge to small neighborhoods of their ideal values exponentially fast. To provide an easy-to-check persistence of excitation condition, the experience replay technique is used. That is, recorded past experiences are used simultaneously with current data for the adaptation of the identifier weights. Stability of the whole system consisting of the actor, critic, system state, and system identifier is guaranteed while all three networks undergo adaptation. Convergence to a near-optimal control law is also shown. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated with a simulation example.

  2. The Him gene reveals a balance of inputs controlling muscle differentiation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, David; Han, Jun; Elgar, Stuart; Garvey, Clare; Han, Zhe; Taylor, Michael V

    2007-08-21

    Tissue development requires the controlled regulation of cell-differentiation programs. In muscle, the Mef2 transcription factor binds to and activates the expression of many genes and has a major positive role in the orchestration of differentiation. However, little is known about how Mef2 activity is regulated in vivo during development. Here, we characterize a gene, Holes in muscle (Him), which our results indicate is part of this control in Drosophila. Him expression rapidly declines as embryonic muscle differentiates, and consistent with this, Him overexpression inhibits muscle differentiation. This inhibitory effect is suppressed by mef2, implicating Him in the mef2 pathway. We then found that Him downregulates the transcriptional activity of Mef2 in both cell culture and in vivo. Furthermore, Him protein binds Groucho, a conserved, transcriptional corepressor, through a WRPW motif and requires this motif and groucho function to inhibit both muscle differentiation and Mef2 activity during development. Together, our results identify a mechanism that can inhibit muscle differentiation in vivo. We conclude that a balance of positive and negative inputs, including Mef2, Him, and Groucho, controls muscle differentiation during Drosophila development and suggest that one outcome is to hold developing muscle cells in a state with differentiation genes poised to be expressed.

  3. Constitutive modeling and control of 1D smart composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Jonathan P.; Ostrowski, James P.; Ponte-Castaneda, Pedro

    1998-07-01

    Homogenization techniques for determining effective properties of composite materials may provide advantages for control of stiffness and strain in systems using hysteretic smart actuators embedded in a soft matrix. In this paper, a homogenized model of a 1D composite structure comprised of shape memory alloys and a rubber-like matrix is presented. With proportional and proportional/integral feedback, using current as the input state and global strain as an error state, implementation scenarios include the use of tractions on the boundaries and a nonlinear constitutive law for the matrix. The result is a simple model which captures the nonlinear behavior of the smart composite material system and is amenable to experiments with various control paradigms. The success of this approach in the context of the 1D model suggests that the homogenization method may prove useful in investigating control of more general smart structures. Applications of such materials could include active rehabilitation aids, e.g. wrist braces, as well as swimming/undulating robots, or adaptive molds for manufacturing processes.

  4. H-Infinity robust controller design for the synchronization of master-slave chaotic systems with disturbance input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Karimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the robust control problems for the synchronization of master-slave chaotic systems with disturbance input. By constructing a series of Lyapunov functions, novel H-Infinity robust synchronization controllers are designed, whose control regulation possess the characteristic of simpleness and explicitness. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  5. Wideband Motion Control by Position and Acceleration Input Based Disturbance Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Kouhei; Katsura, Seiichiro; Ohishi, Kiyoshi

    The disturbance observer can observe and suppress the disturbance torque within its bandwidth. Recent motion systems begin to spread in the society and they are required to have ability to contact with unknown environment. Such a haptic motion requires much wider bandwidth. However, since the conventional disturbance observer attains the acceleration response by the second order derivative of position response, the bandwidth is limited due to the derivative noise. This paper proposes a novel structure of a disturbance observer. The proposed disturbance observer uses an acceleration sensor for enlargement of bandwidth. Generally, the bandwidth of an acceleration sensor is from 1Hz to more than 1kHz. To cover DC range, the conventional position sensor based disturbance observer is integrated. Thus, the performance of the proposed Position and Acceleration input based disturbance observer (PADO) is superior to the conventional one. The PADO is applied to position control (infinity stiffness) and force control (zero stiffness). The numerical and experimental results show viability of the proposed method.

  6. Asian industrial lead inputs to the North Pacific evidenced by lead concentrations and isotopic compositions in surface waters and aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallon, Céline; Ranville, Mara A; Conaway, Christopher H; Landing, William M; Buck, Clifton S; Morton, Peter L; Flegal, A Russell

    2011-12-01

    Recent trends of atmospheric lead deposition to the North Pacific were investigated with analyses of lead in aerosols and surface waters collected on the fourth Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Contaminant Baseline Survey from May to June, 2002. Lead concentrations of the aerosols varied by 2 orders of magnitude (0.1-26.4 pmol/m(3)) due in part to variations in dust deposition during the cruise. The ranges in lead aerosol enrichment factors relative to iron (1-119) and aluminum (3-168) were similar, evidencing the transport of Asian industrial lead aerosols across the North Pacific. The oceanic deposition of some of those aerosols was substantiated by the gradient of lead concentrations of North Pacific waters, which varied 3-fold (32.7-103.5 pmol/kg), were highest along with the Asian margin of the basin, and decreased eastward. The hypothesized predominance of Asian industrial lead inputs to the North Pacific was further corroborated by the lead isotopic composition of ocean surface waters ((206)Pb/(207)Pb = 1.157-1.169; (208)Pb/(206)Pb = 2.093-2.118), which fell within the range of isotopic ratios reported in Asian aerosols that are primarily attributed to Chinese industrial lead emissions.

  7. Active fault tolerance control of a wind turbine system using an unknown input observer with an actuator fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shanzhi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a fault tolerant control scheme based on an unknown input observer for a wind turbine system subject to an actuator fault and disturbance. Firstly, an unknown input observer for state estimation and fault detection using a linear parameter varying model is developed. By solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs and linear matrix equalities (LMEs, the gains of the unknown input observer are obtained. The convergence of the unknown input observer is also analysed with Lyapunov theory. Secondly, using fault estimation, an active fault tolerant controller is applied to a wind turbine system. Finally, a simulation of a wind turbine benchmark with an actuator fault is tested for the proposed method. The simulation results indicate that the proposed FTC scheme is efficient.

  8. Control de una antena sensora mediante la técnica de Input Shaping no lineal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Feliu-Talegon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En la actualidad se usan barras flexibles junto a sensores de fuerza y par para detectar obstáculos en robótica móvil. Además se utilizan estos dispositivos para la detección de superficies y el reconocimiento de objetos. Estos dispositivos, llamados antenas sensoras, representan una estrategia de detección activa en la cual un sistema con servomotores mueve la antena hasta que golpea con un objeto. En ese instante, la información obtenida de los ángulos de los motores y la medida de los sensores de fuerza y par permiten saber la posición del punto de impacto con el objeto y suministran información valiosa sobre su superficie. Para mover la antena de manera rápida y precisa, este artículo propone un nuevo sistema de control en cadena abierta. La estrategia de control para reducir las vibraciones de la antena está basada en la técnica Input Shaping (IS. La antena realiza movimientos libres tanto azimutales como cenitales. Sin embargo, el movimiento cenital es claramente no lineal debido al efecto de la gravedad, el cual previene el uso de técnicas IS lineales. Por tanto, en este artículo se desarrolla un nuevo IS no lineal que tiene en cuenta el término de la gravedad. Los experimentos muestran la mejora en la reducción de la vibración del extremo para movimientos libres de la antena gracias a la técnica propuesta. Abstract: Flexible links combined with force and torque sensors can be used to detect obstacles in mobile robotics, as well as for surface and object recognition. These devices, called sensing antennae, perform an active sensing strategy in which a servomotor system moves the link back and forth until it hits an object. At this instant, information of the motor angles combined with force and torque measurements allow calculating the positions of the hitting points, which are valuable information about the object surface. In order to move the antenna fast and accurately, this article proposes a new open loop

  9. Frequency-Controlled Current-Fed Resonant Converter with No Input Ripple Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Ren Lin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a frequency-controlled current-fed resonant circuit. The adopted direct current (DC-to-DC converter contains two boost circuits and a resonant circuit on the primary side. First, two boost circuits are connected in parallel to achieve voltage step-up and reduce input ripple current by using interleaved pulse-width modulation. Therefore, the size and current rating of boost inductors are decreased in the proposed converter. Second, the boost voltage is connected to the resonant circuit to realize the mechanism of the zero-voltage switching of all active switches and zero-current switching of all diodes. Two boost circuits and a resonant circuit use the same power devices in order to lessen the switch counts. The voltage doubler topology is adopted on the secondary side (high-voltage side. Therefore, the voltage rating of diodes on the high-voltage side is clamped at output voltage. The feasibility of the studied circuit is confirmed by the experimental tests with a 1 kW prototype circuit.

  10. Litter input controls on soil carbon in a temperate deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowden, Richard D.; Deem, Lauren; Plante, Alain F.

    2014-01-01

    Above- and belowground litter inputs in a temperate deciduous forest were altered for 20 yr to determine the importance of leaves and roots on soil C and soil organic matter (SOM) quantity and quality. Carbon and SOM quantity and quality were measured in the O horizon and mineral soil to 50 cm...... soil C, but decreases in litter inputs resulted in rapid soil C declines. Root litter may ultimately provide more stable sources of soil C. Management activities or environmental alterations that decrease litter inputs in mature forests can lower soil C content; however, increases in forest...

  11. Process and control systems for composites manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiang, T. H.; Wanamaker, John L.

    1992-01-01

    A precise control of composite material processing would not only improve part quality, but it would also directly reduce the overall manufacturing cost. The development and incorporation of sensors will help to generate real-time information for material processing relationships and equipment characteristics. In the present work, the thermocouple, pressure transducer, and dielectrometer technologies were investigated. The monitoring sensors were integrated with the computerized control system in three non-autoclave fabrication techniques: hot-press, self contained tool (self heating and pressurizing), and pressure vessel). The sensors were implemented in the parts and tools.

  12. Input-driven versus turnover-driven controls of simulated changes in soil carbon due to land-use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyawira, S. S.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Brovkin, V.; Pongratz, J.

    2017-08-01

    Historical changes in soil carbon associated with land-use change (LUC) result mainly from the changes in the quantity of litter inputs to the soil and the turnover of carbon in soils. We use a factor separation technique to assess how the input-driven and turnover-driven controls, as well as their synergies, have contributed to historical changes in soil carbon associated with LUC. We apply this approach to equilibrium simulations of present-day and pre-industrial land use performed using the dynamic global vegetation model JSBACH. Our results show that both the input-driven and turnover-driven changes generally contribute to a gain in soil carbon in afforested regions and a loss in deforested regions. However, in regions where grasslands have been converted to croplands, we find an input-driven loss that is partly offset by a turnover-driven gain, which stems from a decrease in the fire-related carbon losses. Omitting land management through crop and wood harvest substantially reduces the global losses through the input-driven changes. Our study thus suggests that the dominating control of soil carbon losses is via the input-driven changes, which are more directly accessible to human management than the turnover-driven ones.

  13. Delay-Range-Dependent H∞ Control for Automatic Mooring Positioning System with Time-Varying Input Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the economy and security of the positioning system in semi-submersible platform, the paper presents a new scheme based on the mooring line switching strategy. Considering the input delay in switching process, H∞ control with time-varying input delay is designed to calculate the control forces to resist disturbing forces. In order to reduce the conservativeness, the information of the lower bound of delay is taken into account, and a Lyapunov function which contains the range of delay is constructed. Besides, the input constraint is considered to avoid breakage of mooring lines. The sufficient conditions for delay-range-dependent stabilization are derived in terms of LMI, and the controller is also obtained. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated by a realistic design example.

  14. Soil properties and not inputs control carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus ratios in cropped soils in the long-term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, E.; Buchmann, N.; Bünemann, E. K.; Kiba, D. I.; Lompo, F.; Oberson, A.; Tamburini, F.; Traoré, O. Y. A.

    2015-09-01

    Stoichiometric approaches have been applied to understand the relationship between soil organic matter dynamics and biological nutrient transformations. However, very few studies explicitly considered the effects of agricultural management practices on soil C : N : P ratio. The aim of this study was to assess how different input types and rates would affect the C : N : P molar ratios of bulk soil, organic matter and microbial biomass in cropped soils in the long-term. Thus, we analysed the C, N and P inputs and budgets as well as soil properties in three long-term experiments established on different soil types: the Saria soil fertility trial (Burkina Faso), the Wagga Wagga rotation/stubble management/soil preparation trial (Australia), and the DOK cropping system trial (Switzerland). In each of these trials, there was a large range of C, N and P inputs which had a strong impact on element concentrations in soils. However, although C : N : P ratios of the inputs were highly variable, they had only weak effects on soil C : N : P ratios. At Saria, a positive correlation was found between the N : P ratio of inputs and microbial biomass, while no relation was observed between the nutrient ratios of inputs and soil organic matter. At Wagga Wagga, the C : P ratio of inputs was significantly correlated to total soil C : P, N : P and C : N ratios, but had no impact on the elemental composition of microbial biomass. In the DOK trial, a positive correlation was found between the C budget and the C to organic P ratio in soils, while the nutrient ratios of inputs were not related to those in the microbial biomass. We argue that these responses are due to differences in soil properties among sites. At Saria, the soil is dominated by quartz and some kaolinite, has a coarse texture, a fragile structure and a low nutrient content. Thus, microorganisms feed on inputs (plant residues, manure). In contrast, the soil at Wagga Wagga contains illite and haematite, is richer in clay and

  15. A Dual-Bridge LLC Resonant Converter with Fixed-Frequency PWM Control for Wide Input Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiaofeng, Sun; Li, Xiaohua; Shen, Yanfeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a dual-bridge (DB) LLC resonant converter for wide input applications. The topology is an integration of a half-bridge (HB) LLC circuit and a full-bridge (FB) LLC circuit. The fixed-frequency PWM control is employed and a range of twice the minimum input voltage can be covered....... Compared with the traditional pulse frequency modulation (PFM) controlled HB/FB LLC resonant converter, the voltage gain range is independent of the quality factor and the magnetizing inductor has little influence on the voltage gain, which can simplify the parameter selection process and benefit...

  16. Observer-Based Perturbation Extremum Seeking Control with Input Constraints for Direct-Contact Membrane Distillation Process

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi

    2017-05-08

    An Observer-based Perturbation Extremum Seeking Control (PESC) is proposed for a Direct-Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) process. The process is described with a dynamic model that is based on a 2D Advection-Diffusion Equation (ADE) model which has pump flow rates as process inputs. The objective of the controller is to optimize the trade-off between the permeate mass flux and the energy consumption by the pumps inside the process. Cases of single and multiple control inputs are considered through the use of only the feed pump flow rate or both the feed and the permeate pump flow rates. A nonlinear Lyapunov-based observer is designed to provide an estimation for the temperature distribution all over the designated domain of the DCMD process. Moreover, control inputs are constrained with an anti-windup technique to be within feasible and physical ranges. Performance of the proposed structure is analyzed, and simulations based on real DCMD process parameters for each control input are provided.

  17. Observer-based perturbation extremum seeking control with input constraints for direct-contact membrane distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleiwi, Fadi; Laleg-Kirati, Taous Meriem

    2018-06-01

    An observer-based perturbation extremum seeking control is proposed for a direct-contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The process is described with a dynamic model that is based on a 2D advection-diffusion equation model which has pump flow rates as process inputs. The objective of the controller is to optimise the trade-off between the permeate mass flux and the energy consumption by the pumps inside the process. Cases of single and multiple control inputs are considered through the use of only the feed pump flow rate or both the feed and the permeate pump flow rates. A nonlinear Lyapunov-based observer is designed to provide an estimation for the temperature distribution all over the designated domain of the DCMD process. Moreover, control inputs are constrained with an anti-windup technique to be within feasible and physical ranges. Performance of the proposed structure is analysed, and simulations based on real DCMD process parameters for each control input are provided.

  18. An improved input shaping design for an efficient sway control of a nonlinear 3D overhead crane with friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Mohammad Javad; Mohamed, Z.; Sudin, S.; Buyamin, S.; Jaafar, H. I.; Ahmad, S. M.

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes an improved input shaping scheme for an efficient sway control of a nonlinear three dimensional (3D) overhead crane with friction using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Using this approach, a higher payload sway reduction is obtained as the input shaper is designed based on a complete nonlinear model, as compared to the analytical-based input shaping scheme derived using a linear second order model. Zero Vibration (ZV) and Distributed Zero Vibration (DZV) shapers are designed using both analytical and PSO approaches for sway control of rail and trolley movements. To test the effectiveness of the proposed approach, MATLAB simulations and experiments on a laboratory 3D overhead crane are performed under various conditions involving different cable lengths and sway frequencies. Their performances are studied based on a maximum residual of payload sway and Integrated Absolute Error (IAE) values which indicate total payload sway of the crane. With experiments, the superiority of the proposed approach over the analytical-based is shown by 30-50% reductions of the IAE values for rail and trolley movements, for both ZV and DZV shapers. In addition, simulations results show higher sway reductions with the proposed approach. It is revealed that the proposed PSO-based input shaping design provides higher payload sway reductions of a 3D overhead crane with friction as compared to the commonly designed input shapers.

  19. Supervisory control of drilling of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Motoyoshi

    Composite materials have attractive features, such as high ratios of strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight. However, they are easily damaged when they are machined. A typical damage is delamination, which can occur when fiber reinforced composite laminates are drilled. The objective of this research is to study the drilling processes of carbon fiber reinforced laminates, and to develop and test a supervisory control strategy for their delamination-free drilling. Characterization of thrust force and torque is achieved through constant feedrate drilling experiments. The average values of thrust force and torque during the full engagement of the drill are utilized to obtain the Shaw's equations' parameters. The thrust force profile just before exit is given special attention. The Hocheng-Dharan equations, which give conservative values of delamination at the entrance and at the exit, are modified to express the influence of one lamina thickness explicitly. They are utilized not only for the characterization of thrust force but also for the determination of the thrust force reference for force control. In the design of the controllers of thrust force and torque, both thrust force and torque are assumed to be proportional to FPHR (Feed Per Half Revolution). A discrete-time dynamic model is established for the case when the time interval for a half revolution of the drill is divided by the sampling time, and the model is extended to the case of general spindle speeds. PI controllers are designed for the dynamic models of thrust force and torque. Root-locus techniques are used in the analysis. The phases of the drilling process are introduced and the control strategy at each phase is explained. The supervisory controller chooses not only the best control strategy for each phase, but also the reference value and the controller gain that are suitable at each drill position. Drilling experiments are conducted to show the usefulness of the concepts introduced in this

  20. Effect of different Gramineae carbon inputs on efficacy of ASD for control of Macrophomina phaseolina in strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD), using either orchard grass (GR) or wheat shoots (WH) as the carbon input, was examined for the control of M. phaseolina in strawberry. The pathogen was artificially infested at a density of 2.5 sclerotia g-1 soil. Treatments included in the study were ASD with or...

  1. GABAergic circuits control input-spike coupling in the piriform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Victor M; Schoppa, Nathan E

    2008-08-27

    Odor coding in mammals is widely believed to involve synchronized gamma frequency (30-70 Hz) oscillations in the first processing structure, the olfactory bulb. How such inputs are read in downstream cortical structures however is not known. Here we used patch-clamp recordings in rat piriform cortex slices to examine cellular mechanisms that shape how the cortex integrates inputs from bulb mitral cells. Electrical stimulation of mitral cell axons in the lateral olfactory tract (LOT) resulted in excitation of pyramidal cells (PCs), which was followed approximately 10 ms later by inhibition that was highly reproducible between trials in its onset time. This inhibition was somatic in origin and appeared to be driven through a feedforward mechanism, wherein GABAergic interneurons were directly excited by mitral cell axons. The precise inhibition affected action potential firing in PCs in two distinct ways. First, by abruptly terminating PC excitation, it limited the PC response to each EPSP to exactly one, precisely timed action potential. In addition, inhibition limited the summation of EPSPs across time, such that PCs fired action potentials in strong preference for synchronized inputs arriving in a time window of inputs arriving as a synchronized gamma frequency pattern.

  2. Modeling and Control of a Dual-Input Isolated Full-Bridge Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a steady-state model, a large-signal (LS) model and an ac small-signal (SS) model for a recently proposed dual-input transformer-isolated boost converter are derived respectively by the switching flow-graph (SFG) nonlinear modeling technique. Based upon the converter’s model...

  3. Control of DWPF melter feed composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.G.; Edwards, R.E.; Postles, R.L.; Randall, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility will be used to immobilize Savannah River Site high-level waste into a stable borosilicate glass for disposal in a geologic repository. Proper control of the melter feed composition in this facility is essential to the production of glass which meets product durability constraints dictated by repository regulations and facility processing constraints dictated by melter design. A technique has been developed which utilizes glass property models to determine acceptable processing regions based on the multiple constraints imposed on the glass product and to display these regions graphically. This system along with the batch simulation of the process is being used to form the basis for the statistical process control system for the facility

  4. Control method for multi-input multi-output non-Gaussian random vibration test with cross spectra consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronghui ZHENG

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A control method for Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO non-Gaussian random vibration test with cross spectra consideration is proposed in the paper. The aim of the proposed control method is to replicate the specified references composed of auto spectral densities, cross spectral densities and kurtoses on the test article in the laboratory. It is found that the cross spectral densities will bring intractable coupling problems and induce difficulty for the control of the multi-output kurtoses. Hence, a sequential phase modification method is put forward to solve the coupling problems in multi-input multi-output non-Gaussian random vibration test. To achieve the specified responses, an improved zero memory nonlinear transformation is utilized first to modify the Fourier phases of the signals with sequential phase modification method to obtain one frame reference response signals which satisfy the reference spectra and reference kurtoses. Then, an inverse system method is used in frequency domain to obtain the continuous stationary drive signals. At the same time, the matrix power control algorithm is utilized to control the spectra and kurtoses of the response signals further. At the end of the paper, a simulation example with a cantilever beam and a vibration shaker test are implemented and the results support the proposed method very well. Keywords: Cross spectra, Kurtosis control, Multi-input multi-output, Non-Gaussian, Random vibration test

  5. Reinforcement-Learning-Based Robust Controller Design for Continuous-Time Uncertain Nonlinear Systems Subject to Input Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Derong; Yang, Xiong; Wang, Ding; Wei, Qinglai

    2015-07-01

    The design of stabilizing controller for uncertain nonlinear systems with control constraints is a challenging problem. The constrained-input coupled with the inability to identify accurately the uncertainties motivates the design of stabilizing controller based on reinforcement-learning (RL) methods. In this paper, a novel RL-based robust adaptive control algorithm is developed for a class of continuous-time uncertain nonlinear systems subject to input constraints. The robust control problem is converted to the constrained optimal control problem with appropriately selecting value functions for the nominal system. Distinct from typical action-critic dual networks employed in RL, only one critic neural network (NN) is constructed to derive the approximate optimal control. Meanwhile, unlike initial stabilizing control often indispensable in RL, there is no special requirement imposed on the initial control. By utilizing Lyapunov's direct method, the closed-loop optimal control system and the estimated weights of the critic NN are proved to be uniformly ultimately bounded. In addition, the derived approximate optimal control is verified to guarantee the uncertain nonlinear system to be stable in the sense of uniform ultimate boundedness. Two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of the present approach.

  6. Entorhinal-CA3 Dual-Input Control of Spike Timing in the Hippocampus by Theta-Gamma Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ruiz, Antonio; Oliva, Azahara; Nagy, Gergő A; Maurer, Andrew P; Berényi, Antal; Buzsáki, György

    2017-03-08

    Theta-gamma phase coupling and spike timing within theta oscillations are prominent features of the hippocampus and are often related to navigation and memory. However, the mechanisms that give rise to these relationships are not well understood. Using high spatial resolution electrophysiology, we investigated the influence of CA3 and entorhinal inputs on the timing of CA1 neurons. The theta-phase preference and excitatory strength of the afferent CA3 and entorhinal inputs effectively timed the principal neuron activity, as well as regulated distinct CA1 interneuron populations in multiple tasks and behavioral states. Feedback potentiation of distal dendritic inhibition by CA1 place cells attenuated the excitatory entorhinal input at place field entry, coupled with feedback depression of proximal dendritic and perisomatic inhibition, allowing the CA3 input to gain control toward the exit. Thus, upstream inputs interact with local mechanisms to determine theta-phase timing of hippocampal neurons to support memory and spatial navigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Incorporation of Damage and Failure into an Orthotropic Elasto-Plastic Three-Dimensional Model with Tabulated Input Suitable for Use in Composite Impact Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.; Dubois, Paul; Hoffarth, Canio; Khaled, Bilal; Rajan, Subramaniam; Blankenhorn, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    A material model which incorporates several key capabilities which have been identified by the aerospace community as lacking in the composite impact models currently available in LS-DYNA(Registered Trademark) is under development. In particular, the material model, which is being implemented as MAT 213 into a tailored version of LS-DYNA being jointly developed by the FAA and NASA, incorporates both plasticity and damage within the material model, utilizes experimentally based tabulated input to define the evolution of plasticity and damage as opposed to specifying discrete input parameters (such as modulus and strength), and is able to analyze the response of composites composed with a variety of fiber architectures. The plasticity portion of the orthotropic, three-dimensional, macroscopic composite constitutive model is based on an extension of the Tsai-Wu composite failure model into a generalized yield function with a non-associative flow rule. The capability to account for the rate and temperature dependent deformation response of composites has also been incorporated into the material model. For the damage model, a strain equivalent formulation is utilized to allow for the uncoupling of the deformation and damage analyses. In the damage model, a diagonal damage tensor is defined to account for the directionally dependent variation of damage. However, in composites it has been found that loading in one direction can lead to damage in multiple coordinate directions. To account for this phenomena, the terms in the damage matrix are semi-coupled such that the damage in a particular coordinate direction is a function of the stresses and plastic strains in all of the coordinate directions. The onset of material failure, and thus element deletion, is being developed to be a function of the stresses and plastic strains in the various coordinate directions. Systematic procedures are being developed to generate the required input parameters based on the results of

  8. The Use of Input-Output Control System Analysis for Sustainable Development of Multivariable Environmental Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliopoulos, T. C.; Koliopoulou, G.

