WorldWideScience

Sample records for control banding tool

  1. Development of a Control Banding Tool for Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Riediker, M.; Ostiguy, C.; Triolet, J.; Troisfontaine, P.; Vernez, D.; Bourdel, G.; Thieriet, N.; Cadène, A.

    2012-01-01

    Control banding (CB) can be a useful tool for managing the potential risks of nanomaterials. The here proposed CB, which should be part of an overall risk control strategy, groups materials by hazard and emission potential. The resulting decision matrix proposes control bands adapted to the risk potential levels and helps define an action plan. If this plan is not practical and financially feasible, a full risk assessment is launched. The hazard banding combines key concepts of nanomaterial t...

  2. Development of a Control Banding Tool for Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riediker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Control banding (CB can be a useful tool for managing the potential risks of nanomaterials. The here proposed CB, which should be part of an overall risk control strategy, groups materials by hazard and emission potential. The resulting decision matrix proposes control bands adapted to the risk potential levels and helps define an action plan. If this plan is not practical and financially feasible, a full risk assessment is launched. The hazard banding combines key concepts of nanomaterial toxicology: translocation across biological barriers, fibrous nature, solubility, and reactivity. Already existing classifications specific to the nanomaterial can be used “as is.” Otherwise, the toxicity of bulk or analogous substances gives an initial hazard band, which is increased if the substance is not easily soluble or if it has a higher reactivity than the substance. The emission potential bands are defined by the nanomaterials' physical form and process characteristics. Quantities, frequencies, and existing control measures are taken into account during the definition of the action plan. Control strategies range from room ventilation to full containment with expert advice. This CB approach, once validated, can be easily embedded in risk management systems. It allows integrating new toxicity data and needs no exposure data.

  3. Hazard banding in compliance with the new Globally Harmonised System (GHS) for use in control banding tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Mario; Koppisch, Dorothea; Smola, Thomas; Gabriel, Stefan; Verbist, Koen; Visser, Remco

    2015-10-01

    Many control banding tools use hazard banding in risk assessments for the occupational handling of hazardous substances. The outcome of these assessments can be combined with advice for the required risk management measures (RMMs). The Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) has resulted in a change in the hazard communication elements, i.e. Hazard (H) statements instead of Risk-phrases. Hazard banding schemes that depend on the old form of safety information have to be adapted to the new rules. The purpose of this publication is to outline the rationales for the assignment of hazard bands to H statements under the GHS. Based on this, this publication proposes a hazard banding scheme that uses the information from the safety data sheets as the basis for assignment. The assignment of hazard bands tiered according to the severity of the underlying hazards supports the important principle of substitution. Additionally, the set of assignment rules permits an exposure-route-specific assignment of hazard bands, which is necessary for the proposed route-specific RMMs. Ideally, all control banding tools should apply the same assignment rules. This GHS-compliant hazard banding scheme can hopefully help to establish a unified hazard banding strategy in the various control banding tools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Occupational Exposure Assessment of Nanomaterials using Control Banding Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liguori, Biase

    , are relatively advanced, and they are good foundations for an advanced exposure assessment. Considering the tiered approach for workplace assessment proposed by the OECD, these two tools could be situated, between Tier 1 (Information gathering) and Tier 2 (Basic exposure assessment). Moreover, the thesis......Nanotechnology can be termed as the “new industrial revolution”. A broad range of potential benefits in various applications for the environment and everyday life of humans can be related to the use of nanotechnology. Nanomaterials are used in a large variety of products already in the market......, and because of their novel physical and chemical characteristics, the application of nanomaterials is projected to increase further. This will inevitably increase the production of nanomaterials with potential increase of exposure for the workers which are the first in line expected to become exposed...

  5. Application of a pilot control banding tool for risk level assessment and control of nanoparticle exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Samuel Y; Zalk, David M; Swuste, Paul

    2008-08-01

    Control banding (CB) strategies offer simplified solutions for controlling worker exposures to constituents that are found in the workplace in the absence of firm toxicological and exposure data. These strategies may be particularly useful in nanotechnology applications, considering the overwhelming level of uncertainty over what nanomaterials and nanotechnologies present as potential work-related health risks, what about these materials might lead to adverse toxicological activity, how risk related to these might be assessed and how to manage these issues in the absence of this information. This study introduces a pilot CB tool or 'CB Nanotool' that was developed specifically for characterizing the health aspects of working with engineered nanoparticles and determining the level of risk and associated controls for five ongoing nanotechnology-related operations being conducted at two Department of Energy research laboratories. Based on the application of the CB Nanotool, four of the five operations evaluated in this study were found to have implemented controls consistent with what was recommended by the CB Nanotool, with one operation even exceeding the required controls for that activity. The one remaining operation was determined to require an upgrade in controls. By developing this dynamic CB Nanotool within the realm of the scientific information available, this application of CB appears to be a useful approach for assessing the risk of nanomaterial operations, providing recommendations for appropriate engineering controls and facilitating the allocation of resources to the activities that most need them.

  6. Control banding tools for occupational exposure assessment of nanomaterials - Ready for use in a regulatory context?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liguori, Biase; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    2016-01-01

    area of concern. Therefore, a number of Control Banding (CB)-based tools have been developed in order to assess and manage the potential risks associated with occupational exposure to nanomaterials. In this paper we provide a comparative analysis of different nanomaterial-specific types of control-banding/risk...... developed for different purposes, with different application domains and inclusion criteria. The exposure assessments and derived risk levels are based on different concepts and assumptions and outputs in different formats. The use of requested input parameters for exposure assessment differ greatly among...... the tools. Therefore, direct inter-comparison and combination of the different models into a larger holistic framework is not immediately possible. Harmonization of input parameters and output could allow establishment of an exposure assessment framework with different levels of information requirements....

  7. Stoffenmanager : a web-based control banding tool using an exposure process model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, H.; Heussen, H.; Feber, M. Le; Noy, D.; Tielemans, E.; Schinkel, J.; West, J.; Schaaf, D. van der

    2008-01-01

    In the scope of a Dutch programme to reinforce the working conditions policy on hazardous substances, an internet-based tool was developed to help small- and medium-sized companies to handle hazardous substances with more care. The heart of this tool, called the Stoffenmanager, is a risk banding

  8. Control Banding and Nanotechnology Synergist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalk, D; Paik, S

    2009-12-15

    The average Industrial Hygienist (IH) loves a challenge, right? Okay, well here is one with more than a few twists. We start by going through the basics of a risk assessment. You have some chemical agents, a few workers, and the makings of your basic exposure characterization. However, you have no occupational exposure limit (OEL), essentially no toxicological basis, and no epidemiology. Now the real handicap is that you cannot use sampling pumps, cassettes, tubes, or any of the media in your toolbox, and the whole concept of mass-to-dose is out the window, even at high exposure levels. Of course, by the title, you knew we were talking about nanomaterials (NM). However, we wonder how many IHs know that this topic takes everything you know about your profession and turns it upside down. It takes the very foundations that you worked so hard in college and in the field to master and pulls it out from underneath you. It even takes the gold standard of our profession, the quantitative science of exposure assessment, and makes it look pretty darn rusty. Now with NM there is the potential to get some aspect of quantitative measurements, but the instruments are generally very expensive and getting an appropriate workplace personal exposure measurement can be very difficult if not impossible. The potential for workers getting exposures, however, is very real, as evidenced by a recent publication reporting worker exposures to polyacrylate nanoparticles in a Chinese factory (Song et al. 2009). With something this complex and challenging, how does a concept as simple as Control Banding (CB) save the day? Although many IHs have heard of CB, most of their knowledge comes from its application in the COSHH Essentials toolkit. While there is conflicting published research on COSHH Essentials and its value for risk assessments, almost all of the experts agree that it can be useful when no OELs are available (Zalk and Nelson 2008). It is this aspect of CB, its utility with

  9. Microbial control of Asian longhorned beetles - what are fungal bands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann E. Hajek; Thomas Dubois; Jennifer Lund; Ryan Shanley; Leah Bauer; Michael Smith; Peng Fan; Huang Bo; Hu Jiafu; Zengzhi Li

    2007-01-01

    In Japan, the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria brongniartii is grown in nonwoven fiber bands that are placed around trunks of orchard trees for control of numerous cerambycid pests, including Anoplophora chinensis (= A. malasiaca). The Japanese company producing bands, Nitto Denko in Osaka, markets bands...

  10. Air Traffic Control Tools Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Noskievič

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly air transport in today’s world wouldn’t be able to exist without any air traffic control service. As the air transport has been coming through major changes and it has been expanding, it is assumed that its volume will be doubled in the next 15 years. Air traffic control uses strictly organised procedures to ensure safe course of air operations. With the skies covered with more airplanes every year, new tools must be introduced to allow the controllers to manage this rising amount of flying aircraft and to keep the air transport safe. This paper provides a comprehensive and organized material, which describes the newest tools and systems used by air traffic control officers. It proposes improvements for further research and development of ATC tools.

  11. History and Evolution of Control Banding: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalk, D; Nelson, D

    2006-07-19

    Control Banding (CB) strategies offer simplified solutions for controlling worker exposures to constituents often encountered in the workplace. The original CB model was developed within the pharmaceutical industry; however, the modern movement involves models developed for non-experts to input hazard and exposure potential information for bulk chemical processes, receiving control advice as a result. The CB approach utilizes these models for the dissemination of qualitative and semi-quantitative risk assessment tools being developed to complement the traditional industrial hygiene model of air sampling and analysis. It is being applied and tested in small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) within developed countries and industrially developing countries; however, large enterprises (LEs) have also incorporated these strategies within chemical safety programs. Existing research of the components of the most available CB model, the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials, has shown that exposure bands do not always provide adequate margins of safety, that there is a high rate of under-control errors, that it works better with dusts than with vapors, that there is an inherent inaccuracy in estimating variability, and that when taken together the outcomes of this model may lead to potentially inappropriate workplace confidence in chemical exposure reduction in some operations. Alternatively, large-scale comparisons of industry exposure data to this CB model's outcomes have indicated more promising results with a high correlation seen internationally. With the accuracy of the toxicological ratings and hazard band classification currently in question, their proper reevaluation will be of great benefit to the reliability of existing and future CB models. The need for a more complete analysis of CB model components and, most importantly, a more comprehensive prospective research process remains and will be important in understanding implications

  12. Control Strategy Tool (CoST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Control Strategy Tool (CoST) is a software tool for projecting potential future control scenarios, their effects on emissions and estimated costs. This tool...

  13. Banding the World Together; The Global Growth of Control Banding and Qualitative Occupational Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Zalk, David M; Heussen, Ga Henri

    2011-01-01

    Control Banding (CB) strategies to prevent work-related illness and injury for 2.5 billion workers without access to health and safety professionals has grown exponentially this last decade. CB originates from the pharmaceutical industry to control active pharmaceutical ingredients without a complete toxicological basis and therefore no occupational exposure limits. CB applications have broadened into chemicals in general - including new emerging risks like nanomaterials and recently into erg...

  14. Planar Ultrawideband Antenna with Photonically Controlled Notched Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drasko Draskovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A design of a planar microstrip-fed ultrawideband (UWB printed circular monopole antenna with optically controlled notched bands is presented. The proposed antenna is composed of a circular ultrawideband patch, with an etched T-shaped slot controlled by an integrated silicon switch. The slot modifies the frequency response of the antenna suppressing 3.5–5 GHz band when the switch is in open state. The optical switch is controlled by a low-power near-infrared (808 nm laser diode, which causes the change in the frequency response of the antenna generating a frequency notch. This solution could be expanded to include several notches in the antenna frequency response achieving a fully reconfigurable UWB antenna. The antenna could be remotely controlled at large distances using optical fiber. The prototype antenna has been fully characterized to verify these design concepts.

  15. Banding the world together; the global growth of control banding and qualitative occupational risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalk, David M; Heussen, Ga Henri

    2011-12-01

    Control Banding (CB) strategies to prevent work-related illness and injury for 2.5 billion workers without access to health and safety professionals has grown exponentially this last decade. CB originates from the pharmaceutical industry to control active pharmaceutical ingredients without a complete toxicological basis and therefore no occupational exposure limits. CB applications have broadened into chemicals in general - including new emerging risks like nanomaterials and recently into ergonomics and injury prevention. CB is an action-oriented qualitative risk assessment strategy offering solutions and control measures to users through "toolkits". Chemical CB toolkits are user-friendly approaches used to achieve workplace controls in the absence of firm toxicological and quantitative exposure information. The model (technical) validation of these toolkits is well described, however firm operational analyses (implementation aspects) are lacking. Consequentially, it is often not known if toolkit use leads to successful interventions at individual workplaces. This might lead to virtual safe workplaces without knowing if workers are truly protected. Upcoming international strategies from the World Health Organization Collaborating Centers request assistance in developing and evaluating action-oriented procedures for workplace risk assessment and control. It is expected that to fulfill this strategy's goals, CB approaches will continue its important growth in protecting workers.

  16. Banding the World Together; The Global Growth of Control Banding and Qualitative Occupational Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Zalk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Control Banding (CB strategies to prevent work-related illness and injury for 2.5 billion workers without access to health and safety professionals has grown exponentially this last decade. CB originates from the pharmaceutical industry to control active pharmaceutical ingredients without a complete toxicological basis and therefore no occupational exposure limits. CB applications have broadened into chemicals in general - including new emerging risks like nanomaterials and recently into ergonomics and injury prevention. CB is an action-oriented qualitative risk assessment strategy offering solutions and control measures to users through “toolkits”. Chemical CB toolkits are user-friendly approaches used to achieve workplace controls in the absence of firm toxicological and quantitative exposure information. The model (technical validation of these toolkits is well described, however firm operational analyses (implementation aspects are lacking. Consequentially, it is often not known if toolkit use leads to successful interventions at individual workplaces. This might lead to virtual safe workplaces without knowing if workers are truly protected. Upcoming international strategies from the World Health Organization Collaborating Centers request assistance in developing and evaluating action-oriented procedures for workplace risk assessment and control. It is expected that to fulfill this strategy’s goals, CB approaches will continue its important growth in protecting workers.

  17. Chemical control methods and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Manning; James. Miller

    2011-01-01

    After determining the best course of action for control of an invasive plant population, it is important to understand the variety of methods available to the integrated pest management professional. A variety of methods are now widely used in managing invasive plants in natural areas, including chemical, mechanical, and cultural control methods. Once the preferred...

  18. Borehole tool outrigger arm displacement control mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    As the outrigger arms of a borehole logging tool are flexed inwardly and outwardly according to the diameter of the borehole opening through which they pass, the corresponding axial displacements of the ends of the arms are controlled to determine the axial positions of the arms relative to the tool. Specifically, as the arm ends move, they are caused to rotate by a cam mechanism. The stiffness of the arms causes the arm ends to rotate in unison, and the exact positions of the arms on the tool are then controlled by the differential movements of the arm ends in the cams

  19. Coherent control of spontaneous emission near a photonic band edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woldeyohannes, Mesfin; John, Sajeev

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate the coherent control of spontaneous emission for a three-level atom located within a photonic band gap (PBG) material, with one resonant frequency near the edge of the PBG. Spontaneous emission from the three-level atom can be totally suppressed or strongly enhanced depending on the relative phase between the steady-state control laser coupling the two upper levels and the pump laser pulse used to create an excited state of the atom in the form of a coherent superposition of the two upper levels. Unlike the free-space case, the steady-state inversion of the atomic system is strongly dependent on the externally prescribed initial conditions. This non-zero steady-state population is achieved by virtue of the localization of light in the vicinity of the emitting atom. It is robust to decoherence effects provided that the Rabi frequency of the control laser field exceeds the rate of dephasing interactions. As a result, such a system may be relevant for a single-atom, phase-sensitive optical memory device on the atomic scale. The protected electric dipole within the PBG provides a basis for a qubit to encode information for quantum computations. A detailed literature survey on the nature, fabrication and applications of PBG materials is presented to provide context for this research. (phd tutorial)

  20. Red-luminescence band: A tool for the quality assessment of germanium and silicon nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraj, I.; Favre, L.; David, T.; Abbarchi, M.; Liu, K.; Claude, J. B.; Ronda, A.; Naffouti, M.; Saidi, F.; Hassen, F.; Maaref, H.; Aqua, J. N.; Berbezier, I.

    2017-10-01

    We present the photoluminescence (PL) emission of Silicon and Germanium nanocrystals (NCs) of different sizes embedded in two different matrices. Formation of the NCs is achieved via solid-state dewetting during annealing in a molecular beam epitaxy ultra-high vacuum system of ultrathin amorphous Si and Ge layers deposited at room temperature on SiO2. During the dewetting process, the bi-dimensional amorphous layers transform into small pseudo-spherical islands whose mean size can be tuned directly with the deposited thickness. The nanocrystals are capped either ex situ by silicon dioxide or in situ by amorphous Silicon. The surface-state dependent emission (typically in the range 1.74 eV-1.79 eV) exhibited higher relative PL quantum yields compared to the emission originating from the band gap transition. This red-PL emission comes from the radiative transitions between a Si band and an interface level. It is mainly ascribed to the NCs and environment features deduced from morphological and structural analyses. Power dependent analysis of the photoluminescence intensity under continuous excitation reveals a conventional power law with an exponent close to 1, in agreement with the type II nature of the emission. We show that Ge-NCs exhibit much lower quantum efficiency than Si-NCs due to non-radiative interface states. Low quantum efficiency is also obtained when NCs have been exposed to air before capping, even if the exposure time is very short. Our results indicate that a reduction of the non-radiative surface states is a key strategy step in producing small NCs with increased PL emission for a variety of applications. The red-PL band is then an effective tool for the quality assessment of NCs based structures.

  1. Matlab as a robust control design tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Irene M.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation introduces Matlab as a tool used in flight control research. The example used to illustrate some of the capabilities of this software is a robust controller designed for a single stage to orbit air breathing vehicles's ascent to orbit. The global requirements of the controller are to stabilize the vehicle and follow a trajectory in the presence of atmospheric disturbances and strong dynamic coupling between airframe and propulsion.

  2. Integrated Design Tools for Embedded Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanovic, D.S.; Hilderink, G.H.; Broenink, Johannes F.; Karelse, F.

    2001-01-01

    Currently, computer-based control systems are still being implemented using the same techniques as 10 years ago. The purpose of this project is the development of a design framework, consisting of tools and libraries, which allows the designer to build high reliable heterogeneous real-time embedded systems in a very short time at a fraction of the present day costs. The ultimate focus of current research is on transformation control laws to efficient concurrent algorithms, with concerns about...

  3. Integrated Design Tools for Embedded Control Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovanovic, D.S.; Hilderink, G.H.; Broenink, Johannes F.; Karelse, F.

    2001-01-01

    Currently, computer-based control systems are still being implemented using the same techniques as 10 years ago. The purpose of this project is the development of a design framework, consisting of tools and libraries, which allows the designer to build high reliable heterogeneous real-time embedded

  4. Can Control Banding be better than traditional Industrial Hygiene?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalk, D.

    2009-01-01

    The answer to this question should be 'no' if you can afford it and 'yes' if you cannot. However, Control Banding (CB) is proving itself in areas with uncertainties. This could be either a lack of knowledge--as with nanomaterials or when lacking an OEL--or with the lack or expertise, as can be seen with SMEs and in Economically Developing Countries (EDCs). Over 90% of the world's workers do not have access to occupational safety, health, and hygiene (OSHH) professionals and traditional quantitative risk assessment methods to achieve prevention from acquiring work-related illness and injury. Although risk factors for work-related illness and disease are well known, until the recent growth of CB there had yet to be designed and implemented a comprehensive OSHH process that focuses on achieving minimization of these occupational risk factors for the vast majority of the global workforce. This problem exists for three primary reasons: (1) There are not a sufficient number of trained and qualified OSHH professionals worldwide to attempt to offer comparable levels of traditional services necessary to achieve prevention; (2) The vast majority of OSHH professionals, and the funds to afford their conventional approaches, are concentrated in Developed Countries, such as those in the EU and the US, whereas the greatest need for work-related disease, illness, and injury prevention lies within EDCs; and (3) Even within Developed Countries, the funding to acquire the services of OSHH professionals sits primarily within the largest of industries and governmental institutions. This problem renders a void of occupational risk management for the professions and trades within EDCs and similarly the SMEs within even the richest of Developed Countries. Further, conventional means to achieve such prevention rely heavily on exposure assessment sampling strategies that, although proven successful, are cost-prohibitive in these arenas

  5. Dynamic principle for ensemble control tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoletov, A; Vasiev, B

    2017-11-28

    Dynamical equations describing physical systems in contact with a thermal bath are commonly extended by mathematical tools called "thermostats." These tools are designed for sampling ensembles in statistical mechanics. Here we propose a dynamic principle underlying a range of thermostats which is derived using fundamental laws of statistical physics and ensures invariance of the canonical measure. The principle covers both stochastic and deterministic thermostat schemes. Our method has a clear advantage over a range of proposed and widely used thermostat schemes that are based on formal mathematical reasoning. Following the derivation of the proposed principle, we show its generality and illustrate its applications including design of temperature control tools that differ from the Nosé-Hoover-Langevin scheme.

  6. Planar C-Band Antenna with Electronically Controllable Switched Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Barba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The design, manufacturing, and measurements of a switchable-beam antenna at 3.5 GHz for WLL or Wimax base station antennas in planar technology are presented. This antenna performs a discrete beam scan of a 60∘ sector in azimuth and can be easily upgraded to 5 or more steps. The switching capabilities have been implemented by the inclusion of phase shifters based on PIN diodes in the feed network following a strategy that allows the reduction of the number of switches compared to a classic design. The measurements show that the design objectives have been achieved and encourage the application of the acquired experience in antennas for space applications, such as X-band SAR and Ku-band DBS.

  7. Tools for quality control of fingerprint databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, B. Scott; Libert, John M.; Lepley, Margaret A.

    2010-04-01

    Integrity of fingerprint data is essential to biometric and forensic applications. Accordingly, the FBI's Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division has sponsored development of software tools to facilitate quality control functions relative to maintaining its fingerprint data assets inherent to the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) and Next Generation Identification (NGI). This paper provides an introduction of two such tools. The first FBI-sponsored tool was developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and examines and detects the spectral signature of the ridge-flow structure characteristic of friction ridge skin. The Spectral Image Validation/Verification (SIVV) utility differentiates fingerprints from non-fingerprints, including blank frames or segmentation failures erroneously included in data; provides a "first look" at image quality; and can identify anomalies in sample rates of scanned images. The SIVV utility might detect errors in individual 10-print fingerprints inaccurately segmented from the flat, multi-finger image acquired by one of the automated collection systems increasing in availability and usage. In such cases, the lost fingerprint can be recovered by re-segmentation from the now compressed multi-finger image record. The second FBI-sponsored tool, CropCoeff was developed by MITRE and thoroughly tested via NIST. CropCoeff enables cropping of the replacement single print directly from the compressed data file, thus avoiding decompression and recompression of images that might degrade fingerprint features necessary for matching.

  8. Electrically controlled band gap and topological phase transition in two-dimensional multilayer germanane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Jingshan; Li, Xiao; Qian, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Electrically controlled band gap and topological electronic states are important for the next-generation topological quantum devices. In this letter, we study the electric field control of band gap and topological phase transitions in multilayer germanane. We find that although the monolayer and multilayer germananes are normal insulators, a vertical electric field can significantly reduce the band gap of multilayer germananes owing to the giant Stark effect. The decrease of band gap eventually leads to band inversion, transforming them into topological insulators with nontrivial Z_2 invariant. The electrically controlled topological phase transition in multilayer germananes provides a potential route to manipulate topologically protected edge states and design topological quantum devices. This strategy should be generally applicable to a broad range of materials, including other two-dimensional materials and ultrathin films with controlled growth.

  9. Tools for controlling protein interactions with light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Chandra L.; Vrana, Justin D.; Kennedy, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically-encoded actuators that allow control of protein-protein interactions with light, termed ‘optical dimerizers’, are emerging as new tools for experimental biology. In recent years, numerous new and versatile dimerizer systems have been developed. Here we discuss the design of optical dimerizer experiments, including choice of a dimerizer system, photoexcitation sources, and coordinate use of imaging reporters. We provide detailed protocols for experiments using two dimerization systems we previously developed, CRY2/CIB and UVR8/UVR8, for use controlling transcription, protein localization, and protein secretion with light. Additionally, we provide instructions and software for constructing a pulse-controlled LED light device for use in experiments requiring extended light treatments. PMID:25181301

  10. Advanced tools for enhancing control room collaborations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abla, G.; Flanagan, S.M.; Peng, Q.; Burruss, J.R.; Schissel, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    The US National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) project has been exploring a variety of computer and network technologies to develop a persistent, efficient, reliable and convenient collaborative environment for magnetic fusion research. One goal is to enhance remote and collocated team collaboration by integrating collaboration software tools into control room operations as well as with data analysis tools. To achieve this goal, the NFC recently introduced two new collaboration technologies into the DIII-D tokamak control room. The first technology is a high-resolution, large format Shared Display Wall (SDW). By creating a shared public display space and providing real time visual information about the multiple aspects of complex experiment activity, the large SDW plays an important role in increasing the rate of information dissemination and promoting interaction among team members. The second technology being implemented is the 'tokamak control room aware' Instant Messaging (IM) service. In addition to providing text-chat capabilities for research scientists, it enables them to automatically receive information about experiment operations and data analysis processes to remotely monitor the status of ongoing tokamak experiment. As a result, the IM service has become a unified portal interface for team collaboration and remote participation

  11. Advanced tools for enhancing control room collaborations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abla, G. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 5608 (United States)]. E-mail: abla@fusion.gat.com; Flanagan, S.M. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 5608 (United States); Peng, Q. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 5608 (United States); Burruss, J.R. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 5608 (United States); Schissel, D.P. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 5608 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    The US National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) project has been exploring a variety of computer and network technologies to develop a persistent, efficient, reliable and convenient collaborative environment for magnetic fusion research. One goal is to enhance remote and collocated team collaboration by integrating collaboration software tools into control room operations as well as with data analysis tools. To achieve this goal, the NFC recently introduced two new collaboration technologies into the DIII-D tokamak control room. The first technology is a high-resolution, large format Shared Display Wall (SDW). By creating a shared public display space and providing real time visual information about the multiple aspects of complex experiment activity, the large SDW plays an important role in increasing the rate of information dissemination and promoting interaction among team members. The second technology being implemented is the 'tokamak control room aware' Instant Messaging (IM) service. In addition to providing text-chat capabilities for research scientists, it enables them to automatically receive information about experiment operations and data analysis processes to remotely monitor the status of ongoing tokamak experiment. As a result, the IM service has become a unified portal interface for team collaboration and remote participation.

  12. All-optical photonic band control in a quantum metamaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felbacq, D.; Rousseau, E. [University of Montpellier, Laboratory Charles Coulomb UMR CNRS-UM 5221, Montpellier (France)

    2017-09-15

    Metamaterials made of periodic collections of dielectric nanorods are considered theoretically. When quantum resonators are embedded within the nanorods, one obtains a quantum metamaterial, whose electromagnetic properties depend upon the state of the quantum resonators. The theoretical model predicts that when the resonators are pumped and reach the inversion regime, the quantum metamaterial exhibits an all-optical switchable conduction band. The phenomenon can be described by considering the pole stucture of the scattering matrix of the metamaterial. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Wide frequency independently controlled dual-band inkjet-printed antenna

    KAUST Repository

    AbuTarboush, Hattan F.; Shamim, Atif

    2014-01-01

    .2 and 23.7%, respectively. These dual-bands have the ability to be controlled independently between 1.1 and 7.5 GHz without affecting the other band. In addition, the proposed antenna can be assigned for different mobile and wireless applications

  14. Integrated tools for control-system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.; Proffitt, Melissa S.; Clark, David R.

    1989-01-01

    The basic functions embedded within a user friendly software package (MATRIXx) are used to provide a high level systems approach to the analysis of linear control systems. Various control system analysis configurations are assembled automatically to minimize the amount of work by the user. Interactive decision making is incorporated via menu options and at selected points, such as in the plotting section, by inputting data. There are five evaluations such as the singular value robustness test, singular value loop transfer frequency response, Bode frequency response, steady-state covariance analysis, and closed-loop eigenvalues. Another section describes time response simulations. A time response for random white noise disturbance is available. The configurations and key equations used for each type of analysis, the restrictions that apply, the type of data required, and an example problem are described. One approach for integrating the design and analysis tools is also presented.

  15. Active halo control through narrow-band excitation with the ADT at injection

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Joschka; Garcia Morales, Hector; Redaelli, Stefano; Valentino, Gianluca; Valuch, Daniel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    During this MD (MD1388), the capabilities of an active halo control for beam tail depletion in the LHC were tested. The studied method relies on using the Transverse Damper (ADT) to perform a narrow-band excitation.

  16. Piezoelectric-hydraulic pump based band brake actuation system for automotive transmission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Woo; Wang, K. W.

    2007-04-01

    The actuation system of friction elements (such as band brakes) is essential for high quality operations in modern automotive automatic transmissions (in short, ATs). The current band brake actuation system consists of several hydraulic components, including the oil pump, the regulating valve and the control valves. In general, it has been recognized that the current AT band brake actuation system has many limitations. For example, the oil pump and valve body are relatively heavy and complex. Also, the oil pumps induce inherently large drag torque, which affects fuel economy. This research is to overcome these problems of the current system by exploring the utilization of a hybrid type piezo-hydraulic pump device for AT band brake control. This new actuating system integrates a piezo-hydraulic pump to the input of the band brake. Compared with the current systems, this new actuator features much simpler structure, smaller size, and lower weight. This paper describes the development, design and fabrication of the new stand-alone prototype actuator for AT band brake control. An analytical model is developed and validated using experimental data. Performance tests on the hardware and system simulations utilizing the validated model are performed to characterize the new prototype actuator. It is predicted that with increasing of accumulator pressure and driving frequency, the proposed prototype actuating system will satisfy the band brake requirement for AT shift control.

  17. Tools for remote computing in accelerator control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderssen, P.S.; Frammery, V.; Wilcke, R.

    1990-01-01

    In modern accelerator control systems, the intelligence of the equipment is distributed in the geographical and the logical sense. Control processes for a large variety of tasks reside in both the equipment and the control computers. Hence successful operation hinges on the availability and reliability of the communication infrastructure. The computers are interconnected by a communication system and use remote procedure calls and message passing for information exchange. These communication mechanisms need a well-defined convention, i.e. a protocol. They also require flexibility in both the setup and changes to the protocol specification. The network compiler is a tool which provides the programmer with a means of establishing such a protocol for his application. Input to the network compiler is a single interface description file provided by the programmer. This file is written according to a grammar, and completely specifies the interprocess communication interfaces. Passed through the network compiler, the interface description file automatically produces the additional source code needed for the protocol. Hence the programmer does not have to be concerned about the details of the communication calls. Any further additions and modifications are made easy, because all the information about the interface is kept in a single file. (orig.)

  18. Evaluating control displays with the Engineering Control Analysis Tool (ECAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plott, B.

    2006-01-01

    In the Nuclear Power Industry increased use of automated sensors and advanced control systems is expected to reduce and/or change manning requirements. However, critical questions remain regarding the extent to which safety will be compromised if the cognitive workload associated with monitoring multiple automated systems is increased. Can operators/engineers maintain an acceptable level of performance if they are required to supervise multiple automated systems and respond appropriately to off-normal conditions? The interface to/from the automated systems must provide the information necessary for making appropriate decisions regarding intervention in the automated process, but be designed so that the cognitive load is neither too high nor too low for the operator who is responsible for the monitoring and decision making. This paper will describe a new tool that was developed to enhance the ability of human systems integration (HSI) professionals and systems engineers to identify operational tasks in which a high potential for human overload and error can be expected. The tool is entitled the Engineering Control Analysis Tool (ECAT). ECAT was designed and developed to assist in the analysis of: Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), operator task requirements, human error probabilities, workload prediction, potential control and display problems, and potential panel layout problems. (authors)

  19. Evaluating control displays with the Engineering Control Analysis Tool (ECAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plott, B. [Alion Science and Technology, MA and D Operation, 4949 Pearl E. Circle, 300, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    In the Nuclear Power Industry increased use of automated sensors and advanced control systems is expected to reduce and/or change manning requirements. However, critical questions remain regarding the extent to which safety will be compromised if the cognitive workload associated with monitoring multiple automated systems is increased. Can operators/engineers maintain an acceptable level of performance if they are required to supervise multiple automated systems and respond appropriately to off-normal conditions? The interface to/from the automated systems must provide the information necessary for making appropriate decisions regarding intervention in the automated process, but be designed so that the cognitive load is neither too high nor too low for the operator who is responsible for the monitoring and decision making. This paper will describe a new tool that was developed to enhance the ability of human systems integration (HSI) professionals and systems engineers to identify operational tasks in which a high potential for human overload and error can be expected. The tool is entitled the Engineering Control Analysis Tool (ECAT). ECAT was designed and developed to assist in the analysis of: Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), operator task requirements, human error probabilities, workload prediction, potential control and display problems, and potential panel layout problems. (authors)

  20. Wide-band polarization controller for Si photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velha, P; Sorianello, V; Preite, M V; De Angelis, G; Cassese, T; Bianchi, A; Testa, F; Romagnoli, M

    2016-12-15

    A circuit for the management of any arbitrary polarization state of light is demonstrated on an integrated silicon (Si) photonics platform. This circuit allows us to adapt any polarization into the standard fundamental TE mode of a Si waveguide and, conversely, to control the polarization and set it to any arbitrary polarization state. In addition, the integrated thermal tuning allows kilohertz speed which can be used to perform a polarization scrambler. The circuit was used in a WDM link and successfully used to adapt four channels into a standard Si photonic integrated circuit.

  1. Machine for controlling band-type 'essuimatic' hand towels (1962); Machine a controler les essuie-mains en bande du type essuimatic (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottignies, S; Ortiz, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    This machine is designed to control the band-towels in the form of 40 meters bands equipping the 'Essuimatic' distributors. It controls automatically the {alpha} and {beta}-{gamma} activity. The towel is driven by motors and passes under Geiger-Muller counters and then between zinc sulphide scintillators in conjunction with photomultipliers. Two distinct counting systems measure the total activity deposited on the cloth and, in order to give an idea of the distribution of this activity, count also the number of marks, that is, the number of times that the counting rate of the probes is above a certain value. After the passage of the cloth it is thus possible to know whether the count corresponding to the whole band is greater than that due to just the counter movement, and also whether this counting rate has not occasionally been greater than the average rate; it is thus possible to detect weak local contamination which could have been missed in an overall measurement of the cloth. (authors) [French] Cette machine est destinee a controler les linges essuie-mains sous forme de bande de 40 metres de longueur equipant les distributeurs 'ESSUIMATIC'. Elle effectue automatiquement un controle en {alpha} et en {beta}-{gamma}. Le linge entraine par un moteur passe. sous des compteurs Geiger-Muller, puis entre des scintillateurs au sulfure de zinc associes a des photomultiplicateurs. Deux chaines de comptage distinctes comptent l'activite totale deposee sur le linge et, en outre, pour donner une idee de la repartition de cette activite, elles comptent le nombre de taches, c'est-a-dire le nombre de fois que le taux de comptage des sondes est superieur a une certaine valeur. A la fin du passage du linge, il est donc possible de connaitre si le comptage correspondant a toute la bande est superieur a celui du au mouvement propre seul des compteurs et egalement de savoir si parfois ce taux de comptage n'a pas ete superieur au taux de comptage moyen, ce qui permet de detecter de

  2. Evaluation of Modern Tools of Controlling at the Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopenko Olga V.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and practical aspects of the use of tools for operational and strategic controlling at the enterprise are studied. There carried out a detailed analysis of modern tools of controlling with the subsequent identification of operational and strategic controlling tools that are most adapted for the application at domestic enterprises. Furthermore, the study highlights the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed tools for managers to choose the most effective ones for the implementation of operational and strategic controlling. For each enterprise managers should form its own set of controlling tools considering its individual characteristics and existing problems. Prospects for further research are practical application of the recommended tools and implementation of further analysis of the obtained results in terms of the effect from the introduction of specific controlling tools.

  3. Tools virtualization for command and control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczek, Marek; Maciejewski, Marcin; Pomianek, Mateusz; Szustakowski, Mieczysław

    2017-10-01

    Information management is an inseparable part of the command process. The result is that the person making decisions at the command post interacts with data providing devices in various ways. Tools virtualization process can introduce a number of significant modifications in the design of solutions for management and command. The general idea involves replacing physical devices user interface with their digital representation (so-called Virtual instruments). A more advanced level of the systems "digitalization" is to use the mixed reality environments. In solutions using Augmented reality (AR) customized HMI is displayed to the operator when he approaches to each device. Identification of device is done by image recognition of photo codes. Visualization is achieved by (optical) see-through head mounted display (HMD). Control can be done for example by means of a handheld touch panel. Using the immersive virtual environment, the command center can be digitally reconstructed. Workstation requires only VR system (HMD) and access to information network. Operator can interact with devices in such a way as it would perform in real world (for example with the virtual hands). Because of their procedures (an analysis of central vision, eye tracking) MR systems offers another useful feature of reducing requirements for system data throughput. Due to the fact that at the moment we focus on the single device. Experiments carried out using Moverio BT-200 and SteamVR systems and the results of experimental application testing clearly indicate the ability to create a fully functional information system with the use of mixed reality technology.

  4. Adaptive Hysteresis Band Current Control for Transformerless Single-Phase PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vázquez, Gerardo; Rodriguez, Pedro; Ordoñez, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Current control based on hysteresis algorithms are widely used in different applications, such as motion control, active filtering or active/reactive power delivery control in distributed generation systems. The hysteresis current control provides to the system a fast and robust dynamic response......, and requires a simple implementation in standard digital signal platforms. On the other hand, the main drawback of classical hysteresis current control lies in the fact that the switching frequency is variable, as the hysteresis band is fixed. In this paper a variable band hysteresis control algorithm...... different single-phase PV inverter topologies, by means of simulations performed with PSIM. In addition, the behavior of the thermal losses when using each control structure in such converters has been studied as well....

  5. Controlling - a useful tool for top management

    OpenAIRE

    Grigorut Cornel; Grigorut Lavinia-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Controlling outlines business policy of an enterprise, the term derives from an English word - to control - control, managing, setting rules and directing. The controller's duty is to serve the management as an economic navigator and to ensure that the company's ship reaches its profit targets. The controller has to be sure that he or she has an organizational support from the top management. It was suggested to establish the controlling department which can be applied to the systems of econo...

  6. Preparation of tools for lithographically controlled wetting and soft lithography

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Massmiliano Cavallini, Denis Gentili, Pierpaolo Greco, Francesco Valle & Fabio Biscarini ### Abstract This protocol provides the instructions for designing and fabricating stamping tools with features ranging from nanometer to micrometer scale, including the fabrication using commercial tools such as compact disks or digital video disks. In particular the reported procedures are oriented towards the tools fabrication for lithographically controlled wetting and soft lithograph...

  7. Multiband Planar Inverted-F Antenna with Independent Operating Bands Control for Mobile Handset Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha El Halaoui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new compact multiband PIFA (Planar Inverted-F Antenna for mobile handset is proposed in this article. The proposed PIFA has a simple geometry with four slots integrated in the radiating patch and ground plane. The PIFA occupies a small volume of 51 × 14 × 7.2 mm3 and is placed on the top portion of mobile phone. The optimized PIFA is worked in the 790 MHz band (737–831 MHz, the 1870 MHz band (1794–1977 MHz, the 2550 MHz band (2507–2615 MHz, and the 3400 MHz band (3341–3545 MHz, to cover LTE700, LTE800, DCS1800, PCS1900, LTE1800, LTE1900, LTE2500, and WIMAX3400 bands. Each of the four operating bands can be controlled independently by the variation of a single parameter of the proposed design, with a wide control range. An omnidirectional radiation pattern to each resonant frequency is obtained with a maximum gain of 2.15 dBi at 790 MHz, 3.99 dBi at 1870 MHz, 4.57 dBi at 2550 MHz, and 6.43 dBi at 3400 MHz. The proposed PIFA is studied in the free space and in the presence of other mobile phone components such as the battery, LCD (liquid crystal display, camera, microphone, speaker, buttons, and a plastic housing. The distribution of specific absorption rate for both European and American standards for each operating band and at various distances between the antenna and the human head is also studied.

  8. A Novel Chaos-Based Voice Controlled FTP Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Maruf Ozturk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To manage file transfer operation various tools have been developed so far. However these tools can not respond adequately for conduct a secure transfer. Also few works have been done using encrypted voice controlled system yet. By regarding this lack we investigate how to built a useful and secure tool. This work presents a novel improved voice controlled FTP tool Wb-CFTP using chaotic system. A chaotic system called as logistic map is associated with Wb-FTP designed on the basis of Asp.Net and C. Here we depict the prominence of encryption in voice controlled systems.

  9. Wide frequency independently controlled dual-band inkjet-printed antenna

    KAUST Repository

    AbuTarboush, Hattan F.

    2014-01-08

    A low-cost inkjet-printed multiband monopole antenna is presented. The unique advantage of the proposed antenna is the freedom to adjust and set the dual-band of the antenna independently over a wide range (148.83%). To demonstrate the independent control feature, the 2.4 and 3.4 GHz bands for the wireless local area network (WLAN) and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) applications are selected as an example. The measured impedance bandwidths for the 2.4 and 3.4 GHz are 15.2 and 23.7%, respectively. These dual-bands have the ability to be controlled independently between 1.1 and 7.5 GHz without affecting the other band. In addition, the proposed antenna can be assigned for different mobile and wireless applications such as GPS, PCS, GSM 1800, 1900, UMTS, and up to 5-GHz WLAN and WiMAX applications. The mechanism of independent control of each radiator through dimensional variation is discussed in detail. The antenna has a compact size of 10 × 37.3 × 0.44 mm3, leaving enough space for the driving electronics on the paper substrate. The measured results from the prototype are in good agreement with the simulated results. Owing to inkjet printing on an ordinary paper, the design is extremely light weight and highly suitable for low cost and large volume manufacturing. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2013.

  10. New tools for the stability control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melera, J.; Albendea, M.; Escriva, A.; Munoz-Cobos, L. L.; Montesinos

    2006-01-01

    IBERDROLA INGENIERIA y CONSTRUCCION, IBERDROLA GENERACION and the polytechnical Univisty of Valencia, are carrying out a project of R and D called DROP (Decay Ratio on-line Predictor) whose objective is to create a tool (predictor and monitor) for on-line monitoring of the thermal-hydraulic stability during the operation of BWR reactors. DROP is intended to be integrated in CAPRICOPE; the Core Monitoring System of Cofrentes NPP, to allow supervisors to known stability margins during the operation, simplifying reactor start-up and shutdown. In transient conditions, the knowledge of reactor stability will avoid reactor unplanned shutdowns. (Author) 11 refs

  11. Training health and safety committees to use control banding: lessons learned and opportunities for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracker, Anne L; Morse, Timothy F; Simcox, Nancy J

    2009-05-01

    Control banding (CB) is a control-focused risk management model that has received international attention. CB strategies are designed to control workplace chemical exposures after the completion of a qualitative risk assessment. Connecticut was one of the first states to provide training on how to use this control-focused tool. Joint labor/management teams and individuals from 34 workplaces attended a control banding workshop and learned how to use one CB model, the United Kingdom (UK) Health and Safety Executive's Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials Toolkit. After the initial training program the investigators used follow-up workshops, questionnaires, site visit data, and case studies to evaluate the training curriculum and assess the utility and effectiveness of this CB strategy. We found that the model is easily learned, although several areas for improvement were identified. Participants from 10 workplaces used COSHH Essentials to evaluate at least one task. The training curriculum was effective in that the agreement between the exposure variables coded by these workplaces and one of the workshop instructors, a certified industrial hygienist (CIH), were highly concordant. The training curriculum and the model promoted a discussion of risk between workers and managers and resulted in the implementation of improvements in the work environment. The model agreed with both the CIH's and the worksites' qualitative risk assessments 65% of the time, and likely over-controlled for 71% (5/7) of the cases of nonagreement. Feedback from workshop participants benefits the current dialogue on the implications of implementing CB in the United States.

  12. IT-tool Concept for Design and Intelligent Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Hansen, Poul Erik; Sørensen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents results obtained from a Danish mechatronic research program focusing on intelligent motion control as well as results from the Esprit project SWING on IT-tools for rapid prototyping of fluid power components and systems. A mechatronic test facility with digital controllers for ....... Furthermore, a developed IT-tool concept for controller and system design utilising the ISO 10303 STEP Standard is proposed....

  13. Cleaning and excavating tool for control rod canopy seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a device for servicing a weld site about the periphery of a control rod drive mechanism. It comprises a housing adapted to be rotated about the periphery of the control rod drive mechanism; a carriage reciprocably received within the housing; first movement means for reciprocating the carriage in a first direction; a tool attachment reciprocably received within the carriage; and second movement means for reciprocating the tool in a second direction; wherein the tool attachment is positioned relative to the control rod drive mechanism by the first and second movement means

  14. Band gap control in a line-defect magnonic crystal waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozova, M. A., E-mail: mamorozovama@yandex.ru; Grishin, S. V.; Sadovnikov, A. V.; Romanenko, D. V.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Nikitov, S. A. [Laboratory ' Metamaterials,' Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-14

    We report on the experimental observation of the spin wave spectrum control in a line-defect magnonic crystal (MC) waveguide. We demonstrate the possibility to control the forbidden frequency band (band gap) for spin waves tuning the line-defect width. In particular, this frequency may be greater or lower than the one of 1D MC waveguide without line-defect. By means of space-resolved Brillouin light scattering technique, we study the localization of magnetization amplitude in the line-defect area. We show that the length of this localization region depends on the line-defect width. These results agree well with theoretical calculations of spin wave spectrum using the proposed model of two coupled magnonic crystal waveguides. The proposed simple geometry of MC with line-defect can be used as a logic and multiplexing block for application in the novel field of magnonic devices.

  15. Seven Basic Tools of Quality Control: An Appropriate Tools for Solving Quality Problems in the Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Neyestani, Behnam

    2017-01-01

    Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa was first total quality management guru, who has been associated with the development and advocacy of using the seven quality control (QC) tools in the organizations for problem solving and process improvements. Seven old quality control tools are a set of the QC tools that can be used for improving the performance of the production processes, from the first step of producing a product or service to the last stage of production. So, the general purpose of this paper was to...

  16. Tool-effect: Controls on Landscape Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenbring, J. K.; Brocard, G. Y.; Salles, T.; Harrison, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    The ability of rivers to cut through rock and to remove former land surfaces sets the pace of landscape response to mountain uplift. Because of associations between tectonism, river incision, erosion, carbon burial and silicate weathering, high rates of rock uplift are thought to initiate a cascade of processes that are linked to sequestration of CO2 over geologic timescales. However, even in some cases of landscapes experiencing rapid uplift, some portions of landscapes remain unchanged or `relict' for long periods and the fluxes of chemical weathering and physical erosion do not reflect the new tectonic regime-sometimes for millions of years following uplift. These relict portions of the landscape are often composed of subdued topography with thick soils. River incision is achieved by various processes, but one of the main contributors is bedrock abrasion by bedload. Here, we show how the presence of flat, relict landscapes in headwaters can lead to reduced incision rates and low erosion fluxes. We use a known pulse of uplift in Puerto Rico and track the river response to the uplift over time to illustrate a how landscapes in hot, humid climates can persist for millions of years even after rapid mountain uplift. We run experiments on simplified topography using numerical landscape evolution models. Typically, numerical landscape evolution models apply a standard stream power law model, whereby river incision is proportional to basal shear stress or unit stream power, and is not affected by gravel flux. We implement a formulation of the tool and cover effect model, and then we added a reinforcing effect of weathering on this process, by implementing a gravel production function. This function simulates the effect of the residence time of rocks in soil, which is expected to affect the grain-size distribution of the particles in the soil, with lower erosion rates, and longer residence time further decreasing the proportion of gravel delivered to the streams. We find

  17. Tool position tracking control of a nonlinear uncertain flexible robot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Robot manipulators have become progressively important in the field of flexible ... this research, tracking of tool position and minimization of motor torque are ...... and Menhaj M B 2013a Position and current control of a permanent-magnet syn-.

  18. Comparison of quality control software tools for diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bilan; Zhu, Tong; Zhong, Jianhui

    2015-04-01

    Image quality of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is critical for image interpretation, diagnostic accuracy and efficiency. However, DTI is susceptible to numerous detrimental artifacts that may impair the reliability and validity of the obtained data. Although many quality control (QC) software tools are being developed and are widely used and each has its different tradeoffs, there is still no general agreement on an image quality control routine for DTIs, and the practical impact of these tradeoffs is not well studied. An objective comparison that identifies the pros and cons of each of the QC tools will be helpful for the users to make the best choice among tools for specific DTI applications. This study aims to quantitatively compare the effectiveness of three popular QC tools including DTI studio (Johns Hopkins University), DTIprep (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of Iowa and University of Utah) and TORTOISE (National Institute of Health). Both synthetic and in vivo human brain data were used to quantify adverse effects of major DTI artifacts to tensor calculation as well as the effectiveness of different QC tools in identifying and correcting these artifacts. The technical basis of each tool was discussed, and the ways in which particular techniques affect the output of each of the tools were analyzed. The different functions and I/O formats that three QC tools provide for building a general DTI processing pipeline and integration with other popular image processing tools were also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Control of fibre laser mode-locking by narrow-band Bragg gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laegsgaard, J

    2008-01-01

    The use of narrow-band high-reflectivity fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) as end mirrors in a fibre laser cavity with passive mode-locking provided by a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) is investigated numerically. The FBG is found to control the energy range of stable mode-locking, which may be shifted far outside the regime of SESAM saturation by a suitable choice of FBG and cavity length. The pulse shape is controlled by the combined effects of FBG dispersion and self-phase modulation in the fibres, and a few ps pulses can be obtained with standard uniform FBGs

  20. Aging in autonomic control by multifractal studies of cardiac interbeat intervals in the VLF band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowiec, Danuta; Kryszewski, Stanisław; Rynkiewicz, Andrzej; Wdowczyk-Szulc, Joanna; Żarczyńska-Buchowiecka, Marta; Gałąska, Rafał

    2011-01-01

    The heart rate responds dynamically to various intrinsic and environmental stimuli. The autonomic nervous system is said to play a major role in this response. Multifractal analysis offers a novel method to assess the response of cardiac interbeat intervals. Twenty-four hour ECG recordings of RR interbeat intervals (of 48 elderly volunteers (age 65–94), 40 middle-aged persons (age 45–53) and 36 young adults (age 18–26)) were investigated to study the effect of aging on autonomic regulation during normal activity in healthy adults. Heart RR-interval variability in the very low frequency (VLF) band (32–420 RR intervals) was evaluated by multifractal tools. The nocturnal and diurnal signals of 6 h duration were studied separately. For each signal, the analysis was performed twice: for a given signal and for the integrated signal. A multifractal spectrum was quantified by the h max value at which a multifractal spectrum attained its maximum, width of a spectrum, Hurst exponent, extreme events h left and distance between the maxima of a signal and its integrated counterpart. The following seven characteristics are suggested as quantifying the age-related decrease in the autonomic function ('int' refers to the integrated signal): (a) h sleep max − h max wake > 0.05 for a signal; (b) h int max > 1.15 for wake; (c) h int max − h max > 0.85 for sleep; (d) Hurst wake − Hurst sleep < 0.01; (e) width wake > 0.07; (f) width int < 0.30 for sleep; (g) h int left > 0.75. Eighty-one percent of elderly people had at least four of these properties, and ninety-two percent of young people had three or less. This shows that the multifractal approach offers a concise and reliable index of healthy aging for each individual. Additionally, the applied method yielded insights into dynamical changes in the autonomic regulation due to the circadian cycle and aging. Our observations support the hypothesis that imbalance in the autonomic control due to healthy aging could

  1. Cognitive control during audiovisual working memory engages frontotemporal theta-band interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daume, Jonathan; Graetz, Sebastian; Gruber, Thomas; Engel, Andreas K; Friese, Uwe

    2017-10-03

    Working memory (WM) maintenance of sensory information has been associated with enhanced cross-frequency coupling between the phase of low frequencies and the amplitude of high frequencies, particularly in medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions. It has been suggested that these WM maintenance processes are controlled by areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) via frontotemporal phase synchronisation in low frequency bands. Here, we investigated whether enhanced cognitive control during audiovisual WM as compared to visual WM alone is associated with increased low-frequency phase synchronisation between sensory areas maintaining WM content and areas from PFC. Using magnetoencephalography, we recorded neural oscillatory activity from healthy human participants engaged in an audiovisual delayed-match-to-sample task. We observed that regions from MTL, which showed enhanced theta-beta phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) during the WM delay window, exhibited stronger phase synchronisation within the theta-band (4-7 Hz) to areas from lateral PFC during audiovisual WM as compared to visual WM alone. Moreover, MTL areas also showed enhanced phase synchronisation to temporooccipital areas in the beta-band (20-32 Hz). Our results provide further evidence that a combination of long-range phase synchronisation and local PAC might constitute a mechanism for neuronal communication between distant brain regions and across frequencies during WM maintenance.

  2. Surface origin and control of resonance Raman scattering and surface band gap in indium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarcón-Lladó, Esther; Brazzini, Tommaso; Ager, Joel W

    2016-01-01

    Resonance Raman scattering measurements were performed on indium nitride thin films under conditions where the surface electron concentration was controlled by an electrolyte gate. As the surface condition is tuned from electron depletion to accumulation, the spectral feature at the expected position of the ( E 1 , A 1 ) longitudinal optical (LO) near 590 cm −1 shifts to lower frequency. The shift is reversibly controlled with the applied gate potential, which clearly demonstrates the surface origin of this feature. The result is interpreted within the framework of a Martin double resonance, where the surface functions as a planar defect, allowing the scattering of long wavevector phonons. The allowed wavevector range, and hence the frequency, is modulated by the electron accumulation due to band gap narrowing. A surface band gap reduction of over 500 meV is estimated for the conditions of maximum electron accumulation. Under conditions of electron depletion, the full InN bandgap ( E g   =  0.65 eV) is expected at the surface. The drastic change in the surface band gap is expected to influence the transport properties of devices which utilize the surface electron accumulation layer. (paper)

  3. Surface origin and control of resonance Raman scattering and surface band gap in indium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Lladó, Esther; Brazzini, Tommaso; Ager, Joel W.

    2016-06-01

    Resonance Raman scattering measurements were performed on indium nitride thin films under conditions where the surface electron concentration was controlled by an electrolyte gate. As the surface condition is tuned from electron depletion to accumulation, the spectral feature at the expected position of the (E 1, A 1) longitudinal optical (LO) near 590 cm-1 shifts to lower frequency. The shift is reversibly controlled with the applied gate potential, which clearly demonstrates the surface origin of this feature. The result is interpreted within the framework of a Martin double resonance, where the surface functions as a planar defect, allowing the scattering of long wavevector phonons. The allowed wavevector range, and hence the frequency, is modulated by the electron accumulation due to band gap narrowing. A surface band gap reduction of over 500 meV is estimated for the conditions of maximum electron accumulation. Under conditions of electron depletion, the full InN bandgap (E g  =  0.65 eV) is expected at the surface. The drastic change in the surface band gap is expected to influence the transport properties of devices which utilize the surface electron accumulation layer.

  4. Distributed Engine Control Empirical/Analytical Verification Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCastro, Jonathan; Hettler, Eric; Yedavalli, Rama; Mitra, Sayan

    2013-01-01

    NASA's vision for an intelligent engine will be realized with the development of a truly distributed control system featuring highly reliable, modular, and dependable components capable of both surviving the harsh engine operating environment and decentralized functionality. A set of control system verification tools was developed and applied to a C-MAPSS40K engine model, and metrics were established to assess the stability and performance of these control systems on the same platform. A software tool was developed that allows designers to assemble easily a distributed control system in software and immediately assess the overall impacts of the system on the target (simulated) platform, allowing control system designers to converge rapidly on acceptable architectures with consideration to all required hardware elements. The software developed in this program will be installed on a distributed hardware-in-the-loop (DHIL) simulation tool to assist NASA and the Distributed Engine Control Working Group (DECWG) in integrating DCS (distributed engine control systems) components onto existing and next-generation engines.The distributed engine control simulator blockset for MATLAB/Simulink and hardware simulator provides the capability to simulate virtual subcomponents, as well as swap actual subcomponents for hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) analysis. Subcomponents can be the communication network, smart sensor or actuator nodes, or a centralized control system. The distributed engine control blockset for MATLAB/Simulink is a software development tool. The software includes an engine simulation, a communication network simulation, control algorithms, and analysis algorithms set up in a modular environment for rapid simulation of different network architectures; the hardware consists of an embedded device running parts of the CMAPSS engine simulator and controlled through Simulink. The distributed engine control simulation, evaluation, and analysis technology provides unique

  5. Enhanced methodology of focus control and monitoring on scanner tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Jen; Kim, Young Ki; Hao, Xueli; Gomez, Juan-Manuel; Tian, Ye; Kamalizadeh, Ferhad; Hanson, Justin K.

    2017-03-01

    As the demand of the technology node shrinks from 14nm to 7nm, the reliability of tool monitoring techniques in advanced semiconductor fabs to achieve high yield and quality becomes more critical. Tool health monitoring methods involve periodic sampling of moderately processed test wafers to detect for particles, defects, and tool stability in order to ensure proper tool health. For lithography TWINSCAN scanner tools, the requirements for overlay stability and focus control are very strict. Current scanner tool health monitoring methods include running BaseLiner to ensure proper tool stability on a periodic basis. The focus measurement on YIELDSTAR by real-time or library-based reconstruction of critical dimensions (CD) and side wall angle (SWA) has been demonstrated as an accurate metrology input to the control loop. The high accuracy and repeatability of the YIELDSTAR focus measurement provides a common reference of scanner setup and user process. In order to further improve the metrology and matching performance, Diffraction Based Focus (DBF) metrology enabling accurate, fast, and non-destructive focus acquisition, has been successfully utilized for focus monitoring/control of TWINSCAN NXT immersion scanners. The optimal DBF target was determined to have minimized dose crosstalk, dynamic precision, set-get residual, and lens aberration sensitivity. By exploiting this new measurement target design, 80% improvement in tool-to-tool matching, >16% improvement in run-to-run mean focus stability, and >32% improvement in focus uniformity have been demonstrated compared to the previous BaseLiner methodology. Matching control and monitoring on multiple illumination conditions, opens an avenue to significantly reduce Focus-Exposure Matrix (FEM) wafer exposure for new product/layer best focus (BF) setup.

  6. Multiscale Software Tool for Controls Prototyping in Supersonic Combustors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pindera, M

    2004-01-01

    .... In Phase I we have developed a proof-of-concept version of such a tool. We have developed a model-free direct control strategy with on-line training and demonstrated its capabilities in controlling isolator unstart in a hypersonic combustor...

  7. Communication and control tools, systems, and new dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    MacDougall, Robert; Cummings, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Communication and Control: Tools, Systems, and New Dimensions advocates a systems view of human communication in a time of intelligent, learning machines. This edited collection sheds new light on things as mundane yet still profoundly consequential (and seemingly "low-tech") today as push buttons, pagers and telemarketing systems. Contributors also investigate aspects of "remote control" related to education, organizational design, artificial intelligence, cyberwarfa

  8. NPP capital equipment life control facilities and tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekrasov, A.V.; Proskuryakov, K.N.

