WorldWideScience

Sample records for contour grass strips

  1. Contour hedgerows and grass strips in erosion and runoff control in semi-arid Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinama, J.M.; Stigter, C.J.; Ong, C.K.; Ng'ang'a, J.K.; Gichuki, F.N.

    2007-01-01

    Most early alley cropping studies in semi-arid Kenya were on fairly flat land while there is an increase in cultivated sloping land. The effectiveness of aging contour hedgerows and grass strips for erosion control on an about 15% slope of an Alfisol was compared. The five treatments were Senna

  2. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  3. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat

  4. Headwater fish population responses to planting grass filter strips adjacent to channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass filter strips are a widely used conservation practice in the Midwestern United States for reducing nutrient, pesticide, and sediment inputs into agricultural streams. Only a limited amount of information is available on the ecological effects of planting grass filter strips adjacent to channe...

  5. Field-level financial assessment of contour prairie strips for enhancement of environmental quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, John C; Schulte, Lisa A; Liebman, Matthew; Helmers, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    The impacts of strategically located contour prairie strips on sediment and nutrient runoff export from watersheds maintained under an annual row crop production system have been studied at a long-term research site in central Iowa. Data from 2007 to 2011 indicate that the contour prairie strips utilized within row crop-dominated landscapes have greater than proportionate and positive effects on the functioning of biophysical systems. Crop producers and land management agencies require comprehensive information about the Best Management Practices with regard to performance efficacy, operational/management parameters, and the full range of financial parameters. Here, a farm-level financial model assesses the establishment, management, and opportunity costs of contour prairie strips within cropped fields. Annualized, depending on variable opportunity costs the 15-year present value cost of utilizing contour prairie strips ranges from $590 to $865 ha(-1) year(-1) ($240-$350 ac(-1) year(-1)). Expressed in the context of "treatment area" (e.g., in this study 1 ha of prairie treats 10 ha of crops), the costs of contour prairie strips can also be viewed as $59 to about $87 per treated hectare ($24-$35 ac(-1)). If prairie strips were under a 15-year CRP contract, total per acre cost to farmers would be reduced by over 85 %. Based on sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen export data from the related field studies and across low, medium, and high land rent scenarios, a megagram (Mg) of soil retained within the watershed costs between $7.79 and $11.46 mg(-1), phosphorus retained costs between $6.97 and $10.25 kg(-1), and nitrogen retained costs between $1.59 and $2.34 kg(-1). Based on overall project results, contour prairie strips may well become one of the key conservation practices used to sustain US Corn Belt agriculture in the decades to come.

  6. Microbial community diversity in agroforestry and grass vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) have long been promoted as a soil conservation practice that yields many additional environmental benefits. Most previous studies have focused primarily on the role of vegetation and/or soil physical properties in these ecosystem services. Few studies have investigated...

  7. Evaluating grass strips trapping efficiency of sediments and herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguet, Maria; Guzmán, Gema; de Luna, Elena; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    Water erosion and associated offsite contamination are major environmental risks in many Mediterranean crops such as olives or vineyards (Beaufoy, 2001; Gómez et al., 2011). The use of cover crops has been prescribed as a mitigation measure for both problems because permanent cover crops have demonstrated to reduce sediment and agrochemical loads (e.g. Gómez, 2009a, b). However, large uncertainty remains about its effectiveness degree to reduce sediment and agrochemical contribution to streams due to the limited number of available studies, and the large variability observed under field conditions (Taguas et al., 2012). Furthermore, the determination of sediment and herbicide sources using suitable sediment tracing/fingerprinting properties has been noted as one tool to evaluate the effectiveness and functioning of vegetated filters at the catchment scale (Koiter et al., 2013). The objectives of the present study were twofold: [1] to explore the combined use of natural and simulated rainfall and magnetic iron oxide in understanding the performance of vegetation strips on runoff and soil and herbicide losses at plot scale and, [2] to evaluate the effectiveness degree of vegetation strips in buffering sediment and herbicide from bare soil areas under different conditions compared to a control situation with no strips. This study encompasses six rainfall simulations under four different soil managements combining the use of a magnetic iron oxide as a sediment tracer to obtain a better understanding of the vegetation strips trapping efficiency. Three runoff plots of 6 m × 14 m were established in a 20% hillslope under a Fluvisol alluvial terrace. Each of the plots contained three bare strips tagged with magnetic iron oxide and three strips with Lolium multiflorum L. The soil management simulated scenarios were: immediately after sowing the vegetation cover (June 2011cover crop), with settled vegetation cover (June 2012cover crop), after 5 cm of deep ploughing