    2007-10-01

    We present an input-output solution for simulating the associated behavior and optimized physical needs of an environmental system. The simulations and numerical analysis determined the accurate boundary loads and areas that were required to interact for the proper physical operation of a complicated environmental system. A case study was conducted to simulate the optimum balance of an environmental system based on an artificial intelligent multi-interacting input-output numerical scheme. The numerical results were focused on probable further environmental management techniques, with the objective of minimizing any risks and associated environmental impact to protect the quality of public health and the environment. Our conclusions allowed us to minimize the associated risks, focusing on probable cases in an emergency to protect the surrounded anthropogenic or natural environment. Therefore, the lining magnitude could be determined for any useful associated technical works to support the environmental system under examination, taking into account its particular boundary necessities and constraints.

  9. Non-collocated fuzzy logic and input shaping control strategy for elastic joint manipulator: vibration suppression and time response analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidifar, Mohammed Amin [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, SHADEGAN (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidifar, Ali Amin, E-mail: rashidifar_58@yahoo.com [Computer Science, Islamic Azad University, SHADEGAN (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Conventional model-based control strategies are very complex and difficult to synthesize due to high complexity of the dynamics of robots manipulator considering joint elasticity. This paper presents investigations into the development of hybrid control schemes for trajectory tracking and vibration control of a flexible joint manipulator. To study the effectiveness of the controllers, initially a collocated proportional-derivative (P D)-type Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed for tip angular position control of a flexible joint manipulator. This is then extended to incorporate a non-collocated Fuzzy Logic Controller and input shaping scheme for vibration reduction of the flexible joint system. The positive zero-vibration-derivative-derivative (ZVDD) shaper is designed based on the properties of the system. Simulation results of the response of the flexible joint manipulator with the controllers are presented in time and frequency domains. The performances of the hybrid control schemes are examined in terms of input tracking capability, level of vibration reduction and time response specifications. Finally, a comparative assessment of the control techniques is presented and discussed. (Author)

  10. Modeling and sliding mode predictive control of the ultra-supercritical boiler-turbine system with uncertainties and input constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Yuan, Jingqi; Zhang, Xiang; Kong, Lei; Wang, Jingcheng

    2018-05-01

    The coordinated control system (CCS) serves as an important role in load regulation, efficiency optimization and pollutant reduction for coal-fired power plants. The CCS faces with tough challenges, such as the wide-range load variation, various uncertainties and constraints. This paper aims to improve the load tacking ability and robustness for boiler-turbine units under wide-range operation. To capture the key dynamics of the ultra-supercritical boiler-turbine system, a nonlinear control-oriented model is developed based on mechanism analysis and model reduction techniques, which is validated with the history operation data of a real 1000 MW unit. To simultaneously address the issues of uncertainties and input constraints, a discrete-time sliding mode predictive controller (SMPC) is designed with the dual-mode control law. Moreover, the input-to-state stability and robustness of the closed-loop system are proved. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme, which achieves good tracking performance, disturbance rejection ability and compatibility to input constraints. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Linear and Non-linear Multi-Input Multi-Output Model Predictive Control of Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muayad Al-Qaisy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, multi-input multi-output (MIMO linear model predictive controller (LMPC based on state space model and nonlinear model predictive controller based on neural network (NNMPC are applied on a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. The idea is to have a good control system that will be able to give optimal performance, reject high load disturbance, and track set point change. In order to study the performance of the two model predictive controllers, MIMO Proportional-Integral-Derivative controller (PID strategy is used as benchmark. The LMPC, NNMPC, and PID strategies are used for controlling the residual concentration (CA and reactor temperature (T. NNMPC control shows a superior performance over the LMPC and PID controllers by presenting a smaller overshoot and shorter settling time.

  12. Wood phenology, not carbon input, controls the interannual variability of wood growth in a temperate oak forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpierre, Nicolas; Berveiller, Daniel; Granda, Elena; Dufrêne, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Although the analysis of flux data has increased our understanding of the interannual variability of carbon inputs into forest ecosystems, we still know little about the determinants of wood growth. Here, we aimed to identify which drivers control the interannual variability of wood growth in a mesic temperate deciduous forest. We analysed a 9-yr time series of carbon fluxes and aboveground wood growth (AWG), reconstructed at a weekly time-scale through the combination of dendrometer and wood density data. Carbon inputs and AWG anomalies appeared to be uncorrelated from the seasonal to interannual scales. More than 90% of the interannual variability of AWG was explained by a combination of the growth intensity during a first 'critical period' of the wood growing season, occurring close to the seasonal maximum, and the timing of the first summer growth halt. Both atmospheric and soil water stress exerted a strong control on the interannual variability of AWG at the study site, despite its mesic conditions, whilst not affecting carbon inputs. Carbon sink activity, not carbon inputs, determined the interannual variations in wood growth at the study site. Our results provide a functional understanding of the dependence of radial growth on precipitation observed in dendrological studies. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. High-speed, multi-input, multi-output control using GPU processing in the HBT-EP tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, N., E-mail: Nikolaus@rath.org [Columbia University, Rm 200 Mudd, 500 W 120th St, New York, NY - 10027 (United States); Bialek, J.; Byrne, P.J.; DeBono, B.; Levesque, J.P.; Li, B.; Mauel, M.E.; Maurer, D.A.; Navratil, G.A.; Shiraki, D. [Columbia University, Rm 200 Mudd, 500 W 120th St, New York, NY - 10027 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a GPU based system for magnetic control of perturbed equilibria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cycle times are below 5 {mu}s and I/O latencies below 10 {mu}s for 96 inputs and 64 outputs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new architecture removes host RAM and CPU from the control cycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GPU and DA/AD modules operate independently and communicate via PCIe peer-to-peer connections. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Linux host system does not require real-time extensions. - Abstract: We report on the design of a new plasma control system for the HBT-EP tokamak that utilizes a graphical processing unit (GPU) to magnetically control the 3D perturbed equilibrium state [1] of the plasma. The control system achieves cycle times of 5 {mu}s and I/O latencies below 10 {mu}s for up to 96 inputs and 64 outputs. The number of state variables is in the same order. To handle the resulting computational complexity under the given time constraints, the control algorithms are designed for massively parallel processing. The necessary hardware resources are provided by an NVIDIA Tesla M2050 GPU, offering a total of 448 computing cores running at 1.3 GHz each. A new control architecture allows control input from magnetic diagnostics to be pushed directly into GPU memory by a D-TACQ ACQ196 digitizer, and control output to be pulled directly from GPU memory by two D-TACQ AO32 analog output modules. By using peer-to-peer PCI express connections, this technique completely eliminates the use of host RAM and central processing unit (CPU) from the control cycle, permitting single-digit microsecond latencies on a standard Linux host system without any real-time extensions.

  14. Effects of wastewater treatment plant effluent inputs on planktonic metabolic rates and microbial community composition in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaquer-Sunyer, Raquel; Reader, Heather E.; Muthusamy, Saraladevi

    2016-01-01

    ) contribute to eutrophication as they are important sources of nitrogen to coastal areas. Here, we evaluated the effects of wastewater treatment plant effluent inputs on Baltic Sea planktonic communities in four experiments. We tested for effects of effluent inputs on chlorophyll a content, bacterial....... An increase in BP and decrease in CR could be caused by high lability of the DOM that can support secondary bacterial production, without an increase in respiration. Increases in bacterial production and simultaneous decreases of primary production lead to more carbon being consumed in the microbial loop...

  15. DWPF waste glass Product Composition Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.G.; Postles, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to blend aqueous radwaste (PHA) with solid radwaste (Sludge) in a waste receipt vessel (the SRAT). The resulting SRAT material is transferred to the SME an there blended with ground glass (Frit) to produce a batch of melter feed slurry. The SME material is passed to a hold tank (the MFT) which is used to continuously feed the DWPF melter. The melter. The melter produces a molten glass wasteform which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository. The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) is the system intended to ensure that the melt will be processible and that the glass wasteform will be acceptable. This document provides a description of this system

  16. The influence of high heat input and inclusions control for rare earth on welding in low alloy high strength steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Rensheng; Mu, Shukun; Liu, Jingang; Li, Zhanjun

    2017-09-01

    In the current paper, it is analyzed for the influence of high heat input and inclusions control for rare earth on welding in low alloy high strength steel. It is observed for the structure for different heat input of the coarse-grained area. It is finest for the coarse grain with the high heat input of 200 kJ / cm and the coarse grain area with 400 kJ / cm is the largest. The performance with the heat input of 200 kJ / cm for -20 °C V-shaped notch oscillatory power is better than the heat input of 400 kJ / cm. The grain structure is the ferrite and bainite for different holding time. The grain structure for 5s holding time has a grain size of 82.9 μm with heat input of 200 kJ/cm and grain size of 97.9 μm for 10s holding time. For the inclusions for HSLA steel with adding rare earth, they are Al2O3-CaS inclusions in the Al2O3-CaS-CaO ternary phase diagram. At the same time, it can not be found for low melting calcium aluminate inclusions compared to the inclusions for the HSLA steel without rare earth. Most of the size for the inclusions is between 1 ~ 10μm. The overall grain structure is smaller and the welding performance is more excellent for adding rare earth.

  17. Design and Control of a Multiple Input DC/DC Converter for Battery/Ultra-capacitor Based Electric Vehicle Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Li, Zhihao; Onar, Omer

    2009-01-01

    Battery/Ultra-capacitor based electrical vehicles (EV) combine two energy sources with different voltage levels and current characteristics. This paper focuses on design and control of a multiple input DC/DC converter, to regulate output voltage from different inputs. The proposed multi-input con......Battery/Ultra-capacitor based electrical vehicles (EV) combine two energy sources with different voltage levels and current characteristics. This paper focuses on design and control of a multiple input DC/DC converter, to regulate output voltage from different inputs. The proposed multi...

  18. Soil properties and not inputs control carbon : nitrogen : phosphorus ratios in cropped soils in the long term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Emmanuel; Buchmann, Nina; Bünemann, Else K.; Kiba, Delwende I.; Lompo, François; Oberson, Astrid; Tamburini, Federica; Traoré, Ouakoltio Y. A.

    2016-02-01

    Stoichiometric approaches have been applied to understand the relationship between soil organic matter dynamics and biological nutrient transformations. However, very few studies have explicitly considered the effects of agricultural management practices on the soil C : N : P ratio. The aim of this study was to assess how different input types and rates would affect the C : N : P molar ratios of bulk soil, organic matter and microbial biomass in cropped soils in the long term. Thus, we analysed the C, N, and P inputs and budgets as well as soil properties in three long-term experiments established on different soil types: the Saria soil fertility trial (Burkina Faso), the Wagga Wagga rotation/stubble management/soil preparation trial (Australia), and the DOK (bio-Dynamic, bio-Organic, and "Konventionell") cropping system trial (Switzerland). In each of these trials, there was a large range of C, N, and P inputs which had a strong impact on element concentrations in soils. However, although C : N : P ratios of the inputs were highly variable, they had only weak effects on soil C : N : P ratios. At Saria, a positive correlation was found between the N : P ratio of inputs and microbial biomass, while no relation was observed between the nutrient ratios of inputs and soil organic matter. At Wagga Wagga, the C : P ratio of inputs was significantly correlated to total soil C : P, N : P, and C : N ratios, but had no impact on the elemental composition of microbial biomass. In the DOK trial, a positive correlation was found between the C budget and the C to organic P ratio in soils, while the nutrient ratios of inputs were not related to those in the microbial biomass. We argue that these responses are due to differences in soil properties among sites. At Saria, the soil is dominated by quartz and some kaolinite, has a coarse texture, a fragile structure, and a low nutrient content. Thus, microorganisms feed on inputs (plant residues, manure). In contrast, the soil at

  19. A data input controller for an alphanumeric and function keyboard with ports to the CAMAC-dataway or the serial plasma display controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, J.; Komor, Z.; Geldmeyer, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    A data input controller has been developed to allow the data transfer from an alphanumeric and function keyboard to the CAMAC-dataway or via the plasma display controller SIG-8AS/S and a serial transmission line to the TTY-/V.24-port of a computer. (orig.) [de

  20. Singularity-Free Neural Control for the Exponential Trajectory Tracking in Multiple-Input Uncertain Systems with Unknown Deadzone Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Humberto Pérez-Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The trajectory tracking for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems in which the number of possible states is equal to the number of inputs and each input is preceded by an unknown symmetric deadzone is considered. The unknown dynamics is identified by means of a continuous time recurrent neural network in which the control singularity is conveniently avoided by guaranteeing the invertibility of the coupling matrix. Given this neural network-based mathematical model of the uncertain system, a singularity-free feedback linearization control law is developed in order to compel the system state to follow a reference trajectory. By means of Lyapunov-like analysis, the exponential convergence of the tracking error to a bounded zone can be proven. Likewise, the boundedness of all closed-loop signals can be guaranteed.

  1. Multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller for a residential hybrid solar-wind-storage energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrouazin, A.; Aillerie, M.; Mekkakia-Maaza, N.; Charles, J.-P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a fuzzy smart controller for hybrid renewable and conventional energy system. • The rules are based on human intelligence and implemented in the smart controller. • Efficient tracking capability of the proposed controller is proofed in this paper by an example. • Excess produced renewable energy is converted to hydrogen for household use . • Considerable electric grid energy saving is highlighted in the proposed controller system. - Abstract: This study concerns the conception and development of an efficient multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller, to manage the energy flux of a sustainable hybrid power system, based on renewable power sources, integrating solar panels and a wind turbine associated with storage, applied to a typical residential habitat. In the suggested topology, the energy surplus is redirected to an electrolysis system to produce hydrogen suitable for household utilities. To assume a constant access to electricity in case of consumption peak, connection to the grid is also considered as an exceptional rescue resource. The objective of the presented controller is to exploit instantaneously the produced renewable electric energy and insure savings of electric grid energy. The proposed multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller has been achieved and verified, outcome switches command signals are discussed and the renewable energy system integration ratio is highlighted.

  2. MPC for LPV Systems Based on Parameter-Dependent Lyapunov Function with Perturbation on Control Input Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornchai Bumroongsri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the model predictive control (MPC algorithm for linear parameter varying (LPV systems is proposed. The proposed algorithm consists of two steps. The first step is derived by using parameter-dependent Lyapunov function and the second step is derived by using the perturbation on control input strategy. In order to achieve good control performance, the bounds on the rate of variation of the parameters are taken into account in the controller synthesis. An overall algorithm is proved to guarantee robust stability. The controller design is illustrated with two case studies of continuous stirred-tank reactors. Comparisons with other MPC algorithms for LPV systems have been undertaken. The results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve better control performance.

  3. A Unified Approach to Adaptive Neural Control for Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems With Nonlinear Dead-Zone Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Jun; Gao, Ying; Tong, Shaocheng; Chen, C L Philip

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an effective adaptive control approach is constructed to stabilize a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems, which contain unknown functions, unknown dead-zone input, and unknown control direction. Different from linear dead zone, the dead zone, in this paper, is a kind of nonlinear dead zone. To overcome the noncausal problem, which leads to the control scheme infeasible, the systems can be transformed into a m -step-ahead predictor. Due to nonlinear dead-zone appearance, the transformed predictor still contains the nonaffine function. In addition, it is assumed that the gain function of dead-zone input and the control direction are unknown. These conditions bring about the difficulties and the complicacy in the controller design. Thus, the implicit function theorem is applied to deal with nonaffine dead-zone appearance, the problem caused by the unknown control direction can be resolved through applying the discrete Nussbaum gain, and the neural networks are used to approximate the unknown function. Based on the Lyapunov theory, all the signals of the resulting closed-loop system are proved to be semiglobal uniformly ultimately bounded. Moreover, the tracking error is proved to be regulated to a small neighborhood around zero. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated by a simulation example.

  4. Active fault tolerant control of piecewise affine systems with reference tracking and input constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, M.; Cocquempot, V.; Schiøler, H.

    2014-01-01

    An active fault tolerant control (AFTC) method is proposed for discrete-time piecewise affine (PWA) systems. Only actuator faults are considered. The AFTC framework contains a supervisory scheme, which selects a suitable controller in a set of controllers such that the stability and an acceptable...... performance of the faulty system are held. The design of the supervisory scheme is not considered here. The set of controllers is composed of a normal controller for the fault-free case, an active fault detection and isolation controller for isolation and identification of the faults, and a set of passive...... fault tolerant controllers (PFTCs) modules designed to be robust against a set of actuator faults. In this research, the piecewise nonlinear model is approximated by a PWA system. The PFTCs are state feedback laws. Each one is robust against a fixed set of actuator faults and is able to track...

  5. H∞ Control of Coronary Artery Input Time-Delay System via the Free-Matrix-Based Integral Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha-sha Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of H∞ control for the coronary artery input time-delay system with external disturbance is of concern. To further reduce conservation, we utilize the free-matrix-based integral inequality, Wirtinger-based integral inequality, and reciprocal convex combination approach to construct Lyapunov-Krasovskii function (LKF. Then a sufficient condition for controller design which can guarantee robust synchronization the coronary artery system is represented in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI. Finally, a numerical example is exploited to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  6. Second-order Optimality Conditions for Optimal Control of the Primitive Equations of the Ocean with Periodic Inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachim Medjo, T.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate in this article the Pontryagin's maximum principle for control problem associated with the primitive equations (PEs) of the ocean with periodic inputs. We also derive a second-order sufficient condition for optimality. This work is closely related to Wang (SIAM J. Control Optim. 41(2):583-606, 2002) and He (Acta Math. Sci. Ser. B Engl. Ed. 26(4):729-734, 2006), in which the authors proved similar results for the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes (NS) systems.

  7. A Reconfiguration Scheme for Accommodating Actuator Failures in Multi-Input, Multi-Output Flight Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwakosit, W.; Hess, R. A.; Bacon, Bart (Technical Monitor); Burken, John (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A multi-input, multi-output reconfigurable flight control system design utilizing a robust controller and an adaptive filter is presented. The robust control design consists of a reduced-order, linear dynamic inversion controller with an outer-loop compensation matrix derived from Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT). A principle feature of the scheme is placement of the adaptive filter in series with the QFT compensator thus exploiting the inherent robustness of the nominal flight control system in the presence of plant uncertainties. An example of the scheme is presented in a pilot-in-the-loop computer simulation using a simplified model of the lateral-directional dynamics of the NASA F18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) that included nonlinear anti-wind up logic and actuator limitations. Prediction of handling qualities and pilot-induced oscillation tendencies in the presence of these nonlinearities is included in the example.

  8. Real-time discrete suboptimal control for systems with input and state delays: Experimental tests on a dehydration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Guerrero, Liliam; Santos-Sánchez, Omar-Jacobo; Cervantes-Escorcia, Nicolás; Romero, Hugo

    2017-11-01

    This article presents a suboptimal control strategy with finite horizon for affine nonlinear discrete systems with both state and input delays. The Dynamic Programming Approach is used to obtain the suboptimal control sequence, but in order to avoid the computation of the Bellman functional, a numerical approximation of this function is proposed in every step. The feasibility of our proposal is demonstrated via an experimental test on a dehydration process and the obtained results show a good performance and behavior of this process. Then in order to demonstrate the benefits of using this kind of control strategy, the results are compared with a non optimal control strategy, particularly with respect to results produced by an industrial Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Honeywell controller, which is tuned using the Ziegler-Nichols method. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adaptive fuzzy control of a class of nonaffine nonlinear system with input saturation based on passivity theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molavi, Ali; Jalali, Aliakbar; Ghasemi Naraghi, Mahdi

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, based on the passivity theorem, an adaptive fuzzy controller is designed for a class of unknown nonaffine nonlinear systems with arbitrary relative degree and saturation input nonlinearity to track the desired trajectory. The system equations are in normal form and its unforced dynamic may be unstable. As relative degree one is a structural obstacle in system passivation approach, in this paper, backstepping method is used to circumvent this obstacle and passivate the system step by step. Because of the existence of uncertainty and disturbance in the system, exact passivation and reference tracking cannot be tackled, so the approximate passivation or passivation with respect to a set is obtained to hold the tracking error in a neighborhood around zero. Furthermore, in order to overcome the non-smoothness of the saturation input nonlinearity, a parametric smooth nonlinear function with arbitrary approximation error is used to approximate the input saturation. Finally, the simulation results for the theoretical and practical examples are given to validate the proposed controller. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adaptive Actor-Critic Design-Based Integral Sliding-Mode Control for Partially Unknown Nonlinear Systems With Input Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Quan-Yong; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of integral sliding-mode control for a class of nonlinear systems with input disturbances and unknown nonlinear terms through the adaptive actor-critic (AC) control method. The main objective is to design a sliding-mode control methodology based on the adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) method, so that the closed-loop system with time-varying disturbances is stable and the nearly optimal performance of the sliding-mode dynamics can be guaranteed. In the first step, a neural network (NN)-based observer and a disturbance observer are designed to approximate the unknown nonlinear terms and estimate the input disturbances, respectively. Based on the NN approximations and disturbance estimations, the discontinuous part of the sliding-mode control is constructed to eliminate the effect of the disturbances and attain the expected equivalent sliding-mode dynamics. Then, the ADP method with AC structure is presented to learn the optimal control for the sliding-mode dynamics online. Reconstructed tuning laws are developed to guarantee the stability of the sliding-mode dynamics and the convergence of the weights of critic and actor NNs. Finally, the simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Experimental results on elongation control using dynamic input allocation at FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varano, G.; Boncagni, L.; Galeani, S.; Granucci, G.; Vitale, V.; Zaccarian, L.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the experimental results related to a recently proposed control scheme for the regulation of plasma elongation using the poloidal field coils available at FTU, already used for the horizontal position control. The proposed technique allows to realize elongation regulation as a secondary task using the same poloidal coils.

  12. Incorporation of Plasticity and Damage Into an Orthotropic Three-Dimensional Model with Tabulated Input Suitable for Use in Composite Impact Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.; Dubois, Paul; Hoffarth, Canio; Rajan,Subramaniam; Blackenhorn, Gunther

    2015-01-01

    The need for accurate material models to simulate the deformation, damage and failure of polymer matrix composites under impact conditions is becoming critical as these materials are gaining increased usage in the aerospace and automotive industries. While there are several composite material models currently available within commercial transient dynamic finite element codes, several features have been identified as being lacking in the currently available material models that could substantially enhance the predictive capability of the impact simulations. A specific desired feature pertains to the incorporation of both plasticity and damage within the material model. Another desired feature relates to using experimentally based tabulated stress-strain input to define the evolution of plasticity and damage as opposed to specifying discrete input properties (such as modulus and strength) and employing analytical functions to track the response of the material. To begin to address these needs, a combined plasticity and damage model suitable for use with both solid and shell elements is being developed for implementation within the commercial code LS-DYNA. The plasticity model is based on extending the Tsai-Wu composite failure model into a strain-hardening based orthotropic plasticity model with a non-associative flow rule. The evolution of the yield surface is determined based on tabulated stress-strain curves in the various normal and shear directions and is tracked using the effective plastic strain. The effective plastic strain is computed by using the non-associative flow rule in combination with appropriate numerical methods. To compute the evolution of damage, a strain equivalent semi-coupled formulation is used, in which a load in one direction results in a stiffness reduction in multiple coordinate directions. A specific laminated composite is examined to demonstrate the process of characterizing and analyzing the response of a composite using the developed

  13. Interleaved Boost-Half-Bridge Dual–Input DC-DC Converter with a PWM plus Phase-Shift Control for Fuel Cell Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an isolated dual-input DC-DC converter with a PWM plus phase-shift control for fuel cell hybrid energy systems. The power switches are controlled by phase shifted PWM signals with a variable duty cycle, and thus the two input voltages as well as the output voltage can...

  14. Ball on a beam: stabilization under saturated input control with large basin of attraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoustin, Yannick; Formal'skii, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This article is devoted to the stabilization of two underactuated planar systems, the well-known straight beam-and-ball system and an original circular beam-and-ball system. The feedback control for each system is designed, using the Jordan form of its model, linearized near the unstable equilibrium. The limits on the voltage, fed to the motor, are taken into account explicitly. The straight beam-and-ball system has one unstable mode in the motion near the equilibrium point. The proposed control law ensures that the basin of attraction coincides with the controllability domain. The circular beam-and-ball system has two unstable modes near the equilibrium point. Therefore, this device, never considered in the past, is much more difficult to control than the straight beam-and-ball system. The main contribution is to propose a simple new control law, which ensures by adjusting its gain parameters that the basin of attraction arbitrarily can approach the controllability domain for the linear case. For both nonlinear systems, simulation results are presented to illustrate the efficiency of the designed nonlinear control laws and to determine the basin of attraction

  15. H∞ Excitation Control Design for Stochastic Power Systems with Input Delay Based on Nonlinear Hamiltonian System Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents H∞ excitation control design problem for power systems with input time delay and disturbances by using nonlinear Hamiltonian system theory. The impact of time delays introduced by remote signal transmission and processing in wide-area measurement system (WAMS is well considered. Meanwhile, the systems under investigation are disturbed by random fluctuation. First, under prefeedback technique, the power systems are described as a nonlinear Hamiltonian system. Then the H∞ excitation controller of generators connected to distant power systems with time delay and stochasticity is designed. Based on Lyapunov functional method, some sufficient conditions are proposed to guarantee the rationality and validity of the proposed control law. The closed-loop systems under the control law are asymptotically stable in mean square independent of the time delay. And we through a simulation of a two-machine power system prove the effectiveness of the results proposed in this paper.

  16. Decentralized control of discrete-time linear time invariant systems with input saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deliu, Ciprian; Deliu, C.; Malek, Babak; Roy, Sandip; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij

    2009-01-01

    We study decentralized stabilization of discrete time linear time invariant (LTI) systems subject to actuator saturation, using LTI controllers. The requirement of stabilization under both saturation constraints and decentralization impose obvious necessary conditions on the open-loop plant, namely

  17. Shifting and power sharing control of a novel dual input clutchless transmission for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiejunyi; Yang, Haitao; Wu, Jinglai; Zhang, Nong; Walker, Paul D.