    2009-01-01

    Algorithms and simulation package for calculation of eigen modes of coolant pressure oscillations in equipment of primary coolant circuit of WWER-1000 NPP, tuned-circuit Q-factor of an oscillating contour of the coolant, fluctuation frequencies pass band and attenuation factors of were developed. Calculation results for cases of presence and absence of gaseous state radiolysis products in the coolant were obtained. Results analysis makes it possible to disclose operating conditions which result in raised vibrations, and to develop control response in NPP industrial control system for their prevention [ru

  9. Controlling the conduction band offset for highly efficient ZnO nanorods based perovskite solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Juan; Shi, Jiangjian; Li, Dongmei; Luo, Yanhong; Meng, Qingbo

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of charge recombination at the interface of n-type electron transport layer (n-ETL) and perovskite absorber on the carrier properties in the perovskite solar cell is theoretically studied. By solving the one dimensional diffusion equation with different boundary conditions, it reveals that the interface charge recombination in the perovskite solar cell can be suppressed by adjusting the conduction band offset (ΔE C ) at ZnO ETL/perovskite absorber interface, thus leading to improvements in cell performance. Furthermore, Mg doped ZnO nanorods ETL has been designed to control the energy band levels. By optimizing the doping amount of Mg, the conduction band minimum of the Mg doped ZnO ETL has been raised up by 0.29 eV and a positive ΔE C of about 0.1 eV is obtained. The photovoltage of the cell is thus significantly increased due to the relatively low charge recombination

  10. Controlling open quantum systems: tools, achievements, and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Christiane P

    2016-01-01

    The advent of quantum devices, which exploit the two essential elements of quantum physics, coherence and entanglement, has sparked renewed interest in the control of open quantum systems. Successful implementations face the challenge of preserving relevant nonclassical features at the level of device operation. A major obstacle is decoherence, which is caused by interaction with the environment. Optimal control theory is a tool that can be used to identify control strategies in the presence of decoherence. Here we review recent advances in optimal control methodology that allow typical tasks in device operation for open quantum systems to be tackled and discuss examples of relaxation-optimized dynamics. Optimal control theory is also a useful tool to exploit the environment for control. We discuss examples and point out possible future extensions. (topical review)

  11. Automatized material and radioactivity flow control tool in decommissioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, I.; Vasko, M.; Daniska, V.; Schultz, O.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation the automatized material and radioactivity flow control tool in decommissioning process is discussed. It is concluded that: computer simulation of the decommissioning process is one of the important attributes of computer code Omega; one of the basic tools of computer optimisation of decommissioning waste processing are the tools of integral material and radioactivity flow; all the calculated parameters of materials are stored in each point of calculation process and they can be viewed; computer code Omega represents opened modular system, which can be improved; improvement of the module of optimisation of decommissioning waste processing will be performed in the frame of improvement of material procedures and scenarios.

  12. Blueshift of the silver plasmon band using controlled nanoparticle dissolution in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kneipp, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report the size-dependent blue shift of the silver nanoparticle plasmon band in aqueous solution by means of UV/VIS spectroscopy. An oxidative dissolution scheme allows a gradual decrease in the particle sizes by controlled oxidation during recording of the optical spectra. Hence......-dependence of the plasmon peak energy is seen, which is interpreted as an increase in the free electron density of the nanoparticles. Utilization of the size-dependent electronic contribution to the optical response in nanoplasmonic sensors is shown to be a promising extension to improve the sensitivity and specificity...

  13. Controlling open quantum systems: Tools, achievements, and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Christiane P.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of quantum devices, which exploit the two essential elements of quantum physics, coherence and entanglement, has sparked renewed interest in the control of open quantum systems. Successful implementations face the challenge to preserve the relevant nonclassical features at the level of device operation. A major obstacle is decoherence which is caused by interaction with the environment. Optimal control theory is a tool that can be used to identify control strategies in the presence...

  14. Legged locomotion : Balance, control and tools - from equation to action

    OpenAIRE

    Ridderström, Christian

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is about control and balance stability of leggedlocomotion. It also presents a combination of tools that makesit easier to design controllers for large and complicated robotsystems. The thesis is divided into four parts. The first part studies and analyzes how walking machines arecontrolled, examining the literature of over twenty machinesbriefly, and six machines in detail. The goal is to understandhow the controllers work on a level below task and pathplanning, but above actuato...

  15. Design and development of low level S-Band RF control system for IRFEL injector LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohania, Praveen; Mahawar, Ashish; Singh, Adarsh Pratap; Namdeo, Rajkumar; Baxy, Deodatta; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2015-01-01

    A low level RF system has been designed and developed for phase and amplitude stabilization of S- Band microwave power being fed to fundamental buncher cavity and the injector LINAC structure of the Infra Red Free Electron Laser being developed at RRCAT Indore. The system uses analog phase shifters and voltage variable attenuators to control the phase and amplitude respectively, the control voltages for phase shifters and attenuators are generated using a 12 Bit ADC and is software controlled. The system has a slow feedback to correct phase and amplitude drifts occurring due to thermal variations and a fast feed forward mechanism to vary amplitude and phase of the output pulse to compensate beam loading and to shape the klystron output power. The present paper describes the design aspects of the LLRF system. (author)

  16. Operational and Strategic Controlling Tools in Microenterprises - Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsek-Ciechońska, Justyna

    2017-12-01

    Globalisation and increasing requirements of the environment cause the executives and supervisors to search for more and more perfect solutions, allowing them to streamline and improve the effectiveness of company operations. One of such tools, used more and more often, is controlling, the role of which has substantially increased in the recent years. It is already implemented not only in large companies with foreign capital, but also in increasingly smaller entities, which begin to notice the positive effects of the implications of the principles and tools of controlling - both operational and strategic. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate the practical side of controlling tools that can be used for the purposes of operations conducted by microenterprises.

  17. A Statistical Project Control Tool for Engineering Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Garland T.

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of a Statistical Project Control Tool (SPCT) for managing engineering projects. A literature review pointed to a definition of project success, (i.e., A project is successful when the cost, schedule, technical performance, and quality satisfy the customer.) The literature review also pointed to project success factors, and traditional project control tools, and performance measures that are detailed in the report. The essential problem is that with resources becoming more limited, and an increasing number or projects, project failure is increasing, there is a limitation of existing methods and systematic methods are required. The objective of the work is to provide a new statistical project control tool for project managers. Graphs using the SPCT method plotting results of 3 successful projects and 3 failed projects are reviewed, with success and failure being defined by the owner.

  18. XSC plasma control: Tool development for the session leader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosino, G.; Albanese, R.; Ariola, M.; Cenedese, A.; Crisanti, F.; Tommasi, G. De; Mattei, M.; Piccolo, F.; Pironti, A.; Sartori, F.; Villone, F.

    2005-01-01

    A new model-based shape controller (XSC, i.e., eXtreme Shape Controller) able to operate with high elongation and triangularity plasmas has been designed and implemented at JET in 2003. The use of the XSC needs a number of steps, which at present are not automated and therefore imply the involvement of several experts. To help the session leader in preparing an experiment, a number of software tools are needed. The paper describes the SW tools that are currently in the developing phase, and describes the new framework for the preparation of a JET experiment

  19. Dialysis shunt-associated steal syndrome (DASS) following brachial accesses: the value of fistula banding under blood flow control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermann, Florian; Ukkat, Jörg; Wollert, Ulrich; Dralle, Henning; Brauckhoff, Michael

    2007-11-01

    Dialysis shunt-associated steal syndrome (DASS) is a rare complication of hemodialysis access (HA) which preferably occurs in brachial fistulas. Treatment options are discussed controversially. Aim of this study was to evaluate flow-controlled fistula banding. Patients treated between 2002 and 2006 were included in this prospective survey. According to a classification we established, patients were typed DASS I-III (I: short history, no dermal lesions; II: long history, skin lesions; III: long history, gangrene). Surgical therapy was HA banding including controlled reduction (about 50% of initial flow) of HA blood flow (patients type I and II). Patients with type III underwent closure of the HA. In 15 patients with relevant DASS, blood-flow-controlled banding was performed. In ten patients (all type I), banding led to restitution of the hand function while preserving the HA. In five patients (all type II), banding was not successful; in two patients, closure of the HA was performed eventually. In five patients (type III), primary closure of the HA was performed. Four patients with DASS type II but only two with DASS type I had diabetes mellitus (p = 0.006). Banding under blood flow control resulting in an approximately 50% reduction in the initial blood flow is an adequate therapeutic option in patients with brachial HA and type I-DASS. In type II-DASS, banding does not lead to satisfying results, more complex surgical options might be more successful. Diabetes is associated with poor HA outcome in case of DASS.

  20. Monitoring control program as a tool for regulatory control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Peres, Sueli da; Lauria, Dejanaira C.; Martins, Nadia S.F.; Rio, Monica A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) of the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for developing, establishing and carrying out an independent assessment to verify the adequacy, effectiveness and accuracy of environmental radiological control carried out by licensed and controlled facilities. This independent assessment is performed by Environmental Monitoring Control Program (MCP). The MCP is a regulatory control and its main goal is to provide public and environment with an appropriate protection level against harmful effects of ionising radiation. The main purpose of the MCP is to verify whether applicable requirements prescribed by legislation are met, the environmental radiological control of the facilities are adequate and effective and the facilities are able to generate valid measuring results. The MCP is carried out in order to evaluate the quality of environmental radiation monitoring programs (EMP) and the effectiveness of their implementation, sampling conditions in the field, changes of environmental aspects in the impact area, adequacy of and adherence to procedures established and other applicable documents, technical competence of the staff and the necessary resources to ensure the required quality of the EMP. The MCP has been performed by activities should include inspecting and auditing of several types of nuclear and radioactive facilities. The inspection programme include the joint sampling program (CCP). The aim of the CCP is to check data of environmental monitoring of operator. The MCP was implemented in 1994. Ever since several problems related to the environmental control performed by operator was identified. The most important of them include problems related to the preparation and analysis of environmental samples, training of personnel, necessary resources, adherence of procedures to the purpose of the monitoring, fulfillment of procedures established, adequacy of the EMP and EMP

  1. Integrated Tools for Future Distributed Engine Control Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Dennis; Thomas, Randy; Saus, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Turbine engines are highly complex mechanical systems that are becoming increasingly dependent on control technologies to achieve system performance and safety metrics. However, the contribution of controls to these measurable system objectives is difficult to quantify due to a lack of tools capable of informing the decision makers. This shortcoming hinders technology insertion in the engine design process. NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a Hardware-inthe- Loop (HIL) platform and analysis tool set that will serve as a focal point for new control technologies, especially those related to the hardware development and integration of distributed engine control. The HIL platform is intended to enable rapid and detailed evaluation of new engine control applications, from conceptual design through hardware development, in order to quantify their impact on engine systems. This paper discusses the complex interactions of the control system, within the context of the larger engine system, and how new control technologies are changing that paradigm. The conceptual design of the new HIL platform is then described as a primary tool to address those interactions and how it will help feed the insertion of new technologies into future engine systems.

  2. Analysis and control of wakefields in X-band crab cavities for Compact Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambattu, P.K., E-mail: praveen-kumar.ambattu@stfc.ac.uk [Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4 YW (United Kingdom); Burt, G. [Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4 YW (United Kingdom); Khan, V.F.; Jones, R.M. [Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Dexter, A. [Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4 YW (United Kingdom); Dolgashev, V. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2011-11-21

    The Compact Linear Collider requires a crab cavity on each beamline prior to the interaction point to rotate the bunches before collision. The cavities are X-band travelling wave type and are located close to the final doublet of the beam delivery system. This makes the beam very sensitive to transverse momentum imparted by wakefields; hence the wakefields must be tightly controlled. Of special concerns are the orthogonal polarisation of the operating mode and the fundamental monopole mode of the crab cavity. The former mode is at the same frequency as the operating mode of a cylindrically symmetric cavity and the latter one is at a lower frequency and hence is difficult to damp using a single means. In this paper major problematic modes of the crab cavity are investigated and damping requirements for them are calculated. Possibility of meeting the required wakefield control using waveguide damping and choke damping is thoroughly investigated. As a comparison, damped-detuning is also investigated.

  3. Can control banding be useful for the safe handling of nanomaterials? A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastlake, Adrienne; Zumwalde, Ralph; Geraci, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Control banding (CB) is a risk management strategy that has been used to identify and recommend exposure control measures to potentially hazardous substances for which toxicological information is limited. The application of CB and level of expertise required for implementation and management can differ depending on knowledge of the hazard potential, the likelihood of exposure, and the ability to verify the effectiveness of exposure control measures. A number of different strategies have been proposed for using CB in workplaces where exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) can occur. However, it is unclear if the use of CB can effectively reduce worker exposure to nanomaterials. A systematic review of studies was conducted to answer the question “can control banding be useful to ensure adequate controls for the safe handling of nanomaterials.” A variety of databases were searched to identify relevant studies pertaining to CB. Database search terms included ‘control,’ ‘hazard,’ ‘exposure,’ and ‘risk’ banding as well as the use of these terms in the context of nanotechnology or nanomaterials. Other potentially relevant studies were identified during the review of articles obtained in the systematic review process. Identification of studies and the extraction of data were independently conducted by the reviewers. Quality of the studies was assessed using the methodological index for nonrandomized studies. The quality of the evidence was evaluated using grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE). A total of 235 records were identified in the database search in which 70 records were determined to be eligible for full-text review. Only two studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. These studies evaluated the application of the CB Nanotool in workplaces where ENMs were being handled. A total of 32 different nanomaterial handling activities were evaluated in these studies by comparing the recommended

  4. Can control banding be useful for the safe handling of nanomaterials? A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastlake, Adrienne; Zumwalde, Ralph; Geraci, Charles

    2016-06-01

    Control banding (CB) is a risk management strategy that has been used to identify and recommend exposure control measures to potentially hazardous substances for which toxicological information is limited. The application of CB and level of expertise required for implementation and management can differ depending on knowledge of the hazard potential, the likelihood of exposure, and the ability to verify the effectiveness of exposure control measures. A number of different strategies have been proposed for using CB in workplaces where exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) can occur. However, it is unclear if the use of CB can effectively reduce worker exposure to nanomaterials. A systematic review of studies was conducted to answer the question "can control banding be useful to ensure adequate controls for the safe handling of nanomaterials." A variety of databases were searched to identify relevant studies pertaining to CB. Database search terms included `control,' `hazard,' `exposure,' and `risk' banding as well as the use of these terms in the context of nanotechnology or nanomaterials. Other potentially relevant studies were identified during the review of articles obtained in the systematic review process. Identification of studies and the extraction of data were independently conducted by the reviewers. Quality of the studies was assessed using the methodological index for nonrandomized studies. The quality of the evidence was evaluated using grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE). A total of 235 records were identified in the database search in which 70 records were determined to be eligible for full-text review. Only two studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. These studies evaluated the application of the CB Nanotool in workplaces where ENMs were being handled. A total of 32 different nanomaterial handling activities were evaluated in these studies by comparing the recommended exposure controls using

  5. Can control banding be useful for the safe handling of nanomaterials? A systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastlake, Adrienne, E-mail: aeastlake@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Nanotechnology Research Center (United States); Zumwalde, Ralph [RCS Corporation (United States); Geraci, Charles [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Nanotechnology Research Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Control banding (CB) is a risk management strategy that has been used to identify and recommend exposure control measures to potentially hazardous substances for which toxicological information is limited. The application of CB and level of expertise required for implementation and management can differ depending on knowledge of the hazard potential, the likelihood of exposure, and the ability to verify the effectiveness of exposure control measures. A number of different strategies have been proposed for using CB in workplaces where exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) can occur. However, it is unclear if the use of CB can effectively reduce worker exposure to nanomaterials. A systematic review of studies was conducted to answer the question “can control banding be useful to ensure adequate controls for the safe handling of nanomaterials.” A variety of databases were searched to identify relevant studies pertaining to CB. Database search terms included ‘control,’ ‘hazard,’ ‘exposure,’ and ‘risk’ banding as well as the use of these terms in the context of nanotechnology or nanomaterials. Other potentially relevant studies were identified during the review of articles obtained in the systematic review process. Identification of studies and the extraction of data were independently conducted by the reviewers. Quality of the studies was assessed using the methodological index for nonrandomized studies. The quality of the evidence was evaluated using grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE). A total of 235 records were identified in the database search in which 70 records were determined to be eligible for full-text review. Only two studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. These studies evaluated the application of the CB Nanotool in workplaces where ENMs were being handled. A total of 32 different nanomaterial handling activities were evaluated in these studies by comparing the recommended

  6. High Accuracy Nonlinear Control and Estimation for Machine Tool Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papageorgiou, Dimitrios

    Component mass production has been the backbone of industry since the second industrial revolution, and machine tools are producing parts of widely varying size and design complexity. The ever-increasing level of automation in modern manufacturing processes necessitates the use of more...... sophisticated machine tool systems that are adaptable to different workspace conditions, while at the same time being able to maintain very narrow workpiece tolerances. The main topic of this thesis is to suggest control methods that can maintain required manufacturing tolerances, despite moderate wear and tear....... The purpose is to ensure that full accuracy is maintained between service intervals and to advice when overhaul is needed. The thesis argues that quality of manufactured components is directly related to the positioning accuracy of the machine tool axes, and it shows which low level control architectures...

  7. Digital base-band rf control system for the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Konrad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The accelerating field in superconducting cavities has to be stabilized in amplitude and phase by a radio-frequency (rf control system. Because of their high loaded quality factor superconducting cavities are very susceptible for microphonics. To meet the increased requirements with respect to accuracy, availability, and diagnostics, the previous analog rf control system of the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC has been replaced by a digital rf control system. The new hardware consists of two components: An rf module that converts the signal from the cavity down to the base-band and a field-programmable gate array board including a soft CPU that carries out the signal processing steps of the control algorithm. Different algorithms are used for normal-conducting and superconducting cavities. To improve the availability of the control system, techniques for automatic firmware and software deployment have been implemented. Extensive diagnostic features provide the operator with additional information. The architecture of the rf control system as well as the functionality of its components will be presented along with measurements that characterize the performance of the system, yielding, e.g., an amplitude stabilization down to (ΔA/A_{rms}=7×10^{-5} and a phase stabilization of (Δϕ_{rms}=0.8° for superconducting cavities.

  8. Can Control Banding be Useful for the Safe Handling of Nanomaterials? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastlake, Adrienne; Zumwalde, Ralph; Geraci, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Control banding (CB) is a risk management strategy that has been used to identify and recommend exposure control measures to potentially hazardous substances for which toxicological information is limited. The application of CB and level of expertise required for implementation and management can differ depending on knowledge of the hazard potential, the likelihood of exposure, and the ability to verify the effectiveness of exposure control measures. A number of different strategies have been proposed for using CB in workplaces where exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) can occur. However, it is unclear if the use of CB can effectively reduce worker exposure to nanomaterials. A systematic review of studies was conducted to answer the question “can control banding be useful to ensure adequate controls for the safe handling of nanomaterials.” Methods A variety of databases were searched to identify relevant studies pertaining to CB. Database search terms included ‘control’, ‘hazard’, ‘exposure’ and ‘risk’ banding as well as the use of these terms in the context of nanotechnology or nanomaterials. Other potentially relevant studies were identified during the review of articles obtained in the systematic review process. Identification of studies and the extraction of data were independently conducted by the reviewers. Quality of the studies was assessed using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS). The quality of the evidence was evaluated using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Results A total of 235 records were identified in the database search in which 70 records were determined to be eligible for full-text review. Only two studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. These studies evaluated the application of the CB Nanotool in workplaces where ENMs were being handled. A total of 32 different nanomaterial handling activities were evaluated in these

  9. Randomized Controlled Trials: The Most Powerful Tool In Modern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Randomized controlled trial (RCT) can be said to be one of the simplest but most powerful tool of research. It is the most rigorous way of determining whether a cause-effect relation exists between treatment and outcome and for assessing the cost effectiveness of a treatment. Through the randomization, bias will be avoided ...

  10. Knowledge and use of asthma control measurement tools in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate the knowledge and use of asthma control measurement (ACM) tools in the management of asthma among doctors working in family and internal medicine practice in Nigeria. Method: A questionnaire based on the global initiative on asthma (GINA) guideline was self-administered by 194 doctors.

  11. A Decision Support Tool for Transient Stability Preventive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertl, Michael; Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Rezkalla, Michel M.N.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a decision support tool for transient stability preventive control contributing to increased situation awareness of control room operators by providing additional information about the state of the power system in terms of transient stability. A time-domain approach is used...... a predefined minimum critical clearing time for faults at all buses is proposed, while costs are minimized. The results of the assessment are presented to the control room operator, who decides to accept the suggested dispatch or to repeat the assessment considering additional user-specific constraints...

  12. Band-selective shaped pulse for high fidelity quantum control in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yan-Chun; Xing, Jian; Liu, Gang-Qin; Jiang, Qian-Qing; Li, Wu-Xia; Zhang, Fei-Hao; Gu, Chang-Zhi; Pan, Xin-Yu; Long, Gui-Lu

    2014-01-01

    High fidelity quantum control of qubits is crucially important for realistic quantum computing, and it becomes more challenging when there are inevitable interactions between qubits. We introduce a band-selective shaped pulse, refocusing BURP (REBURP) pulse, to cope with the problems. The electron spin of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond is flipped with high fidelity by the REBURP pulse. In contrast with traditional rectangular pulses, the shaped pulse has almost equal excitation effect in a sharply edged region (in frequency domain). So the three sublevels of host 14 N nuclear spin can be flipped accurately simultaneously, while unwanted excitations of other sublevels (e.g., of a nearby 13 C nuclear spin) is well suppressed. Our scheme can be used for various applications such as quantum metrology, quantum sensing, and quantum information process.

  13. Band-selective shaped pulse for high fidelity quantum control in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yan-Chun; Xing, Jian; Liu, Gang-Qin; Jiang, Qian-Qing; Li, Wu-Xia [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang, Fei-Hao [Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Physics and Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gu, Chang-Zhi; Pan, Xin-Yu, E-mail: xypan@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871 (China); Long, Gui-Lu [Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Physics and Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-06-30

    High fidelity quantum control of qubits is crucially important for realistic quantum computing, and it becomes more challenging when there are inevitable interactions between qubits. We introduce a band-selective shaped pulse, refocusing BURP (REBURP) pulse, to cope with the problems. The electron spin of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond is flipped with high fidelity by the REBURP pulse. In contrast with traditional rectangular pulses, the shaped pulse has almost equal excitation effect in a sharply edged region (in frequency domain). So the three sublevels of host {sup 14}N nuclear spin can be flipped accurately simultaneously, while unwanted excitations of other sublevels (e.g., of a nearby {sup 13}C nuclear spin) is well suppressed. Our scheme can be used for various applications such as quantum metrology, quantum sensing, and quantum information process.

  14. Software simulation: a tool for enhancing control system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, B.; Ridgway, G.H.

    2008-01-01

    The creation, implementation and management of engineering design tools are important to the quality and efficiency of any large engineering project. Some of the most complicated tools to develop are system simulators. The development and implementation of system simulators to support replacement fuel handling control systems is of particular interest to the Canadian nuclear industry given the current age of installations and the risk of obsolescence to many utilities. The use of such simulator tools has been known to significantly improve successful deployment of new software packages and maintenance-related software changes while reducing the time required for their overall development. Moreover, these simulation systems can also serve as operator training stations and provide a virtual environment for site engineers to test operational changes before they are uploaded to the actual system. (author)

  15. Controllable Synthesis of Band Gap-Tunable and Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Han eSu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The electronic and optical properties of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD materials are directly governed by their energy gap; thus, the band gap engineering has become an important topic recently. Theoretical and some experimental results have indicated that these monolayer TMD alloys exhibit direct-gap properties and remain stable at room temperature, making them attractive for optoelectronic applications. Here we systematically compared the two approaches of forming MoS2xSe2(1-x monolayer alloys: selenization of MoS2 and sulfurization of MoSe2. The optical energy gap of as-grown CVD MoS2 can be continuously modulated from 1.86 eV (667 nm to 1.57 eV (790 nm controllable by the reaction temperature. Spectroscopic and microscopic evidences show that the Mo-S bonds can be replaced by the Mo-Se bonds in a random and homogeneous manner. By contrast, the replacement of Mo-Se by Mo-S does not randomly occur in the MoSe2 lattice, where the reaction preferentially occurs along the crystalline orientation of MoSe2 and thus the MoSe2/MoS2 biphases are easily observed in the alloys, which makes the optical band gap of these alloys distinctly different. Therefore, the selenization of metal disulfide is preferred and the proposed synthetic strategy opens up a simple route to control the atomic structure as well as optical properties of monolayer TMD alloys.

  16. National Ignition Facility Control and Information System Operational Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, C.D.; Beeler, R.G.; Bowers, G.A.; Carey, R.W.; Fisher, J.M.; Foxworthy, C.B.; Frazier, T.M.; Mathisen, D.G.; Lagin, L.J.; Rhodes, J.J.; Shaw, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) in Livermore, California, is the world's highest-energy laser fusion system and one of the premier large scale scientific projects in the United States. The system is designed to setup and fire a laser shot to a fusion ignition or high energy density target at rates up to a shot every 4 hours. NIF has 192 laser beams delivering up to 1.8 MJ of energy to a ∼2 mm target that is planned to produce >100 billion atm of pressure and temperatures of >100 million degrees centigrade. NIF is housed in a ten-story building footprint the size of three football fields as shown in Fig. 1. Commissioning was recently completed and NIF will be formally dedicated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on May 29, 2009. The control system has 60,000 hardware controls points and employs 2 million lines of control system code. The control room has highly automated equipment setup prior to firing laser system shots. This automation has a data driven implementation that is conducive to dynamic modification and optimization depending on the shot goals defined by the end user experimenters. NIF has extensive facility machine history and infrastructure maintenance workflow tools both under development and deployed. An extensive operational tools suite has been developed to support facility operations including experimental shot setup, machine readiness, machine health and safety, and machine history. The following paragraphs discuss the current state and future upgrades to these four categories of operational tools.

  17. DengueTools: innovative tools and strategies for the surveillance and control of dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Renhorn, Karl-Erik; Tissera, Hasitha; Abu Bakar, Sazaly; Alphey, Luke; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Lindsay, Steve; Logan, James; Hatz, Christoph; Reiter, Paul; Rocklöv, Joacim; Byass, Peter; Louis, Valérie R; Tozan, Yesim; Massad, Eduardo; Tenorio, Antonio; Lagneau, Christophe; L'Ambert, Grégory; Brooks, David; Wegerdt, Johannah; Gubler, Duane

    2012-01-01

    Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease estimated to cause about 230 million infections worldwide every year, of which 25,000 are fatal. Global incidence has risen rapidly in recent decades with some 3.6 billion people, over half of the world's population, now at risk, mainly in urban centres of the tropics and subtropics. Demographic and societal changes, in particular urbanization, globalization, and increased international travel, are major contributors to the rise in incidence and geographic expansion of dengue infections. Major research gaps continue to hamper the control of dengue. The European Commission launched a call under the 7th Framework Programme with the title of 'Comprehensive control of Dengue fever under changing climatic conditions'. Fourteen partners from several countries in Europe, Asia, and South America formed a consortium named 'DengueTools' to respond to the call to achieve better diagnosis, surveillance, prevention, and predictive models and improve our understanding of the spread of dengue to previously uninfected regions (including Europe) in the context of globalization and climate change.The consortium comprises 12 work packages to address a set of research questions in three areas:Research area 1: Develop a comprehensive early warning and surveillance system that has predictive capability for epidemic dengue and benefits from novel tools for laboratory diagnosis and vector monitoring.Research area 2: Develop novel strategies to prevent dengue in children.Research area 3: Understand and predict the risk of global spread of dengue, in particular the risk of introduction and establishment in Europe, within the context of parameters of vectorial capacity, global mobility, and climate change.In this paper, we report on the rationale and specific study objectives of 'DengueTools'. DengueTools is funded under the Health theme of the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Community, Grant Agreement Number: 282589 Dengue Tools.

  18. Management tools for distributed control system in KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangil Lee; Jinseop Park; Jaesic Hong; Mikyung Park; Sangwon Yun

    2012-01-01

    The integrated control system of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) has been developed with distributed control systems based on Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) middle-ware. It has the essential role of remote operation, supervising of tokamak device and conducting of plasma experiments without any interruption. Therefore, the availability of the control system directly impacts on the entire device performance. For the non-interrupted operation of the KSTAR control system, we have developed a tool named as Control System Monitoring (CSM) to monitor the resources of EPICS Input/Output Controller (IOC) servers (utilization of memory, cpu, disk, network, user-defined process and system-defined process), the soundness of storage systems (storage utilization, storage status), the status of network switches using Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), the network connection status of every local control sever using Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), and the operation environment of the main control room and the computer room (temperature, humidity, electricity) in real time. When abnormal conditions or faults are detected by the CSM, it alerts abnormal or fault alarms to operators. Especially, if critical fault related to the data storage occurs, the CSM sends the simple messages to operator's mobile phone. The operators then quickly restored the problems according to the emergency procedure. As a result of this process, KSTAR was able to perform continuous operation and experiment without interruption for 4 months

  19. Tool set for distributed real-time machine control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrott, Andrew J.; Wright, Christopher D.; West, Andrew A.; Harrison, Robert; Weston, Richard H.

    1997-01-01

    Demands for increased control capabilities require next generation manufacturing machines to comprise intelligent building elements, physically located at the point where the control functionality is required. Networks of modular intelligent controllers are increasingly designed into manufacturing machines and usable standards are slowly emerging. To implement a control system using off-the-shelf intelligent devices from multi-vendor sources requires a number of well defined activities, including (a) the specification and selection of interoperable control system components, (b) device independent application programming and (c) device configuration, management, monitoring and control. This paper briefly discusses the support for the above machine lifecycle activities through the development of an integrated computing environment populated with an extendable software toolset. The toolset supports machine builder activities such as initial control logic specification, logic analysis, machine modeling, mechanical verification, application programming, automatic code generation, simulation/test, version control, distributed run-time support and documentation. The environment itself consists of system management tools and a distributed object-oriented database which provides storage for the outputs from machine lifecycle activities and specific target control solutions.

  20. Simple Neuron-Fuzzy Tool for Small Control Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz

    2008-01-01

    Small control computers, running a kind of Fuzzy controller, are more and more used in many systems from household machines to large industrial systems. The purpose of this paper is firstly to describe a tool that is easy to use for implementing self learning Fuzzy systems, that can be executed...... can be described by four different kinds of membership functions. The output fuzzyfication is based on singletons. The rule base can be written in a natural language. The result of the learning is a new version of the Fuzzy system described in the FuNNy language. A simple shower control example...... is shown.  This example shows that FuNNy is able to control the shower and that the learning is able to optimize the Fuzzy system....

  1. True photonic band-gap mode-control in VCSEL structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romstad, F.; Madsen, M.; Birkedal, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Photonic band-gap mode confinement in novel nano-structured large area VCSEL structures is confirmed by the amplified spontaneous emission spectrum. Both guide and anti-guide VCSEL structures are experimentally characterised to verify the photonic band-gap effect.......Photonic band-gap mode confinement in novel nano-structured large area VCSEL structures is confirmed by the amplified spontaneous emission spectrum. Both guide and anti-guide VCSEL structures are experimentally characterised to verify the photonic band-gap effect....

  2. Multi-band morpho-Spectral Component Analysis Deblending Tool (MuSCADeT): Deblending colourful objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, R.; Courbin, F.; Starck, J.-L.

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a new algorithm for colour separation and deblending of multi-band astronomical images called MuSCADeT which is based on Morpho-spectral Component Analysis of multi-band images. The MuSCADeT algorithm takes advantage of the sparsity of astronomical objects in morphological dictionaries such as wavelets and their differences in spectral energy distribution (SED) across multi-band observations. This allows us to devise a model independent and automated approach to separate objects with different colours. We show with simulations that we are able to separate highly blended objects and that our algorithm is robust against SED variations of objects across the field of view. To confront our algorithm with real data, we use HST images of the strong lensing galaxy cluster MACS J1149+2223 and we show that MuSCADeT performs better than traditional profile-fitting techniques in deblending the foreground lensing galaxies from background lensed galaxies. Although the main driver for our work is the deblending of strong gravitational lenses, our method is fit to be used for any purpose related to deblending of objects in astronomical images. An example of such an application is the separation of the red and blue stellar populations of a spiral galaxy in the galaxy cluster Abell 2744. We provide a python package along with all simulations and routines used in this paper to contribute to reproducible research efforts. Codes can be found at http://lastro.epfl.ch/page-126973.html

  3. Tools for the Automation of Large Distributed Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspar, Clara

    2005-01-01

    The new LHC experiments at CERN will have very large numbers of channels to operate. In order to be able to configure and monitor such large systems, a high degree of parallelism is necessary. The control system is built as a hierarchy of sub-systems distributed over several computers. A toolkit - SMI++, combining two approaches: finite state machines and rule-based programming, allows for the description of the various sub-systems as decentralized deciding entities, reacting is real-time to changes in the system, thus providing for the automation of standard procedures and for the automatic recovery from error conditions in a hierarchical fashion. In this paper we will describe the principles and features of SMI++ as well as its integration with an industrial SCADA tool for use by the LHC experiments and we will try to show that such tools, can provide a very convenient mechanism for the automation of large scale, high complexity, applications.

  4. Tools for the automation of large control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspar, Clara

    2005-01-01

    The new LHC experiments at CERN will have very large numbers of channels to operate. In order to be able to configure and monitor such large systems, a high degree of parallelism is necessary. The control system is built as a hierarchy of sub-systems distributed over several computers. A toolkit – SMI++, combining two approaches: finite state machines and rule-based programming, allows for the description of the various sub-systems as decentralized deciding entities, reacting in real-time to changes in the system, thus providing for the automation of standard procedures and the for the automatic recovery from error conditions in a hierarchical fashion. In this paper we will describe the principles and features of SMI++ as well as its integration with an industrial SCADA tool for use by the LHC experiments and we will try to show that such tools, can provide a very convenient mechanism for the automation of large scale, high complexity, applications.

  5. Controlled longitudinal emittance blow-up using band-limited phase noise in CERN PSB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartullo, D.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Timko, H.

    2017-07-01

    Controlled longitudinal emittance blow-up (from 1 eVs to 1.4 eVs) for LHC beams in the CERN PS Booster is currently achievied using sinusoidal phase modulation of a dedicated high-harmonic RF system. In 2021, after the LHC injectors upgrade, 3 eVs should be extracted to the PS. Even if the current method may satisfy the new requirements, it relies on low-power level RF improvements. In this paper another method of blow-up was considered, that is the injection of band-limited phase noise in the main RF system (h=1), never tried in PSB but already used in CERN SPS and LHC, under different conditions (longer cycles). This technique, which lowers the peak line density and therefore the impact of intensity effects in the PSB and the PS, can also be complementary to the present method. The longitudinal space charge, dominant in the PSB, causes significant synchrotron frequency shifts with intensity, and its effect should be taken into account. Another complication arises from the interaction of the phase loop with the injected noise, since both act on the RF phase. All these elements were studied in simulations of the PSB cycle with the BLonD code, and the required blow-up was achieved.

  6. DengueTools: innovative tools and strategies for the surveillance and control of dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies Wilder-Smith

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease estimated to cause about 230 million infections worldwide every year, of which 25,000 are fatal. Global incidence has risen rapidly in recent decades with some 3.6 billion people, over half of the world's population, now at risk, mainly in urban centres of the tropics and subtropics. Demographic and societal changes, in particular urbanization, globalization, and increased international travel, are major contributors to the rise in incidence and geographic expansion of dengue infections. Major research gaps continue to hamper the control of dengue. The European Commission launched a call under the 7th Framework Programme with the title of ‘Comprehensive control of Dengue fever under changing climatic conditions’. Fourteen partners from several countries in Europe, Asia, and South America formed a consortium named ‘DengueTools’ to respond to the call to achieve better diagnosis, surveillance, prevention, and predictive models and improve our understanding of the spread of dengue to previously uninfected regions (including Europe in the context of globalization and climate change.The consortium comprises 12 work packages to address a set of research questions in three areas: Research area 1: Develop a comprehensive early warning and surveillance system that has predictive capability for epidemic dengue and benefits from novel tools for laboratory diagnosis and vector monitoring. Research area 2: Develop novel strategies to prevent dengue in children. Research area 3: Understand and predict the risk of global spread of dengue, in particular the risk of introduction and establishment in Europe, within the context of parameters of vectorial capacity, global mobility, and climate change.In this paper, we report on the rationale and specific study objectives of ‘DengueTools’. DengueTools is funded under the Health theme of the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Community, Grant

  7. RFX: New tools for real-time MHD control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnesotto, F.; Luchetta, A.; Marchiori, G.

    2005-01-01

    RFX has been recently modified to improve its capability of controlling different MHD phenomena by means of fast, feedback controlled amplifiers and distributed radial field inductors. The paper, after summarizing the principal results obtained in the past by means of active control of magnetic fields in RFX, describes the recent modifications to the machine and the improvements to the power supplies and to the magnetic diagnostics. The old thick shell has been replaced by a much thinner shell, whose electromagnetic time constants are much shorter than pulse duration, and a system of 192 radial field coils has been added, covering the whole torus surface. Then the paper describes the models used to design the new real-time control system of RFX and gives some preliminary results obtained, with the same techniques, on the EXTRAP-T2R device. The basic choices about the technologies adopted for the new RFX control system are discussed with reference to the general problem of real-time control of MHD instabilities in magnetic fusion devices. Finally, the paper defines the main objectives of the RFX scientific programme aimed at exploiting these new tools. (author)

  8. Web based educational tool for neural network robot control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Čas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— This paper describes the application for teleoperations of the SCARA robot via the internet. The SCARA robot is used by students of mehatronics at the University of Maribor as a remote educational tool. The developed software consists of two parts i.e. the continuous neural network sliding mode controller (CNNSMC and the graphical user interface (GUI. Application is based on two well-known commercially available software packages i.e. MATLAB/Simulink and LabVIEW. Matlab/Simulink and the DSP2 Library for Simulink are used for control algorithm development, simulation and executable code generation. While this code is executing on the DSP-2 Roby controller and through the analog and digital I/O lines drives the real process, LabVIEW virtual instrument (VI, running on the PC, is used as a user front end. LabVIEW VI provides the ability for on-line parameter tuning, signal monitoring, on-line analysis and via Remote Panels technology also teleoperation. The main advantage of a CNNSMC is the exploitation of its self-learning capability. When friction or an unexpected impediment occurs for example, the user of a remote application has no information about any changed robot dynamic and thus is unable to dispatch it manually. This is not a control problem anymore because, when a CNNSMC is used, any approximation of changed robot dynamic is estimated independently of the remote’s user. Index Terms—LabVIEW; Matlab/Simulink; Neural network control; remote educational tool; robotics

  9. Operational controlling - a tool of translating strategy into action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available . Enterprises have a lot of problems with realization their strategic aims in the fast changing and competitive business arena from many years. Effective execution of strategic plan needs its translating into action, task results and indicators of everyday activities. The success on the market is attainable by communicating strategic and operating goals on the each level of organizational structure and their connecting with budget of units or employee motivation. The scorecards balancing in finance, customer, process and development perspectives is very useful for pointing - what do we control with? or - what do we have to achieve? But doesn't answer to question about ways of enterprise managing. Main aim of the article is proving that operational controlling system is a essential tool for translating strategy into action. The Balanced Scorecard methodology should to take into consideration system and process connection of enterprise with procurement, co-operation or distribution supply chain also.

  10. Animal disease outbreak control: the use of crisis management tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroschewski, K; Kramer, M; Micklich, A; Staubach, C; Carmanns, R; Conraths, F J

    2006-04-01

    In this era of globalisation the effective control of animal disease outbreaks requires powerful crisis management tools. In the 1990s software packages for different sectors of the government and agricultural industry began to be developed. In 2004, as a special application for tracking the movement of animals and animal products, the European Union developed the Trade Control and Expert System (TRACES) on the basis of its predecessor, the ANImal MOvement (ANIMO) project. The nationwide use of the ANIMO system by the veterinary authorities in Germany marked the beginning of the development in 1993 of a computerised national animal disease reporting system--the TierSeuchenNachrichten (TSN)--using the ANIMO hardware and software components. In addition to TRACES and TSN the third pillar for the management of animal disease outbreaks and crises in Germany is the national cattle and swine database--called Herkunftssicherungs- und Informationssystem für Tiere. A high degree of standardisation is necessary when integrating the different solutions at all levels of government and with the private sector. In this paper, the authors describe the use of these tools on the basis of their experience and in relation to what we can do now and what we should opt for in the future.

  11. Adaptive Hysteresis Band Current Control (AHB) with PLL of Grid Side Converter-Based Wind Power Generation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yougui; Zeng, Ping; Li, Lijuan

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive hysteresis band current control(AHB CC) is used to control the three-phase grid currents by means of grid side converter in wind power generation system in this paper. AHB has reached the good purpose with PLL (Lock phase loop). First the mathematical models of each part are given......, transformer and grid, and control parts, etc. The simulation results have verified that the control strategy is feasible to fit for control of gird currents, active power, reactive power and DC-link voltage in wind power generation system....

  12. Hardware replacements and software tools for digital control computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.A.P.; Wang, B-C.; Fung, J.

    1996-01-01

    computers which use 'Varian' technology. A new software program, Desk Top Tools, permits the designer greater flexibility in digital control computer software design and testing. This software development allows the user to emulate control of the CANDU reactor system by system. All discussions will highlight the ability of the replacements and the new developments to enhance the operation of the existing and 'repeat' plant digital control computers and will explore future applications of these developments. Examples of current use of all replacement components and software are provided. (author)

  13. A communication protocol for interactively controlling software tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulp, van der J.

    2008-01-01

    We present a protocol for interactively using software tools in a loosely coupled tool environment. Such an environment can assist the user in doing tasks that require the use of multiple tools. For example, it can invoke tools on certain input, set processing parameters, await task completion and

  14. Intelligent Controller for a Compact Wide-Band Compositional Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, P.; Keymeulen, D.; Berisford, D. F.; Hand, K. P.; Carlson, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the design and integration of an intelligent controller for CIRIS (Compositional InfraRed Interferometric Spectrometer) on a stand-alone field programmable gate array (FPGA) architecture. CIRIS is a novel take on traditional Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) and replaces linearly moving mirrors (characteristic of Michelson interferometers) with a constant-velocity rotating refractor to variably phase shift and alter the path length of incoming light. This design eliminates the need for periodically accelerating/decelerating mirrors inherent to canonical Michelson designs and allows for a compact and robust device that is intrinsically radiation-hard, making it ideal for spaceborne measurements in the near-IR to thermal-IR band (2-12 μm) on planetary exploration missions. A traditional Michelson FTS passes a monochromatic light source (incident light from the sample) through a system of refractors/mirrors followed by a mirror moving linearly in the plane of the incident light. This process selectively blocks certain wavelengths and permits measurement of the sample's absorption rates as a function of the wavelengths blocked to produce an 'inteferogram.' This is subsequently processed using a Fourier transform to obtain the sample's spectrum and ascertain the sample's composition. With our prototype CIRIS instrument in development at Design and Prototype Inc. and NASA-JPL, we propose the use of a rotating refractor spinning at a constant velocity to variably phase shift incident light to the detector as an alternative to a linearly moving mirror. This design eliminates sensitivity to vibrations, minimizing path length and non-linear errors due to minor perturbations to the system, in addition to facilitating compact design critical to meeting the strict volume requirements of spacecraft. Further, this is done without sacrificing spectral resolution or throughput when compared to Michelson or diffractive designs. While Michelson designs

  15. MRI quality control tools for procedures and analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Nallo, A.M.; Ortenzia, O.; Benassi, M.; D'Arienzo, M.; Coniglio, D.

    2006-01-01

    Quality control in MRI includes acceptance tests on the installation of a new scanner and tests representative of the system's performance during clinical practice.The first tests are time consuming and carried out to evaluate the agreement of the system with the prescribed procurement specifications. The second tests identify the equipment malfunction requiring maintenance are not time consuming and are suited to a busy clinical scanner. The paper evaluates the feasibility of the AAPM protocols and proposes procedures and practical tools to achieve this purpose.The MRI images, captured from the scanner and transferred in DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) format by a local network, are analyzed by computerized worksheets and commercial software

  16. Modeling as a tool for process control: alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayeb, A M; Ashour, I A; Mostafa, N A [El-Minia Univ. (EG). Faculty of Engineering

    1991-01-01

    The results of the alcoholic fermentation of beet sugar molasses and wheat milling residues (Akalona) were fed into a computer program. Consequently, the kinetic parameters for these fermentation reactions were determined. These parameters were put into a kinetic model. Next, the model was tested, and the results obtained were compared with the experimental results of both beet molasses and Akalona. The deviation of the experimental results from the results obtained from the model was determined. An acceptable deviation of 1.2% for beet sugar molasses and 3.69% for Akalona was obtained. Thus, the present model could be a tool for chemical engineers working in fermentation processes both with respect to the control of the process and the design of the fermentor. (Author).

  17. Risk indicators as a tool for risk control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oien, K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a general methodology for the establishment of risk indicators that can be used as a tool for risk control during operation of offshore petroleum installations. The risk indicators established are based on the platform specific quantitative risk analysis (QRA). The general methodology is evaluated against comparable approaches both in offshore and nuclear industry. There are two distinct features of this methodology. The first is that it is truly risk-based with the intention of covering the total risk picture. The second is that the identification of the risk factors contributing most to the total risk is based on realistic changes of each factor assessed by the platform personnel, not a theoretically assumed change. The set of risk indicators for one specific installation is presented along with test results

  18. Remote controller for tool moving in tube especially rotopeenig tool in steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tocci, J.L.; Blotas, B.; Francois, D.

    1988-01-01

    To introduce at distance a tool such a rotopeening tool in a tube, the tool is attached to the extremity of a flexible cable which is enclosed in a flexible sheath. The sheath extremity is fixed on the arm of a carrier. The other extremity of the sheath is fixed in translation on a command bed. The tool introduction is made by a motoreduction gear placed on the bed translating the extremity of the sheath by pinion-rack system [fr

  19. Controlling emission and propagation of light with photonic band gap crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeganegi Dastgerdi, Elahe

    2014-01-01

    In certain three-dimensional crystals, a frequency range exist for all polarizations for which light is not allowed to propagate in any direction, called the 3D photonic band gap: a frequency range where the density of vacuum fluctuations vanishes in an ideal infinitely large and perfect system. The

  20. Correlation Coefficient Control For A Frequency Reconfigurable Dual-Band Compact MIMO Antenna Destined For LTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Buskgaard, Emil Feldborg; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2014-01-01

    . The MIMO performance is investigated in two different channel models through efficiency, branch power imbalance and envelope correlation. The proposed antennas have acceptable levels of isolation between them, even in the low-bands, while having a good efficiency. Furthermore, the correlation coefficient...

  1. Hypersonic Control Modeling and Simulation Tool for Lifting Towed Ballutes, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Aerospace Corporation proposes to develop a hypersonic control modeling and simulation tool for hypersonic aeroassist vehicles. Our control and simulation...

  2. Effects of exercise training using resistance bands on glycaemic control and strength in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Samantha K; Armstrong, Marni J; Boulé, Normand G; Sigal, Ronald J

    2015-04-01

    Resistance exercise using free weights or weight machines improves glycaemic control and strength in people with type 2 diabetes. Resistance band training is potentially less expensive and more accessible, but the effects of resistance band training on glycaemic control and strength in this population are not well understood. This paper aims to systematically review and meta-analyse the effect of resistance band training on haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and strength in adults with type 2 diabetes. Database searches were performed in August 2013 (MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, and CINAHL). Reference lists of eligible articles were hand-searched for additional studies. Randomised trials evaluating the effects of resistance band training in adults with type 2 diabetes on HbA1c or objectively measured strength were selected. Baseline and post-intervention HbA1c and strength were extracted for the intervention and control groups. Details of the exercise interventions and methodological quality were collected. Seven trials met inclusion criteria. Post-intervention-weighted mean HbA1c was nonsignificantly lower in exercise groups compared to control groups [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -0.18 percentage points (-1.91 mmol/mol); P = 0.27]. Post-intervention strength was significantly higher in the exercise groups compared to the control groups in the lower extremities (WMD = 21.90 kg; P diabetes.

  3. Controllable Absorption and Dispersion Properties of an RF-driven Five-Level Atom in a Double-Band Photonic-Band-Gap Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Chunling; Li Jiahua; Yang Xiaoxue

    2011-01-01

    The probe absorption-dispersion spectra of a radio-frequency (RF)-driven five-level atom embedded in a photonic crystal are investigated by considering the isotropic double-band photonic-band-gap (PBG) reservoir. In the model used, the two transitions are, respectively, coupled by the upper and lower bands in such a PBG material, thus leading to some curious phenomena. Numerical simulations are performed for the optical spectra. It is found that when one transition frequency is inside the band gap and the other is outside the gap, there emerge three peaks in the absorption spectra. However, for the case that two transition frequencies lie inside or outside the band gap, the spectra display four absorption profiles. Especially, there appear two sharp peaks in the spectra when both transition frequencies exist inside the band gap. The influences of the intensity and frequency of the RF-driven field on the absorptive and dispersive response are analyzed under different band-edge positions. It is found that a transparency window appears in the absorption spectra and is accompanied by a very steep variation of the dispersion profile by adjusting system parameters. These results show that the absorption-dispersion properties of the system depend strongly on the RF-induced quantum interference and the density of states (DOS) of the PBG reservoir. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  4. SPARCLE: Electrostatic Dust Control Tool Proof of Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S. A.; Minetto, F.; Marshall, J.; Nuth, J.; Calle, C.

    2010-01-01

    Successful exploration of most planetary surfaces, with their impact-generated dusty regoliths, will depend on the capabilities to keep surfaces free of the performance-compromising dust. Once in contact with surfaces, whether set in motion by natural or mechanical means, regolith fines, or dust, behave like abrasive Velcro, coating surfaces, clogging mechanisms, making movement progressively more difticult, and being almost impossible to remove by mechanical mcans (brushing). The successful dust removal strategy will deal with dust dynamics resulting from interaction between Van der Waals and Coulombic forces. Here, proof of concept for an electrostatically-based concept for dust control tool is described and demonstrated. A low power focused electron beam is used in the presence of a small electrical field to increase the negative charge to mass ratio of a dusty surface until dust repulsion and attraction to a lower potential surface, acting as a dust collector, occurred. Our goal is a compact device of less than 5 kg mass and using less than 5 watts of power to be operational in less than 5 years with heritage from ionic sweepers for active spacecraft potential control (e.g ., on POLAR). Rovers could be fitted with devices that could hamess the removal of dust for sampling as part of the extended exploration process on Mercury, Mars, asteroids or outer solar system satellites, as well as the Moon.

  5. Band-pass filtering algorithms for adaptive control of compressor pre-stall modes in aircraft gas-turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, T. A.

    2018-05-01

    The methods for increasing gas-turbine aircraft engines' (GTE) adaptive properties to interference based on empowerment of automatic control systems (ACS) are analyzed. The flow pulsation in suction and a discharge line of the compressor, which may cause the stall, are considered as the interference. The algorithmic solution to the problem of GTE pre-stall modes’ control adapted to stability boundary is proposed. The aim of the study is to develop the band-pass filtering algorithms to provide the detection functions of the compressor pre-stall modes for ACS GTE. The characteristic feature of pre-stall effect is the increase of pressure pulsation amplitude over the impeller at the multiples of the rotor’ frequencies. The used method is based on a band-pass filter combining low-pass and high-pass digital filters. The impulse response of the high-pass filter is determined through a known low-pass filter impulse response by spectral inversion. The resulting transfer function of the second order band-pass filter (BPF) corresponds to a stable system. The two circuit implementations of BPF are synthesized. Designed band-pass filtering algorithms were tested in MATLAB environment. Comparative analysis of amplitude-frequency response of proposed implementation allows choosing the BPF scheme providing the best quality of filtration. The BPF reaction to the periodic sinusoidal signal, simulating the experimentally obtained pressure pulsation function in the pre-stall mode, was considered. The results of model experiment demonstrated the effectiveness of applying band-pass filtering algorithms as part of ACS to identify the pre-stall mode of the compressor for detection of pressure fluctuations’ peaks, characterizing the compressor’s approach to the stability boundary.

  6. Tools for Real-Time Control Systems Co-Design - A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Henriksson, Dan; El-Khoury, Jad; Årzén, Karl-Erik; Törngren, Martin; Redell, Ola

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a survey of current simulation tools in the area of integrated control and real-time systems design. Each tool is presented with a quick overview followed by a more detailed section describing comparative aspects of the tool. These aspects describe the context and purpose of the tool (scenarios, development stages, activities, and qualities/constraints being addressed) and the actual tool technology (tool architecture, inputs, outputs, modeling content, extensibility and ...

  7. Statistically motivated model of mechanisms controlling evolution of deformation band substructure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, J.; Kružík, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 1 (2016), s. 196-208 ISSN 0749-6419 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/12/0121 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Crystal plastic ity * Microstructures * Deformation bands Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.702, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/kruzik-0457407.pdf

  8. Gold Nanoparticles with Externally Controlled, Reversible Shifts of Local Surface Plasmon Resonance Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Mustafa S.; Jensen, Gary C.; Penaloza, David P.; Seery, Thomas A. P.; Pendergraph, Samuel A.; Rusling, James F.; Sotzing, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    We have achieved reversible tunability of local surface plasmon resonance in conjugated polymer functionalized gold nanoparticles. This property was facilitated by the preparation of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) containing polynorbornene brushes on gold nanoparticles via surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization. Reversible tuning of the surface plasmon band was achieved by electrochemically switching the EDOT polymer between its reduced and oxidized states. PMID:19839619

  9. Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) Interface Control Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Shon R.

    2017-01-01

    This Interface Control Document (ICD) documents the airspace adaptation and air traffic inputs of NASA's Future ATM Concepts and Evaluation Tool (FACET). Its intended audience is the project manager, project team, development team, and stakeholders interested in interfacing with the system. FACET equips Air Traffic Management (ATM) researchers and service providers with a way to explore, develop and evaluate advanced air transportation concepts before they are field-tested and eventually deployed. FACET is a flexible software tool that is capable of quickly generating and analyzing thousands of aircraft trajectories. It provides researchers with a simulation environment for preliminary testing of advanced ATM concepts. Using aircraft performance profiles, airspace models, weather data, and flight schedules, the tool models trajectories for the climb, cruise, and descent phases of flight for each type of aircraft. An advanced graphical interface displays traffic patterns in two and three dimensions, under various current and projected conditions for specific airspace regions or over the entire continental United States. The system is able to simulate a full day's dynamic national airspace system (NAS) operations, model system uncertainty, measure the impact of different decision-makers in the NAS, and provide analysis of the results in graphical form, including sector, airport, fix, and airway usage statistics. NASA researchers test and analyze the system-wide impact of new traffic flow management algorithms under anticipated air traffic growth projections on the nation's air traffic system. In addition to modeling the airspace system for NASA research, FACET has also successfully transitioned into a valuable tool for operational use. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) traffic flow managers and commercial airline dispatchers have used FACET technology for real-time operations planning. FACET integrates live air traffic data from FAA radar systems and weather data

  10. Visualization and Quality Control Web Tools for CERES Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrescu, C.; Doelling, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA CERES project continues to provide the scientific communities a wide variety of satellite-derived data products such as observed TOA broadband shortwave and longwave observed fluxes, computed TOA and Surface fluxes, as well as cloud, aerosol, and other atmospheric parameters. They encompass a wide range of temporal and spatial resolutions, suited to specific applications. CERES data is used mostly by climate modeling communities but also by a wide variety of educational institutions. To better serve our users, a web-based Ordering and Visualization Tool (OVT) was developed by using Opens Source Software such as Eclipse, java, javascript, OpenLayer, Flot, Google Maps, python, and others. Due to increased demand by our own scientists, we also implemented a series of specialized functions to be used in the process of CERES Data Quality Control (QC) such as 1- and 2-D histograms, anomalies and differences, temporal and spatial averaging, side-by-side parameter comparison, and others that made the process of QC far easier and faster, but more importantly far more portable. With the integration of ground site observed surface fluxes we further facilitate the CERES project to QC the CERES computed surface fluxes. An overview of the CERES OVT basic functions using Open Source Software, as well as future steps in expanding its capabilities will be presented at the meeting.

  11. The perimetric boycott: a tool for tobacco control advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offen, N; Smith, E A; Malone, R E

    2005-08-01

    To propose criteria to help advocates: (1) determine when tobacco related boycotts may be useful; (2) select appropriate targets; and (3) predict and measure boycott success. Analysis of tobacco focused boycotts retrieved from internal tobacco industry documents websites and other scholarship on boycotts. Tobacco related boycotts may be characterised by boycott target and reason undertaken. Most boycotts targeted the industry itself and were called for political or economic reasons unrelated to tobacco disease, often resulting in settlements that gave the industry marketing and public relations advantages. Even a lengthy health focused boycott of tobacco industry food subsidiaries accomplished little, making demands the industry was unlikely to meet. In contrast, a perimetric boycott (targeting institutions at the perimeter of the core target) of an organisation that was taking tobacco money mobilised its constituency and convinced the organisation to end the practice. Direct boycotts of the industry have rarely advanced tobacco control. Perimetric boycotts of industry allies offer advocates a promising tool for further marginalising the industry. Successful boycotts include a focus on the public health consequences of tobacco use; an accessible point of pressure; a mutual interest between the target and the boycotters; realistic goals; and clear and measurable demands.

  12. Amniotic constriction bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Amniotic band sequence URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ... birth. The baby should be delivered in a medical center that has specialists experienced in caring for babies ... or partial loss of function of a body part. Congenital bands affecting large parts of the body cause the ...

  13. Accurate tool height control by bearing gap adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielen, van der A.M.; Schellekens, P.H.J.; Jaartsveld, F.T.M.

    2002-01-01

    Face turning of optical surfaces on precision lathes needs high precision tool height adjustment, which may be a difficult and time-consuming task. In this paper we present a new tool adjustment mechanism based on varying the bearing gap height of the hydrostatic bearings present in precision lathe

  14. Optical Control of Internal Electric Fields in Band Gap-Graded InGaN Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhard, N.; Sarwar, A. T. M. Golam; Yang, F.; McComb, D. W.; Myers, R. C.; Holleitner, A. W.

    2015-01-01

    InGaN nanowires are suitable building blocks for many future optoelectronic devices. We show that a linear grading of the indium content along the nanowire axis from GaN to InN introduces an internal electric field evoking a photocurrent. Consistent with quantitative band structure simulations we observe a sign change in the measured photocurrent as a function of photon flux. This negative differential photocurrent opens the path to a new type of nanowire-based photodetector. We demonstrate that the photocurrent response of the nanowires is as fast as 1.5 ps.

  15. Design of a real-time open architecture controller for a reconfigurable machine tool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masekamela, I

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design and the development of a real-time, open architecture controller that is used for control of reconfigurable manufacturing tools (RMTs) in reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMS). The controller that is presented can...