  8. A Coupled Model for Work Roll Thermal Contour with Subsectional Cooling in Aluminum Strip Cold Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Jian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Little attention had been given to the evaluation of subsectional cooling control ability under complicated working conditions. In this paper, heat generation was calculated by using finite difference method. Strip hardening, work roll elastic deformation and elastic recovery of strip were taken into account. The mean coefficient of convective heat transfer on work roll surface was simulated by FLUENT. Calculation model had used the alternative finite difference scheme, which improved the model stability and computing speed. The simulation result shows that subsectional cooling control ability is different between different rolling passes. Positive and negative control abilities are roughly the same in the same pass. The increase of rolled length, working pressure of header and friction coefficient has positive effect on subsectional cooling control ability, and the rolling speed is on the contrary. On the beginning of the pass, when work roll surface has not reached the stable temperature, control ability of subsectional cooling is mainly affected by rolled length. The effect of mean coefficient of convective heat transfer and coefficient of friction is linear. When rolling speed is over 500 m/min, control ability of subsectional cooling becomes stable.

  9. Some observation on the root growth of young apple trees and their uptake of nutrients when grown in herbicided strips in grassed orchards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, D.

    1977-01-01

    Root laboratory observations of the root growth of 4-year-old trees of Cox/M.26 planted in a herbicided strip in grass indicated that during the year 70% of the new growth occurred in the strip. Growth appeared to begin earlier during the year under bare soil than under grass. Nitrogen absorption from the strip and the grassed alley was assessed by measuring 15 N uptake; at 10 cm depth uptake was almost entirely from the strip. An experiment using 2-year-old trees of Cox/M.106 and 15 N placements at 7.5 and 15 cm depths in the strip and 15 cm in the grassed alley gave similar results. With 32 P as a tracer and similar trees a small amount of uptake from 25 cm depth under grass was detected. The experiments indicate that young trees produce most of their new roots in the herbicide strips where most of their nutrient uptake occurs and little or none from the grassed alleys. The absorption of nitrogen into the leaves was greater in early summer than autumn

  10. Modelling the effectiveness of grass buffer strips in managing muddy floods under a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Donal; Vandaele, Karel; Boardman, John; Meneely, John; Crossley, Laura H.

    2016-10-01

    Muddy floods occur when rainfall generates runoff on agricultural land, detaching and transporting sediment into the surrounding natural and built environment. In the Belgian Loess Belt, muddy floods occur regularly and lead to considerable economic costs associated with damage to property and infrastructure. Mitigation measures designed to manage the problem have been tested in a pilot area within Flanders and were found to be cost-effective within three years. This study assesses whether these mitigation measures will remain effective under a changing climate. To test this, the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model was used to examine muddy flooding diagnostics (precipitation, runoff, soil loss and sediment yield) for a case study hillslope in Flanders where grass buffer strips are currently used as a mitigation measure. The model was run for present day conditions and then under 33 future site-specific climate scenarios. These future scenarios were generated from three earth system models driven by four representative concentration pathways and downscaled using quantile mapping and the weather generator CLIGEN. Results reveal that under the majority of future scenarios, muddy flooding diagnostics are projected to increase, mostly as a consequence of large scale precipitation events rather than mean changes. The magnitude of muddy flood events for a given return period is also generally projected to increase. These findings indicate that present day mitigation measures may have a reduced capacity to manage muddy flooding given the changes imposed by a warming climate with an enhanced hydrological cycle. Revisions to the design of existing mitigation measures within existing policy frameworks are considered the most effective way to account for the impacts of climate change in future mitigation planning.

  11. Performance of Grass Filter Strip in Copper and Zinc Removal in Surface and Subsurface Runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huo Weijie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three filter strips were conducted on self-designed soil bins. Taking a filter strip with no vegetation as contrast, the effectiveness of vegetation and soil conditions on heavy metals (including copper and zinc removal efficiencies were investigated by simulated runoff experiment. The results showed that the adsorbed state is the main existing form of heavy metal. For surface runoff, most of total copper and total zinc are trapped in first 4m and it is ineffective to increase the distance beyond 4m for removal. Vegetation has no significant effect on total copper and total zinc removal, while the soil with higher content of organic matter is contributing to total Zn interception. For subsurface runoff, the removal efficiencies of total copper and total zinc can reach to above 95.38% and both vegetation and soil conditions have no significant effects. Vegetation is contributing to copper ion and zinc ion removal significantly. Soil condition is only a significant factor to zinc ion, with higher content of organic matter as a contributing factor.