    2018-05-01

    To improve the overall efficiency of electric vehicles and guarantee the driving comfort and vehicle drivability under the concept of simplifying mechanism complexity and minimizing manufacturing cost, this paper proposes a novel clutchless power-shifting transmission system with shifting control strategy and power sharing control strategy. The proposed shifting strategy takes advantage of the transmission architecture to achieve power-on shifting, which greatly improves the driving comfort compared with conventional automated manual transmission, with a bump function based shifting control method. To maximize the overall efficiency, a real-time power sharing control strategy is designed to solve the power distribution problem between the two motors. Detailed mathematical model is built to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods. The results demonstrate the proposed strategies considerably improve the overall efficiency while achieve non-interrupted power-on shifting and maintain the vehicle jerk during shifting under an acceptable threshold.

  18. Adaptive near-optimal neuro controller for continuous-time nonaffine nonlinear systems with constrained input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiari, Kasra; Abdollahi, Farzaneh; Talebi, Heidar Ali

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, an identifier-critic structure is introduced to find an online near-optimal controller for continuous-time nonaffine nonlinear systems having saturated control signal. By employing two Neural Networks (NNs), the solution of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation associated with the cost function is derived without requiring a priori knowledge about system dynamics. Weights of the identifier and critic NNs are tuned online and simultaneously such that unknown terms are approximated accurately and the control signal is kept between the saturation bounds. The convergence of NNs' weights, identification error, and system states is guaranteed using Lyapunov's direct method. Finally, simulation results are performed on two nonlinear systems to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) parameter identification flight test maneuvers for optimal input design validation and lateral control effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1995-01-01

    Flight test maneuvers are specified for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The maneuvers were designed for open loop parameter identification purposes, specifically for optimal input design validation at 5 degrees angle of attack, identification of individual strake effectiveness at 40 and 50 degrees angle of attack, and study of lateral dynamics and lateral control effectiveness at 40 and 50 degrees angle of attack. Each maneuver is to be realized by applying square wave inputs to specific control effectors using the On-Board Excitation System (OBES). Maneuver descriptions and complete specifications of the time/amplitude points define each input are included, along with plots of the input time histories.

  20. Determination of income, production, and employment under pollution control: an input-output approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, J.J.; Miranowski, J.A.

    1984-02-01

    It can be shown that a variation of the multiplier approach solves the Leontief pollution model in a more directly interpretable and computationally efficient manner than the conventional method of directly using the augmented Leontief inverse matrix. The solution of each endogenous variable of the model can be expressed in terms of the non-augmented Leontief inverse, exogenous variables, and two important multipliers, ''the pollution control multiplier'' and ''a modified Keynesian multiplier,'' modified by pollution control. The so-called induced effect and the effect of pollution control on a given economy can be separated from the model. 6 references, 5 footnotes, 1 table.

  1. Time domain acoustic contrast control implementation of sound zones for low-frequency input signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellekens, Daan H. M.; Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Sound zones are two or more regions within a listening space where listeners are provided with personal audio. Acoustic contrast control (ACC) is a sound zoning method that maximizes the average squared sound pressure in one zone constrained to constant pressure in other zones. State......-of-the-art time domain broadband acoustic contrast control (BACC) methods are designed for anechoic environments. These methods are not able to realize a flat frequency response in a limited frequency range within a reverberant environment. Sound field control in a limited frequency range is a requirement...... to accommodate the effective working range of the loudspeakers. In this paper, a new BACC method is proposed which results in an implementation realizing a flat frequency response in the target zone. This method is applied in a bandlimited low-frequency scenario where the loudspeaker layout surrounds two...

  2. Control of sleep by dopaminergic inputs to the Drosophila mushroom body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya eSitaraman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Drosophila mushroom body (MB is an associative learning network that is important for the control of sleep. We have recently identified particular intrinsic MB Kenyon cell (KC classes that regulate sleep through synaptic activation of particular MB output neurons (MBONs whose axons convey sleep control signals out of the MB to downstream target regions. Specifically, we found that sleep-promoting KCs increase sleep by preferentially activating cholinergic sleep-promoting MBONs, while wake-promoting KCs decrease sleep by preferentially activating glutamatergic wake-promoting MBONs. Here we use a combination of genetic and physiological approaches to identify wake-promoting dopaminergic neurons (DANs that innervate the MB, and show that they activate wake-promoting MBONs. These studies reveal a dopaminergic sleep control mechanism that likely operates by modulation of KC-MBON microcircuits.

  3. Sliding Mode Control for NSVs with Input Constraint Using Neural Network and Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-long Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sliding mode control (SMC scheme is proposed for near space vehicles (NSVs with strong nonlinearity, high coupling, parameter uncertainty, and unknown time-varying disturbance based on radial basis function neural networks (RBFNNs and the nonlinear disturbance observer (NDO. Considering saturation characteristic of rudders, RBFNNs are constructed as a compensator to overcome the saturation nonlinearity. The stability of the closed-loop system is proved, and the tracking error as well as the disturbance observer error can converge to the origin through the Lyapunov analysis. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed flight control scheme.

  4. Structure and Composition of Leachfield Bacterial Communities: Role of Soil Texture, Depth and Septic Tank Effluent Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet A. Atoyan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although groundwater quality depends on microbial processes in the soil treatment area (STA of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS, our understanding of the development of these microbial communities is limited. We examined the bacterial communities of sand, sandy loam, and clay STAs at different depths in response to septic tank effluent (STE addition using mesocosms. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP analysis was used to compare the bacterial community structure and composition of STE, native soil prior to STE addition (UNX and soil exposed to STE (EXP. Principal component analysis separated communities with depth in sand but not in sandy loam or clay. Indices of richness, diversity, and evenness followed the order: sandy loam > sand > clay. Analysis of TRF peaks indicated that STE contributed least to the composition of STA bacterial communities (5%–16%, followed by UNX soil (18%–48%, with the highest proportion of the community made up of TRFs not detected previously in either UNX or STE (50%–82% for all three soils. Soil type and depth can have a marked effect on the structure and composition of STA bacterial communities, and on the relative contribution of native soil and STE to these communities.

  5. Global output feedback control for a class of high-order feedforward nonlinear systems with input delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Wenting; Zhai, Junyong; Fei, Shumin

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates the problem of output feedback stabilization for a class of high-order feedforward nonlinear systems with time-varying input delay. First, a scaling gain is introduced into the system under a set of coordinate transformations. Then, the authors construct an observer and controller to make the nominal system globally asymptotically stable. Based on homogeneous domination approach and Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, it is shown that the closed-loop system can be rendered globally asymptotically stable by the scaling gain. Finally, two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adaptive NN tracking control of uncertain nonlinear discrete-time systems with nonaffine dead-zone input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Jun; Tong, Shaocheng

    2015-03-01

    In the paper, an adaptive tracking control design is studied for a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems with dead-zone input. The considered systems are of the nonaffine pure-feedback form and the dead-zone input appears nonlinearly in the systems. The contributions of the paper are that: 1) it is for the first time to investigate the control problem for this class of discrete-time systems with dead-zone; 2) there are major difficulties for stabilizing such systems and in order to overcome the difficulties, the systems are transformed into an n-step-ahead predictor but nonaffine function is still existent; and 3) an adaptive compensative term is constructed to compensate for the parameters of the dead-zone. The neural networks are used to approximate the unknown functions in the transformed systems. Based on the Lyapunov theory, it is proven that all the signals in the closed-loop system are semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded and the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of zero. Two simulation examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of the control approach in the paper.

  7. Input-to-State Stabilizing Control Under Denial-of-Service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Tesi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The issue of cyber-security has become ever more prevalent in the analysis and design of networked systems. In this paper, we analyze networked control systems in the presence of denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, namely attacks that prevent transmissions over the network. We characterize frequency

  8. Optimisation of active suspension control inputs for improved performance of active safety systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čorić, Mirko; Deur, Joško; Xu, Li; Tseng, H. Eric; Hrovat, Davor

    2018-01-01

    A collocation-type control variable optimisation method is used to investigate the extent to which the fully active suspension (FAS) can be applied to improve the vehicle electronic stability control (ESC) performance and reduce the braking distance. First, the optimisation approach is applied to the scenario of vehicle stabilisation during the sine-with-dwell manoeuvre. The results are used to provide insights into different FAS control mechanisms for vehicle performance improvements related to responsiveness and yaw rate error reduction indices. The FAS control performance is compared to performances of the standard ESC system, optimal active brake system and combined FAS and ESC configuration. Second, the optimisation approach is employed to the task of FAS-based braking distance reduction for straight-line vehicle motion. Here, the scenarios of uniform and longitudinally or laterally non-uniform tyre-road friction coefficient are considered. The influences of limited anti-lock braking system (ABS) actuator bandwidth and limit-cycle ABS behaviour are also analysed. The optimisation results indicate that the FAS can provide competitive stabilisation performance and improved agility when compared to the ESC system, and that it can reduce the braking distance by up to 5% for distinctively non-uniform friction conditions.

  9. Decentralized control of discrete-time linear time invariant systems with input saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deliu, C.; Deliu, Ciprian; Malek, Babak; Roy, Sandip; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij

    We study decentralized stabilization of discrete-time linear time invariant (LTI) systems subject to actuator saturation, using LTI controllers. The requirement of stabilization under both saturation constraints and decentralization impose obvious necessary conditions on the open-loop plant, namely

  10. Control Techniques of Grid Connected PWM Rectifiers under Unbalanced Input Voltage Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bejvl, Martin; Šimek, Petr; Škramlík, Jiří; Valouch, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2013), s. 10-21 ISSN 1805-3386 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/330 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : phase locked loop (PLL) * DSC * current control ler Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  11. Adaptive fuzzy dynamic surface control of nonlinear systems with input saturation and time-varying output constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edalati, L.; Khaki Sedigh, A.; Aliyari Shooredeli, M.; Moarefianpour, A.

    2018-02-01

    This paper deals with the design of adaptive fuzzy dynamic surface control for uncertain strict-feedback nonlinear systems with asymmetric time-varying output constraints in the presence of input saturation. To approximate the unknown nonlinear functions and overcome the problem of explosion of complexity, a Fuzzy logic system is combined with the dynamic surface control in the backstepping design technique. To ensure the output constraints satisfaction, an asymmetric time-varying Barrier Lyapunov Function (BLF) is used. Moreover, by applying the minimal learning parameter technique, the number of the online parameters update for each subsystem is reduced to 2. Hence, the semi-globally uniformly ultimately boundedness (SGUUB) of all the closed-loop signals with appropriate tracking error convergence is guaranteed. The effectiveness of the proposed control is demonstrated by two simulation examples.

  12. Implementing Controlled Composition to Improve Vocabulary Mastery of EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juriah

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study was to know how (1) Controlled composition teaching techniques implemented by the English teacher at SDN 027 Samarinda to improve vocabulary mastery, and (2) Controlled composition teaching techniques improves vocabulary mastery of the sixth grade students of SDN 027 Samarinda. This research used a Classroom Action…

  13. Stabilization of Networked Control Systems with Variable Delays and Saturating Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mahmodi Kaleybar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, improved conditions for the synthesis of static state-feedback controller are derived to stabilize networked control systems (NCSs subject to actuator saturation. Both of the data packet latency and dropout which deteriorate the performance of the closed-loop system are considered in the NCS model via variable delays. Two different techniques are employed to incorporate actuator saturation in the system description. Utilizing Lyapunov-Krasovskii Theorem, delay-dependent conditions are obtained in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs to determine the static feedback gain. Moreover, an optimization problem is formulated in order to find the less conservative estimate for the region of attraction corresponding to different maximum allowable delays. Numerical examples are introduced to demonstrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed schemes.

  14. Control of Goos-Hänchen shift via input probe field intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddin; Lee, Ray-Kuang; Qamar, Sajid

    2016-11-01

    We suggest a scheme to control Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift in an ensemble of strongly interacting Rydberg atoms, which act as super-atoms due to the dipole blockade mechanism. The ensemble of three-level cold Rydberg-dressed (87Rb) atoms follows a cascade configurations where two fields, i.e, a strong control and a weak field are employed [D. Petrosyan, J. Otterbach, and M. Fleischhauer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 213601 (2011)]. The propagation of probe field is influenced by two-photon correlation within the blockade distance, which are damped due to the saturation of super-atoms. The amplitude of GH shift in the reflected light depends on the intensity of probe field. We observe large negative GH shift in the reflected light for small values of the probe field intensities.

  15. Bio-inspired grasp control in a robotic hand with massive sensorial input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascari, Luca; Bertocchi, Ulisse; Corradi, Paolo; Laschi, Cecilia; Dario, Paolo

    2009-02-01

    The capability of grasping and lifting an object in a suitable, stable and controlled way is an outstanding feature for a robot, and thus far, one of the major problems to be solved in robotics. No robotic tools able to perform an advanced control of the grasp as, for instance, the human hand does, have been demonstrated to date. Due to its capital importance in science and in many applications, namely from biomedics to manufacturing, the issue has been matter of deep scientific investigations in both the field of neurophysiology and robotics. While the former is contributing with a profound understanding of the dynamics of real-time control of the slippage and grasp force in the human hand, the latter tries more and more to reproduce, or take inspiration by, the nature's approach, by means of hardware and software technology. On this regard, one of the major constraints robotics has to overcome is the real-time processing of a large amounts of data generated by the tactile sensors while grasping, which poses serious problems to the available computational power. In this paper a bio-inspired approach to tactile data processing has been followed in order to design and test a hardware-software robotic architecture that works on the parallel processing of a large amount of tactile sensing signals. The working principle of the architecture bases on the cellular nonlinear/neural network (CNN) paradigm, while using both hand shape and spatial-temporal features obtained from an array of microfabricated force sensors, in order to control the sensory-motor coordination of the robotic system. Prototypical grasping tasks were selected to measure the system performances applied to a computer-interfaced robotic hand. Successful grasps of several objects, completely unknown to the robot, e.g. soft and deformable objects like plastic bottles, soft balls, and Japanese tofu, have been demonstrated.

  16. Adaptive Control for Revolute Joints Robot Manipulator with Uncertain/Unknown Dynamic Parameters and in Presence of Disturbance in Control Input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyed Sakha, Masoud; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an effective adaptive controller for revolute joints robot manipulator where the control input is accompanied with a random disturbance (with unknown PSD). It is clear that, disturbance can compromise the overall performance of the system. To cope with this problem, a control...... technique is proposed which uses the concept of exponential practical stability. Unlike other counterparts, the proposed method does not need information such as the physical parameters of robot and gravitational acceleration. The results show that the proposed controller achieves an excellent performance...

  17. Identification of Sources of Endotoxin Exposure as Input for Effective Exposure Control Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duuren-Stuurman, Birgit; Gröllers-Mulderij, Mariska; van de Runstraat, Annemieke; Duisterwinkel, Anton; Terwoert, Jeroen; Spaan, Suzanne

    2018-02-13

    Aim of the present study is to investigate the levels of endotoxins on product samples from potatoes, onions, and seeds, representing a relevant part of the agro-food industry in the Netherlands, to gather valuable insights in possibilities for exposure control measures early in the process of industrial processing of these products. Endotoxin levels on 330 products samples from companies representing the potato, onion, and seed (processing) industry (four potato-packaging companies, five potato-processing companies, five onion-packaging companies, and four seed-processing companies) were assessed using the Limulus Amboecyte Lysate (LAL) assay. As variation in growth conditions (type of soil, growth type) and product characteristics (surface roughness, dustiness, size, species) are assumed to influence the level of endotoxin on products, different types, and growth conditions were considered when collecting the samples. Additionally, waste material, rotten products, felt material (used for drying), and process water were collected. A large variation in the endotoxin levels was found on samples of potatoes, onions, and seeds (overall geometric standard deviation 17), in the range between 0.7 EU g-1 to 16400000 EU g-1. The highest geometric mean endotoxin levels were found in plant material (319600 EU g-1), followed by soil material (49100 EU g-1) and the outer side of products (9300 EU g-1), indicating that removal of plant and soil material early in the process would be an effective exposure control strategy. The high levels of endotoxins found in the limited number of samples from rotten onions indicate that these rotten onions should also be removed early in the process. Mean endotoxin levels found in waste material (only available for seed processing) is similar to the level found in soil material, although the range is much larger. On uncleaned seeds, higher endotoxin levels were found than on cleaned seeds, indicating that cleaning processes are important

  18. Replacement of input/output cables of the digital control computers at Gentilly 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melancon, P.; Lafreniere, P.

    1991-01-01

    During the 1990 annual outage at Gentilly 2 the Preventive Maintenance Program inspections on the digital control computers (DCCs) revealed an alarming degradation of cable insulation at several locations. It was found that approximately 20% of the cable connector assemblies inspected showed signs of degradation. These findings raised the concern of an increased risk of random short-circuit faults at the very heart of the station control system. Given the excellent reliability of the Gentilly 2 DCCs and their inherent design robustness, it was decided to proceed with the replacement of all of the complete cable connector assemblies within a reasonable time frame. It is planned to replace all assemblies of DCCX and DCCY during the 1991 annual outage. The degradation of the insulation was traced to a material incompatibility problem originating during cable manufacture. A migration of the plastifier contained in the PVC of the transparent sheaths, surrounding many of the cable conductors to terminal block connections, resulted in the chemical attack of the conductor insulation. This paper summarizes the problem identification and disposition process followed by Gentilly 2 Technical Unit personnel

  19. GHG emission control and solid waste management for megacities with inexact inputs: A case study in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hongwei, E-mail: luhw@ncepu.edu.cn; Sun, Shichao; Ren, Lixia; He, Li

    2015-03-02

    Highlights: • This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information. • The model can minimize net system cost and mitigate GHG emissions. • The model is particularly developed for the city of Beijing, China. • It reduces system cost by [45, 61]% and mitigates GHG emissions by [141, 179]%. • It could provide implications to megacities regarding GHG emissions control. - Abstract: This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information for the city of Beijing, China. The model is capable of simultaneously generating MSW management policies, performing GHG emission control, and addressing system uncertainty. Results suggest that: (1) a management strategy with minimal system cost can be obtained even when suspension of certain facilities becomes unavoidable through specific increments of the remaining ones; (2) expansion of facilities depends only on actual needs, rather than enabling the full usage of existing facilities, although it may prove to be a costly proposition; (3) adjustment of waste-stream diversion ratio directly leads to a change in GHG emissions from different disposal facilities. Results are also obtained from the comparison of the model with a conventional one without GHG emissions consideration. It is indicated that (1) the model would reduce the net system cost by [45, 61]% (i.e., [3173, 3520] million dollars) and mitigate GHG emissions by [141, 179]% (i.e., [76, 81] million tons); (2) increased waste would be diverted to integrated waste management facilities to prevent overmuch CH{sub 4} emission from the landfills.

  20. Time-varying motor control of autotomized leopard gecko tails: multiple inputs and behavioral modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Timothy E; Russell, Anthony P

    2012-02-01

    Autotomy (voluntary loss of an appendage) is common among diverse groups of vertebrates and invertebrates, and much attention has been given to ecological and developmental aspects of tail autotomy in lizards. Although most studies have focused on the ramifications for the lizard (behavior, biomechanics, energetics, etc.), the tail itself can exhibit interesting behaviors once segregated from the body. For example, recent work highlighted the ability of leopard gecko tails to jump and flip, in addition to being able to swing back and forth. Little is known, however, about the control mechanisms underlying these movements. Using electromyography, we examined the time-varying in vivo motor patterns at four sites (two proximal and two distal) in the tail of the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, following autotomy. Using these data we tested the hypothesis that the disparity in movements results simply from overlapping pattern generators within the tail. We found that burst duration, but not cycle duration, of the rhythmic swings reached a plateau at approximately 150 s following autotomy. This is likely because of physiological changes related to muscle fatigue and ischemia. For flips and jumps, burst and cycle duration exhibited no regular pattern. The coefficient of variation in motor patterns was significantly greater for jumps and flips than for rhythmic swings. This supports the conclusion that the different tail behaviors do not stem from overlapping pattern generators, but that they rely upon independent neural circuits. The signal controlling jumps and flips may be modified by sensory information from the environment. Finally, we found that jumps and flips are initiated using relatively synchronous activity between the two sides of the tail. In contrast, alternating activation of the right and left sides of the tail result in rhythmic swings. The mechanism underlying this change in tail behavior is comparable to locomotor gait changes in vertebrates.

  1. Insight into biogeochemical inputs and composition of Greenland Ice Sheet surface snow and glacial forefield river catchment environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Karen; Hagedorn, Birgit; Dieser, Markus; Christner, Brent; Choquette, Kyla; Sletten, Ronald; Lui, Lu; Junge, Karen

    2014-05-01

    The volume of freshwater transported from Greenland to surrounding marine waters has tended to increase annually over the past four decades as a result of warmer surface air temperatures (Bamber et al 2012, Hanna et al 2008). Ice sheet run off is estimated to make up approximately of third of this volume (Bamber et al 2012). However, the biogeochemical composition and seeding sources of the Greenland Ice Sheet supraglacial landscape is largely unknown. In this study, the structure and diversity of surface snow microbial assemblages from two regions of the western Greenland Ice Sheet ice-margin was investigated through the sequencing of small subunit rRNA genes. Furthermore, the origins of microbiota were investigated by examining correlations to molecular data obtained from marine, soil, freshwater and atmospheric environments and to geochemical analytes measured in the snow. Snow was found to contain a diverse assemblage of bacteria (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria) and eukarya (Alveolata, Fungi, Stramenopiles and Viridiplantae). Phylotypes related to archaeal Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota phyla were also identified. The structure of microbial assemblages was found to have strong similarities to communities sampled from marine and air environments, and sequences obtained from the South-West region, near Kangerlussuaq, which is bordered by an extensive periglacial expanse, had additional resemblances to soil originating communities. Strong correlations were found between bacterial beta diversity and Na+ and Cl- concentrations. These data suggest that surface snow from western regions of Greenland contain microbiota that are most likely derived from exogenous, wind transported sources. Downstream of the supraglacial environment, Greenland's rivers likely influence the ecology of localized estuary and marine systems. Here we characterize the geochemical and biotic composition of a glacial and glacial forefield fed river catchment in

  2. Input relegation control for gross motion of a kinematically redundant manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unseren, M.A.

    1992-10-01

    This report proposes a method for resolving the kinematic redundancy of a serial link manipulator moving in a three-dimensional workspace. The underspecified problem of solving for the joint velocities based on the classical kinematic velocity model is transformed into a well-specified problem. This is accomplished by augmenting the original model with additional equations which relate a new vector variable quantifying the redundant degrees of freedom (DOF) to the joint velocities. The resulting augmented system yields a well specified solution for the joint velocities. Methods for selecting the redundant DOF quantifying variable and the transformation matrix relating it to the joint velocities are presented so as to obtain a minimum Euclidean norm solution for the joint velocities. The approach is also applied to the problem of resolving the kinematic redundancy at the acceleration level. Upon resolving the kinematic redundancy, a rigid body dynamical model governing the gross motion of the manipulator is derived. A control architecture is suggested which according to the model, decouples the Cartesian space DOF and the redundant DOF.

  3. Dual nitrergic/cholinergic control of short-term plasticity of corticostriatal inputs to striatal projection neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Peter Blomeley

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of nitric oxide and acetylcholine to modulate the short-term plasticity of corticostriatal inputs was investigated using current-clamp recordings in BAC mouse brain slices. Glutamatergic responses were evoked by stimulation of corpus callosum in D1 and D2 dopamine receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs and D2-MSN, respectively. Paired-pulse stimulation (50 ms intervals evoked depressing or facilitating responses in subgroups of both D1-MSNs and D2 MSNs. In both neuronal types, glutamatergic responses of cells that displayed paired-pulse depression were not significantly affected by the nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP; 100 µM. Conversely, in D1-MSNs and D2-MSNs that displayed paired-pulse facilitation, SNAP did not affect the first evoked response, but significantly reduced the amplitude of the second evoked EPSP, converting paired-pulse facilitation into paired-pulse depression. SNAP also strongly excited cholinergic interneurons and increased their cortical glutamatergic responses acting through a presynaptic mechanism. The effects of SNAP on glutamatergic response of D1-MSNs and D2-MSN were mediated by acetylcholine. The broad-spectrum muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (25 µM did not affect paired-pulse ratios and did not prevent the effects of SNAP. Conversely, the broad-spectrum nicotinic receptor antagonist tubocurarine (10 µM fully mimicked and occluded the effects of SNAP. We concluded that phasic acetylcholine release mediates feedforward facilitation in MSNs through activation of nicotinic receptors on glutamatergic terminals and that nitric oxide, while increasing cholinergic interneurons’ firing, functionally impairs their ability to modulate glutamatergic inputs of MSNs. These results show that nitrergic and cholinergic transmission control the short-term plasticity of glutamatergic inputs in the striatum and reveal a novel cellular mechanism underlying paired

  4. Molecular characterization of organic matter in converted forests in Western Europe; disentangling the effects of edaphic factors and input differences on SOM composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Olaf; Kooijman, Annemieke; Vancampenhout, Karen; Muys, Bart; Jansen, Boris

    2017-04-01

    By storing carbon in the soil, forests can play an important role in climate mitigation. We studied how the SOM composition was affected by conversion of deciduous stands to mono-culture spruce plantations in the Mullerthal in Luxembourg and the Gaume in south-east Belgium. Both regions have a known and similar vegetation history on different lithologies, ranging from carcareous marls to decalcified sands. Lignin and cutin/suberin biomarkers were identified by using thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM) with unlabelled tetra methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH). Lignin was used to distinguish deciduous and coniferous litter sources, whereas cutin and suberin indicated the respective input of above- and belowground litter input. A twinplot setup was used to be able to independently evaluate the effect of edaphic factors versus input differences on SOM composition. pH values and SOC stocks reflected the lithological gradients in both study areas. The difference was more subtle in the Gaume where the gradient is much narrower. The existence of pedogenic thresholds explains why significant differences in lignin yield and SOC stocks between plots with different lithology were also found along the subtle gradient in the Gaume. Secondly, we observed differences in molecular composition and also in decomposition state of lignin that were caused solely by input differences between adjacent deciduous and coniferous forest plots. Furthermore, we found a legacy effect, a signal of former deciduous forest in the deeper soil layers (15-20 cm) under the current spruce plantations, in the loamy substrate plots of the Gaume, which was not observed in the Mullerthal, despite the similar vegetation history of both regions. This can be explained by differences in environmental conditions between both areas. Higher pH values resulting in a higher biological activity could explain the absence of a legacy effect in the Mullerthal plots. Therefore, an important conclusion of

  5. A novel multi-drive electric vehicle system control based on multi-input multi-output PID controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasbaoui Brahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In-wheel-motor drive electric vehicle (EV is an innovative configuration of the modern EV, in which each wheel is driven individually by an electric motor. The classical traction motor control called the Independent Machine Control Structure (IMCS using a PID speed controller presents major inconveniences in modern EV safety, when the proposed control can not ensure stability of the EV with differing road topology and variations of speed. A new approach is proposed for a control of a two-in-wheel-motor drive EV, called the Maximum Control Structure MCS. This is based on a multivariable PID (MIMO-PID strategy, which is employed to estimate the linear speed error of each of the two back driving wheels, when the error of each wheel is taken into account in the other speed control computations. Simulation results show that the new control system presents increased safety for the EVs compared with the IMCS strategy and can maintain the error slip rate within the optimal range, ensuring the stability of the vehicle either in a straight or a curved line.