  16. Efficacy of a forearm band in addition to exercises compared with exercises alone for lateral epicondylitis: A multicenter, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizuka, Takanobu; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Kurimoto, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Michiro; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2017-03-01

    A forearm band is frequently used for lateral epicondylitis worldwide. However, evidence regarding its efficacy has been insufficient. The objective of this prospective, randomized, controlled trial was to analyze the effects of a forearm band for treatment of lateral epicondylitis at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Patients with lateral epicondylitis were randomly allocated into a band (n = 55) or non-band (n = 55) group. Patients in the band group were instructed to wear a forearm band for more than 6 h daily for at least 6 months. Patients in both groups were instructed to perform wrist extensor stretching exercises for 30 s, 3 times daily, for 6 months. Hand10, pain, and satisfaction scores, and proportions of positive physical examinations, including tenderness assessment, Thomsen test, and middle finger extension test, were evaluated at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after enrollment. There were no significant differences between the band and non-band groups with regard to Hand10, pain, or satisfaction scores at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Likewise, there was no significant difference in proportions of positive physical examinations between groups at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. The results of the current study suggest that a forearm band may have no more than a placebo effect, and do not support the use of a forearm band based on its effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A randomized controlled trial of storytelling as a communication tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Hartling

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Stories may be an effective tool to communicate with patients because of their ability to engage the reader. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of story booklets compared to standard information sheets for parents of children attending the emergency department (ED with a child with croup. METHODS: Parents were randomized to receive story booklets (n=208 or standard information sheets (n=205 during their ED visit. The primary outcome was change in anxiety between triage to ED discharge as measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted at 1 and 3 days after discharge, then every other day until 9 days (or until resolution of symptoms, and at 1 year. Secondary outcomes included: expected future anxiety, event impact, parental knowledge, satisfaction, decision regret, healthcare utilization, time to symptom resolution. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the primary outcome of change in parental anxiety between recruitment and ED discharge (change of 5 points for the story group vs. 6 points for the comparison group, p=0.78. The story group showed significantly greater decision regret regarding their decision to go to the ED (p<0.001: 6.7% of the story group vs. 1.5% of the comparison group strongly disagreed with the statement "I would go for the same choice if I had to do it over again". The story group reported shorter time to resolution of symptoms (mean 3.7 days story group vs. 4.0 days comparison group, median 3 days both groups; log rank test, p=0.04. No other outcomes were different between study groups. CONCLUSIONS: Stories about parent experiences managing a child with croup did not reduce parental anxiety. The story group showed significantly greater decision regret and quicker time to resolution of symptoms. Further research is needed to better understand whether stories can be effective in improving patient-important outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION

  18. Nuclear Material Control and Accountability System Effectiveness Tool (MSET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Danny H.; Elwood, Robert H. Jr.; Roche, Charles T.; Campbell, Billy J.; Hammond, Glenn A.; Meppen, Bruce W.; Brown, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    A nuclear material control and accountability (MC and A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) has been developed in the United States for use in evaluating material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A) systems in nuclear facilities. The project was commissioned by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of International Material Protection and Cooperation. MSET was developed by personnel with experience spanning more than six decades in both the U.S. and international nuclear programs and with experience in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the nuclear power industry. MSET offers significant potential benefits for improving nuclear safeguards and security in any nation with a nuclear program. MSET provides a design basis for developing an MC and A system at a nuclear facility that functions to protect against insider theft or diversion of nuclear materials. MSET analyzes the system and identifies several risk importance factors that show where sustainability is essential for optimal performance and where performance degradation has the greatest impact on total system risk. MSET contains five major components: (1) A functional model that shows how to design, build, implement, and operate a robust nuclear MC and A system (2) A fault tree of the operating MC and A system that adapts PRA methodology to analyze system effectiveness and give a relative risk of failure assessment of the system (3) A questionnaire used to document the facility's current MPC and A system (provides data to evaluate the quality of the system and the level of performance of each basic task performed throughout the material balance area (MBA)) (4) A formal process of applying expert judgment to convert the facility questionnaire data into numeric values representing the performance level of each basic event for use in the fault tree risk assessment calculations (5) PRA software that performs the fault tree risk assessment calculations and produces risk importance

  19. Doping and band gap control at poly(vinylidene fluoride)/graphene interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jia; Wang, Jian-Lu; Gao, Heng; Tian, Bobo; Gong, Shi-Jing; Duan, Chun-Gang; Chu, Jun-Hao

    2018-05-01

    Using the density-functional first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic structures of poly(vinylidene fluoride) PVDF/graphene composite systems. The n- and p-doping of graphene can be flexibly switched by reversing the ferroelectric polarization of PVDF, without scarifying the intrinsic π-electron band dispersions of graphene that are usually undermined by chemical doping. The doping degree is also dependent on the thickness of PVDF layers, which will get saturated when PVDF is thick enough. In PVDF/bilayer graphene (BLG) heterostructure, the doping degree directly determines the local energy gap of the charged BLG. The sandwich structure of PVDF/BLG/PVDF can further enhance the local energy gap as well as keep the electric neutrality of BLG, which will be of great application potentials in graphene-based nanoelectronics.

  20. Body composition influenced by progressive elastic band resistance exercise of sarcopenic obesity elderly women: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Ku, Jan-Wen; Lin, Li-Fong; Liao, Chun-De; Chou, Lin-Chuan; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2017-08-01

    Sarcopenia involves age-related decreases in muscle strength and muscle mass, leading to frailty and disability in elderly people. When combined with obesity, it is defined as sarcopenic obesity (SO), which can result in more functional limitations and metabolic disorders than either disorder alone. The aim of this study was to investigate body composition changes after elastic band resistance training in elderly women with SO. Randomized single-blinded (assessor blinded) controlled pilot trial. Academic medical center. Thirty-five elderly (>60 years old) women with SO. This pilot randomized controlled trial focused on elderly women with SO. The study group underwent progressive elastic band resistance training for 12 weeks (3 times per week). The control group received only a 40-minute lesson about the exercise concept. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed before and after intervention to evaluate body composition. Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to analyze the differences within and between these groups. In total, 35 elderly women with SO were enrolled and divided into study (N.=18) and control groups (N.=17). No difference was observed in age, biochemical parameters, or Body Mass Index between both groups. After the intervention, the fat proportion of body composition in the right upper extremity (P=0.03), left upper extremity (P=0.04), total fat (P=0.035), and fat percentage (P=0.012) had decreased, and bone mineral density (BMD) (P=0.026), T-score (P=0.028), and Z-score (P=0.021) had increased in the study group. Besides, statistical difference was observed in outcome measurements of right upper extremity (P=0.013), total fat (P=0.023), and fat percentage (P=0.012) between the groups. Our study demonstrated that progressive elastic band resistance exercise can reduce fat mass and increase BMD in elderly women with SO, and that this exercise program is feasible for this demographic. Additional studies with larger sample sizes

  1. Design Study of Control System for Radiation Therapy System Based on 6 MeV X-band LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sehee; Kim, Jaehyun; Chae, Moonsik; Lee, Byeongno; Oh, Kyeongmin; Lee, Soomin; Ju, Jinsik; Park, Sangjoon; Kim, Hansoo; Jeong, Kyeongmin

    2017-01-01

    Linear accelerator(LINAC) is used in various fields such as industrial, defense, medical, etc because it is easy to control radiation energy or flow rate. KAERI developed a robot-based radiation therapy system that can efficiently irradiate radiation in a short period of time. Unlike the old type which uses a single robot arm, two robot arms are used and the smart bed is linked to track the respiration. This paper discusses the development of system of integrated X-band LINAC modules installed in smart robot therapy machines. In this study, total control program for integrating and controlling the medical LINAC modules was developed and verified. Future research will continue to reduce delays between transmissions and receptions and minimize interference between the modules.

  2. Remote controlled tool systems for nuclear sites have subsea applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bath, B.; Yemington, C.; Kuhta, B.

    1995-10-01

    Remotely operated underwater tool systems designed to operate in Nuclear Fuel Storage Basins can be applied to deep water, subsea oilfield applications. Spent nuclear fuel rods re stored underwater in large indoor swimming pool-like facilities where the water cover shields the workers from the radiation. This paper describes three specialized tooling systems that were designed and built by Sonsub for work at the Department of Energy's Hanford site. The Door Seal Tool removed an existing seal system, cleaned a 20 ft. tall, carbon steel, underwater hatch and installed a new stainless steel gasket surface with underwater epoxy. The Concrete Sampling Tool was built to take core samples from the vertical, concrete walls of the basins. The tool has three hydraulic drills with proprietary hollow core drill bits to cut and retrieve the concrete samples. The Rack Saw remotely attached itself to a structure, cut a variety of steel shapes and pipes, and retained the cut pieces for retrieval. All of these systems are remotely operated with onboard video cameras and debris collection systems. The methods and equipment proven in this application are available to refurbish sealing surfaces and to drill or sample concrete in offshore oil field applications

  3. Rapid control prototyping - new technologies and tools; Rapid Control Prototyping - neue Moeglichkeiten und Werkzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otterbach, R.; Eckmann, M.; Mertens, F. [dSPACE GmbH, Paderborn (Germany)

    2004-06-01

    The paper presents the status quo in rapid control prototyping (RCP) and discusses further developments of this technology. The complete functional chain, from sensors to data preprocessing and the real-time processor, right through to control of the actuators, is created as an integrated hardware and software solution. The greatest flexibility and configurability are achieved with a modular platform concept that includes signal conditioning and power stages. The architecture of modern microcontrollers and electronic control units (ECUs) result in new requirements in the field of bypassing. These are fulfilled by appropriate solutions based on on-chip debug interfaces and standardized data protocols on serial busses. RCP support for developing networked, time-triggered vehicle systems, and the particular requirements for the tool environment, are described using FlexRay as an example. (orig.)

  4. EEG-neurofeedback training of beta band (12-22Hz) affects alpha and beta frequencies - A controlled study of a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, Katarzyna; Paluch, Katarzyna; Kublik, Ewa; Rogala, Jacek; Mikicin, Mirosław; Wróbel, Andrzej

    2018-01-08

    The frequency-function relation of various EEG bands has inspired EEG-neurofeedback procedures intending to improve cognitive abilities in numerous clinical groups. In this study, we administered EEG-neurofeedback (EEG-NFB) to a healthy population to determine the efficacy of this procedure. We evaluated feedback manipulation in the beta band (12-22Hz), known to be involved in visual attention processing. Two groups of healthy adults were trained to either up- or down-regulate beta band activity, thus providing mutual control. Up-regulation training induced increases in beta and alpha band (8-12Hz) amplitudes during the first three sessions. Group-independent increases in the activity of both bands were observed in the later phase of training. EEG changes were not matched by measured behavioural indices of attention. Parallel changes in the two bands challenge the idea of frequency-specific EEG-NFB protocols and suggest their interdependence. Our study exposes the possibility (i) that the alpha band is more prone to manipulation, and (ii) that changes in the bands' amplitudes are independent from specified training. We therefore encourage a more comprehensive approach to EEG-neurofeedback training embracing physiological and/or operational relations among various EEG bands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Survey of Security Tools for the Industrial Control System Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, Carl M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McCarty, Michael V. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-12

    This report details the results of a survey conducted by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to identify existing tools which could be used to prevent, detect, mitigate, or investigate a cyber-attack in an industrial control system (ICS) environment. This report compiles a list of potentially applicable tools and shows the coverage of the tools in an ICS architecture.

  6. A Survey of Security Tools for the Industrial Control System Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurd, Carl M.; McCarty, Michael V.

    2017-01-01

    This report details the results of a survey conducted by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to identify existing tools which could be used to prevent, detect, mitigate, or investigate a cyber-attack in an industrial control system (ICS) environment. This report compiles a list of potentially applicable tools and shows the coverage of the tools in an ICS architecture.

  7. Plant lighting system with five wavelength-band light-emitting diodes providing photon flux density and mixing ratio control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yano Akira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant growth and development depend on the availability of light. Lighting systems therefore play crucial roles in plant studies. Recent advancements of light-emitting diode (LED technologies provide abundant opportunities to study various plant light responses. The LED merits include solidity, longevity, small element volume, radiant flux controllability, and monochromaticity. To apply these merits in plant light response studies, a lighting system must provide precisely controlled light spectra that are useful for inducing various plant responses. Results We have developed a plant lighting system that irradiated a 0.18 m2 area with a highly uniform distribution of photon flux density (PFD. The average photosynthetic PFD (PPFD in the irradiated area was 438 micro-mol m–2 s–1 (coefficient of variation 9.6%, which is appropriate for growing leafy vegetables. The irradiated light includes violet, blue, orange-red, red, and far-red wavelength bands created by LEDs of five types. The PFD and mixing ratio of the five wavelength-band lights are controllable using a computer and drive circuits. The phototropic response of oat coleoptiles was investigated to evaluate plant sensitivity to the light control quality of the lighting system. Oat coleoptiles irradiated for 23 h with a uniformly distributed spectral PFD (SPFD of 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 at every peak wavelength (405, 460, 630, 660, and 735 nm grew almost straight upwards. When they were irradiated with an SPFD gradient of blue light (460 nm peak wavelength, the coleoptiles showed a phototropic curvature in the direction of the greater SPFD of blue light. The greater SPFD gradient induced the greater curvature of coleoptiles. The relation between the phototropic curvature (deg and the blue-light SPFD gradient (micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1 was 2 deg per 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1. Conclusions The plant lighting system, with a computer with a

  8. Indoor Autonomous Control of a Two-Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Vehicle Using Ultra Wide Band Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dunzhu; Yao, Yanhong; Cheng, Limei

    2017-06-15

    In this paper, we aimed to achieve the indoor tracking control of a two-wheeled inverted pendulum (TWIP) vehicle. The attitude data are acquired from a low cost micro inertial measurement unit (IMU), and the ultra-wideband (UWB) technology is utilized to obtain an accurate estimation of the TWIP's position. We propose a dual-loop control method to realize the simultaneous balance and trajectory tracking control for the TWIP vehicle. A robust adaptive second-order sliding mode control (2-RASMC) method based on an improved super-twisting (STW) algorithm is investigated to obtain the control laws, followed by several simulations to verify its robustness. The outer loop controller is designed using the idea of backstepping. Moreover, three typical trajectories, including a circle, a trifolium and a hexagon, have been designed to prove the adaptability of the control combinations. Six different combinations of inner and outer loop control algorithms have been compared, and the characteristics of inner and outer loop algorithm combinations have been analyzed. Simulation results demonstrate its tracking performance and thus verify the validity of the proposed control methods. Trajectory tracking experiments in a real indoor environment have been performed using our experimental vehicle to further validate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm in practice.

  9. Manual, mechanical, and cultural control methds and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Manning; James. Miller

    2011-01-01

    There are many land management scenarios where chemicals are not the ideal choice for controlling invasive plants. More often than not, the best approach is the use of integrated pest management involving a variety of control methods. Maximizing the value of mechanical, manual, and cultural control methods with the added benefit of selective herbicides can offer the...

  10. Development of an interactive GIS based work zone traffic control tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to include consideration for intersections into the previously created GIS traffic control planning tool. Available data for making intersection control calculations were collected and integrated into the design of the t...

  11. Simulation Evaluation of Controller-Managed Spacing Tools under Realistic Operational Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Hunt, Sarah M.; Prevot, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) tools have been developed to aid air traffic controllers in managing high volumes of arriving aircraft according to a schedule while enabling them to fly efficient descent profiles. The CMS tools are undergoing refinement in preparation for field demonstration as part of NASA's Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1). System-level ATD-1 simulations have been conducted to quantify expected efficiency and capacity gains under realistic operational conditions. This paper presents simulation results with a focus on CMS-tool human factors. The results suggest experienced controllers new to the tools find them acceptable and can use them effectively in ATD-1 operations.

  12. Application of a 16-bit microprocessor to the digital control of machine tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issaly, Alain

    1979-01-01

    After an overview of machine tools (various types, definition standardization, associated technologies for motors and position sensors), this research thesis describes the principles of computer-based digital control: classification of machine tool command systems, machining programming, programming languages, dialog function, interpolation function, servo-control function, tool compensation function. The author reports the application of a 16-bit microprocessor to the computer-based digital control of a machine tool: feasibility, selection of microprocessor, hardware presentation, software development and description, machining mode, translation-loading mode

  13. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF BANDED LEAF AND SHEATH BLIGHT DISEASE (Rhizoctonia solani KUHN IN CORN WITH FORMULATED Bacillus subtilis BR23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amran Muis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn. causing banded leaf and sheath blight diseases is one of the important fungi of corn world wide. The fungus is commonly controlled by using fungicide because no resistant variety available. The objective of the study was to develop a seed treatment formulation of the selected Bacillus subtilis to control R. solani in corn. The study was conducted in the Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los Bañòs, College, Laguna from May 2004 to August 2005, using sweet corn var. IPB Supersweet as test plant. Corn seeds were surface sterilized for 10 minutes in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution and 5% ethanol, washed thrice with sterile distilled water and air-dried. The seeds were coated with formulated B. subtilis BR23 and used for several experiments, such as evaluation for their germination and growth in the laboratory, effectively on R. solani in the baked and nonbaked field soil under greenhouse condition, and in the microplots artificially infested with R. solani. The treatment was compared with other standard seed treatment of synthetic fungicides such as captan (10 g per kg seeds and metalaxyl (10 g per kg seeds. The experiments were designed in a completely random design with three replications. Parameters observed were seed germination, plant height, disease scores, and plant yield. Laboratory formulated B. subtilis BR23 used as seed treatment had no detrimental effects on seed germination and seedling vigor. In microplots artificially infested with a selected highly virulent R. solani, seed treatment with the same formulation increased grain yield by 27% compared to that of the control captan seed treatment with 14.4%. The studies showed the potential of B. subtilis BR23 for commercialization as a seed treatment for the control of banded leaf and sheath blight disease (R. solani in corn.

  14. Development of an automatic frequency control system for an X-band (=9300 MHz) RF electron linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sungsu, E-mail: sscha@kaeri.re.kr [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byung Cheol [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung Dal [Radiation Technology eXcellence(RTX), Daejeon 34025 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hyun [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University(SKKU), Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Buaphad, Pikad [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Radiation Technology eXcellence(RTX), Daejeon 34025 (Korea, Republic of); Accelerator and Nuclear Fusion Physical Engineering, University of Science and Technology(UST), Daejeon 34113 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-21

    KAERI is developing a 6 MeV X-band radio frequency (RF) electron linear accelerator for medical purposes. The proposed X-band accelerator consists of an e-gun, an accelerating structure, two solenoid magnets, two steering magnets, a magnetron, a modulator, and an automatic frequency control (AFC) system. The accelerating structure of the component consists of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC). Therefore, the ambient temperature changes the volume, and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure also changes. If the RF frequency of a 9300 MHz magnetron and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure do not match, it can degrade the performance. That is, it will decrease the output power, lower the beam current, decrease the X-ray dose rate, increase the reflection power, and result in unstable operation of the accelerator. Accelerator operation should be possible at any time during all four seasons. To prevent humans from being exposed to radiation when it is operated, the accelerator should also be operable through remote monitoring and remote control. Therefore, the AFC system is designed to meet these requirements; it is configured based on the concept of a phase-locked loop (PLL) model, which includes an RF section, an intermediate frequency (IF) [1-3] section, and a local oscillator (LO) section. Some resonance frequency controllers use a DC motor, chain, and potentiometer to store the position and tune the frequency [4,5]. Our AFC system uses a step motor to tune the RF frequency of the magnetron. The maximum tuning turn number of our magnetron frequency tuning shaft is ten. Since the RF frequency of our magnetron is 9300±25 MHz, it gives 5 MHz (∵±25 MHz/10 turns → 50 MHz/10 turns =5 MHz/turn) frequency tuning per turn. The rotation angle of our step motor is 0.72° per step and the total step number per one rotation is 360°/0.72°=500 steps. Therefore, the tuning range per step is 10 kHz/step (=5 MHz per turn/500 steps per

  15. Development of an automatic frequency control system for an X-band (=9300 MHz) RF electron linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Sungsu; Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byung Cheol; Park, Hyung Dal; Lee, Seung Hyun; Buaphad, Pikad

    2017-05-01

    KAERI is developing a 6 MeV X-band radio frequency (RF) electron linear accelerator for medical purposes. The proposed X-band accelerator consists of an e-gun, an accelerating structure, two solenoid magnets, two steering magnets, a magnetron, a modulator, and an automatic frequency control (AFC) system. The accelerating structure of the component consists of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC). Therefore, the ambient temperature changes the volume, and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure also changes. If the RF frequency of a 9300 MHz magnetron and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure do not match, it can degrade the performance. That is, it will decrease the output power, lower the beam current, decrease the X-ray dose rate, increase the reflection power, and result in unstable operation of the accelerator. Accelerator operation should be possible at any time during all four seasons. To prevent humans from being exposed to radiation when it is operated, the accelerator should also be operable through remote monitoring and remote control. Therefore, the AFC system is designed to meet these requirements; it is configured based on the concept of a phase-locked loop (PLL) model, which includes an RF section, an intermediate frequency (IF) [1-3] section, and a local oscillator (LO) section. Some resonance frequency controllers use a DC motor, chain, and potentiometer to store the position and tune the frequency [4,5]. Our AFC system uses a step motor to tune the RF frequency of the magnetron. The maximum tuning turn number of our magnetron frequency tuning shaft is ten. Since the RF frequency of our magnetron is 9300±25 MHz, it gives 5 MHz (∵±25 MHz/10 turns → 50 MHz/10 turns =5 MHz/turn) frequency tuning per turn. The rotation angle of our step motor is 0.72° per step and the total step number per one rotation is 360°/0.72°=500 steps. Therefore, the tuning range per step is 10 kHz/step (=5 MHz per turn/500 steps per

  16. Development of an automatic frequency control system for an X-band (=9300 MHz) RF electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Sungsu; Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byung Cheol; Park, Hyung Dal; Lee, Seung Hyun; Buaphad, Pikad

    2017-01-01

    KAERI is developing a 6 MeV X-band radio frequency (RF) electron linear accelerator for medical purposes. The proposed X-band accelerator consists of an e-gun, an accelerating structure, two solenoid magnets, two steering magnets, a magnetron, a modulator, and an automatic frequency control (AFC) system. The accelerating structure of the component consists of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC). Therefore, the ambient temperature changes the volume, and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure also changes. If the RF frequency of a 9300 MHz magnetron and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure do not match, it can degrade the performance. That is, it will decrease the output power, lower the beam current, decrease the X-ray dose rate, increase the reflection power, and result in unstable operation of the accelerator. Accelerator operation should be possible at any time during all four seasons. To prevent humans from being exposed to radiation when it is operated, the accelerator should also be operable through remote monitoring and remote control. Therefore, the AFC system is designed to meet these requirements; it is configured based on the concept of a phase-locked loop (PLL) model, which includes an RF section, an intermediate frequency (IF) [1-3] section, and a local oscillator (LO) section. Some resonance frequency controllers use a DC motor, chain, and potentiometer to store the position and tune the frequency [4,5]. Our AFC system uses a step motor to tune the RF frequency of the magnetron. The maximum tuning turn number of our magnetron frequency tuning shaft is ten. Since the RF frequency of our magnetron is 9300±25 MHz, it gives 5 MHz (∵±25 MHz/10 turns → 50 MHz/10 turns =5 MHz/turn) frequency tuning per turn. The rotation angle of our step motor is 0.72° per step and the total step number per one rotation is 360°/0.72°=500 steps. Therefore, the tuning range per step is 10 kHz/step (=5 MHz per turn/500 steps per

  17. Development of NSSS Control System Performance Verification Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Suk Whun; Song, Myung Jun

    2007-01-01

    Thanks to many control systems and control components, the nuclear power plant can be operated safely and efficiently under the transient condition as well as the steady state condition. If a fault or an error exists in control systems, the nuclear power plant should experience the unwanted and unexpected transient condition. Therefore, the performance of these control systems and control components should be completely verified through power ascension tests of startup period. However, there are many needs to replace control components or to modify control logic or to change its setpoint. It is important to verify the performance of changed control system without redoing power ascension tests in order to perform these changes. Up to now, a simulation method with computer codes which has been used for design of nuclear power plants was commonly used to verify its performance. But, if hardware characteristics of control system are changed or the software in control system has an unexpected fault or error, this simulation method is not effective to verify the performance of changed control system. Many tests related to V and V (Verification and Validation) are performed in the factory as well as in the plant to eliminate these errors which might be generated in hardware manufacturing or software coding. It reveals that these field tests and the simulation method are insufficient to guaranty the performance of changed control system. Two unexpected transients occurred in YGN 5 and 6 startup period are good examples to show this fact. One occurred at 50% reactor power and caused reactor trip. The other occurred during 70% loss of main feedwater pump test and caused the excess turbine runback

  18. MANAGEMENT TOOLS IN THE SYSTEM OF INPUT CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Lazarev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In article introduction of the international standards in activity of the meat-processing enterprises in connection with Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization is proved. The essence and the economic maintenance of instruments of entrance control reveals. The regulations of entrance control consisting of eight stages, defining execu-tives, their functional duties, forms of results are submitted. The algorithm of func-tioning of the mechanism of entrance control in the form of sequence of actions is de-scribed when carrying out procedure of entrance control.

  19. Control of low-frequency noise for piping systems via the design of coupled band gap of acoustic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanfei [College of Power Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan, 430033 (China); Shen, Huijie, E-mail: shj588@163.com [College of Power Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan, 430033 (China); Zhang, Linke [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, 430063 (China); Su, Yongsheng, E-mail: suyongsheng1981@163.com [College of Power Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan, 430033 (China); Yu, Dianlong [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Integrated Logistics Support, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic wave propagation and sound transmission in a metamaterial-based piping system with Helmholtz resonator (HR) attached periodically are studied. A transfer matrix method is developed to conduct the investigation. Calculational results show that the introduction of periodic HRs in the piping system could generate a band gap (BG) near the resonant frequency of the HR, such that the bandwidth and the attenuation effect of HR improved notably. Bragg type gaps are also exist in the system due to the systematic periodicity. By plotting the BG as functions of HR parameters, the effect of resonator parameters on the BG behavior, including bandwidth, location and attenuation performance, etc., is examined. It is found that Bragg-type gap would interplay with the resonant-type gap under some special situations, thereby giving rise to a super-wide coupled gap. Further, explicit formulation for BG exact coupling is extracted and some key parameters on modulating the width and the attenuation coefficient of coupled gaps are investigated. The coupled gap can be located to any frequency range as one concerned, thus rendering the low-frequency noise control feasible in a broad band range. - Highlights: • A metamaterial-type pipe system with Bragg and resonant acoustic gaps. • A low-frequency acoustic coupled gap. • Exact coupling condition for Bragg and resonant gaps. • Effects of resonant parameters on coupled gaps.

  20. A Hybrid Circuit for Spoof Surface Plasmons and Spatial Waveguide Modes to Reach Controllable Band-Pass Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Hao Chi; Wu, Han; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-11-10

    We propose a hybrid circuit for spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and spatial waveguide modes to develop new microwave devices. The hybrid circuit includes a spoof SPP waveguide made of two anti-symmetric corrugated metallic strips and a traditional substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). From dispersion relations, we show that the electromagnetic waves only can propagate through the hybrid circuit when the operating frequency is less than the cut-off frequency of the SPP waveguide and greater than the cut-off frequency of SIW, generating efficient band-pass filters. We demonstrate that the pass band is controllable in a large range by designing the geometrical parameters of SPP waveguide and SIW. Full-wave simulations are provided to show the large adjustability of filters, including ultra wideband and narrowband filters. We fabricate a sample of the new hybrid device in the microwave frequencies, and measurement results have excellent agreements to numerical simulations, demonstrating excellent filtering characteristics such as low loss, high efficiency, and good square ratio. The proposed hybrid circuit gives important potential to accelerate the development of plasmonic integrated functional devices and circuits in both microwave and terahertz frequencies.

  1. CO2 temperature-controlled laser soldering of pig trachea incisions in vitro using flexible albumin bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharvit, Dan; Vasilyev, Tamar; Vasserman, Irena; Simhon, David; Kariv, Naam; DeRowe, Ari; Katzir, Abraham

    2005-04-01

    Resection of a segment of the trachea is a procedure applied for the removal of cervical tumors invading the trachea, or for the treatment of severe tracheal stenosis. The current method of anastomosis is based on multiple sutures. The main drawbacks of this method are: 1) A long procedure time, 2) An air leakage, and 3) An inflammatory response to the sutures. In this study we evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of the use of temperature controlled CO2 laser soldering of incisions in pig tracheas in vitro. A transverse incision was made in a separated pig trachea. A flexible albumin band was prepared and was laser soldered with albumin solder to the outer surface of the trachea, covering the incision. The soldered trachea ends were sealed and the burst pressure was measured. In a series of in vitro experiments, the mean burst pressure was found to be 230 mm Hg. These preliminary results demonstrated that laser soldering using a flexible albumin band may be a useful method for sealing an incision in the trachea.

  2. Particle shape inhomogeneity and plasmon-band broadening of solar-control LaB{sub 6} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, Keisuke; Adachi, Kenji, E-mail: kenji-adachi@ni.smm.co.jp [Ichikawa Research Laboratories, Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd., Ichikawa 272-8588 (Japan)

    2015-07-07

    An ensemble inhomogeneity of non-spherical LaB{sub 6} nanoparticles dispersion has been analyzed with Mie theory to account for the observed broad plasmon band. LaB{sub 6} particle shape has been characterized using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and electron tomography (ET). SAXS scattering intensity is found to vary exponentially with exponent −3.10, indicating the particle shape of disk toward sphere. ET analysis disclosed dually grouped distribution of nanoparticle dispersion; one is large-sized at small aspect ratio and the other is small-sized with scattered high aspect ratio, reflecting the dual fragmentation modes during the milling process. Mie extinction calculations have been integrated for 100 000 particles of varying aspect ratio, which were produced randomly by using the Box-Muller method. The Mie integration method has produced a broad and smooth absorption band expanded towards low energy, in remarkable agreement with experimental profiles by assuming a SAXS- and ET-derived shape distribution, i.e., a majority of disks with a little incorporation of rods and spheres for the ensemble. The analysis envisages a high potential of LaB{sub 6} with further-increased visible transparency and plasmon peak upon controlled particle-shape and its distribution.

  3. Optimum practical design of distributed and asynchronous power control for wireless networks with shared bands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Štěpán; Yamamoto, K.; Yoshida, S.

    E90A, č. 7 (2007), s. 1261-1270 ISSN 0916-8508 Grant - others:Japan Society for the Promotion of Science(JP) 14213201; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science(JP) 16206040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : power control Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.287, year: 2007

  4. Dynamic Active Power Control with Improved Undead-Band Droop for HVDC Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrana, T.K.; Zeni, Lorenzo; Fosso, O.B.

    The earlier developed control method using a piecewise linear droop curve, with different droop values for the different segments, has now been optimised for dynamic performance. Non-linearities at the junctions of two linear droop sections have been adressed. Also non-linearity of power based DC...

  5. Societal costs in displaced transverse olecranon fractures: using decision analysis tools to find the most cost-effective strategy between tension band wiring and locked plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Tittu; Washington, Travis; Srivastava, Karan; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Makhni, Eric C; Hakeos, William

    2017-11-01

    Tension band wiring (TBW) and locked plating are common treatment options for Mayo IIA olecranon fractures. Clinical trials have shown excellent functional outcomes with both techniques. Although TBW implants are significantly less expensive than a locked olecranon plate, TBW often requires an additional operation for implant removal. To choose the most cost-effective treatment strategy, surgeons must understand how implant costs and return to the operating room influence the most cost-effective strategy. This cost-effective analysis study explored the optimal treatment strategies by using decision analysis tools. An expected-value decision tree was constructed to estimate costs based on the 2 implant choices. Values for critical variables, such as implant removal rate, were obtained from the literature. A Monte Carlo simulation consisting of 100,000 trials was used to incorporate variability in medical costs and implant removal rates. Sensitivity analysis and strategy tables were used to show how different variables influence the most cost-effective strategy. TBW was the most cost-effective strategy, with a cost savings of approximately $1300. TBW was also the dominant strategy by being the most cost-effective solution in 63% of the Monte Carlo trials. Sensitivity analysis identified implant costs for plate fixation and surgical costs for implant removal as the most sensitive parameters influencing the cost-effective strategy. Strategy tables showed the most cost-effective solution as 2 parameters vary simultaneously. TBW is the most cost-effective strategy in treating Mayo IIA olecranon fractures despite a higher rate of return to the operating room. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The LHCb Silicon Tracker - Control system specific tools and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Adeva, G; Esperante Pereira, D; Gallas, A; Pazos Alvarez, A; Perez Trigo, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Saborido, J; Amhis, Y; Bay, A; Blanc, F; Bressieux, J; Conti, G; Dupertuis, F; Fave, V; Frei, R; Gauvin, N; Haefeli, G; Keune, A; Luisier, J; Marki, R; Muresan, R; Nakada, T; Needham, M; Knecht, M; Schneider, O; Tran, M; Anderson, J; Buechler, A; Bursche, A; Chiapolini, N; De Cian, M; Elsasser, C; Salzmann, C; Saornil Gamarra, S; Steiner, S; Steinkamp, O; Straumann, U; van Tilburg, J; Tobin, M; Vollhardt, A; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Bauer, C; Britsch, M; Maciuc, F; Schmelling, M; Voss, H; Iakovenko, V; Okhrimenko, O; Pugatch, V

    2014-01-01

    The Experiment Control System (ECS) of the LHCb Silicon Tracker sub-detectors is built on the integrated LHCb ECS framework. Although all LHCb sub-detectors use the same framework and follow the same guidelines, the Silicon Tracker control system uses some interesting additional features in terms of operation and monitoring. The main details are described in this document. Since its design, the Silicon Tracker control system has been continuously evolving in a quite disorganized way. Some major maintenance activities are required to be able to keep improving. A description of those activities can also be found here.

  7. Tool position tracking control of a nonlinear uncertain flexible robot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moreover, other different papers and thesis of flexible manipulators ... various applications is highly sensitive to variations of disturbance torque acting on ...... Dang X 2014 Robust adaptive sliding-mode control of condenser-cleaning mobile.

  8. Development of computer-aided software engineering tool for sequential control of JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimono, M.; Akasaka, H.; Kurihara, K.; Kimura, T.

    1995-01-01

    Discharge sequential control (DSC) is an essential control function for the intermittent and pulse discharge operation of a tokamak device, so that many subsystems may work with each other in correct order and/or synchronously. In the development of the DSC program, block diagrams of logical operation for sequential control are illustrated in its design at first. Then, the logical operators and I/O's which are involved in the block diagrams are compiled and converted to a certain particular form. Since the block diagrams of the sequential control amounts to about 50 sheets in the case of the JT-60 upgrade tokamak (JT-60U) high power discharge and the above steps of the development have been performed manually so far, a great effort has been required for the program development. In order to remove inefficiency in such development processes, a computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tool has been developed on a UNIX workstation. This paper reports how the authors design it for the development of the sequential control programs. The tool is composed of the following three tools: (1) Automatic drawing tool, (2) Editing tool, and (3) Trace tool. This CASE tool, an object-oriented programming tool having graphical formalism, can powerfully accelerate the cycle for the development of the sequential control function commonly associated with pulse discharge in a tokamak fusion device

  9. Monocular tool control, eye dominance, and laterality in New Caledonian crows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Antone; Burns, Zackory T; von Bayern, Auguste M P; Kacelnik, Alex

    2014-12-15

    Tool use, though rare, is taxonomically widespread, but morphological adaptations for tool use are virtually unknown. We focus on the New Caledonian crow (NCC, Corvus moneduloides), which displays some of the most innovative tool-related behavior among nonhumans. One of their major food sources is larvae extracted from burrows with sticks held diagonally in the bill, oriented with individual, but not species-wide, laterality. Among possible behavioral and anatomical adaptations for tool use, NCCs possess unusually wide binocular visual fields (up to 60°), suggesting that extreme binocular vision may facilitate tool use. Here, we establish that during natural extractions, tool tips can only be viewed by the contralateral eye. Thus, maintaining binocular view of tool tips is unlikely to have selected for wide binocular fields; the selective factor is more likely to have been to allow each eye to see far enough across the midsagittal line to view the tool's tip monocularly. Consequently, we tested the hypothesis that tool side preference follows eye preference and found that eye dominance does predict tool laterality across individuals. This contrasts with humans' species-wide motor laterality and uncorrelated motor-visual laterality, possibly because bill-held tools are viewed monocularly and move in concert with eyes, whereas hand-held tools are visible to both eyes and allow independent combinations of eye preference and handedness. This difference may affect other models of coordination between vision and mechanical control, not necessarily involving tools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Control and stimulation tools (cat) for the PC modelers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Lea, K.C.

    1990-01-01

    For the last couple of years, the personal computer technology has received a steady stream of improvement in CPU processing power, fast floating coprocessor, super graphics to a very large and fast hard drive. Since Intel began shipping its 80386 version of CPU, it became practical to develop or execute a substantial amount of power plant software on a personal computer. With the introduction of the RISC type personal workstation, complete simulators based on these new generation of computers will soon become a reality. As of today, although almost anybody can afford a personal computer, simulation supporting software is still rare or non-existent at all. The CAST has been designed to support those users who want to develop or debug large power plant simulation programs on a personal computer or workstation. Another separate paper will also be presented to demonstrate the real world development and debugging tools offered by CAST

  11. Gastric band slippage: a case-controlled study comparing new and old radiographic signs of this important surgical complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, David W; Pietryga, Jason A; Grand, David J; Chang, Kevin J; Murphy, Brian L; Egglin, Thomas K

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of four radiographic signs of gastric band slippage: abnormal phi angle, the "O sign," inferior displacement of the superolateral gastric band margin, and presence of an air-fluid level above the gastric band. A search of the electronic medical record identified 21 patients with a surgically proven slipped gastric band and 63 randomly-selected asymptomatic gastric band patients who had undergone barium swallow studies. These studies were evaluated for the four signs of band slippage by two independent radiologists who were blinded to clinical data. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for each radiographic sign of band slippage. Interobserver agreement between radiologists was assessed using the Fleiss kappa statistic. In evaluating for gastric band slippage, an abnormal phi angle greater than 58° was 91-95% sensitive and 52-62% specific (κ = 0.78), the O sign was 33-48% sensitive but 97% specific (κ = 0.84), inferior displacement of the superolateral band margin by more than 2.4 cm from the diaphragm was 95% sensitive and 97-98% specific (κ = 0.97), and the presence of an air-fluid level was 95% sensitive and 100% specific (κ = 1.00). We report two previously undescribed radiographic signs of gastric band slippage that are both sensitive and specific for this important surgical complication and recommend that these signs should be incorporated into the imaging evaluation of gastric band patients.

  12. Simulations of S-band RF gun with RF beam control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnyakov, A. M.; Levichev, A. E.; Maltseva, M. V.; Nikiforov, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    The RF gun with RF control is discussed. It is based on the RF triode and two kinds of the cavities. The first cavity is a coaxial cavity with cathode-grid assembly where beam bunches are formed, the second one is an accelerating cavity. The features of such a gun are the following: bunched and relativistic beams in the output of the injector, absence of the back bombarding electrons, low energy spread and short length of the bunches. The scheme of the injector is shown. The electromagnetic field simulation and longitudinal beam dynamics are presented. The possible using of the injector is discussed.

  13. DSC: software tool for simulation-based design of control strategies applied to wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, M V; Ribes, J; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a computer tool called DSC (Simulation based Controllers Design) that enables an easy design of control systems and strategies applied to wastewater treatment plants. Although the control systems are developed and evaluated by simulation, this tool aims to facilitate the direct implementation of the designed control system to the PC of the full-scale WWTP (wastewater treatment plants). The designed control system can be programmed in a dedicated control application and can be connected to either the simulation software or the SCADA of the plant. To this end, the developed DSC incorporates an OPC server (OLE for process control) which facilitates an open-standard communication protocol for different industrial process applications. The potential capabilities of the DSC tool are illustrated through the example of a full-scale application. An aeration control system applied to a nutrient removing WWTP was designed, tuned and evaluated with the DSC tool before its implementation in the full scale plant. The control parameters obtained by simulation were suitable for the full scale plant with only few modifications to improve the control performance. With the DSC tool, the control systems performance can be easily evaluated by simulation. Once developed and tuned by simulation, the control systems can be directly applied to the full-scale WWTP.

  14. Interferometric Control of Dual-Band Terahertz Perfect Absorption Using a Designed Metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ming; Zhang, Huifang; Zhang, Xueqian; Yang, Quanlong; Zhang, Weili; Han, Jiaguang

    2018-05-01

    The coherent perfect absorber (CPA), a time-reversed counterpart to the laser emission, could cause all energy fed to the system to be absorbed. It can also be used as an absorptive interferometer, which could provide applications in controllable optical energy transfer. Here, in order to achieve a terahertz CPA, we propose a designed metasurface and experimentally demonstrate that it can serve as a polarization-insensitive CPA at a one-frequency channel under normal symmetric excitation, while a transverse-electric CPA at two-frequency channels around oblique 40° symmetric incidence. Such phenomena in this system can be attributed to Fano resonance consisting of interacting one bright and one dark mode under normal incidence and an additional operative dark mode under oblique symmetric excitation. The experimental results find good agreement with the fitted coupled-mode theory. Moreover, we show that the output amplitude can be effectively tuned from 0 to 1 only by varying the relative phase between the two input waves. The designed CPA could find potential application in effectively controlling absorption for terahertz imaging and terahertz switches.

  15. Automation tools for accelerator control a network based sequencer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clout, P.; Geib, M.; Westervelt, R.

    1991-01-01

    In conjunction with a major client, Vista Control Systems has developed a sequencer for control systems which works in conjunction with its realtime, distributed Vsystem database. Vsystem is a network-based data acquisition, monitoring and control system which has been applied successfully to both accelerator projects and projects outside this realm of research. The network-based sequencer allows a user to simply define a thread of execution in any supported computer on the network. The script defining a sequence has a simple syntax designed for non-programmers, with facilities for selectively abbreviating the channel names for easy reference. The semantics of the script contains most of the familiar capabilities of conventional programming languages, including standard stream I/O and the ability to start other processes with parameters passed. The script is compiled to threaded code for execution efficiency. The implementation is described in some detail and examples are given of applications for which the sequencer has been used

  16. Ku-Band Traveling Wave Slot Array Using Simple Scanning Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Nicholas K.; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a feeding concept aimed at simplifying the backend (phase shifters) of traditional phased arrays. As an alternative to traditional phased arrays, we employ a traveling wave array (TWA) using a single feedline whose propagation constant is controlled via a single, small mechanical movement without a need for phase shifters to enable scanning. Specifically, a dielectric plunger is positioned within a parallel plate waveguide (PPW) transmission line (TL) that feeds the TWA. By adjusting the position of the dielectric plunger within the PPW feeding the TWA, beam steering is achieved. A 20 element array is designed at 13GHz shown to give stable realized gain across the angular range of -25 deg. less than or equal to theta less than or equal to 25 deg. A proof of concept array is fabricated and measured to demonstrate and validate the concept's operation.

  17. Real-Time Plasma Control Tools for Advanced Tokamak Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varandas, C. A. F.; Sousa, J.; Rodrigues, A. P.; Carvalho, B. B.; Fernandes, H.; Batista, A. J.; Cruz, N.; Combo, A.; Pereira, R. C.

    2006-01-01

    Real-time control will play an important role in the operation and scientific exploitation of the new generation fusion devices. This paper summarizes the real-time systems and diagnostics developed by the Portuguese Fusion Euratom Association based on digital signal processors and field programmable gate arrays

  18. Mathematical modelling : a tool for hospital infection control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundmann, H; Hellriegel, B

    Health-care-associated infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens have become a menace in hospitals worldwide and infection control measures have lead to vastly different outcomes in different countries. During the past 6 years, a theoretical framework based on mathematical models has

  19. Mathematical modelling: a tool for hospital infection control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundmann, Hajo; Hellriegel, B.

    2006-01-01

    Health-care-associated infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens have become a menace in hospitals worldwide and infection control measures have lead to vastly different outcomes in different countries. During the past 6 years, a theoretical framework based on mathematical models has

  20. Mathematical modelling: a tool for hospital infection control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundmann, Hajo; Hellriegel, B

    2006-01-01

    Health-care-associated infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens have become a menace in hospitals worldwide and infection control measures have lead to vastly different outcomes in different countries. During the past 6 years, a theoretical framework based on mathematical models has

  1. Financing and delivery mechanisms for mosquito control tools in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria is a major public health problem in Sudan and causes an enormous burden of morbidity in the country. Malaria is generally controlled in Sudan using five main approaches, which are environmental management, space spraying (SS), insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), larviciding with abate (LWA) and ...

  2. [A return on investment tool in tobacco control: what do stakeholders think?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Celia; Trapero-Bertran, Marta; Cheung, Kei Long; Evers, Silvia; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; de Vries, Hein; López-Nicolás, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The European EQUIPT study will co-create a return on investment tool in several countries, aiming to provide decision makers with information and justification on the returns that can be generated by investing in tobacco control. This study aimed to identify the needs of potential users in Spain in order to provide information on the transferability of the tool. Telephone interviews with stakeholders were conducted including questions about the implementation of the tool, intended use and tobacco control interventions. Implementing the tool could provide added value to the information used in decision-making to advocate for cost-effective policies. The main drawback would be the training and time needed to learn how the tool works and for internal calculations. Knowledge and ideas from potential users collected in this study could inform the EQUIPT Tool adaptation. Thus, stakeholders could have an instrument that assists them on making healthcare decisions. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Developing Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as a tool Mosquito Control Districts can use for integrated Aedes aegypti control

    Science.gov (United States)

    New tools are clearly needed for integrated mosquito management of Ae. aegypti. We describe the sterile insect technique (SIT) that we are developing as a method to control Ae. aegypti by partnering with two prominent Florida mosquito control districts (MCD) and the FAO/IAEA Insect Pest Control Sub...

  4. Direct numerical control of machine tools in a nuclear research center by the CAMAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwoll, K.; Mueller, K.D.; Becks, B.; Erven, W.; Sauer, M.

    1977-01-01

    The production of mechanical parts in research centers can be improved by connecting several numerically controlled machine tools to a central process computer via a data link. The CAMAC Serial Highway with its expandable structure yields an economic and flexible system for this purpose. The CAMAC System also facilitates the development of modular components controlling the machine tools itself. A CAMAC installation controlling three different machine tools connected to a central computer (PDP11) via the CAMAC Serial Highway is described. Besides this application, part of the CAMAC hardware and software can also be used for a great variety of scientific experiments

  5. Band gap control using electric field of photonic gel cells fabricated with block copolymer and hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Nam; Baek, Young Bin; Shin, Dong Myung

    2014-08-01

    Optical and electrical characteristics of the devices using photonic gel film and hydrogel electrolyte were studied. Poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) lamellar film with alternating hydrophobic block and hydrophilic polyelectrolyte block polymers (52 kg/mol-b-57 kg/mol) were prepared for the photonic gel. Poly(isobutylene-co-maleic acid) sodium salts were prepared for the hydrogel. This hydrogel fiber is common water swelling material and it owned ions for a device has conductivity. Photonic gel and hydrogel was spin coating onto Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass for make electric fields. The reflectance maximum wavelength of photonic crystal device shifted from 538 nm and reached to 557 nm, 585 nm and 604 nm during 30 min voltage applying time. The bandwidth variation was very limited. Loss of electrolyte was much less with hydrogel compared to the pure water. We can control color of hydrogel used photonic device by electric field with reasonable time range under moderate electric field by applying 2 V between two facing electrodes.

  6. Reference and control plots – a useful tool for forestry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wójcicki Adam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current age, the increased need for the restoration of forest ecosystems necessitates a better understanding of natural processes. Forest stands that are affected only by natural processes and disturbances can serve as references and controls for comparison with cut or otherwise managed forests. Such a comparison may help us determine, whether our sylvicultural practices actually pursue the goal of sustainable development. It is also important to use uniform terminology across the world to facilitate sharing of experiences and results. Creating reference and control stands in every ecoregion will provide a rich scientific basis for comparison with managed forests and allow us to design and apply restoration methods more effectively.

  7. Quality control tools applied to a PV microgrid in Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camino-Villacorta, M.; Egido-Aguilera, M.A. [Ciudad Univ., Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Energia Solar - UPM; Gamez, J.; Arranz-Piera, P. [Trama Tecnoambiental (TTA), Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    The Instituto de Energia Solar has been dealing with quality control issues for rural electrification for many years. In the framework of project DOSBE (Development of Electricity Service Operators for Poverty Alleviation in Ecuador and Peru), a technical toolkit has been developed to implement adapted integral quality control procedures for photovoltaic systems (covering all components and equipment, installation and servicing), applicable at a local and regional scale, with the overall aim of increasing the confidence in photovoltaic systems. This toolkit was applied in the evaluation of an existing microgrid in Ecuador, which is described in this paper. The toolkit and the detailed results of its application are presented in a published document which is being widely distributed among the stakeholders of rural electrification in Ecuador and Peru. It can be downloaded from the web page of the DOSBE project: www.dosbe.org (orig.)

  8. Active Perturbation Rejection in Motion Control of Milling Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Beltrán Carbajal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se aborda el problema de control robusto de los ejes de movimiento de máquinas- herramienta fresadoras sujetos a fuerzas de perturbación que se inducen durante el proceso de maquinado del metal. Se propone un esquema de control por retroalimentación de la salida de posición para el rechazo robusto de fuerzas de perturbación de fricción y de corte desconocidas, y para tareas de seguimiento robusto de trayectorias de movimiento planificadas para una máquina-herramienta fresadora de tres ejes. Se considera la fricción de Coulomb, el amortiguamiento viscoso y las fuerzas de corte como términos de una señal de entrada de perturbación variable en el tiempo desconocida, la cual afecta la dinámica de los ejes de movimiento de la máquina fresadora. En el diseño del control de movimiento, se modela la señal de perturbación mediante una familia de polinomios en el tiempo de Taylor de cuarto grado. Entonces, se diseña un observador de estado para estimar las señales de velocidad y perturbación que se requieren para la implementación del controlador de movimiento propuesto. Se incluye resultados en simulación para mostrar el desempeño robusto del esquema de control de movimiento propuesto y la estimación efectiva y rápida de las señales de perturbación y velocidad.

  9. Control Systems with Saturating Inputs Analysis Tools and Advanced Design

    CERN Document Server

    Corradini, Maria Letizia; Giannoni, Fabio; Orlando, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    This series aims to report new developments in the fields of control and information sciences - quickly, informally and at a high level. The type of material considered for publication includes: 1. Preliminary drafts of monographs and advanced textbooks 2. Lectures on a new field, or presenting a new angle on a classical field 3. Research reports 4. Reports of meetings, provided they are a) of exceptional interest and b) devoted to a specific topic. The timeliness of subject material is very important.

  10. Development of Analysis Tools for Certification of Flight Control Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-31

    In Proc. Conf. on Decision and Control, pages 881-886, Bahamas, 2004. [7] G. Chesi, A. Garulli, A. Tesi , and A. Vicino. LMI-based computation of...Minneapolis, MN, 2006, pp. 117-122. [10] G. Chesi, A. Garulli, A. Tesi . and A. Vicino, "LMI-based computation of optimal quadratic Lyapunov functions...Convex Optimization. Cambridge Univ. Press. Chesi, G., A. Garulli, A. Tesi and A. Vicino (2005). LMI-based computation of optimal quadratic Lyapunov

  11. Regulatory inspection: a powerful tool to control industrial radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.C.A. da; Leocadio, J.C.; Ramalho, A.T.

    2008-01-01

    An important contribution for Brazilian development, especially for the quality control of products, is the use of radiation sources by conventional industries. There are in Brazil roughly 3,000 radioactive sources spread out among 950 industries. The main industrial practices involved are: industrial radiography, industrial irradiators, industrial accelerators, well logging petroleum and nuclear gauges. More than 1,800 Radiation Protection Officers (RPOs) were qualified to work in these practices. The present work presents a brief description of the safety control over industrial radioactive installations performed by the Brazilian Regulatory Authority, i.e. the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN). This paper also describes the national system for radiation safety inspections, the regulation infrastructure and the national inventory of industrial installations. The inspections are based on specific indicators, and their periodicity depends on the risk and type of installation. The present work discusses some relevant aspects that must be considered during the inspections, in order to make the inspections more efficient in controlling the sources. One of these aspects regards the evaluation of the storage place for the sources, a very important parameter for preventing future risky situations. (author)

  12. Development of a new concept automatic frequency controller for an ultrasmall C-band linear accelerator guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamino, Yuichiro; Tsukuda, Kazuhiro; Kokubo, Masaki; Miura, Sadao; Hirai, Etsuro; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a four-dimensional, image-guided radiotherapy system with a gimbaled x-ray head. The system has pursuing irradiation capability in addition to precise irradiation capability, owing to its agile x-ray head. The moving x-ray head requires a very small C-band accelerator guide. The heat intensity of the accelerator guide is much higher than that of conventional S-band medical linear accelerators. The resonance frequency varies over almost 1.0 MHz with a thermal time constant of about 30 s. An automatic frequency controller (AFC) is employed to compensate for this variation in resonance frequency. Furthermore, we noted that fast AFC response is important for step-and-shoot intensity modulation radiotherapy (IMRT), in which the beam is turned on and off frequently. Therefore, we invented a digital AFC, based on a new concept, to provide effective compensation for the thermal characteristics of the accelerator guide and to ensure stable and optimized x-ray treatment. An important aspect of the performance of the AFC is the capture-frequency range over which the AFC can seek, lock on to, and track the resonance frequency. The conventional, analog AFC used in S-band medical linear accelerators would have a capture-frequency range of about 0.9 MHz, if applied to our accelerator guide, and would be inappropriate. Conversely, our new AFC has a capture-frequency range of 24 MHz, which is well suited to our accelerator guide. The design concept behind this new AFC has been developed and verified. A full prototype system was constructed and tested on an existing accelerator guide at the rated x-ray output (500 cGy/min) of our radiotherapy system, with a pulse-repetition frequency of 300 Hz. The AFC acquired the resonance frequency of the accelerator guide within 0.15 s after beam-on, and provided stable tracking and adjustment of the frequency of the microwave source to the resonance frequency of the accelerator guide. With a planned improvement of the

  13. Effects of elastic band resistance training and nutritional supplementation on physical performance of institutionalised elderly--A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesen, Stefan; Halper, Barbara; Hofmann, Marlene; Jandrasits, Waltraud; Franzke, Bernhard; Strasser, Eva-Maria; Graf, Alexandra; Tschan, Harald; Bachl, Norbert; Quittan, Michael; Wagner, Karl Heinz; Wessner, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of elastic band resistance training in combination with nutrient supplementation on muscular strength and the ability to perform mobility-related activities of daily living in older adults living in retirement care facilities. Randomized controlled trial, with a 6-month intervention period. A retirement care facility, Vienna, Austria. One hundred and seventeen older adults (14 males (12%) and 103 females (88%)), aged 65 to 97 years (mean age: 82.8 ± 6.0), having a mini-mental state examination score ≥ 23 and no chronic diseases posing a medical contraindication to training therapy. Participants were randomly assigned, but stratified by sex, to one of three intervention groups: supervised resistance exercise training (RT), RT in combination with nutrient supplementation (RTS), or cognitive training group (CT). All interventions were performed two times a week for 6 months. RT was designed to train all major muscle groups using elastic bands. The nutrient supplement (rich in proteins, vitamin D, B2, B12) was distributed every morning as well as after each RT session. A battery of motor ability tests and functional test were performed prior to as well as following 3 months and finally after 6 months of intervention. These tests included isokinetic torque measurements of the knee extensors and flexors in concentric mode at 60 and 120°/s, isometric handgrip strength, senior arm-lifting test, chair stand test, maximum walking speed and a 6-minute walking test (6 MWT). A repeated-measures ANOVA analysis revealed significant improvements in physical function of lower (p=0.002) and upper extremities (p=0.006) for RT and/or RTS in comparison to CT. For isokinetic measurements, 6 MWT, and gait speed time effects (pperformance in chair stand test (p=0.012), 6 MWT (p=0.003), and gait speed (p=0.013) at baseline than that of the finishers of the study. Six months of a low intensity resistance exercise using elastic bands and own body weight is safe

  14. Thermally controlled mid-IR band-gap engineering in all-glass chalcogenide microstructured fibers: a numerical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barh, Ajanta; Varshney, Ravi K.; Pal, Bishnu P.

    2017-01-01

    Presence of photonic band-gap (PBG) in an all-glass low refractive index (RI) contrast chalcogenide (Ch) microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) is investigated numerically. The effect of external temperature on the position of band-gap is explored to realize potential fiber-based wavelength filters....... Then the temperature sensitivity of band-gaps is investigated to design fiber-based mid-IR wavelength filters/sensors....

  15. Sheep production as a Senecio spp. control tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Mota Bandarra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Since poisoning by Senecio spp. is one of the main causes of cattle death in southern Brazil, control of these plants is a priority for the local livestock production. After the pasture has been mowed, grazing by 16 sheep was efficient for controlling Senecio brasiliensis and Senecio madagascariensis populations in a 5.5-hectare area that had long been severely infested with these species. A total of 28,629 plants among S. brasiliensis (flower-of-souls, 10,122 and S.madagascariensis (fireweed, 18,507 were almost completely eliminated in a two-year period. The number of sheep was kept at 3.0 stock units/ha, but a variable number of cattle were temporarily stocked according to pasture availability. The major sanitary practice applied to the sheep was anthelmintic administration. Liver biopsies taken from sheep and cattle before and after experimental period didn't reveal any change associable with seneciosis. The performance levels of the sheep were comparable to those observed in flocks managed under traditional extensive grazing systems in southern Brazil.

  16. A Ku band pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer using an arbitrary waveform generator for quantum control experiments at millikelvin temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Yung Szen, E-mail: yungszen@utm.my [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka-shi, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Tabuchi, Yutaka [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), The University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Negoro, Makoto; Kagawa, Akinori; Kitagawa, Masahiro, E-mail: kitagawa@ee.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka-shi, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    We present a 17 GHz (Ku band) arbitrary waveform pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer for experiments down to millikelvin temperatures. The spectrometer is located at room temperature, while the resonator is placed either in a room temperature magnet or inside a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator; the operating temperature range of the dilution unit is from ca. 10 mK to 8 K. This combination provides the opportunity to perform quantum control experiments on electron spins in the pure-state regime. At 0.6 T, spin echo experiments were carried out using γ-irradiated quartz glass from 1 K to 12.3 mK. With decreasing temperatures, we observed an increase in spin echo signal intensities due to increasing spin polarizations, in accordance with theoretical predictions. Through experimental data fitting, thermal spin polarization at 100 mK was estimated to be at least 99%, which was almost pure state. Next, to demonstrate the ability to create arbitrary waveform pulses, we generate a shaped pulse by superposing three Gaussian pulses of different frequencies. The resulting pulse was able to selectively and coherently excite three different spin packets simultaneously—a useful ability for analyzing multi-spin system and for controlling a multi-qubit quantum computer. By applying this pulse to the inhomogeneously broadened sample, we obtain three well-resolved excitations at 8 K, 1 K, and 14 mK.

  17. Comet assay as a cold chain control tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Renato Cesar

    2009-01-01

    Bearing in mind an ever more demanding market regarding the quality of food, it has been necessary to develop processes that meet the demands of consumers. Within the existing processes the cold chain and irradiation stand out. The cold chain comprises all the stages of conserving food from production, cooling, freezing, storing and transportation to the final consumer. Irradiation, as a means of conserving food, prolongs the shelf life, inhibits budding and reduces pathogenic contamination among other benefits. Is very important the identification of food degradation in function of failure on the processes which they were subjected. The comet assay is a screening test widely studied, considerate fast and with low cost. By the fact of the test identify breaks on the DNA, may be possible use the comet test on the control of cold chain failures that degrade de food. The labels and stamp, do not consider the previous food situation and indicate failures from the moment where they be placed in contact with the product. With the comet assay is possible to check the degradation that has occurred in liver chicken samples until the moment of comet's test realization. (author)

  18. Tools for man-machine interface development in accelerator control applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopylov, L.; Mikhev, M.; Trofimov, N.; Yurpalov, V.

    1994-01-01

    For the UNK Project a development of the Accelerator Control Applications is in the progress. These applications will use a specific Graphical User Interface for data presentation and accelerator parameter management. A number of tools have been developed based on the Motif Tool Kit. They contain a set of problem oriented screen templates and libraries. Using these tools, full scale prototype applications of the UNK Tune and Orbit measurement and correction were developed and are described, as examples. A subset of these allows the creation of the synoptic control screens from the Autocad pictures files and Oracle DB equipment descriptions. The basic concepts and a few application examples are presented. ((orig.))