  12. Effectiveness of the GAEC cross-compliance standard Short-term measures for runoff water control on sloping land (temporary ditches and grass strips in controlling soil erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bazzoffi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The agronomic measures made obligatory by the cross-compliance Standard Temporary measures for runoff water control on sloping land included in the Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies (MiPAAF decree on cross compliance until 2008, and by Standard 1.1 Creation of temporary ditches for the prevention of soil erosion in the 2009 decree, certainly appear to be useful for the control of soil erosion and runoff. The efficacy of temporary drainage ditches and of grass strips in controlling runoff and erosion has been demonstrated in trials conducted in field test plots in Italy. When level temporary drainage ditches are correctly built, namely with an inclination of not more than 2.5% in relation to the maximum hillslope gradient, they allow the suspended sediment eroded upstream to settle in the ditches, retaining the material carried away on the slope and, as a result, reducing the quantity of sediment delivered to the hydrographic network. In particular, among all the results, the erosion and runoff data in a trial conducted in Guiglia (Modena showed that in corn plots, temporary drainage ditches reduced soil erosion by 94%, from 14.4 Mg ha-1 year-1 (above the limit established by the NRCS-USDA of 11.2 Mg ha-1 year-1 to 0.8 Mg ha-1 year-1 (within the NRCS limit and also within the more restrictive limit established by the OECD of 6.0 Mg ha-1 year-1. With respect to the grass buffer strips the most significant research was carried out in Volterra. This research demonstrated their efficacy in reducing erosion from 8.15 Mg ha-1 to 1.6 Mg ha-1, which is approximately 5 times less than the erosion observed on bare soil. The effectiveness of temporary drainage ditches was also assessed through the application of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE erosion model to 60 areas under the control of the Agency for Agricultural Payments (AGEA in 2009, comparing the risk of erosion in these sample areas by simulating the presence and

  13. Annual maize and perennial grass-clover strip cropping for increased resource use efficiency and productivity using organic farming practice as a model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, Anders; Carter, Mette Sustmann

    2013-01-01

    A cropping system was designed to fulfill the increasing demand for biomass for food and energy without decreasing long term soil fertility. A field experiment was carried out including alternating strips of annual maize (Zea mays L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) – clover (Trifolium...

  14. Combined Use Of Cs-137 And Be-7 To Assess The Effectiveness Of Soil Conservation For Vetiver Grass Strips In Coffee Crop Lands In The Central Highlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Son Hai; Nguyen Dao; Tran Van Hoa; Tran Dinh Khoa; Nguyen Thi Mui; Trinh Cong Tu

    2007-01-01

    The combined use of 137 Cs and 7 Be for assessment of medium- and short-term soil erosion rates for sloping lands with and without soil conservation technologies in the Central Highlands of Vietnam has been carried out. Studies were performed at five 128 m 2 runoff plots and two 0.5 ha coffee plots with the slope gradient of about 25%. Experiments carried out at runoff plots showed that: (i) In the case of low erosion rates (less than 30 t ha -1 y -1 ), soil erosion rates estimated by 7 Be technique using the Profile-Distribution Model were consistent with net soil erosion rates obtained by runoff plots when particle size correction factor P is taken into account; (ii) In the case of high erosion rates (greater than 30 t ha -1 y -1 ), the conversion model overestimated soil erosion rates when P was not allowed for, and underestimated erosion rate when P factor was taken into account. Studies carried out at two 0.5 ha coffee plots showed that: (i) For the plot without soil conservation, soil erosion occurred for all sampling points with medium-term erosion rates ranging between 1.2 t ha -1 y -1 and 35 t ha -1 y -1 (the average erosion rate was 22.7 ± 1.2 t ha -1 y -1 ). The short term soil erosion rate estimated by 7 Be technique was 32.7 ± 6.1 t ha -1 y -1 for this plot; (ii) For the plot with the last seven year presence of Vetiver strips, about 93% of the area suffered from medium term erosion with erosion rates varying from 3 t ha -1 y -1 to 33 t ha -1 y -1 (the mean is 22.2 t ha -1 y -1 ), and medium term deposition occurred for only 7% of the area with the deposition rates ranging between 1.3 and 1.4 t ha -1 y -1 , resulting in the net erosion rate of 20.4 ± 0.6 t ha -1 y -1 . The short term soil erosion rate at this plot estimated by 7 Be technique was 2.3 t ha -1 y -1 . By using Vetiver strips as a soil conservation technology, soil erosion was almost controlled and the net erosion rate was reduced from 32.7 t ha -1 y -1 to 2.3 t ha -1 y -1 . (author)