  6. Non-fragile guaranteed cost control for uncertain neutral dynamic systems with time-varying delays in state and control input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, C.-H.

    2007-01-01

    This article considers non-fragile guaranteed cost control problem for a class of uncertain neutral system with time-varying delays in both state and control input. Delay-dependent criteria are proposed to guarantee the robust stabilization of systems. Linear matrix inequality (LMI) optimization approach is used to solve the non-fragile guaranteed cost control problem. Non-fragile guaranteed cost control for unperturbed neutral system is considered in the first step. Robust non-fragile guaranteed cost control for uncertain neutral system is designed directly from the unperturbed condition. An efficient approach is proposed to design the non-fragile guaranteed cost control for uncertain neutral systems. LMI toolbox of Matlab is used to implement the proposed results. Finally, a numerical example is illustrated to show the usefulness of the proposed results

  7. Seasonality of stable isotope composition of atmospheric water input at the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Insa; Detsch, Florian; Gutlein, Adrian; Scholl, Martha A.; Kiese, Ralf; Appelhans, Tim; Nauss, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    To understand the moisture regime at the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro, we analysed the isotopic variability of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) of rainfall, throughfall, and fog from a total of 2,140 samples collected weekly over 2 years at 9 study sites along an elevation transect ranging from 950 to 3,880 m above sea level. Precipitation in the Kilimanjaro tropical rainforests consists of a combination of rainfall, throughfall, and fog. We defined local meteoric water lines for all 3 precipitation types individually and the overall precipitation, δDprec = 7.45 (±0.05) × δ18Oprec + 13.61 (±0.20), n = 2,140, R2 = .91, p research site. We found an altitude effect of δ18Orain = −0.11‰ × 100 m−1, which varied according to precipitation type and season. The relatively weak isotope or altitude gradient may reveal 2 different moisture sources in the research area: (a) local moisture recycling and (b) regional moisture sources. Generally, the seasonality of δ18Orain values follows the bimodal rainfall distribution under the influences of south- and north-easterly trade winds. These seasonal patterns of isotopic composition were linked to different regional moisture sources by analysing Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory backward trajectories. Seasonality of dexcess values revealed evidence of enhanced moisture recycling after the onset of the rainy seasons. This comprehensive dataset is essential for further research using stable isotopes as a hydrological tracer of sources of precipitation that contribute to water resources of the Kilimanjaro region.

  8. Three-Input Single-Output Voltage-Mode Multifunction Filter with Electronic Controllability Based on Single Commercially Available IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supachai Klungtong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a second-order voltage-mode filter with three inputs and single-output voltage using single commercially available IC, one resistor, and two capacitors. The used commercially available IC, called LT1228, is manufactured by Linear Technology Corporation. The proposed filter is based on parallel RLC circuit. The filter provides five output filter responses, namely, band-pass (BP, band-reject (BR, low-pass (LP, high-pass (HP, and all-pass (AP functions. The selection of each filter response can be done without the requirement of active and passive component matching condition. Furthermore, the natural frequency and quality factor are electronically controlled. Besides, the nonideal case is also investigated. The output voltage node exhibits low impedance. The experimental results can validate the theoretical analyses.

  9. Ergonomic problems regarding the interactive touch input via screens in onboard and ground-based flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhausen, K. P.; Gaertner, K. P.

    1985-01-01

    A significant problem concerning the integration of display and switching functions is related to the fact that numerous informative data which have to be processed by man must be read from only a few display devices. A satisfactory ergonomic design of integrated display devices and keyboards is in many cases difficult, because not all functions which can be displayed and selected are simultaneously available. A technical solution which provides an integration of display and functional elements on the basis of the highest flexibility is obtained by using a cathode ray tube with a touch-sensitive screen. The employment of an integrated data input/output system is demonstrated for the cases of onboard and ground-based flight control. Ergonomic studies conducted to investigate the suitability of an employment of touch-sensitive screens are also discussed.

  10. Composite Gauss-Legendre Quadrature with Error Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, J. S. C.

    2011-01-01

    We describe composite Gauss-Legendre quadrature for determining definite integrals, including a means of controlling the approximation error. We compare the form and performance of the algorithm with standard Newton-Cotes quadrature. (Contains 1 table.)

  11. Estimating neural background input with controlled and fast perturbations: A bandwidth comparison between inhibitory opsins and neural circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eriksson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To test the importance of a certain cell type or brain area it is common to make a lack of function experiment in which the neuronal population of interest is inhibited. Here we review physiological and methodological constraints for making controlled perturbations using the corticothalamic circuit as an example. The brain with its many types of cells and rich interconnectivity offers many paths through which a perturbation can spread within a short time. To understand the side effects of the perturbation one should record from those paths. We find that ephaptic effects, gap-junctions, and fast chemical synapses are so fast that they can react to the perturbation during the few milliseconds it takes for an opsin to change the membrane potential. The slow chemical synapses, astrocytes, extracellular ions and vascular signals, will continue to give their physiological input for around 20 milliseconds before they also react to the perturbation. Although we show that some pathways can react within milliseconds the strength/speed reported in this review should be seen as an upper bound since we have omitted how polysynaptic signals are attenuated. Thus the number of additional recordings that has to be made to control for the perturbation side effects is expected to be fewer than proposed here. To summarize, the reviewed literature not only suggests that it is possible to make controlled lack of function experiments, but, it also suggests that such a lack of function experiment can be used to measure the context of local neural computations.

  12. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy control of ionic polymer metal composite actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thinh, Nguyen Truong; Yang, Young-Soo; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2009-01-01

    An adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller was newly designed to overcome the degradation of the actuation performance of ionic polymer metal composite actuators that show highly nonlinear responses such as a straightening-back problem under a step excitation. An adaptive control algorithm with the merits of fuzzy logic and neural networks was applied for controlling the tip displacement of the ionic polymer metal composite actuators. The reference and actual displacements and the change of the error with the electrical inputs were recorded to generate the training data. These data were used for training the adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller to find the membership functions in the fuzzy control algorithm. Software simulation and real-time experiments were conducted by using the Simulink and dSPACE environments. Present results show that the current adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller can be successfully applied to the reliable control of the ionic polymer metal composite actuator for which the performance degrades under long-time actuation

  13. Three-dimensional static shape control analysis of composite plates using distributed piezoelectric actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaik Dawood, M S I; Iannucci, L; Greenhalgh, E S

    2008-01-01

    In this work, based on a linear piezoelectric constitutive model, a three-dimensional finite element code using an eight-node brick element that includes the anisotropic and coupled field effects of piezoelectric actuators has been developed for the static shape control analysis of fibre reinforced composite laminates. The code was used to study voltage sensing and actuation capabilities of piezoelectric actuators on composite laminates. The required input voltages to the actuators in order to achieve a specified structural shape were determined using a weighted shape control method. The code was validated using two test cases obtained from the literature. The results were found to show good correlation for voltage actuation. However, since determining input voltages to achieve the desired structural shape is a type of inverse problem, there are no explicit solutions and hence the results obtained from the present model were not similar to those reported in the literature. The second validation also suggests that the anisotropic and coupled field effects of the piezoelectric actuators cannot be neglected as this has been shown to underestimate the required control voltages. The effects of different lamination angles, boundary conditions, plate length-to-thickness ratios and actuator dimensions on the control voltages have also been reported

  14. Microbial activity and biomass of peats in relation to the intrinsic organic matter composition, pH, moisture, and C and N inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amha Amde, Yosef

    2011-03-25

    Excessive decomposition of organic matter (OM) from the potting media (e.g. peat) is known to influence plant growth by decreasing the total porosity, altering the chemical properties (pH, electrical conductivity), and releasing organic compounds that might have phytotoxic or stimulating effects. When peats are used as constitutes of the potting media, they should, therefore, maintain stability during plant production. In this study, twenty peat samples from Estonia, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania and Sweden were evaluated for their microbial activity (measured as CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions) and biomass with a special emphasis to the intrinsic organic matter composition, pH, moisture, and C and N inputs as such information on a wide range of peat samples is largely missing from published literature. Overall, the whole peat samples were broadly classified into three distinct groups using the hierarchical cluster analysis: the Irish and two of German peats produced the lowest CO{sub 2} while most peats from Finland produced the highest CO{sub 2}. With few exceptions, peats from the Baltic States occupied the middle ranges. Excessive decomposition of organic matter in the Finish peats might have unintended consequences if these peats are used for long-term pot plant production. With regard to botanical composition, peats containing Sphagnum imbricatum produced the lowest CO{sub 2} and S. angustifolium dominated peats mostly produced the highest CO{sub 2}. (orig.)

  15. Effects of Input Voltage on Flow Separation Control for Low-Pressure Turbine at Low Reynolds Number by Plasma Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Matsunuma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Active flow control using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD plasma actuators was investigated to reattach the simulated boundary layer separation on the suction surface of a turbine blade at low Reynolds number, Re = 1.7 × 104. The flow separation is induced on a curved plate installed in the test section of a low-speed wind tunnel. Particle image velocimetry (PIV was used to obtain instantaneous and time-averaged two-dimensional velocity measurements. The amplitude of input voltage for the plasma actuator was varied from ±2.0 kV to ±2.8 kV. The separated flow reattached on the curved wall when the input voltage was ±2.4 kV and above. The displacement thickness of the boundary layer near the trailing edge decreased by 20% at ±2.0 kV. The displacement thickness was suddenly reduced as much as 56% at ±2.2 kV, and it was reduced gradually from ±2.4 kV to ±2.8 kV (77% reduction. The total pressure loss coefficient, estimated from the boundary layer displacement thickness and momentum thickness, was 0.172 at the baseline (actuator off condition. The total pressure loss was reduced to 0.107 (38% reduction at ±2.2 kV and 0.078 (55% reduction at ±2.8 kV.

  16. Analysis and Control of Buck-Boost Converter with the Same Input Polarity Based on Novel Energy Factor Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shaker Nasr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents firstly a buck-boost circuit with the advantage that its output voltage polarity is the same as the input polarity. The circuit operation is presented and analyzed in different modes of operation. The well known parameters used in evaluation of DC/DC converters like Total Harmonic Distortion THD, Power Factor PF, and Ripple Factor RF have no meaning in DC/DC converters, so it is to introduce efficient concepts to permit a fair evaluation of the converter. This paper present other parameters that can be used to study the characteristics of the converter and gives a real and logic means of its operation. These main parameters are: pumping energy PE, storage energy SE, energy factor EF, and energy losses EL. In addition, the converter efficiency is not considered as 100 % as taken in most analyzing studies. The positive DC/DC buck-boost converter is evaluated according to the new concepts and the system model is deduced for different cases of operation taking into account the resistance of the circuit inductor. The circuit is implemented practically and the presented obtained results show the correct operation under different modes of operation. In addition the control design of the converter is built such that a PI controller with windup is considered. In order to test the effectiveness of the designed control algorithm, the system were exposed to different voltage reference values and the obtained results demonstrate that the system responses for all cases are very acceptable according to the criteria of the control system theory.

  17. STATIC AND DYNAMIC POSTURE CONTROL IN POSTLINGUAL COCHLEAR IMPLANTED PATIENTS: Effects of dual-tasking, visual and auditory inputs suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERNARD DEMANZE eLaurence

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Posture control is based on central integration of multisensory inputs, and on internal representation of body orientation in space. This multisensory feedback regulates posture control and continuously updates the internal model of body’s position which in turn forwards motor commands adapted to the environmental context and constraints. The peripheral localization of the vestibular system, close to the cochlea, makes vestibular damage possible following cochlear implant (CI surgery. Impaired vestibular function in CI patients, if any, may have a strong impact on posture stability. The simple postural task of quiet standing is generally paired with cognitive activity in most day life conditions, leading therefore to competition for attentional resources in dual-tasking, and increased risk of fall particularly in patients with impaired vestibular function. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of post-lingual cochlear implantation on posture control in adult deaf patients. Possible impairment of vestibular function was assessed by comparing the postural performance of patients to that of age-matched healthy subjects during a simple postural task performed in static and dynamic conditions, and during dual-tasking with a visual or auditory memory task. Postural tests were done in eyes open (EO and eyes closed (EC conditions, with the cochlear implant activated (ON or not (OFF. Results showed that the CI patients significantly reduced limits of stability and increased postural instability in static conditions. In dynamic conditions, they spent considerably more energy to maintain equilibrium, and their head was stabilized neither in space nor on trunk while the controls showed a whole body rigidification strategy. Hearing (prosthesis on as well as dual-tasking did not really improve the dynamic postural performance of the CI patients. We conclude that CI patients become strongly visual dependent mainly in challenging postural conditions.

  18. Method and System for Physiologically Modulating Videogames and Simulations which Use Gesture and Body Image Sensing Control Input Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T. (Inventor); Stephens, Chad L. (Inventor); Habowski, Tyler (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Method for physiologically modulating videogames and simulations includes utilizing input from a motion-sensing video game system and input from a physiological signal acquisition device. The inputs from the physiological signal sensors are utilized to change the response of a user's avatar to inputs from the motion-sensing sensors. The motion-sensing system comprises a 3D sensor system having full-body 3D motion capture of a user's body. This arrangement encourages health-enhancing physiological self-regulation skills or therapeutic amplification of healthful physiological characteristics. The system provides increased motivation for users to utilize biofeedback as may be desired for treatment of various conditions.

  19. L1 Adaptive Control Augmentation System with Application to the X-29 Lateral/Directional Dynamics: A Multi-Input Multi-Output Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brian Joseph; Burken, John J.; Xargay, Enric

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an L(sub 1) adaptive control augmentation system design for multi-input multi-output nonlinear systems in the presence of unmatched uncertainties which may exhibit significant cross-coupling effects. A piecewise continuous adaptive law is adopted and extended for applicability to multi-input multi-output systems that explicitly compensates for dynamic cross-coupling. In addition, explicit use of high-fidelity actuator models are added to the L1 architecture to reduce uncertainties in the system. The L(sub 1) multi-input multi-output adaptive control architecture is applied to the X-29 lateral/directional dynamics and results are evaluated against a similar single-input single-output design approach.

  20. Bi Input-extended Kalman filter based estimation technique for speed-sensorless control of induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, Murat

    2010-01-01

    This study offers a novel extended Kalman filter (EKF) based estimation technique for the solution of the on-line estimation problem related to uncertainties in the stator and rotor resistances inherent to the speed-sensorless high efficiency control of induction motors (IMs) in the wide speed range as well as extending the limited number of states and parameter estimations possible with a conventional single EKF algorithm. For this aim, the introduced estimation technique in this work utilizes a single EKF algorithm with the consecutive execution of two inputs derived from the two individual extended IM models based on the stator resistance and rotor resistance estimation, differently from the other approaches in past studies, which require two separate EKF algorithms operating in a switching or braided manner; thus, it has superiority over the previous EKF schemes in this regard. The proposed EKF based estimation technique performing the on-line estimations of the stator currents, the rotor flux, the rotor angular velocity, and the load torque involving the viscous friction term together with the rotor and stator resistance is also used in the combination with the speed-sensorless direct vector control of IM and tested with simulations under the challenging 12 scenarios generated instantaneously via step and/or linear variations of the velocity reference, the load torque, the stator resistance, and the rotor resistance in the range of high and zero speed, assuming that the measured stator phase currents and voltages are available. Even under those variations, the performance of the speed-sensorless direct vector control system established on the novel EKF based estimation technique is observed to be quite good.

  1. Bi Input-extended Kalman filter based estimation technique for speed-sensorless control of induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barut, Murat, E-mail: muratbarut27@yahoo.co [Nigde University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 51245 Nigde (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    This study offers a novel extended Kalman filter (EKF) based estimation technique for the solution of the on-line estimation problem related to uncertainties in the stator and rotor resistances inherent to the speed-sensorless high efficiency control of induction motors (IMs) in the wide speed range as well as extending the limited number of states and parameter estimations possible with a conventional single EKF algorithm. For this aim, the introduced estimation technique in this work utilizes a single EKF algorithm with the consecutive execution of two inputs derived from the two individual extended IM models based on the stator resistance and rotor resistance estimation, differently from the other approaches in past studies, which require two separate EKF algorithms operating in a switching or braided manner; thus, it has superiority over the previous EKF schemes in this regard. The proposed EKF based estimation technique performing the on-line estimations of the stator currents, the rotor flux, the rotor angular velocity, and the load torque involving the viscous friction term together with the rotor and stator resistance is also used in the combination with the speed-sensorless direct vector control of IM and tested with simulations under the challenging 12 scenarios generated instantaneously via step and/or linear variations of the velocity reference, the load torque, the stator resistance, and the rotor resistance in the range of high and zero speed, assuming that the measured stator phase currents and voltages are available. Even under those variations, the performance of the speed-sensorless direct vector control system established on the novel EKF based estimation technique is observed to be quite good.

  2. (210)Pb and composition data of near-surface sediments and interstitial waters evidencing anthropogenic inputs in Amazon River mouth, Macapá, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, José Reinaldo Cardoso; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2011-04-01

    Activity profiles of excess (210)Pb determined in three sediment cores from Amazon River mouth, Macapá city, Brazil, provided the evaluation of sedimentation rates, contributing to a better knowledge of the hydrological conditions in the site that is the capital of Amapá State and is drained by the waters of the huge Amazon River. Chemical data were also determined in the sediments, allowing identify signatures coupled to anthropogenic inputs held in the past in Amapá State. Significant direct relationships between LOI (loss on ignition) and organic matter were found for all sediments profiles. Silica was found to be inversely related to organic matter in the three profiles; its decrease accompanied an increase on the specific surface of the sediments. This relationship was confirmed by a great number of inverse significant correlations among silica and oxides Na(2)O, K(2)O, CaO, MgO, Al(2)O(3), P(2)O(5), Fe(2)O(3) and MnO. It was possible to identify the role of organic matter on adsorption of several oxides in the core sediments profiles. Apparent sediment mass accumulation rates corresponding to values between 450 and 2510 mg cm(-2)yr(-1) were obtained, and are compatible with the results of others studies. The (210)Pb activities in one sampling point suggested the occurrence of anthropogenic inputs related to the initial period of the mining activities conducted in Serra do Navio, Amapá State, for the commercialization of Mn ores. This was reinforced by the abrupt fluctuations in chemical data obtained for the sediments and composition of the interstitial waters occurring there. The Atlantic hurricane activity also appeared to affect the sedimentation rates in the area, as two different values were recorded in each profile. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hot rolled composite billet for nuclear control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.E.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a composite plate shaped billet, useful in the fabrication of nuclear control rods, which comprises a core of stainless steel containing about 2 percent boron 10, a thin coating of zirconia on the surfaces of said core, and said zirconia coating being completely encased in a jacket of mild steel, said composite having been hot rolled between about 1075 0 and about 1165 0 C. 1 claim, 8 figures

  4. GHG emission control and solid waste management for megacities with inexact inputs: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongwei; Sun, Shichao; Ren, Lixia; He, Li

    2015-03-02

    This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information for the city of Beijing, China. The model is capable of simultaneously generating MSW management policies, performing GHG emission control, and addressing system uncertainty. Results suggest that: (1) a management strategy with minimal system cost can be obtained even when suspension of certain facilities becomes unavoidable through specific increments of the remaining ones; (2) expansion of facilities depends only on actual needs, rather than enabling the full usage of existing facilities, although it may prove to be a costly proposition; (3) adjustment of waste-stream diversion ratio directly leads to a change in GHG emissions from different disposal facilities. Results are also obtained from the comparison of the model with a conventional one without GHG emissions consideration. It is indicated that (1) the model would reduce the net system cost by [45, 61]% (i.e., [3173, 3520] million dollars) and mitigate GHG emissions by [141, 179]% (i.e., [76, 81] million tons); (2) increased waste would be diverted to integrated waste management facilities to prevent overmuch CH4 emission from the landfills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Static and dynamic posture control in postlingual cochlear implanted patients: effects of dual-tasking, visual and auditory inputs suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard-Demanze, Laurence; Léonard, Jacques; Dumitrescu, Michel; Meller, Renaud; Magnan, Jacques; Lacour, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Posture control is based on central integration of multisensory inputs, and on internal representation of body orientation in space. This multisensory feedback regulates posture control and continuously updates the internal model of body's position which in turn forwards motor commands adapted to the environmental context and constraints. The peripheral localization of the vestibular system, close to the cochlea, makes vestibular damage possible following cochlear implant (CI) surgery. Impaired vestibular function in CI patients, if any, may have a strong impact on posture stability. The simple postural task of quiet standing is generally paired with cognitive activity in most day life conditions, leading therefore to competition for attentional resources in dual-tasking, and increased risk of fall particularly in patients with impaired vestibular function. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of postlingual cochlear implantation on posture control in adult deaf patients. Possible impairment of vestibular function was assessed by comparing the postural performance of patients to that of age-matched healthy subjects during a simple postural task performed in static (stable platform) and dynamic (platform in translation) conditions, and during dual-tasking with a visual or auditory memory task. Postural tests were done in eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions, with the CI activated (ON) or not (OFF). Results showed that the postural performance of the CI patients strongly differed from the controls, mainly in the EC condition. The CI patients showed significantly reduced limits of stability and increased postural instability in static conditions. In dynamic conditions, they spent considerably more energy to maintain equilibrium, and their head was stabilized neither in space nor on trunk: they behaved dynamically without vision like an inverted pendulum while the controls showed a whole body rigidification strategy. Hearing (prosthesis on) as well

  6. A three-phase to three-phase series-resonant power converter with optimal input current waveforms, Part I: control strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, H.

    1988-01-01

    A control strategy for multiphase-input multiphase-output AC to AC series-resonant (SR) power converters is presented. After reviewing some basics in SR power converters, a hierarchy of control mechanisms is presented, together with their respective theoretical backgrounds and practical limitations.

  7. Input description for BIOPATH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, J.E.; Bergstroem, U.; Edlund, O.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program BIOPATH describes the flow of radioactivity within a given ecosystem after a postulated release of radioactive material and the resulting dose for specified population groups. The present report accounts for the input data necessary to run BIOPATH. The report also contains descriptions of possible control cards and an input example as well as a short summary of the basic theory.(author)

  8. Implementing Controlled Composition to Improve Vocabulary Mastery of EFL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juriah Juriah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study was to know how (1 Controlled composition teaching techniques implemented by the English teacher at SDN 027 Samarinda to improve vocabulary mastery, and (2 Controlled composition teaching techniques improves vocabulary mastery of the sixth grade students of SDN 027 Samarinda. This research used a Classroom Action Research (CAR as the research design. The subject of the research is the sixth grade students in the 2013/2014 academic year that consists of 43 students. The instruments employed in this study were observation checklist, field note, and vocabulary test. The result of the research showed that in cycle 1 the students’ achievement did not fulfill the minimal criteria of success. However the result of the cycle 1 was better than the preliminary study. The criteria of success did not fulfill in cycle one, some enhancement of the implementation of Controlled Composition were made in cycle two in the form of: Instruct the students bring dictionary, give more examples English sentences, guide the students find the mining of words in the dictionary and write a paragraph, more motivate the students and preparing a media/ picture .Meanwhile the students ’achievement in cycle two showed that fulfilled the criteria of success. Based on the findings and discussion, the conclusions : Firstly, Controlled composition was implemented well by the teacher of SDN 027 Samarinda. Controlled composition was implemented and gave impacts in: (a increasing the students’ vocabulary mastery significantly, (b making the students able to spell the vocabularies, (c making the students understand the meaning English words, and (d making the students able to pronounce English words quite good. Secondly, Controlled composition improved the students’ vocabulary mastery; it was only 20.9% of the students who achieved the English passing grade in the preliminary study, but then 81.39% of the students achieved the English passing grade in

  9. Water mass circulation and weathering inputs in the Labrador Sea based on coupled Hf-Nd isotope compositions and rare earth element distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippova, Alexandra; Frank, Martin; Kienast, Markus; Rickli, Jörg; Hathorne, Ed; Yashayaev, Igor M.; Pahnke, Katharina

    2017-02-01

    The Labrador Sea is one of the key areas for deep water formation driving the Atlantic thermohaline circulation and thus plays an important role in Northern Hemisphere climatic fluctuations. In order to better constrain the overturning processes and the origins of the distinct water masses, combined dissolved Hf-Nd isotopic compositions and rare earth element (REE) distribution patterns were obtained from four water depth profiles along a section across the Labrador Sea. These were complemented by one surface sample off the southern tip of Greenland, three shallow water samples off the coast of Newfoundland, and two deep water samples off Nova Scotia. Although light REEs are markedly enriched in the surface waters off the coast of Newfoundland compared to north Atlantic waters, the REE concentration profiles are essentially invariant throughout the water column across the Labrador Sea. The hafnium concentrations of surface waters exhibit a narrow range between 0.6 and 1 pmol/kg but are not significantly higher than at depth. Neodymium isotope signatures (ɛNd) vary from unradiogenic values between -16.8 and -14.9 at the surface to more radiogenic values near -11.0 at the bottom of the Labrador Sea mainly reflecting the advection of the Denmark Strait Overflow Water and North East Atlantic Deep Water, the signatures of which are influenced by weathering contributions from Icelandic basalts. Unlike Nd, water column radiogenic Hf isotope signatures (ɛHf) are more variable representing diverse weathering inputs from the surrounding landmasses. The least radiogenic seawater ɛHf signatures (up to -11.7) are found in surface waters close to Greenland and near the Canadian margin. This reflects the influence of recirculating Irminger Current Waters, which are affected by highly unradiogenic inputs from Greenland. A three to four ɛHf unit difference is observed between Denmark Strait Overflow Water (ɛHf ∼ -4) and North East Atlantic Deep Water (ɛHf ∼ -0

  10. Compositional control of continuously graded anode functional layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoppin, J.; Barney, I.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Miller, R.; Reitz, T.; Young, D.