  19. Evaluation tools of quality control for patients submitted to IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavor, Milton

    2011-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is currently been implemented in a rapidly growing number of centers in Brazil. As consequence many institutions are now facing the problem of performing a comprehensive quality control program before and during the implementation of IMRT in the clinical routine practice. The aim of this work is to evaluate and propose a methodology for quality assurance in IMRT treatments. An ionization chamber and a two-dimensional array detector were performed to assess the absolute value of the total dose of all fields in one specific point. The relative total dose distribution of all fields was measured with a radiochromic film and a two-dimensional array at one depth in a phantom. A comparison between measured and calculated dose distributions was performed using the gamma-index method, assessing the percentage of points that meet the criteria of +-3% dose difference and +-3 mm distance to agreement. As a result of 113 tested IMRT beams using ionization chamber and 81 using two-dimensional array, the proposal was to take an action level of about +- 5% compared to the treatment planning systems and measurements, for the verification of the dose in a single point at the low gradient dose region. Analysis of the two-dimensional array measurements showed that the gamma value was <1 for 97.7% of the data and for the film the gamma value was <1 for 96.6% of the data. This can be concluded that for an accurate delivery of dose in 'sliding-window' IMRT with micro multileaf collimator, the absolute value of the total dose and the relative total dose distribution should be checked by absolute and relative dosimetry respectively. (author)

  20. Five-axis Control Processing Using NC Machine Tools : A Tool Posture Decision Using the Tangent Slope at a Cut Point on a Work

    OpenAIRE

    小島, 龍広; 西田, 知照; 扇谷, 保彦

    2003-01-01

    This report deals with the way to decide tool posture and the way to analytically calculate tool path for the work shape requiring 5-axis control machining. In the tool path calculation, basic equations are derived using the principle that the tangent slope at a cut point on a work and the one at a cutting point on a tool edge are identical. A tool posture decision procedure using the tangent slope at each cut point on a work is proposed for any shape of tool edge. The valid- ity of the way t...

  1. Structure and method for controlling band offset and alignment at a crystalline oxide-on-semiconductor interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    2003-11-25

    A crystalline oxide-on-semiconductor structure and a process for constructing the structure involves a substrate of silicon, germanium or a silicon-germanium alloy and an epitaxial thin film overlying the surface of the substrate wherein the thin film consists of a first epitaxial stratum of single atomic plane layers of an alkaline earth oxide designated generally as (AO).sub.n and a second stratum of single unit cell layers of an oxide material designated as (A'BO.sub.3).sub.m so that the multilayer film arranged upon the substrate surface is designated (AO).sub.n (A'BO.sub.3).sub.m wherein n is an integer repeat of single atomic plane layers of the alkaline earth oxide AO and m is an integer repeat of single unit cell layers of the A'BO.sub.3 oxide material. Within the multilayer film, the values of n and m have been selected to provide the structure with a desired electrical structure at the substrate/thin film interface that can be optimized to control band offset and alignment.

  2. Effect of upper extremity proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation combined with elastic resistance bands on respiratory muscle strength: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme P. T. Areas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elastic resistance bands (ERB combined with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF are often used in resistance muscle training programs, which have potential effects on peripheral muscle strength. However, the effects of the combination of ERB and PNF on respiratory muscle strength warrant further investigation. OBJECTIVES: The assessment of the effects of PNF combined with ERB on respiratory muscle strength. METHOD: Twenty healthy, right-handed females were included. Subjects were randomized to either the resistance training program group (TG, n=10 or the control group (CG, n=10. Maximal expiratory pressure (MEP and inspiratory pressure (MIP were measured before and after four weeks of an upper extremity resistance training program. The training protocol consisted of upper extremity PNF combined with ERB, with resistance selected from 1 repetition maximum protocol. RESULTS: PNF combined with ERB showed significant increases in MIP and MEP (p<0.05. In addition, there were significant differences between the TG and CG regarding ∆MIP (p=0.01 and ∆MEP (p=0.04. CONCLUSIONS: PNF combined with ERB can have a positive impact on respiratory muscle strength. These results may be useful with respect to cardiopulmonary chronic diseases that are associated with reduced respiratory muscle strength.

  3. The effect of laparoscopic gastric banding surgery on plasma levels of appetite-control, insulinotropic, and digestive hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shak, Joshua R; Roper, Jatin; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I; Tseng, Chi-hong; Francois, Fritz; Gamagaris, Zoi; Patterson, Carlie; Weinshel, Elizabeth; Fielding, George A; Ren, Christine; Blaser, Martin J

    2008-09-01

    We hypothesized that laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) reduces weight and modulates ghrelin production, but largely spares gastrointestinal endocrine function. To examine this hypothesis, we determined plasma concentrations of appetite-control, insulinotropic, and digestive hormones in relation to LAGB. Twenty-four patients undergoing LAGB were prospectively enrolled. Body mass index (BMI) was measured and blood samples obtained at baseline and 6 and 12 months post-surgery. Plasma concentrations of leptin, acylated and total ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), gastrin, and pepsinogens I and II were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Median percent excess weight loss (%EWL) over 12 months was 45.7% with median BMI decreasing from 43.2 at baseline to 33.8 at 12 months post-surgery (p 0.05). Pepsinogen II levels were significantly lower 6 months after LAGB but returned to baseline levels by 12 months. LAGB yielded substantial %EWL and a proportional decrease in plasma leptin. Our results support the hypothesis that LAGB works in part by suppressing the rise in ghrelin that normally accompanies weight loss. Unchanged concentrations of insulinotropic and digestive hormones suggest that gastrointestinal endocrine function is largely maintained in the long term.

  4. Prediction and Control of Cutting Tool Vibration in Cnc Lathe with Anova and Ann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abuthakeer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Machining is a complex process in which many variables can deleterious the desired results. Among them, cutting tool vibration is the most critical phenomenon which influences dimensional precision of the components machined, functional behavior of the machine tools and life of the cutting tool. In a machining operation, the cutting tool vibrations are mainly influenced by cutting parameters like cutting speed, depth of cut and tool feed rate. In this work, the cutting tool vibrations are controlled using a damping pad made of Neoprene. Experiments were conducted in a CNC lathe where the tool holder is supported with and without damping pad. The cutting tool vibration signals were collected through a data acquisition system supported by LabVIEW software. To increase the buoyancy and reliability of the experiments, a full factorial experimental design was used. Experimental data collected were tested with analysis of variance (ANOVA to understand the influences of the cutting parameters. Empirical models have been developed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Experimental studies and data analysis have been performed to validate the proposed damping system. Multilayer perceptron neural network model has been constructed with feed forward back-propagation algorithm using the acquired data. On the completion of the experimental test ANN is used to validate the results obtained and also to predict the behavior of the system under any cutting condition within the operating range. The onsite tests show that the proposed system reduces the vibration of cutting tool to a greater extend.

  5. GaAs mixed signal multi-function X-band MMIC with 7 bit phase and amplitude control and integrated serial to parallel converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A. de; Mouthaan, K.

    2000-01-01

    The design and measured performance of a GaAs multi-function X-band MMIC for spacebased synthetic aperture radar (SAR) applications with 7-bit phase and amplitude control and integrated serial to parallel converter (including level conversion) is presented. The main application for the

  6. A Design to Digitalize Hydraulic Cylinder Control of a Machine Tool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conventionally hydraulic piston - cylinder servos are actuated using analogue controls for machine tool axis drives. In this paper a design of the axis control system of an NC milling machine which employs a small stepping motor to digitally actuated hydraulic piston - cylinder servo drives existing on the machines Y-axis is ...

  7. A tool to assess knowledge, attitude and behavior of indonesian health care workers regarding infection control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duerink, D.O.; Hadi, U.; Lestari, E.S.; Roeshadi, D.; Wahyono, H.; Nagelkerke, N.J.; Meulen, R.G.; Broek, P.J.A. van den

    2013-01-01

    Aim: to investigate knowledge, attitude and behaviour toward infection control in two teaching hospitals on the island of Java by means of a questionnaire and to evaluate the use of the questionnaire as a tool. Methods: we investigated knowledge, attitude and behaviour toward infection control in

  8. a design to digitalize hydraulic cylinder control of a machine tool

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1995-09-01

    Sep 1, 1995 ... Department of Mechanical Engineering. FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI,. P.M.B. 1526, OWERRI. ABSTRACT. Conventionally hydraulic piston - cylinder servos are actuated using analogue controls for machine tool axis drives. In this paper a design of the axis control system of an NC ...

  9. Proceedings of the Workshop on software tools for distributed intelligent control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herget, C.J. (ed.)

    1990-09-01

    The Workshop on Software Tools for Distributed Intelligent Control Systems was organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the United States Army Headquarters Training and Doctrine Command and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The goals of the workshop were to the identify the current state of the art in tools which support control systems engineering design and implementation, identify research issues associated with writing software tools which would provide a design environment to assist engineers in multidisciplinary control design and implementation, formulate a potential investment strategy to resolve the research issues and develop public domain code which can form the core of more powerful engineering design tools, and recommend test cases to focus the software development process and test associated performance metrics. Recognizing that the development of software tools for distributed intelligent control systems will require a multidisciplinary effort, experts in systems engineering, control systems engineering, and compute science were invited to participate in the workshop. In particular, experts who could address the following topics were selected: operating systems, engineering data representation and manipulation, emerging standards for manufacturing data, mathematical foundations, coupling of symbolic and numerical computation, user interface, system identification, system representation at different levels of abstraction, system specification, system design, verification and validation, automatic code generation, and integration of modular, reusable code.

  10. Review of Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Tools for Verifying Command and Control Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Michael L.; Bonanne, Kevin H.; Favretto, Jeffrey A.; Jackson, Maddalena M.; Jones, Stephanie L.; Mackey, Ryan M.; Sarrel, Marc A.; Simpson, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Standing Review Board (SRB) requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) conduct an independent review of the plan developed by Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) for identifying models and emulators to create a tool(s) to verify their command and control software. The NESC was requested to identify any issues or weaknesses in the GSDO plan. This document contains the outcome of the NESC review.

  11. CORAL off-line: an object-oriented tool for optimal control of sewer networks

    OpenAIRE

    Figueras, J.; Cembrano, Gabriela; Puig, Vicenç; Quevedo, Joseba; Salamero Sansalvado, María; Marti Marques, Joaquim

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a tool to aid in the analysis and design of combined sewer networks. Complex drainage systems include actuators, like flow-diversion gates and detention tanks, which should be optimally controlled in order to minimize flooding and combined sewer overflow (CSO). Through these optimisations volume to waste water treatment plants (WWTP) is maximised. CORAL is a tool able to model a combined sewer network, simulate rain events, calculate actuators optimal policies, reproduce ...

  12. NNSYSID and NNCTRL Tools for system identification and control with neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Magnus; Ravn, Ole; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2001-01-01

    choose among several designs such as direct inverse control, internal model control, nonlinear feedforward, feedback linearisation, optimal control, gain scheduling based on instantaneous linearisation of neural network models and nonlinear model predictive control. This article gives an overview......Two toolsets for use with MATLAB have been developed: the neural network based system identification toolbox (NNSYSID) and the neural network based control system design toolkit (NNCTRL). The NNSYSID toolbox has been designed to assist identification of nonlinear dynamic systems. It contains...... a number of nonlinear model structures based on neural networks, effective training algorithms and tools for model validation and model structure selection. The NNCTRL toolkit is an add-on to NNSYSID and provides tools for design and simulation of control systems based on neural networks. The user can...

  13. NNSYSID and NNCTRL Tools for system identification and control with neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Magnus; Ravn, Ole; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2001-01-01

    a number of nonlinear model structures based on neural networks, effective training algorithms and tools for model validation and model structure selection. The NNCTRL toolkit is an add-on to NNSYSID and provides tools for design and simulation of control systems based on neural networks. The user can...... choose among several designs such as direct inverse control, internal model control, nonlinear feedforward, feedback linearisation, optimal control, gain scheduling based on instantaneous linearisation of neural network models and nonlinear model predictive control. This article gives an overview......Two toolsets for use with MATLAB have been developed: the neural network based system identification toolbox (NNSYSID) and the neural network based control system design toolkit (NNCTRL). The NNSYSID toolbox has been designed to assist identification of nonlinear dynamic systems. It contains...

  14. Integrated analysis tools for trade studies of spacecraft controller and sensor locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, L. F.

    1986-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted with the aim to evaluate the practicality and difficulties of modern control design methods for large space structure controls. The evaluation is used as a basis for the identification of useful computer-based analysis tools which would provide insight into control characteristics of a spacecraft concept. A description is presented of the wrap-rib antenna and its packaging concept. Attention is given to active control requirements, a mathematical model of structural dynamics, aspects of sensor and actuator location, the analysis approach, controllability, observability, the concept of balanced realization, transmission zeros, singular value plots, analysis results, model reduction, and an interactive computer program. It is pointed out that the application of selected control analysis tools to the wrap-rib antenna demonstrates several capabilities which can be useful during conceptual design.

  15. Application of the Performance Validation Tool for the Evaluation of NSSS Control System Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Suk-whun

    2011-01-01

    When a control system is supplied to nuclear power plant (NPP) under construction, static tests and dynamic tests are typically performed for evaluating its performance. The dynamic test is not realistic for validating the performance of the replaced hardware in operating NPPs because of potential risks and economic burden. We have, therefore, developed a performance validation tool which can evaluate the dynamic performances of the control system without undertaking real plant tests. The window-based nuclear plant performance analyzer (Win-NPA) is used as a virtual NPP in the developed tool and provides appropriate control loads to the target control system via hardwired cables in a manner that the interfaces are identical to the field wiring. The outputs from the control system are used as the simulation inputs of the plant model within the Win-NPA. With this closed-loop configuration, major transient events were simulated to check the performance of the implemented control system by comparing it with that of the control system model of the Win-NPA and that of the old hardware. The developed tool and the methodology were successfully applied to the hardware replacement project for Yonggwang (YGN) 3 and 4 feedwater control system (FWCS) in 2008. Several errors in the implemented control system were fixed through the performance validation tests and the operability tests. As a result, the control system of the YGN 3 and 4 has demonstrated an excellent control performance since then. On the basis of YGN 3 and 4 project experiences, we are performing a similar project in Ulchin (UCN) 3 and 4. This methodology can also be applied to other NPPs under construction as a tool for pre-operational dynamic tests. These performance tests before performing power ascension tests (PATs) are conducive to preventing unnecessary plant transients or unwanted reactor trips caused by hidden errors of control systems during PATs. (author)

  16. Quantitative Risk reduction estimation Tool For Control Systems, Suggested Approach and Research Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Mark Flynn; Sam Alessi

    2006-03-01

    For the past year we have applied a variety of risk assessment technologies to evaluate the risk to critical infrastructure from cyber attacks on control systems. More recently, we identified the need for a stand alone control system risk reduction estimation tool to provide owners and operators of control systems with a more useable, reliable, and credible method for managing the risks from cyber attack. Risk is defined as the probability of a successful attack times the value of the resulting loss, typically measured in lives and dollars. Qualitative and ad hoc techniques for measuring risk do not provide sufficient support for cost benefit analyses associated with cyber security mitigation actions. To address the need for better quantitative risk reduction models we surveyed previous quantitative risk assessment research; evaluated currently available tools; developed new quantitative techniques [17] [18]; implemented a prototype analysis tool to demonstrate how such a tool might be used; used the prototype to test a variety of underlying risk calculational engines (e.g. attack tree, attack graph); and identified technical and research needs. We concluded that significant gaps still exist and difficult research problems remain for quantitatively assessing the risk to control system components and networks, but that a useable quantitative risk reduction estimation tool is not beyond reach.

  17. Model predictive control as a tool for improving the process operation of MSW combustion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskens, M.; Kessel, L.B.M. van; Bosgra, O.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a feasibility study is presented on the application of the advanced control strategy called model predictive control (MPC) as a tool for obtaining improved process operation performance for municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion plants. The paper starts with a discussion of the operational objectives and control of such plants, from which a motivation follows for applying MPC to them. This is followed by a discussion on the basic idea behind this advanced control strategy. After that, an MPC-based combustion control system is proposed aimed at tackling a typical MSW combustion control problem and, using this proposed control system, an assessment is made of the improvement in performance that an MPC-based MSW combustion control system can provide in comparison to conventional MSW combustion control systems. This assessment is based on simulations using an experimentally obtained process and disturbance model of a real-life large-scale MSW combustion plant

  18. Nanomaterials, and Occupational Health and Safety—A Literature Review About Control Banding and a Semi-Quantitative Method Proposed for Hazard Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimou, Kaotar; Emond, Claude

    2017-06-01

    In recent decades, the control banding (CB) approach has been recognised as a hazard assessment methodology because of its increased importance in the occupational safety, health and hygiene (OSHH) industry. According to the American Industrial Hygiene Association, this approach originates from the pharmaceutical industry in the United Kingdom. The aim of the CB approach is to protect more than 90% (or approximately 2.7 billion) of the world’s workers who do not have access to OSHH professionals and traditional quantitative risk assessment methods. In other words, CB is a qualitative or semi-quantitative tool designed to prevent occupational accidents by controlling worker exposures to potentially hazardous chemicals in the absence of comprehensive toxicological and exposure data. These criteria correspond very precisely to the development and production of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Considering the significant lack of scientific knowledge about work-related health risks because of ENMs, CB is, in general, appropriate for these issues. Currently, CB can be adapted to the specificities of ENMs; hundreds of nanotechnology products containing ENMs are already on the market. In this context, this qualitative or semi-quantitative approach appears to be relevant for characterising and quantifying the degree of physico-chemical and biological reactivities of ENMs, leading towards better control of human health effects and the safe handling of ENMs in workplaces. The need to greater understand the CB approach is important to further manage the risks related to handling hazardous substances, such as ENMs, without established occupational exposure limits. In recent years, this topic has garnered much interest, including discussions in many technical papers. Several CB models have been developed, and many countries have created their own nano-specific CB instruments. The aims of this research were to perform a literature review about CBs, to classify the main

  19. Nanomaterials, and Occupational Health and Safety—A Literature Review About Control Banding and a Semi-Quantitative Method Proposed for Hazard Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimou, Kaotar; Emond, Claude

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, the control banding (CB) approach has been recognised as a hazard assessment methodology because of its increased importance in the occupational safety, health and hygiene (OSHH) industry. According to the American Industrial Hygiene Association, this approach originates from the pharmaceutical industry in the United Kingdom. The aim of the CB approach is to protect more than 90% (or approximately 2.7 billion) of the world’s workers who do not have access to OSHH professionals and traditional quantitative risk assessment methods. In other words, CB is a qualitative or semi-quantitative tool designed to prevent occupational accidents by controlling worker exposures to potentially hazardous chemicals in the absence of comprehensive toxicological and exposure data. These criteria correspond very precisely to the development and production of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Considering the significant lack of scientific knowledge about work-related health risks because of ENMs, CB is, in general, appropriate for these issues. Currently, CB can be adapted to the specificities of ENMs; hundreds of nanotechnology products containing ENMs are already on the market. In this context, this qualitative or semi-quantitative approach appears to be relevant for characterising and quantifying the degree of physico-chemical and biological reactivities of ENMs, leading towards better control of human health effects and the safe handling of ENMs in workplaces. The need to greater understand the CB approach is important to further manage the risks related to handling hazardous substances, such as ENMs, without established occupational exposure limits. In recent years, this topic has garnered much interest, including discussions in many technical papers. Several CB models have been developed, and many countries have created their own nano-specific CB instruments. The aims of this research were to perform a literature review about CBs, to classify the main

  20. Monitoring and Control by Virtual Tools of an Educational Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligor Adrian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the present paper is to present the architecture and design of an effective tool useful for monitoring, maintenance and training of specialists in the field of photovoltaic renewable energy Among renewable energy resources, solar energy represents an easy to use, accessible and green source of energy. An important goal is the efficient use of solar energy which can only be achieved by the knowledge of solar datum and equipment characteristics from a studied area. Based on this idea, the paper presents a concept of virtual tools developed on web technologies and virtual instrumentation for monitoring and control of solar renewable energy. These tools are mainly designed as a base for a virtual laboratory that can be used for the study of photovoltaic and thermal solar energy parameters, representing, by didactical point of view, a handful way for students to study the phenomenology and also a training tool for specialists in the field of solar photovoltaic energy.

  1. Ultimate intra-wafer critical dimension uniformity control by using lithography and etch tool corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Michael; Wise, Rich; Reijnen, Liesbeth; Viatkina, Katja; Jaenen, Patrick; Luca, Melisa; Mernier, Guillaume; Chahine, Charlotte; Hellin, David; Kam, Benjamin; Sobieski, Daniel; Vertommen, Johan; Mulkens, Jan; Dusa, Mircea; Dixit, Girish; Shamma, Nader; Leray, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    With shrinking design rules, the overall patterning requirements are getting aggressively tighter. For the 7-nm node and below, allowable CD uniformity variations are entering the Angstrom region (ref [1]). Optimizing inter- and intra-field CD uniformity of the final pattern requires a holistic tuning of all process steps. In previous work, CD control with either litho cluster or etch tool corrections has been discussed. Today, we present a holistic CD control approach, combining the correction capability of the etch tool with the correction capability of the exposure tool. The study is done on 10-nm logic node wafers, processed with a test vehicle stack patterning sequence. We include wafer-to-wafer and lot-to-lot variation and apply optical scatterometry to characterize the fingerprints. Making use of all available correction capabilities (lithography and etch), we investigated single application of exposure tool corrections and of etch tool corrections as well as combinations of both to reach the lowest CD uniformity. Results of the final pattern uniformity based on single and combined corrections are shown. We conclude on the application of this holistic lithography and etch optimization to 7nm High-Volume manufacturing, paving the way to ultimate within-wafer CD uniformity control.

  2. Influence of export control policy on the competitiveness of machine tool producing organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrstrom, Jeffrey D.

    The possible influence of export control policies on producers of export controlled machine tools is examined in this quantitative study. International market competitiveness theories hold that market controlling policies such as export control regulations may influence an organization's ability to compete (Burris, 2010). Differences in domestic application of export control policy on machine tool exports may impose throttling effects on the competitiveness of participating firms (Freedenberg, 2010). Commodity shipments from Japan, Germany, and the United States to the Russian market will be examined using descriptive statistics; gravity modeling of these specific markets provides a foundation for comparison to actual shipment data; and industry participant responses to a user developed survey will provide additional data for analysis using a Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. There is scarce academic research data on the topic of export control effects within the machine tool industry. Research results may be of interest to industry leadership in market participation decisions, advocacy arguments, and strategic planning. Industry advocates and export policy decision makers could find data of interest in supporting positions for or against modifications of export control policies.

  3. Index of tobacco control sustainability (ITCS): a tool to measure the sustainability of national tobacco control programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Morris, Angela; Latif, Ehsan

    2017-03-01

    To produce a tool to assess and guide sustainability of national tobacco control programmes. A two-stage process adapting the Delphi and Nominal group techniques. A series of indicators of tobacco control sustainability were identified in grantee/country advisor reports to The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease under the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Control (2007-2015). Focus groups and key informant interviews in seven low and middle-income countries (52 government and civil society participants) provided consensus ratings of the indicators' relative importance. Data were reviewed and the indicators were accorded relative weightings to produce the 'Index of Tobacco Control Sustainability' (ITCS). All 31 indicators were considered 'Critical' or 'Important' by the great majority of participants. There was consensus that a tool to measure progress towards tobacco control sustainability was important. The most critical indicators related to financial policies and allocations, a national law, a dedicated national tobacco control unit and civil society tobacco control network, a national policy against tobacco industry 'Corporate Social Responsibility' (CSR), national mortality and morbidity data, and national policy evaluation mechanisms. The 31 indicators were agreed to be 'critical' or 'important' factors for tobacco control sustainability. The Index comprises the weighted indicators as a tool to identify aspects of national tobacco control programmes requiring further development to augment their sustainability and to measure and compare progress over time. The next step is to apply the ITCS and produce tobacco control sustainability assessments. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. TU-FG-201-05: Varian MPC as a Statistical Process Control Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, A; Rowbottom, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Quality assurance in radiotherapy requires the measurement of various machine parameters to ensure they remain within permitted values over time. In Truebeam release 2.0 the Machine Performance Check (MPC) was released allowing beam output and machine axis movements to be assessed in a single test. We aim to evaluate the Varian Machine Performance Check (MPC) as a tool for Statistical Process Control (SPC). Methods: Varian’s MPC tool was used on three Truebeam and one EDGE linac for a period of approximately one year. MPC was commissioned against independent systems. After this period the data were reviewed to determine whether or not the MPC was useful as a process control tool. Analyses on individual tests were analysed using Shewhart control plots, using Matlab for analysis. Principal component analysis was used to determine if a multivariate model was of any benefit in analysing the data. Results: Control charts were found to be useful to detect beam output changes, worn T-nuts and jaw calibration issues. Upper and lower control limits were defined at the 95% level. Multivariate SPC was performed using Principal Component Analysis. We found little evidence of clustering beyond that which might be naively expected such as beam uniformity and beam output. Whilst this makes multivariate analysis of little use it suggests that each test is giving independent information. Conclusion: The variety of independent parameters tested in MPC makes it a sensitive tool for routine machine QA. We have determined that using control charts in our QA programme would rapidly detect changes in machine performance. The use of control charts allows large quantities of tests to be performed on all linacs without visual inspection of all results. The use of control limits alerts users when data are inconsistent with previous measurements before they become out of specification. A. Carver has received a speaker’s honorarium from Varian

  5. Effectiveness of a medication-adherence tool : Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbink, Mirrian; Lacroix, Joyca; Bremer-van der Heiden, Linda; van Halteren, Aart; Teichert, Martina; van Lieshout, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research shows that more than half of the people taking medication for a chronic condition are non-adherent. Nonadherence hinders disease control with a burden on patient quality of life and healthcare systems. We developed a tool that provides insight into nonadherence risks and

  6. Tool for identifying critical control points in embedded purchasing activities in SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagelaar, Geoffrey; Staal, Anne; Holman, Richard; Walhof, Gert

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses risk and uncertainty aspects and proposes an assessment tool leading to identification of critical control points (CCPs) within purchasing-oriented activities of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Identifying such CCPs is the basis for developing SME purchasing instruments to

  7. A New Internet Tool for Automatic Evaluation in Control Systems and Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz de la Pena, D.; Gomez-Estern, F.; Dormido, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a web-based innovative education tool designed for automating the collection, evaluation and error detection in practical exercises assigned to computer programming and control engineering students. By using a student/instructor code-fusion architecture, the conceptual limits of multiple-choice tests are overcome by far.…

  8. Training Theory of Mind and Executive Control: A Tool for Improving School Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloo, Daniela; Perner, Josef

    2008-01-01

    In the preschool years, there are marked improvements in theory of mind (ToM) and executive functions. And, children's competence in these two core cognitive domains is associated with their academic achievement. Therefore, training ToM and executive control could be a valuable tool for improving children's success in school. This article reviews…

  9. Effectiveness of a medication-adherence tool: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbink-Smolders, M.; Lacroix, J.; Bremer-van der Heiden, L.; Halteren, A. van; Teichert, M.; Lieshout, J. van

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research shows that more than half of the people taking medication for a chronic condition are non-adherent. Nonadherence hinders disease control with a burden on patient quality of life and healthcare systems. We developed a tool that provides insight into nonadherence risks and

  10. Technology and Jobs: Computer-Aided Design. Numerical-Control Machine-Tool Operators. Office Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michael; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Three reports on the effects of high technology on the nature of work include (1) Stanton on applications and implications of computer-aided design for engineers, drafters, and architects; (2) Nardone on the outlook and training of numerical-control machine tool operators; and (3) Austin and Drake on the future of clerical occupations in automated…

  11. Transport in bilayer and trilayer graphene: band gap engineering and band structure tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Controlling the stacking order of atomically thin 2D materials offers a powerful tool to control their properties. Linearly dispersed bands become hyperbolic in Bernal (AB) stacked bilayer graphene (BLG). Both Bernal (ABA) and rhombohedral (ABC) stacking occur in trilayer graphene (TLG), producing distinct band structures and electronic properties. A symmetry-breaking electric field perpendicular to the sample plane can further modify the band structures of BLG and TLG. In this talk, I will describe our experimental effort in these directions using dual-gated devices. Using thin HfO2 film deposited by ALD as gate dielectric, we are able to apply large displacement fields D > 6 V/nm and observe the opening and saturation of the field-induced band gap Eg in bilayer and ABC-stacked trilayer graphene, where the conduction in the mid gap changes by more than six decades. Its field and temperature dependence highlights the crucial role played by Coulomb disorder in facilitating hopping conduction and suppressing the effect of Eg in the tens of meV regime. In contrast, mid-gap conduction decreases with increasing D much more rapidly in clean h-BN dual-gated devices. Our studies also show the evolution of the band structure in ABA-stacked TLG, in particular the splitting of the Dirac-like bands in large D field and the signatures of two-band transport at high carrier densities. Comparison to theory reveals the need for more sophisticated treatment of electronic screening beyond self-consistent Hartree calculations to accurately predict the band structures of trilayer graphene and graphenic materials in general.

  12. Artificial intelligence-based computer modeling tools for controlling slag foaming in electric arc furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eric Lee

    Due to increased competition in a world economy, steel companies are currently interested in developing techniques that will allow for the improvement of the steelmaking process, either by increasing output efficiency or by improving the quality of their product, or both. Slag foaming is one practice that has been shown to contribute to both these goals. However, slag foaming is highly dynamic and difficult to model or control. This dissertation describes an effort to use artificial intelligence-based tools (genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic, and neural networks) to both model and control the slag foaming process. Specifically, a neural network is trained and tested on slag foaming data provided by a steel plant. This neural network model is then controlled by a fuzzy logic controller, which in turn is optimized by a genetic algorithm. This tuned controller is then installed at a steel plant and given control be a more efficient slag foaming controller than what was previously used by the steel plant.

  13. Developing a consumer evaluation tool of weight control strategy advertisements on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luevorasirikul, Kanokrat; Gray, Nicola J; Anderson, Claire W

    2008-06-01

    To develop two evaluation tools for weight loss and weight gain advertisements on the Internet in order to help consumers to evaluate the quality of information within these advertisements. One hundred websites identified by Internet search engines for weight loss and weight gain strategies (50 websites each) were evaluated using two specific scoring instruments, developed by adapting questions from the 'DISCERN' tool and reviewing all related weight control guidelines and advertising regulations. The validity and reliability of the adapted tools were tested. Our evaluation tools rated the information from most websites as poor quality (70%). In the case of weight loss strategies, statements about rapid (18%) and permanent (28%) weight loss caused concern as well as lack of sensible advice about dieting and a lack of product warnings (84%). Safety concerns relating to weight gain products were the lack of warnings about side effects in products containing steroids and creatine (92%). The adapted tools exhibited acceptable validity and reliability. Quality of information within weight control advertisements on the Internet was generally poor. Problems of false claims, little advice on healthy ways to modify weight and few warnings on side effects have been highlighted in this study.

  14. Effects of a Patient-Provider, Collaborative, Medication-Planning Tool: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Graumlich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among patients with various levels of health literacy, the effects of collaborative, patient-provider, medication-planning tools on outcomes relevant to self-management are uncertain. Objective. Among adult patients with type II diabetes mellitus, we tested the effectiveness of a medication-planning tool (Medtable™ implemented via an electronic medical record to improve patients’ medication knowledge, adherence, and glycemic control compared to usual care. Design. A multicenter, randomized controlled trial in outpatient primary care clinics. 674 patients received either the Medtable tool or usual care and were followed up for up to 12 months. Results. Patients who received Medtable had greater knowledge about indications for medications in their regimens and were more satisfied with the information about their medications. Patients’ knowledge of drug indication improved with Medtable regardless of their literacy status. However, Medtable did not improve patients’ demonstrated medication use, regimen adherence, or glycemic control (HbA1c. Conclusion. The Medtable tool supported provider/patient collaboration related to medication use, as reflected in patient satisfaction with communication, but had limited impact on patient medication knowledge, adherence, and HbA1c outcomes. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01296633.

  15. FEATURES THE USE OF TOOLS OF CONTROLLING SYSTEM IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Titova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the peculiarities of using the instruments of controlling system in the enterprises of food industry. The article reveals the essence and economic mainte-nance of instruments controlling. Presents the analysis of break-even point, defines the maximum number of products to achieve the break-even enterprises of food industry. Describes controlling tool budgeting as an objective basis for assessing the results of the food industry in general and its separate structural subdivisions. The essence of the fiscal budget and its use for forecasting future financial results is revealed.

  16. Tools and methods for implementing the control systems on the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor, E.G.; Labiak, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Installation of the major hardware subsystems for MFTF is nearing completion. These subsystems include the Fusion Chamber System, the eighty KV Neutral Beam System, the Superconducting Magnet System, and the Personnel Safety System. The Local Controls group has undertaken a uniform aproach to implementing the control systems for all of these hardware subsystems. This approach has two major aspects: (1) to provide a stand-alone computer control system with a remote, portable terminal so that computer control can be provided at the site of the hardware for initial testing, (2) to provide hardware simulators so that the complicated MFTF computer control system can be tested independent of the hardware. The software and hardware tools which were developed to carry out this plan will be described. Our experiences with bringing up subsystems containing up to 900 separate channels of control and status will also be described

  17. Development of tools for safety analysis of control software in advanced reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarro, S.; Yau, M.; Motamed, M. [Advanced Systems Concepts Associates, El Segundo, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Software based control systems have gained a pervasive presence in a wide variety of applications, including nuclear power plant control and protection systems which are within the oversight and licensing responsibility of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. While the cost effectiveness and flexibility of software based plant process control is widely recognized, it is very difficult to achieve and prove high levels of demonstrated dependability and safety assurance for the functions performed by process control software, due to the very flexibility and potential complexity of the software itself. The development of tools to model, analyze and test software design and implementations in the context of the system that the software is designed to control can greatly assist the task of providing higher levels of assurance than those obtainable by software testing alone. This report presents and discusses the development of the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) and its application in the dependability and assurance analysis of software-based control systems. The features of the methodology and full-scale examples of application to both generic process and nuclear power plant control systems are presented and discussed in detail. The features of a workstation software tool developed to assist users in the application of DFM are also described.

  18. Development of tools for safety analysis of control software in advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarro, S.; Yau, M.; Motamed, M.

    1996-04-01

    Software based control systems have gained a pervasive presence in a wide variety of applications, including nuclear power plant control and protection systems which are within the oversight and licensing responsibility of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. While the cost effectiveness and flexibility of software based plant process control is widely recognized, it is very difficult to achieve and prove high levels of demonstrated dependability and safety assurance for the functions performed by process control software, due to the very flexibility and potential complexity of the software itself. The development of tools to model, analyze and test software design and implementations in the context of the system that the software is designed to control can greatly assist the task of providing higher levels of assurance than those obtainable by software testing alone. This report presents and discusses the development of the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) and its application in the dependability and assurance analysis of software-based control systems. The features of the methodology and full-scale examples of application to both generic process and nuclear power plant control systems are presented and discussed in detail. The features of a workstation software tool developed to assist users in the application of DFM are also described

  19. Simpler ISS Flight Control Communications and Log Keeping via Social Tools and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David W.; Cowart, Hugh; Stevens, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The heart of flight operations control involves a) communicating effectively in real time with other controllers in the room and/or in remote locations and b) tracking significant events, decisions, and rationale to support the next set of decisions, provide a thorough shift handover, and troubleshoot/improve operations. International Space Station (ISS) flight controllers speak with each other via multiple voice circuits or loops, each with a particular purpose and constituency. Controllers monitor and/or respond to several loops concurrently. The primary tracking tools are console logs, typically kept by a single operator and not visible to others in real-time. Information from telemetry, commanding, and planning systems also plays into decision-making. Email is very secondary/tertiary due to timing and archival considerations. Voice communications and log entries supporting ISS operations have increased by orders of magnitude because the number of control centers, flight crew, and payload operations have grown. This paper explores three developmental ground system concepts under development at Johnson Space Center s (JSC) Mission Control Center Houston (MCC-H) and Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC). These concepts could reduce ISS control center voice traffic and console logging yet increase the efficiency and effectiveness of both. The goal of this paper is to kindle further discussion, exploration, and tool development.

  20. How do Air Traffic Controllers Use Automation and Tools Differently During High Demand Situations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Joshua M.; Mercer, Joey; Morey, Susan; Homola, Jeffrey; Gomez, Ashley; Prevot, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In a human-in-the-loop simulation, two air traffic controllers managed identical airspace while burdened with higher than average workload, and while using advanced tools and automation designed to assist with scheduling aircraft on multiple arrival flows to a single meter fix. This paper compares the strategies employed by each controller, and investigates how the controllers' strategies change while managing their airspace under more normal workload conditions and a higher workload condition. Each controller engaged in different methods of maneuvering aircraft to arrive on schedule, and adapted their strategies to cope with the increased workload in different ways. Based on the conclusions three suggestions are made: that quickly providing air traffic controllers with recommendations and information to assist with maneuvering and scheduling aircraft when burdened with increased workload will improve the air traffic controller's effectiveness, that the tools should adapt to the strategy currently employed by a controller, and that training should emphasize which traffic management strategies are most effective given specific airspace demands.

  1. Active Sound Quality Control: Design Tools and Automotive Applications (Ontwerptools voor actieve controle van geluidskwaliteit)

    OpenAIRE

    Pisanelli Rodrigues de Oliveira, Leopoldo

    2009-01-01

    Actieve controle is een potentiele oplossing om het hoofd te bieden aan de gestaag toenemende eisen voor ruisonderdrukking in de voertuigindustrie. Holte ruisonderdrukking, zoals die in vliegtuigcabines en voertuiginterieurs voorkomen, is een typisch voorbeeld. Niet alleen ruisonderdrukking wordt nagestreefd, echter ook een verbetering van de appreciatie van de geluidshinder door de inzittenden. De eerste eis is daarom de beoordeling van de controle-efficiëntie die de menselijke perceptie in ...

  2. Acceptability and potential effectiveness of commercial portion control tools amongst people with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almiron-Roig, Eva; Domínguez, Angélica; Vaughan, David; Solis-Trapala, Ivonne; Jebb, Susan A

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to large portion sizes is a risk factor for obesity. Specifically designed tableware may modulate how much is eaten and help with portion control. We examined the experience of using a guided crockery set (CS) and a calibrated serving spoon set (SS) by individuals trying to manage their weight. Twenty-nine obese adults who had completed 7-12 weeks of a community weight-loss programme were invited to use both tools for 2 weeks each, in a crossover design, with minimal health professional contact. A paper-based questionnaire was used to collect data on acceptance, perceived changes in portion size, frequency, and type of meal when the tool was used. Scores describing acceptance, ease of use and perceived effectiveness were derived from five-point Likert scales from which binary indicators (high/low) were analysed using logistic regression. Mean acceptance, ease of use and perceived effectiveness were moderate to high (3·7-4·4 points). Tool type did not have an impact on indicators of acceptance, ease of use and perceived effectiveness (P>0·32 for all comparisons); 55 % of participants used the CS on most days v. 21 % for the SS. The CS was used for all meals, whereas the SS was mostly used for evening meals. Self-selected portion sizes increased for vegetables and decreased for chips and potatoes with both tools. Participants rated both tools as equally acceptable, easy to use and with similar perceived effectiveness. Formal trials to evaluate the impact of such tools on weight control are warranted.

  3. Simple frequency-dependent tools for analysis of inherent control limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurd Skogestad

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available By a plant's inherent control limitations we mean the characteristics of the plant which will cause poor control performance irrespective of what controller is used. Another frequently used term is 'dynamic resilience' which is the best closed-loop performance achievable using any controller. Since a plant's dynamic resilience cannot be altered by change of the control algorithm, but only by design modifications, it follows that the term controllability provides a link between process design and process control. In this paper we focus on two aspects of controllability. The plants' sensitivity to disturbances and the limitations imposed by interactions when using decentralized control. We use simple tools such as the RGA, the PRGA (Performance RGA and the closely related Closed Loop Disturbance Gain (CLDG. For example, if kth column of the CLDG is large, then this indicates that disturbance k will be difficult to reject. This may pinpoint the need for modifying the process. The PRGA provides a measure of interaction which also includes one-way coupling. In the paper we apply these measures to distillation column control and fluid catalytic cracker (FCC control.

  4. Guide to robots and remote-controlled tools used in French nuclebar power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferriole, G.

    1987-01-01

    Three types of robots are used in French nuclear plants: 1) Tool carriers for steam generator channel heads 2) Autonomous tool carriers and 3) Multifunctional tool carriers. Tool carriers for steam generator channel heads have been designed to perform only maintenance activities inside the channel head of steam generators and especially on the tubes. The shape and size of these carriers are adapted to the channel heads which is their only application. Autonomous carriers are tank-type vehicles with full tractor treads and their capacity ranges from 20 to 150 kg. These vehicles are used mainly for televisual inspection of the instrumentation penetrations underneath the pressure vessel and the upper pressure vessel internal structures (inspection of control rod guide tube split pins). Multifunctional tool carriers are developed to perform exceptional maintenance tasks of a nongeneric type in an environment with very high irradiation fields, that are inaccessible to a human operator. This means that such tasks are not always clearly defined and their execution is liable to change during the process. The different tasks can be delicate to perform and highly complex, e.g.: recovering a dropped fuel element, underwater measuration, dismantling of mechanical equipment, etc

  5. Acceptance and practicability of a visual communication tool in smoking cessation counselling: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner-Jehle, Stefan; Knecht, Marianne I; Stey-Steurer, Claudia; Senn, Oliver

    2013-12-01

    Smoking cessation advice is important for reducing the worldwide burden of disease resulting from tobacco smoking. Appropriate risk communication formats improve the success of counselling interventions in primary care. To test the feasibility and acceptance of a smoking cessation counselling tool with different cardiovascular risk communication formats including graphs, in comparison with the International Primary Care Respiratory Group (IPCRG) 'quit smoking assistance' tool. GPs were randomised into an intervention group (using our communication tool in addition to the IPCRG sheet) and a control group (using the IPCRG sheet only). We asked participants for socioeconomic data, smoking patterns, understanding of information, motivation, acceptance and feasibility, and measured the duration and frequency of counselling sessions. Twenty-five GPs performed 2.8 counselling sessions per month in the intervention group and 1.7 in the control group (p=0.3) with 114 patients. The median duration of a session was 10 mins (control group 11 mins, p=0.09 for difference). Median patients' motivation for smoking cessation was 7 on a 10-point visual analogue scale with no significant difference before and after the intervention (p=0.2) or between groups (p=0.73 before and p=0.15 after the intervention). Median patients' ratings of motivation, selfconfidence, understanding of information, and satisfaction with the counselling were 3-5 on a 5-point Likert scale, similar to GPs' ratings of acceptance and feasibility, with no significant difference between groups. Among Swiss GPs and patients, both our innovative communication tool and the IPCRG tool were well accepted and both merit further dissemination and application in research.

  6. An Integrated Tool for Low Thrust Optimal Control Orbit Transfers in Interplanetary Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargent, T.; Martinot, V.

    In the last recent years a significant progress has been made in optimal control orbit transfers using low thrust electrical propulsion for interplanetary missions. The system objective is always the same: decrease the transfer duration and increase the useful satellite mass. The optimum control strategy to perform the minimum time to orbit or the minimum fuel consumption requires the use of sophisticated mathematical tools, most of the time dedicated to a specific mission and therefore hardly reusable. To improve this situation and enable Alcatel Space to perform rather quick trajectory design as requested by mission analysis, we have developed a software tool T-3D dedicated to optimal control orbit transfers which integrates various initial and terminal rendezvous conditions - e.g. fixed arrival time for planet encounter - and engine thrust profiles -e.g. thrust law variation with respect to the distance to the Sun -. This single and quite versatile tool allows to perform analyses like minimum consumption for orbit insertions around a planet from an hyperbolic trajectory, interplanetary orbit transfers, low thrust minimum time multiple revolution orbit transfers, etc… From a mathematical point of view, the software relies on the minimum principle formulation to find the necessary conditions of optimality. The satellite dynamics is a two body model and relies of an equinoctial formulation of the Gauss equation. This choice has been made for numerical purpose and to solve more quickly the two point boundaries values problem. In order to handle the classical problem of co-state variables initialization, problems simpler than the actual one can be solved straight forward by the tool and the values of the co-state variables are kept as first guess for a more complex problem. Finally, a synthesis of the test cases is presented to illustrate the capacities of the tool, mixing examples of interplanetary mission, orbit insertion, multiple revolution orbit transfers

  7. Investigation of Relative Time Constant Influence of Inertial Part of Superheater on Quality of Steam Temperature Control Behind Boiler in Broad Band of Loading Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Kulakov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to computational investigation of influence relative time constant of an object which changes in broad band on quality of steam temperature control behind a boiler with due account of value of regulating action in the system with PI- and PID- regulator. The simulation has been based on a single-loop automatic control system (ACS. It has been revealed that the less value of the relative time constant of an object leads to more integral control error in system with PID- regulator while operating external ACS perturbation. Decrease of numerical value of relative time constant of an object while operating external perturbation causes decrease of relative time concerning appearance of maximum dynamic control error from common relative control time.

  8. Robust iterative learning contouring controller with disturbance observer for machine tool feed drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simba, Kenneth Renny; Bui, Ba Dinh; Msukwa, Mathew Renny; Uchiyama, Naoki

    2018-04-01

    In feed drive systems, particularly machine tools, a contour error is more significant than the individual axial tracking errors from the view point of enhancing precision in manufacturing and production systems. The contour error must be within the permissible tolerance of given products. In machining complex or sharp-corner products, large contour errors occur mainly owing to discontinuous trajectories and the existence of nonlinear uncertainties. Therefore, it is indispensable to design robust controllers that can enhance the tracking ability of feed drive systems. In this study, an iterative learning contouring controller consisting of a classical Proportional-Derivative (PD) controller and disturbance observer is proposed. The proposed controller was evaluated experimentally by using a typical sharp-corner trajectory, and its performance was compared with that of conventional controllers. The results revealed that the maximum contour error can be reduced by about 37% on average. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Design of Launch Vehicle Flight Control Systems Using Ascent Vehicle Stability Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Alaniz, Abran; Hall, Robert; Bedossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A launch vehicle represents a complicated flex-body structural environment for flight control system design. The Ascent-vehicle Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) is developed to address the complicity in design and analysis of a launch vehicle. The design objective for the flight control system of a launch vehicle is to best follow guidance commands while robustly maintaining system stability. A constrained optimization approach takes the advantage of modern computational control techniques to simultaneously design multiple control systems in compliance with required design specs. "Tower Clearance" and "Load Relief" designs have been achieved for liftoff and max dynamic pressure flight regions, respectively, in the presence of large wind disturbances. The robustness of the flight control system designs has been verified in the frequency domain Monte Carlo analysis using ASAT.

  10. Theoretical Tools and Software for Modeling, Simulation and Control Design of Rocket Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Hanz

    2004-01-01

    A rocket test stand and associated subsystems are complex devices whose operation requires that certain preparatory calculations be carried out before a test. In addition, real-time control calculations must be performed during the test, and further calculations are carried out after a test is completed. The latter may be required in order to evaluate if a particular test conformed to specifications. These calculations are used to set valve positions, pressure setpoints, control gains and other operating parameters so that a desired system behavior is obtained and the test can be successfully carried out. Currently, calculations are made in an ad-hoc fashion and involve trial-and-error procedures that may involve activating the system with the sole purpose of finding the correct parameter settings. The goals of this project are to develop mathematical models, control methodologies and associated simulation environments to provide a systematic and comprehensive prediction and real-time control capability. The models and controller designs are expected to be useful in two respects: 1) As a design tool, a model is the only way to determine the effects of design choices without building a prototype, which is, in the context of rocket test stands, impracticable; 2) As a prediction and tuning tool, a good model allows to set system parameters off-line, so that the expected system response conforms to specifications. This includes the setting of physical parameters, such as valve positions, and the configuration and tuning of any feedback controllers in the loop.

  11. Remote control of an MR imaging study via tele-collaboration tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, John M., Jr.; Mullen, Julia S.; Benz, Udo A.; Schmidt, Karl F.; Murugavel, Murali; Chen, Wei; Ghadyani, Hamid

    2005-04-01

    In contrast to traditional 'video conferencing' the Access Grid (AG), developed by Argonne National Laboratory, is a collaboration of audio, video and shared application tools which provide the 'persistent presence' of each participant. Among the shared application tools are the ability to share viewing and control of presentations, browsers, images and movies. When used in conjunction with Virtual Network Computing (VNC) software, an investigator can interact with colleagues at a remote site, and control remote systems via local keyboard and mouse commands. This combination allows for effective viewing and discussion of information, i.e. data, images, and results. It is clear that such an approach when applied to the medical sciences will provide a means by which a team of experts can not only access, but interact and control medical devices for the purpose of experimentation, diagnosis, surgery and therapy. We present the development of an application node at our 4.7 Tesla MR magnet facility, and a demonstration of remote investigator control of the magnet. A local magnet operator performs manual tasks such as loading the test subject into the magnet and administering the stimulus associated with the functional MRI study. The remote investigator has complete control of the magnet console. S/he can adjust the gradient coil settings, the pulse sequence, image capture frequency, etc. A geographically distributed audience views and interacts with the remote investigator and local MR operator. This AG demonstration of MR magnet control illuminates the potential of untethered medical experiments, procedures and training.

  12. PLAT: An Automated Fault and Behavioural Anomaly Detection Tool for PLC Controlled Manufacturing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational faults and behavioural anomalies associated with PLC control processes take place often in a manufacturing system. Real time identification of these operational faults and behavioural anomalies is necessary in the manufacturing industry. In this paper, we present an automated tool, called PLC Log-Data Analysis Tool (PLAT that can detect them by using log-data records of the PLC signals. PLAT automatically creates a nominal model of the PLC control process and employs a novel hash table based indexing and searching scheme to satisfy those purposes. Our experiments show that PLAT is significantly fast, provides real time identification of operational faults and behavioural anomalies, and can execute within a small memory footprint. In addition, PLAT can easily handle a large manufacturing system with a reasonable computing configuration and can be installed in parallel to the data logging system to identify operational faults and behavioural anomalies effectively.

  13. 42: An Open-Source Simulation Tool for Study and Design of Spacecraft Attitude Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneking, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Simulation is an important tool in the analysis and design of spacecraft attitude control systems. The speaker will discuss the simulation tool, called simply 42, that he has developed over the years to support his own work as an engineer in the Attitude Control Systems Engineering Branch at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. 42 was intended from the outset to be high-fidelity and powerful, but also fast and easy to use. 42 is publicly available as open source since 2014. The speaker will describe some of 42's models and features, and discuss its applicability to studies ranging from early concept studies through the design cycle, integration, and operations. He will outline 42's architecture and share some thoughts on simulation development as a long-term project.

  14. PLAT: An Automated Fault and Behavioural Anomaly Detection Tool for PLC Controlled Manufacturing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arup; Qin, Shiming; Lee, Jooyeoun; Wang, Gi-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Operational faults and behavioural anomalies associated with PLC control processes take place often in a manufacturing system. Real time identification of these operational faults and behavioural anomalies is necessary in the manufacturing industry. In this paper, we present an automated tool, called PLC Log-Data Analysis Tool (PLAT) that can detect them by using log-data records of the PLC signals. PLAT automatically creates a nominal model of the PLC control process and employs a novel hash table based indexing and searching scheme to satisfy those purposes. Our experiments show that PLAT is significantly fast, provides real time identification of operational faults and behavioural anomalies, and can execute within a small memory footprint. In addition, PLAT can easily handle a large manufacturing system with a reasonable computing configuration and can be installed in parallel to the data logging system to identify operational faults and behavioural anomalies effectively.

  15. Analyst Tools and Quality Control Software for the ARM Data System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, S.T.

    2004-12-14

    ATK Mission Research develops analyst tools and automated quality control software in order to assist the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Quality Office with their data inspection tasks. We have developed a web-based data analysis and visualization tool, called NCVweb, that allows for easy viewing of ARM NetCDF files. NCVweb, along with our library of sharable Interactive Data Language procedures and functions, allows even novice ARM researchers to be productive with ARM data with only minimal effort. We also contribute to the ARM Data Quality Office by analyzing ARM data streams, developing new quality control metrics, new diagnostic plots, and integrating this information into DQ HandS - the Data Quality Health and Status web-based explorer. We have developed several ways to detect outliers in ARM data streams and have written software to run in an automated fashion to flag these outliers.

  16. SOFTWARE TOOL FOR LASER CUTTING PROCESS CONTROL – SOLVING REAL INDUSTRIAL CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Madić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser cutting is one of the leading non-conventional machining technologies with a wide spectrum of application in modern industry. It order to exploit a number of advantages that this technology offers for contour cutting of materials, it is necessary to carefully select laser cutting conditions for each given workpiece material, thickness and desired cut qualities. In other words, there is a need for process control of laser cutting. After a comprehensive analysis of the main laser cutting parameters and process performance characteristics, the application of the developed software tool “BRUTOMIZER” for off-line control of CO2 laser cutting process of three different workpiece materials (mild steel, stainless steel and aluminum is illustrated. Advantages and abilities of the developed software tool are also illustrated.

  17. A Tool for Balance Control Training Using Muscle Synergies and Multimodal Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Galeano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Balance control plays a key role in neuromotor rehabilitation after stroke or spinal cord injuries. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP is a classic technological tool to assess the status of balance control and to identify potential disorders. Despite the more accurate diagnosis generated by these tools, the current strategies to promote rehabilitation are still limited and do not take full advantage of the technologies available. This paper presents a novel balance training platform which combines a CDP device made from low-cost interfaces, such as the Nintendo Wii Balance Board and the Microsoft Kinect. In addition, it integrates a custom electrical stimulator that uses the concept of muscle synergies to promote natural interaction. The aim of the platform is to support the exploration of innovative multimodal therapies. Results include the technical validation of the platform using mediolateral and anteroposterior sways as basic balance training therapies.

  18. Investigating the Complexity of Transitioning Separation Assurance Tools into NextGen Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Ashley Nicole; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Homola, Jeffrey; Morey, Susan; Cabrall, Christopher; Mercer, Joey; Prevot, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In a study, that introduced ground-based separation assurance automation through a series of envisioned transitional phases of concept maturity, it was found that subjective responses to scales of workload, situation awareness, and acceptability in a post run questionnaire revealed as-predicted results for three of the four study conditions but not for the third, Moderate condition. The trend continued for losses of separation (LOS) where the number of LOS events were far greater than expected in the Moderate condition. To offer an account of why the Moderate condition was perceived to be more difficult to manage than predicted, researchers examined the increase in amount and complexity of traffic, increase in communication load, and increased complexities as a result of the simulation's mix of aircraft equipage. Further analysis compared the tools presented through the phases, finding that controllers took advantage of the informational properties of the tools presented but shied away from using their decision support capabilities. Taking into account similar findings from other studies, it is suggested that the Moderate condition represented the first step into a "shared control" environment, which requires the controller to use the automation as a decision making partner rather than just a provider of information. Viewed in this light, the combination of tools offered in the Moderate condition was reviewed and some tradeoffs that may offset the identified complexities were suggested.

  19. Energy Management Control Systems: Tools for Energy Savings and Environmental Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsebik, Albin; Zala, Laszlo F.

    2002-01-01

    The change in the price of energy has encouraged the increase of energy efficiency. This report will discuss a tool to promote energy efficiency in intelligent buildings, energy management control systems (EMCS). In addition to the online control of energy production, supply, and consumption, the function of the EMCS is to support short- and long-term planning of the system operation as well as to collect, store, and regularly evaluate operation data. The strategies behind planning and implementing the EMCS as well as the manipulating the resulting data are discussed in this report.

  20. Mango: an online GUI development tool for the Tango control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strangolino, G.; Scafuri, C.

    2012-01-01

    Mango is an online tool based on QTango that allows easy development of graphical panels ready to run without need to be compiled. Developing with Mango is easy and fast because widgets are dragged from a widget catalogue and dropped into the Mango container. Widgets are then connected to the control system variables by choosing them from a Tango device list or by dragging them from any other running application built with the QTango library. Mango has also been successfully used during the FERMI-Elettra commissioning both by machine physicists and technicians: about 10 control panels have been designed and run with Mango

  1. VIRTUAL MODELING OF A NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINE TOOL USED FOR COMPLEX MACHINING OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU Adrian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the 3D virtual model of the numerical control machine Modustar 100, in terms of machine elements. This is a CNC machine of modular construction, all components allowing the assembly in various configurations. The paper focused on the design of the subassemblies specific to the axes numerically controlled by means of CATIA v5, which contained different drive kinematic chains of different translation modules that ensures translation on X, Y and Z axis. Machine tool development for high speed and highly precise cutting demands employment of advanced simulation techniques witch it reflect on cost of total development of the machine.

  2. Ares I-X Flight Test Validation of Control Design Tools in the Frequency-Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew; Hannan, Mike; Brandon, Jay; Derry, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    A major motivation of the Ares I-X flight test program was to Design for Data, in order to maximize the usefulness of the data recorded in support of Ares I modeling and validation of design and analysis tools. The Design for Data effort was intended to enable good post-flight characterizations of the flight control system, the vehicle structural dynamics, and also the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle. To extract the necessary data from the system during flight, a set of small predetermined Programmed Test Inputs (PTIs) was injected directly into the TVC signal. These PTIs were designed to excite the necessary vehicle dynamics while exhibiting a minimal impact on loads. The method is similar to common approaches in aircraft flight test programs, but with unique launch vehicle challenges due to rapidly changing states, short duration of flight, a tight flight envelope, and an inability to repeat any test. This paper documents the validation effort of the stability analysis tools to the flight data which was performed by comparing the post-flight calculated frequency response of the vehicle to the frequency response calculated by the stability analysis tools used to design and analyze the preflight models during the control design effort. The comparison between flight day frequency response and stability tool analysis for flight of the simulated vehicle shows good agreement and provides a high level of confidence in the stability analysis tools for use in any future program. This is true for both a nominal model as well as for dispersed analysis, which shows that the flight day frequency response is enveloped by the vehicle s preflight uncertainty models.

  3. A multimedia consent tool for research participants in the Gambia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Muhammed Olanrewaju; McGrath, Nuala; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Kampmann, Beate; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Ravinetto, Raffaella M; Alexander, Neal; Larson, Heidi J; Chandramohan, Daniel; Bojang, Kalifa

    2015-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a multimedia informed consent tool for adults participating in a clinical trial in the Gambia. Adults eligible for inclusion in a malaria treatment trial (n = 311) were randomized to receive information needed for informed consent using either a multimedia tool (intervention arm) or a standard procedure (control arm). A computerized, audio questionnaire was used to assess participants' comprehension of informed consent. This was done immediately after consent had been obtained (at day 0) and at subsequent follow-up visits (days 7, 14, 21 and 28). The acceptability and ease of use of the multimedia tool were assessed in focus groups. On day 0, the median comprehension score in the intervention arm was 64% compared with 40% in the control arm (P = 0.042). The difference remained significant at all follow-up visits. Poorer comprehension was independently associated with female sex (odds ratio, OR: 0.29; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.12-0.70) and residing in Jahaly rather than Basse province (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.13-0.82). There was no significant independent association with educational level. The risk that a participant's comprehension score would drop to half of the initial value was lower in the intervention arm (hazard ratio 0.22, 95% CI: 0.16-0.31). Overall, 70% (42/60) of focus group participants from the intervention arm found the multimedia tool clear and easy to understand. A multimedia informed consent tool significantly improved comprehension and retention of consent information by research participants with low levels of literacy.