  15. Effectiveness of the GAEC cross compliance standards Rational management of set aside, Grass strips to control soil erosion and Vegetation buffers along watercourses on surface animal diversity and biological quality of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Biaggini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Landscape simplification and loss of natural and semi-natural habitats are the major causes of biodiversity decrease in agricultural landscapes. In order to mitigate the effects of intensive agricultural management the Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies in Italy has included the agronomic measures Rational management of set aside, Grass strips to control soil erosion and Vegetation buffers along watercourses in the decree on cross compliance. In this paper we review the results of a field research performed in Central Italy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the above mentioned GAEC standards for animal diversity enhancement. Using different animal groups as indicators, superficial Arthropod fauna and Herpetofauna, we found striking differences in the biodiversity levels of areas characterized by the application or by the lack of GAEC standards, with the latter being characterized by a significatively impoverished fauna. In particular, the set aside area and the buffer of riparian vegetation resulted of primary importance to allow higher biodiversity levels. Also the analysis of the biological quality of the soil, as assessed through the QBS-ar index based on edaphic micro-Arthropod fauna, indicated a higher quality of semi-natural habitats with respect to arable lands.

  16. Sediment removal by prairie filter strips in row-cropped ephemeral watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Xiaobo Zhou; Heidi Asbjornsen; Randy Kolka; Mark D. Tomer; Richard M. Cruse

    2012-01-01

    Twelve small watersheds in central Iowa were used to evaluate the eff ectiveness of prairie filter strips (PFS) in trapping sediment from agricultural runoff. Four treatments with PFS of different size and location (100% rowcrop, 10% PFS of total watershed area at footslope, 10% PFS at footslope and in contour strips, 20% PFS at footslope and in contour strips)...

  17. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  18. Fairfax County Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This layer contains contours that were derived from the digital terrain model made up of irregularly spaced mass points and breaklines. The contours are 5 foot...

  19. Tagged Vector Contour (TVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Tagged Vector Contour (TVC) dataset consists of digitized contours from the 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle maps. Coverage for the state is incomplete....

  20. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  1. Perennial filter strips reduce nitrate levels in soil and shallow groundwater after grassland-to-cropland conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobo; Helmers, Matthew J; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Kolka, Randy; Tomer, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    Many croplands planted to perennial grasses under the Conservation Reserve Program are being returned to crop production, and with potential consequences for water quality. The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of grassland-to-cropland conversion on nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentrations in soil and shallow groundwater and to assess the potential for perennial filter strips (PFS) to mitigate increases in NO3-N levels. The study, conducted at the Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (NSNWR) in central Iowa, consisted of a balanced incomplete block design with 12 watersheds and four watershed-scale treatments having different proportions and topographic positions of PFS planted in native prairie grasses: 100% rowcrop, 10% PFS (toeslope position), 10% PFS (distributed on toe and as contour strips), and 20 PFS (distributed on toe and as contour strips). All treatments were established in fall 2006 on watersheds that were under bromegrass (Bromus L.) cover for at least 10 yr. Nonperennial areas were maintained under a no-till 2-yr corn (Zea mays L.)--soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr.] rotation since spring 2007. Suction lysimeter and shallow groundwater wells located at upslope and toeslope positions were sampled monthly during the growing season to determine NO3-N concentration from 2005 to 2008. The results indicated significant increases in NO3-N concentration in soil and groundwater following grassland-to-cropland conversion. Nitrate-nitrogen levels in the vadose zone and groundwater under PFS were lower compared with 100% cropland, with the most significant differences occurring at the toeslope position. During the years following conversion, PFS mitigated increases in subsurface nitrate, but long-term monitoring is needed to observe and understand the full response to land-use conversion.