    2012-10-01

    In this work, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) are fabricated with linear-compositionally graded anode functional layers (CGAFL) using a computer-controlled compound aerosol deposition (CCAD) system. Cells with different CGAFL thicknesses (30 um and 50 um) are prepared with a continuous compositionally graded interface deposited between the electrolyte and anode support current collecting regions. The compositional profile was characterized using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic mapping. An analytical model of the compound aerosol deposition was developed. The model predicted compositional profiles for both samples that closely matched the measured profiles, suggesting that aerosol-based deposition methods are capable of creating functional gradation on length scales suitable for solid oxide fuel cell structures. The electrochemical performances of the two cells are analyzed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).

  11. Fracture mechanisms and fracture control in composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wone-Chul

    Four basic failure modes--delamination, delamination buckling of composite sandwich panels, first-ply failure in cross-ply laminates, and compression failure--are analyzed using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and the J-integral method. Structural failures, including those at the micromechanical level, are investigated with the aid of the models developed, and the critical strains for crack propagation for each mode are obtained. In the structural fracture analyses area, the fracture control schemes for delamination in a composite rib stiffener and delamination buckling in composite sandwich panels subjected to in-plane compression are determined. The critical fracture strains were predicted with the aid of LEFM for delamination and the J-integral method for delamination buckling. The use of toughened matrix systems has been recommended for improved damage tolerant design for delamination crack propagation. An experimental study was conducted to determine the onset of delamination buckling in composite sandwich panel containing flaws. The critical fracture loads computed using the proposed theoretical model and a numerical computational scheme closely followed the experimental measurements made on sandwich panel specimens of graphite/epoxy faceskins and aluminum honeycomb core with varying faceskin thicknesses and core sizes. Micromechanical models of fracture in composites are explored to predict transverse cracking of cross-ply laminates and compression fracture of unidirectional composites. A modified shear lag model which takes into account the important role of interlaminar shear zones between the 0 degree and 90 degree piles in cross-ply laminate is proposed and criteria for transverse cracking have been developed. For compressive failure of unidirectional composites, pre-existing defects play an important role. Using anisotropic elasticity, the stress state around a defect under a remotely applied compressive load is obtained. The experimentally

  12. Frequency-weighted feedforward control for dynamic compensation in ionic polymer–metal composite actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Yingfeng; Leang, Kam K

    2009-01-01

    Ionic polymer–metal composites (IPMCs) are innovative materials that offer combined sensing and actuating ability in lightweight and flexible package. IPMCs have been exploited in robotics and a wide variety of biomedical devices, for example, as sensors for teleoperation, as actuators for positioning in active endoscopy, as fins for propelling aquatic robots, and as an injector for drug delivery. In the actuation mode, one of the main challenges is precise position control. In particular, IPMC actuators exhibit relaxation behavior and nonlinearities; and at relatively high operating frequencies dynamic effects limit accuracy and positioning bandwidth. A frequency-weighted feedforward controller is designed to account for the IPMC's structural dynamics to enable fast positioning. The control method is applied to a custom-made Nafion-based IPMC actuator. The controller takes into account the magnitude of the control input to avoid generating excessively large voltages which can damage the IPMC actuator. To account for unmodeled effects not captured by the dynamics model, a feedback controller is integrated with the feedforward controller. Experimental results show a significant improvement in the tracking performance when feedforward control is used. For instance, the feedforward controller shows over 75% reduction in the tracking error compared to the case without feedforward compensation. Finally, the integrated feedforward and feedback control system reduces the tracking error to less than 10% for tracking an 18-Hz triangle-like trajectory. Some of the advantages of feedforward control as well as its limitations are also discussed

  13. Report on planning of input earthquake vibration for design of vibration controlling structure, in the Tokai Works, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uryu, Mitsuru; Shinohara, Takaharu; Terada, Shuji; Yamazaki, Toshihiko; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Toshinari; Hosoya, Hisashi

    1997-05-01

    When adopting a vibration controlling structure for a nuclear facility building, it is necessary to evaluate a little longer frequency vibration properly. Although various evaluation methods are proposed, there is no finished method. And, to the earthquake itself to investigate, some factors such as effect of surface wave, distant great earthquake, and so on must be considered, and further various evaluations and investigations are required. Here is reported on an evaluation method of the input earthquake vibration for vibration controlling design establishing on adoption of the vibration controlling structure using a vibration control device comprising of laminated rubber and lead damper for the buildings of reprocessing facility in Tokai Works. The input earthquake vibration for vibration controlling design shown in this report is to be adopted for a vibration controlling facility buildings in the Tokai Works. (G.K.)

  14. Transmitter-controlled properties of α-motoneurones causing long-lasting motor discharge to brief excitatory inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J.; Hultborn, H.; Kiehn, O.

    1986-01-01

    Brief sensory inputs to intact conscious subjects commonly trigger complex long-lasting motor responses, in which higher cerebral mechanisms, or even voluntary action, may be integrative parts. However, long-lasting motor discharge following brief afferent stimulation is also observed in reduced ...... flipflops, which are set at one of two levels by short excitatory or inhibitory inputs. However, when the whole motoneuronal pool is considered, many different levels can be maintained by recruitment of new units.......Brief sensory inputs to intact conscious subjects commonly trigger complex long-lasting motor responses, in which higher cerebral mechanisms, or even voluntary action, may be integrative parts. However, long-lasting motor discharge following brief afferent stimulation is also observed in reduced...

  15. Input-Parallel Output-Parallel Three-Level DC/DC Converters With Interleaving Control Strategy for Minimizing and Balancing Capacitor Ripple Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Deng, Fujin; Gong, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the input-parallel output-parallel (IPOP) three-level (TL) DC/DC converters associated with the interleaving control strategy are proposed for minimizing and balancing the capacitor ripple currents. The proposed converters consist of two four-switch half-bridge three-level (HBTL) DC...

  16. Biased low differential input impedance current receiver/converter device and method for low noise readout from voltage-controlled detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V [Williamsburg, VA; Popov, Vladimir E [Newport News, VA

    2011-03-22

    A first stage electronic system for receiving charge or current from voltage-controlled sensors or detectors that includes a low input impedance current receiver/converter device (for example, a transimpedance amplifier), which is directly coupled to the sensor output, a source of bias voltage, and the device's power supply (or supplies), which use the biased voltage point as a baseline.

  17. Neural-adaptive control of single-master-multiple-slaves teleoperation for coordinated multiple mobile manipulators with time-varying communication delays and input uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijun; Su, Chun-Yi

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, adaptive neural network control is investigated for single-master-multiple-slaves teleoperation in consideration of time delays and input dead-zone uncertainties for multiple mobile manipulators carrying a common object in a cooperative manner. Firstly, concise dynamics of teleoperation systems consisting of a single master robot, multiple coordinated slave robots, and the object are developed in the task space. To handle asymmetric time-varying delays in communication channels and unknown asymmetric input dead zones, the nonlinear dynamics of the teleoperation system are transformed into two subsystems through feedback linearization: local master or slave dynamics including the unknown input dead zones and delayed dynamics for the purpose of synchronization. Then, a model reference neural network control strategy based on linear matrix inequalities (LMI) and adaptive techniques is proposed. The developed control approach ensures that the defined tracking errors converge to zero whereas the coordination internal force errors remain bounded and can be made arbitrarily small. Throughout this paper, stability analysis is performed via explicit Lyapunov techniques under specific LMI conditions. The proposed adaptive neural network control scheme is robust against motion disturbances, parametric uncertainties, time-varying delays, and input dead zones, which is validated by simulation studies.

  18. DYNAMIC SIMULATION AND COMPOSITION CONTROL IN A 10 L MIXING TANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulius Deddy Hermawan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The open loop experiment of composition dynamic in a 10 L mixing tank has been successfully done inlaboratory. A 10 L tank was designed for mixing of water (as a stream-1 and salt solution (as astream-2 with salt concentration, c2 constant. An electric stirrer was employed to obtain uniformcomposition in tank. In order to keep the liquid volume constant, the system was designed overflow. Inthis work, 2 composition control configurations have been proposed; they are Alternative-1 andAlternative-2. For Alternative-1, the volumetric-rate of stream-1 was chosen as a manipulatedvariable, while the volumetric-rate of stream-2 was chosen as a manipulated variable for Alternative-2. The composition control parameters for both alternatives have been tuned experimentally. Thevolumetric-rate of manipulated variable was changed based on step function. The outlet stream’scomposition response (c3 to a change in the input volumetric-rate has been investigated. Thisexperiment gave Proportional Integral Derivative (PID control parameters. The gain controllers Kc[cm6/(gr.sec] for Alternative-1 and Alternative-2 are -34200 and 40459 respectively. Integral timeconstant ( tI and Derivative time constant (tD for both alternatives are the same, i.e. tI = 16 second,and tD = 4 second. Furthermore, closed loop dynamic simulation using computer programming wasalso done to evaluate the resulted tuning parameters. The developed mathematical model ofcomposition control system in a mixing tank was solved numerically. Such mathematical model wasrigorously examined in Scilab software environment. The results showed that closed loop responses inPID control were faster than those in P and PI controls.

  19. Comparison of DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity control methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-08-01

    A method to reduce the fuel composition heterogeneity effect on the core performance parameters has been studied for the DUPIC fuel which is made of spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuels by a dry refabrication process. This study focuses on the reactivity control method which uses either slightly enriched, depleted, or natural uranium to minimize the cost rise effect on the manufacturing of DUPIC fuel, when adjusting the excess reactivity of the spent PWR fuel. In order to reduce the variation of isotopic composition of the DUPIC fuel, the inter-assembly mixing operation was taken three times. Then, three options have been considered: reactivity control by slightly enriched and depleted uranium, reactivity control by natural uranium for high reactivity spent PWR fuels, and reactivity control by natural uranium for linear reactivity spent PWR fuels. The results of this study have shown that the reactivity of DUPIC fuel can be tightly controlled with the minimum amount of fresh uranium feed. For the reactivity control by slightly enriched and depleted uranium, all the spent PWR fuels can be utilized as the DUPIC fuel and the fraction of fresh uranium feed is 3.4% on an average. For the reactivity control by natural uranium, about 88% of spent PWR fuel can be utilized as the DUPIC fuel when the linear reactivity spent PWR fuels are used, and the amount of natural uranium feed needed to control the DUPIC fuel reactivity is negligible. 13 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  20. Method and Apparatus for Encouraging Physiological Self-Regulation Through Modulation of an Operator's Control Input to a Video Game or Training Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsson, Olafur S. (Inventor); Harris, Randall L., Sr. (Inventor); Pope, Alan T. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for modulating the control authority (i.e., control function) of a computer simulation or game input device (e.g., joystick, button control) using physiological information so as to affect the user's ability to impact or control the simulation or game with the input device. One aspect is to use the present invention, along with a computer simulation or game, to affect physiological state or physiological self-regulation according to some programmed criterion (e.g., increase, decrease, or maintain) in order to perform better at the game task. When the affected physiological state or physiological self-regulation is the target of self-regulation or biofeedback training, the simulation or game play reinforces therapeutic changes in the physiological signal(s).

  1. FPGA implementation of a single-input fuzzy logic controller for boost converter with the absence of an external analog-to-digital converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taeed, Fazel; Salam, Z.; Ayob, S.

    2012-01-01

    converter (ADC). Instead, a simple analog-to-digital conversion scheme is implemented using the FPGA itself. Due to the simplicity of the SIFLC algorithm and the absence of an external ADC, the overall implementation requires only 408 logic elements and five input-output pins of the FPGA.......) and applied on a 50-W boost converter. The SIFLC is compared to the proportional-integral controller; the simulation and practical results indicate that SIFLC exhibits excellent performance for step load and input reference changes. Another feature of this work is the absence of an external analog-to-digital...

  2. Piezoelectric composite morphing control surfaces for unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohanian, Osgar J., III; Karni, Etan D.; Olien, Chris C.; Gustafson, Eric A.; Kochersberger, Kevin B.; Gelhausen, Paul A.; Brown, Bridget L.

    2011-04-01

    The authors have explored the use of morphing control surfaces to replace traditional servo-actuated control surfaces in UAV applications. The morphing actuation is accomplished using Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) piezoelectric actuators in a bimorph configuration to deflect the aft section of a control surface cross section. The resulting camber change produces forces and moments for vehicle control. The flexible piezoelectric actuators are damage tolerant and provide excellent bandwidth. The large amplitude morphing deflections attained in bench-top experiments demonstrate the potential for excellent control authority. Aerodynamic performance calculations using experimentally measured morphed geometries indicate changes in sectional lift coefficients that are superior to a servo-actuated hinged flap airfoil. This morphing flight control actuation technology could eliminate the need for servos and mechanical linkages in small UAVs and thereby increase reliability and reduce drag.

  3. Access Control Model for Sharing Composite Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Ahn, Gail-Joon; Covington, Michael J.; Zhang, Xinwen

    The adoption of electronically formatted medical records, so called Electronic Health Records (EHRs), has become extremely important in healthcare systems to enable the exchange of medical information among stakeholders. An EHR generally consists of data with different types and sensitivity degrees which must be selectively shared based on the need-to-know principle. Security mechanisms are required to guarantee that only authorized users have access to specific portions of such critical record for legitimate purposes. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for modelling access control scheme for composite EHRs. Our model formulates the semantics and structural composition of an EHR document, from which we introduce a notion of authorized zones of the composite EHR at different granularity levels, taking into consideration of several important criteria such as data types, intended purposes and information sensitivities.

  4. Activity-dependent control of NMDA receptor subunit composition at hippocampal mossy fibre synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Mario; Srikumar, Bettadapura N; Gorlewicz, Adam; Rebola, Nelson; Mulle, Christophe

    2018-02-15

    CA3 pyramidal cells display input-specific differences in the subunit composition of synaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Although at low density, GluN2B contributes significantly to NMDAR-mediated EPSCs at mossy fibre synapses. Long-term potentiation (LTP) of NMDARs triggers a modification in the subunit composition of synaptic NMDARs by insertion of GluN2B. GluN2B subunits are essential for the expression of LTP of NMDARs at mossy fibre synapses. Single neurons express NMDA receptors (NMDARs) with distinct subunit composition and biophysical properties that can be segregated in an input-specific manner. The dynamic control of the heterogeneous distribution of synaptic NMDARs is crucial to control input-dependent synaptic integration and plasticity. In hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells from mice of both sexes, we found that mossy fibre (MF) synapses display a markedly lower proportion of GluN2B-containing NMDARs than associative/commissural synapses. The mechanism involved in such heterogeneous distribution of GluN2B subunits is not known. Here we show that long-term potentiation (LTP) of NMDARs, which is selectively expressed at MF-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses, triggers a modification in the subunit composition of synaptic NMDARs by insertion of GluN2B. This activity-dependent recruitment of GluN2B at mature MF-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses contrasts with the removal of GluN2B subunits at other glutamatergic synapses during development and in response to activity. Furthermore, although expressed at low levels, GluN2B is necessary for the expression of LTP of NMDARs at MF-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses. Altogether, we reveal a previously unknown activity-dependent regulation and function of GluN2B subunits that may contribute to the heterogeneous plasticity induction rules in CA3 pyramidal cells. © 2017 Centre Nationnal de la Recherche Scientifique. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  5. Controlled swelling and adsorption properties of polyacrylate/montmorillonite composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natkanski, Piotr [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Kustrowski, Piotr, E-mail: kustrows@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Bialas, Anna; Piwowarska, Zofia [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Michalik, Marek [Institute of Geological Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Oleandry 2a, 30-063 Krakow (Poland)

    2012-10-15

    A series of novel polyacrylate/montmorillonite composites was synthesized by in situ polymerization in aqueous slurry of clay. Dissociated (obtained by adding ammonium or sodium hydroxide) and undissociated forms of acrylic acid were used as monomers in the hydrogel synthesis. The structure and composition of the samples were studied by powder X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance infra-red Fourier transform spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and elemental analysis. It has been found that the kind of monomer influences strongly the location of a polymer chain in the formed composite. Complete intercalation of hydrogel into the interlayer space of montmorillonite was observed for sodium polyacrylate, whereas polyacrylic acid and ammonium polyacrylate mainly occupied the outer surface of the clay. The position of hydrogel determined the swelling and adsorption properties of the studied composites. The important factor influencing the kinetics of Fe(III) cation adsorption was pH. The analysis of adsorption isotherms allowed to propose the mechanism of Fe(III) cation adsorption. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyacrylate hydrogels can be introduced into the interlayers of clay. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The position of hydrogel in the composite depends on the polymer type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonium polyacrylate places outside the clay, sodium one is intercalated into it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Swelling and adsorption capacities can be controlled by the polymer position. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High adsorption efficiency in Fe(III) removal was observed.

  6. Novel hybrid coatings with controlled wettability by composite nanoparticle aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hritcu, Doina, E-mail: dhritcu@ch.tuiasi.ro; Dodi, Gianina; Iordache, Mirabela L.; Draganescu, Dan; Sava, Elena; Popa, Marcel I.

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Magnetite-grafted chitosan composite nanoparticles were synthesized. • The particles are able to assemble under the influence of a silane derivative. • Thin films containing composites, chitosan and hydrolyzed silane were optimized. • The novel hybrid coatings show hierarchical roughness and high wetting angle. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate novel hybrid materials as potential candidates for producing coatings with hierarchical roughness and controlled wetting behaviour. Magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles obtained by co-precipitation were embedded in matrices synthesized by radical graft co-polymerization of butyl acrylate (BA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), hexyl acrylate (HA) or styrene (ST) with ethylene glycol di-methacrylate (EGDMA) onto previously modified chitosan bearing surface vinyl groups. The resulting composite particles were characterized regarding their average size, composition and magnetic properties. Hybrid thin films containing suspension of composite particles in ethanol and pre-hydrolysed hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDTS) as a coupling/crosslinking agent were deposited by spin coating or spraying. The films were cured by heating and subsequently characterized regarding their morphology (scanning electron microscopy), contact angle with water and adhesion to substrate (scratch test). The structure-property relationship is discussed.

  7. Control of a flexible beam actuated by macro-fiber composite patches: I. Modeling and feedforward trajectory control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schröck, Johannes; Meurer, Thomas; Kugi, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers a systematic approach for motion planning and feedforward control design for a flexible cantilever actuated by piezoelectric macro-fiber composite (MFC) patches. For accurate feedforward tracking control, special attention has to be paid to the inherent nonlinear hysteresis and creep behavior of these actuators. In order to account for these effects an appropriate compensator is applied which allows us to perform the tracking controller design on the basis of a linear infinite-dimensional model. A detailed analysis of the nonlinear actuator behavior as well as the compensator design and the overall experimental validation is presented in the companion paper (Schröck et al 2011 Smart Mater. Struct. 20 015016). The governing equations of motion of the hysteresis and creep compensated cantilever are determined by means of the extended Hamilton's principle. This allows us to consider the influence of the bonded patch actuators on the mechanical properties of the underlying beam structure in a straightforward manner and results in a model with spatially varying system parameters. For the solution of the motion planning and feedforward control problem a flatness-based methodology is proposed. In a first step, the infinite-dimensional system of the MFC-actuated flexible cantilever is approximated by a finite-dimensional model, where all system variables, i.e. the states, input and output, can be parameterized in terms of a so-called flat output. In a second step, it is shown by numerical simulations that these parameterizations converge with increasing system order of the finite-dimensional model such that the feedforward control input can be directly calculated in order to realize prescribed output trajectories

  8. Thalamic inputs to dorsomedial striatum are involved in inhibitory control: evidence from the five-choice serial reaction time task in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saund, Jasjot; Dautan, Daniel; Rostron, Claire; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Gerdjikov, Todor V

    2017-08-01

    Corticostriatal circuits are widely implicated in the top-down control of attention including inhibitory control and behavioural flexibility. However, recent neurophysiological evidence also suggests a role for thalamic inputs to striatum in behaviours related to salient, reward-paired cues. Here, we used designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) to investigate the role of parafascicular (Pf) thalamic inputs to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) using the five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) in rats. The 5CSRTT requires sustained attention in order to detect spatially and temporally distributed visual cues and provides measures of inhibitory control related to impulsivity (premature responses) and compulsivity (perseverative responses). Rats underwent bilateral Pf injections of the DREADD vector, AAV2-CaMKIIa-HA-hM4D(Gi)-IRES-mCitrine. The DREADD agonist, clozapine N-oxide (CNO; 1 μl bilateral; 3 μM) or vehicle, was injected into DMS 1 h before behavioural testing. Task parameters were manipulated to increase attention load or reduce stimulus predictability respectively. We found that inhibition of the Pf-DMS projection significantly increased perseverative responses when stimulus predictability was reduced but had no effect on premature responses or response accuracy, even under increased attentional load. Control experiments showed no effects on locomotor activity in an open field. These results complement previous lesion work in which the DMS and orbitofrontal cortex were similarly implicated in perseverative responses and suggest a specific role for thalamostriatal inputs in inhibitory control.

  9. Reversible Compositional Control of Oxide Surfaces by Electrochemical Potentials

    KAUST Repository

    Mutoro, Eva

    2012-01-05

    Perovskite oxides can exhibit a wide range of interesting characteristics such as being catalytically active and electronically/ionically conducting, and thus, they have been used in a number of solid-state devices such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and sensors. As the surface compositions of perovskites can greatly influence the catalytic properties, knowing and controlling their surface compositions is crucial to enhance device performance. In this study, we demonstrate that the surface strontium (Sr) and cobalt (Co) concentrations of perovskite-based thin films can be controlled reversibly at elevated temperatures by applying small electrical potential biases. The surface compositional changes of La 0.8Sr 0.2CoO 3-δ (LSC 113), (La 0.5Sr 0.5) 2CoO 4±δ (LSC 214), and LSC 214-decorated LSC 113 films (LSC 113/214) were investigated in situ by utilizing synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), where the largest changes of surface Sr were found for the LSC 113/214 surface. These findings offer the potential of reversibly controlling the surface functionality of perovskites. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Active Piezoelectric Vibration Control of Subscale Composite Fan Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Min, James B.; Kray, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Fundamental Aeronautics program, researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) are investigating new technologies supporting the development of lighter, quieter, and more efficient fans for turbomachinery applications. High performance fan blades designed to achieve such goals will be subjected to higher levels of aerodynamic excitations which could lead to more serious and complex vibration problems. Piezoelectric materials have been proposed as a means of decreasing engine blade vibration either through a passive damping scheme, or as part of an active vibration control system. For polymer matrix fiber composite blades, the piezoelectric elements could be embedded within the blade material, protecting the brittle piezoceramic material from the airflow and from debris. To investigate this idea, spin testing was performed on two General Electric Aviation (GE) subscale composite fan blades in the NASA GRC Dynamic Spin Rig Facility. The first bending mode (1B) was targeted for vibration control. Because these subscale blades are very thin, the piezoelectric material was surface-mounted on the blades. Three thin piezoelectric patches were applied to each blade two actuator patches and one small sensor patch. These flexible macro-fiber-composite patches were placed in a location of high resonant strain for the 1B mode. The blades were tested up to 5000 rpm, with patches used as sensors, as excitation for the blade, and as part of open- and closed-loop vibration control. Results show that with a single actuator patch, active vibration control causes the damping ratio to increase from a baseline of 0.3% critical damping to about 1.0% damping at 0 RPM. As the rotor speed approaches 5000 RPM, the actively controlled blade damping ratio decreases to about 0.5% damping. This occurs primarily because of centrifugal blade stiffening, and can be observed by the decrease in the generalized electromechanical coupling with rotor speed.

  11. Experimental studies on active vibration control of a smart composite beam using a PID controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanović, Miroslav M; Lukić, Nebojša S; Ilić, Slobodan S; Simonović, Aleksandar M; Zorić, Nemanja D; Stupar, Slobodan N

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental verification of the active vibration control of a smart cantilever composite beam using a PID controller. In order to prevent negative occurrences in the derivative and integral terms in a PID controller, first-order low-pass filters are implemented in the derivative action and in the feedback of the integral action. The proposed application setup consists of a composite cantilever beam with a fiber-reinforced piezoelectric actuator and strain gage sensors. The beam is modeled using a finite element method based on third-order shear deformation theory. The experiment considers vibration control under periodic excitation and an initial static deflection. A control algorithm was implemented on a PIC32MX440F256H microcontroller. Experimental results corresponding to the proposed PID controller are compared with corresponding results using proportional (P) control, proportional–integral (PI) control and proportional–derivative (PD) control. Experimental results indicate that the proposed PID controller provides 8.93% more damping compared to a PD controller, 14.41% more damping compared to a PI controller and 19.04% more damping compared to a P controller in the case of vibration under periodic excitation. In the case of free vibration control, the proposed PID controller shows better performance (settling time 1.2 s) compared to the PD controller (settling time 1.5 s) and PI controller (settling time 2.5 s). (paper)

  12. Outsourcing neural active control to passive composite mechanics: a tissue engineered cyborg ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Park, Sung Jin; Park, Kyung Soo; Park, Shirley; di Santo, Valentina; Deisseroth, Karl; Lauder, George V.; Mahadevan, L.; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2016-11-01

    Translating the blueprint that stingrays and skates provide, we create a cyborg swimming ray capable of orchestrating adaptive maneuvering and phototactic navigation. The impossibility of replicating the neural system of batoids fish is bypassed by outsourcing algorithmic functionalities to the body composite mechanics, hence casting the active control problem into a design, passive one. We present a first step in engineering multilevel "brain-body-flow" systems that couple sensory information to motor coordination and movement, leading to behavior. This work paves the way for the development of autonomous and adaptive artificial creatures able to process multiple sensory inputs and produce complex behaviors in distributed systems and may represent a path toward soft-robotic "embodied cognition".