  4. Controller Strategies for Automation Tool Use under Varying Levels of Trajectory Prediction Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Susan; Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Martin, Lynne; Bienert, Nancy; Cabrall, Christopher; Hunt, Sarah; Homola, Jeffrey; Kraut, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation was conducted to examine the effects of varying levels of trajectory prediction uncertainty on air traffic controller workload and performance, as well as how strategies and the use of decision support tools change in response. This paper focuses on the strategies employed by two controllers from separate teams who worked in parallel but independently under identical conditions (airspace, arrival traffic, tools) with the goal of ensuring schedule conformance and safe separation for a dense arrival flow in en route airspace. Despite differences in strategy and methods, both controllers achieved high levels of schedule conformance and safe separation. Overall, results show that trajectory uncertainties introduced by wind and aircraft performance prediction errors do not affect the controllers' ability to manage traffic. Controller strategies were fairly robust to changes in error, though strategies were affected by the amount of delay to absorb (scheduled time of arrival minus estimated time of arrival). Using the results and observations, this paper proposes an ability to dynamically customize the display of information including delay time based on observed error to better accommodate different strategies and objectives.

  5. LHCb: The LHCb Silicon Tracker - Control system specific tools and challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Saornil Gamarra, S

    2013-01-01

    The experiment control system of the LHCb experiment is continuously evolving and improving. The guidelines and structure initially defined are kept, and more common tools are made available to all sub-detectors. Although the main system control is mostly integrated and actions are executed in common for the whole LHCb experiment, there is some degree of freedom for each sub-system to implement the control system using these tools or by creating new ones. The implementation of the LHCb Silicon Tracker control system was extremely disorganized and with little documentation. This was due to either lack of time and manpower, and/or to limited experience and specifications. Despite this, the Silicon Tracker control system has behaved well during the first LHC run. It has continuously evolved since the start of operation and been adapted to the needs of operators with very different degrees of expertise. However, improvements and corrections have been made on a best effort basis due to time constraints placed by t...

  6. Control theory in physics and other fields of science concepts, tools and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This book covers systematically and in a simple language the mathematical and physical foundations of controlling deterministic and stochastic evolutionary processes in systems with a high degree of complexity. Strong emphasis is placed on concepts, methods and techniques for modelling, assessment and the solution or estimation of control problems in an attempt to understand the large variability of these problems in several branches of physics, chemistry and biology as well as in technology and economics. The main focus of the book is on a clear physical and mathematical understanding of the dynamics and kinetics behind several kinds of control problems and their relation to self-organizing principles in complex systems. The book is a modern introduction and a helpful tool for researchers, engineers as well as post-docs and graduate students interested in an application oriented control theory and related topics.

  7. Colorimetry as Quality Control Tool for Individual Inkjet-Printed Pediatric Formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickström, Henrika; Nyman, Johan O; Indola, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    with specific needs, such as children and the elderly, and patients facing multimorbidity. Printing of pharmaceuticals as technique generates new demands on the quality control procedures. For example, rapid quality control is needed as the printing can be done on demand and at the point of care. This study...... evaluated the potential use of a handheld colorimetry device for quality control of printed doses of vitamin Bs on edible rice and sugar substrates. The structural features of the substrates with and without ink were also compared. A multicomponent ink formulation with vitamin B1, B2, B3, and B6......*) was observed on the substrates. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was used as a reference method for the colorimetry measurements plotted against the number of printed layers. It was concluded that colorimetry could be used as a quality control tool for detection of different doses. However, optimization...

  8. A case study: application of statistical process control tool for determining process capability and sigma level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Vikram; Bairagi, Mukesh; Trivedi, P; Nagar, Mona

    2012-01-01

    Statistical process control is the application of statistical methods to the measurement and analysis of variation process. Various regulatory authorities such as Validation Guidance for Industry (2011), International Conference on Harmonisation ICH Q10 (2009), the Health Canada guidelines (2009), Health Science Authority, Singapore: Guidance for Product Quality Review (2008), and International Organization for Standardization ISO-9000:2005 provide regulatory support for the application of statistical process control for better process control and understanding. In this study risk assessments, normal probability distributions, control charts, and capability charts are employed for selection of critical quality attributes, determination of normal probability distribution, statistical stability, and capability of production processes, respectively. The objective of this study is to determine tablet production process quality in the form of sigma process capability. By interpreting data and graph trends, forecasting of critical quality attributes, sigma process capability, and stability of process were studied. The overall study contributes to an assessment of process at the sigma level with respect to out-of-specification attributes produced. Finally, the study will point to an area where the application of quality improvement and quality risk assessment principles for achievement of six sigma-capable processes is possible. Statistical process control is the most advantageous tool for determination of the quality of any production process. This tool is new for the pharmaceutical tablet production process. In the case of pharmaceutical tablet production processes, the quality control parameters act as quality assessment parameters. Application of risk assessment provides selection of critical quality attributes among quality control parameters. Sequential application of normality distributions, control charts, and capability analyses provides a valid statistical

  9. International Guidelines on Human Rights and Drug Control: A Tool for Securing Women's Rights in Drug Control Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleifer, Rebecca; Pol, Luciana

    2017-06-01

    Discrimination and inequality shape women's experiences of drug use and in the drug trade and the impact of drug control efforts on them, with disproportionate burdens faced by poor and otherwise marginalized women. In recent years, UN member states and UN drug control and human rights entities have recognized this issue and made commitments to integrate a 'gender perspective' into drug control policies, with 'gender' limited to those conventionally deemed women. But the concept of gender in international law is broader, rooted in socially constructed and culturally determined norms and expectations around gender roles, sex, and sexuality. Also, drug control policies often fail to meaningfully address the specific needs and circumstances of women (inclusively defined), leaving them at risk of recurrent violations of their rights in the context of drugs. This article explores what it means to 'mainstream' this narrower version of gender into drug control efforts, using as examples various women's experiences as people who use drugs, in the drug trade, and in the criminal justice system. It points to international guidelines on human rights and drug control as an important tool to ensure attention to women's rights in drug control policy design and implementation.

  10. Statistical process control as a tool for controlling operating room performance: retrospective analysis and benchmarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsung-Tai; Chang, Yun-Jau; Ku, Shei-Ling; Chung, Kuo-Piao

    2010-10-01

    There is much research using statistical process control (SPC) to monitor surgical performance, including comparisons among groups to detect small process shifts, but few of these studies have included a stabilization process. This study aimed to analyse the performance of surgeons in operating room (OR) and set a benchmark by SPC after stabilized process. The OR profile of 499 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed by 16 surgeons at a tertiary hospital in Taiwan during 2005 and 2006 were recorded. SPC was applied to analyse operative and non-operative times using the following five steps: first, the times were divided into two segments; second, they were normalized; third, they were evaluated as individual processes; fourth, the ARL(0) was calculated;, and fifth, the different groups (surgeons) were compared. Outliers were excluded to ensure stability for each group and to facilitate inter-group comparison. The results showed that in the stabilized process, only one surgeon exhibited a significantly shorter total process time (including operative time and non-operative time). In this study, we use five steps to demonstrate how to control surgical and non-surgical time in phase I. There are some measures that can be taken to prevent skew and instability in the process. Also, using SPC, one surgeon can be shown to be a real benchmark. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. The UP3-UP2 800 reprocessing plants control systems. Use of tools for the diagnosis, the track of control softwares and the management of technical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabert, J.; Michon, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    After a rapid presentation of control systems architectures of the La Hague COGEMA reprocessing plants, details are given about the tools used to master the control and instrumentation softwares and technical data. The paper focusses more particularly on the CML (Software Maintenance Center) tool which manages the software versions installed on the driving system, on the SYDDEX tool devoted to the management of the control and instrumentation associated data and documents, and on the SAD tool used for diagnosis assistance. (J.S.). 5 figs

  12. Integrated management tool for controls software problems, requests and project tasking at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogind, D.; Allen, W.; Colocho, W.; DeContreras, G.; Gordon, J.; Pandey, P.; Shoaee, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Accelerator Directorate (AD) Instrumentation and Controls (ICD) Software (SW) Department at SLAC, with its service center model, continuously receives engineering requests to design, build and support controls for accelerator systems lab-wide. Each customer request can vary in complexity from a small software engineering change to a major enhancement. SLAC's Accelerator Improvement Projects (AIPs), along with DOE Construction projects, also contribute heavily to the work load. The various customer requests and projects, paired with the ongoing operational maintenance and problem reports, place a demand on the department that consistently exceeds the capacity of available resources. A centralized repository - comprised of all requests, project tasks, and problems - available to physicists, operators, managers, and engineers alike, is essential to capture, communicate, prioritize, assign, schedule, track, and finally, commission all work components. The Software Department has recently integrated request / project tasking into SLAC's custom online problem tracking 'Comprehensive Accelerator Tool for Enhancing Reliability' (CATER) tool. This paper discusses the newly implemented software request management tool - the workload it helps to track, its structure, features, reports, work-flow and its many usages. (authors)

  13. Quality Control System using Simple Implementation of Seven Tools for Batik Textile Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragil Suryoputro, Muhammad; Sugarindra, Muchamad; Erfaisalsyah, Hendy

    2017-06-01

    In order to produce better products and mitigate defect in products, every company must implement a quality control system. Company will find means to implement a quality control system that is capable and reliable. One of the methods is using the simple implementation of the seven tools in quality control defects. The case studied in this research was the level of disability xyz grey fabric on a shuttle loom 2 on the Batik manufacturing company. The seven tools that include: flowchart, check sheet, histogram, scatter diagram combined with control charts, Pareto diagrams and fishbone diagrams (causal diagram). Check sheet results obtained types of defects in the grey fabric was woven xyz is warp, double warp, the warp break, double warp, empty warp, warp tenuous, ugly edges, thick warp, and rust. Based on the analysis of control chart indicates that the process is out of control. This can be seen in the graph control where there is still a lot of outlier data. Based on a scatter diagram shows a positive correlation between the percentage of disability and the number of production. Based on Pareto diagram, repair needs priority is for the dominant type of defect is warp (44%) and based on double warp value histogram is also the highest with a value of 23635.11 m. In addition, based on the analysis of the factors causing defect by fishbone diagram double warp or other types of defects originating from the materials, methods, machines, measurements, man and environment. Thus the company can take to minimize the prevention and repair of defects and improve product quality.

  14. Characterisation of Wear Resistant Boride Layers on a Tool Steel by Activity Controlled Pack Boronising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2015-01-01

    The present work addresses the production and characterisation of iron boride layers by pack boronising of a Vanadis 6 tool steel. The boride layers were produced at 900°C for 2h using different pack compositions in order to obtain a single-phase boride layer. The layers were characterized...... by electron microscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Vickers hardness tests and wear testing with a pin-on-disc tribometer. It was found that the type of boride phases (FeB and/or Fe2B) present in the treated layer can be controlled by changing the boron activity...... by pack boronising for all conditions as compared to the heat treated tool steel....

  15. A discussion of tools and techniques for distributed processor based control systems using CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippie, J.W.; Scandora, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes various distributed processor architectures using commercially available CAMAC components. The general orientation is toward distributed control systems using Digital Equipment Corporation LSI11 processors in a CAMAC environment. The paper describes in detail software tools available to simplify the development of applications software and to provide a high-level runtime environment both at the host and the remote processors. Discussion focuses on techniques for downloading of operating systems from a large host and applications tasks written in high-level languages. It also discusses software tools which enable tasks in the remote processors to exchange messages and data with tasks in the host in a simple and elegant way

  16. The Virtual UNICOS Process Expert: integration of Artificial Intelligence tools in Control Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    Vilches Calvo, I; Barillere, R

    2009-01-01

    UNICOS is a CERN framework to produce control applications. It provides operators with ways to interact with all process items from the most simple (e.g. I/O channels) to the most abstract objects (e.g. a part of the plant). This possibility of fine grain operation is particularly useful to recover from abnormal situations if operators have the required knowledge. The Virtual UNICOS Process Expert project aims at providing operators with means to handle difficult operation cases for which the intervention of process experts is usually requested. The main idea of project is to use the openness of the UNICOS-based applications to integrate tools (e.g. Artificial Intelligence tools) which will act as Process Experts to analyze complex situations, to propose and to execute smooth recovery procedures.

  17. Active Power Control with Undead-Band Voltage & Frequency Droop for HVDC Converters in Large Meshed DC Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrana, Til Kristian; Zeni, Lorenzo; Fosso, Olav Bjarte

    A new control method for large meshed HVDC grids has been developed, which helps to keep the active power balance at the AC and the DC side. The method definition is kept wide, leaving the possibility for control parameter optimisation. Other known control methods can be seen as specific examples...

  18. Probabilistic safety assessment- a tool for configuration control of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijaya, A.K.; Guptan, Rajee; Mohan, Nalini; Ghadge, S.G.; Bajaj, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive configuration control programme implies a sophisticated set of risk related measures to manage and control concurrent unavailabilities of components, the possibility of functional alternative components, the outage times of the unavailable components and the frequency of critical configurations. These measures are implemented through operational and maintenance activities such as maintenance and test scheduling and scheduling of operational realignments. An appropriate risk based configuration control programme would enable plant personnel to maintain the risk level of the nuclear power plant within an acceptable range during all the operational regimes. Use of plant specific PSA to support configuration control makes it risk based. The PSA can help to identify the measures needed according to the situation to reduce risk to acceptable level. The main benefit of establishing a risk based configuration control programme is the reduction of risk peaks and the control of cumulative or average risk. It helps to ensure that as far as possible, the plant does not enter the critical, high risk situations and other risk significant configurations are avoided A plant specific PSA along with a 'Risk Monitor' can be used as an efficient tool for Configuration Control. (author)

  19. The Use of Statistical Process Control Tools for Analysing Financial Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niezgoda Janusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the proposed application of one type of the modified Shewhart control charts in the monitoring of changes in the aggregated level of financial ratios. The control chart x̅ has been used as a basis of analysis. The examined variable from the sample in the mentioned chart is the arithmetic mean. The author proposes to substitute it with a synthetic measure that is determined and based on the selected ratios. As the ratios mentioned above, are expressed in different units and characters, the author applies standardisation. The results of selected comparative analyses have been presented for both bankrupts and non-bankrupts. They indicate the possibility of using control charts as an auxiliary tool in financial analyses.

  20. Performance of a brief asthma control screening tool in community pharmacy: a cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMay, Kate S; Armour, Carol L; Reddel, Helen K

    2014-03-01

    Guidelines recommend basing asthma management on assessment of asthma control. Validated control tools, while suitable for clinical research, may not be feasible for routine use in primary care. To describe the performance of the Pharmacy Asthma Control Screening tool (PACS) compared with the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-6). Data were obtained from a multicentre study of a community pharmacy asthma management programme in Australia, with three or four visits over six months. Eligible participants had suboptimal asthma control or no recent visit to their doctor for asthma. Asthma control was assessed at baseline and at six months with the PACS tool and ACQ-6. A total of 570 patients were enrolled and 398 (70%) completed the programme. The average ACQ-6 score was 1.58±1.05 at baseline and 0.96±0.88 (n=392) after six months. Sensitivity and specificity of PACS 'poor control' for not well-controlled asthma (ACQ- 6 >1.0) were 0.92 and 0.66, respectively, at baseline and 0.76 and 0.83 at six months. Agreement between the two tools at six months was moderate (κ=0.54). Both tools showed highly significant change during the study (p<0.0001 for each), but agreement between the change in the two tools was only fair (κ=0.31). This study shows that a simple asthma control screening tool is feasible for use in community pharmacies and has good sensitivity for identifying patients with not well-controlled asthma. Screening tools are useful in primary care to identify patients who require more detailed assessment of their asthma status, whereas for monitoring asthma control over time, a continuous control measure is more appropriate.

  1. The Role of the Balanced Scorecard as a Tool of Strategic Management and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Georgiev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern organizations focus on the importance of strategic management and control over current and short-term goals and their corrective role on the strategic success factors of the organization in the process of using the resources of the external environment, ignoring the challenges; as the priorities of the activity are to maximally satisfy public expectations, to minimize the spending of resources, to use its own priorities, to successfully overcome uncertainty and risk, to introduce the adequacy of management decisions against the background of reasonable and measured risk. In the study alternatives are discussed as the Balanced Scorecard model suggested by observations and practice, and implications are provided in regard to changing and improving the architecture of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC as a tool for management and control in conditions of high variability and uncertainty of the economic and social environment. Examined are some models in place to develop and implement the BSC and on this basis are structured conclusions and recommendations in the following aspects: the organization's strategy, which involves the application of BSC and the inclusion of elements to develop key aspects of the strategy; the potential of the BSC model and its application according to the different needs of management; the needs of the process of developing and implementing BSC and to further expand the applications of the BSC as a strategic management tool requiring an assessment of the expected status and priorities in the control of the indicators included.

  2. MVPACK: a computer-aided design tool for multivariable control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, S.; Frketich, G.

    1985-10-01

    The design and analysis of high-performance controllers for complex plants require a collection of interactive, powerful computer software. MVPACK, an open-ended package for the computer-aided design of control systems, has been developed in the Reactor Control Branch of the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. The package is fully interactive and includes a comprehensive state-of-the-art mathematical library to support development of complex, multivariable, control algorithms. Coded in RATFOR, MVPACK is portable with minimal changes. It operates with a flexible data structure which makes efficient use of minicomputer resources and provides a standard framework for program generation. The existence of a help mechanism enhances the simplicity of package utilization. This paper provides a brief tutorial overview of the package. It reviews the specifications used in the design and implementation of the package and briefly describes the database structure, supporting libraries and some design and analysis modules of MVPACK. Several application examples to illustrate the capability of the package are given. Experience with MVPACK shows that the package provides a synergistic environment for the design of control and regulation systems, and that it is a unique tool for training of control system engineers

  3. Developing Learning Tool of Control System Engineering Using Matrix Laboratory Software Oriented on Industrial Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnur Haryudo, Subuh; Imam Agung, Achmad; Firmansyah, Rifqi

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop learning media of control technique using Matrix Laboratory software with industry requirement approach. Learning media serves as a tool for creating a better and effective teaching and learning situation because it can accelerate the learning process in order to enhance the quality of learning. Control Techniques using Matrix Laboratory software can enlarge the interest and attention of students, with real experience and can grow independent attitude. This research design refers to the use of research and development (R & D) methods that have been modified by multi-disciplinary team-based researchers. This research used Computer based learning method consisting of computer and Matrix Laboratory software which was integrated with props. Matrix Laboratory has the ability to visualize the theory and analysis of the Control System which is an integration of computing, visualization and programming which is easy to use. The result of this instructional media development is to use mathematical equations using Matrix Laboratory software on control system application with DC motor plant and PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative). Considering that manufacturing in the field of Distributed Control systems (DCSs), Programmable Controllers (PLCs), and Microcontrollers (MCUs) use PID systems in production processes are widely used in industry.

  4. Control room design and human factors using a virtual reality based tool for design, test and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lirvall, Peter

    1998-02-01

    This report describes a user-centred approach to control room design adopted by IFE for the nuclear industry. The novelty of this approach is the development of a Control Room Philosophy, and the use of Virtual Reality (VR) technology as a tool in the design process, integrated with a specially developed Design Documentation System (DDS) and a process display prototyping tool PICASSO-3. The control room philosophy identifies all functional aspects of a control centre, to define the baseline principles and guidelines for the design. The use of VR technology enables end-users of the control room design (e.g. control room operators) to specify their preferred design of the new control room, and to replace the need for a physical mock-up to test and evaluate the proposed design. The DDS, integrated with the VR design tool, guides the control room operators, through a structured approach, to document the proposed design in a complete design specification. The VR tool, specially developed by IFE, is called the VR based Design, Test and Training tool (VR DTandT). It is not only intended to visualise the design, but also to test and evaluate the design. When the design is implemented, the same model is re-used as a VR based training simulator for operators. A special feature in the VR DTandT tool is that the verification and validation (VandV) tests, concerning human factors, are according to the regulative standards for nuclear control rooms

  5. Optical tools and techniques for aligning solar payloads with the SPARCS control system. [Solar Pointing Aerobee Rocket Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N. L.; Chisel, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The success of a rocket-borne experiment depends not only on the pointing of the attitude control system, but on the alignment of the attitude control system to the payload. To ensure proper alignment, special optical tools and alignment techniques are required. Those that were used in the SPARCS program are described and discussed herein. These tools include theodolites, autocollimators, a 38-cm diameter solar simulator, a high-performance 1-m heliostat to provide a stable solar source during the integration of the rocket payload, a portable 75-cm sun tracker for use at the launch site, and an innovation called the Solar Alignment Prism. Using the real sun as the primary reference under field conditions, the Solar Alignment Prism facilitates the coalignment of the attitude sun sensor with the payload. The alignment techniques were developed to ensure the precise alignment of the solar payloads to the SPARCS attitude sensors during payload integration and to verify the required alignment under field conditions just prior to launch.

  6. ISAC - A tool for aeroservoelastic modeling and analysis. [Interaction of Structures, Aerodynamics, and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M., Jr.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the capabilities of the Interaction of Structures, Aerodynamics, and Controls (ISAC) system of program modules. The major modeling, analysis, and data management components of ISAC are identified. Equations of motion are displayed for a Laplace-domain representation of the unsteady aerodynamic forces. Options for approximating a frequency-domain representation of unsteady aerodynamic forces with rational functions of the Laplace variable are shown. Linear time invariant state-space equations of motion that result are discussed. Model generation and analyses of stability and dynamic response characteristics are shown for an aeroelastic vehicle which illustrate some of the capabilities of ISAC as a modeling and analysis tool for aeroelastic applications.

  7. Development of a software tool for the management of quality control in a helical tomotherapy unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Repiso, S.; Hernandez Rodriguez, J.; Martin Rincon, C.; Ramos Pacho, J. A.; Verde Velasco, J. M.; Delgado Aparacio, J. M.; Perez Alvarez, M. e.; Gomez Gonzalez, N.; Cons Perez, V.; Saez Beltran, M.

    2013-01-01

    The large amount of data and information that is managed in units of external radiotherapy quality control tests makes necessary the use of tools that facilitate, on the one hand, the management of measures and results in real time, and on other tasks of management, file, query and reporting of stored data. This paper presents an application of software of own development which is used for the integral management of the helical TomoTherapy unit in the aspects related to the roles and responsibilities of the hospital Radiophysics. (Author)

  8. The Ontology Lookup Service: more data and better tools for controlled vocabulary queries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Richard G; Jones, Philip; Martens, Lennart; Apweiler, Rolf; Hermjakob, Henning

    2008-07-01

    The Ontology Lookup Service (OLS) (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ols) provides interactive and programmatic interfaces to query, browse and navigate an ever increasing number of biomedical ontologies and controlled vocabularies. The volume of data available for querying has more than quadrupled since it went into production and OLS functionality has been integrated into several high-usage databases and data entry tools. Improvements have been made to both OLS query interfaces, based on user feedback and requirements, to improve usability and service interoperability and provide novel ways to perform queries.

  9. Elastic Wave Control Beyond Band-Gaps: Shaping the Flow of Waves in Plates and Half-Spaces with Subwavelength Resonant Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Colombi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In metamaterial science, local resonance and hybridization are key phenomena strongly influencing the dispersion properties; the metasurface discussed in this article created by a cluster of resonators, subwavelength rods, atop an elastic surface being an exemplar with these features. On this metasurface, band-gaps, slow or fast waves, negative refraction, and dynamic anisotropy can all be observed by exploring frequencies and wavenumbers from the Floquet–Bloch problem and by using the Brillouin zone. These extreme characteristics, when appropriately engineered, can be used to design and control the propagation of elastic waves along the metasurface. For the exemplar we consider, two parameters are easily tuned: rod height and cluster periodicity. The height is directly related to the band-gap frequency and, hence, to the slow and fast waves, while the periodicity is related to the appearance of dynamic anisotropy. Playing with these two parameters generates a gallery of metasurface designs to control the propagation of both flexural waves in plates and surface Rayleigh waves for half-spaces. Scalability with respect to the frequency and wavelength of the governing physical laws allows the application of these concepts in very different fields and over a wide range of lengthscales.

  10. Internet Censorship Circumvention Tools: Escaping the Control of the Syrian Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Al-Saqaf

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that authoritarian regimes tend to censor the media to limit potential threats to the status quo. While such censorship practices were traditionally aimed at broadcast and print media, the emergence of the Internet and social media in particular, prompted some authoritarian regimes, such as the Assad regime in Syria, to try and exert a similar level of censorship on the Internet as well. During the Arab Spring, the Syrian regime blocked hundreds of websites that provided social networking, news, and other services. Taking Syria as a case study, this paper examines whether Internet censorship succeeded in preventing Internet users from reaching censored online content during 2010−2012. By analyzing the use of Alkasir, a censorship circumvention tool created by the author, the paper provides empirical evidence demonstrating that users were in fact able to bypass censorship and access blocked websites. The findings demonstrate that censorship circumvention tools constituted a threat to the information control systems of authoritarian regimes, highlighting the potential of such tools to promote online freedom of expression in countries where Internet censorship is prevalent.

  11. A Cost-Effectiveness Tool for Informing Policies on Zika Virus Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Alfaro-Murillo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As Zika virus continues to spread, decisions regarding resource allocations to control the outbreak underscore the need for a tool to weigh policies according to their cost and the health burden they could avert. For example, to combat the current Zika outbreak the US President requested the allocation of $1.8 billion from Congress in February 2016.Illustrated through an interactive tool, we evaluated how the number of Zika cases averted, the period during pregnancy in which Zika infection poses a risk of microcephaly, and probabilities of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS impact the cost at which an intervention is cost-effective. From Northeast Brazilian microcephaly incidence data, we estimated the probability of microcephaly in infants born to Zika-infected women (0.49% to 2.10%. We also estimated the probability of GBS arising from Zika infections in Brazil (0.02% to 0.06% and Colombia (0.08%. We calculated that each microcephaly and GBS case incurs the loss of 29.95 DALYs and 1.25 DALYs per case, as well as direct medical costs for Latin America and the Caribbean of $91,102 and $28,818, respectively. We demonstrated the utility of our cost-effectiveness tool with examples evaluating funding commitments by Costa Rica and Brazil, the US presidential proposal, and the novel approach of genetically modified mosquitoes. Our analyses indicate that the commitments and the proposal are likely to be cost-effective, whereas the cost-effectiveness of genetically modified mosquitoes depends on the country of implementation.Current estimates from our tool suggest that the health burden from microcephaly and GBS warrants substantial expenditures focused on Zika virus control. Our results justify the funding committed in Costa Rica and Brazil and many aspects of the budget outlined in the US president's proposal. As data continue to be collected, new parameter estimates can be customized in real-time within our user-friendly tool to provide

  12. Pressure ulcers: effectiveness of risk-assessment tools. A randomised controlled trial (the ULCER trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joan; Coleman, Kerrie; Mudge, Alison; Marquart, Louise; Gardner, Glenn; Stankiewicz, Monica; Kirby, Julie; Vellacott, Catherine; Horton-Breshears, Margaret; McClymont, Alice

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of two pressure-ulcer screening tools against clinical judgement in preventing pressure ulcers. A single blind randomised controlled trial. A large metropolitan tertiary hospital. 1231 patients admitted to internal medicine or oncology wards. Patients were excluded if their hospital stay was expected to be 2 days or less. Participants allocated to either a Waterlow (n=410) or Ramstadius (n=411) screening tool group or to a clinical judgement group (n=410) where no formal risk screening instrument was used. Incidence of hospital acquired pressure ulcers ascertained by regular direct observation. Use of any devices for the prevention of pressure ulcers, documentation of a pressure plan and any dietetic or specialist skin integrity review were recorded. On admission, 71 (5.8%) patients had an existing pressure ulcer. The incidence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers was similar between groups (clinical judgement 28/410 (6.8%); Waterlow 31/411 (7.5%); Ramstadius 22/410 (5.4%), p=0.44). Significant associations with pressure injury in regression modelling included requiring a dietetic referral, being admitted from a location other than home and age over 65 years. The authors found no evidence to show that two common pressure-ulcer risk-assessment tools are superior to clinical judgement to prevent pressure injury. Resources associated with use of these tools might be better spent on careful daily skin inspection and improving management targetted at specific risks. The trial was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinicat Trials Registry (ACTRN 12608000541303).

  13. Statistical Process Control: A Quality Tool for a Venous Thromboembolic Disease Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadas-Martinez, Maria Lourdes; Rojas, Liliana Paloma; Vazquez, Fernando Javier; De Quiros, Fernan Bernaldo; Waisman, Gabriel Dario; Giunta, Diego Hernan

    2016-01-01

    We aim to describe Statistical Control Process as a quality tool for the Institutional Registry of Venous Thromboembolic Disease (IRTD), a registry developed in a community-care tertiary hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The IRTD is a prospective cohort. The process of data acquisition began with the creation of a computerized alert generated whenever physicians requested imaging or laboratory study to diagnose venous thromboembolism, which defined eligible patients. The process then followed a structured methodology for patient's inclusion, evaluation, and posterior data entry. To control this process, process performance indicators were designed to be measured monthly. These included the number of eligible patients, the number of included patients, median time to patient's evaluation, and percentage of patients lost to evaluation. Control charts were graphed for each indicator. The registry was evaluated in 93 months, where 25,757 patients were reported and 6,798 patients met inclusion criteria. The median time to evaluation was 20 hours (SD, 12) and 7.7% of the total was lost to evaluation. Each indicator presented trends over time, caused by structural changes and improvement cycles, and therefore the central limit suffered inflexions. Statistical process control through process performance indicators allowed us to control the performance of the registry over time to detect systematic problems. We postulate that this approach could be reproduced for other clinical registries.

  14. The design process and the use of computerized tools in control room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.; Heinonen, R.; Ranta, J.; Haarla, J.

    1985-09-01

    Control room design has proven an important component when the safety and availability of a complex industrial process plant are considered. Many control room deficiencies can be traced back to oversights and other errors during the design process. The introduction of powerful computers and software for computer-aided design (CAD) offers one possibility when tools for improving the quality of design are being selected. The report gives a broad assessment of problems of design and the benefits of using computer-aided design. One proposal for a structure of a computer-aided design system is considered in more detail. In this system special emphasis has been laid on dealing with requirements during design process. A demonstration system has been built and sample system user dialogues are described. The report is the final report of the LIT3.1 project of the Nordic cooperation on human reliability in the energy production field. (author)

  15. The application of Inca khipuas an accountability and managerial control tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Schmidt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This study aims to present the mechanisms of control and accountability used in the Inca society. Design/methodology/approach – For this purpose, a bibliographical and documental analysis regarding the use of khipus in this civilization was carried out, applying a qualitative approach. Findings – The results of the study indicate that the Inca khipu was the main instrument of tax registration and management adopted by the Inca empire. The Khipucamayocs were responsible for the production of the Khipu, asserting that the information generated and consolidated in the imperial khipu was correct, considering that these professionals paid with their lives in case of errors. Originality/value – The main contributions to accounting are related to the understanding of the origin of the development of tax control and accountability tools created in the Inca Empire, before the Spanish invasions, that contributed significantly to the development of the first American societies

  16. [Use of new tools for controlling triatomines in different entomologic situations in the American continent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Filho, A M

    1997-01-01

    The field results of new tools for triatomine control developed under the sponsorship of WHO/TDR are reported: a) A slow-release "paint" containing malathion; b) fumigant cans containing cypermethrin and DDVP, and c) sensor boxes for the detection of triatomine infestations. Field assays were performed in Chile, Honduras and Paraguay against Triatoma infestans, T. dimidiata and Rhodnius prolixus, accordingly to a standard protocol designed by a WHO experts committee. Preliminary 6 months post-treatment results for the three countries show an efficient control when insecticide paints were used indoors and in the peridomicilium, keeping reinfestation near zero. The final results presented for Chile two years post-treatment confirmed the superiority of the slow-release "paints". Sensor boxes were less effective than man/hour captures in the detection of infested houses.

  17. Evaluation of new tools for malaria vector control in Cameroon: focus on long lasting insecticidal nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etang, Josiane; Nwane, Philippe; Piameu, Michael; Manga, Blaise; Souop, Daniel; Awono-Ambene, Parfait

    2013-01-01

    From 2006 to 2011, biological activity of insecticides for Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS), conventional treatment of nets (CTNs) or long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) was evaluated before their approval in Cameroon. The objective of the study was to select the best tools for universal malaria vector control coverage. Bioassays were performed using WHO cones and the Kisumu susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae s.s.. Among tested products, residual activity and wash resistance of Alpha-cypermethrin LLINs (Interceptor) and CTNs (Fendona) were assessed during 5 months in the Ntougou neighborhood. All the 14 tested products were found effective (95-100% knockdown and mortality rates), although a significant decrease of efficacy was seen with lambda-cyhalothrinWP IRS, alpha-cypermethrin CTNs and LLINs (peducation toward universal coverage of malaria vector control in Cameroon.

  18. Framework for rapid assessment and adoption of new vector control tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontas, John; Moore, Sarah; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Ranson, Hilary; Lindsay, Steve; Lengeler, Christian; Hamon, Nicholas; McLean, Tom; Hemingway, Janet

    2014-04-01

    Evidence-informed health policy making is reliant on systematic access to, and appraisal of, the best available research evidence. This review suggests a strategy to improve the speed at which evidence is gathered on new vector control tools (VCTs) using a framework based on measurements of the vectorial capacity of an insect population to transmit disease. We explore links between indicators of VCT efficacy measurable in small-scale experiments that are relevant to entomological and epidemiological parameters measurable only in large-scale proof-of-concept randomised control trials (RCTs). We hypothesise that once RCTs establish links between entomological and epidemiological indicators then rapid evaluation of new products within the same product category may be conducted through smaller scale experiments without repetition of lengthy and expensive RCTs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. QCScreen: a software tool for data quality control in LC-HRMS based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simader, Alexandra Maria; Kluger, Bernhard; Neumann, Nora Katharina Nicole; Bueschl, Christoph; Lemmens, Marc; Lirk, Gerald; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2015-10-24

    Metabolomics experiments often comprise large numbers of biological samples resulting in huge amounts of data. This data needs to be inspected for plausibility before data evaluation to detect putative sources of error e.g. retention time or mass accuracy shifts. Especially in liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) based metabolomics research, proper quality control checks (e.g. for precision, signal drifts or offsets) are crucial prerequisites to achieve reliable and comparable results within and across experimental measurement sequences. Software tools can support this process. The software tool QCScreen was developed to offer a quick and easy data quality check of LC-HRMS derived data. It allows a flexible investigation and comparison of basic quality-related parameters within user-defined target features and the possibility to automatically evaluate multiple sample types within or across different measurement sequences in a short time. It offers a user-friendly interface that allows an easy selection of processing steps and parameter settings. The generated results include a coloured overview plot of data quality across all analysed samples and targets and, in addition, detailed illustrations of the stability and precision of the chromatographic separation, the mass accuracy and the detector sensitivity. The use of QCScreen is demonstrated with experimental data from metabolomics experiments using selected standard compounds in pure solvent. The application of the software identified problematic features, samples and analytical parameters and suggested which data files or compounds required closer manual inspection. QCScreen is an open source software tool which provides a useful basis for assessing the suitability of LC-HRMS data prior to time consuming, detailed data processing and subsequent statistical analysis. It accepts the generic mzXML format and thus can be used with many different LC-HRMS platforms to process both multiple

  20. Evolution of an audit and monitoring tool into an infection prevention and control process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, A; Topping, A; Humphreys, P

    2016-09-01

    In 2010, an infection prevention and control team in an acute hospital trust integrated an audit and monitoring tool (AMT) into the management regime for patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). To examine the mechanisms through which the implementation of an AMT influenced the care and management of patients with CDI. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used, employing semi-structured interviews with ward staff (N=8), infection prevention and control practitioners (IPCPs) (N=7) and matrons (N=8), and subsequently a theoretical sample of senior managers (N=4). All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a constant comparison approach until explanatory categories emerged. The AMT evolved into a daily review process (DRP) that became an essential aspect of the management of all patients with CDI. Participants recognized that the DRP had positively influenced the care received by patients with CDI. Two main explanatory themes emerged to offer a framework for understanding the influence of the DRP on care management: education and learning, and the development and maintenance of relationships. The use of auditing and monitoring tools as part of a daily review process may enable ward staff, matrons, and IPCPs to improve patient outcomes and achieve the required levels of environmental hygiene if they act as a focal point for interaction, education, and collaboration. The findings offer insights into the behavioural changes and improved patient outcomes that ensue from the implementation of a DRP. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Vibration suppression in cutting tools using collocated piezoelectric sensors/actuators with an adaptive control algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radecki, Peter P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bement, Matthew T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The machining process is very important in many engineering applications. In high precision machining, surface finish is strongly correlated with vibrations and the dynamic interactions between the part and the cutting tool. Parameters affecting these vibrations and dynamic interactions, such as spindle speed, cut depth, feed rate, and the part's material properties can vary in real-time, resulting in unexpected or undesirable effects on the surface finish of the machining product. The focus of this research is the development of an improved machining process through the use of active vibration damping. The tool holder employs a high bandwidth piezoelectric actuator with an adaptive positive position feedback control algorithm for vibration and chatter suppression. In addition, instead of using external sensors, the proposed approach investigates the use of a collocated piezoelectric sensor for measuring the dynamic responses from machining processes. The performance of this method is evaluated by comparing the surface finishes obtained with active vibration control versus baseline uncontrolled cuts. Considerable improvement in surface finish (up to 50%) was observed for applications in modern day machining.

  2. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER AS MODELING TOOL FOR THE BURNING PROCESS OF A CEMENT PRODUCTION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Osofisan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A comprehensive optimisation of the cement production process presents a problem since the input variables as well as the output variables are non-linear, interdependent and contain uncertainties. To arrive at a solution, a Fuzzy Logic controller has been designed to achieve a well-defined relationship between the main and vital variables through the instrumentality of a Fuzzy Model. The Fuzzy Logic controller has been simulated on a digital computer using MATLAB 5.0 Fuzzy Logic Tool Box, using data from a local cement production plant.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die omvattende optimisering van 'n proses wat sement vervaardig, word beskryf deur nie-linieêre inset- en uitsetveranderlikes wat onderling afhanklik is, en ook van onsekere aard is. Om 'n optimum oplossing te verkry, word 'n Wasigheidsmodel gebruik. Die model word getoets deur gebruik te maak van die MATLAB 5.0 Fuzzy Logic Tool Box en data vanaf 'n lokale sementvervaardigingsaanleg.

  3. Development of risk assessment simulation tool for optimal control of a low probability-high consequence disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yotsumoto, Hiroki; Yoshida, Kikuo; Genchi, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    In order to control low probability-high consequence disaster which causes huge social and economic damage, it is necessary to develop simultaneous risk assessment simulation tool based on the scheme of disaster risk including diverse effects of primary disaster and secondary damages. We propose the scheme of this risk simulation tool. (author)

  4. Temperature and composition of carbonate cements record early structural control on cementation in a nascent deformation band fault zone: Moab Fault, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Keith R.; Crider, Juliet G.; Huntington, Katharine W.

    2016-10-01

    Fluid-driven cementation and diagenesis within fault zones can influence host rock permeability and rheology, affecting subsequent fluid migration and rock strength. However, there are few constraints on the feedbacks between diagenetic conditions and structural deformation. We investigate the cementation history of a fault-intersection zone on the Moab Fault, a well-studied fault system within the exhumed reservoir rocks of the Paradox Basin, Utah, USA. The fault zone hosts brittle structures recording different stages of deformation, including joints and two types of deformation bands. Using stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen, clumped isotope thermometry, and cathodoluminescence, we identify distinct source fluid compositions for the carbonate cements within the fault damage zone. Each source fluid is associated with different carbonate precipitation temperatures, luminescence characteristics, and styles of structural deformation. Luminescent carbonates appear to be derived from meteoric waters mixing with an organic-rich or magmatic carbon source. These cements have warm precipitation temperatures and are closely associated with jointing, capitalizing on increases in permeability associated with fracturing during faulting and subsequent exhumation. Earlier-formed non-luminescent carbonates have source fluid compositions similar to marine waters, low precipitation temperatures, and are closely associated with deformation bands. The deformation bands formed at shallow depths very early in the burial history, preconditioning the rock for fracturing and associated increases in permeability. Carbonate clumped isotope temperatures allow us to associate structural and diagenetic features with burial history, revealing that structural controls on fluid distribution are established early in the evolution of the host rock and fault zone, before the onset of major displacement.

  5. Evaluation of Commercial Agrochemicals as New Tools for Malaria Vector Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppé, Mark; Hueter, Ottmar F; Bywater, Andy; Wege, Philip; Maienfisch, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Malaria is a vector-borne and life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. The vector control insecticide market represents a small fraction of the crop protection market and is estimated to be valued at up to $500 million at the active ingredient level. Insecticide resistance towards the current WHOPES-approved products urgently requires the development of new tools to protect communities against the transmission of malaria. The evaluation of commercial products for malaria vector control is a viable and cost effective strategy to identify new malaria vector control products. Several examples of such spin-offs from crop protection insecticides are already evidencing the success of this strategy, namely pirimiphos-methyl for indoor residual sprays and spinosad, diflubenzuron, novaluron, and pyriproxifen for mosquito larvae control, a supplementary technology for control of malaria vectors. In our study the adulticidal activities of 81 insecticides representing 23 insecticidal modes of action classes, 34 fungicides from 6 fungicidal mode of action classes and 15 herbicides from 2 herbicidal modes of action classes were tested in a newly developed screening system. WHOPES approved insecticides for malaria vector control consistently caused 80-100% mortality of adult Anopheles stephensi at application rates between 0.2 and 20 mg active ingradient (AI) litre -1 . Chlorfenapyr, fipronil, carbosulfan and endosulfan showed the expected good activity. Four new insecticides and three fungicides with promising activity against adult mosquitoes were identified, namely the insecticides acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, thiocyclam and metaflumizone and the fungicides diflumetorin, picoxystrobin, and fluazinam. Some of these compounds certainly deserve to be further evaluated for malaria vector control. This is the first report describing good activity of commercial fungicides against malaria

  6. Differential contributions of the superior and inferior parietal cortex to feedback versus feedforward control of tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macuga, Kristen L; Frey, Scott H

    2014-05-15

    Damage to the superior and/or inferior parietal lobules (SPL, IPL) (Sirigu et al., 1996) or cerebellum (Grealy and Lee, 2011) can selectively disrupt motor imagery, motivating the hypothesis that these regions participate in predictive (i.e., feedforward) control. If so, then the SPL, IPL, and cerebellum should show greater activity as the demands on feedforward control increase from visually-guided execution (closed-loop) to execution without visual feedback (open-loop) to motor imagery. Using fMRI and a Fitts' reciprocal aiming task with tools directed at targets in far space, we found that the SPL and cerebellum exhibited greater activity during closed-loop control. Conversely, open-loop and imagery conditions were associated with increased activity within the IPL and prefrontal areas. These results are consistent with a superior-to-inferior gradient in the representation of feedback-to-feedforward control within the posterior parietal cortex. Additionally, the anterior SPL displayed greater activity when aiming movements were performed with a stick vs. laser pointer. This may suggest that it is involved in the remapping of far into near (reachable) space (Maravita and Iriki, 2004), or in distalization of the end-effector from hand to stick (Arbib et al., 2009). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Demerit control chart as a decision support tool in quality control of ductile cast-iron casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sika Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many industrial areas the product quality can be unequivocally assigned to classes such as: “good”, “bad” or “to repair”. In case of casting processes, the product is approved to sales considering customer’s requirements. Except for common characteristics, such as structure, compactness and mechanical properties, physical state of the product is also important. This state is assessed by checking occurrence of specific kind of defects. They are often conditionally accepted by a customer if they do not have any influence on functionality of the product (e.g. negative adhesive and cohesive phenomena, fatigue strength, thermal shocks. Authors’ experience shows that current registering of the most frequently occurring defects and comparing them to customers’ requirements can be very useful and help a quality engineer to control the casting process. They suggest using the Demerit Control Chart (DCC, according to authors’ own methodology, in aspect of information about the castings accepted conditionally by a customer (DCC-recognition. DCC-recognition can be used to assess this quality by monitoring the value of just one aggregated measure for all kinds of defects instead of using a single attribute control chart for each of them. The test version of this tool considering severity of defects proved to be useful in one of the European foundries.

  8. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT USING STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL TOOLS IN GLASS BOTTLES MANUFACTURING COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonatan Mengesha Awaj

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to survive in a competitive market, improving quality and productivity of product or process is a must for any company. This study is about to apply the statistical process control (SPC tools in the production processing line and on final product in order to reduce defects by identifying where the highest waste is occur at and to give suggestion for improvement. The approach used in this study is direct observation, thorough examination of production process lines, brain storming session, fishbone diagram, and information has been collected from potential customers and company's workers through interview and questionnaire, Pareto chart/analysis and control chart (p-chart was constructed. It has been found that the company has many problems; specifically there is high rejection or waste in the production processing line. The highest waste occurs in melting process line which causes loss due to trickle and in the forming process line which causes loss due to defective product rejection. The vital few problems were identified, it was found that the blisters, double seam, stone, pressure failure and overweight are the vital few problems. The principal aim of the study is to create awareness to quality team how to use SPC tools in the problem analysis, especially to train quality team on how to held an effective brainstorming session, and exploit these data in cause-and-effect diagram construction, Pareto analysis and control chart construction. The major causes of non-conformities and root causes of the quality problems were specified, and possible remedies were proposed. Although the company has many constraints to implement all suggestion for improvement within short period of time, the company recognized that the suggestion will provide significant productivity improvement in the long run.

  9. The IEO Data Center Management System: Tools for quality control, analysis and access marine data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Antonia; Garcia, Maria Jesus; Nikouline, Andrei

    2010-05-01

    Since 1994 the Data Centre of the Spanish Oceanographic Institute develops system for archiving and quality control of oceanographic data. The work started in the frame of the European Marine Science & Technology Programme (MAST) when a consortium of several Mediterranean Data Centres began to work on the MEDATLAS project. Along the years, old software modules for MS DOS were rewritten, improved and migrated to Windows environment. Oceanographic data quality control includes now not only vertical profiles (mainly CTD and bottles observations) but also time series of currents and sea level observations. New powerful routines for analysis and for graphic visualization were added. Data presented originally in ASCII format were organized recently in an open source MySQL database. Nowadays, the IEO, as part of SeaDataNet Infrastructure, has designed and developed a new information system, consistent with the ISO 19115 and SeaDataNet standards, in order to manage the large and diverse marine data and information originated in Spain by different sources, and to interoperate with SeaDataNet. The system works with data stored in ASCII files (MEDATLAS, ODV) as well as data stored within the relational database. The components of the system are: 1.MEDATLAS Format and Quality Control - QCDAMAR: Quality Control of Marine Data. Main set of tools for working with data presented as text files. Includes extended quality control (searching for duplicated cruises and profiles, checking date, position, ship velocity, constant profiles, spikes, density inversion, sounding, acceptable data, impossible regional values,...) and input/output filters. - QCMareas: A set of procedures for the quality control of tide gauge data according to standard international Sea Level Observing System. These procedures include checking for unexpected anomalies in the time series, interpolation, filtering, computation of basic statistics and residuals. 2. DAMAR: A relational data base (MySql) designed to

  10. A tool to assess knowledge, attitude and behavior of Indonesian health care workers regarding infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerink, D O; Hadi, U; Lestari, E S; Roeshadi, Djoko; Wahyono, Hendro; Nagelkerke, N J D; Van der Meulen, R G; Van den Broek, P J

    2013-07-01

    to investigate knowledge, attitude and behaviour toward infection control in two teaching hospitals on the island of Java by means of a questionnaire and to evaluate the use of the questionnaire as a tool. we investigated knowledge, attitude and behaviour toward infection control in two teaching hospitals on the island of Java by means of a questionnaire to identify problem areas, barriers and facilitators. The target was to include at least 50% of all health care workers (physicians, nurses, assistant nurses and infection control nurses) in each hospital, department and profession. Differences between demographic variables and scores for individual questions and groups of questions were compared using the chi-square statistic and analysis of variance and Spearman's rho was used to test for correlations between knowledge, attitude, self-reported behaviour and perceived obstacles. more than half of the health care workers of the participating departments completed the questionnaire. Of the 1036 respondents (44% nurses, 37% physicians and 19% assistant nurses), 34% were vaccinated against hepatitis B, 77% had experienced needle stick accidents and 93% had been instructed about infection control. The mean of the correct answers to the knowledge questions was 44%; of the answers to the attitude questions 67% were in agreement with the correct attitude; obstacles to compliance with infection control guidelines were perceived in 30% of the questions and the mean self-reported compliance was 63%. Safe handling of sharps, hand hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment were identified as the most important aspects for interventions. Significant positive correlations were found between knowledge, attitude, self-reported behaviour and perceived obstacles. the questionnaire in conjunction with site visits and interviews was a valuable strategy to identify trouble spots in the hospitals and to determine barriers to facilitators of change that should be taken into

  11. S argassum muticum-synthesized silver nanoparticles: an effective control tool against mosquito vectors and bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Kumar, Arjunan Naresh; Nataraj, Thiyagarajan; Dinesh, Devakumar; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Suresh, Udaiyan; Roni, Mathath; Nicoletti, Marcello; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Higuchi, Akon; Munusamy, Murugan A; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Furthermore, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. In this research, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were synthesized using the aqueous extract of the seaweed Sargassum muticum. The production of AgNP was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometry. AgNP were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. AgNP were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and mean size was 43-79 nm. Toxicity of AgNP was assessed against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. In laboratory, AgNP were highly toxic against larvae and pupae of the three mosquito species. Maximum efficacy was observed against A. stephensi larvae, with LC50 ranging from 16.156 ppm (larva I) to 28.881 ppm (pupa). In the field, a single treatment with AgNP (10 × LC50) in water storage reservoirs was effective against the three mosquito vectors, allowing complete elimination of larval populations after 72 h. In ovicidal experiments, egg hatchability was reduced by 100% after treatment with 30 ppm of AgNP. Ovideterrence assays highlighted that 10 ppm of AgNP reduced oviposition rates of more than 70% in A. aegypti, A. stephensi, and C. quinquefasciatus (OAI = -0.61, -0.63, and -0.58, respectively). Antibacterial properties of AgNP were evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. AgNP tested at 50 ppm evoked growth inhibition zones larger than 5 mm in all tested bacteria. Overall, the chance to use S. muticum-synthesized AgNP for control of mosquito vectors seems promising since they are effective at low doses and may constitute an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer mosquito control tools. This is the first

  12. GeoTrac -- Producing fleet communications, asset control solutions and logistic tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2005-04-01

    GEOTrac, a Calgary-based company, that offers innovative solutions utilizing GPS, satellite and geomatic data technology in the areas of asset and fleet management, logistic tools and integrated solutions, is reviewed. The two-year-old company with a development staff of 12, has contracts with major energy companies in the Middle East, North America, Africa, China and Mexico. By integrating 30 low-earth orbit satellites, operated by Orbcomm, with GPS, leading -edge mapping and geomatic data technologies, GEOTrac provides world class communications and control solutions for assets in both urban and rural locations. The system is capable of providing up-to-the minute location data about every remote asset or vehicle in a fleet, including status reports, dispatch instructions and driving directions. Logistic tools and integrated solutions available from GEOTrac enable the simple management and visibility of equipment, vessels, containers and cargo within and into remote countries, as well as making possible remote diagnostic and storage tank level readings. In another development, advanced digital map solutions provide a suite of maps and geographic technologies for on-road and off-road driving directions, for identifying the location of services and destinations, and for creating strategic advantages by keeping up-to-date with specific company or other oilfield locations and activities.

  13. Air and smear sample calculational tool for Fluor Hanford Radiological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAUMANN, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    A spreadsheet calculation tool was developed to automate the calculations performed for determining the concentration of airborne radioactivity and smear counting as outlined in HNF--13536, Section 5.2.7, ''Analyzing Air and Smear Samples''. This document reports on the design and testing of the calculation tool. Radiological Control Technicians (RCTs) will save time and reduce hand written and calculation errors by using an electronic form for documenting and calculating work place air samples. Current expectations are RCTs will perform an air sample and collect the filter or perform a smear for surface contamination. RCTs will then survey the filter for gross alpha and beta/gamma radioactivity and with the gross counts utilize either hand calculation method or a calculator to determine activity on the filter. The electronic form will allow the RCT with a few key strokes to document the individual's name, payroll, gross counts, instrument identifiers; produce an error free record. This productivity gain is realized by the enhanced ability to perform mathematical calculations electronically (reducing errors) and at the same time, documenting the air sample

  14. Mobile application as a prenatal education and engagement tool: A randomized controlled pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Christy J W; Canzona, Mollie Rose; Cafferty, Lauren A; Hodge, Joshua A

    2016-04-01

    Research has shown that mobile applications provide a powerful alternative to traditional paper diaries; however, little data exists in comparing apps to the traditional mode of paper as a patient education and engagement tool in the clinical setting. This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of a mobile app versus a spiral-notebook guide throughout prenatal care. This randomized (n=173) controlled pilot was conducted at an East Coast community hospital. Chi-square and repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to test intervention effects in the sample of 127 pregnant mothers who completed their prenatal care in the healthcare system. Patients who were distributed the mobile application used the tool to record information about pregnancy more frequently (p=.04) and developed greater patient activation (p=.02) than patients who were distributed notebooks. No difference was detected on interpersonal clinical communication. A mobile application successfully activated a patient population in which self-management is a critical factor. This study shows that mobile apps can prompt greater use and result in more activated patients. Findings may be translated to other patient populations who receive recurring care for chronic disease. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Risk Level Based Management System: a control banding model for occupational health and safety risk management in a highly regulated environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalk, D; Kamerzell, R; Paik, S; Kapp, J; Harrington, D; Swuste, P

    2009-05-27

    The Risk Level Based Management System (RLBMS) is an occupational risk management (ORM) model that focuses occupational safety, hygeiene, and health (OSHH) resources on the highest risk procedures at work. This article demonstrates the model's simplicity through an implementation within a heavily regulated research institution. The model utilizes control banding strategies with a stratification of four risk levels (RLs) for many commonly performed maintenance and support activities, characterizing risk consistently for comparable tasks. RLBMS creates an auditable tracking of activities, maximizes OSHH professional field time, and standardizes documentation and control commensurate to a given task's RL. Validation of RLs and their exposure control effectiveness is collected in a traditional quantitative collection regime for regulatory auditing. However, qualitative risk assessment methods are also used within this validation process. Participatory approaches are used throughout the RLBMS process. Workers are involved in all phases of building, maintaining, and improving this model. This work participation also improves the implementation of established controls.

  16. Modeling charged defects inside density functional theory band gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Peter A.; Edwards, Arthur H.

    2014-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) has emerged as an important tool to probe microscopic behavior in materials. The fundamental band gap defines the energy scale for charge transition energy levels of point defects in ionic and covalent materials. The eigenvalue gap between occupied and unoccupied states in conventional DFT, the Kohn–Sham gap, is often half or less of the experimental band gap, seemingly precluding quantitative studies of charged defects. Applying explicit and rigorous control of charge boundary conditions in supercells, we find that calculations of defect energy levels derived from total energy differences give accurate predictions of charge transition energy levels in Si and GaAs, unhampered by a band gap problem. The GaAs system provides a good theoretical laboratory for investigating band gap effects in defect level calculations: depending on the functional and pseudopotential, the Kohn–Sham gap can be as large as 1.1 eV or as small as 0.1 eV. We find that the effective defect band gap, the computed range in defect levels, is mostly insensitive to the Kohn–Sham gap, demonstrating it is often possible to use conventional DFT for quantitative studies of defect chemistry governing interesting materials behavior in semiconductors and oxides despite a band gap problem

  17. Congenital Constriction Band Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Gupta, Fareed Malik, Rishabh Gupta, M.A.Basit, Dara Singh

    2008-01-01

    Congenital constriction bands are anomalous bands that encircle a digit or an extremity. Congenitalconstriction band syndrome is rare condition and is mostly associated with other musculoskeletaldisorders.We report such a rare experience.

  18. Assistance tools for generic definition of ITER maintenance tasks and scenarios in advanced supervisory control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieba, Stéphane; Russotto, François-Xavier; Da Silva Simoes, Max; Measson, Yvan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Improve supervisory control systems for ITER in-vessel and hot cell maintenance. ► Optimize remote handling operations effectiveness, reliability and safety. ► Provide a generic description of the maintenance tasks and scenarios. ► Development of context-based assistances for operators and supervisor. ► Improvement of operator's situation awareness. -- Abstract: This paper concerns the improvement of supervisory control systems in the context of remote handling for the maintenance tasks in ITER. This work aims at providing a single formalism and tools to define in a generic way the ITER maintenance tasks and scenarios for in-vessel and hot cell operations. A three-layered approach is proposed to model these tasks and scenarios. Physical actions are defined for the scene elements. From these physical actions, behaviours are defined to represent high-level functionalities. Finally, interaction modes define the way that behaviours are achieved in terms of human–machine interactions. Case study concerning the blanket maintenance procedure is discussed concerning the contributions of the descriptive model and the context-based assistances to the activities of supervisory control

  19. Automated innovative diagnostic, data management and communication tool, for improving malaria vector control in endemic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontas, John; Mitsakakis, Konstantinos; Zengerle, Roland; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Sikaala, Chadwick Haadezu; Etang, Josiane; Fallani, Matteo; Carman, Bill; Müller, Pie; Chouaïbou, Mouhamadou; Coleman, Marlize; Coleman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease that caused more than 400,000 deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015. Mass prevention of the disease is best achieved by vector control which heavily relies on the use of insecticides. Monitoring mosquito vector populations is an integral component of control programs and a prerequisite for effective interventions. Several individual methods are used for this task; however, there are obstacles to their uptake, as well as challenges in organizing, interpreting and communicating vector population data. The Horizon 2020 project "DMC-MALVEC" consortium will develop a fully integrated and automated multiplex vector-diagnostic platform (LabDisk) for characterizing mosquito populations in terms of species composition, Plasmodium infections and biochemical insecticide resistance markers. The LabDisk will be interfaced with a Disease Data Management System (DDMS), a custom made data management software which will collate and manage data from routine entomological monitoring activities providing information in a timely fashion based on user needs and in a standardized way. The ResistanceSim, a serious game, a modern ICT platform that uses interactive ways of communicating guidelines and exemplifying good practices of optimal use of interventions in the health sector will also be a key element. The use of the tool will teach operational end users the value of quality data (relevant, timely and accurate) to make informed decisions. The integrated system (LabDisk, DDMS & ResistanceSim) will be evaluated in four malaria endemic countries, representative of the vector control challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, (Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia and Zambia), highly representative of malaria settings with different levels of endemicity and vector control challenges, to support informed decision-making in vector control and disease management.

  20. Modeling of edge effect in subaperture tool influence functions of computer controlled optical surfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Songlin; Zhang, Xiangchao; He, Xiaoying; Xu, Min

    2016-12-20

    Computer controlled optical surfacing requires an accurate tool influence function (TIF) for reliable path planning and deterministic fabrication. Near the edge of the workpieces, the TIF has a nonlinear removal behavior, which will cause a severe edge-roll phenomenon. In the present paper, a new edge pressure model is developed based on the finite element analysis results. The model is represented as the product of a basic pressure function and a correcting function. The basic pressure distribution is calculated according to the surface shape of the polishing pad, and the correcting function is used to compensate the errors caused by the edge effect. Practical experimental results demonstrate that the new model can accurately predict the edge TIFs with different overhang ratios. The relative error of the new edge model can be reduced to 15%.

  1. Iterative process control and sensor evaluation for deep drawing tools with integrated piezoelectric actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bäume Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the design-driven increase in complexity of forming car body parts, it becomes more difficult to ensure a stable forming process. Piezoelectric actuators can influence the material flow of stamping parts effectively. In this article the implementation of piezoelectric actuators in a large scale sheet metal forming tool of a car manufacturer is described. Additionally, it is shown that part quality can be assessed with the help of triangulation laser sensors, which are mounted on the blankholder. The resulting flange draw-in signals were processed and used to adopt the applying actuator force iteratively to reduce the occurrence of cracks. It was shown that process control helped to improve the quality of the stamping parts significantly.