  2. (Con)fusing contours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, R.J. van; Wit, T.C.J. de; Koning, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    We have created patterns in which illusory Kanizsa squares are positioned on top of a background grid of bars. When the illusory contours and physical contours are misaligned, the resulting percept appears to be rather confusing (van Lier et al, 2004 Perception 33 Supplement, 77). Observers often

  3. Male Body Contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Babu; Keaney, Terrence; Rossi, Anthony M

    2015-09-01

    Men are increasingly turning to dermatologists and plastic surgeons to request procedures that correct or enhance physical features. With the advent of this emerging new patient population, alterations in preexisting aesthetic techniques, gender-specific uses of existing devices and overall approaches need to be revisited and adapted to obtain results that are suitable for the male patient. Recently, body contouring has become one of the most sought out procedures by men. Although the majority of clinical studies involving body contouring esthetics are performed with female patients, gains from such studies can be extrapolated to men. Body contouring can be broadly classified as non-invasive or invasive, depending on the modality used. Non-invasive contouring is most frequently performed with devices that target subcutaneous adipose with focused electrical or thermal energy, including low-level laser, cryolipolysis, ultrasonography, and radiofrequency. Invasive body contouring modalities useful for male body contouring include liposuction, pectoral and abdominal wall etching, jawline fillers, synthetic deoxycholic acid injections, and solid silicone implants. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to the unique aspects, strategies, and modalities used in aesthetic body contouring for the male patient.

  4. CONTOUR investigation launched

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    On 27 August, NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe appointed a team to investigate the apparent loss of the Comet Nucleus Tour (CONTOUR) spacecraft, which stopped communicating with the mission control operations on 15 August.On that date, CONTOUR failed to communicate following the firing of its main engine that would take it out of its orbit around the Earth. Shortly afterwards, the mission team received telescope images from several observatories showing two objects traveling along the spacecraft's predicted path. Those objects could be CONTOUR, and part of the spacecraft that may have separated from it when the spacecraft's solid rocket motor fired.

  5. Spectrally accurate contour dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buskirk, R.D.; Marcus, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    We present an exponentially accurate boundary integral method for calculation the equilibria and dynamics of piece-wise constant distributions of potential vorticity. The method represents contours of potential vorticity as a spectral sum and solves the Biot-Savart equation for the velocity by spectrally evaluating a desingularized contour integral. We use the technique in both an initial-value code and a newton continuation method. Our methods are tested by comparing the numerical solutions with known analytic results, and it is shown that for the same amount of computational work our spectral methods are more accurate than other contour dynamics methods currently in use

  6. Stripping Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovrić, Milivoj

    Electrochemical stripping means the oxidative or reductive removal of atoms, ions, or compounds from an electrode surface (or from the electrode body, as in the case of liquid mercury electrodes with dissolved metals) [1-5]. In general, these atoms, ions, or compounds have been preliminarily immobilized on the surface of an inert electrode (or within it) as the result of a preconcentration step, while the products of the electrochemical stripping will dissolve in the electrolytic solution. Often the product of the electrochemical stripping is identical to the analyte before the preconcentration. However, there are exemptions to these rules. Electroanalytical stripping methods comprise two steps: first, the accumulation of a dissolved analyte onto, or in, the working electrode, and, second, the subsequent stripping of the accumulated substance by a voltammetric [3, 5], potentiometric [6, 7], or coulometric [8] technique. In stripping voltammetry, the condition is that there are two independent linear relationships: the first one between the activity of accumulated substance and the concentration of analyte in the sample, and the second between the maximum stripping current and the accumulated substance activity. Hence, a cumulative linear relationship between the maximum response and the analyte concentration exists. However, the electrode capacity for the analyte accumulation is limited and the condition of linearity is satisfied only well below the electrode saturation. For this reason, stripping voltammetry is used mainly in trace analysis. The limit of detection depends on the factor of proportionality between the activity of the accumulated substance and the bulk concentration of the analyte. This factor is a constant in the case of a chemical accumulation, but for electrochemical accumulation it depends on the electrode potential. The factor of proportionality between the maximum stripping current and the analyte concentration is rarely known exactly. In fact

  7. Grass genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; SanMiguel, Phillip; Chen, Mingsheng; Tikhonov, Alexander; Francki, Michael; Avramova, Zoya

    1998-01-01

    For the most part, studies of grass genome structure have been limited to the generation of whole-genome genetic maps or the fine structure and sequence analysis of single genes or gene clusters. We have investigated large contiguous segments of the genomes of maize, sorghum, and rice, primarily focusing on intergenic spaces. Our data indicate that much (>50%) of the maize genome is composed of interspersed repetitive DNAs, primarily nested retrotransposons that in...