  13. Composites Similarity Analysis Method Based on Knowledge Set in Composites Quality Control

    OpenAIRE

    Li Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Composites similarity analysis is an important link of composites review, it can not only to declare composites review rechecking, still help composites applicants promptly have the research content relevant progress and avoid duplication. This paper mainly studies the composites similarity model in composites review. With the actual experience of composites management, based on the author’s knowledge set theory, paper analyzes deeply knowledge set representation of composites knowledge, impr...

  14. Iron dissolution from volcanic ash in low-pH atmospheric water: a key control on volcanic iron input to the surface ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maters, E.; Delmelle, P.; Ayris, P. M.; Opfergelt, S.

    2012-12-01

    A low concentration of dissolved iron (Fe) limits phytoplankton growth in approximately 30% of the ocean. The input of soluble Fe to these High-Nutrient Low-Chlorophyll (HNLC) regions has the potential to boost primary production and thereby enhance the drawdown of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Over geological timescales, volcanic activity may alter the flux of Fe to the surface ocean and so contribute to modulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations, ultimately impacting the global climate. Ocean Fe fertilisation has also recently been found to contribute to century-scale carbon sequestration via the export of biomass to the seafloor. Atmospherically deposited volcanic ash is now increasingly seen as an intermittent source of Fe to the surface ocean. Understanding the process of Fe release from ash in solution is key for assessing the potential for ash, particularly that produced by large but rare explosive eruptions or during sustained periods of intense volcanism, to fertilise the marine environment. Previous studies have measured the release of Fe from ash in near-neutral pH solution, but the influence of interaction between ash and acidic cloud- or rainwater during transport on Fe release is poorly understood. In this study, seven volcanic ash samples ranging from tephrite to rhyolite (49-74 wt.% SiO2) were leached in pH 1 H2SO4 in batch reactors for 336 h, at a 1:500 ash-to-solution ratio, to investigate Fe release under acidic conditions. Major element concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma- atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) across a time series of ash leachates. Changes in ash surface composition induced by contact with acid solution were assessed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio in ash leachates was also determined for the first time, using the Ferrozine method. The ash samples released 42 to 411 μmol m-2 of Fe over 336 h of leaching. High initial Fe release rates (>1 μmol m-2 h-1) sustained for up

  15. Comparison of DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity control methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Ko, Won Il

    1999-08-01

    A method to reduce the fuel composition heterogeneity effect on the core performance parameters has been studied for the DUPIC fuel which is made of spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuels by a dry refabrication process. This study focuses on the reactivity control method which uses either slightly enriched, depleted, or natural uranium to minimize the cost rise effect on the manufacturing of DUPIC fuel, when adjusting the excess reactivity control by slightly enriched and depleted uranium, reactivity control by natural uranium for high reactivity spent PWR fuels, and reactivity control by natural uranium for linear reactivity spent PWR fuels. The results of this study have shown that the reactivity control by slightly enriched and depleted uranium, all the spent PWR fuels can be utilized as the DUPIC fuel and the fraction of fresh uranium feed is 3.4% on an average. For the reactivity control by natural uranium, about 88% of spent PWR fuel can be utilized as the DUPIC fuel when the linear reactivity spent PWR fuels are used, and the amount of natural uranium feed needed to control the DUPIC fuel reactivity is negligible. (author). 13 refs., 16 tabs., 6 figs

  16. Quantifying Energy and Mass Fluxes Controlling Godthåbsfjord Freshwater Input in a 5-km Simulation (1991–2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langen, P.L.; Mottram, R.H.; Christensen, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater runoff to fjords with marine-terminating glaciers along the Greenland Ice Sheet margin has an impact on fjord circulation and potentially ice sheet mass balance through increasing heat transport to the glacier front. Here, the authors use the high-resolution (5.5 km) HIRHAM5 regional...... with observations (typically .0.9), there are biases that impact the results. In particular, overestimated albedo leads to underestimation of melt and runoff at low elevations. In the model simulation (1991–2012), the ice sheet experiences increasing energy input from the surface turbulent heat flux (up...... to elevations of 2000m) and shortwave radiation (at all elevations). Southerly wind anomalies and declining cloudiness due to an increase in atmospheric pressure over north Greenland contribute to increased summer melt. This results in declining surface mass balance (SMB), increasing surface runoff, and upward...

  17. Automatic Generation of Supervisory Control System Software Using Graph Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Hideo; Sano, Tatsuro; Kojima, Taizo; Seo, Kazuo; Uchida, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Yasuaki

    This paper describes the automatic generation of system descriptions for SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems. The proposed method produces various types of data and programs for SCADA systems from equipment definitions using conversion rules. At first, this method makes directed graphs, which represent connections between the equipment, from equipment definitions. System descriptions are generated using the conversion rules, by analyzing these directed graphs, and finding the groups of equipment that involve similar operations. This method can make the conversion rules multi levels by using the composition of graphs, and can reduce the number of rules. The developer can define and manage these rules efficiently.

  18. Neutron radiography of aircraft composite flight control surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.J.; Bennett, L.G.I.; Chalovich, T.R.; Francescone, O.

    2001-01-01

    A small (20 kWth), safe, pool-type nuclear research reactor called the SLOWPOKE-2 is located at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC). The reactor was originally installed for teaching, training, research and semi-routine analysis, specifically, neutron activation analysis. It was envisioned that the neutrons from the SLOWPOKE-2 could also be used for neutron radiography, and so a research program was initiated to develop this technology. Over a period of approximately 15 years, and through a series of successive modifications, a neutron radiography system (NRS) was developed. Once completed, several applications of the technology have been demonstrated, including the nondestructive examination of the composite flight control surfaces from the Canadian Air Force's primary jet fighter, the CF18 Hornet aircraft. An initial trial was setup to investigate the flight control surfaces of 3 aircraft, to determine the parameters for a final licensed system, and to compare the results to other nondestructive methods. Over 500 neutron radiographs were made for these first 3 aircraft, and moisture and corrosion were discovered in the honeycomb structure and hydration was found in the composite and adhesive layers. In comparison with other NDT methods, neutron radiography was the only method that could detect the small areas of corrosion and moisture entrapment. However, before examining an additional 7 aircraft, the recommended modifications to the NRS were undertaken. These modifications were necessary to accommodate the larger flight control surfaces safely by incorporating flexible conformable shielding. As well, to expedite inspections so that all flight control surfaces from one aircraft could be completed in less than two weeks, there was a need to decrease the exposure time by both faster film/conversion screen combinations and by incorporating the capability of near realtime, digital radioscopy. Finally, as there are no inspection specific image quality

  19. Fabrication of slag-glass composite with controlled porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranko Adziski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and performance of porous ceramics made from waste materials were investigated. Slag from thermal electrical plant Kakanj (Bosnia and Herzegovina with defined granulations: (0.500÷0.250 mm; (0.250÷0.125 mm; (0.125÷0.063 mm; (0.063÷0.045 mm and 20/10 wt.% of the waste TV screen glass with a granulation <0.063 mm were used for obtaining slag-glass composites with controlled porosity. The one produced from the slag powder fraction (0.125÷0.063 mm and 20 wt.% TV screen glass, sintered at 950°C/2h, was considered as the optimal. This system possesses open porosity of 26.8±1.0%, and interconnected pores with the size of 250–400 μm. The values of E-modulus and bending strength of this composite were 10.6±0.6 GPa and 45.7±0.7 MPa, respectively. The coefficient of thermal expansion was 8.47·10-6/°C. The mass loss in 0.1M HCl solution after 30 days was 1.2 wt.%. The permeability and the form coefficient of the porous composite were K0=0.12 Da and C0=4.53·105 m-1, respectively. The porous composite shows great potential to be used as filters, diffusers for water aeration, dust collectors, acoustic absorbers, etc.

  20. Anti-windup adaptive PID control design for a class of uncertain chaotic systems with input saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahoun, A H

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the stabilization problem of actuators saturation in uncertain chaotic systems is investigated via an adaptive PID control method. The PID control parameters are auto-tuned adaptively via adaptive control laws. A multi-level augmented error is designed to account for the extra terms appearing due to the use of PID and saturation. The proposed control technique uses both the state-feedback and the output-feedback methodologies. Based on Lyapunov׳s stability theory, new anti-windup adaptive controllers are proposed. Demonstrative examples with MATLAB simulations are studied. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed adaptive PID controllers. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Control of DWPF [Defense Waste Processing Facility] melter feed composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.E. Jr.; Brown, K.G.; Postles, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility will be used to immobilize Savannah River Site high-level waste into a stable borosilicate glass for disposal in a geologic repository. Proper control of the melter feed composition in this facility is essential to the production of glass which meets product durability constraints dictated by repository regulations and facility processing constraints dictated by melter design. A technique has been developed which utilizes glass property models to determine acceptable processing regions based on the multiple constraints imposed on the glass product and to display these regions graphically. This system along with the batch simulation of the process is being used to form the basis for the statistical process control system for the facility. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Active vibration control based on piezoelectric smart composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Le; Lu, Qingqing; Fei, Fan; Leng, Jinsong; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju

    2013-01-01

    An aircraft’s vertical fin may experience dramatic buffet loads in high angle of attack flight conditions, and these buffet loads would cause huge vibration and dynamic stress on the vertical fin structure. To reduce the dynamic vibration of the vertical fin structure, macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators were used in this paper. The drive moment equations and sensing voltage equations of the MFC actuators were developed. Finite element analysis models based on three kinds of models of simplified vertical fin structures with surface-bonded MFC actuators were established in ABAQUS. The equivalent damping ratio of the structure was employed in finite element analysis, in order to measure the effectiveness of vibration control. Further, an open-loop test for the active vibration control system of the vertical fin with MFC actuators was designed and developed. The experimental results validated the effectiveness of the MFC actuators as well as the developed methodology. (paper)

  3. Controllable helical deformations on printed anisotropic composite soft actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Li, Ling; Serjouei, Ahmad; Dong, Longteng; Weeger, Oliver; Gu, Guoying; Ge, Qi

    2018-04-01

    Helical shapes are ubiquitous in both nature and engineering. However, the development of soft actuators and robots that mimic helical motions has been hindered primarily due to the lack of efficient modeling approaches that take into account the material anisotropy and the directional change of the external loading point. In this work, we present a theoretical framework for modeling controllable helical deformations of cable-driven, anisotropic, soft composite actuators. The framework is based on the minimum potential energy method, and its model predictions are validated by experiments, where the microarchitectures of the soft composite actuators can be precisely defined by 3D printing. We use the developed framework to investigate the effects of material and geometric parameters on helical deformations. The results show that material stiffness, volume fraction, layer thickness, and fiber orientation can be used to control the helical deformation of a soft actuator. In particular, we found that a critical fiber orientation angle exists at which the twist of the actuator changes the direction. Thus, this work can be of great importance for the design and fabrication of soft actuators with tailored deformation behavior.

  4. Analysis of an emergency diesel generator control system by compositional model checking. MODSAFE 2010 work report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, J.; Bjoerkman, K.; Valkonen, J.; Frits, J.; Niemelae, I.

    2010-12-01

    Digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems containing programmable logic controllers are challenging to verify. They enable complicated control functions and the state spaces (number of distinct values of inputs, outputs and internal memory) of the designs easily become too large for comprehensive manual inspection. Model checking is a formal method that can be used for verifying that systems have been correctly designed. A number of efficient model checking systems are available which provide analysis tools that are able to determine automatically whether a given state machine model satisfies the desired safety properties. The practical case analysed in this research project is called an 'emergency diesel generator control system' and its purpose is to provide reserve power to critical devices and computers that must be available without interruption. This report describes 1) the development of a compositional approach for checking the models in large system designs, 2) the development of a modular model checking approach for modelling function block diagrams with the Uppaal model checker and 3) the experience of utilising the new modelling approaches in practice. (orig.)

  5. Mixed H2/Hinfinity output-feedback control of second-order neutral systems with time-varying state and input delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Hamid Reza; Gao, Huijun

    2008-07-01

    A mixed H2/Hinfinity output-feedback control design methodology is presented in this paper for second-order neutral linear systems with time-varying state and input delays. Delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the design of a desired control are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A controller, which guarantees asymptotic stability and a mixed H2/Hinfinity performance for the closed-loop system of the second-order neutral linear system, is then developed directly instead of coupling the model to a first-order neutral system. A Lyapunov-Krasovskii method underlies the LMI-based mixed H2/Hinfinity output-feedback control design using some free weighting matrices. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  6. Body composition in patients with schizophrenia: Comparison with healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Norio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. Methods We recruited patients (n = 204, aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (% body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. Results In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Conclusions Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.

  7. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-07-31

    This final report to the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for DE-EE0000210 covers the period from October 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013. Under this project, DOE awarded UConn about $1,248,242 to conduct the research and development on a new class of 3D composite nanostructure based catalysts for lean NOx emission control. Much of the material presented here has already been submitted to DOE/NETL in quarterly technical reports. In this project, through a scalable solution process, we have successfully fabricated a new class of catalytic reactors, i.e., the composite nanostructure array (nano-array) based catalytic converters. These nanocatalysts, distinct from traditional powder washcoat based catalytic converters, directly integrate monolithic substrates together with nanostructures with well-defined size and shape during the scalable hydrothermal process. The new monolithic nanocatalysts are demonstrated to be able to save raw materials including Pt-group metals and support metal oxides by an order of magnitude, while perform well at various oxidation (e.g., CO oxidation and NO oxidation) and reduction reactions (H{sub 2} reduction of NOx) involved in the lean NOx emissions. The size, shape and arrangement of the composite nanostructures within the monolithic substrates are found to be the key in enabling the drastically reduced materials usage while maintaining the good catalytic reactivity in the enabled devices. The further understanding of the reaction kinetics associated with the unique mass transport and surface chemistry behind is needed for further optimizing the design and fabrication of good nanostructure array based catalytic converters. On the other hand, the high temperature stability, hydrothermal aging stability, as well as S-poisoning resistance have been investigated in this project on the nanocatalysts, which revealed promising results toward good chemical and mechanical robustness, as well as S

  8. Factors controlling stable isotope composition of European precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanski, K.; Sonntag, C.; Muennich, K.O.

    1982-01-01

    The seasonal and spatial variations of stable isotope ratios in present day European precipitation are simulated with a simple multibox model of the mean west-east horizontal transport of the atmospheric water vapour across the European continent. Isotope fractionation during the formation of precipitation leads to an increasing depletion of heavy isotopes in the residual air moisture as it moves towards the centre of the continent. This isotopic depletion is partly compensated, particularly in summer, by evapotranspiration, which is assumed to transfer soil water into the atmosphere without isotope fractionation. The model estimates are based on horizontal water vapour flux data, varying seasonally between 88 and 130 kg m -1 s -1 for the Atlantic coast region, and on the monthly precipitation, evapotranspiration and surface air temperature data available for various locations in Europe. Both continental and seasonal temperature effects observed in the stable isotope composition of European precipitation are fairly well reproduced by the model. The calculations show that the isotopic composition of local precipitation is primarily controlled by regional scale processes, i.e. by the water vapour transport patterns into the continent, and by the average precipitation-evapotranspiration history of the air masses precipitating at a given place. Local parameters such as the surface and/or cloud base temperature or the amount of precipitation modify the isotope ratios only slightly. Implications of the model predictions for the interpretation of stable isotope ratios in earlier periods as they are preserved in ice cores and in groundwater are also discussed. (Auth.)

  9. Control and design of volumetric composition in pultruded hybrid fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Hashemi, Fariborz; Tahir, Paridah

    2016-01-01

    composition (i.e. volume fractions of fibres, matrix and porosity) in hybrid fibre composites. The model is based on a constant local fibre volume fraction criterion. Good agreement is found between model predictions and experimental data of pultruded hybrid kenaf/glass fibre composites with variable hybrid...... fibre weight mixing ratios. To demonstrate the suitability of the model, simulations are performed for four different cases of volumetric composition in hybrid kenaf/glass composites....

  10. Dynamic modeling and simulation of an induction motor with adaptive backstepping design of an input-output feedback linearization controller in series hybrid electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalalifar Mehran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper using adaptive backstepping approach an adaptive rotor flux observer which provides stator and rotor resistances estimation simultaneously for induction motor used in series hybrid electric vehicle is proposed. The controller of induction motor (IM is designed based on input-output feedback linearization technique. Combining this controller with adaptive backstepping observer the system is robust against rotor and stator resistances uncertainties. In additional, mechanical components of a hybrid electric vehicle are called from the Advanced Vehicle Simulator Software Library and then linked with the electric motor. Finally, a typical series hybrid electric vehicle is modeled and investigated. Various tests, such as acceleration traversing ramp, and fuel consumption and emission are performed on the proposed model of a series hybrid vehicle. Computer simulation results obtained, confirm the validity and performance of the proposed IM control approach using for series hybrid electric vehicle.

  11. Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Synchronization Control of a Class of Complex Dynamical Networks With General Input Distribution Matrices and Actuator Faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Jian; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2017-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of adaptive fault-tolerant synchronization control of a class of complex dynamical networks (CDNs) with actuator faults and unknown coupling weights. The considered input distribution matrix is assumed to be an arbitrary matrix, instead of a unit one. Within this framework, an adaptive fault-tolerant controller is designed to achieve synchronization for the CDN. Moreover, a convex combination technique and an important graph theory result are developed, such that the rigorous convergence analysis of synchronization errors can be conducted. In particular, it is shown that the proposed fault-tolerant synchronization control approach is valid for the CDN with both time-invariant and time-varying coupling weights. Finally, two simulation examples are provided to validate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  12. Active control of structures using macro-fiber composite (MFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalovs, A; Barkanov, E; Gluhihs, S [Institute of Materials and Structures, Riga Technical University, 16/20 Azenes Str., Riga, LV-1048 (Latvia)

    2007-12-15

    This paper presents the use of macro-fiber composites (MFC) for vibration reduces of structures. The MFC consist of polyimid films with IDE-electrodes that are glued on the top and the bottom of rectangular piezoceramic fibers. The interdigitated electrodes deliver the electric field required to activate the piezoelectric effect in the fibers and allows to invoke the stronger longitudinal piezoelectric effect along the length of the fibers. When this actuator embedded in a surface or attached to flexible structures, the MFC actuator provides distributed solid-state deflection and vibration control. The major advantages of the piezoelectric fibre composite actuators are their high performance, flexibility, and durability when compared with the traditional piezoceramic (PZT) actuators. In addition, the ability of MFC devices to couple the electrical and mechanical fields is larger than in monolithic PZT. In this study, we showed the experimental results that an MFC could be used as actuator to find modal parameters and reduce vibration for structures such as an aluminium beam and metal music plate. Two MFC actuators were attached to the surfaces of test subjects. First MFC actuator used to supply a signal as exciter of vibration and second MFC show his application for reduction of vibration in the range of resonance frequencies. Experimental results of aluminium beam with MFC actuators compared with finite element model which modelled in ANSYS software. The applied voltage is modelled as a thermal load according to thermal analogy for MFC. The experimental and numerical results presented in this paper confirm the potential of MFC for use in the vibration control of structures.

  13. Active control of structures using macro-fiber composite (MFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalovs, A; Barkanov, E; Gluhihs, S

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the use of macro-fiber composites (MFC) for vibration reduces of structures. The MFC consist of polyimid films with IDE-electrodes that are glued on the top and the bottom of rectangular piezoceramic fibers. The interdigitated electrodes deliver the electric field required to activate the piezoelectric effect in the fibers and allows to invoke the stronger longitudinal piezoelectric effect along the length of the fibers. When this actuator embedded in a surface or attached to flexible structures, the MFC actuator provides distributed solid-state deflection and vibration control. The major advantages of the piezoelectric fibre composite actuators are their high performance, flexibility, and durability when compared with the traditional piezoceramic (PZT) actuators. In addition, the ability of MFC devices to couple the electrical and mechanical fields is larger than in monolithic PZT. In this study, we showed the experimental results that an MFC could be used as actuator to find modal parameters and reduce vibration for structures such as an aluminium beam and metal music plate. Two MFC actuators were attached to the surfaces of test subjects. First MFC actuator used to supply a signal as exciter of vibration and second MFC show his application for reduction of vibration in the range of resonance frequencies. Experimental results of aluminium beam with MFC actuators compared with finite element model which modelled in ANSYS software. The applied voltage is modelled as a thermal load according to thermal analogy for MFC. The experimental and numerical results presented in this paper confirm the potential of MFC for use in the vibration control of structures

  14. [Improving the control of food allergy and intolerance risks in school settings: qualitative inputs from focus groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoño, Teresa; Trabado, Verónica; García-Rodríguez, Alejo; Balfagón, Pere; Villalbí, Joan R

    2018-04-21

    This paper describes the use of focus groups as part of the evaluation of programmes to control food allergy and intolerance (FAI) in school settings in the city of Barcelona (Spain). After fostering their adoption and as a qualitative component of their evaluation, the public health services ran two focus groups, one with people from schools that manage their own kitchen, and another from companies that outsource this service. There were 28 participants from 46% of the centres invited. All the schools seem to have implemented a self-control programme on FAI. Although outsourcing companies already had a programme, the schools that managed their own service mostly adopted the programme promoted by the public health services. The number of schoolchildren with reported FAI reduced after the programme, as it required more rigorous documentation from families. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Connected cane: Tactile button input for controlling gestures of iOS voiceover embedded in a white cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Jared M; Martin, Vincent F; Yeung, Derek; Walker, Bruce N

    2018-01-01

    Accessibility of assistive consumer devices is an emerging research area with potential to benefit both users with and without visual impairments. In this article, we discuss the research and evaluation of using a tactile button interface to control an iOS device's native VoiceOver Gesture navigations (Apple Accessibility, 2014). This research effort identified potential safety and accessibility issues for users trying to interact and control their touchscreen mobile iOS devices while traveling independently. Furthermore, this article discusses the participatory design process in creating a solution that aims to solve issues in utilizing a tactile button interface in a novel device. The overall goal of this study is to enable visually impaired white cane users to access their mobile iOS device's capabilities navigation aids more safely and efficiently on the go.

  16. The predictability of frequency-altered auditory feedback changes the weighting of feedback and feedforward input for speech motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheerer, Nichole E; Jones, Jeffery A

    2014-12-01

    Speech production requires the combined effort of a feedback control system driven by sensory feedback, and a feedforward control system driven by internal models. However, the factors that dictate the relative weighting of these feedback and feedforward control systems are unclear. In this event-related potential (ERP) study, participants produced vocalisations while being exposed to blocks of frequency-altered feedback (FAF) perturbations that were either predictable in magnitude (consistently either 50 or 100 cents) or unpredictable in magnitude (50- and 100-cent perturbations varying randomly within each vocalisation). Vocal and P1-N1-P2 ERP responses revealed decreases in the magnitude and trial-to-trial variability of vocal responses, smaller N1 amplitudes, and shorter vocal, P1 and N1 response latencies following predictable FAF perturbation magnitudes. In addition, vocal response magnitudes correlated with N1 amplitudes, vocal response latencies, and P2 latencies. This pattern of results suggests that after repeated exposure to predictable FAF perturbations, the contribution of the feedforward control system increases. Examination of the presentation order of the FAF perturbations revealed smaller compensatory responses, smaller P1 and P2 amplitudes, and shorter N1 latencies when the block of predictable 100-cent perturbations occurred prior to the block of predictable 50-cent perturbations. These results suggest that exposure to large perturbations modulates responses to subsequent perturbations of equal or smaller size. Similarly, exposure to a 100-cent perturbation prior to a 50-cent perturbation within a vocalisation decreased the magnitude of vocal and N1 responses, but increased P1 and P2 latencies. Thus, exposure to a single perturbation can affect responses to subsequent perturbations. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A multiple-shape memory polymer-metal composite actuator capable of programmable control, creating complex 3D motion of bending, twisting, and oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi; Trabia, Sarah; Stalbaum, Tyler; Palmre, Viljar; Kim, Kwang; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2016-04-01

    Development of biomimetic actuators has been an essential motivation in the study of smart materials. However, few materials are capable of controlling complex twisting and bending deformations simultaneously or separately using a dynamic control system. Here, we report an ionic polymer-metal composite actuator having multiple-shape memory effect, and is able to perform complex motion by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. Prior to the development of this type of actuator, this capability only could be realized with existing actuator technologies by using multiple actuators or another robotic system. This paper introduces a soft multiple-shape-memory polymer-metal composite (MSMPMC) actuator having multiple degrees-of-freedom that demonstrates high maneuverability when controlled by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. These multiple inputs allow for complex motions that are routine in nature, but that would be otherwise difficult to obtain with a single actuator. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this MSMPMC actuator is the first solitary actuator capable of multiple-input control and the resulting deformability and maneuverability.

  18. A multiple-shape memory polymer-metal composite actuator capable of programmable control, creating complex 3D motion of bending, twisting, and oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi; Trabia, Sarah; Stalbaum, Tyler; Palmre, Viljar; Kim, Kwang; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2016-04-15

    Development of biomimetic actuators has been an essential motivation in the study of smart materials. However, few materials are capable of controlling complex twisting and bending deformations simultaneously or separately using a dynamic control system. Here, we report an ionic polymer-metal composite actuator having multiple-shape memory effect, and is able to perform complex motion by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. Prior to the development of this type of actuator, this capability only could be realized with existing actuator technologies by using multiple actuators or another robotic system. This paper introduces a soft multiple-shape-memory polymer-metal composite (MSMPMC) actuator having multiple degrees-of-freedom that demonstrates high maneuverability when controlled by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. These multiple inputs allow for complex motions that are routine in nature, but that would be otherwise difficult to obtain with a single actuator. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this MSMPMC actuator is the first solitary actuator capable of multiple-input control and the resulting deformability and maneuverability.