  2. A Tool Measuring Remaining Thickness of Notched Acoustic Cavities in Primary Reaction Control Thruster NDI Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yushi; Sun, Changhong; Zhu, Harry; Wincheski, Buzz

    2006-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking in the relief radius area of a space shuttle primary reaction control thruster is an issue of concern. The current approach for monitoring of potential crack growth is nondestructive inspection (NDI) of remaining thickness (RT) to the acoustic cavities using an eddy current or remote field eddy current probe. EDM manufacturers have difficulty in providing accurate RT calibration standards. Significant error in the RT values of NDI calibration standards could lead to a mistaken judgment of cracking condition of a thruster under inspection. A tool based on eddy current principle has been developed to measure the RT at each acoustic cavity of a calibration standard in order to validate that the standard meets the sample design criteria.

  3. Quantum Multicriticality near the Dirac-Semimetal to Band-Insulator Critical Point in Two Dimensions: A Controlled Ascent from One Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Bitan; Foster, Matthew S.

    2018-01-01

    We compute the effects of generic short-range interactions on gapless electrons residing at the quantum critical point separating a two-dimensional Dirac semimetal and a symmetry-preserving band insulator. The electronic dispersion at this critical point is anisotropic (Ek=±√{v2kx2+b2ky2 n } with n =2 ), which results in unconventional scaling of thermodynamic and transport quantities. Because of the vanishing density of states [ϱ (E )˜|E |1 /n ], this anisotropic semimetal (ASM) is stable against weak short-range interactions. However, for stronger interactions, the direct Dirac-semimetal to band-insulator transition can either (i) become a fluctuation-driven first-order transition (although unlikely in a particular microscopic model considered here, the anisotropic honeycomb lattice extended Hubbard model) or (ii) get avoided by an intervening broken-symmetry phase. We perform a controlled renormalization group analysis with the small parameter ɛ =1 /n , augmented with a 1 /n expansion (parametrically suppressing quantum fluctuations in the higher dimension) by perturbing away from the one-dimensional limit, realized by setting ɛ =0 and n →∞ . We identify charge density wave (CDW), antiferromagnet (AFM), and singlet s -wave superconductivity as the three dominant candidates for broken symmetry. The onset of any such order at strong coupling (˜ɛ ) takes place through a continuous quantum phase transition across an interacting multicritical point, where the ordered phase, band insulator, Dirac, and anisotropic semimetals meet. We also present the phase diagram of an extended Hubbard model for the ASM, obtained via the controlled deformation of its counterpart in one dimension. The latter displays spin-charge separation and instabilities to CDW, spin density wave, and Luther-Emery liquid phases at arbitrarily weak coupling. The spin density wave and Luther-Emery liquid phases deform into pseudospin SU(2)-symmetric quantum critical points separating the

  4. Quantum Multicriticality near the Dirac-Semimetal to Band-Insulator Critical Point in Two Dimensions: A Controlled Ascent from One Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitan Roy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We compute the effects of generic short-range interactions on gapless electrons residing at the quantum critical point separating a two-dimensional Dirac semimetal and a symmetry-preserving band insulator. The electronic dispersion at this critical point is anisotropic (E_{k}=±sqrt[v^{2}k_{x}^{2}+b^{2}k_{y}^{2n}] with n=2, which results in unconventional scaling of thermodynamic and transport quantities. Because of the vanishing density of states [ϱ(E∼|E|^{1/n}], this anisotropic semimetal (ASM is stable against weak short-range interactions. However, for stronger interactions, the direct Dirac-semimetal to band-insulator transition can either (i become a fluctuation-driven first-order transition (although unlikely in a particular microscopic model considered here, the anisotropic honeycomb lattice extended Hubbard model or (ii get avoided by an intervening broken-symmetry phase. We perform a controlled renormalization group analysis with the small parameter ε=1/n, augmented with a 1/n expansion (parametrically suppressing quantum fluctuations in the higher dimension by perturbing away from the one-dimensional limit, realized by setting ε=0 and n→∞. We identify charge density wave (CDW, antiferromagnet (AFM, and singlet s-wave superconductivity as the three dominant candidates for broken symmetry. The onset of any such order at strong coupling (∼ε takes place through a continuous quantum phase transition across an interacting multicritical point, where the ordered phase, band insulator, Dirac, and anisotropic semimetals meet. We also present the phase diagram of an extended Hubbard model for the ASM, obtained via the controlled deformation of its counterpart in one dimension. The latter displays spin-charge separation and instabilities to CDW, spin density wave, and Luther-Emery liquid phases at arbitrarily weak coupling. The spin density wave and Luther-Emery liquid phases deform into pseudospin SU(2-symmetric quantum critical

  5. Average of delta: a new quality control tool for clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Graham R D

    2016-01-01

    Average of normals is a tool used to control assay performance using the average of a series of results from patients' samples. Delta checking is a process of identifying errors in individual patient results by reviewing the difference from previous results of the same patient. This paper introduces a novel alternate approach, average of delta, which combines these concepts to use the average of a number of sequential delta values to identify changes in assay performance. Models for average of delta and average of normals were developed in a spreadsheet application. The model assessed the expected scatter of average of delta and average of normals functions and the effect of assay bias for different values of analytical imprecision and within- and between-subject biological variation and the number of samples included in the calculations. The final assessment was the number of patients' samples required to identify an added bias with 90% certainty. The model demonstrated that with larger numbers of delta values, the average of delta function was tighter (lower coefficient of variation). The optimal number of samples for bias detection with average of delta was likely to be between 5 and 20 for most settings and that average of delta outperformed average of normals when the within-subject biological variation was small relative to the between-subject variation. Average of delta provides a possible additional assay quality control tool which theoretical modelling predicts may be more valuable than average of normals for analytes where the group biological variation is wide compared with within-subject variation and where there is a high rate of repeat testing in the laboratory patient population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Adsorption-controlled growth of BiFeO3 by MBE and integration with wide band gap semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon F; Tian, Wei; Liu, Zi-Kui; Doolittle, W Alan; Bernhagen, Margitta; Reiche, Peter; Uecker, Reinhard; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Schlom, Darrell G

    2009-08-01

    BiFeO3 thin films have been deposited on (001) SrTiO3, (101) DyScO3, (011) DyScO3, (0001) AlGaN/GaN, and (0001) 6H-SiC single crystal substrates by reactive molecular beam epitaxy in an adsorption-controlled growth regime. This is achieved by supplying a bismuth over-pressure and utilizing the differential vapor pressures between bismuth oxides and BiFeO3 to control stoichiometry in accordance with thermodynamic calculations. Four-circle x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reveal phase-pure, epitaxial films with rocking curve full width at half maximum values as narrow as 7.2 arc seconds (0.002 degrees). Epitaxial growth of (0001)-oriented BiFeO3 thin films on (0001) GaN, including AlGaN HEMT structures, and (0001) SiC has been realized using intervening epitaxial (111) SrTiO3 / (100) TiO2 buffer layers. The epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films have 2 in-plane orientations: [1120] BiFeO3 || [1120] GaN (SiC) plus a twin variant related by a 180 degrees in-plane rotation. This epitaxial integration of the ferroelectric with the highest known polarization, BiFeO3, with high bandgap semiconductors is an important step toward novel field-effect devices.

  7. Characterization and biotoxicity of Hypnea musciformis-synthesized silver nanoparticles as potential eco-friendly control tool against Aedes aegypti and Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roni, Mathath; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Nicoletti, Marcello; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Khater, Hanem F; Wei, Hui; Canale, Angelo; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Higuchi, Akon; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Two of the most important challenges facing humanity in the 21st century comprise food production and disease control. Eco-friendly control tools against mosquito vectors and agricultural pests are urgently needed. Insecticidal products of marine origin have a huge potential to control these pests. In this research, we reported a single-step method to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous leaf extract of the seaweed Hypnea musciformis, a cheap, nontoxic and eco-friendly material, that worked as reducing and stabilizing agent during the biosynthesis. The formation of AgNP was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometer. AgNP were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD analyses. AgNP were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and their mean size was 40-65nm. Low doses of H. musciformis aqueous extract and seaweed-synthesized AgNP showed larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the cabbage pest Plutella xylostella. The LC50 value of AgNP ranged from 18.14 to 38.23ppm for 1st instar larvae (L1) and pupae of A. aegypti, and from 24.5 to 38.23ppm for L1 and pupae of P. xylostella. Both H. musciformis extract and AgNP strongly reduced longevity and fecundity of A. aegypti and P. xylostella adults. This study adds knowledge on the toxicity of seaweed borne insecticides and green-synthesized AgNP against arthropods of medical and agricultural importance, allowing us to propose the tested products as effective candidates to develop newer and cheap pest control tools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Colorimetry as Quality Control Tool for Individual Inkjet-Printed Pediatric Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickström, Henrika; Nyman, Johan O; Indola, Mathias; Sundelin, Heidi; Kronberg, Leif; Preis, Maren; Rantanen, Jukka; Sandler, Niklas

    2017-02-01

    Printing technologies were recently introduced to the pharmaceutical field for manufacturing of drug delivery systems. Printing allows on demand manufacturing of flexible pharmaceutical doses in a personalized manner, which is critical for a successful and safe treatment of patient populations with specific needs, such as children and the elderly, and patients facing multimorbidity. Printing of pharmaceuticals as technique generates new demands on the quality control procedures. For example, rapid quality control is needed as the printing can be done on demand and at the point of care. This study evaluated the potential use of a handheld colorimetry device for quality control of printed doses of vitamin Bs on edible rice and sugar substrates. The structural features of the substrates with and without ink were also compared. A multicomponent ink formulation with vitamin B 1 , B 2 , B 3 , and B 6 was developed. Doses (4 cm 2 ) were prepared by applying 1-10 layers of yellow ink onto the white substrates using thermal inkjet technology. The colorimetric method was seen to be viable in detecting doses up to the 5th and 6th printed layers until color saturation of the yellow color parameter (b*) was observed on the substrates. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was used as a reference method for the colorimetry measurements plotted against the number of printed layers. It was concluded that colorimetry could be used as a quality control tool for detection of different doses. However, optimization of the color addition needs to be done to avoid color saturation within the planned dose interval.

  9. Implementation and testing of a fault detection software tool for improving control system performance in a large commercial building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salsbury, T.I.; Diamond, R.C.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes a model-based, feedforward control scheme that can detect faults in the controlled process and improve control performance over traditional PID control. The tool uses static simulation models of the system under control to generate feed-forward control action, which acts as a reference of correct operation. Faults that occur in the system cause discrepancies between the feedforward models and the controlled process. The scheme facilitates detection of faults by monitoring the level of these discrepancies. We present results from the first phase of tests on a dual-duct air-handling unit installed in a large office building in San Francisco. We demonstrate the ability of the tool to detect a number of preexisting faults in the system and discuss practical issues related to implementation.

  10. An Intervention Study on the Implementation of Control Banding in Controlling Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Terwoert

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Active training and coaching helped the participating companies to improve their chemical risk management, and to avoid making mistakes when using and applying Stoffenmanager. The use of validated tools embedded in a community platform appears to support companies to organize and structure their chemical risk management in a business-wise manner, but much depends upon motivated occupational health and safety (OHS professionals, management support, and willingness to invest time and means.

  11. SWITCH: a dynamic CRISPR tool for genome engineering and metabolic pathway control for cell factory construction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Vanegas, Katherina; Lehka, Beata Joanna; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2017-01-01

    to the pathway control state where production was optimized by downregulating an essential gene TSC13, hence, reducing formation of a byproduct. Conclusions We have successfully integrated two CRISPR tools, one for genetic engineering and one for pathway control, into one system and successfully used it for cell...

  12. Analysis of mechanism of carbide tool wear and control by wear process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Hoang Trung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of physic-mechanical and thermal physic properties of hard alloys depending on their chemical composition is conducted. The correlation of cutting properties and regularities of carbide tool wear with cutting conditions and thermal physic properties of tool material are disclosed. Significant influence on the tool wear of not only mechanical, but, in the first place, thermal physic properties of tool and structural materials is established by the researches of Russian scientists, because in the range of industrial used cutting speeds the cause of tool wear are diffusion processes. The directions of intensity decreasing of tool wear by determining rational processing conditions, the choice of tool materials and wear-resistant coating on tool surface are defined.

  13. Bioimpedance harmonic analysis as a tool to simultaneously assess circulation and nervous control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudraya, I S; Revenko, S V; Nesterov, A V; Gavrilov, I Yu; Kirpatovsky, V I

    2011-07-01

    Multicycle harmonic (Fourier) analysis of bioimpedance was employed to simultaneously assess circulation and neural activity in visceral (rat urinary bladder) and somatic (human finger) organs. The informative value of the first cardiac harmonic of the bladder impedance as an index of bladder circulation is demonstrated. The individual reactions of normal and obstructive bladders in response to infusion cystometry were recorded. The potency of multicycle harmonic analysis of bioimpedance to assess sympathetic and parasympathetic neural control in urinary bladder is discussed. In the human finger, bioimpedance harmonic analysis revealed three periodic components at the rate of the heart beat, respiration and Mayer wave (0.1 Hz), which were observed under normal conditions and during blood flow arrest in the hand. The revealed spectrum peaks were explained by the changes in systemic blood pressure and in regional vascular tone resulting from neural vasomotor control. During normal respiration and circulation, two side cardiac peaks were revealed in a bioimpedance amplitude spectrum, whose amplitude reflected the depth of amplitude respiratory modulation of the cardiac output. During normal breathing, the peaks corresponding to the second and third cardiac harmonics were split, reflecting frequency respiratory modulation of the heart rate. Multicycle harmonic analysis of bioimpedance is a novel potent tool to examine the interaction between the respiratory and cardiovascular system and to simultaneously assess regional circulation and neural influences in visceral and somatic organs.

  14. Development and implementation of an audit tool for quality control of parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodicio, Sonsoles; Abajo, Celia; Godoy, Mercedes; Catalá, Miguel Angel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the development of a quality control methodology applied to patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) and to present the results obtained over the past 10 years. Development of the audit tool: In 1995, a total of 13 PN quality criteria and their standards were defined based on literature and past experiences. They were applied during 5 different 6-month audits carried out in subsequent years. According to the results of each audit, the criteria with lower validity were eliminated, while others were optimized and new criteria were introduced to complete the monitoring of other areas not previously examined. Currently, the quality control process includes 22 quality criteria and their standards that examine the following 4 different areas: (1) indication and duration of PN; (2) nutrition assessment, adequacy of the nutrition support, and monitoring; (3) metabolic and infectious complications; and (4) global efficacy of the nutrition support regimen. The authors describe the current definition of each criterion and present the results obtained in the 5 audits performed. In the past year, 9 of the 22 criteria reached the predefined standards. The areas detected for further improvements were: indication for PN, nutrition assessment, and management of catheter infections. The definition of quality criteria and their standards is an efficient method of providing a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the clinical care of patients receiving PN. It detects areas for improvement and assists in developing a methodology to work efficiently.

  15. The swiss army knife of job submission tools: grid-control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stober, F.; Fischer, M.; Schleper, P.; Stadie, H.; Garbers, C.; Lange, J.; Kovalchuk, N.

    2017-10-01

    grid-control is a lightweight and highly portable open source submission tool that supports all common workflows in high energy physics (HEP). It has been used by a sizeable number of HEP analyses to process tasks that sometimes consist of up to 100k jobs. grid-control is built around a powerful plugin and configuration system, that allows users to easily specify all aspects of the desired workflow. Job submission to a wide range of local or remote batch systems or grid middleware is supported. Tasks can be conveniently specified through the parameter space that will be processed, which can consist of any number of variables and data sources with complex dependencies on each other. Dataset information is processed through a configurable pipeline of dataset filters, partition plugins and partition filters. The partition plugins can take the number of files, size of the work units, metadata or combinations thereof into account. All changes to the input datasets or variables are propagated through the processing pipeline and can transparently trigger adjustments to the parameter space and the job submission. While the core functionality is completely experiment independent, full integration with the CMS computing environment is provided by a small set of plugins.

  16. Evaluation of new tools for malaria vector control in Cameroon: focus on long lasting insecticidal nets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Etang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From 2006 to 2011, biological activity of insecticides for Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS, conventional treatment of nets (CTNs or long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs was evaluated before their approval in Cameroon. The objective of the study was to select the best tools for universal malaria vector control coverage. METHODOLOGY: Bioassays were performed using WHO cones and the Kisumu susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae s.s.. Among tested products, residual activity and wash resistance of Alpha-cypermethrin LLINs (Interceptor and CTNs (Fendona were assessed during 5 months in the Ntougou neighborhood. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All the 14 tested products were found effective (95-100% knockdown and mortality rates, although a significant decrease of efficacy was seen with lambda-cyhalothrinWP IRS, alpha-cypermethrin CTNs and LLINs (p< 0.05. However, the efficacy of Interceptor nets did not decrease during the 5 months evaluation, even after 25 washes (0.07control in Cameroon.

  17. An infection control bulletin as an educational tool: is it useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, L; Cronk, S; Conly, J

    1992-01-01

    For five years a bulletin has been issued to provide information, increase awareness and educate staff on current issues and problems in infection control. To obtain readers' feedback on the value of receiving this one-page bulletin, an evaluation was conducted with the following objectives: to evaluate the content and structure in terms of relevant and current information; to evaluate the format; and to obtain information on frequency and suggested topics. Categories for response were: poor, fair, good and excellent. All respondees (67) rated the topics as good to excellent in the current and applicable category. The detail and clarity were rated as good/excellent by 59 of 67 (88%) and 59 of 67 (88%) of the respondees, respectively. The majority, 61 of 67 (91%), indicated the references were useful. The readability, organization and length were rated as good/excellent by 63 of 67 (94%), 62 of 67 (92.5%) and 65 of 67 (97%), respectively. All but one wished to remain on the mailing list. The results of this evaluation and the list of suggested topics for future bulletins support the conclusion that the infection control bulletin is a useful educational tool.

  18. Computer-Based Driving in Dementia Decision Tool With Mail Support: Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Mark J; Zucchero Sarracini, Carla; Kiss, Alex; Lee, Linda; Byszewski, Anna; Seitz, Dallas P; Vrkljan, Brenda; Molnar, Frank; Herrmann, Nathan; Tang-Wai, David F; Frank, Christopher; Henry, Blair; Pimlott, Nicholas; Masellis, Mario; Naglie, Gary

    2018-05-25

    Physicians often find significant challenges in assessing automobile driving in persons with mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia and deciding when to report to transportation administrators. Care must be taken to balance the safety of patients and other road users with potential negative effects of issuing such reports. The aim of this study was to assess whether a computer-based Driving in Dementia Decision Tool (DD-DT) increased appropriate reporting of patients with mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment to transportation administrators. The study used a parallel-group cluster nonblinded randomized controlled trial design to test a multifaceted knowledge translation intervention. The intervention included a computer-based decision support system activated by the physician-user, which provides a recommendation about whether to report patients with mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment to transportation administrators, based on an algorithm derived from earlier work. The intervention also included a mailed educational package and Web-based specialized reporting forms. Specialists and family physicians with expertise in dementia or care of the elderly were stratified by sex and randomized to either use the DD-DT or a control version of the tool that required identical data input as the intervention group, but instead generated a generic reminder about the reporting legislation in Ontario, Canada. The trial ran from September 9, 2014 to January 29, 2016, and the primary outcome was the number of reports made to the transportation administrators concordant with the algorithm. A total of 69 participating physicians were randomized, and 36 of these used the DD-DT; 20 of the 35 randomized to the intervention group used DD-DT with 114 patients, and 16 of the 34 randomized to the control group used it with 103 patients. The proportion of all assessed patients reported to the transportation administrators concordant with recommendation did not differ

  19. A decision support tool for identifying abuse of controlled substances by ForwardHealth Medicaid members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, Allan T; Cummings, Stephen W; Mugdh, Mrinal

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to use Wisconsin's Medicaid Evaluation and Decision Support (MEDS) data warehouse to develop and validate a decision support tool (DST) that (1) identifies Wisconsin Medicaid fee-for-service recipients who are abusing controlled substances, (2) effectively replicates clinical pharmacist recommendations for interventions intended to curb abuse of physician and pharmacy services, and (3) automates data extraction, profile generation and tracking of recommendations and interventions. From pharmacist manual reviews of medication profiles, seven measures of overutilization of controlled substances were developed, including (1-2) 6-month and 2-month "shopping" scores, (3-4) 6-month and 2-month forgery scores, (5) duplicate/same day prescriptions, (6) count of controlled substance claims, and the (7) shopping 6-month score for the individual therapeutic class with the highest score. The pattern analysis logic for the measures was encoded into SQL and applied to the medication profiles of 190 recipients who had already undergone manual review. The scores for each measure and numbers of providers were analyzed by exhaustive chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) to determine significant thresholds and combinations of predictors of pharmacist recommendations, resulting in a decision tree to classify recipients by pharmacist recommendations. The overall correct classification rate of the decision tree was 95.3%, with a 2.4% false positive rate and 4.0% false negative rate for lock-in versus prescriber-alert letter recommendations. Measures used by the decision tree include the 2-month and 6-month shopping scores, and the number of pharmacies and prescribers. The number of pharmacies was the best predictor of abuse of controlled substances. When a Medicaid recipient receives prescriptions for controlled substances at 8 or more pharmacies, the likelihood of a lock-in recommendation is 90%. The availability of the Wisconsin MEDS data warehouse has

  20. Mobile Phones as a Citizen-Controlled Anti-corruption Tool in East Africa - A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Strand , Cecilia; Hatakka , Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Part 14: Current Issues; International audience; Despite agreement amongst donors, business and political leaders concerning the negative effects of corruption, levels have not fallen in East Africa. The continued high levels of corruption, reassert the need for a better understanding if mobile phones, if prolific enough, can be an effective tool against corruption. Through a literature review of ten years M4D and ICT4D research on mobiles as a citizens-controlled tool for (a) accessing gover...

  1. The DSS-14 C-band exciter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, D. R.

    1989-01-01

    The development and implementation of a C-band exciter for use with the Block IV Receiver-Exciter Subsystem at Deep Space Station 14 (DSS-14) has been completed. The exciter supplements the standard capabilities of the Block IV system by providing a drive signal for the C-band transmitter while generating coherent translation frequencies for C-band (5-GHz) to S-band (2.2- to 2.3-GHz) Doppler extraction, C-band to L-band (1.6-GHz) zero delay measurements, and a level calibrated L-band test signal. Exciter functions are described, and a general explanation and description of the C-band uplink controller is presented.

  2. Synthesis of compositionally controllable Cu{sub 2}(Sn{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x})S{sub 3} nanocrystals with tunable band gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Qingshuang, E-mail: lqs671@163.com [Jilin University, State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry (China)

    2016-06-15

    In this work, we show that compositionally controlled Cu{sub 2}(Sn{sub 1–x}Ge{sub x})S{sub 3} nanocrystals can be successfully synthesized by the hot-injection method through careful tuning the Ge/(Sn+Ge) precursor ratio. The band gaps of the resultant nanocrystals are demonstrated to be linearly tuned from 1.45 to 2.33 eV by adjusting the composition parameter x of the Ge/(Sn+Ge) ratio from 0.0 to 1.0. The crystalline structures of the resultant NCs have been studied by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), select area electron diffraction (SAED), and Raman spectroscopy. A ligand exchange procedure is further performed to replace the native ligands on the surface of the NCs with sulfur ions. The photoresponsive behavior indicates the potential use of as-prepared Cu{sub 2}(Sn{sub 1–x}Ge{sub x})S{sub 3} nanocrystals in solar energy conversion systems. The synthesis of compositionally controlled Cu{sub 2}(Sn{sub 1–x}Ge{sub x})S{sub 3} nanocrystals reported herein provides a way for probing the effect of Ge inclusion in the Cu-Sn-S system thin films.

  3. Effects of elastic band exercise on lean mass and physical capacity in older women with sarcopenic obesity: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chun-De; Tsauo, Jau-Yih; Huang, Shih-Wei; Ku, Jan-Wen; Hsiao, Dun-Jen; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2018-02-02

    Sarcopenia is associated with loss of muscle mass as well as an increased risk of physical disability in elderly people. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of elastic band resistance training (ERT) on muscle mass and physical function in older women with sarcopenic obesity. A randomized controlled trial with an intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. A total of 56 women (mean ± SD age 67.3 ± 5.1 years) were randomly assigned to the experimental group receiving 12 weeks of ERT and to the control group receiving no exercise intervention. Lean mass (measured using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer), physical capacity (assessed using the global physical capacity score), and a 36-item short form questionnaire were conducted at the baseline examination (T 0 ), as well as the 3-month (T 1 ) and 9-month followups (T 2 ). At T 1 and T 2 , the between-group difference was measured in total skeletal mass relative to T 0 , with mean differences of 0.70 kg (95% CI 0.12-1.28; P physical capacity, and physical function outcomes. The ERT exerted a significant beneficial effect on muscle mass, muscle quality, and physical function in older women with sarcopenic obesity.

  4. Active control of residual tool marks for freeform optics functionalization by novel biaxial servo assisted fly cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; To, Suet; Zhang, Shaojian

    2015-09-01

    The inherent residual tool marks (RTM) with particular patterns highly affect optical functions of the generated freeform optics in fast tool servo or slow tool servo (FTS/STS) diamond turning. In the present study, a novel biaxial servo assisted fly cutting (BSFC) method is developed for flexible control of the RTM to be a functional micro/nanotexture in freeform optics generation, which is generally hard to achieve in FTS/STS diamond turning. In the BSFC system, biaxial servo motions along the z-axis and side-feeding directions are mainly adopted for primary surface generation and RTM control, respectively. Active control of the RTM from the two aspects, namely, undesired effect elimination or effective functionalization, are experimentally demonstrated by fabricating a typical F-theta freeform surface with scattering homogenization and two functional microstructures with imposition of secondary phase gratings integrating both reflective and diffractive functions.

  5. Tools and Strategies for Malaria Control and Elimination: What Do We Need to Achieve a Grand Convergence in Malaria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Hemingway

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Progress made in malaria control during the past decade has prompted increasing global dialogue on malaria elimination and eradication. The product development pipeline for malaria has never been stronger, with promising new tools to detect, treat, and prevent malaria, including innovative diagnostics, medicines, vaccines, vector control products, and improved mechanisms for surveillance and response. There are at least 25 projects in the global malaria vaccine pipeline, as well as 47 medicines and 13 vector control products. In addition, there are several next-generation diagnostic tools and reference methods currently in development, with many expected to be introduced in the next decade. The development and adoption of these tools, bolstered by strategies that ensure rapid uptake in target populations, intensified mechanisms for information management, surveillance, and response, and continued financial and political commitment are all essential to achieving global eradication.

  6. An Interactive Tool for Outdoor Computer Controlled Cultivation of Microalgae in a Tubular Photobioreactor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Dormido

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an interactive virtual laboratory for experimenting with an outdoor tubular photobioreactor (henceforth PBR for short. This virtual laboratory it makes possible to: (a accurately reproduce the structure of a real plant (the PBR designed and built by the Department of Chemical Engineering of the University of Almería, Spain; (b simulate a generic tubular PBR by changing the PBR geometry; (c simulate the effects of changing different operating parameters such as the conditions of the culture (pH, biomass concentration, dissolved O2, inyected CO2, etc.; (d simulate the PBR in its environmental context; it is possible to change the geographic location of the system or the solar irradiation profile; (e apply different control strategies to adjust different variables such as the CO2 injection, culture circulation rate or culture temperature in order to maximize the biomass production; (f simulate the harvesting. In this way, users can learn in an intuitive way how productivity is affected by any change in the design. It facilitates the learning of how to manipulate essential variables for microalgae growth to design an optimal PBR. The simulator has been developed with Easy Java Simulations, a freeware open-source tool developed in Java, specifically designed for the creation of interactive dynamic simulations.

  7. DNA methylation analysis as novel tool for quality control in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapko, Stephen; Baron, Udo; Hoffmüller, Ulrich; Model, Fabian; Wolfe, Leslie; Olek, Sven

    2007-09-01

    Cell-based regenerative medicine, including tissue engineering, is a novel approach to reconstituting tissues that do not spontaneously heal, such as damaged cartilage, and to curing diseases caused by malfunctioning cells. Typically, manufacturing processes to generate cartilage for replacement therapies involve isolation and expansion of cells from cartilage biopsies. A challenge in the field is potential contamination by other cell types (e.g., fibroblast-like cells), which can overgrow the desired cells during culturing and may ultimately compromise clinical efficacy. No standard analytical system has been absolutely effective in ensuring the identity of these cell-based products. Therefore, we tested deoxyribonucleic acid methylation analysis as a quality assessment tool, applying it to Genzyme's Carticel product, a chondrocyte implant that the Food and Drug Administration has approved. We identified 7 potent discriminators by assaying candidate genomic regions derived from methylation discovery approaches and literature searches regarding a functional role of genes in chondrocyte biology. Using a support vector machine, we trained an optimal cell type classifier that was absolutely effective in discriminating chondrocytes from synovial membrane derived cells, the major potential contaminant of chondrocyte cultures. The abundant marker availability and high quality of this assay format also suggest it as a potential quality control test for other cell types grown or manipulated in vitro.

  8. Geographic profiling as a novel spatial tool for targeting infectious disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller Douglas O

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographic profiling is a statistical tool originally developed in criminology to prioritise large lists of suspects in cases of serial crime. Here, we use two data sets - one historical and one modern - to show how it can be used to locate the sources of infectious disease. Results First, we re-analyse data from a classic epidemiological study, the 1854 London cholera outbreak. Using 321 disease sites as input, we evaluate the locations of 13 neighbourhood water pumps. The Broad Street pump - the outbreak's source- ranks first, situated in the top 0.2% of the geoprofile. We extend our study with an analysis of reported malaria cases in Cairo, Egypt, using 139 disease case locations to rank 59 mosquitogenic local water sources, seven of which tested positive for the vector Anopheles sergentii. Geographic profiling ranks six of these seven sites in positions 1-6, all in the top 2% of the geoprofile. In both analyses the method outperformed other measures of spatial central tendency. Conclusions We suggest that geographic profiling could form a useful component of integrated control strategies relating to a wide variety of infectious diseases, since evidence-based targeting of interventions is more efficient, environmentally friendly and cost-effective than untargeted intervention.

  9. Introduction of software tools for epidemiological surveillance in infection control in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoa, Gabriel; Vallejo, Marta; Blanco, Víctor M; Correa, Adriana; de la Cadena, Elsa; Villegas, María Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) are a challenge for patient safety in the hospitals. Infection control committees (ICC) should follow CDC definitions when monitoring HAI. The handmade method of epidemiological surveillance (ES) may affect the sensitivity and specificity of the monitoring system, while electronic surveillance can improve the performance, quality and traceability of recorded information. Objective: To assess the implementation of a strategy for electronic surveillance of HAI, Bacterial Resistance and Antimicrobial Consumption by the ICC of 23 high-complexity clinics and hospitals in Colombia, during the period 2012-2013. Methods: An observational study evaluating the introduction of electronic tools in the ICC was performed; we evaluated the structure and operation of the ICC, the degree of incorporation of the software HAI Solutions and the adherence to record the required information. Results: Thirty-eight percent of hospitals (8/23) had active surveillance strategies with standard criteria of the CDC, and 87% of institutions adhered to the module of identification of cases using the HAI Solutions software. In contrast, compliance with the diligence of the risk factors for device-associated HAIs was 33%. Conclusions: The introduction of ES could achieve greater adherence to a model of active surveillance, standardized and prospective, helping to improve the validity and quality of the recorded information. PMID:26309340

  10. Edge control in CNC polishing, paper 2: simulation and validation of tool influence functions on edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Walker, David; Yu, Guoyu; Sayle, Andrew; Messelink, Wilhelmus; Evans, Rob; Beaucamp, Anthony

    2013-01-14

    Edge mis-figure is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues for manufacturing the segments of extremely large telescopes, which can dominate key aspects of performance. A novel edge-control technique has been developed, based on 'Precessions' polishing technique and for which accurate and stable edge tool influence functions (TIFs) are crucial. In the first paper in this series [D. Walker Opt. Express 20, 19787-19798 (2012)], multiple parameters were experimentally optimized using an extended set of experiments. The first purpose of this new work is to 'short circuit' this procedure through modeling. This also gives the prospect of optimizing local (as distinct from global) polishing for edge mis-figure, now under separate development. This paper presents a model that can predict edge TIFs based on surface-speed profiles and pressure distributions over the polishing spot at the edge of the part, the latter calculated by finite element analysis and verified by direct force measurement. This paper also presents a hybrid-measurement method for edge TIFs to verify the simulation results. Experimental and simulation results show good agreement.

  11. Introduction of software tools for epidemiological surveillance in infection control in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Gómez, Cristhian; Motoa, Gabriel; Vallejo, Marta; Blanco, Víctor M; Correa, Adriana; de la Cadena, Elsa; Villegas, María Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) are a challenge for patient safety in the hospitals. Infection control committees (ICC) should follow CDC definitions when monitoring HAI. The handmade method of epidemiological surveillance (ES) may affect the sensitivity and specificity of the monitoring system, while electronic surveillance can improve the performance, quality and traceability of recorded information. To assess the implementation of a strategy for electronic surveillance of HAI, Bacterial Resistance and Antimicrobial Consumption by the ICC of 23 high-complexity clinics and hospitals in Colombia, during the period 2012-2013. An observational study evaluating the introduction of electronic tools in the ICC was performed; we evaluated the structure and operation of the ICC, the degree of incorporation of the software HAI Solutions and the adherence to record the required information. Thirty-eight percent of hospitals (8/23) had active surveillance strategies with standard criteria of the CDC, and 87% of institutions adhered to the module of identification of cases using the HAI Solutions software. In contrast, compliance with the diligence of the risk factors for device-associated HAIs was 33%. The introduction of ES could achieve greater adherence to a model of active surveillance, standardized and prospective, helping to improve the validity and quality of the recorded information.

  12. Fade Mitigation Techniques at Ka-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Asoka (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Rain fading is the dominant propagation impairment affecting Ka-band satellite links and rain fade mitigation is a key element in the design of Ka-band satellite networks. Some of the common fade mitigation techniques include: power control, diversity, adaptive coding, and resource sharing. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) provides an excellent opportunity to develop and test Ka-band rain impairment amelioration techniques. Up-link power control and diversity are discussed in this paper.

  13. Reward banding to determine reporting rate of recovered mourning dove bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, R.E.

    1968-01-01

    Reward bands placed on the other leg of certain regularly banded immature mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura) were used to develop information on reporting rates of recovered dove bands. Reports from 15 widely separated sections of the United States showed considerable variation in recovery rate of doves both with and without reward bands. The overall percentages of banded doves that were reported as recovered were 9.69% for those with reward bands and 3.83% for controls. The bandreporting rate for states influenced by publicity was 66%; that for states not influenced was 32%.

  14. An atlas of artefacts: a teaching tool for scintillation camera quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busemann Sokole, E.; Graham, L.S.; Todd-Pokropek, A.; Wegst, A.; Robilotta, C.C.

    2002-01-01

    . Because subtle loss of image quality is difficult to detect in SPECT images, simulations have been included that demonstrate effects of sub-optimal calibrations (e.g. centre-of-rotation offset, non-uniformity) or sub-optimal clinical situations. Conclusions: This artefact atlas covers many different situations and variants that may be encountered. It is intended as a teaching tool to help identify artefacts in quality control and clinical images. Regular updates are essential. The IAEA intends to produce a hardcopy of this artefact atlas, and eventually make it available on CD-ROM. The author and editor (EBS) is indebted to all those who submitted images and contributed to the review process

  15. Modelling detection probabilities to evaluate management and control tools for an invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, M.T.; Yackel Adams, A.A.; Rodda, G.H.; Savidge, J.A.; Tyrrell, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    For most ecologists, detection probability (p) is a nuisance variable that must be modelled to estimate the state variable of interest (i.e. survival, abundance, or occupancy). However, in the realm of invasive species control, the rate of detection and removal is the rate-limiting step for management of this pervasive environmental problem. For strategic planning of an eradication (removal of every individual), one must identify the least likely individual to be removed, and determine the probability of removing it. To evaluate visual searching as a control tool for populations of the invasive brown treesnake Boiga irregularis, we designed a mark-recapture study to evaluate detection probability as a function of time, gender, size, body condition, recent detection history, residency status, searcher team and environmental covariates. We evaluated these factors using 654 captures resulting from visual detections of 117 snakes residing in a 5-ha semi-forested enclosure on Guam, fenced to prevent immigration and emigration of snakes but not their prey. Visual detection probability was low overall (= 0??07 per occasion) but reached 0??18 under optimal circumstances. Our results supported sex-specific differences in detectability that were a quadratic function of size, with both small and large females having lower detection probabilities than males of those sizes. There was strong evidence for individual periodic changes in detectability of a few days duration, roughly doubling detection probability (comparing peak to non-elevated detections). Snakes in poor body condition had estimated mean detection probabilities greater than snakes with high body condition. Search teams with high average detection rates exhibited detection probabilities about twice that of search teams with low average detection rates. Surveys conducted with bright moonlight and strong wind gusts exhibited moderately decreased probabilities of detecting snakes. Synthesis and applications. By

  16. Band structure of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Tsidilkovski, I M

    2013-01-01

    Band Structure of Semiconductors provides a review of the theoretical and experimental methods of investigating band structure and an analysis of the results of the developments in this field. The book presents the problems, methods, and applications in the study of band structure. Topics on the computational methods of band structure; band structures of important semiconducting materials; behavior of an electron in a perturbed periodic field; effective masses and g-factors for the most commonly encountered band structures; and the treatment of cyclotron resonance, Shubnikov-de Haas oscillatio

  17. A shared decision-making tool for obstructive sleep apnea without tonsillar hypertrophy: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Mathieu; Duggins, Angela L; Cohen, Aliza P; Tiemeyer, Karin; Mullen, Lisa; Crisalli, Joseph; McArthur, Angela; Ishman, Stacey L

    2018-04-01

    Shared decision-making is a process whereby patients and clinicians jointly establish a treatment plan integrating clinical evidence and patient values and preferences. Although this approach has been successfully employed in numerous medical disciplines, often using shared decision-making tools, otolaryngologic research assessing its use is scant. Our primary objective was therefore to determine if the tools we developed reduced decisional conflict for children with obstructive sleep apnea without tonsillar hypertrophy. Prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. We enrolled consecutive patients meeting inclusion criteria who were referred to our multidisciplinary upper airway center. Study patients used a shared decision-making tool whereas controls did not. Measures of decisional conflict (SURE [Sure of myself, Understanding information, Risk benefit ratio, Encouragement], CollaboRATE, and the Decisional Conflict Scale [DCS]) were obtained pre- and postvisit. We assessed 50 families (study group = 24, controls = 26). The mean age was 8.8 ± 6.6 years, 44% were female, 86% were white, and the mean obstructive apnea-hypopnea index was 12.7 ± 15.6 events/hour. The previsit mean DCS score was similar for controls (42.7) and study patients (40.8) (P = .38). The postvisit mean DCS score for controls was 13.3 and for study patients 6.1 (P = .034). Improvement in this score was greater in the study group (P = .03). At previsit evaluation, 63% of controls and 58% of study patients were unsure about their options. Postvisit, this improved to 4.1% and 0%, respectively. Families counseled regarding treatment options using shared decision-making tools had significantly less decisional conflict than those who did not use these tools. These positive outcomes suggest that clinicians should consider integrating this approach into clinical practice. 1b. Laryngoscope, 128:1007-1015, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Mid-frequency Band Dynamics of Large Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppolino, Robert N.; Adams, Douglas S.

    2004-01-01

    High and low intensity dynamic environments experienced by a spacecraft during launch and on-orbit operations, respectively, induce structural loads and motions, which are difficult to reliably predict. Structural dynamics in low- and mid-frequency bands are sensitive to component interface uncertainty and non-linearity as evidenced in laboratory testing and flight operations. Analytical tools for prediction of linear system response are not necessarily adequate for reliable prediction of mid-frequency band dynamics and analysis of measured laboratory and flight data. A new MATLAB toolbox, designed to address the key challenges of mid-frequency band dynamics, is introduced in this paper. Finite-element models of major subassemblies are defined following rational frequency-wavelength guidelines. For computational efficiency, these subassemblies are described as linear, component mode models. The complete structural system model is composed of component mode subassemblies and linear or non-linear joint descriptions. Computation and display of structural dynamic responses are accomplished employing well-established, stable numerical methods, modern signal processing procedures and descriptive graphical tools. Parametric sensitivity and Monte-Carlo based system identification tools are used to reconcile models with experimental data and investigate the effects of uncertainties. Models and dynamic responses are exported for employment in applications, such as detailed structural integrity and mechanical-optical-control performance analyses.

  19. Using the direct current voltage gradient technology as a quality control tool during construction of new pipelines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masilela, Z

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available pipelines. This technique is now increasingly gaining popularity as a good quality control tool when used on newly laid pipelines to detect coating damage, most of which could be attributed to construction work. On a recently built 50 km long gas pipeline...

  20. Developing a Tool Point Control Scheme for a Hydraulic Crane Using Interactive Real-time Dynamic Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Melters; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Ballebye, Morten

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of an interactive real-time dynamic simulation model of a hydraulic crane. The user input to the model is given continuously via joystick and output is presented continuously in a 3D animation. Using this simulation model, a tool point control scheme...... is developed for the specific crane, considering the saturation phenomena of the system and practical implementation....

  1. A NEW TOOL FOR OFFICIAL CONTROL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF AN AUDIT PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vestrini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The new EU regulation on feed and food confirm audit like the most important tool for valuating GMP and HACCP procedures on food premises. Authors describe planning and results of 2007 audit activities.

  2. A mask quality control tool for the OSIRIS multi-object spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ruiz, J. C.; Vaz Cedillo, Jacinto Javier; Ederoclite, Alessandro; Bongiovanni, Ángel; González Escalera, Víctor

    2012-09-01

    OSIRIS multi object spectrograph uses a set of user-customised-masks, which are manufactured on-demand. The manufacturing process consists of drilling the specified slits on the mask with the required accuracy. Ensuring that slits are on the right place when observing is of vital importance. We present a tool for checking the quality of the process of manufacturing the masks which is based on analyzing the instrument images obtained with the manufactured masks on place. The tool extracts the slit information from these images, relates specifications with the extracted slit information, and finally communicates to the operator if the manufactured mask fulfills the expectations of the mask designer. The proposed tool has been built using scripting languages and using standard libraries such as opencv, pyraf and scipy. The software architecture, advantages and limits of this tool in the lifecycle of a multiobject acquisition are presented.

  3. Approximate Cartesian Control for Robotic Tool Usage with Graceful Degradation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Many of NASA's exploration scenarios include important roles for autonomous or partially autonomous robots. It is desirable for them to utilize human tools when...

  4. A Human-Centered Command and Control (C2) Assessment of an Experimental Campaign Planning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Figure 10. Total minutes within team interactions by individual team members. .........................14  Figure 11. NASA TLX workload results for...tool. Members of both teams completed the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Task Load Index ( TLX ) subjective evaluation of their...Ends Break Lunch Break Break 6 NASA TLX is a subjective workload assessment tool that allows users to perform subjective workload assessments on

  5. Challenges for development and provision of metrological quality control tools in nuclear safeguards, nuclear forensics and nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aregbe, Y.; Richter, S.; Jakopic, R.; Bauwens, J.; Truyens, J.; Sturm, M.; Bujak, R.; Eykens, R.; Kehoe, F.; Kuehn, H.; Hennessy, C.

    2013-01-01

    Joint advancements in quality control tools and measurement sciences of international reference and safeguards laboratories include: -) successful integration of the Modified Total Evaporation technique (MTE) as a new tool for routine thermal ionization mass spectrometry in nuclear safeguards and security, -) research and feasibility studies for the development of new materials standard, particularly for nuclear forensics (Certified Reference Materials - CRMs for age-dating), -) quality control tools to support the additional protocol and nuclear security (particle CRMs, NUSIMEP (inter-laboratory comparisons for U particle analysis), and -) scientific/technical advice, training and knowledge transfer. The European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) and the CETAMA Commission from the French Commission of Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies (CEA/CETAMA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Meetings are the platforms to exchange views on the needs and challenges for new Quality Control tools for nuclear safeguards and security. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  6. Evaluation of an e-learning system for diagnosis of gastric lesions using magnifying narrow-band imaging: a multicenter randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Hiroyoshi; Doyama, Hisashi; Ishikawa, Hideki; Uedo, Noriya; Gotoda, Takuji; Kato, Mototsugu; Nagao, Shigeaki; Nagami, Yasuaki; Aoyagi, Hiroyuki; Imagawa, Atsushi; Kodaira, Junichi; Mitsui, Shinya; Kobayashi, Nozomu; Muto, Manabu; Takatori, Hajime; Abe, Takashi; Tsujii, Masahiko; Watari, Jiro; Ishiyama, Shuhei; Oda, Ichiro; Ono, Hiroyuki; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Yokoi, Chizu; Ueo, Tetsuya; Uchita, Kunihisa; Matsumoto, Kenshi; Kanesaka, Takashi; Morita, Yoshinori; Katsuki, Shinichi; Nishikawa, Jun; Inamura, Katsuhisa; Kinjo, Tetsu; Yamamoto, Katsumi; Yoshimura, Daisuke; Araki, Hiroshi; Kashida, Hiroshi; Hosokawa, Ayumu; Mori, Hirohito; Yamashita, Haruhiro; Motohashi, Osamu; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Hirayama, Michiaki; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Endo, Masaki; Yamano, Hiroo; Murakami, Kazunari; Koike, Tomoyuki; Hirasawa, Kingo; Miyaoka, Youichi; Hamamoto, Hidetaka; Hikichi, Takuto; Hanabata, Norihiro; Shimoda, Ryo; Hori, Shinichiro; Sato, Tadashi; Kodashima, Shinya; Okada, Hiroyuki; Mannami, Tomohiko; Yamamoto, Shojiro; Niwa, Yasumasa; Yashima, Kazuo; Tanabe, Satoshi; Satoh, Hiro; Sasaki, Fumisato; Yamazato, Tetsuro; Ikeda, Yoshiou; Nishisaki, Hogara; Nakagawa, Masahiro; Matsuda, Akio; Tamura, Fumio; Nishiyama, Hitoshi; Arita, Keiko; Kawasaki, Keisuke; Hoppo, Kazushige; Oka, Masashi; Ishihara, Shinichi; Mukasa, Michita; Minamino, Hiroaki; Yao, Kenshi

    2017-10-01

    Background and study aim  Magnifying narrow-band imaging (M-NBI) is useful for the accurate diagnosis of early gastric cancer (EGC). However, acquiring skill at M-NBI diagnosis takes substantial effort. An Internet-based e-learning system to teach endoscopic diagnosis of EGC using M-NBI has been developed. This study evaluated its effectiveness. Participants and methods  This study was designed as a multicenter randomized controlled trial. We recruited endoscopists as participants from all over Japan. After completing Test 1, which consisted of M-NBI images of 40 gastric lesions, participants were randomly assigned to the e-learning or non-e-learning groups. Only the e-learning group was allowed to access the e-learning system. After the e-learning period, both groups received Test 2. The analysis set was participants who scored e-learning group and 197 in the non-e-learning group). After the e-learning period, all 395 completed Test 2. The analysis sets were e-learning group: n = 184; and non-e-learning group: n = 184. The mean Test 1 score was 59.9 % for the e-learning group and 61.7 % for the non-e-learning group. The change in accuracy in Test 2 was significantly higher in the e-learning group than in the non-e-learning group (7.4 points vs. 0.14 points, respectively; P  e-learning system in improving practitioners' capabilities to diagnose EGC using M-NBI.Trial registered at University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000008569). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Estimation of Most Favorable Optical Window Position Subject to Achieve Finest Optical Control of Lateral DDR IMPATT Diode Designed to Operate at W-Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Acharyya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimum position of the optical window (OW of illuminated lateral double-drift region (DDR impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT device has been determined subject to achieve the finest optical control of both DC and RF properties of the device. The OW is a tiny hole that has to be created on the oxide layer through which the light energy of appropriate wavelength can be coupled to the space charge region of the device. A non-sinusoidal voltage is assumed to be applied across the diode and the corresponding terminal current response is obtained from a two-dimensional (2-D large-signal (L-S simulation technique developed by the authors for illuminated lateral DDR IMPATT diode. Both the DC and L-S properties of the illuminated device based on Si, designed to operate at W-band frequencies (75 – 110 GHz are obtained from the said L-S simulation. Simulation is carried out for different incident optical power levels of different wavelengths (600 – 1000 nm by varying the position of the fixed sized OW on the oxide layer along the direction of electrical conduction of the device. Results show that, the most favorable optical tuning can be achieved when the OW is entirely created over the p-type depletion layer, i.e. when the photocurrent is purely electron dominated. Also the 700 nm wavelength is found to be most suitable wavelength for obtaining the maximum optical modulation of both DC and RF properties of the device.

  8. Control of Ge1-x-ySixSny layer lattice constant for energy band alignment in Ge1-xSnx/Ge1-x-ySixSny heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Sakashita, Mitsuo; Kurosawa, Masashi; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2017-10-01

    The energy band alignment of Ge1-xSnx/Ge1-x-ySixSny heterostructures was investigated, and control of the valence band offset at the Ge1-xSnx/Ge1-x-ySixSny heterointerface was achieved by controlling the Si and Sn contents in the Ge1-x-ySixSny layer. The valence band offset in the Ge0.902Sn0.098/Ge0.41Si0.50Sn0.09 heterostructure was evaluated to be as high as 330 meV, and its conduction band offset was estimated to be 150 meV by considering the energy bandgap calculated from the theoretical prediction. In addition, the formation of the strain-relaxed Ge1-x-ySixSny layer was examined and the crystalline structure was characterized. The epitaxial growth of a strain-relaxed Ge0.64Si0.21Sn0.15 layer with the degree of strain relaxation of 55% was examined using a virtual Ge substrate. Moreover, enhancement of the strain relaxation was demonstrated by post-deposition annealing, where a degree of strain relaxation of 70% was achieved after annealing at 400 °C. These results indicate the possibility for enhancing the indirect-direct crossover with a strained and high-Sn-content Ge1-xSnx layer on a strain-relaxed Ge1-x-ySixSny layer, realizing preferable carrier confinement by type-I energy band alignment with high conduction and valence band offsets.

  9. Tools and techniques for schedule's controlling: tracking system and control of Urucu-Manaus gas-pipeline construction, stretch B1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuany, Valdenise Marques; Dias, Jose Luiz Gomes [CONCREMAT Engenharia e Tecnologia S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The goal is to show the monitoring systems and deadline control, using the PMBOK{sup R} project management tools, in the Construction and Assembly of the Coari-Manaus Gas-pipeline, stretch B1, which includes the cities of Coari, Codajas, Anori and Anama, in the state of Amazon, in the Northern Undertaking Implementation (IENOR), an Engineering division of the PETROBRAS System. This report presents the practical effects of the usage of three schedule control tools of the project: Performance Measurement, using the technique of the Earned Value Management (EVM), which integrates cost, schedule and physical progress of the enterprise to determine the variations of schedule and performance; Project Management Software, MSProject, which allows schedule's elaboration and makes the tracking of the planned dates possible (baseline) in relation to real dates and forecasts the trend level, the effects of changes in the project's schedule, demonstrating its utility as a schedule control tool; and Schedule Variance Analysis, which adopts practical data to reach the pessimistic, most likely and optimistic expectations. The implantation of these tools was based in the Work Breakdown Structure of the enterprise. The application of these three tools in the tracking and control of the enterprise demonstrates that, the use of information and techniques deriving from the planning and control can be an important support for project management and decision taking, comparing the results gotten in the implantation of the plan with its actual realization, defining, thus, the necessary corrective actions, generating learned lessons to use in future projects. (author)

  10. Remotely-Controlled Shear for Dismantling Highly Radioactive Tools In Rokkasho Vitrification Facility - 12204

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsui, Takashi; Sawa, Shusuke; Sadaki, Akira; Awano, Toshihiko [IHI Corporation, 1 Shin-Nakahara-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Cole, Matt [S.A. Technology Inc, 3985 S. Lincoln Ave., Ste. 100, Loveland CO 80537 (United States); Miura, Yasuhiko; Ino, Tooru [Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, 4-108, Aza Okitsuke, Oaza Obuchi, Rokkasho-Mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    A high-level liquid waste vitrification facility in the Japanese Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) is right in the middle of hot commissioning tests toward starting operation in fall of 2012. In these tests, various tools were applied to address issues occurring in the vitrification cell. Because of these tools' unplanned placement in the cell it has been necessary to dismantle and dispose of them promptly. One of the tools requiring removal is a rod used in the glass melter to improve glass pouring. It is composed of a long rod made of Inconel 601 or 625 and has been highly contaminated. In order to dismantle these tools and to remotely put them in a designated waste basket, a custom electric shear machine was developed. It was installed in a dismantling area of the vitrification cell by remote cranes and manipulators and has been successfully operated. It can be remotely dismantled and placed in a waste basket for interim storage. This is a very good example of a successful deployment of a specialty remote tool in a hot cell environment. This paper also highlights how commissioning and operations are done in the Japanese Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant. (authors)

  11. Adhesives for fixed orthodontic bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Declan T; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Mattick, Rye Cr; Hickman, Joy; Mandall, Nicky A

    2016-10-25

    Orthodontic treatment involves using fixed or removable appliances (dental braces) to correct the positions of teeth. It has been shown that the quality of treatment result obtained with fixed appliances is much better than with removable appliances. Fixed appliances are, therefore, favoured by most orthodontists for treatment. The success of a fixed orthodontic appliance depends on the metal attachments (brackets and bands) being attached securely to the teeth so that they do not become loose during treatment. Brackets are usually attached to the front and side teeth, whereas bands (metal rings that go round the teeth) are more commonly used on the back teeth (molars). A number of adhesives are available to attach bands to teeth and it is important to understand which group of adhesives bond most reliably, as well as reducing or preventing dental decay during the treatment period. To evaluate the effectiveness of the adhesives used to attach bands to teeth during fixed appliance treatment, in terms of:(1) how often the bands come off during treatment; and(2) whether they protect the banded teeth against decay during fixed appliance treatment. The following electronic databases were searched: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (searched 2 June 2016), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 5) in the Cochrane Library (searched 2 June 2016), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 2 June 2016) and EMBASE Ovid (1980 to 2 June 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised and controlled clinical trials (RCTs and CCTs) (including split-mouth studies) of adhesives used to attach orthodontic bands to molar teeth were selected. Patients with full arch fixed orthodontic appliance(s) who had bands attached to molars were included. All review authors

  12. Teaching Tool for a Control Systems Laboratory Using a Quadrotor as a Plant in MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Subhan; Jaffery, Mujtaba Hussain; Hanif, Athar; Asif, Muhammad Rizwan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a MATLAB-based application to teach the guidance, navigation, and control concepts of a quadrotor to undergraduate students, using a graphical user interface (GUI) and 3-D animations. The Simulink quadrotor model is controlled by a proportional integral derivative controller and a linear quadratic regulator controller. The GUI…

  13. Theoretical Prediction of the Forming Limit Band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banabic, D.; Paraianu, L.; Vos, M.; Jurco, P.

    2007-01-01

    Forming Limit Band (FLB) is a very useful tool to improve the sheet metal forming simulation robustness. Until now, the study of the FLB was only experimental. This paper presents the first attempt to model the FLB. The authors have established an original method for predicting the two margins of the limit band. The method was illustrated on the AA6111-T43 aluminum alloy. A good agreement with the experiments has been obtained

  14. Theoretical Prediction of the Forming Limit Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banabic, D.; Vos, M.; Paraianu, L.; Jurco, P.

    2007-04-01

    Forming Limit Band (FLB) is a very useful tool to improve the sheet metal forming simulation robustness. Until now, the study of the FLB was only experimental. This paper presents the first attempt to model the FLB. The authors have established an original method for predicting the two margins of the limit band. The method was illustrated on the AA6111-T43 aluminum alloy. A good agreement with the experiments has been obtained.

  15. A Development of the Calibration Tool Applied on Analog I/O Modules for Safety-related Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Kyun; Yun, Dong-Hwa; Lee, Myeong-Kyun; Yoo, Kwan-Woo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop the calibration tool for analog input/output(I/O) modules. Those modules are components in POSAFE-Q which is a programmable logic controller(PLC) that has been developed for the evaluation of safety-related. In this paper, performance improvement of analog I/O modules is presented by developing and applying the calibration tool for each channel in analog I/O modules. With this tool, the input signal to an analog input module and the output signal from an analog output module are able to be satisfied with a reference value of sensor type and an accuracy of all modules. With RS-232 communication, the manual calibration tool is developed for analog I/O modules of an existing and up-to-date version in POSAFE-Q PLC. As a result of applying this tool, the converted value is performant for a type of input sensor and an accuracy of analog I/O modules

  16. Control analysis as a tool to understand the formation of the las operon in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Købmann, Brian Jensen; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2005-01-01

    control on glycolysis and growth rate but high negative control on formate production. We find that PFK and PK have zero control on glycolysis and growth rate at the wildtype enzyme level but both enzymes exert strong positive control on the glycolytic flux at reduced activities. PK has high positive...... coefficient increased towards 3. Increased las expression resulted in a slight decrease in the glycolytic flux. At the wildtype level the control was close to zero on both glycolysis and the pyruvate branches. The sum of control coefficients for the three enzymes individually was comparable to the control...... coefficient found for the entire operon; the strong positive control by PK almost cancels out the negative control by LDH on formate production. The analysis suggests that co-regulation of PFK and PK provides a very efficient way to regulate glycolysis, and co-regulating PK and LDH allows the cells...

  17. BiOCl{sub x}Br{sub y}I{sub z} (x + y + z = 1) solid solutions with controllable band gap and highly enhanced visible light photocatalytic performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiuguo; Zhang, Yangyang; Li, Chunmei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Peng, Zheng; Si, Huayan; Zhang, Jianmin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043 (China); Li, Yanting, E-mail: yantingcn@stdu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043 (China); Hebei Provincial Key Laboratory of Traffic Engineering materials, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043 (China)

    2015-07-25

    Highlights: • BiOCl{sub x}Br{sub y}I{sub z} solid solutions were prepared by hydrolysis method. • Band gap of the solid solutions can be controllable by adjusting the molar ratio of halogen ions. • The samples show higher visible light photocatalytic activity than pure BiOX. • Orbital diversification of VB is beneficial to separating the holes and electrons effectively. • The mechanisms are discussed by active species trapping and band theory. - Abstract: A series of BiOCl{sub x}Br{sub y}I{sub z} solid solutions with controllable band gap and highly enhanced visible light photocatalytic performances were synthesized by a simple hydrolysis method. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra, scanning electron microscope, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis. By adjusting the molar ratio of halogen ions, the band gap of BiOCl{sub x}Br{sub y}I{sub z} could be controllable to the suitable value for a photocatalytic reaction. Especially, BiOCl{sub x}Br{sub y}I{sub z} with a 1:1:2 molar ratio of Cl, Br to I showed the highest visible light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange than individual BiOX systems. The degradation efficiency could reach over 90% within 60 min. The possible mechanism of photogenerated carrier transfer and higher photocatalytic activity was analyzed by active species trapping and energy band theory.

  18. Tools for functional analysis of faults and methods of fault-stable motion control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    In this article a big attention is given to the problems of functional diagnostics, when control and faults diagnostics are made in real time simultaneously in the process of functioning of controlled dynamical systems

  19. Local Government Planning Tool to Calculate Institutional and Engineering Control Costs for Brownfield Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    This cost calculator is designed as a guide for municipal or local governments to assist in calculating their expected costs of implementing and conducting long-term stewardship of institutional controls and engineering controls at brownfield properties.