  8. A Biologically Motivated Multiresolution Approach to Contour Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Neri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard edge detectors react to all local luminance changes, irrespective of whether they are due to the contours of the objects represented in a scene or due to natural textures like grass, foliage, water, and so forth. Moreover, edges due to texture are often stronger than edges due to object contours. This implies that further processing is needed to discriminate object contours from texture edges. In this paper, we propose a biologically motivated multiresolution contour detection method using Bayesian denoising and a surround inhibition technique. Specifically, the proposed approach deploys computation of the gradient at different resolutions, followed by Bayesian denoising of the edge image. Then, a biologically motivated surround inhibition step is applied in order to suppress edges that are due to texture. We propose an improvement of the surround suppression used in previous works. Finally, a contour-oriented binarization algorithm is used, relying on the observation that object contours lead to long connected components rather than to short rods obtained from textures. Experimental results show that our contour detection method outperforms standard edge detectors as well as other methods that deploy inhibition.

  9. Holographic Moire Contouring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, C. A.; Sainov, Ventseslav; Simova, Eli

    1990-04-01

    Theoretical analysis and experimental results on holographic moire contouring (HMC) of difussely reflecting objects are presented. The sensitivity and application constraints of the method are discussed. A high signal-to-noise ratio and contrast of the fringes is achieved through the use of high quality silver halide holographic plates HP-650. A good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is observed.

  10. The Development of Contour Interpolation: Evidence from Subjective Contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Bat-Sheva; Maurer, Daphne; Lewis, Terri L.

    2010-01-01

    Adults are skilled at perceiving subjective contours in regions without any local image information (e.g., [Ginsburg, 1975] and [Kanizsa, 1976]). Here we examined the development of this skill and the effect thereon of the support ratio (i.e., the ratio of the physically specified contours to the total contour length). Children (6-, 9-, and…

  11. Visualization of Uncertain Contour Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Contour trees can represent the topology of large volume data sets in a relatively compact, discrete data structure. However, the resulting trees often contain many thousands of nodes; thus, many graph drawing techniques fail to produce satisfactory results. Therefore, several visualization methods...... were proposed recently for the visualization of contour trees. Unfortunately, none of these techniques is able to handle uncertain contour trees although any uncertainty of the volume data inevitably results in partially uncertain contour trees. In this work, we visualize uncertain contour trees...... by combining the contour trees of two morphologically filtered versions of a volume data set, which represent the range of uncertainty. These two contour trees are combined and visualized within a single image such that a range of potential contour trees is represented by the resulting visualization. Thus...

  12. The method of contour rotations and the three particle amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinati, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The application of the method of contour rotations to the solution of the Faddeev-Lovelace equations and the calculation of the break-up and stripping amplitudes in a system of three distinct particles is reviewed. A relationship between the masses of the particles is obtained, which permits the break-up amplitude to be calculated from a single iteration of the final integral equation. (Author) [pt

  13. An analysis of stripping to isolated analog resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, E.F.; Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de.

    1983-04-01

    The Feshbach projection formalism is used to calculate the form factors for the (d,n) stripping process to isolated analog resonances. These are used in a standard DWBA stripping calculation in which the radial integration over all space is accomplished by including outerspace contributions evaluated along the complex contours of Vincent and Fortune. It turns out that the shape and magnitude of the predicted cross section is quite insensitive to the continuum proton wave emanating from the resonant residual state. (Author) [pt

  14. Detection of elliptical contours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokland, J.A.K.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation describes the quantitation of myocardial perfusion defects in planar thallium-201 scintigrams. To be able to quantify the distribution of 201 Tl in the myocardium as imaged by the scintigram, accurate delineation of the target object is a prerequisite. The distribution of the radionuclide within the contour of the left ventricle can be described by application of circumferential profiles. By comparing the computed circumferential profile with those of normal subjects, humans with no evidence of coronary artery disease, segments of the left ventricle with decreased bloodflow can be detected. In practice there is no real standard to compare with, and due to noise and biological variations, it is not always possible to make a definite decision regarding the presence of a defect in the distribution of the radionuclide. The value and limitations of the developed quantification procedure are discussed. Some future developments are suggested. 108 refs.; 57 figs.; 5 tabs

  15. Varicose vein stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stripping; Venous reflux - vein stripping; Venous ulcer - veins Patient Instructions Surgical wound care - open Varicose veins - what to ask your doctor Images Circulatory system References American Family Physician. Management of varicose veins. www.aafp.org/afp/2008/ ...

  16. Contours - MO 2012 Greene County 5ft Contours (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — 5ft cartographic contour file for Greene County, Missouri. This file was created using the elevation data from the 2011 LiDAR flight. It includes indexes for 10, 25,...