  19. The influence of Glyceria maxima and nitrate input on the composition and nitrate metabolism of the dissimilatory nitrate-reducing bacterial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijburg, J.W.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of nitrate addition and the presence of Glyceria maxima (reed sweetgrass) on the composition and nitrate metabolism of the dissimilatory nitrate-reducing bacterial community was investigated. Anoxic freshwater sediment was incubated in pots with or without G. maxima and with or without

  20. The influence of Glyceria maxima and nitrate input on the composition and nitrate metabolism of the dissimilatory nitrate-reducing bacterial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijburg, J.W.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of nitrate addition and the presence of Glyceria maxima (reed sweetgrass) on the composition and nitrate metabolism of the dissimilatory nitrate-reducing bacterial community was investigated. Anoxic freshwater sediment was incubated in pots with or without G. maxima and with or

  1. Generation of synthetic surface electromyography signals under fatigue conditions for varying force inputs using feedback control algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, G; Deepak, P; Ghosh, Diptasree M; Ramakrishnan, S

    2017-11-01

    Surface electromyography is a non-invasive technique used for recording the electrical activity of neuromuscular systems. These signals are random, complex and multi-component. There are several techniques to extract information about the force exerted by muscles during any activity. This work attempts to generate surface electromyography signals for various magnitudes of force under isometric non-fatigue and fatigue conditions using a feedback model. The model is based on existing current distribution, volume conductor relations, the feedback control algorithm for rate coding and generation of firing pattern. The result shows that synthetic surface electromyography signals are highly complex in both non-fatigue and fatigue conditions. Furthermore, surface electromyography signals have higher amplitude and lower frequency under fatigue condition. This model can be used to study the influence of various signal parameters under fatigue and non-fatigue conditions.

  2. An analytical fuzzy-based approach to ?-gain optimal control of input-affine nonlinear systems using Newton-type algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milic, Vladimir; Kasac, Josip; Novakovic, Branko

    2015-10-01

    This paper is concerned with ?-gain optimisation of input-affine nonlinear systems controlled by analytic fuzzy logic system. Unlike the conventional fuzzy-based strategies, the non-conventional analytic fuzzy control method does not require an explicit fuzzy rule base. As the first contribution of this paper, we prove, by using the Stone-Weierstrass theorem, that the proposed fuzzy system without rule base is universal approximator. The second contribution of this paper is an algorithm for solving a finite-horizon minimax problem for ?-gain optimisation. The proposed algorithm consists of recursive chain rule for first- and second-order derivatives, Newton's method, multi-step Adams method and automatic differentiation. Finally, the results of this paper are evaluated on a second-order nonlinear system.

  3. H2 Control for the Continuous-Time Markovian Jump Linear Uncertain Systems with Partly Known Transition Rates and Input Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Gang Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For a class of continuous-time Markovian jump linear uncertain systems with partly known transition rates and input quantization, the H2 state-feedback control design is considered. The elements in the transition rates matrix include completely known, boundary known, and completely unknown ones. First, an H2 cost index for Markovian jump linear uncertain systems is introduced; then by introducing a new matrix inequality condition, sufficient conditions are formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs for the H2 control of the Markovian jump linear uncertain systems. Less conservativeness is achieved than the result obtained with the existing technique. Finally, a numerical example is given to verify the validity of the theoretical results.

  4. Using Animal Models to Determine the Role of Gustatory Neural Input in the Control of Ingestive Behavior and the Maintenance of Body Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciullo, Dana L; Dotson, Cedrick D

    2015-08-01

    Decades of research have suggested that nutritional intake contributes to the development of human disease, mainly by influencing the development of obesity and obesity-related conditions. A relatively large body of research indicates that functional variation in human taste perception can influence nutritional intake as well as body mass accumulation. However, there are a considerable number of studies that suggest that no link between these variables actually exists. These discrepancies in the literature likely result from the confounding influence of a variety of other, uncontrolled, factors that can influence ingestive behavior. In this review, the use of controlled animal experimentation to alleviate at least some of these issues related to the lack of control of experimental variables is discussed. Specific examples of the use of some of these techniques are examined. The review will close with some specific suggestions aimed at strengthening the link between gustatory neural input and its putative influence on ingestive behaviors and the maintenance of body weight.

  5. Controlling coupled bending-twisting vibrations of anisotropic composite wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, Victor; Yartsev, Boris

    2018-05-01

    The paper discusses the possibility to control coupled bending-twisting vibrations of anisotropic composite wing by means of the monoclinic structures in the reinforcement of the plating. Decomposing the potential straining energy and kinetic energy of natural vibration modes into interacting and non-interacting parts, it became possible to introduce the two coefficients that integrally consider the effect of geometry and reinforcement structure upon the dynamic response parameters of the wing. The first of these coefficients describes the elastic coupling of the natural vibration modes, the second coefficient describes the inertial one. The paper describes the numerical studies showing how the orientation of considerably anisotropic CRP layers in the plating affects natural frequencies, loss factors, coefficients of elastic and inertial coupling for several lower tones of natural bending-twisting vibrations of the wing. Besides, for each vibration mode, partial values of the above mentioned dynamic response parameters were determined by means of the relationships for orthotropic structures where instead of "free" shearing modulus in the reinforcement plant, "pure" shearing modulus is used. Joint analysis of the obtained results has shown that each pair of bending-twisting vibration modes has its orientation angle ranges of the reinforcing layers where the inertial coupling caused by asymmetry of the cross-section profile with respect to the main axes of inertia decreases, down to the complete extinction, due to the generation of the elastic coupling in the plating material. These ranges are characterized by the two main features: 1) the difference in the natural frequencies of the investigated pair of bending-twisting vibration modes is the minimum and 2) natural frequencies of bending-twisting vibrations belong to a stretch restricted by corresponding partial natural frequencies of the investigated pair of vibration modes. This result is of practical importance

  6. Carbon Dioxide Sealing Capacity: Textural or Compositional Controls?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranganu, Constantin; Soleymani, Hamidreza; Sadiqua, Soleymani; Watson, Kieva

    2013-11-30

    This research project is aiming to assess the carbon dioxide sealing capacity of most common seal-rocks, such as shales and non-fractured limestones, by analyzing the role of textural and compositional parameters of those rocks. We hypothesize that sealing capacity is controlled by textural and/or compositional pa-rameters of caprocks. In this research, we seek to evaluate the importance of textural and compositional parameters affecting the sealing capacity of caprocks. The conceptu-al framework involves two testable end-member hypotheses concerning the sealing ca-pacity of carbon dioxide reservoir caprocks. Better understanding of the elements controlling sealing quality will advance our knowledge regarding the sealing capacity of shales and carbonates. Due to relatively low permeability, shale and non-fractured carbonate units are considered relatively imper-meable formations which can retard reservoir fluid flow by forming high capillary pres-sure. Similarly, these unites can constitute reliable seals for carbon dioxide capture and sequestration purposes. This project is a part of the comprehensive project with the final aim of studying the caprock sealing properties and the relationship between microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of seal rocks in depleted gas fields of Oklahoma Pan-handle. Through this study we examined various seal rock characteristics to infer about their respective effects on sealing capacity in special case of replacing reservoir fluid with super critical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}). To assess the effect of textural and compositional properties on scCO{sub 2} maximum reten-tion column height we collected 30 representative core samples in caprock formations in three counties (Cimarron, Texas, Beaver) in Oklahoma Panhandle. Core samples were collected from various seal formations (e.g., Cherokee, Keys, Morrowan) at different depths. We studied the compositional and textural properties of the core samples using several techniques

  7. Biodiversity conservation in an anthropized landscape: Trees, not patch size drive, bird community composition in a low-input agro-ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellink, Eric; Riojas-López, Mónica E; Cárdenas-García, Melinda

    2017-01-01

    One of the most typical agro-ecosystems in the Llanos de Ojuelos, a semi-arid region of central Mexico, is that of fruit-production orchards of nopales (prickly pear cacti). This perennial habitat with complex vertical structure provides refuge and food for at least 112 species of birds throughout the year. Nopal orchards vary in their internal structure, size and shrub/tree composition, yet these factors have unknown effects on the animals that use them. To further understand the conservation potential of this agro-ecosystem, we evaluated the effects of patch-size and the presence of trees on bird community composition, as well as several habitat variables, through an information-theoretical modelling approach. Community composition was obtained through a year of census transects in 12 orchards. The presence of trees in the orchards was the major driver of bird communities followed by seasonality; bird communities are independent of patch size, except for small orchard patches that benefit black-chin sparrows, which are considered a sensitive species. At least 55 species of six trophic guilds (insectivores, granivores, carnivores, nectivores, omnivores, and frugivores) used the orchards. Orchards provide adequate habitat and food resources for several sensitive species of resident and migratory sparrows. The attributes that make orchards important for birds: trees, shrubs, herb seeds, and open patches can be managed to maintain native biodiversity in highly anthropized regions with an urgent need to find convergence between production and biological conservation.

  8. The Response of Heterotrophic Prokaryote and Viral Communities to Labile Organic Carbon Inputs Is Controlled by the Predator Food Chain Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Pree, Bernadette; Larsen, Aud; Våge, Selina; Töpper, Birte; Töpper, Joachim P; Thyrhaug, Runar; Thingstad, Tron Frede

    2017-08-23

    Factors controlling the community composition of marine heterotrophic prokaryotes include organic-C, mineral nutrients, predation, and viral lysis. Two mesocosm experiments, performed at an Arctic location and bottom-up manipulated with organic-C, had very different results in community composition for both prokaryotes and viruses. Previously, we showed how a simple mathematical model could reproduce food web level dynamics observed in these mesocosms, demonstrating strong top-down control through the predator chain from copepods via ciliates and heterotrophic nanoflagellates. Here, we use a steady-state analysis to connect ciliate biomass to bacterial carbon demand. This gives a coupling of top-down and bottom-up factors whereby low initial densities of ciliates are associated with mineral nutrient-limited heterotrophic prokaryotes that do not respond to external supply of labile organic-C. In contrast, high initial densities of ciliates give carbon-limited growth and high responsiveness to organic-C. The differences observed in ciliate abundance, and in prokaryote abundance and community composition in the two experiments were in accordance with these predictions. Responsiveness in the viral community followed a pattern similar to that of prokaryotes. Our study provides a unique link between the structure of the predator chain in the microbial food web and viral abundance and diversity.

  9. Controllable synthesis of molybdenum tungsten disulfide alloy for vertically composition-controlled multilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jeong-Gyu; Ryu, Gyeong Hee; Lee, Su Jeong; Sim, Sangwan; Lee, Chang Wan; Choi, Taejin; Jung, Hanearl; Kim, Youngjun; Lee, Zonghoon; Myoung, Jae-Min; Dussarrat, Christian; Lansalot-Matras, Clement; Park, Jusang; Choi, Hyunyong; Kim, Hyungjun

    2015-01-01

    The effective synthesis of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides alloy is essential for successful application in electronic and optical devices based on a tunable band gap. Here we show a synthesis process for Mo1−xWxS2 alloy using sulfurization of super-cycle atomic layer deposition Mo1−xWxOy. Various spectroscopic and microscopic results indicate that the synthesized Mo1−xWxS2 alloys have complete mixing of Mo and W atoms and tunable band gap by systematically controlled composition and layer number. Based on this, we synthesize a vertically composition-controlled (VCC) Mo1−xWxS2 multilayer using five continuous super-cycles with different cycle ratios for each super-cycle. Angle-resolved X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Raman and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer results reveal that a VCC Mo1−xWxS2 multilayer has different vertical composition and broadband light absorption with strong interlayer coupling within a VCC Mo1−xWxS2 multilayer. Further, we demonstrate that a VCC Mo1−xWxS2 multilayer photodetector generates three to four times greater photocurrent than MoS2- and WS2-based devices, owing to the broadband light absorption. PMID:26204328

  10. Hypothesis: Low frequency heart rate variability (LF-HRV) is an input for undisclosed yet biological adaptive control, governing the cardiovascular regulations to assure optimal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Uri; Bobrovsky, Ben Zion

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular regulation is considered today as having three levels: autoregulations, neural regulations and hormonal regulations. We hypothesize that the cardiovascular regulation has an additional (fourth) control level which is outer, hierarchical (adaptive) loop where LF-HRV amplitude serves as a reference input which the neural cardiovascular center detects and responses in order to maintain LF-HRV around some prescribed level. Supporting evidences: LF-HRV absence during artificial cardiac pacing may be associated with "pacemaker syndrome" which had not been sufficiently understood regardless of apparently unimpaired cardiovascular performance. The hypothesis may provide an essential basis for understanding several cardiovascular morbidities and insight toward diagnostic measures and treatments (including but not limited to adding variability to the pulse generator of artificial pacemakers to eliminate "pace maker syndrome"). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. EKF composition estimation and GMC control of a reactive distillation column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintavon, Sirivimon; Kittisupakorn, Paisan

    2017-08-01

    This research work proposes an extended Kalman filter (EKF) estimator to give estimates of product composition and a generic model controller (GMC) to control the temperature of a reactive distillation column (RDC). One of major difficulties to control the RDC is large time delays of product composition measurement. Therefore, the estimates of the product composition are needed and determined based on available and reliable measured tray temperature via the extended Kalman Filter (EKF). With these estimates, the GMC controller is applied to control the RDC's temperature. The performance of the EKF estimator under the GMC control is evaluated in various disturbances and set point change.

  12. TART input manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimlinger, J.R.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    The TART code is a Monte Carlo neutron/photon transport code that is only on the CRAY computer. All the input cards for the TART code are listed, and definitions for all input parameters are given. The execution and limitations of the code are described, and input for two sample problems are given

  13. Carbon-carbon composite and copper-composite bond damages for high flux component controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevet, G.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma facing components constitute the first wall in contact with plasma in fusion machines such as Tore Supra and ITER. These components have to sustain high heat flux and consequently elevated temperatures. They are made up of an armour material, the carbon-carbon composite, a heat sink structure material, the copper chromium zirconium, and a material, the OFHC copper, which is used as a compliant layer between the carbon-carbon composite and the copper chromium zirconium. Using different materials leads to the apparition of strong residual stresses during manufacturing, because of the thermal expansion mismatch between the materials, and compromises the lasting operation of fusion machines as damage which appeared during manufacturing may propagate. The objective of this study is to understand the damage mechanisms of the carbon-carbon composite and the composite-copper bond under solicitations that plasma facing components may suffer during their life. The mechanical behaviours of carbon-carbon composite and composite-copper bond were studied in order to define the most suitable models to describe these behaviours. With these models, thermomechanical calculations were performed on plasma facing components with the finite element code Cast3M. The manufacturing of the components induces high stresses which damage the carbon-carbon composite and the composite-copper bond. The damage propagates during the cooling down to room temperature and not under heat flux. Alternative geometries for the plasma facing components were studied to reduce damage. The relation between the damage of the carbon-carbon composite and its thermal conductivity was also demonstrated. (author) [fr

  14. Selective control of reformed composition of n-heptane via plasma chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Manoj Kumar Reddy, P.; Cha, Min

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results for reforming n-heptane in a temperature-controlled dielectric barrier discharge reactor to show detailed chemical composition in the products and to propose a potential method to control the product

  15. Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasen, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter discusses the roles of composite laminates and aggregates in cryogenic technology. Filamentary-reinforced composites are emphasized because they are the most widely used composite materials. Topics considered include composite systems and terminology, design and fabrication, composite failure, high-pressure reinforced plastic laminates, low-pressure reinforced plastics, reinforced metals, selectively reinforced structures, the effect of cryogenic temperatures, woven-fabric and random-mat composites, uniaxial fiber-reinforced composites, composite joints in cryogenic structures, joining techniques at room temperature, radiation effects, testing laminates at cryogenic temperatures, static and cyclic tensile testing, static and cyclic compression testing, interlaminar shear testing, secondary property tests, and concrete aggregates. It is suggested that cryogenic composite technology would benefit from the development of a fracture mechanics model for predicting the fitness-for-purpose of polymer-matrix composite structures

  16. Modeling of composite synthesis in conditions of controlled thermal explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukta, Yaroslav; Knyazeva, Anna

    2017-12-01

    The paper proposes the model for the titanium-based composite synthesis from powders of titanium and carbon of non-stoichiometric composition. The model takes into account the mixture heating from chamber walls, the dependence of liquidus and solidus temperatures on the composition of reacting mixture and the formation of possible irreversible phases. The reaction retardation by the reaction product is taken into consideration in kinetic laws. As an example, the results of temperature and conversion level calculation are presented for the system Ti-C with the summary reaction for different temperatures of chamber walls heating. It was revealed that the reaction retardation being the reaction product can be the cause of incomplete conversion in the thermal explosion conditions. Non-stoichiometric composition leads to the conditions of degenerated mode when some additional heating is necessary to complete the reaction.

  17. Design and Simulation to Composite PI Controller on the Stratospheric Airship

    OpenAIRE

    Kangwen Sun; Ming Zhu; Bojin Qi; Xiaoming Chen

    2014-01-01

    In view of the stratospheric airship application requirements on energy storage and management system, based on the topology of DC/DC converter main circuit, the composite PI controller is designed to realize respective control with the Boost mode and Buck mode. Furthermore, limit stop integration method is proposed to achieve a buck-boost complex DC/DC converter boost with effective switching buck. Then, with the MATLAB Control System Toolbox design model, the composite PI controller design ...

  18. Response of soil organic carbon fractions, microbial community composition and carbon mineralization to high-input fertilizer practices under an intensive agricultural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xueping; Gebremikael, Mesfin Tsegaye; Wu, Huijun; Cai, Dianxiong; Wang, Bisheng; Li, Baoguo; Zhang, Jiancheng; Li, Yongshan; Xi, Jilong

    2018-01-01

    Microbial mechanisms associated with soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition are poorly understood. We aim to determine the effects of inorganic and organic fertilizers on soil labile carbon (C) pools, microbial community structure and C mineralization rate under an intensive wheat-maize double cropping system in Northern China. Soil samples in 0–10 cm layer were collected from a nine-year field trial involved four treatments: no fertilizer, CK; nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers, NP; maize straw combined with NP fertilizers, NPS; and manure plus straw and NP fertilizers, NPSM. Soil samples were analyzed to determine labile C pools (including dissolved organic C, DOC; light free organic C, LFOC; and microbial biomass C, MBC), microbial community composition (using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles) and SOC mineralization rate (from a 124-day incubation experiment). This study demonstrated that the application of chemical fertilizers (NP) alone did not alter labile C fractions, soil microbial communities and SOC mineralization rate from those observed in the CK treatment. Whereas the use of straw in conjunction with chemical fertilizers (NPS) became an additional labile substrate supply that decreased C limitation, stimulated growth of all PLFA-related microbial communities, and resulted in 53% higher cumulative mineralization of C compared to that of CK. The SOC and its labile fractions explained 78.7% of the variance of microbial community structure. Further addition of manure on the top of straw in the NPSM treatment did not significantly increase microbial community abundances, but it did alter microbial community structure by increasing G+/G- ratio compared to that of NPS. The cumulative mineralization of C was 85% higher under NPSM fertilization compared to that of CK. Particularly, the NPSM treatment increased the mineralization rate of the resistant pool. This has to be carefully taken into account when setting realistic and effective goals

  19. Effect of rehabilitation worker input on visual function outcomes in individuals with low vision: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Jennifer H; Molik, Bablin; Binns, Alison; Court, Helen; Margrain, Tom H

    2016-02-24

    Visual Rehabilitation Officers help people with a visual impairment maintain their independence. This intervention adopts a flexible, goal-centred approach, which may include training in mobility, use of optical and non-optical aids, and performance of activities of daily living. Although Visual Rehabilitation Officers are an integral part of the low vision service in the United Kingdom, evidence that they are effective is lacking. The purpose of this exploratory trial is to estimate the impact of a Visual Rehabilitation Officer on self-reported visual function, psychosocial and quality-of-life outcomes in individuals with low vision. In this exploratory, assessor-masked, parallel group, randomised controlled trial, participants will be allocated either to receive home visits from a Visual Rehabilitation Officer (n = 30) or to a waiting list control group (n = 30) in a 1:1 ratio. Adult volunteers with a visual impairment, who have been identified as needing rehabilitation officer input by a social worker, will take part. Those with an urgent need for a Visual Rehabilitation Officer or who have a cognitive impairment will be excluded. The primary outcome measure will be self-reported visual function (48-item Veterans Affairs Low Vision Visual Functioning Questionnaire). Secondary outcome measures will include psychological and quality-of-life metrics: the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS), the Adjustment to Age-related Visual Loss Scale (AVL-12), the Standardised Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire (EQ-5D) and the UCLA Loneliness Scale. The interviewer collecting the outcomes will be masked to the group allocations. The analysis will be undertaken on a complete case and intention-to-treat basis. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) will be applied to follow-up questionnaire scores, with the baseline score as a covariate. This trial is expected to provide robust effect size estimates of the intervention

  20. The prioritisation of invasive alien plant control projects using a multi-criteria decision model informed by stakeholder input and spatial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, G G; Le Maitre, D C; O'Farrell, P J; van Wilgen, B W

    2012-07-30

    Invasions by alien plants are a significant threat to the biodiversity and functioning of ecosystems and the services they provide. The South African Working for Water program was established to address this problem. It needs to formulate objective and transparent priorities for clearing in the face of multiple and sometimes conflicting demands. This study used the analytic hierarchy process (a multi-criteria decision support technique) to develop and rank criteria for prioritising alien plant control operations in the Western Cape, South Africa. Stakeholder workshops were held to identify a goal and criteria and to conduct pair-wise comparisons to weight the criteria with respect to invasive alien plant control. The combination of stakeholder input (to develop decision models) with data-driven model solutions enabled us to include many alternatives (water catchments), that would otherwise not have been feasible. The most important criteria included the capacity to maintain gains made through control operations, the potential to enhance water resources and conserve biodiversity, and threats from priority invasive alien plant species. We selected spatial datasets and used them to generate weights that could be used to objectively compare alternatives with respect to agreed criteria. The analysis showed that there are many high priority catchments which are not receiving any funding and low priority catchments which are receiving substantial allocations. Clearly, there is a need for realigning priorities, including directing sufficient funds to the highest priority catchments to provide effective control. This approach provided a tractable, consensus-based solution that can be used to direct clearing operations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The origin of soil organic matter controls its composition and bioreactivity across a mesic boreal forest latitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, L.; Philben, M. J.; Edwards, K. A.; Podrebarac, F. A.; Jamie, W.; Ziegler, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    Warmer climates have been associated with reduced soil organic matter (SOM) bioreactivity, lower respiration rates at a given temperature, which is typically attributed to the presence of more decomposed SOM. Cross site studies, however, indicate that ecosystem regime shifts associated with long-term climate warming can affect SOM properties through changes in vegetation and plant litter inputs to soils. The relative importance of these two controls, diagenesis and inputs, on SOM properties as ecosystems experience climate warming remains poorly understood. To address this, we characterized the elemental, chemical (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and total hydrolysable amino acids), and isotopic composition of plant litter and SOM across a well-constrained mesic boreal forest latitudinal transect in Atlantic Canada. Results across forest sites within each of three climate regions indicated that (1) climate history and diagenesis affect distinct parameters of SOM chemistry, (2) increases in SOM bioreactivity with latitude were associated with elevated proportions of carbohydrates relative to plant waxes and lignin, and (3) despite the common forest type across regions, differences in SOM chemistry by climate region were associated with chemically distinct litter inputs and not different degrees of diagenesis. Climate effects on vascular plant litter chemistry explained only part of the regional differences in SOM chemistry, most notably the higher protein content of SOM from warmer regions. Greater proportions of lignin and aliphatic compounds and smaller proportions of carbohydrates in warmer sites' soils were explained by the higher proportion of vascular plant relative to moss litter in the warmer forests. These results indicate that a climate induced decrease in the proportion of moss inputs will not only impact SOM chemistry but also increase the resistance of SOM to decomposition, thus significantly altering SOM cycling in these boreal forest soils.

  2. The product composition control system at Savannah River: Statistical process control algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be used to immobilize the approximately 130 million liters of high-level nuclear waste currently stored at the site in 51 carbon steel tanks. Waste handling operations separate this waste into highly radioactive insoluble sludge and precipitate and less radioactive water soluble salts. In DWPF, precipitate (PHA) is blended with insoluble sludge and ground glass frit to produce melter feed slurry which is continuously fed to the DWPF melter. The melter produces a molten borosilicate glass which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in an geologic repository. Described here is the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) process control algorithm. The PCCS is the amalgam of computer hardware and software intended to ensure that the melt will be processable and that the glass wasteform produced will be acceptable. Within PCCS, the Statistical Process Control (SPC) Algorithm is the means which guides control of the DWPF process. The SPC Algorithm is necessary to control the multivariate DWPF process in the face of uncertainties arising from the process, its feeds, sampling, modeling, and measurement systems. This article describes the functions performed by the SPC Algorithm, characterization of DWPF prior to making product, accounting for prediction uncertainty, accounting for measurement uncertainty, monitoring a SME batch, incorporating process information, and advantages of the algorithm. 9 refs., 6 figs

  3. Mishap risk control for advanced aerospace/composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Although advanced aerospace materials and advanced composites provide outstanding performance, they also present several unique post-mishap environmental, safety, and health concerns. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on some of the unique hazards and concerns associated with these materials when damaged by fire, explosion, or high-energy impact. Additionally, recommended procedures and precautions are addressed as they pertain to all phases of a composite aircraft mishap response, including fire-fighting, investigation, recovery, clean-up, and guidelines are general in nature and not application-specific. The goal of this project is to provide factual and realistic information which can be used to develop consistent and effective procedures and policies to minimize the potential environmental, safety, and health impacts of a composite aircraft mishap response effort.