  20. Adiabatic shear banding and scaling laws in chip formation with application to cutting of Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, A.; Soldani, X.; Miguélez, M. H.

    2013-11-01

    The phenomenon of adiabatic shear banding is analyzed theoretically in the context of metal cutting. The mechanisms of material weakening that are accounted for are (i) thermal softening and (ii) material failure related to a critical value of the accumulated plastic strain. Orthogonal cutting is viewed as a unique configuration where adiabatic shear bands can be experimentally produced under well controlled loading conditions by individually tuning the cutting speed, the feed (uncut chip thickness) and the tool geometry. The role of cutting conditions on adiabatic shear banding and chip serration is investigated by combining finite element calculations and analytical modeling. This leads to the characterization and classification of different regimes of shear banding and the determination of scaling laws which involve dimensionless parameters representative of thermal and inertia effects. The analysis gives new insights into the physical aspects of plastic flow instability in chip formation. The originality with respect to classical works on adiabatic shear banding stems from the various facets of cutting conditions that influence shear banding and from the specific role exercised by convective flow on the evolution of shear bands. Shear bands are generated at the tool tip and propagate towards the chip free surface. They grow within the chip formation region while being convected away by chip flow. It is shown that important changes in the mechanism of shear banding take place when the characteristic time of shear band propagation becomes equal to a characteristic convection time. Application to Ti-6Al-4V titanium are considered and theoretical predictions are compared to available experimental data in a wide range of cutting speeds and feeds. The fundamental knowledge developed in this work is thought to be useful not only for the understanding of metal cutting processes but also, by analogy, to similar problems where convective flow is also interfering with

  1. Setup of the development tools for a small-sized controller built in a robot using Linux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Cheol; Jun, Hyeong Seop; Choi, Yu Rak; Kim, Jae Hee

    2004-03-01

    This report explains a setup method of practical development tools for robot control software programming. Well constituted development tools make a programmer more productive and a program more reliable. We ported a proven operating system to the target board (our robot's controller) to avoid such convention. We selected open source Linux as operating system, because it is free, reliable, flexible and widely used. First, we setup the host computer with Linux, and installed a cross compiler on it. And we ported Linux to the target board and connected to the host computer with ethernet, and setup NFS to both the host and the target. So the target board can use host computer's hard disk as it's own disk. Next, we installed gdb server on the target board and gdb client and DDD to the host computer for debugging the target program in the host computer with graphic environment. Finally, we patched the target board's Linux kernel with another one which have realtime capability. In this way, we can have a realtime embedded hardware controller for a robot with convenient software developing tools. All source programs are edited and compiled on the host computer, and executable codes exist in the NFS mounted directory that can be accessed from target board's directory. We can execute and debugging the code by means of logging into the target through the ethernet or the serial line

  2. Data quality control and tools in passive seismic experiments exemplified on Czech broad-band seismic pool MOBNET in the AlpArray collaborative project

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vecsey, Luděk; Plomerová, Jaroslava; Jedlička, Petr; Munzarová, Helena; Babuška, Vladislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2017), s. 505-521 ISSN 2193-0856 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015079; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15029; GA MŠk(CZ) EF16_013/0001800 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100121201 Program:Program interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Rayleigh-wave polarization * seismometer orientation * data quality * AlpArray * seismic noise Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Volcanology Impact factor: 1.023, year: 2016

  3. Knee Arthroscopy Simulation: A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Imperial Knee Arthroscopy Cognitive Task Analysis (IKACTA) Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Rahul; Davidson, Donald J; Sugand, Kapil; Bartlett, Matthew J; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Gupte, Chinmay M

    2017-10-04

    Virtual-reality and cadaveric simulations are expensive and not readily accessible. Innovative and accessible training adjuncts are required to help to meet training needs. Cognitive task analysis has been used extensively to train pilots and in other surgical specialties. However, the use of cognitive task analyses within orthopaedics is in its infancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel cognitive task analysis tool to train novice surgeons in diagnostic knee arthroscopy in high-fidelity, phantom-limb simulation. Three expert knee surgeons were interviewed independently to generate a list of technical steps, decision points, and errors for diagnostic knee arthroscopy. A modified Delphi technique was used to generate the final cognitive task analysis. A video and a voiceover were recorded for each phase of this procedure. These were combined to produce the Imperial Knee Arthroscopy Cognitive Task Analysis (IKACTA) tool that utilizes written and audiovisual stimuli to describe each phase of a diagnostic knee arthroscopy. In this double-blinded, randomized controlled trial, a power calculation was performed prior to recruitment. Sixteen novice orthopaedic trainees who performed ≤10 diagnostic knee arthroscopies were randomized into 2 equal groups. The intervention group (IKACTA group) was given the IKACTA tool and the control group had no additional learning material. They were assessed objectively (validated Arthroscopic Surgical Skill Evaluation Tool [ASSET] global rating scale) on a high-fidelity, phantom-knee simulator. All participants, using the Likert rating scale, subjectively rated the tool. The mean ASSET score (and standard deviation) was 19.5 ± 3.7 points in the IKACTA group and 10.6 ± 2.3 points in the control group, resulting in an improvement of 8.9 points (95% confidence interval, 7.6 to 10.1 points; p = 0.002); the score was determined as 51.3% (19.5 of 38) for the IKACTA group, 27.9% (10.6 of 38) for the

  4. Analysis of an industrial production suspension of Bacillus lentus subtilisin crystals by powder diffraction: a powerful quality-control tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankær, Christian Grundahl; Moroz, Olga V.; Turkenburg, Johan P.

    2014-01-01

    . A controlled crystallization experiment with a highly purified Savinase sample allowed the growth of single crystals of the form identified by XRPD; their structure was solved and refined to a resolution of 1.17 Å with an R of 9.2% and an Rfree of 11.8%. Thus, there are at least three polymorphs present...... in the production suspension, albeit with the 1ndq -like microcrystals predominating. It is shown how the two techniques can provide invaluable and complementary information for such a production suspension and it is proposed that XRPD provides an excellent quality-control tool for such suspensions....

  5. The hierarchical expert tuning of PID controllers using tools of soft computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karray, F; Gueaieb, W; Al-Sharhan, S

    2002-01-01

    We present soft computing-based results pertaining to the hierarchical tuning process of PID controllers located within the control loop of a class of nonlinear systems. The results are compared with PID controllers implemented either in a stand alone scheme or as a part of conventional gain scheduling structure. This work is motivated by the increasing need in the industry to design highly reliable and efficient controllers for dealing with regulation and tracking capabilities of complex processes characterized by nonlinearities and possibly time varying parameters. The soft computing-based controllers proposed are hybrid in nature in that they integrate within a well-defined hierarchical structure the benefits of hard algorithmic controllers with those having supervisory capabilities. The controllers proposed also have the distinct features of learning and auto-tuning without the need for tedious and computationally extensive online systems identification schemes.

  6. Bayesian networks modeling for thermal error of numerical control machine tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-hua YAO; Jian-zhong FU; Zi-chen CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The interaction between the heat source location,its intensity,thermal expansion coefficient,the machine system configuration and the running environment creates complex thermal behavior of a machine tool,and also makes thermal error prediction difficult.To address this issue,a novel prediction method for machine tool thermal error based on Bayesian networks (BNs) was presented.The method described causal relationships of factors inducing thermal deformation by graph theory and estimated the thermal error by Bayesian statistical techniques.Due to the effective combination of domain knowledge and sampled data,the BN method could adapt to the change of running state of machine,and obtain satisfactory prediction accuracy.Ex-periments on spindle thermal deformation were conducted to evaluate the modeling performance.Experimental results indicate that the BN method performs far better than the least squares(LS)analysis in terms of modeling estimation accuracy.

  7. Defining and Controlling the Heterogeneity of a Cluster: the Wrekavoc Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Canon , Louis-Claude; Dubuisson , Olivier; Gustedt , Jens; Jeannot , Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The experimental validation and the testing of solutions that are designed for heterogeneous environments is challenging. We introduce Wrekavoc as an accurate tool for this purpose: it runs unmodified applications on emulated multisite heterogeneous platforms. Its principal technique consists in downgrading the performance of the platform characteristics in a prescribed way. The platform characteristics include the compute nodes themselves (CPU and memory) and the inte...

  8. Strategies for Controlling Plug Loads. A Tool for Reducing Plug Loads in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bonnema, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheppy, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Plug loads are often not considered as part of the energy savings measures in Commercial Buildings; however, they can account for up to 50% of the energy used in the building. These loads are numerous and often scattered throughout a building. Some of these loads are purchased by the owner and some designed into the building or the tenant finishes for a space. This document provides a strategy and a tool for minimizing these loads.

  9. A randomised controlled study of standard versus accelerated deflation of the Terumo radial band haemostasis device after transradial diagnostic cardiac catheterisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deuling, J. Han; Vermeulen, Robert P.; van den Heuvel, A. F. M.; Schurer, Remco A. J.; van der Harst, Pim

    2017-01-01

    Background: Radial access is the preferential access route in patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography. We hypothesised that we could reduce hospital stay and improve patient comfort by accelerated deflation of the radial compression device (Terumo radial band). Aims: The aim of this

  10. Wide Band to ''Double Band'' upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, P.; Currier, R.; Garbincius, P.; Butler, J.

    1988-06-01

    The Wide Band beam currently uses electrons obtained from secondary photon conversions to produce the photon beam incident on the experimental targets. By transporting the positrons produced in these conversions as well as the electrons it is possible to almost double the number of photons delivered to the experiments per primary beam proton. 11 figs

  11. A randomised controlled study of standard versus accelerated deflation of the Terumo radial band haemostasis device after transradial diagnostic cardiac catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuling, J Han; Vermeulen, Robert P; van den Heuvel, Ad Fm; Schurer, Remco Aj; van der Harst, Pim

    2017-04-01

    Radial access is the preferential access route in patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography. We hypothesised that we could reduce hospital stay and improve patient comfort by accelerated deflation of the radial compression device (Terumo radial band). The aim of this study was to compare accelerated pressure reduction with a standard Terumo radial band protocol with regard to local bleeding complications and reported pain scores after cardiac catheterisation. We performed a single centre prospective randomised trial to compare accelerated care to standard care for patients undergoing diagnostic catheterisation through radial access. Patients in the accelerated care group started deflation after 1 hour, with a 2 ml/10-minute interval. Patients in the standard care group started after 2 hours with additional steps of deflation at 3 and 4 hours. Of the 173 analysed patients 86 received accelerated care and 87 patients standard care. A total of 19 patients had pulsatile bleeding, which occurred similarly in the two groups (standard care 11 vs. accelerated care 8, P=0.47). The time to Terumo radial band removal was on average 129 minutes shorter for accelerated care patients compared to standard care ( P<0.01). At 1 hour after Terumo radial band placement, accelerated care patients more often reported pain scores of 0 than standard care patients (89% vs. 74%, P=0.02). There was no increase in local bleedings in the accelerated pressure reduction of the Terumo radial band after diagnostic cardiac catheterisation, increasing patient comfort and reducing hospital stay. These findings will further facilitate the widespread implementation of radial access.

  12. NERI PROJECT 99-119. TASK 1. ADVANCED CONTROL TOOLS AND METHODS. FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March-Leuba, J.A.

    2002-09-09

    Nuclear plants of the 21st century will employ higher levels of automation and fault tolerance to increase availability, reduce accident risk, and lower operating costs. Key developments in control algorithms, fault diagnostics, fault tolerance, and communication in a distributed system are needed to implement the fully automated plant. Equally challenging will be integrating developments in separate information and control fields into a cohesive system, which collectively achieves the overall goals of improved performance, safety, reliability, maintainability, and cost-effectiveness. Under the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI), the U. S. Department of Energy is sponsoring a project to address some of the technical issues involved in meeting the long-range goal of 21st century reactor control systems. This project, ''A New Paradigm for Automated Development Of Highly Reliable Control Architectures For Future Nuclear Plants,'' involves researchers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Tennessee, and North Carolina State University. This paper documents a research effort to develop methods for automated generation of control systems that can be traced directly to the design requirements. Our final goal is to allow the designer to specify only high-level requirements and stress factors that the control system must survive (e.g. a list of transients, or a requirement to withstand a single failure.) To this end, the ''control engine'' automatically selects and validates control algorithms and parameters that are optimized to the current state of the plant, and that have been tested under the prescribed stress factors. The control engine then automatically generates the control software from validated algorithms. Examples of stress factors that the control system must ''survive'' are: transient events (e.g., set-point changes, or expected occurrences such a load rejection,) and postulated

  13. A novel optical tool for controlling and probing ultrafast surface dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yudong

    2017-12-01

    laser pulse spectrum is then broadened via self-phase modulation by means of propagation through a gas-filled hollow-core fiber. The output pulses, spectrally broadened and temporally stretched, are recompressed with double-chirped mirrors. The compressed few-cycle pulses are characterized with SHG-FROG. The pulse characterization difficulties due to the broad bandwidth associated with few-cycle pulses have been tackled by exploiting the FROG trace frequency marginal correction. The pulse duration is measured to be 5.3 fs. The few-cycle pulses are then used for HHG in the attosecond pulse generation setup. The generated XUV pulses are characterized with an XUV spectrometer, which is equipped with varied line space gratings and an XUV CCD camera as detector. An XUV continuum, indicating the generation of isolated attosecond pulses, has been obtained with the attosecond pulse generation setup via double optical gating. The XUV continuum supports pulse durations shorter than 300 as. Meanwhile, obvious CEP effects on the XUV continuum strongly support the generation of isolated attosecond pulses. Full characterization of the attosecond pulses requires measurement of a photoelectron energy spectrogram in the presence of both the streaking IR and XUV fields. The XUV beam is focused by a gold coated toroidal mirror with grazing incidence. The delay between the XUV pulses and the IR pulses is controlled by varying the difference between the arm lengths of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A FROG-CRAB photoelectron spectrogram, which is used for attosecond pulse characterization, has been measured. The highly demanding interferometric stability for attosecond streaking experiments is achieved passively thanks to an elaborate vibration decoupling design of our vacuum system. In contrast to the broad bandwidth of the XUV continuum required for generating attosecond pulses, narrow bandwidth XUV sources with tunability are important for photoelectron spectroscopy experiments requiring

  14. A novel optical tool for controlling and probing ultrafast surface dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yudong

    2017-12-15

    laser pulse spectrum is then broadened via self-phase modulation by means of propagation through a gas-filled hollow-core fiber. The output pulses, spectrally broadened and temporally stretched, are recompressed with double-chirped mirrors. The compressed few-cycle pulses are characterized with SHG-FROG. The pulse characterization difficulties due to the broad bandwidth associated with few-cycle pulses have been tackled by exploiting the FROG trace frequency marginal correction. The pulse duration is measured to be 5.3 fs. The few-cycle pulses are then used for HHG in the attosecond pulse generation setup. The generated XUV pulses are characterized with an XUV spectrometer, which is equipped with varied line space gratings and an XUV CCD camera as detector. An XUV continuum, indicating the generation of isolated attosecond pulses, has been obtained with the attosecond pulse generation setup via double optical gating. The XUV continuum supports pulse durations shorter than 300 as. Meanwhile, obvious CEP effects on the XUV continuum strongly support the generation of isolated attosecond pulses. Full characterization of the attosecond pulses requires measurement of a photoelectron energy spectrogram in the presence of both the streaking IR and XUV fields. The XUV beam is focused by a gold coated toroidal mirror with grazing incidence. The delay between the XUV pulses and the IR pulses is controlled by varying the difference between the arm lengths of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A FROG-CRAB photoelectron spectrogram, which is used for attosecond pulse characterization, has been measured. The highly demanding interferometric stability for attosecond streaking experiments is achieved passively thanks to an elaborate vibration decoupling design of our vacuum system. In contrast to the broad bandwidth of the XUV continuum required for generating attosecond pulses, narrow bandwidth XUV sources with tunability are important for photoelectron spectroscopy experiments requiring

  15. Tools Beyond Control: Social Media and the Work of Advocacy Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Hestres

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Advocacy organizations rely on social media services, such as Facebook and Twitter, to engage their supporters. These services increasingly influence how citizens and advocacy organizations engage politically online through the technical features and policies they choose to implement—a phenomenon that can sometimes disrupt the work of advocates. Interviews with digital strategists at several US advocacy organizations revealed low levels of awareness of this phenomenon, despite its potential impact on their work; substantial dependence on these services for advocacy work; and a shared sense of necessity to embrace these tools, despite their potential downsides. Implications for the scholarship and practice of Internet governance and digitally mediated advocacy are discussed.

  16. ATR-FTIR as a potential tool for controlling high quality vinegar categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ríos-Reina, Rocío; Callejón, Raquel M.; Oliver-Pozo, Celia

    2017-01-01

    potential as a rapid, cost-effective and non-destructive tool for characterizing different categories of high-quality vinegars. Spectra from 67 wine vinegars belonging to the PDOs “Vinagre de Jerez” and “Vinagre Condado de Huelva”, including their different established categories, were analyzed in the 4000......–600 cm−1 infrared region. Changes associated to categories were observed in the region 1800–900 cm−1. These changes were assigned to certain compounds that increase during aging (e.g. acetic acids, alcohols, esters) or are characteristic of Pedro Ximenez category (e.g. sugars, furfural). Principal...

  17. The Effects of Double Oscillation Exercise Combined with Elastic Band Exercise on Scapular Stabilizing Muscle Strength and Thickness in Healthy Young Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Cho, Kyeongbong Lee, Minkyu Kim, Joohee Hahn, Wanhee Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of double oscillation exercise combined with elastic band exercise on the strength and thickness ratio of the scapular stabilizing muscles in healthy young individuals. A total of 30 subjects (17 male, 13 female were randomly assigned to an elastic band exercise group (EBG (n = 15 or an elastic band plus double oscillation exercise group (EB-DOG (n = 15. A total of 28 subjects completed the experiment and evaluation. Patients in the EBG performed the elastic band exercise for shoulder flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, horizontal abduction/adduction, and internal/external rotation for 30 minutes/session, five times/week, for four weeks. Patients in the EB-DOG performed the elastic band exercise for 15 minutes and the double oscillation exercise in three planes of motion (frontal, sagittal, and transverse, using a Bodyblade® for 15 minutes/session, five times/week, for four weeks. Shoulder muscle strength was assessed using a manual muscle test device during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC, while the thicknesses of the scapular stabilizing muscles were assessed using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging both at rest and during MVIC. Both groups had significant effects on shoulder muscle strength, however, there was no significant difference between the two groups for change value of shoulder muscle strength (Bonferroni correction p < 0.005. Significant differences were observed in the group × time interactions for horizontal abduction, external rotation, and protraction. There was a statistically significant improvement in thickness ratio of LT and SA in the EB-DOG and no significant difference was founded in EBG (Bonferroni correction p < 0.006. In comparison between the two groups, EB-DOG showed a significant change in the thickness ratio of LT compared to EBG. In addition, significant differences were observed for the group × time interactions for the thickness ratio of the LT (F

  18. Temperature-controlled micro-TLC: a versatile green chemistry and fast analytical tool for separation and preliminary screening of steroids fraction from biological and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Slączka, Magdalena M; Zarzycka, Magdalena B; Bartoszuk, Małgorzata A; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Baran, Michał J

    2011-11-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous research focusing on development of micro-TLC methodology under temperature-controlled conditions. The main goal of present paper is to demonstrate separation and detection capability of micro-TLC technique involving simple analytical protocols without multi-steps sample pre-purification. One of the advantages of planar chromatography over its column counterpart is that each TLC run can be performed using non-previously used stationary phase. Therefore, it is possible to fractionate or separate complex samples characterized by heavy biological matrix loading. In present studies components of interest, mainly steroids, were isolated from biological samples like fish bile using single pre-treatment steps involving direct organic liquid extraction and/or deproteinization by freeze-drying method. Low-molecular mass compounds with polarity ranging from estetrol to progesterone derived from the environmental samples (lake water, untreated and treated sewage waters) were concentrated using optimized solid-phase extraction (SPE). Specific bands patterns for samples derived from surface water of the Middle Pomerania in northern part of Poland can be easily observed on obtained micro-TLC chromatograms. This approach can be useful as simple and non-expensive complementary method for fast control and screening of treated sewage water discharged by the municipal wastewater treatment plants. Moreover, our experimental results show the potential of micro-TLC as an efficient tool for retention measurements of a wide range of steroids under reversed-phase (RP) chromatographic conditions. These data can be used for further optimalization of SPE or HPLC systems working under RP conditions. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that micro-TLC based analytical approach can be applied as an effective method for the internal standard (IS) substance search. Generally, described methodology can be applied for fast fractionation or screening of the

  19. Infection control education: how to make an impact--tools for the job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, Mark

    2007-06-01

    Infection control education is difficult and time consuming, but there is persuasive evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness. When Infection Control practitioners are educating and influencing healthcare workers, compliance with the well-established guidance on implementation of health service research is advisable, and thus educative efforts must be repeated and administered as part of a concerted and multifaceted approach. Infection Control education must be specifically designed for and targeted at the groups of staff concerned, and medical staff pose especial problems. Recruitment of clinical champions from peer groups, and direct approaches from medical members of the Infection Control team are usually needed. Familiarity with only a limited range of published evidence is needed to answer the majority of clinicians who challenge Infection Control practices, and referral to higher medical and managerial authority is required very infrequently and as a last resort. Some recent initiatives in the NHS in England may make Infection Control education more difficult, and these are reviewed. New sanctions have been made available to hospitals and Infection control teams in the UK with the passing of the Health Act in 2006, and the effects of these allied to educative interventions on benchmarks such as hospitals' MRSA bacteraemia rates will be observed with interest.

  20. Megasite Management Tool (mmt): a Decision Support System Built Using Mapwindow Activex Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsani, B. R.

    2017-11-01

    Megasite Management Tool (MMT) is planning and evaluation software for contaminated sites. Using different statistical modules, MMT produces maps which help decision makers in rehabilitating contaminated sites. The input data used by MMT is of geographic nature and exists as shapefile and raster format. As MMT is built using simple windows forms application, the objective of the study was to find a way to visualize geographic data and to allow the user to edit its attribute information. Therefore, the application requirement was to find GIS libraries which offer capabilities such as (1) map viewer with navigation tools (2) library to read/write geographic data and (3) software which allows free distribution of the developed components. A research on these requirements led to the discovery of MapWindow ActiveX components which not only offered these capabilities but also provided free and open source licensing options for redistribution. Although considerable amount of reports and publications exist on MMT, the major contribution provided by MapWindow libraries have been under played. The current study emphasises upon the contribution and advantages MapWindow ActiveX provides for incorporating GIS functionality to an already existing application. Similar components for other languages have also been reviewed.

  1. Self-powered remotely controlled machines and tools for safety improvement in mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzaeva, G. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    This paper addresses the problem of meeting the safety requirements of mining industry for implementation of control and monitoring equipment without external wiring. Local power generation and accumulation combined with remote control and wireless data transmission are suggested as an appropriate way to make the implementation of such device safe and convenient, which in its turn would facilitate their wider application for automation and safety improvement. A rope shovel dipper trip system is discussed in detail as an example of a self-powered remotely-controlled system. Other possible applications of the concept are also identified, such as Armoured Face Conveyor (AFC) and water jet drilling operation monitoring. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Insitu measurement and control of processing properties of composite resins in a production tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranbuehl, D.; Hoff, M.; Haverty, P.; Loos, A.; Freeman, T.

    1988-01-01

    An in situ measuring technique for use in automated composite processing and quality control is discussed. Frequency dependent electromagnetic sensors are used to measure processing parameters at four ply positions inside a thick section 192-ply graphite-epoxy composite during cure in an 8 x 4 in. autoclave. Viscosity measurements obtained using the sensors are compared with the viscosities calculated using the Loos-Springer cure process model. Good overall agreement is obtained. In a subsequent autoclave run, the output from the four sensors was used to control the autoclave temperature. Using the 'closed loop' sensor controlled autoclave temperature resulted in a more uniform and more rapid cure cycle.

  3. DevLore - A Firmware Library and Web-Based Configuration Control Tool for Accelerator Systems Under Constant Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard Evans; Kevin Jordan; Deborah Gruber; Daniel Sexton

    2005-01-01

    The Free Electron Laser Project at Jefferson Lab is based on a comparatively small accelerator driver. As it's systems continues to grow and evolve, strict configuration control has not been a programmatic goal. Conversely, as the IR-Demo FEL and the 10kW IR FEL have been built and operated, hardware and software changes have been regular part of the machine development process. With relatively small component counts for sub-systems, changes occur without requiring much formal documentation and in-situ alterations are common-place in the name of supporting operations. This paper presents an overview of the web-based software tool called DevLore which was first developed to be a library for embedded programming and then became a tremendously effective tool for tracking all changes made to the machine hardware and software

  4. A Life-Cycle Cost Estimating Methodology for NASA-Developed Air Traffic Control Decision Support Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianzhong Jay; Datta, Koushik; Landis, Michael R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a life-cycle cost (LCC) estimating methodology for air traffic control Decision Support Tools (DSTs) under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), using a combination of parametric, analogy, and expert opinion methods. There is no one standard methodology and technique that is used by NASA or by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for LCC estimation of prospective Decision Support Tools. Some of the frequently used methodologies include bottom-up, analogy, top-down, parametric, expert judgement, and Parkinson's Law. The developed LCC estimating methodology can be visualized as a three-dimensional matrix where the three axes represent coverage, estimation, and timing. This paper focuses on the three characteristics of this methodology that correspond to the three axes.

  5. Multimedia educational tools for cognitive surgical skill acquisition in open and laparoscopic colorectal surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, U; Kullar, N; Haray, P N; Dorudi, S; Balasubramanian, S P

    2015-05-01

    Conventional teaching in surgical training programmes is constrained by time and cost, and has room for improvement. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a multimedia educational tool developed for an index colorectal surgical procedure (anterior resection) in teaching and assessment of cognitive skills and to evaluate its acceptability amongst general surgical trainees. Multimedia educational tools in open and laparoscopic anterior resection were developed by filming multiple operations which were edited into procedural steps and substeps and then integrated onto interactive navigational platforms using Adobe® Flash® Professional CS5 10.1. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on general surgical trainees to evaluate the effectiveness of online multimedia in comparison with conventional 'study day' teaching for the acquisition of cognitive skills. All trainees were assessed before and after the study period. Trainees in the multimedia group evaluated the tools by completing a survey. Fifty-nine trainees were randomized but 27% dropped out, leaving 43 trainees randomized to the multimedia group (n = 25) and study day group (n = 18) who were available for analysis. Posttest scores improved significantly in both groups (P multimedia group was not significantly different from the study day group (6.02 ± 5.12 and 5.31 ± 3.42, respectively; P = 0.61). Twenty-five trainees completed the evaluation survey and experienced an improvement in their decision making (67%) and in factual and anatomical knowledge (88%); 96% agreed that the multimedia tool was a useful additional educational resource. Multimedia tools are effective for the acquisition of cognitive skills in colorectal surgery and are well accepted as an educational resource. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. Human factors phase IV : risk analysis tool for new train control technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This report covers the theoretical development of the safety state model for railroad operations. Using data from a train control technology experiment, experimental application of the model is demonstrated. A stochastic model of system behavior is d...

  7. High Performance Flow Analysis and Control Tools for Aerial Vehicles, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the project is to develop an open architecture, computer aided analysis and control design toolbox for distributed parameter systems, in particular,...

  8. High Performance Flow Analysis and Control Tools for Aerial Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the project is the design and development of an open architecture, computer aided control design toolbox for distributed parameter systems, in...

  9. Development of Design Tools for the Optimization of Biologically Based Control Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — I plan to develop software that aids in the design of biomimetic control systems by optimizing the properties of the system in order to produce the desired output....

  10. Bifurcation Tools for Flight Dynamics Analysis and Control System Design, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the project is the development of a computational package for bifurcation analysis and advanced flight control of aircraft. The development of...

  11. Tools for Trustworthy Autonomy: Robust Predictions, Intuitive Control, and Optimized Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Driggs Campbell, Katherine Rose

    2017-01-01

    In the near future, robotics will impact nearly every aspect of life. Yet for technology to smoothly integrate into society, we need interactive systems to be well modeled and predictable; have robust decision making and control; and be trustworthy to improve cooperation and interaction. To achieve these goals, we propose taking a human-centered approach to ease the transition into human-dominated fields. In this work, our modeling methods and control schemes are validated through user stu...

  12. Virtual reality technology as a tool for human factors requirements evaluation in design of the nuclear reactors control desks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Silva, Antonio C.F.; Ferreira, Francisco J.O.; Dutra, Marco A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Virtual Reality (VR) is an advanced computer interface technology that allows the user to internet or to explore a three-dimensional environment through the computer, as was part of the virtual world. This technology presents great applicability in the most diverse areas of the human knowledge. This paper presents a study on the use of the VR as tool for human factors requirements evaluation in design of the nuclear reactors control desks. Moreover, this paper presents a case study: a virtual model of the control desk, developed using virtual reality technology to be used in the human factors requirements evaluation. This case study was developed in the Virtual Reality Laboratory at IEN, and understands the stereo visualization of the Argonauta research nuclear reactor control desk for a static ergonomic evaluation using check-lists, in accordance to the standards and human factors nuclear international guides (IEC 1771, NUREG-0700). (author)

  13. Virtual reality technology as a tool for human factors requirements evaluation in design of the nuclear reactors control desks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Silva, Antonio C.F.; Ferreira, Francisco J.O.; Dutra, Marco A.M. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: grecco@ien.gov.br; luquetti@ien.gov.br; mol@ien.gov.br; paulov@ien.gov.br; tonico@ien.gov.br; fferreira@ien.gov.br; dutra@ien.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The Virtual Reality (VR) is an advanced computer interface technology that allows the user to internet or to explore a three-dimensional environment through the computer, as was part of the virtual world. This technology presents great applicability in the most diverse areas of the human knowledge. This paper presents a study on the use of the VR as tool for human factors requirements evaluation in design of the nuclear reactors control desks. Moreover, this paper presents a case study: a virtual model of the control desk, developed using virtual reality technology to be used in the human factors requirements evaluation. This case study was developed in the Virtual Reality Laboratory at IEN, and understands the stereo visualization of the Argonauta research nuclear reactor control desk for a static ergonomic evaluation using check-lists, in accordance to the standards and human factors nuclear international guides (IEC 1771, NUREG-0700). (author)

  14. Open Source Tools for Temporally Controlled Rodent Behavior Suitable for Electrophysiology and Optogenetic Manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Solari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the brain controls behavior requires observing and manipulating neural activity in awake behaving animals. Neuronal firing is timed at millisecond precision. Therefore, to decipher temporal coding, it is necessary to monitor and control animal behavior at the same level of temporal accuracy. However, it is technically challenging to deliver sensory stimuli and reinforcers as well as to read the behavioral responses they elicit with millisecond precision. Presently available commercial systems often excel in specific aspects of behavior control, but they do not provide a customizable environment allowing flexible experimental design while maintaining high standards for temporal control necessary for interpreting neuronal activity. Moreover, delay measurements of stimulus and reinforcement delivery are largely unavailable. We combined microcontroller-based behavior control with a sound delivery system for playing complex acoustic stimuli, fast solenoid valves for precisely timed reinforcement delivery and a custom-built sound attenuated chamber using high-end industrial insulation materials. Together this setup provides a physical environment to train head-fixed animals, enables calibrated sound stimuli and precisely timed fluid and air puff presentation as reinforcers. We provide latency measurements for stimulus and reinforcement delivery and an algorithm to perform such measurements on other behavior control systems. Combined with electrophysiology and optogenetic manipulations, the millisecond timing accuracy will help interpret temporally precise neural signals and behavioral changes. Additionally, since software and hardware provided here can be readily customized to achieve a large variety of paradigms, these solutions enable an unusually flexible design of rodent behavioral experiments.

  15. Open Source Tools for Temporally Controlled Rodent Behavior Suitable for Electrophysiology and Optogenetic Manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Nicola; Sviatkó, Katalin; Laszlovszky, Tamás; Hegedüs, Panna; Hangya, Balázs

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how the brain controls behavior requires observing and manipulating neural activity in awake behaving animals. Neuronal firing is timed at millisecond precision. Therefore, to decipher temporal coding, it is necessary to monitor and control animal behavior at the same level of temporal accuracy. However, it is technically challenging to deliver sensory stimuli and reinforcers as well as to read the behavioral responses they elicit with millisecond precision. Presently available commercial systems often excel in specific aspects of behavior control, but they do not provide a customizable environment allowing flexible experimental design while maintaining high standards for temporal control necessary for interpreting neuronal activity. Moreover, delay measurements of stimulus and reinforcement delivery are largely unavailable. We combined microcontroller-based behavior control with a sound delivery system for playing complex acoustic stimuli, fast solenoid valves for precisely timed reinforcement delivery and a custom-built sound attenuated chamber using high-end industrial insulation materials. Together this setup provides a physical environment to train head-fixed animals, enables calibrated sound stimuli and precisely timed fluid and air puff presentation as reinforcers. We provide latency measurements for stimulus and reinforcement delivery and an algorithm to perform such measurements on other behavior control systems. Combined with electrophysiology and optogenetic manipulations, the millisecond timing accuracy will help interpret temporally precise neural signals and behavioral changes. Additionally, since software and hardware provided here can be readily customized to achieve a large variety of paradigms, these solutions enable an unusually flexible design of rodent behavioral experiments.

  16. A virtual control panel configuration tool for the X-Window system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.O.; Dalesio, L.R.; Kerstiens, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    Computer Graphics Workstations are becoming increasingly popular for use as virtual process control and read back panels. The workstation's CRT, keyboard, and pointing device are used in concert to produce a display that is in essence a control panel, even if actual switches and gauges are not present. The code behind these displays is most often specific to one display and not reusable for any other display. Recently, programs have been written allowing many of these virtual control panel displays to be configured without writing additional code. This approach allows the initial programming effort to be reapplied to many different display instances with minimal effort. These programs often incorporate many of the features of a graphics editor, allowing a pictorial model of the process under control to be incorporated into the control panel. We have just finished writing a second generation software system of this type for use with the X-window system and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). This paper describes the primary features of our software, the framework of our design, and our observations after initial installation. (author)

  17. Control of solid tobacco emissions in industrial fact ories applying CDF tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Polanco

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The emission of light solid aromatic particles from any tobacco industry affects the surrounding inhabitants, commonly causing allergies and eye irritation and, of course, uncomfortable odours, therefore, these emissions to the air must be regulated. An increasing in production must be considered in the sizing of mechanisms used to achieve the precipitation and final filtration, before discharging to the atmosphere. A numerical tool was applied to study the internal behaviour of low velocity precipitation tunnel and discharge chimney of the refuses treatment system. The characterization of the two-phase flow streamlines allows determining the velocity gradient profiles across the whole tunnel; which is intimately related with the particle concentration, and deposition zones locations. The application of CFD techniques gives the bases to find new design parameters to improve the precipitation tunnel behaviour capability to manage the increment of the mass flow of particles, due to changes in mass cigarette production.

  18. Simple decision tools to help optimize the control strategy 2 weeks into a Danish FMD epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette

    2012-01-01

    The choice of whether or not to apply emergency vaccination is one of the most difficult decisions facing the authorities when foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) breaks out in a free country (Barnett et al. 2002). A simple quantitative tool has been proposed using the first 14-days incidence (FFI...... detected after day 14, the epidemic duration after day 14 and the size of the affected region at the end of the epidemic. Statistically significant positive correlations were found in all regression analyses of the data. There was, however, a high degree of variation (Fig. 1), which is to be expected...... to estimate predictive values by applying selected cut-off- values for both the dependent and the independent variables (Table 1). Emergency vaccination should be considered during an outbreak if the predicted cumulative size, duration or cost of the epidemic appears alarming (EU 2003, Kitching et al. 2005...

  19. Development of an Automated Decision-Making Tool for Supervisory Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Muhlheim, Michael David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Flanagan, George F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This technical report was generated as a product of the Supervisory Control for Multi-Modular Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Plants project within the Instrumentation, Control and Human-Machine Interface technology area under the Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) Research and Development Program of the US Department of Energy. The report documents the definition of strategies, functional elements, and the structural architecture of a supervisory control system for multi-modular AdvSMR plants. This research activity advances the state of the art by incorporating real-time, probabilistic-based decision-making into the supervisory control system architectural layers through the introduction of a tiered-plant system approach. The report provides background information on the state of the art of automated decision-making, including the description of existing methodologies. It then presents a description of a generalized decision-making framework, upon which the supervisory control decision-making algorithm is based. The probabilistic portion of automated decision-making is demonstrated through a simple hydraulic loop example.

  20. SWITCH: a dynamic CRISPR tool for genome engineering and metabolic pathway control for cell factory construction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Katherina García; Lehka, Beata Joanna; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2017-02-08

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is increasingly used as a cell factory. However, cell factory construction time is a major obstacle towards using yeast for bio-production. Hence, tools to speed up cell factory construction are desirable. In this study, we have developed a new Cas9/dCas9 based system, SWITCH, which allows Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to iteratively alternate between a genetic engineering state and a pathway control state. Since Cas9 induced recombination events are crucial for SWITCH efficiency, we first developed a technique TAPE, which we have successfully used to address protospacer efficiency. As proof of concept of the use of SWITCH in cell factory construction, we have exploited the genetic engineering state of a SWITCH strain to insert the five genes necessary for naringenin production. Next, the naringenin cell factory was switched to the pathway control state where production was optimized by downregulating an essential gene TSC13, hence, reducing formation of a byproduct. We have successfully integrated two CRISPR tools, one for genetic engineering and one for pathway control, into one system and successfully used it for cell factory construction.

  1. Graph theoretical stable allocation as a tool for reproduction of control by human operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nooijen, Ronald; Ertsen, Maurits; Kolechkina, Alla

    2016-04-01

    During the design of central control algorithms for existing water resource systems under manual control it is important to consider the interaction with parts of the system that remain under manual control and to compare the proposed new system with the existing manual methods. In graph theory the "stable allocation" problem has good solution algorithms and allows for formulation of flow distribution problems in terms of priorities. As a test case for the use of this approach we used the algorithm to derive water allocation rules for the Gezira Scheme, an irrigation system located between the Blue and White Niles south of Khartoum. In 1925, Gezira started with 300,000 acres; currently it covers close to two million acres.

  2. Ventilation systems as an effective tool for control of radon daughter concentration in mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1981-10-01

    Introduced with a brief discussion of the key role of ventilation in controlling mine atmospheres, the effects of the design of the ventilation system on the control of radon daughter concentrations are illustrated with specific reference to Alcan's Director Mine, St-Lawrence, Nfld. (This fluorspar mine was found to have high radon concentrations due to mine water bringing in dissolved radon.) After a discussion of the health physics history of the mine, the various phases of the ventilation system design and the general results are detailed. The author draws some conclusions having general application to the design of any mine with a radon or thoron daughter concentration. These include minimizing the 'age' of the air; the need for continuous ventilation in all areas; the value of remote control and monitoring; and the benefits of mine pressurization

  3. A program development tool for KEK VME-MAP control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, H.; Katoh, T.; Kadokura, E.; Akiyama, A.; Nigorikawa, K.; Ishii, K.

    1992-01-01

    The control system for KEK 12 GeV Proton Synchrotron has been replaced with a distributed VME-bus based microcomputer system and a MAP local area network. In order to simplify programming for network application tasks, a set of a preprocessor for a PASCAL compiler and a network communication server has been developed. Application programs for accelerator control system have blocks with similar codes; sending, waiting for, receiving, analyzing messages, etc. The preprocessor called 'OBJP' incorporates such common codes into the source code written by an application programmer. In case of a simple program, the size of the source code is reduced by one tenth of a full coding. (author)

  4. Band parameters of phosphorene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew Yan Voon, L C; Wang, J; Zhang, Y; Willatzen, M

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with a direct band-gap at the Brillouin zone center. In this paper, we present a recently derived effective-mass theory of the band structure in the presence of strain and electric field, based upon group theory. Band parameters for this theory are computed using a first-principles theory based upon the generalized-gradient approximation to the density-functional theory. These parameters and Hamiltonian will be useful for modeling physical properties of phosphorene. (paper)

  5. Infrared diffuse interstellar bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galazutdinov, G. A.; Lee, Jae-Joon; Han, Inwoo; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Valyavin, G.; Krełowski, J.

    2017-05-01

    We present high-resolution (R ˜ 45 000) profiles of 14 diffuse interstellar bands in the ˜1.45 to ˜2.45 μm range based on spectra obtained with the Immersion Grating INfrared Spectrograph at the McDonald Observatory. The revised list of diffuse bands with accurately estimated rest wavelengths includes six new features. The diffuse band at 15 268.2 Å demonstrates a very symmetric profile shape and thus can serve as a reference for finding the 'interstellar correction' to the rest wavelength frame in the H range, which suffers from a lack of known atomic/molecular lines.

  6. Band parameters of phosphorene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with a direct band-gap at the Brillouin zone center. In this paper, we present a recently derived effective-mass theory of the band structure in the presence of strain and electric field, based upon group theory. Band parameters for this theory...... are computed using a first-principles theory based upon the generalized-gradient approximation to the density-functional theory. These parameters and Hamiltonian will be useful for modeling physical properties of phosphorene....

  7. Applied acoustics concepts, absorbers, and silencers for acoustical comfort and noise control alternative solutions, innovative tools, practical examples

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Helmut V

    2013-01-01

    The author gives a comprehensive overview of materials and components for noise control and acoustical comfort. Sound absorbers must meet acoustical and architectural requirements, which fibrous or porous material alone can meet. Basics and applications are demonstrated, with representative examples for spatial acoustics, free-field test facilities and canal linings. Acoustic engineers and construction professionals will find some new basic concepts and tools for developments in order to improve acoustical comfort. Interference absorbers, active resonators and micro-perforated absorbers of different materials and designs complete the list of applications.

  8. Data-driven modeling, control and tools for cyber-physical energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Madhur

    Energy systems are experiencing a gradual but substantial change in moving away from being non-interactive and manually-controlled systems to utilizing tight integration of both cyber (computation, communications, and control) and physical representations guided by first principles based models, at all scales and levels. Furthermore, peak power reduction programs like demand response (DR) are becoming increasingly important as the volatility on the grid continues to increase due to regulation, integration of renewables and extreme weather conditions. In order to shield themselves from the risk of price volatility, end-user electricity consumers must monitor electricity prices and be flexible in the ways they choose to use electricity. This requires the use of control-oriented predictive models of an energy system's dynamics and energy consumption. Such models are needed for understanding and improving the overall energy efficiency and operating costs. However, learning dynamical models using grey/white box approaches is very cost and time prohibitive since it often requires significant financial investments in retrofitting the system with several sensors and hiring domain experts for building the model. We present the use of data-driven methods for making model capture easy and efficient for cyber-physical energy systems. We develop Model-IQ, a methodology for analysis of uncertainty propagation for building inverse modeling and controls. Given a grey-box model structure and real input data from a temporary set of sensors, Model-IQ evaluates the effect of the uncertainty propagation from sensor data to model accuracy and to closed-loop control performance. We also developed a statistical method to quantify the bias in the sensor measurement and to determine near optimal sensor placement and density for accurate data collection for model training and control. Using a real building test-bed, we show how performing an uncertainty analysis can reveal trends about

  9. Partial coalescence as a tool to control sensory perception of emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjamins, J.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Zoet, F.D.; Hoog, de E.H.A.; Aken, van G.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the role of partial coalescence of whey protein-stabilized emulsions on sensory perception. The selection of fats was restricted to vegetable fats that are essentially melted at oral temperatures. The sensitivity to partial coalescence was controlled by a variation in the fat

  10. Odeon, a design tool for auditorium acoustics, noise control and loudspeaker systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge

    2001-01-01

    The ODEON software was originally developed for prediction of auditorium acoustics. However current editions of the software are not limited to these fields, but also allow prediction in rooms such as churches and mosques, interior noise control, design of room acoustics and sound distribution...

  11. Using data envelopment analysis (DEA) as a tool for purchasing control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitar-Pop, C.E.; de Boer, L.

    2000-01-01

    Today we observe an continuing challenge to develop performance measures that evaluate purchasing effectiveness relative to the organization's objectives and to extend conventional measurement systems to an entreprise-wide purchasing control function that detects the 'weak sports' in the purchasing

  12. Ultraprecise parabolic interpolator for numerically controlled machine tools. [Digital differential analyzer circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, C. M.

    1977-02-01

    The mathematical basis for an ultraprecise digital differential analyzer circuit for use as a parabolic interpolator on numerically controlled machines has been established, and scaling and other error-reduction techniques have been developed. An exact computer model is included, along with typical results showing tracking to within an accuracy of one part per million.

  13. In situ controlled crystallization as a tool to improve the dissolution of Glibenclamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkordy, Amal Ali; Jatto, Ayobami; Essa, Ebtessam

    2012-05-30

    For pharmaceutical purpose, micro-sized drugs are needed for many delivery systems, such as pulmonary and oral drug delivery systems. Many strategies have been employed to reduce the particle size of poorly water soluble drugs. Microcrystals could be produced by controlled association of drug in order to obtain naturally grown particles. The aim of this work was to increase the aqueous solubility and dissolution of Glibenclamide. The in situ controlled crystallization process was conducted in the presence of the non-ionic surfactants, Cremophor RH40 and Solutol HS-15 (0.75 and 1.5%, w/v), as protective stabilizing agents against agglomeration. In addition, these surfactants inhibit P-glycoprotein that reduces intestinal absorption of Glibenclamide by efflux transportation. Crystal shape was changed and particle size was reduced by about 15-folds, compared to control untreated drug. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results indicated no interaction between the drug and the stabilizer. Microcrystals showed marked increase in the drug dissolution, Solutol HS-15 at 1.5% (w/v) concentration showing the highest dissolution efficiency. It could be concluded that in situ controlled crystallization using surfactants are promising method to improve dissolution of Glibeclamide as a model poorly water soluble drug. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. QUINT : A tool to detect qualitative treatment-subgroup interactions in randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doove, L.L.; Van Deun, K.; Dusseldorp, E.; van Mechelen, I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The detection of subgroups involved in qualitative treatment–subgroup interactions (i.e., for one subgroup of clients treatment A outperforms treatment B, whereas for another the reverse holds true) is crucial for personalized health. In typical Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), the

  15. HVAC SYSTEMS AS A TOOL IN CONTROLLING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a review of literature on the use of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems to control indoor air quality (IAQ). Although significant progress has been made in reducing the energy consumption of HVAC systems, their effect on indoor a...

  16. A tool for protected area management: multivariate control charts 'cope' with rare variable communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringell, Thomas B; Bamber, Roger N; Burton, Mark; Lindenbaum, Charles; Skates, Lucie R; Sanderson, William G

    2013-06-01

    Performance assessment, impact detection, and the assessment of regulatory compliance are common scientific problems for the management of protected areas. Some habitats in protected areas, however, are rare and/or variable and are not often selected for study by ecologists because they preclude comparison with controls and high community variability makes meaningful change detection difficult. Shallow coastal saline lagoons are habitats that experience comparatively high levels of stress due to high physical variability. Lagoons are rare, declining habitats found in coastal regions throughout Europe (and elsewhere) where they are identified as one of the habitats most in need of protected area management. The infauna in the sediments of 25 lagoons were sampled. Temporal and spatial variation in three of these [protected] lagoons was investigated further over 5 years. In a multivariate analysis of community structure similarities were found between some lagoons, but in other cases communities were unique or specific to only two sites. The protected lagoons with these unique/specific communities showed significant temporal and spatial variation, yet none of the changes observed were attributed to human impacts and were interpreted as inherent variability. Multivariate control charts can operate without experimental controls and were used to assess community changes within the context of 'normal' lagoon variability. The aim of control chart analysis is to characterize background variability in a parameter and identify when a new observation deviates more than expected. In only 1 year was variability more than expected and corresponded with the coldest December in over 100 years. Multivariate control charts are likely to have wide application in the management of protected areas and other natural systems where variability and/or rarity preclude conventional analytical and experimental approaches but where assessments of condition, impact or regulatory compliance are

  17. NORDCAN--a Nordic tool for cancer information, planning, quality control and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engholm, Gerda; Ferlay, Jacques; Christensen, Niels; Bray, Freddie; Gjerstorff, Marianne L; Klint, Asa; Køtlum, Jóanis E; Olafsdóttir, Elínborg; Pukkala, Eero; Storm, Hans H

    2010-06-01

    The NORDCAN database and program ( www.ancr.nu ) include detailed information and results on cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence in each of the Nordic countries over five decades and has lately been supplemented with predictions of cancer incidence and mortality; future extensions include the incorporation of cancer survival estimates. The data originates from the national cancer registries and causes of death registries in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Faroe Islands and is regularly updated. Presently 41 cancer entities are included in the common dataset, and conversions of the original national data according to international rules ensure comparability. With 25 million inhabitants in the Nordic countries, 130 000 incident cancers are reported yearly, alongside nearly 60 000 cancer deaths, with almost a million persons living with a cancer diagnosis. This web-based application is available in English and in each of the five Nordic national languages. It includes comprehensive and easy-to-use descriptive epidemiology tools that provide tabulations and graphs, with further user-specified options available. The NORDCAN database aims to provide comparable and timely data to serve the varying needs of policy makers, cancer societies, the public, and journalists, as well as the clinical and research community.

  18. A decision-support tool for the control of urban noise pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriano, Marcia Thais; de Souza, Léa Cristina Lucas; da Silva, Antonio Nelson Rodrigues

    2015-07-01

    Improving the quality of life is increasingly seen as an important urban planning goal. In order to reach it, various tools are being developed to mitigate the negative impacts of human activities on society. This paper develops a methodology for quantifying the population's exposure to noise, by proposing a classification of urban blocks. Taking into account the vehicular flow and traffic composition of the surroundings of urban blocks, we generated a noise map by applying a computational simulation. The urban blocks were classified according to their noise range and then the population was estimated for each urban block, by a process which was based on the census tract and the constructed area of the blocks. The acoustical classes of urban blocks and the number of inhabitants per block were compared, so that the population exposed to noise levels above 65 dB(A) could be estimated, which is the highest limit established by legislation. As a result, we developed a map of the study area, so that urban blocks that should be priority targets for noise mitigation actions can be quickly identified.

  19. Decreasing patient identification band errors by standardizing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Susan Chu; Berger, Stephanie; Harris, Yolanda; Gallizzi, Gina; Hayes, Leslie

    2013-04-01

    Patient identification (ID) bands are an essential component in patient ID. Quality improvement methodology has been applied as a model to reduce ID band errors although previous studies have not addressed standardization of ID bands. Our specific aim was to decrease ID band errors by 50% in a 12-month period. The Six Sigma DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control) quality improvement model was the framework for this study. ID bands at a tertiary care pediatric hospital were audited from January 2011 to January 2012 with continued audits to June 2012 to confirm the new process was in control. After analysis, the major improvement strategy implemented was standardization of styles of ID bands and labels. Additional interventions included educational initiatives regarding the new ID band processes and disseminating institutional and nursing unit data. A total of 4556 ID bands were audited with a preimprovement ID band error average rate of 9.2%. Significant variation in the ID band process was observed, including styles of ID bands. Interventions were focused on standardization of the ID band and labels. The ID band error rate improved to 5.2% in 9 months (95% confidence interval: 2.5-5.5; P error rates. This decrease in ID band error rates was maintained over the subsequent 8 months.

  20. A Multidisciplinary Intervention Utilizing Virtual Communication Tools to Reduce Health Disparities: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Emerson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in technology are likely to provide new approaches to address healthcare disparities for high-risk populations. This study explores the feasibility of a new approach to health disparities research using a multidisciplinary intervention and advanced communication technology to improve patient access to care and chronic disease management. A high-risk cohort of uninsured, poorly-controlled diabetic patients was identified then randomized pre-consent with stratification by geographic region to receive either the intervention or usual care. Prior to enrollment, participants were screened for readiness to make a behavioral change. The primary outcome was the feasibility of protocol implementation, and secondary outcomes included the use of patient-centered medical home (PCMH services and markers of chronic disease control. The intervention included a standardized needs assessment, individualized care plan, intensive management by a multidisciplinary team, including health coach-facilitated virtual visits, and the use of a cloud-based glucose monitoring system. One-hundred twenty-seven high-risk, potentially eligible participants were randomized. Sixty-one met eligibility criteria after an in-depth review. Due to limited resources and time for the pilot, we only attempted to contact 36 participants. Of these, we successfully reached 20 (32% by phone and conducted a readiness to change screen. Ten participants screened in as ready to change and were enrolled, while the remaining 10 were not ready to change. Eight enrolled participants completed the final three-month follow-up. Intervention feasibility was demonstrated through successful implementation of 13 out of 14 health coach-facilitated virtual visits, and 100% of participants indicated that they would recommend the intervention to a friend. Protocol feasibility was demonstrated as eight of 10 participants completed the entire study protocol. At the end of the three-month intervention

  1. CSF oligoclonal banding - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100145.htm CSF oligoclonal banding - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 5 out of 5 Overview The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serves to supply nutrients to the central nervous ...

  2. Decay of superdeformed bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.

    1995-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the study of superdeformation is to directly connect the large number of superdeformed bands now known to the yrast states. In this way, excitation energies, spins and parities can be assigned to the levels in the second well which is essential to establish the collective and single-particle components of these bands. This paper will review some of the progress which has been made to understand the decay of superdeformed bands using the new arrays including the measurement of the total decay spectrum and the establishment of direct one-step decays from the superdeformed band to the yrast line in 194 Hg. 42 refs., 5 figs

  3. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eat by making you feel full after eating small amounts of food. After surgery, your doctor can adjust the band ... You will feel full after eating just a small amount of food. The food in the small upper pouch will ...

  4. Strategies of Production Control as Tools of Efficient Management of Production Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budynek, Mateusz; Celińska, Elżbieta; Dybikowska, Adrianna; Kozak, Monika; Ratajczak, Joanna; Urban, Jagoda; Materne, Karolina

    2016-03-01

    The paper discusses the problem of principle methods of production control as a strategy supporting the production system and stimulating efficient solutions in respect management in production enterprises. The article describes MRP, ERP, JIT, KANBAN and TOC methods and focuses on their main goals, principles of functioning as well as benefits resulting from their application. The methods represent two diverse strategies of production control, i.e. pull and push strategies. Push strategies are used when the plans apply to the first and principle part of production and are based on the demand forecasts. Pull strategies are used when all planning decisions apply to the final stage and depend on the actual demand or orders from customers.

  5. An Integration Framework Tool for ATCA Chassis in the ATLAS Detector Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Robert Graham

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN is scheduled to undergo a major upgrade in 2022. The ATLAS collaboration will do major modifications to the detector to account for the increased luminosity. More specifically, a large proportion of the current front-end electronics, on the Tile Calorimeter sub-detector, will be upgraded and relocated to the backend. A Demonstrator program has been established as a proof of principle. A new system will be required to house, manage and connect this new hardware. The proposed solution will be an Advanced Telecommunication Computing Architecture (ATCA) which will not only house but also allow advanced management features and control at a hardware level by integrating the ATCA chassis into the Detector Control System. (paper)

  6. STRATEGIES OF PRODUCTION CONTROL AS TOOLS OF EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCTION ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz BUDYNEK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problem of principle methods of production control as a strategy supporting the production system and stimulating efficient solutions in respect management in production enterprises. The article describes MRP, ERP, JIT, KANBAN and TOC methods and focuses on their main goals, principles of functioning as well as benefits re-sulting from their application. The methods represent two diverse strategies of production control, i.e. pull and push strategies. Push strategies are used when the plans apply to the first and principle part of production and are based on the demand forecasts. Pull strategies are used when all planning decisions apply to the final stage and depend on the actual demand or orders from customers.

  7. SYSTEM «PlagiarismControl» AS THE TOOL FOR THE EXPERTISE OF THE TEXT DOCUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. B. Krapivin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The description and the operability analysis of the implemented instrumental software system «PlagiarismControl» has been done. The system affords to automatize solving the task of the identification of the adopted fragments in the given text document both from the local full-text user’s database and from the Internet. The system affords solving the task taking in account explicit as well as implicit adoptions with precision up to lexical units paradigms and both lexical and grammatical synonymy relations, according to the structural-functional schematic diagram of the system of the automatic recognition of reproduced fragments of the text documents. «PlagiarismControl» is able to work in different modes, to automatize the work of the expert and to speed up significantly the procedure of the analysis of the documents, with the purpose of recognition of the adoptions (plagiarism from other text documents.

  8. AHP Expert Programme As A Tool For Unsealed Sources Contamination Control Of The Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, E.T.; Ibrahim, M.S.; Hussein, A.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Unsealed sources of radionuclides are widely used in hot laboratories of medical centers and hospitals which can be easily dispersed and may be taken undue into the body. The presence of radioactive substances inside the human body generates risk of internal intakes of radionuclides and organ's tissue retention. In order to make control for any contamination occurring from unsealed sources, an AHP programme (PC programme) has been developed so that it includes all data of most unsealed sources used in the hot laboratories of nuclear medicine units at hospitals/medical centers. Sequence of questions are retrieved by the programme in relevance to the place address, uses, activity and half life of the unsealed radioisotopes that may cause contamination. The programme will also give information output about the hospital that use the unsealed source and its location which facilitate emergency planning and contamination control to the environment

  9. Statistical tools and control of internal lubricant content of inhalation grade HPMC capsules during manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guillermo; Díez, Fernando; Gassó, María T; Jones, Brian E; Martín-Portugués, Rafael; Ramiro-Aparicio, Juan

    2016-04-30

    The internal lubricant content (ILC) of inhalation grade HPMC capsules is a key factor to ensure good powder release when the patient inhales a medicine from a dry powder inhaler (DPI). Powder release from capsules has been shown to be influenced by the ILC. The characteristics used to measure this are the emitted dose, fine particle fraction and mass median aerodynamic diameter. In addition the ILC level is critical for capsule shell manufacture because it is an essential part of the process that cannot work without it. An experiment has been applied to the manufacture of inhalation capsules with the required ILC. A full factorial model was used to identify the controlling factors and from this a linear model has been proposed to improve control of the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Gate-last TiN/HfO2 band edge effective work functions using low-temperature anneals and selective cladding to control interface composition

    KAUST Repository

    Hinkle, C. L.

    2012-04-09

    Silicon N-metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) and P-metal-oxide-semiconductor (PMOS) band edge effective work functions and the correspondingly low threshold voltages (Vt) are demonstrated using standard fab materials and processes in a gate-last scheme employing low-temperature anneals and selective cladding layers. Al diffusion from the cladding to the TiN/HfO2interface during forming gas anneal together with low O concentration in the TiN enables low NMOS Vt. The use of non-migrating W cladding along with experimentally detected N-induced dipoles, produced by increased oxygen in the TiN, facilitates low PMOS Vt.

  11. Gate-last TiN/HfO2 band edge effective work functions using low-temperature anneals and selective cladding to control interface composition

    KAUST Repository

    Hinkle, C. L.; Galatage, R. V.; Chapman, R. A.; Vogel, E. M.; Alshareef, Husam N.; Freeman, C.; Christensen, M.; Wimmer, E.; Niimi, H.; Li-Fatou, A.; Shaw, J. B.; Chambers, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon N-metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) and P-metal-oxide-semiconductor (PMOS) band edge effective work functions and the correspondingly low threshold voltages (Vt) are demonstrated using standard fab materials and processes in a gate-last scheme employing low-temperature anneals and selective cladding layers. Al diffusion from the cladding to the TiN/HfO2interface during forming gas anneal together with low O concentration in the TiN enables low NMOS Vt. The use of non-migrating W cladding along with experimentally detected N-induced dipoles, produced by increased oxygen in the TiN, facilitates low PMOS Vt.