  17. Digital extraction of interference fringe contours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastin, G.A.; Ghiglia, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Two basic techniques for extracting interferogram contours have been discussed. The first is a global contour extracton technique based on the fast Fourier transform. The second extracts individual contours with a thinning algorithm using logical neighborhood transformations

  18. Computer assisted holographic moire contouring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical analyses and experimental results on holographic moire contouring on diffusely reflecting objects are presented. The sensitivity and limitations of the method are discussed. Particular emphasis is put on computer-assisted data retrieval, processing, and recording.

  19. Visualizing Contour Trees within Histograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Many of the topological features of the isosurfaces of a scalar volume field can be compactly represented by its contour tree. Unfortunately, the contour trees of most real-world volume data sets are too complex to be visualized by dot-and-line diagrams. Therefore, we propose a new visualization...... that is suitable for large contour trees and efficiently conveys the topological structure of the most important isosurface components. This visualization is integrated into a histogram of the volume data; thus, it offers strictly more information than a traditional histogram. We present algorithms...... to automatically compute the graph layout and to calculate appropriate approximations of the contour tree and the surface area of the relevant isosurface components. The benefits of this new visualization are demonstrated with the help of several publicly available volume data sets....

  20. Image Interpolation with Contour Stencils

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Getreuer

    2011-01-01

    Image interpolation is the problem of increasing the resolution of an image. Linear methods must compromise between artifacts like jagged edges, blurring, and overshoot (halo) artifacts. More recent works consider nonlinear methods to improve interpolation of edges and textures. In this paper we apply contour stencils for estimating the image contours based on total variation along curves and then use this estimation to construct a fast edge-adaptive interpolation.

  1. Development of a contour meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrada C, F.A.; Sanz, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    The dosimetric calculation in patients that receive radiotherapy treatment it requires the one knowledge of the geometry of some anatomical portions, which differs from a patient to another. Making reference to the specific case of mammary neoplasia, one of the measurements that is carried out on the patient is the acquisition of the contour of the breast, which is determined from a point marked on the breastbone until another point marked on the lateral of the thorax, below the armpit, with the patient located in the irradiation position. This measurement is carried out with the help of a mechanical contour meter that is a device conformed by a series of wires with a polymeric coating, which support on the breast of the patient and it reproduces its form. Then it is transported in the more careful possible form on a paper and the contour is traced with a tracer one. The geometric error associated to this procedure is of ±1 cm, which is sensitive of being reduced. The present work finds its motivation in the patient's radiological protection radiotherapy. The maximum error in dose allowed in radiotherapeutic treatments is 5%. It would be increase the precision and with it to optimize the treatment received by the patient, reducing the error in the acquisition process of the mammary contour. With this objective, a digital device is designed whose operation is based in the application of a spatial transformation on a picture of the mammary contour, which corrects the geometric distortion introduced in the process of the photographic acquisition. An algorithm that allows to obtain a front image (without distortion) of the plane of the contour was developed. A software tool especially developed carries out the processing of the digital images. The maximum geometric error detected in the validation process is 2 mm located on a small portion of the contour. (Author)

  2. The influence of automation on tumor contouring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aselmaa, A.; van Herk, Marcel; Song, Y.; Goossens, R.H.M.; Laprie, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Fully or semi-automatic contouring tools are increasingly being used in the tumor contouring task for radiotherapy. While the fully automatic contouring tools have not reached sufficient efficiency, the semi-automatic contouring tools balance more effectively between the human interaction and

  3. Orientation-crowding within contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, James C; Dakin, Steven C

    2013-07-15

    We examined how crowding (the breakdown of object recognition in the periphery caused by interference from "clutter") depends on the global arrangement of target and distracting flanker elements. Specifically we probed orientation discrimination using a near-vertical target Gabor flanked by two vertical distractor Gabors (one above and one below the target). By applying variable (opposite-sign) horizontal offsets to the positions of the two flankers we arranged the elements so that on some trials they formed contours with the target and on others they did not. While the presence of flankers generally elevated orientation discrimination thresholds for the target we observe maximal crowding not when flanker and targets were co-aligned but when a small spatial offset was applied to flanker location, so that contours formed between flanker and targets only when the target orientation was cued. We also report that observers' orientation judgments are biased, with target orientation appearing either attracted or repulsed by the global/contour orientation. A second experiment reveals that the sign of this effect is dependent both on observer and on eccentricity. In general, the magnitude of repulsion is reduced with eccentricity but whether this becomes attraction (of element orientation to contour orientation) is dependent on observer. We note however that across observers and eccentricities, the magnitude of repulsion correlates positively with the amount of release from crowding observed with co-aligned targets and flankers, supporting the notion of fluctuating bias as the basis for elevated crowding within contours.