  4. Input-output supervisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, R.

    1970-01-01

    The input-output supervisor is the program which monitors the flow of informations between core storage and peripheral equipments of a computer. This work is composed of three parts: 1 - Study of a generalized input-output supervisor. With sample modifications it looks like most of input-output supervisors which are running now on computers. 2 - Application of this theory on a magnetic drum. 3 - Hardware requirement for time-sharing. (author) [fr

  5. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Strategies are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them in full...

  6. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Memory Pieces are open compositions to be realised solo by an improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them...

  7. Methods and compositions for controlling gene expression by RNA processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doudna, Jennifer A.; Qi, Lei S.; Haurwitz, Rachel E.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2017-08-29

    The present disclosure provides nucleic acids encoding an RNA recognition sequence positioned proximal to an insertion site for the insertion of a sequence of interest; and host cells genetically modified with the nucleic acids. The present disclosure also provides methods of modifying the activity of a target RNA, and kits and compositions for carrying out the methods.

  8. Input filter compensation for switching regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Kelkar, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    The problems caused by the interaction between the input filter, output filter, and the control loop are discussed. The input filter design is made more complicated because of the need to avoid performance degradation and also stay within the weight and loss limitations. Conventional input filter design techniques are then dicussed. The concept of pole zero cancellation is reviewed; this concept is the basis for an approach to control the peaking of the output impedance of the input filter and thus mitigate some of the problems caused by the input filter. The proposed approach for control of the peaking of the output impedance of the input filter is to use a feedforward loop working in conjunction with feedback loops, thus forming a total state control scheme. The design of the feedforward loop for a buck regulator is described. A possible implementation of the feedforward loop design is suggested.

  9. SSYST-3. Input description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyder, R.

    1983-12-01

    The code system SSYST-3 is designed to analyse the thermal and mechanical behaviour of a fuel rod during a LOCA. The report contains a complete input-list for all modules and several tested inputs for a LOCA analysis. (orig.)

  10. MDS MIC Catalog Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Vowell, C. W.; Smith, Byron; Darcy, Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the inputs to the MDS Medical Information Communique (MIC) catalog. The purpose of the group is to provide input for updating the MDS MIC Catalog and to request that MMOP assign Action Item to other working groups and FSs to support the MITWG Process for developing MIC-DDs.

  11. Parameters Controlling Sediment Composition of Modern and Pleistocene Jamaican Reefs

    OpenAIRE

    Boss, Stephen K.

    1985-01-01

    Recent carbonate sediments from Jamaican north coast fringing reefs display variation in constituent composition, texture, and mineralogy related to their location on the reef. Samples were collected along lines which traversed the back reef and fore reef (0.5m to 70m). The sediment is dominated by highly comminuted coral fragments, plates of the calcareous green alga, Halimeda, coralline algae, and the encrusting Foraminifera, Homotrema rubrum, with lesser amounts of other taxonomic group...

  12. Does body composition differ between fibromyalgia patients and controls? the al-Ándalus project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Jimenez, Victor; Aparicio, Virginia A; Alvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculata C; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Tornero-Quinones, Inmaculada; Delgado-Fernandez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    To characterise the anthropometric and body composition profile of a sample of fibromyalgia women and men from southern Spain and compare them with non-fibromyalgia controls. The cross-sectional study comprised 566 (51.9 ± 8.3 years) fibromyalgia women vs. 249 (49.3 ± 9.9 years) control women; and 24 (47.0 ± 8.4 years) fibromyalgia men vs. 56 (49.7 ± 11.5 years) control men. Body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness were assessed by means of a bioelectric impedanciometer and the 6-minute walk test, respectively. All body composition para-meters (except muscle mass) differed between fibromyalgia and control women (all, pbody composition was no longer different between the women study groups. No differences in body composition were observed between fibromyalgia and control men (all, p>0.05). Weight status differed between women groups, with 11% lower normal-weight and 17% higher obesity prevalence for the fibromyalgia women group (pfibromyalgia women and 79% of the fibromyalgia men were overweight-obese. Sixty-one percent of the control women and 83% of the control men were overweight-obese. Obesity is a greater common condition among fibromyalgia women compared to their counterparts from southern Spain, which might be explained by lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in fibromyalgia. However, fibromyalgia and control men do not differ on either body composition or weight status, in spite of the lower cardiorespiratory fitness found in the fibromyalgia men group.

  13. What controls the isotopic composition of Greenland surface snow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Steen-Larsen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Water stable isotopes in Greenland ice core data provide key paleoclimatic information, and have been compared with precipitation isotopic composition simulated by isotopically enabled atmospheric models. However, post-depositional processes linked with snow metamorphism remain poorly documented. For this purpose, monitoring of the isotopic composition (δ18O, δD of near-surface water vapor, precipitation and samples of the top (0.5 cm snow surface has been conducted during two summers (2011–2012 at NEEM, NW Greenland. The samples also include a subset of 17O-excess measurements over 4 days, and the measurements span the 2012 Greenland heat wave. Our observations are consistent with calculations assuming isotopic equilibrium between surface snow and water vapor. We observe a strong correlation between near-surface vapor δ18O and air temperature (0.85 ± 0.11‰ °C−1 (R = 0.76 for 2012. The correlation with air temperature is not observed in precipitation data or surface snow data. Deuterium excess (d-excess is strongly anti-correlated with δ18O with a stronger slope for vapor than for precipitation and snow surface data. During nine 1–5-day periods between precipitation events, our data demonstrate parallel changes of δ18O and d-excess in surface snow and near-surface vapor. The changes in δ18O of the vapor are similar or larger than those of the snow δ18O. It is estimated using the CROCUS snow model that 6 to 20% of the surface snow mass is exchanged with the atmosphere. In our data, the sign of surface snow isotopic changes is not related to the sign or magnitude of sublimation or deposition. Comparisons with atmospheric models show that day-to-day variations in near-surface vapor isotopic composition are driven by synoptic variations and changes in air mass trajectories and distillation histories. We suggest that, in between precipitation events, changes in the surface snow isotopic composition are driven by these changes in near

  14. Climatic and physiological controls on the stable isotope composition of modern and ancient Cupressaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinniker, D.; Tipple, B.; Pagani, M.

    2007-12-01

    Unique and abundant secondary metabolites found in waxes and resins of the Callitroid, Cupressoid, and Taxodioid clades of the Cupressaceae family can be identified and quantified in complex mixtures of sedimentary organic compounds. This unusual feature makes it possible to study relatively simple (taxon-specific) isotope systems back in time across the broad array of environments in which these conifers are found. Work on these systems can potentially provide both robust paleoenvironmental proxies (i.e. for source water δD and growing season relative humidity) and quantitative probes into the ecophysiology of these plants in modern and ancient environments. Our research focuses on three genera representing environmental end-members of Cupressaceae - Juniperus, Thuja, and Chamaecyparis - (1) across geographic and environmental gradients in the field, and (2) in specific Holocene and late Pleistocene environmental records. The latter research focuses on peat cores from New England and Oregon and fossil packrat middens from the southwestern United States. Modern transects highlight the sensitivity of Cupressaceae to climatic variables. These include both variables during growth (relative humidity, soil moisture, etc.) and variables affecting seasonal and diurnal growth rates (temperature, winter precipitation, insolation, microhabitat, etc.). Work on ancient records has demonstrated the sensitivity of these unique taxon-specific archives to both subtle and dramatic climate shifts during the Pleistocene and Holocene. This work will result in an improved understanding of climatic and physiological controls on the stable isotopic composition of modern and ancient Cupressaceae - and by extension, other arborescent gymnosperms and C3 plants - providing a framework for understanding more complexly sourced organic inputs to sediments, coals, and petroleum prior to the advent of C4 plants. This research also has direct implications for stratigraphic stable isotope studies

  15. Controlling Interdiffusion, Interfacial Composition, and Adhesion in Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, Stephanie R.; Voroshazi, Eszter; Nordlund, Dennis; Vandewal, Koen; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. NEXAFS spectroscopy is used to precisely quantify the interfacial composition and P3HT chain orientation at the weak P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS interface. An increase of P3HT:PCBM and PEDOT:PSS interdiffusion with post electrode deposition annealing time and temperature is found to be the underlying mechanism for effectively improving the interlayer adhesion, which is essential for the commercial realization of organic photovoltaic devices.

  16. Controlling Interdiffusion, Interfacial Composition, and Adhesion in Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, Stephanie R.

    2014-07-10

    © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. NEXAFS spectroscopy is used to precisely quantify the interfacial composition and P3HT chain orientation at the weak P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS interface. An increase of P3HT:PCBM and PEDOT:PSS interdiffusion with post electrode deposition annealing time and temperature is found to be the underlying mechanism for effectively improving the interlayer adhesion, which is essential for the commercial realization of organic photovoltaic devices.

  17. Quality control and in-service inspection technology for hybrid-composite girder bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report describes efforts to develop quality control tools and in-service inspection technologies for the fabrication and construction of Hybrid Composite Beams (HCBs). HCBs are a new bridge technology currently being evaluated by the Missouri De...

  18. PLEXOS Input Data Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-02-01

    The PLEXOS Input Data Generator (PIDG) is a tool that enables PLEXOS users to better version their data, automate data processing, collaborate in developing inputs, and transfer data between different production cost modeling and other power systems analysis software. PIDG can process data that is in a generalized format from multiple input sources, including CSV files, PostgreSQL databases, and PSS/E .raw files and write it to an Excel file that can be imported into PLEXOS with only limited manual intervention.

  19. ColloInputGenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This is a very simple program to help you put together input files for use in Gries' (2007) R-based collostruction analysis program. It basically puts together a text file with a frequency list of lexemes in the construction and inserts a column where you can add the corpus frequencies. It requires...... it as input for basic collexeme collostructional analysis (Stefanowitsch & Gries 2003) in Gries' (2007) program. ColloInputGenerator is, in its current state, based on programming commands introduced in Gries (2009). Projected updates: Generation of complete work-ready frequency lists....

  20. Biomimetic mineral-organic composite scaffolds with controlled internal architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjubala, I; Woesz, Alexander; Pilz, Christine; Rumpler, Monika; Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Roschger, Paul; Stampfl, Juergen; Fratzl, Peter

    2005-12-01

    Bone and cartilage generation by three-dimensional scaffolds is one of the promising techniques in tissue engineering. One approach is to generate histologically and functionally normal tissue by delivering healthy cells in biocompatible scaffolds. These scaffolds provide the necessary support for cells to proliferate and maintain their differentiated function, and their architecture defines the ultimate shape. Rapid prototyping (RP) is a technology by which a complex 3-dimensional (3D) structure can be produced indirectly from computer aided design (CAD). The present study aims at developing a 3D organic-inorganic composite scaffold with defined internal architecture by a RP method utilizing a 3D printer to produce wax molds. The composite scaffolds consisting of chitosan and hydroxyapatite were prepared using soluble wax molds. The behaviour and response of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells on the scaffolds was studied. During a culture period of two and three weeks, cell proliferation and in-growth were observed by phase contrast light microscopy, histological staining and electron microscopy. The Giemsa and Gömöri staining of the cells cultured on scaffolds showed that the cells proliferated not only on the surface, but also filled the micro pores of the scaffolds and produced extracellular matrix within the pores. The electron micrographs showed that the cells covering the surface of the struts were flattened and grew from the periphery into the middle region of the pores.

  1. Characterization of hybrid microparticles/Montmorillonite composite with raspberry-like morphology for Atorvastatin controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guzmán, Perla; Medina-Torres, Luis; Calderas, Fausto; Bernad-Bernad, María Josefa; Gracia-Mora, Jesús; Mena, Baltasar; Manero, Octavio

    2018-07-01

    In this work, we prepared a novel composite based on hybrid gelatin carriers and montmorillonite clay (MMT) to analyze its viability as controlled drug delivery system. The objective of this research involves the characterization of composites formed by structured lipid-gelatin micro-particles (MP) and MMT clay. This analysis included the evaluation of the composite according to its rheological properties, morphology (SEM), particle size, XRD, FT-IR, and in vitro drug release. The effect of pH in the properties of the composite is evaluated. A novel raspberry-like or armor MP/MMT clay composite is reported, in which the pH has an important effect on the final structure of the composite for ad-hoc drug delivery systems. For pH values below the isoelectric point, we obtained defined morphologies with entrapment efficiencies up to 67%. The pH level controls the MP/MMT composite release mechanism, restringing drug release in the stomach-like environment. Intended for oral administration, these results evidence that the MP/MMT composite represents an attractive alternative for intestinal-colonic controlled drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fuel composition effect on cathode airflow control in fuel cell gas turbine hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nana; Zaccaria, Valentina; Tucker, David

    2018-04-01

    Cathode airflow regulation is considered an effective means for thermal management in solid oxide fuel cell gas turbine (SOFC-GT) hybrid system. However, performance and controllability are observed to vary significantly with different fuel compositions. Because a complete system characterization with any possible fuel composition is not feasible, the need arises for robust controllers. The sufficiency of robust control is dictated by the effective change of operating state given the new composition used. It is possible that controller response could become unstable without a change in the gains from one state to the other. In this paper, cathode airflow transients are analyzed in a SOFC-GT system using syngas as fuel composition, comparing with previous work which used humidified hydrogen. Transfer functions are developed to map the relationship between the airflow bypass and several key variables. The impact of fuel composition on system control is quantified by evaluating the difference between gains and poles in transfer functions. Significant variations in the gains and the poles, more than 20% in most cases, are found in turbine rotational speed and cathode airflow. The results of this work provide a guideline for the development of future control strategies to face fuel composition changes.

  3. Input and execution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.; Lane, G.; Rowling, G.

    1986-11-01

    This document describes the input procedures, input data files and operating instructions for the SYVAC A/C 1.03 computer program. SYVAC A/C 1.03 simulates the groundwater mediated movement of radionuclides from underground facilities for the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes to the accessible environment, and provides an estimate of the subsequent radiological risk to man. (author)

  4. Gestures and multimodal input

    OpenAIRE

    Keates, Simeon; Robinson, Peter

    1999-01-01

    For users with motion impairments, the standard keyboard and mouse arrangement for computer access often presents problems. Other approaches have to be adopted to overcome this. In this paper, we will describe the development of a prototype multimodal input system based on two gestural input channels. Results from extensive user trials of this system are presented. These trials showed that the physical and cognitive loads on the user can quickly become excessive and detrimental to the interac...

  5. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Cue Rondo is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound/video files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample, or the visuals will not appear at all....... Please DOWNLOAD them to see/hear them in full length! This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it, performance instructions as well as specially designated recordings, as long as the author is mentioned. Please see http...

  6. Composite Control of the n–link Chained Mechanical Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zikmund, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 5 (2008), s. 664-684 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/08/0186 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : nonlinear systems * exact linearization * underactuated mechanical systems Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.281, year: 2008

  7. Characterisation of polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymers with controllable four-monomer composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu; Lambert, Lynette; Yuan, Zhiguo; Keller, Jurg

    2008-03-20

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) copolymers comprising the four monomers 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV), 3-hydroxy-2-methylvalerate (3HMV) and 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutyrate (3HMB) were generated using the recently discovered Defluviicoccus vanus-related glycogen accumulating organisms (DvGAOs) under anaerobic conditions without applying any nutrient limitations. The composition could be manipulated in a defined range by modifying the ratio of propionate and acetate provided in the feed stream. The PHAs produced were characterised as random copolymers (from propionate alone) or a mixture of random copolymers (from mixture of propionate and acetate) through microstructure analysis using 13C NMR spectroscopy. The sequence distribution of all eight comonomer pairs in the carbonyl region of 3HB and 3HV was identified and assigned with confidence utilising two-dimensional heteronuclear multiple bond coherence (HMBC) spectroscopy. Weight average molecular weights were in the range 390-560 kg/mol. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) traces showed that the melting temperature (Tm) varied between 70 and 161 degrees C and glass transition temperature (Tg) ranged from -8 to 0 degrees C. The incorporation of considerable amounts of 3HMV and 3HMB monomer units introduced additional "defects" into the PHBV copolymer structure and hence greatly lowered the crystallinity. The data indicate the potential of these four-monomer PHAs to be employed for practical applications, considering their favourable properties and the cost-effective production process using a mixed culture and simple carbon sources.

  8. Role of the origin of glutamatergic synaptic inputs in controlling synaptic plasticity and its modulation by alcohol in mice nucleus accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Erwann Martin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that long-lasting changes of synaptic strength in the nucleus accumbens, a brain region involved in drug reward, mediate acute and chronic effects of alcohol. However, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol on synaptic plasticity is limited by the fact that the nucleus accumbens receives glutamatergic inputs from distinct brain regions (e.g. the prefrontal cortex, the amygdala and the hippocampus, each region providing different information (e.g. spatial, emotional and cognitive. Combining whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and the optogenetic technique, we examined synaptic plasticity, and its regulation by alcohol, at cortical, hippocampal and amygdala inputs in fresh slices of mouse tissue. We showed that the origin of synaptic inputs determines the basic properties of glutamatergic synaptic transmission, the expression of spike-timing dependent long-term depression (tLTD and long-term potentiation (tLTP and their regulation by alcohol. While we observed both tLTP and tLTD at amygadala and hippocampal synapses, we showed that cortical inputs only undergo tLTD. Functionally, we provide evidence that acute EtOH has little effects on higher order information coming from the prefrontal cortex (PFCx, while severely impacting the ability of emotional and contextual information to induce long-lasting changes of synaptic strength.

  9. Robust fault detection and isolation technique for single-input/single-output closed-loop control systems that exhibit actuator and sensor faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Alavi, S. M. Mahdi; Hayes, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    An integrated quantitative feedback design and frequency-based fault detection and isolation (FDI) approach is presented for single-input/single-output systems. A novel design methodology, based on shaping the system frequency response, is proposed to generate an appropriate residual signal...

  10. Achieving Long-Term Protection of Water Quality of Grand Lake St. Marys Through Implementation of Conservation Practices and Control of Phosphorus Input from Agricultural Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand Lake St. Marys (GLSM), a 13,000 acre lake in northwestern Ohio, is experiencing toxic levels of algal blooms resulting primarily from phosphorus input from agricultural runoff. The algal blooms are so severe that the Ohio Department of Natural Resources advised against any...

  11. Control of feedwater composition of BWR power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturla, P.; D'Anna, A.; Borgese, D.

    1983-01-01

    Corrosion behaviour of fuel element cladding, cycle structural materials and dose rate increase are relevant to physico-chemical characteristics of process coolants and to adopted operational conditions. A careful control of cycle chemistry, during loading and shutdown periods, is necessary to verify material choices, the polishing system and chemistry specifications. For this purpose ENEL carried out some preliminary experimental tests employing continuous control system and samples for specific analytical determinations. The cycle points checked during about two months were: main condensate; condensate after polishing system; outlet of low pressure heathers; final feedwater; inlet and outlet of clean-up system; drains to condenser. The physico-chemical analysis were related to corrosion product levels (Cu, Fe, Ni, Co) and water chemistry (pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen etc.). The preliminary results allow to express some considerations about sampling procedures, detection limits and reliability of analytical employed methods. The acquisition data time and some morphological oxide pictures are also showed. (author)

  12. Insitu measurement and control of processing properties of composite resins in a production tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranbuehl, D.; Hoff, M.; Haverty, P.; Loos, A.; Freeman, T.

    1988-01-01

    An in situ measuring technique for use in automated composite processing and quality control is discussed. Frequency dependent electromagnetic sensors are used to measure processing parameters at four ply positions inside a thick section 192-ply graphite-epoxy composite during cure in an 8 x 4 in. autoclave. Viscosity measurements obtained using the sensors are compared with the viscosities calculated using the Loos-Springer cure process model. Good overall agreement is obtained. In a subsequent autoclave run, the output from the four sensors was used to control the autoclave temperature. Using the 'closed loop' sensor controlled autoclave temperature resulted in a more uniform and more rapid cure cycle.

  13. Online and Compositional Learning of Controllers with Application to Floor Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikučionis, Marius; Muniz, Marco

    2016-01-01

    possible input temperatures and an arbitrary time horizon, we propose an on-line synthesis methodology, where we periodically compute the controller only for the near future based on the current sensor readings. This computation is itself done by employing machine learning in order to avoid enumeration...... of continuous variables (e.g. temperature readings in the different rooms) and even after digitization, the state-space remains huge and cannot be fully explored. We suggest a general and scalable methodology for controller synthesis for such systems. Instead of off-line synthesis of a controller for all...

  14. Evaporation monitoring and composition control of alloy systems with widely differing vapor pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anklam, T.M.; Berzins, L.V.; Braun, D.G.; Haynam, C.; McClelland, M.A.; Meier, T.

    1994-10-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing sensors and controls to improve and extend electron beam materials processing technology to alloy systems with constituents of widely varying vapor pressure. The approach under development involves using tunable lasers to measure the density and composition of the vapor plume. A laser based vaporizer control system for vaporization of a uranium-iron alloy has been previously demonstrated in multi-hundred hour, high rate vaporization experiments at LLNL. This paper reviews the design and performance of the uranium vaporization sensor and control system and discusses the extension of the technology to monitoring of uranium vaporization. Data is presented from an experiment in which titanium wire was fed into a molten niobium pool. Laser data is compared to deposited film composition and film cross sections. Finally, the potential for using this technique for composition control in melting applications is discussed

  15. Control of free-edge interlaminar stresses in composite laminates using piezoelectric actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Bin; Soo Kim, Heung

    2014-01-01

    The control of free-edge interlaminar stresses in laminated composite structures using a stress function-based approach is proposed. The assumed stress fields satisfy pointwise traction and free boundary conditions at surfaces. Governing equations are derived using the principle of complementary virtual work. A general eigenvalue solution procedure was adopted to obtain accurate stress states of the laminated composite structure. The results obtained from the proposed method were compared with those obtained by three-dimensional finite element analyses. It was found that interlaminar stresses generated by mechanical loadings could be significantly reduced by applying proper electric fields to piezoelectric actuators, which were surface bonded or embedded in composite laminates. Locations of piezoelectric actuators also influenced the distributions of interlaminar stresses. The results provided that piezoelectric actuators have potential in the application to actively control interlaminar stresses in composite laminates. (paper)

  16. Hybrid Testing of Composite Structures with Single-Axis Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldbjørn, Jacob Paamand; Høgh, Jacob Herold; Stang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Correlation (DIC) is therefore implemented for displacement control of the experimental setup. The hybrid testing setup was verified on a multicomponent structure consisting of a beam loaded in three point bending and a numerical structure of a frame. Furthermore, the stability of the hybrid testing loop......Hybrid testing is a substructuring technique where a structure is emulated by modelling a part of it in a numerical model while testing the remainder experimentally. Previous research in hybrid testing has been performed on multi-component structures e.g. damping fixtures, however in this paper...... a hybrid testing platform is introduced for single-component hybrid testing. In this case, the boundary between the numerical model and experimental setup is defined by multiple Degrees-Of-Freedoms (DOFs) which highly complicate the transferring of response between the two substructures. Digital Image...

  17. Weldability with Process Parameters During Fiber Laser Welding of a Titanium Plate (II) - The Effect of Control of Heat Input on Weldability -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Do; Kim, Ji Sung [Korea Maritime and Ocean Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Laser welding is a high-density energy welding method. Hence, deep penetration and high welding speed can be realized with lower heat input as compared with conventional welding. The heat input of a CW laser welding is determined by laser power and welding speed. In this study, bead and lap welding of 0.5 mmt pure titanium was performed using a fiber laser. Its weldability with laser power and welding speed was evaluated. Penetration, bead width, joining length, and bead shape were investigated, and the mechanical properties were examined through tensile-shear strength tests. Welds with sound joining length were obtained when the laser power and welding speed were respectively 0.5 kW and 2.5 m/min, and 1.5 kW and 6 m/min, and the weld obtained at low output presented better ductility than that obtained at high output.

  18. Weldability with Process Parameters During Fiber Laser Welding of a Titanium Plate (II) - The Effect of Control of Heat Input on Weldability -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Do; Kim, Ji Sung

    2016-01-01

    Laser welding is a high-density energy welding method. Hence, deep penetration and high welding speed can be realized with lower heat input as compared with conventional welding. The heat input of a CW laser welding is determined by laser power and welding speed. In this study, bead and lap welding of 0.5 mmt pure titanium was performed using a fiber laser. Its weldability with laser power and welding speed was evaluated. Penetration, bead width, joining length, and bead shape were investigated, and the mechanical properties were examined through tensile-shear strength tests. Welds with sound joining length were obtained when the laser power and welding speed were respectively 0.5 kW and 2.5 m/min, and 1.5 kW and 6 m/min, and the weld obtained at low output presented better ductility than that obtained at high output

  19. Active vibration control of smart hull structure using piezoelectric composite actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jung Woo; Choi, Seung-Bok; Lee, Chul-Hee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, active vibration control performance of the smart hull structure with macro-fiber composite (MFC) is evaluated. MFC is an advanced piezoelectric composite which has great flexibility and increased actuating performance compared to a monolithic piezoelectric ceramic patch. The governing equations of motion of the hull structure with MFC actuators are derived based on the classical Donnell–Mushtari shell theory. The actuating model for the interaction between hull structure and MFC is included in the governing equations. Subsequently, modal characteristics are investigated and compared with the results obtained from experiment. The governing equations of the vibration control system are then established and expressed in the state space form. A linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control algorithm is designed in order to effectively and actively control the imposed vibration. The controller is experimentally realized and vibration control performances are evaluated

  20. Launch vehicle flight control augmentation using smart materials and advanced composites (CDDF Project 93-05)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, C.

    1995-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center has a rich heritage of launch vehicles that have used aerodynamic surfaces for flight stability such as the Saturn vehicles and flight control such as on the Redstone. Recently, due to aft center-of-gravity locations on launch vehicles currently being studied, the need has arisen for the vehicle control augmentation that is provided by these flight controls. Aerodynamic flight control can also reduce engine gimbaling requirements, provide actuator failure protection, enhance crew safety, and increase vehicle reliability, and payload capability. In the Saturn era, NASA went to the Moon with 300 sq ft of aerodynamic surfaces on the Saturn V. Since those days, the wealth of smart materials and advanced composites that have been developed allow for the design of very lightweight, strong, and innovative launch vehicle flight control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the advanced composites and smart materials that are directly applicable to launch vehicle control surfaces.