  12. The application of Inca khipuas an accountability and managerial control tool

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Schmidt; José Luiz dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – This study aims to present the mechanisms of control and accountability used in the Inca society. Design/methodology/approach – For this purpose, a bibliographical and documental analysis regarding the use of khipus in this civilization was carried out, applying a qualitative approach. Findings – The results of the study indicate that the Inca khipu was the main instrument of tax registration and management adopted by the Inca empire. The Khipucamayocs were responsible for t...

  13. Control charts technique - a tool to data analysis for chemical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, M.B.; Venugopal, V.

    1999-01-01

    A procedure using control charts technique has been developed to analyse data of a chemical experiment which was conducted to assign a value to uranium content in Rb 2 U(SO 4 ) 3 . A value of (34.164 ± 0.031)% has been assigned against (34.167 ± 0.042)% already assigned by analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. These values do not differ significantly. Merits and demerits of the two techniques have been discussed. (author)

  14. Electromagnetic compatibility of tools and automated process control systems of NPP units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpeev, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    Problems of electromagnetic compatibility of automated process control subsystems in NPP units are discussed. It is emphasized, that at the stage of development of request for proposal for each APC subsystem special attention should be paid to electromagnetic situation in specific room and requirements to the quality of functions performed by the system. Besides, requirements to electromagnetic compatibility tests at the work stations should be formulated, and mock-ups of the subsystems should be tested

  15. A European Quality Control Programme as a cooperative tool between users and a diagnostic company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costongs, G M; Janson, P C

    1993-12-01

    Achievement of appropriate precision is a major challenge for the clinical laboratory, particularly in specialized fields such as enzymology and immunochemistry. Especially in immunochemistry, where accuracy can only poorly be checked because of a lack of reference methods and a multitude of detectable epitopes, precision remains an important index of quality. In immunochemical methods there are three main sources of variation: differences in methodology, lot-to-lot variation and performance of the assay, the latter including the skill of the technicians and instrument performance. The results of a European Quality Control Programme for the users of one type of automated immunoassay analyser were compared with a similar Italian Quality Control Programme for users of different immunometric techniques. The precisions (%CV) of the two programmes were compared, as well as the number of values lying within one half of the biological variation of the analysed serum components. Feedback between users and manufacturers leads to a clear improvement in analysis performance, so that most of the considered values come to lie within the acceptable limits of 1/2 of the biological variation. It is concluded that both national and international quality control programmes are very useful for indicating the intrinsic quality of the quantities used in the clinical laboratory.

  16. An electronic trigger tool to optimise intravenous to oral antibiotic switch: a controlled, interrupted time series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin A. H. Berrevoets

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely switch from intravenous (iv antibiotics to oral therapy is a key component of antimicrobial stewardship programs in order to improve patient safety, promote early discharge and reduce costs. We have introduced a time-efficient and easily implementable intervention that relies on a computerized trigger tool, which identifies patients who are candidates for an iv to oral antibiotic switch. Methods The intervention was introduced on all internal medicine wards in a teaching hospital. Patients were automatically identified by an electronic trigger tool when parenteral antibiotics were used for >48 h and clinical or pharmacological data did not preclude switch therapy. A weekly educational session was introduced to alert the physicians on the intervention wards. The intervention wards were compared with control wards, which included all other hospital wards. An interrupted time-series analysis was performed to compare the pre-intervention period with the post-intervention period using ‘% of i.v. prescriptions >72 h’ and ‘median duration of iv therapy per prescription’ as outcomes. We performed a detailed prospective evaluation on a subset of 244 prescriptions to evaluate the efficacy and appropriateness of the intervention. Results The number of intravenous prescriptions longer than 72 h was reduced by 19% in the intervention group (n = 1519 (p < 0.01 and the median duration of iv antibiotics was reduced with 0.8 days (p = <0.05. Compared to the control group (n = 4366 the intervention was responsible for an additional decrease of 13% (p < 0.05 in prolonged prescriptions. The detailed prospective evaluation of a subgroup of patients showed that adherence to the electronic reminder was 72%. Conclusions An electronic trigger tool combined with a weekly educational session was effective in reducing the duration of intravenous antimicrobial therapy.

  17. Effect of an e-Learning Tool on Expectations and Satisfaction Following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culliton, Sharon E; Bryant, Dianne M; MacDonald, Steven J; Hibbert, Kathy M; Chesworth, Bert M

    2018-07-01

    Orthopedic surgeons recognize patient expectations of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can be managed through education. E-learning is the application of educational technology. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether an e-learning tool could affect whether patients' expectations were met and they were satisfied 1 year following TKA. Patients with osteoarthritis from the London Health Sciences Centre, Canada, were randomly assigned to either a control group (n = 207) receiving standard patient education or an intervention group (n = 209) using the e-learning tool in addition to the standard. We used a web-based system with permuted block sizes, stratified by surgeon and first or second TKA. Preoperative measures were completed following the patients' preadmission clinic visit. Postoperative patient-reported outcome measures were completed at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 1 year after TKA. One year after TKA, risk difference was used to determine between-group differences for patient satisfaction and expectations being met. One year postoperatively, the risk that expectations of patients were not met was 21.8% in the control group and 21.4% in the intervention group for an adjusted risk difference of 1.3% (95% confidence interval, -7.8% to 10.4%, P = .78). The proportion of patients satisfied with their TKA at 1 year postoperative was 78.6% in the intervention and 78.2% in the control groups. There was no between-group difference at 1 year between intervention and control groups for either the risk that expectations of patients were not met or the proportion of patients who were dissatisfied with their TKA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimating the Impacts of Direct Load Control Programs Using GridPIQ, a Web-Based Screening Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Seemita; Thayer, Brandon L.; Barrett, Emily L.; Studarus, Karen E.

    2017-11-13

    In direct load control (DLC) programs, utilities can curtail the demand of participating loads to contractually agreed-upon levels during periods of critical peak load, thereby reducing stress on the system, generation cost, and required transmission and generation capacity. Participating customers receive financial incentives. The impacts of implementing DLC programs extend well beyond peak shaving. There may be a shift of load proportional to the interrupted load to the times before or after a DLC event, and different load shifts have different consequences. Tools that can quantify the impacts of such programs on load curves, peak demand, emissions, and fossil fuel costs are currently lacking. The Grid Project Impact Quantification (GridPIQ) screening tool includes a Direct Load Control module, which takes into account project-specific inputs as well as the larger system context in order to quantify the impacts of a given DLC program. This allows users (utilities, researchers, etc.) to test and compare different program specifications and their impacts.

  19. Case-based learning and simulation: useful tools to enhance nurses' education? Nonrandomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raurell-Torredà, Marta; Olivet-Pujol, Josep; Romero-Collado, Àngel; Malagon-Aguilera, Maria Carmen; Patiño-Masó, Josefina; Baltasar-Bagué, Alícia

    2015-01-01

    To compare skills acquired by undergraduate nursing students enrolled in a medical-surgical course. To compare skills demonstrated by students with no previous clinical practice (undergraduates) and nurses with clinical experience enrolled in continuing professional education (CPE). In a nonrandomized clinical trial, 101 undergraduates enrolled in the "Adult Patients 1" course were assigned to the traditional lecture and discussion (n = 66) or lecture and discussion plus case-based learning (n = 35) arm of the study; 59 CPE nurses constituted a comparison group to assess the effects of previous clinical experience on learning outcomes. Scores on an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), using a human patient simulator and cases validated by the National League for Nursing, were compared for the undergraduate control and intervention groups, and for CPE nurses (Student's t test). Controls scored lower than the intervention group on patient assessment (6.3 ± 2.3 vs 7.5 ± 1.4, p = .04, mean difference, -1.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) -2.4 to -0.03]) but the intervention group did not differ from CPE nurses (7.5 ± 1.4 vs 8.8 ± 1.5, p = .06, mean difference, -1.3 [95% CI -2.6 to 0.04]). The CPE nurses committed more "rules-based errors" than did undergraduates, specifically patient identifications (77.2% vs 55%, p = .7) and checking allergies before administering medication (68.2% vs 60%, p = .1). The intervention group developed better patient assessment skills than the control group. Case-based learning helps to standardize the process, which can contribute to quality and consistency in practice: It is essential to correctly identify a problem in order to treat it. Clinical experience of CPE nurses was not associated with better adherence to safety protocols. Case-based learning improves the patient assessment skills of undergraduate nursing students, thereby preparing them for clinical practice. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  20. Nucleonic gauging: a tool for process and quality control at Tata Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, J.C.; Manish Raj; Panda, B.N.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, there has been much progress in utilizing nuclear sources for process and quality control in Integrated Steel Plants. Tata Steel has also taken interest in implementing these gauging techniques and at present 92 such gauges are in use for measuring level, thickness, density, moisture and ash content at various locations of Tata Steel. These gauges function on line and non contact with the material to be inspected and are designed to withstand the hostile Steel Plant Environment. The paper highlights use of different gauges at Tata Steel. (author)

  1. Does the chromatic Mach bands effect exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsofe, Avital; Spitzer, Hedva; Einav, Shmuel

    2009-06-30

    The achromatic Mach bands effect is a well-known visual illusion, discovered over a hundred years ago. This effect has been investigated thoroughly, mainly for its brightness aspect. The existence of Chromatic Mach bands, however, has been disputed. In recent years it has been reported that Chromatic Mach bands are not perceived under controlled iso-luminance conditions. However, here we show that a variety of Chromatic Mach bands, consisting of chromatic and achromatic regions, separated by a saturation ramp, can be clearly perceived under iso-luminance and iso-brightness conditions. In this study, observers' eye movements were recorded under iso-brightness conditions. Several observers were tested for their ability to perceive the Chromatic Mach bands effect and its magnitude, across different cardinal and non-cardinal Chromatic Mach bands stimuli. A computational model of color adaptation, which predicted color induction and color constancy, successfully predicts this variation of Chromatic Mach bands. This has been tested by measuring the distance of the data points from the "achromatic point" and by calculating the shift of the data points from predicted complementary lines. The results suggest that the Chromatic Mach bands effect is a specific chromatic induction effect.

  2. Electrotransfer parameters as a tool for controlled and targeted gene expression in skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spela Kos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin is an attractive target for gene electrotransfer. It consists of different cell types that can be transfected, leading to various responses to gene electrotransfer. We demonstrate that these responses could be controlled by selecting the appropriate electrotransfer parameters. Specifically, the application of low or high electric pulses, applied by multi-electrode array, provided the possibility to control the depth of the transfection in the skin, the duration and the level of gene expression, as well as the local or systemic distribution of the transgene. The influence of electric pulse type was first studied using a plasmid encoding a reporter gene (DsRed. Then, plasmids encoding therapeutic genes (IL-12, shRNA against endoglin, shRNA against melanoma cell adhesion molecule were used, and their effects on wound healing and cutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumors were investigated. The high-voltage pulses resulted in gene expression that was restricted to superficial skin layers and induced a local response. In contrast, the low-voltage electric pulses promoted transfection into the deeper skin layers, resulting in prolonged gene expression and higher transgene production, possibly with systemic distribution. Therefore, in the translation into the clinics, it will be of the utmost importance to adjust the electrotransfer parameters for different therapeutic approaches and specific mode of action of the therapeutic gene.

  3. Ventilation systems as an effective tool for control of radon daughter concentration in mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1981-10-01

    Experience in mines shows that a very high concentration of radon daughters builds up in an unventilated dead end heading. Even minimal air movement results in a drastic reduction in radon daughter concentration. Designing the ventilation system to provide an optimized flow of fresh air into the workplace results in acceptable climatic conditions and radon daughter levels. The example of the Director fluorospar mine in Newfoundland is used to illustrate the actual design and operation of a ventilation system that provided effective radon daughter control. It was found at this mine that the age of the air underground should be kept as low as possible; that no areas of the mine should be left unventilated unless they could be kept at negative pressure; that a comparatively simple remote control and monitoring system helped stabilize ventilation and detected upsets; that the ventilation system should operate continuously, even when the mine is shut down for short periods; and that pressurization of the mine seemed to inhibit radon influx

  4. Water Level Loggers as a Low-Cost Tool for Monitoring of Stormwater Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Toran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater control measures (SCMs are a key component of watershed health in urbanized areas. SCMs are used to increase infiltration and reduce discharge to streams or storm sewer systems during rain events. Monitoring is important for the evaluation of design and causes of failure in SCMs. However, the expense of monitoring means it is not always included in stormwater control planning. This study shows how low-cost water level loggers can be used to answer certain questions about SCM performance. Five case studies are presented that use water level loggers to evaluate the overflow of basins, compare a traditional stormpipe trench with an infiltration trench, monitor timing of blue roof storage, show the effects of retrofitting a basin, and provide long term performance data. Water level loggers can be used to answer questions about the timing and location of stormwater overflows, which helps to evaluate the effectiveness of SCMs. More expensive monitoring and modeling can be used as a follow up if needed to more thoroughly assess a site. Nonetheless, low-cost monitoring can be a first step in identifying sites that need improvement or additional monitoring.

  5. The THIRST chemistry module as a tool to determine optimal steam generator corrosion control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heppner, K.; Laroche, S.; Pietralik, J.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a coordinated program, AECL is developing a set of tools to aid with the prediction and management of steam generator performance. Although stress corrosion cracking (of Alloy 800) has not been detected in any operating steam generator, for life management it is necessary to develop mechanistic models to predict the conditions under which stress corrosion cracking is plausible. Therefore, constant extension rate tests were carried out for Alloy 800 under various steam generator crevice chemistry conditions at applied potentials. These tests were designed to evaluate the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of Alloy 800 under CANDU( steam generator operating conditions. Based on the experimental results, the recommended electrochemical corrosion potential/pH zone for Alloy 800 determined by electrochemical polarization measurements was verified with the respect of stress corrosion cracking susceptibility. The effects of lead contamination on the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of Alloy 800 tubing were also evaluated. The experimental results from constant extension rate tests obtained under applied potentials suggest that Alloy 800 has good performance inside much of a previously recommended electrochemical corrosion potential/pH zone determined by electrochemical analysis. Alloy 800 is not susceptible to stress corrosion cracking under normal CANDU steam generator operating conditions. However, Alloy 800 may be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking under near-neutral crevice chemistry conditions in the presence of oxidants. In addition, stress corrosion cracking susceptibility is increased by lead contamination. This observation suggests that the previously defined electrochemical corrosion potential limit under near-neutral crevice conditions could be modified to minimize stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 800. The test results from this work also suggest that the pH dependency of the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of Alloy 800

  6. Giving High School Students a Research Grade Radio Telescope to Control; Motivational Results from Access to Real Scientific Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, Russell; Langston, G.; Heatherly, S.

    2013-01-01

    Have you ever wondered what it might be like to place control of a six-story building in the hands of eager high school students? This past summer, the USNO 20m telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, WV was brought back online for just such a purpose. This telescope is equipped with an X-band receiver, capable of observing center frequencies from 8-10 GHz and is the first radio telescope accessible by students and observers through the SKYNET telescope network. Operated remotely with a queue-based system, students can now collect real radio data for any range of projects. This past summer, five lessons were written that were tailor-made for student exploration of radio astronomy. Each lesson explores various radio objects in the context of an action-packed sci-fi adventure. Some of the work required to bring the 20m online for student use will be discussed here, but the main focus of this presentation will be how this work has been received by the author’s own students in its first classroom application. Topics that are normally difficult to discuss with students in an inquiry-based classroom setting, such as HII regions, synchrotron radiation, lunar temperature profiles, and galactic supermassive black holes were addressed in the classroom using the lessons developed by the author for the 20m as well as data collected by students using the telescope via SKYNET.

  7. Quality Control Quantification (QCQ): A Tool to Measure the Value of Quality Control Checks in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Eric C.; Terezakis, Stephanie; Souranis, Annette; Harris, Kendra; Gay, Hiram; Mutic, Sasa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the error-detection effectiveness of commonly used quality control (QC) measures. Methods: We analyzed incidents from 2007-2010 logged into a voluntary in-house, electronic incident learning systems at 2 academic radiation oncology clinics. None of the incidents resulted in patient harm. Each incident was graded for potential severity using the French Nuclear Safety Authority scoring scale; high potential severity incidents (score >3) were considered, along with a subset of 30 randomly chosen low severity incidents. Each report was evaluated to identify which of 15 common QC checks could have detected it. The effectiveness was calculated, defined as the percentage of incidents that each QC measure could detect, both for individual QC checks and for combinations of checks. Results: In total, 4407 incidents were reported, 292 of which had high-potential severity. High- and low-severity incidents were detectable by 4.0 ± 2.3 (mean ± SD) and 2.6 ± 1.4 QC checks, respectively (P<.001). All individual checks were less than 50% sensitive with the exception of pretreatment plan review by a physicist (63%). An effectiveness of 97% was achieved with 7 checks used in combination and was not further improved with more checks. The combination of checks with the highest effectiveness includes physics plan review, physician plan review, Electronic Portal Imaging Device-based in vivo portal dosimetry, radiation therapist timeout, weekly physics chart check, the use of checklists, port films, and source-to-skin distance checks. Some commonly used QC checks such as pretreatment intensity modulated radiation therapy QA do not substantially add to the ability to detect errors in these data. Conclusions: The effectiveness of QC measures in radiation oncology depends sensitively on which checks are used and in which combinations. A small percentage of errors cannot be detected by any of the standard formal QC checks currently in broad use, suggesting that further

  8. Quality control quantification (QCQ): a tool to measure the value of quality control checks in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Eric C; Terezakis, Stephanie; Souranis, Annette; Harris, Kendra; Gay, Hiram; Mutic, Sasa

    2012-11-01

    To quantify the error-detection effectiveness of commonly used quality control (QC) measures. We analyzed incidents from 2007-2010 logged into a voluntary in-house, electronic incident learning systems at 2 academic radiation oncology clinics. None of the incidents resulted in patient harm. Each incident was graded for potential severity using the French Nuclear Safety Authority scoring scale; high potential severity incidents (score >3) were considered, along with a subset of 30 randomly chosen low severity incidents. Each report was evaluated to identify which of 15 common QC checks could have detected it. The effectiveness was calculated, defined as the percentage of incidents that each QC measure could detect, both for individual QC checks and for combinations of checks. In total, 4407 incidents were reported, 292 of which had high-potential severity. High- and low-severity incidents were detectable by 4.0 ± 2.3 (mean ± SD) and 2.6 ± 1.4 QC checks, respectively (P<.001). All individual checks were less than 50% sensitive with the exception of pretreatment plan review by a physicist (63%). An effectiveness of 97% was achieved with 7 checks used in combination and was not further improved with more checks. The combination of checks with the highest effectiveness includes physics plan review, physician plan review, Electronic Portal Imaging Device-based in vivo portal dosimetry, radiation therapist timeout, weekly physics chart check, the use of checklists, port films, and source-to-skin distance checks. Some commonly used QC checks such as pretreatment intensity modulated radiation therapy QA do not substantially add to the ability to detect errors in these data. The effectiveness of QC measures in radiation oncology depends sensitively on which checks are used and in which combinations. A small percentage of errors cannot be detected by any of the standard formal QC checks currently in broad use, suggesting that further improvements are needed. These data

  9. Quality Control Quantification (QCQ): A Tool to Measure the Value of Quality Control Checks in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Eric C., E-mail: eford@uw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Terezakis, Stephanie; Souranis, Annette; Harris, Kendra [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Gay, Hiram; Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To quantify the error-detection effectiveness of commonly used quality control (QC) measures. Methods: We analyzed incidents from 2007-2010 logged into a voluntary in-house, electronic incident learning systems at 2 academic radiation oncology clinics. None of the incidents resulted in patient harm. Each incident was graded for potential severity using the French Nuclear Safety Authority scoring scale; high potential severity incidents (score >3) were considered, along with a subset of 30 randomly chosen low severity incidents. Each report was evaluated to identify which of 15 common QC checks could have detected it. The effectiveness was calculated, defined as the percentage of incidents that each QC measure could detect, both for individual QC checks and for combinations of checks. Results: In total, 4407 incidents were reported, 292 of which had high-potential severity. High- and low-severity incidents were detectable by 4.0 {+-} 2.3 (mean {+-} SD) and 2.6 {+-} 1.4 QC checks, respectively (P<.001). All individual checks were less than 50% sensitive with the exception of pretreatment plan review by a physicist (63%). An effectiveness of 97% was achieved with 7 checks used in combination and was not further improved with more checks. The combination of checks with the highest effectiveness includes physics plan review, physician plan review, Electronic Portal Imaging Device-based in vivo portal dosimetry, radiation therapist timeout, weekly physics chart check, the use of checklists, port films, and source-to-skin distance checks. Some commonly used QC checks such as pretreatment intensity modulated radiation therapy QA do not substantially add to the ability to detect errors in these data. Conclusions: The effectiveness of QC measures in radiation oncology depends sensitively on which checks are used and in which combinations. A small percentage of errors cannot be detected by any of the standard formal QC checks currently in broad use, suggesting that

  10. Optogenetic control of thalamus as a tool for interrupting penicillin induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yechao; Ma, Feiqiang; Li, Hongbao; Wang, Yueming; Xu, Kedi

    2015-01-01

    Penicillin epilepsy model, whose discharge resembles that of human absence epilepsy, is one of the most useful acute experimental epilepsy models. Though closed-loop optogenetic strategy of interrupting seizures was proved sufficient to switch off epilepsy by controlling thalamus in the post-lesion partial chronic epilepsy model, doubts still exist in absence epilepsy attenuation through silencing thalamus. Here we directly arrested the thalamus to modulate penicillin-induced absence seizures through pseudorandom responsive stimulation on eNpHR-transfected rats. Our data suggested that the duration of epileptiform bursts under light conditions, compared with no light conditions, did not increase or decrease when modulated specific eNpHR-expressing neurons in thalamus.

  11. Implementation of Software Tools for Hybrid Control Rooms in the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokstad, Håkon; Berntsson, Olof; McDonald, Robert; Boring, Ronald; Hallbert, Bruce; Fitzgerald, Kirk

    2014-01-01

    The Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) and Idaho National Laboratory have designed, implemented, tested and installed a functioning prototype of a set of large screen overview and procedure support displays for the Generic Pressurized Water Reactor (GPWR) simulator in the U.S. Department of Energy's Human Systems Simulation Laboratory. The overview display is based on IFE's extensive experiences with large screen overview displays in the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB), and presents the main control room indicators on a combined three-screen display. The procedure support displays are designed and implemented to provide a compact but still comprehensive overview of the relevant process measurements and indicators to support operators' good situational awareness during the performance of various types of procedures and plant conditions.

  12. Implementation of Software Tools for Hybrid Control Rooms in the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokstad, Håkon [Halden Reactor Project, Halden (Norway); Berntsson, Olof [Halden Reactor Project, Halden (Norway); McDonald, Robert [Halden Reactor Project, Halden (Norway); Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hallbert, Bruce [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fitzgerald, Kirk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) and Idaho National Laboratory have designed, implemented, tested and installed a functioning prototype of a set of large screen overview and procedure support displays for the Generic Pressurized Water Reactor (GPWR) simulator in the U.S. Department of Energy’s Human Systems Simulation Laboratory. The overview display is based on IFE’s extensive experiences with large screen overview displays in the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB), and presents the main control room indicators on a combined three-screen display. The procedure support displays are designed and implemented to provide a compact but still comprehensive overview of the relevant process measurements and indicators to support operators' good situational awareness during the performance of various types of procedures and plant conditions.

  13. Ergonomics evaluation as a powerful tool to redesign advanced interfaces of nuclear control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L. dos; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Oliveira, Mauro V.; Fernandes, Nelson; Oliveira, Helio C.L.; Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Augusto, Silas C.; Teixeira, Douglas V.; Ferraz, Fernando T.

    2007-01-01

    Ergonomics is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system. Ergonomics contributes to the design and evaluation of tasks, jobs, products, environments and systems in order to make them compatible with the needs, abilities and limitations of people. In the safe operation of nuclear power plant the performance of the control room crews plays an important role. In this respect, well-designed human-system interfaces (HSI) are crucial for safe and efficient operation of the plant, reducing the occurrence of incidents, accidents and the risks for human error. The aim of this paper is to describe a case study in which a methodological framework was applied to redesign advanced interfaces of a nuclear simulator. (author)

  14. Microbial Pest Control Agents: Are they a Specific And Safe Tool for Insect Pest Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshayes, Caroline; Siegwart, Myriam; Pauron, David; Froger, Josy-Anne; Lapied, Bruno; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms (viruses, bacteria and fungi) or their bioactive agents can be used as active substances and therefore are referred as Microbial Pest Control Agents (MPCA). They are used as alternative strategies to chemical insecticides to counteract the development of resistances and to reduce adverse effects on both environment and human health. These natural entomopathogenic agents, which have specific modes of action, are generally considered safer as compared to conventional chemical insecticides. Baculoviruses are the only viruses being used as the safest biological control agents. They infect insects and have narrow host ranges. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely and successfully used bioinsecticide in the integrated pest management programs in the world. Bt mainly produces crystal delta-endotoxins and secreted toxins. However, the Bt toxins are not stable for a very long time and are highly sensitive to solar UV. So genetically modified plants that express toxins have been developed and represent a large part of the phytosanitary biological products. Finally, entomopathogenic fungi and particularly, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, are also used for their insecticidal properties. Most studies on various aspects of the safety of MPCA to human, non-target organisms and environment have only reported acute but not chronic toxicity. This paper reviews the modes of action of MPCA, their toxicological risks to human health and ecotoxicological profiles together with their environmental persistence. This review is part of the special issue "Insecticide Mode of Action: From Insect to Mammalian Toxicity". Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. The Ontology Lookup Service, a lightweight cross-platform tool for controlled vocabulary queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apweiler Rolf

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the vast amounts of biomedical data being generated by high-throughput analysis methods, controlled vocabularies and ontologies are becoming increasingly important to annotate units of information for ease of search and retrieval. Each scientific community tends to create its own locally available ontology. The interfaces to query these ontologies tend to vary from group to group. We saw the need for a centralized location to perform controlled vocabulary queries that would offer both a lightweight web-accessible user interface as well as a consistent, unified SOAP interface for automated queries. Results The Ontology Lookup Service (OLS was created to integrate publicly available biomedical ontologies into a single database. All modified ontologies are updated daily. A list of currently loaded ontologies is available online. The database can be queried to obtain information on a single term or to browse a complete ontology using AJAX. Auto-completion provides a user-friendly search mechanism. An AJAX-based ontology viewer is available to browse a complete ontology or subsets of it. A programmatic interface is available to query the webservice using SOAP. The service is described by a WSDL descriptor file available online. A sample Java client to connect to the webservice using SOAP is available for download from SourceForge. All OLS source code is publicly available under the open source Apache Licence. Conclusion The OLS provides a user-friendly single entry point for publicly available ontologies in the Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO format. It can be accessed interactively or programmatically at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ontology-lookup/.

  16. Fricke dosimetry as a tool to quality control of photodynamic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Suzana O.; Souza, Vivianne L.B., E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: suzirecifeusa@hotmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste (CRNE-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) consists of the association of a photosensitizing agent with a light source in order to cause cellular necrosis. Methylene blue, toluidine blue and malachite green are photosensitizers derived from dyes that are widely accepted in medicine, as they have low toxicity and are low cost. PDT is an alternative treatment for cancer, with significant advantages over procedures such as surgery/chemotherapy. Our laboratory has studied the Fricke solution doped with photosensitizers in an approach to obtain a quality control for PDT. The Fricke solution was prepared with ammoniacal ferrous sulfate, sodium chloride and sulfuric acid in water. The solutions modified with photosensitizers were prepared by adding 0.1 g/100 mL of the dyes. A volume of 2.6 ml of the Fricke solution modified with photosensitizers were transferred to test tubes and irradiated. The irradiated solutions had their optical densities measured in a spectrophotometer. The samples were irradiated with LED (Light Emitting Diodes) in acrylic phantoms. The FATA samples irradiated with LED showed the sensitivity of the dosimeters to red, blue, green and yellow light. A calibration curve with correlation coefficient of 0.9884 for the red light was obtained; 0.9752 for blue light; 0.9644 for the green light and 0.9768 for the yellow light. The fact that a sensitivity of the dosimeters to the LED has been occurred indicates that the PDT could be realized with LED, with lower costs than with laser. This work suggested that FATA dosimeters can be used for quality control of PDT. (author)

  17. Fricke dosimetry as a tool to quality control of photodynamic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Suzana O.; Souza, Vivianne L.B.

    2017-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) consists of the association of a photosensitizing agent with a light source in order to cause cellular necrosis. Methylene blue, toluidine blue and malachite green are photosensitizers derived from dyes that are widely accepted in medicine, as they have low toxicity and are low cost. PDT is an alternative treatment for cancer, with significant advantages over procedures such as surgery/chemotherapy. Our laboratory has studied the Fricke solution doped with photosensitizers in an approach to obtain a quality control for PDT. The Fricke solution was prepared with ammoniacal ferrous sulfate, sodium chloride and sulfuric acid in water. The solutions modified with photosensitizers were prepared by adding 0.1 g/100 mL of the dyes. A volume of 2.6 ml of the Fricke solution modified with photosensitizers were transferred to test tubes and irradiated. The irradiated solutions had their optical densities measured in a spectrophotometer. The samples were irradiated with LED (Light Emitting Diodes) in acrylic phantoms. The FATA samples irradiated with LED showed the sensitivity of the dosimeters to red, blue, green and yellow light. A calibration curve with correlation coefficient of 0.9884 for the red light was obtained; 0.9752 for blue light; 0.9644 for the green light and 0.9768 for the yellow light. The fact that a sensitivity of the dosimeters to the LED has been occurred indicates that the PDT could be realized with LED, with lower costs than with laser. This work suggested that FATA dosimeters can be used for quality control of PDT. (author)

  18. Using population genetic tools to develop a control strategy for feral cats (Felis catus) in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, H.; Hess, S.C.; Cole, D.; Banko, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Population genetics can provide information about the demographics and dynamics of invasive species that is beneficial for developing effective control strategies. We studied the population genetics of feral cats on Hawai'i Island by microsatellite analysis to evaluate genetic diversity and population structure, assess gene flow and connectivity among three populations, identify potential source populations, characterise population dynamics, and evaluate sex-biased dispersal. High genetic diversity, low structure, and high number of migrants per generation supported high gene flow that was not limited spatially. Migration rates revealed that most migration occurred out of West Mauna Kea. Effective population size estimates indicated increasing cat populations despite control efforts. Despite high gene flow, relatedness estimates declined significantly with increased geographic distance and Bayesian assignment tests revealed the presence of three population clusters. Genetic structure and relatedness estimates indicated male-biased dispersal, primarily from Mauna Kea, suggesting that this population should be targeted for control. However, recolonisation seems likely, given the great dispersal ability that may not be inhibited by barriers such as lava flows. Genetic monitoring will be necessary to assess the effectiveness of future control efforts. Management of other invasive species may benefit by employing these population genetic tools. ?? CSIRO 2007.

  19. The Regional Healthcare Ecosystem Analyst (RHEA): a simulation modeling tool to assist infectious disease control in a health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Wong, Kim F; Bartsch, Sarah M; Yilmaz, S Levent; Avery, Taliser R; Brown, Shawn T; Song, Yeohan; Singh, Ashima; Kim, Diane S; Huang, Susan S

    2013-06-01

    As healthcare systems continue to expand and interconnect with each other through patient sharing, administrators, policy makers, infection control specialists, and other decision makers may have to take account of the entire healthcare 'ecosystem' in infection control. We developed a software tool, the Regional Healthcare Ecosystem Analyst (RHEA), that can accept user-inputted data to rapidly create a detailed agent-based simulation model (ABM) of the healthcare ecosystem (ie, all healthcare facilities, their adjoining community, and patient flow among the facilities) of any region to better understand the spread and control of infectious diseases. To demonstrate RHEA's capabilities, we fed extensive data from Orange County, California, USA, into RHEA to create an ABM of a healthcare ecosystem and simulate the spread and control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Various experiments explored the effects of changing different parameters (eg, degree of transmission, length of stay, and bed capacity). Our model emphasizes how individual healthcare facilities are components of integrated and dynamic networks connected via patient movement and how occurrences in one healthcare facility may affect many other healthcare facilities. A decision maker can utilize RHEA to generate a detailed ABM of any healthcare system of interest, which in turn can serve as a virtual laboratory to test different policies and interventions.

  20. Reduction of air pollutants - a tool for control of atmospheric corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucera, V.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In most urban areas in Europe and Northern America serious corrosion impacts on buildings and cultural monuments have been caused by emissions of pollutants. The rapidly increasing pollution levels in many of the developing countries also exert a serious threat to materials. Beside the very important role of SO2 also the direct or synergistic effect of NOx and O3, the particulates and rain acidity may contribute in an important way to materials degradation. Results from extensive international field exposure programs i.e. within the UN/ECE have enabled development of dose-response relations which describe the effect of dry and wet deposition of pollutants on corrosion of different material groups. In most of the industrialized countries decreasing trends of sulphur and nitrogen pollutants and of acidity of precipitation have resulted in decreased corrosion rates. The concept of acceptable levels of pollutants is a useful tool in planning of abatement strategies and for defining of conditions for a suitable development in the field of corrosion of constructions in the atmosphere.

    La contaminación de la atmósfera ha sido la principal razón del grave deterioro de las edificaciones y de los monumentos en numerosas ciudades de Europa y Norteamérica. De otro lado, el acelerado incremento de los niveles de contaminación en los países menos desarrollados está poniendo en peligro la estabilidad de los materiales utilizados. Además del importante papel que en este sentido juega el SO2, la acción directa o el efecto sinérgico de los NOx y el O3, al igual que el material particulado y las lluvias acidas contribuyen a agravar el problema. Resultados de vastos programas internacionales de investigación como, por ejemplo, el UN/ECE, han permitido desarrollar relaciones dosis-respuesta que describen el efecto de la deposición de los contaminantes sobre la corrosión de

  1. Neonatal Early Warning Tools for recognising and responding to clinical deterioration in neonates cared for in the maternity setting: A retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwoda, Michelle; New, Karen; Bogossian, Fiona

    2016-09-01

    All newborns are at risk of deterioration as a result of failing to make the transition to extra uterine life. Signs of deterioration can be subtle and easily missed. It has been postulated that the use of an Early Warning Tool may assist clinicians in recognising and responding to signs of deterioration earlier in neonates, thereby preventing a serious adverse event. To examine whether observations from a Standard Observation Tool, applied to three neonatal Early Warning Tools, would hypothetically trigger an escalation of care more frequently than actual escalation of care using the Standard Observation Tool. A retrospective case-control study. A maternity unit in a tertiary public hospital in Australia. Neonates born in 2013 of greater than or equal to 34(+0) weeks gestation, admitted directly to the maternity ward from their birthing location and whose subsequent deterioration required admission to the neonatal unit, were identified as cases from databases of the study hospital. Each case was matched with three controls, inborn during the same period and who did not experience deterioration and neonatal unit admission. Clinical and physiological data recorded on a Standard Observation Tool, from time of admission to the maternity ward, for cases and controls were charted onto each of three Early Warning Tools. The primary outcome was whether the tool 'triggered an escalation of care'. Descriptive statistics (n, %, Mean and SD) were employed. Cases (n=26) comprised late preterm, early term and post-term neonates and matched by gestational age group with 3 controls (n=78). Overall, the Standard Observation Tool triggered an escalation of care for 92.3% of cases compared to the Early Warning Tools; New South Wales Health 80.8%, United Kingdom Newborn Early Warning Chart 57.7% and The Australian Capital Territory Neonatal Early Warning Score 11.5%. Subgroup analysis by gestational age found differences between the tools in hypothetically triggering an escalation of

  2. The declaration regime: An efficient tool to improve control and protection of nuclear materials in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillette-Cousin, L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The French Government set up a national safeguards system under the authority of the Ministry for Industry to control nuclear materials within national boundaries and to ensure physical protection for nuclear materials, even for the small quantities held by users in industrial, medical and research areas. The main nuclear materials detained by small owners are depleted uranium and thorium. These materials are present in manufactured equipment (radiation shielding in industrial gammagraphy and radiotherapy, collimation devices and other accessories) which are used or unused, which may be damaged or left as scraps. The French protection and control system of nuclear materials is an original system based on detailed and comprehensive regulations, taking into account in a specific way the small users of nuclear materials. The decree no. 81-512 of 12 May 1981 establishes three different regimes: licensing, declaration and exemption, according to the nature and quantity of nuclear materials involved. Typically, the declaration regime applies to quantities of depleted uranium or thorium, greater than 1 kg and lower than 500 kg. The Order of 14 March 1984 sets the requirements related to the control and physical protection of nuclear materials in the frame of the declaration regime. A declaration must be established every year by the operator and sent to the IPSN, acting as technical support body of the national authority. This declaration provides the stock of all nuclear materials held by the operator and stock variations occurred during the previous year, including the identification of senders and receivers. Before fulfilling its annual declaration, the operator must carry out a physical inventory of all nuclear material, both used and unused. The declaration also describes the main features concerning facility layout related to surveillance and physical protection of materials. With respect to physical protection requirements, nuclear materials should be

  3. Analytical tools and functions of GIS in the process control and decision support of mining company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semrád Peter

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of computer techniques, the increase in demands for the professional and possible fastest data processing, as well as for the fluency and efficiency of information gaining, exchanging and providing has a strong influence on forming the new generation of information technologies - Geografic Information Systems (GIS that rose in the second half of the twentieth century.Advancement in this area is still progressing and GIS gradually find the enforcement in individual fields where they play a great role in the process control and decision support. Nowadays, there are applications in mining and geology, where are used especially at processing and evaluating of mining - geological documentation, optimalization of mining and technical processes, planning, distributing and managing of mining as well as economic analysis that are important in terms of investment decisions to mining business.GIS are the systems for the effective keeping, updating, processing, analysing, modelling, simulating and presenting geographically oriented information. We can identify them as computer systems helping to solve real problems that should be normally required to solve by human expert.Well equipped GIS have graphic ability and accordingly manage descriptive (attribute data. They are able to secure mutual connection between graphical and descriptive data and in addition to command countless number of functions that enable the execution of spatial analysis. This fact is very important in mining and geological application.There are exploited mostly geostatistical analysis (e. g. modelling of distribution valuable and harmful components of mineral resouce in a mineral deposit, surface modelling and surface model analysis (e. g. at modelling the subsidence of mining territory, different methods of creating spatial and attribute queries about database for seeking necessary data (e. g. to find all mining blocks of deposit that meet required conditions and to

  4. Invasive Species Science Branch: research and management tools for controlling invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert N.; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive, nonnative species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like “biological wildfires,” they can quickly spread and affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st century in economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated effect in the United States of more than $120 billion per year. Managers of the Department of the Interior and other public and private lands often rank invasive species as their top resource management problem. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center provides research and technical assistance relating to management concerns for invasive species, including understanding how these species are introduced, identifying areas vulnerable to invasion, forecasting invasions, and developing control methods. To disseminate this information, branch scientists are developing platforms to share invasive species information with DOI cooperators, other agency partners, and the public. From these and other data, branch scientists are constructing models to understand and predict invasive species distributions for more effective management. The branch also has extensive herpetological and population biology expertise that is applied to harmful reptile invaders such as the Brown Treesnake on Guam and Burmese Python in Florida.

  5. Applying Ancestry and Sex Computation as a Quality Control Tool in Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Patrick C; Turner, Emily H; Scroggins, Sheena M; Salipante, Stephen J; Hoffman, Noah G; Pritchard, Colin C; Shirts, Brian H

    2016-03-01

    To apply techniques for ancestry and sex computation from next-generation sequencing (NGS) data as an approach to confirm sample identity and detect sample processing errors. We combined a principal component analysis method with k-nearest neighbors classification to compute the ancestry of patients undergoing NGS testing. By combining this calculation with X chromosome copy number data, we determined the sex and ancestry of patients for comparison with self-report. We also modeled the sensitivity of this technique in detecting sample processing errors. We applied this technique to 859 patient samples with reliable self-report data. Our k-nearest neighbors ancestry screen had an accuracy of 98.7% for patients reporting a single ancestry. Visual inspection of principal component plots was consistent with self-report in 99.6% of single-ancestry and mixed-ancestry patients. Our model demonstrates that approximately two-thirds of potential sample swaps could be detected in our patient population using this technique. Patient ancestry can be estimated from NGS data incidentally sequenced in targeted panels, enabling an inexpensive quality control method when coupled with patient self-report. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Tool for the control management of electric and magnetic fields of electrical companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnera, Patricia; Barbieri, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    The use of electricity involves a wide range of activities that, because of its diversity, characteristics and relative importance causes different environmental impacts during the extraction, processing, transport and consuming activities. It is the role of the government to elaborate the rules for the incorporation of environmental aspects in the different segments of the market for different electrical energy sources and in all the stages of the process, from the initial evaluation to the construction and exploitation phases. Among the environmental key aspects to considerate, are the electric and magnetic fields, in which society has taken special interest as they are believed to be involved in health hazard. The faculties of the regulatory authority are dictate regulations and technique procedures to be fulfilled by the agents, and check their compliance. In the course of time since the mentioned obligations, the authority has gathered information regarding electric and magnetic fields that includes those planned in the Companies Environmental Planning and those obtained ad-hoc in the role of controller. In order to systematize this information, a data base has been designed considering different types of electric installations, the company which they belong to, equipment used in the measurements, representative layouts with measure points and profiles of the electric and magnetic fields that were obtained. (author)

  7. EV71 vaccine, a new tool to control outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qun-ying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-05-01

    On December 3rd 2015, the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) approved the first inactivated Enterovirus 71 (EV71) whole virus vaccine for preventing severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). As one of the few preventive vaccines for children's infectious diseases generated by the developing countries in recent years, EV71 vaccine is a blessing to children's health in China and worldwide. However, there are still a few challenges facing the worldwide use of EV71 vaccine, including the applicability against various EV71 pandemic strains in other countries, international requirements on vaccine production and quality control, standardization and harmonization on different pathogen monitoring and detecting methods, etc. In addition, the affordability of EV71 vaccine in other countries is a factor to be considered in HFMD prevention. Therefore, with EV71 vaccine commercially available, there is still a long way to go before reaching effective protection against severe HFMD after EV71 vaccines enter the market. In this paper, the bottlenecks and prospects for the wide use of EV71 vaccine after its approval are evaluated.

  8. Bio-Pesticides: New Tool for the Control of Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Culicidae: Diptera in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Application of plant extracts as mosquito control strategy was practiced from centuries. These are easily available, non-toxic, biodegradable and exhibit broad-spectrum target specific activities against larval stages of mosquitoes.Method: Different potential parts of locally grown plants, seeds of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans, peel of musambi (Citrus sinensis, leaves of babuna (Matricaria chamomilla, mint (Mentha spicata and ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale selected and evaluated for their larvicidal properties against Aedes (Stegomyis albopictus. Oils were ex­tracted through steam distillation process and extracts were evaluated as per WHO 2005 guidelines for testing of insecticides against larvae of mosquitoes.Result: Among the five plant extracts, C. sinensis had the lowest LC50 (400.81ppm while M. fragrans had the high­est LC50 value (710.30ppm respectively after 24h of exposure. In terms of % age mortality, a series of con­centra­tions (300–800ppm gave high % mortality in case of C. sinensis while M. fragrans gave low % age mortality.Conclusion: All the five plant species have larvicidal effects to certain extant and C. sinensis had great potential. Further small-scale field trials with the extracts of the most promising one (C. sinensis shall be conducted to deter­mine operational feasibility.    

  9. Tool for the control management of electric and magnetic fields of electrical companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnera, Patricia; Barbieri, Beatriz [La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria, Instituto de Investigaciones Tecnologicas para Redes y Equipos; Turco, Joaquin; Messina, Juan; Postiglioni, Osvaldo [Ente Nacional Regulador de la Electricidad, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2008-07-01

    The use of electricity involves a wide range of activities that, because of its diversity, characteristics and relative importance causes different environmental impacts during the extraction, processing, transport and consuming activities. It is the role of the government to elaborate the rules for the incorporation of environmental aspects in the different segments of the market for different electrical energy sources and in all the stages of the process, from the initial evaluation to the construction and exploitation phases. Among the environmental key aspects to considerate, are the electric and magnetic fields, in which society has taken special interest as they are believed to be involved in health hazard. The faculties of the regulatory authority are dictate regulations and technique procedures to be fulfilled by the agents, and check their compliance. In the course of time since the mentioned obligations, the authority has gathered information regarding electric and magnetic fields that includes those planned in the Companies Environmental Planning and those obtained ad-hoc in the role of controller. In order to systematize this information, a data base has been designed considering different types of electric installations, the company which they belong to, equipment used in the measurements, representative layouts with measure points and profiles of the electric and magnetic fields that were obtained. (author)

  10. Control of magnetic properties and band gap by Co/Mn ordering and oxygen distributions of La{sub 2}CoMnO{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fang; Gao, Yu; Chang, Hong, E-mail: changhong@imu.edu.cn; Liu, Yifan; Yun, Yuehou

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • The stretching vibration of the ordered Co-O-Mn bond is observed in IR-FT curve. • The surface absorbed oxygen transforms to the lattice oxygen is observed at 905 °C. - Abstract: La{sub 2}CoMnO{sub 6} are synthesized at different annealing temperature ranging from 600 °C to 1300 °C, marked as S600, S800, S1000 and S1300. S600 has the R-3c and the rest have the Pnma structure. The DTA curve exhibits two exothermic peaks, at 553 °C for the phase formation and 905 °C for the oxygen redistribution into the lattice. Deduced from xps, S1000 has the highest lattice oxygen. S1300 has one extra xps peak due to the oxygen deficient regions. Even though the xrd refinements are not reliable at telling whether Co/Mn ions are ordered or not, IR-FT, magnetic measurements and energy band gaps indicate that S1000 has the best Co/Mn ordering, and S600 has the worst. A stretching vibration at about 580–595 cm{sup −1} in the IR-FT spectra is attributed to the ordered Co–O–Mn bond. A homogenous atomic distribution in S600, S800 and S1000 leads to one magnetic phase configuration, and the agglomeration of the FM ordered Co/Mn and the AFM disordered regions in S1300 induces the multi magnetic phases. From the aspects of band gap and energy level, S600 is a good candidate for light harvesting.

  11. Results prediction in industrial processes. A control tool based on the Knowledge; La prediccion de resultados en procesos industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabala-Uriarte, A.; Suarez-Creo, R.; Izaga-Gmaguregi, J.

    2009-07-01

    The difficulties involved in most metallurgical processes are well known, specially when the number of factors that act in then is very high. The problems are even more important if we want to forecast the process behaviour, because it is not easy to build a framework of links between the critical variables using the available information. This work takes into account the availability of several computer generic tools which, with a suitable adaptation and endowed with the specific knowledge, are able of learning the process, of connecting a lot of facts and of forecasting the product quality, sustaining at the same time the process under control. These tools manage the plant information, help to reach a robust process, increase its knowledge and improve its performance, related with the reject level in ppm. the development of this type of tools, were considered some years ago as utopian. The analytical method used is based in an initial selection of the defect that we want to study an the, factor or characteristics managing the process. Afterwards we will describe the most likely potential causes, source of the studied defect, and we will arrange then and give priority with probabilistic criteria, searching the root causes to all of them. During the running of industrial processes we will connect, through the computer program, the experimental measurements of the selected factors with the actual results, so that the system learns, and the same time we can reject the less significant variables, improving that way the reliability of the prediction. The conclusions are based in real applications, put in practice in different lines of production, for the validation of the system and the testing of its efficiency using the corresponding success index. (Author)

  12. Poultry management: a useful tool for the control of necrotic enteritis in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, Vasilios

    2016-06-01

    The intestinal ecosystem of poultry has been inevitably changed as a result of the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters. The re-emergence of necrotic enteritis has been the most significant threat for the poultry industry, which, in clinical form, causes high mortality and in subclinical forms, affects growth and feed conversion. It is one of the most common and economically devastating bacterial diseases in modern broiler flocks in terms of performance, welfare and mortality. Necrotic enteritis is a multi-factorial disease process, in which a number of co-factors are usually required to precipitate an outbreak of the disease. Although, Clostridium perfringens has been identified as the aetiological agent of the disease, the predisposing factors that lead to over-proliferation of C. perfringens and the subsequent progression to disease are poorly understood. Any factor that causes stress in broiler chicks could suppress the immune system and disturb the balance of the intestinal ecosystem, in such a way that the risk of a necrotic enteritis (NE) outbreak increases. Poultry management could significantly affect the pathogenesis of NE. In particular, feed restriction and coccidiosis vaccination can protect against NE, while extreme house temperature, feed mycotoxins and high stocking density predispose to NE. It becomes really important to understand the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as to clarify the interactions between husbandry, nutritional and infectious factors and the outbreak of necrotic enteritis. This is necessary and extremely important in order to develop managerial strategies at the farm level to control the incidence and severity of the disease in the post-antibiotic era.

  13. A NIR-remote controlled upconverting nanoparticle: an improved tool for living cell dye-labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Bin; Gong, Xiaoqun; Wang, Hanjie; Wang, Sheng; Chang, Jin; Wang, Huiquan; Li, Wei; Tan, Jian

    2015-01-01

    In living cells, due to the selective permeability and complicated cellular environment, the uptake efficiency and fluorescence decay of organic dyes during dye-labeling may be influenced, which may eventually result in poor fluorescent imaging. In this work, a protocol of UCNs@mSiO_2-(FA and Azo) core–shell nanocarriers was designed and prepared successfully. The core–shell nanocarriers were assembled from two parts, including a mesoporous silica shell surface modified by folate (FA) and azobenzene (Azo), and an upconverting nanocrystal (UCN) core. The mesoporous silica shell is used for loading organic dyes and conjugating folate which helps to enhance the cellular uptake of nanocarriers. The UCN core works as a transducer to convert near infrared (NIR) light to local UV and visible light to activate a back-and-forth wagging motion of azobenzene molecules on the surface, while the azobenzene acts as a molecular impeller for propelling the release of organic dyes. The nanocarriers of loading organic dyes can maintain the stability of the fluorescent imaging effect better than free organic dyes. The experimental results show that with the help of the nanoparticle, cell uptake efficiency of the model dyes of rhodamine and 4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) was significantly improved. The release of dyes can only be triggered by NIR light exposure and their quantity is highly dependent on the duration of NIR light exposure, thus realizing NIR-regulated dye release spatiotemporally. Our work may open a novel avenue for precisely controlling UCN-based living cell imaging in biotechnology and diagnostics, as well as studying cell dynamics, cell–cell interactions, and tissue morphogenesis. (paper)

  14. Thermal treating of acrylic matrices as a tool for controlling drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Davood; Ghaffari, Solmaz; Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz; Al-Hallak, M H D-Kamal; Soltani, Ghazal; Azarmi, Shirzad

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of thermal-treating on the release of ibuprofen from the granules prepared using aqueous dispersions of Eudragit. To accomplish this goal, different formulations were prepared using wet granulation method containing two different types of Eudragit aqueous dispersions, RS30D, RL30D and Avicel as filler. Tablets were prepared using direct compression method. The prepared tablets were thermally treated at 50 and 70 degrees C for 24 h. The drug release from tablets was assessed before and after thermal-treating. The results of release study showed that, thermally-treating the tablets at the temperatures higher than glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer can decrease the drug release from matrices. For mechanistic evaluation of the effect of thermal-treating, powder X-ray diffraction (XPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and helium pycnometer have been employed. The SEM graphs showed that the tablets have smoother surface with less porosity after thermal-treating. FT-IR spectra showed no change in the spectrum of thermally-treated tablet compared to control. In DSC graphs, no crystalline change was seen in the heat-treated samples of ibuprofen tablets, but decreased and widened peak size were related to the probable formation of solid solution of ibuprofen in Eudragit matrix. The results of helium pycnometer showed a significant decrease in the total porosity of some heat-treated samples. This study revealed the importance of thermal treating on the drug release from sustained release tablets containing Eudragit polymer.

  15. [Gastric band erosion: Alternative management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echaverry-Navarrete, Denis José; Maldonado-Vázquez, Angélica; Cortes-Romano, Pablo; Cabrera-Jardines, Ricardo; Mondragón-Pinzón, Erwin Eduardo; Castillo-González, Federico Armando

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a public health problem, for which the prevalence has increased worldwide at an alarming rate, affecting 1.7 billion people in the world. To describe the technique employed in incomplete penetration of gastric band where endoscopic management and/or primary closure is not feasible. Laparoscopic removal of gastric band was performed in five patients with incomplete penetrance using Foley catheterization in the perforation site that could lead to the development of a gastro-cutaneous fistula. The cases presented include a leak that required surgical lavage with satisfactory outcome, and one patient developed stenosis 3 years after surgical management, which was resolved endoscopically. In all cases, the penetration site closed spontaneously. Gastric band erosion has been reported in 3.4% of cases. The reason for inserting a catheter is to create a controlled gastro-cutaneous fistula, allowing spontaneous closure. Various techniques have been described: the totally endoscopic, hybrid techniques (endoscopic/laparoscopic) and completely laparoscopic. A technique is described here that is useful and successful in cases where the above-described treatments are not viable. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  16. Study protocol: pragmatic randomized control trial of an internet-based intervention (My tools 4 care) for family carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggleby, Wendy; Ploeg, Jenny; McAiney, Carrie; Fisher, Kathryn; Swindle, Jenny; Chambers, Tracey; Ghosh, Sunita; Peacock, Shelley; Markle-Reid, Maureen; Triscott, Jean; Williams, Allison; Forbes, Dorothy; Pollard, Lori

    2017-08-14

    Family carers of older persons with Alzheimer's' disease and related dementia (ADRD) and multiple chronic conditions (MCC) experience significant, complex, and distressing transitions such as changes to their environment, roles and relationships, physical health, and mental health. An online intervention (My Tools 4 Care) was developed for family carers of persons with ADRD and MCC living at home, with the aim of supporting these carers through transitions and increasing their self-efficacy, hope, and health related quality of life (HRQoL). This study will evaluate My Tools 4 Care (MT4C) by asking the following research questions: 1. Does use of MT4C result in a 3 month (immediately post intervention) and 6-month (3 months after intervention) increase in HRQoL, self-efficacy, and hope, in carers of persons with ADRD and MCC compared to an educational control group? 2. Does use of MT4C help carers of community-dwelling older adults with ADRD and MCC deal with significant changes they experience as carers? and 3. Are the effects/benefits of the MT4C intervention achieved at no additional cost compared to an educational control group? Using a pragmatic mixed methods randomized controlled trial design, 180 family carers of community dwelling older persons (65 years of age and older) with ADRD and MCC will participate in the study. Data will be collected from the intervention and an educational control group at four time points: baseline, 1 month, 3 and 6 months. We expect to find that family carers using MT4C will show greater improvement in hope, self-efficacy and HRQoL, at no additional cost from a societal perspective, compared to those in the educational control group. General estimating equations will be used to determine differences between groups and over time. Data collection began in Ontario and Alberta Canada in June 2015 and is expected to be completed in June 2017. The results will inform policy and practice as MT4C can be easily revised for local

  17. The realistic consideration of human factors in model based simulation tools for the air traffic control domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duca, Gabriella; Attaianese, Erminia

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts related to automation, airspace organization and operational procedures are driven by the overall goal to increase ATM system performance. Independently on the nature and/or impact of envisaged changes (e.g. from a short term procedure adjustment to a very long term operational concept or aid tools completion), the preliminary assessment of possible gains in airspace/airport capacity, safety and cost-effectiveness is done by running Model Based Simulations (MBSs, also known as Fast Time Simulations - FTS). Being a not human-in-the-loop technique, the reliability of a MBS results depend on the accuracy and significance of modeled human factors. Despite that, it can be observed in the practice that modeling tools commonly assume a generalized standardization of human behaviors and tasks and consider a very few range of work environment factors that, in the reality, affect the actual human-system performance. The present paper is aimed at opening a discussion about the possibility to keep task description and related weight at a high/general level, suitable for an efficient use of MBSs and, at the same time, increasing simulations reliability adopting some adjustment coming from the elaboration of further variables related to the human aspects of controllers workload.

  18. An intervention to decrease patient identification band errors in a children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, Paul D; Joers, B; Rush, M; Slayton, J; Throop, P; Hoagg, S; Allen, L; Grantham, J; Deshpande, J K

    2010-06-01

    Patient misidentification continues to be a quality and safety issue. There is a paucity of US data describing interventions to reduce identification band error rates. Monroe Carell Jr Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt. Percentage of patients with defective identification bands. Web-based surveys were sent, asking hospital personnel to anonymously identify perceived barriers to reaching zero defects with identification bands. Corrective action plans were created and implemented with ideas from leadership, front-line staff and the online survey. Data from unannounced audits of patient identification bands were plotted on statistical process control charts and shared monthly with staff. All hospital personnel were expected to "stop the line" if there were any patient identification questions. The first audit showed a defect rate of 20.4%. The original mean defect rate was 6.5%. After interventions and education, the new mean defect rate was 2.6%. (a) The initial rate of patient identification band errors in the hospital was higher than expected. (b) The action resulting in most significant improvement was staff awareness of the problem, with clear expectations to immediately stop the line if a patient identification error was present. (c) Staff surveys are an excellent source of suggestions for combating patient identification issues. (d) Continued audit and data collection is necessary for sustainable staff focus and continued improvement. (e) Statistical process control charts are both an effective method to track results and an easily understood tool for sharing data with staff.

  19. Photoinducible bioorthogonal chemistry: a spatiotemporally controllable tool to visualize and perturb proteins in live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Reyna K V; Lin, Qing

    2011-09-20

    to label proteins rapidly (within ∼1 min) both in vitro and in E. coli . To create an effective interface with biology, we have identified both a metabolically incorporable alkene amino acid, homoallylglycine, and a genetically encodable tetrazole amino acid, p-(2-tetrazole)phenylalanine. We demonstrate the utility of these two moieties, respectively, in spatiotemporally controlled imaging of newly synthesized proteins and in site-specific labeling of proteins. Additionally, we demonstrate the use of the photoclick chemistry to perturb the localization of a fluorescent protein in mammalian cells. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. Advanced fuelling system for use as a burn control tool in a burning plasma device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, R. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Steady-state Advanced Tokamak (AT) scenarios rely on optimized density and pressure profiles to maximize the bootstrap current fraction. Under this mode of operation, the fuelling system must deposit small amounts of fuel where it is needed, and as often as needed, so as to compensate for fuel losses, but not to adversely alter the established density and pressure profiles. Conventional fuelling methods have not demonstrated successful fuelling of ATtype discharges and may be incapable of deep fuelling long pulse ELM-free discharges in ITER. The capability to deposit fuel at any desired radial location within the tokamak would provide burn control capability through alteration of the density profile. The ability to peak the density profile would ease ignition requirements, while operating ITER with density profiles that are peaked would increase the fusion power output. An advanced fuelling system should also be capable of fuelling well past internal transport barriers. Compact Toroid (CT) fuelling [R. Raman, et al., 'Experimental demonstration of tokamak fuelling by compact toroid injection,' Nucl. Fusion, 37, 967 (1997)] has the potential to meet these needs, while simultaneously providing a source of toroidal momentum input. A CT is a selfcontained toroidal plasmoid with embedded magnetic fields. The 20 Hz injector consists of the formation region, compression, acceleration and transport regions. Fuel gas is puffed into the formation region, and a combination of magnetic field and electric current ionizes this gas and creates a self-contained plasma ring (the 'CT'). Then a fast current pulse compresses and accelerates the CT by electromagnetic forces. The accelerated CT will travel at a speed of over 30 cm/{mu}s and for reactors will create a particle inventory perturbation of < 1% per pulse. At this level of particle inventory perturbation, optimized density profiles will not be adversely perturbed. Experimental data needed for the design of