  4. The Strip Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tommy

    1996-01-01

    When the behaviour of a ship in waves is to be predicted it is convenient to have a tool which includes different approaches to the problem.The aim of this project is to develop such a tool named the strip theory module. The strip theory module will consist of submodules dependent on the I...

  5. Science Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Sun-Ja; Yoo, Chang Young; Chung, Min Suk

    2012-01-01

    Science comic strips entitled Dr. Scifun were planned to promote science jobs and studies among professionals (scientists, graduate and undergraduate students) and children. To this end, the authors collected intriguing science stories as the basis of scenarios, and drew four-cut comic strips, first on paper and subsequently as computer files.…

  6. Anatomy Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  7. Automated consensus contour building for prostate MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalvati, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Inter-observer variability is the lack of agreement among clinicians in contouring a given organ or tumour in a medical image. The variability in medical image contouring is a source of uncertainty in radiation treatment planning. Consensus contour of a given case, which was proposed to reduce the variability, is generated by combining the manually generated contours of several clinicians. However, having access to several clinicians (e.g., radiation oncologists) to generate a consensus contour for one patient is costly. This paper presents an algorithm that automatically generates a consensus contour for a given case using the atlases of different clinicians. The algorithm was applied to prostate MR images of 15 patients manually contoured by 5 clinicians. The automatic consensus contours were compared to manual consensus contours where a median Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 88% was achieved.

  8. Towards Stabilizing Parametric Active Contours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jinchao; Fan, Zhun; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2014-01-01

    Numerical instability often occurs in evolving of parametric active contours. This is mainly due to the undesired change of parametrization during evolution. In this paper, we propose a new tangential diffusion term to compensate this undesired change. As a result, the parametrization will converge...

  9. From Inpainting to Active Contours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauze, Francois Bernard; Nielsen, Mads

    2008-01-01

    state equation). The contour evolution is implemented in the framework of level sets. Finally, the proposed method is validated on various examples. We focus among others in the segmentation of calcified plaques observed in radiographs from human lumbar aortic regions. Keywords  Segmentation - Inpainting - Active...

  10. resistance of napier grass clones to napier grass stunt disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease. (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  11. Resistance of Napier grass clones to Napier grass Stunt Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  12. The Honeycomb Strip Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaf, Harry van der; Buskens, Joop; Rewiersma, Paul; Koenig, Adriaan; Wijnen, Thei

    1991-06-01

    The Honeycomb Strip Chamber (HSC) is a new position sensitive detector. It consists of a stack of folded foils, forming a rigid honeycomb structure. In the centre of each hexagonal cell a wire is strung. Conducting strips on the foils, perpendicular to the wires, pick up the induced avalanche charge. Test results of a prototype show that processing the signals form three adjacent strips nearest to the track gives a spatial resolution better than 64 μm for perpendicular incident tracks. The chamber performance is only slightly affected by a magnetic field. (author). 25 refs.; 21 figs

  13. Grass Rooting the System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Janice E.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests a taxonomy of the grass roots movement and gives a general descriptive over view of the 60 groups studied with respect to origin, constituency, size, funding, issues, and ideology. (Author/AM)

  14. Axial Force Analysis and Roll Contour Configuration of Four-High CVC Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-ming Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the influence of technical parameters on work roll axial force of four-high continuous variable crown (CVC mill, the deformation analyzing model with top roll system and strip was established based on influence function method. Then a CVC work roll curve designing scheme was proposed and it was carried out on some cold rolling mill considering the requirement of comprehensive work roll axial force minimization. The status of comprehensive work roll axial force is improved considering the rolling schedule that is beneficial to the roller bearing. Corresponding to the newly designed work roll contour, the backup roll end chamfer was designed considering comprehensive performance of interroll stress concentration, comprehensive work roll axial force, and strip shape control ability. The distribution of roll wear with newly designed backup roll contour is more even according to the field application data. The newly established roll configuration scheme is beneficial to four-high CVC mill.

  15. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  16. Reversing land degradation through grasses: a systematic meta-analysis in the Indian tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Debashis; Srivastava, Pankaj; Giri, Nishita; Kaushal, Rajesh; Cerda, Artemi; Meherul Alam, Nurnabi

    2017-02-01

    Although intensive agriculture is necessary to sustain the world's growing population, accelerated soil erosion contributes to a decrease in the environmental health of ecosystems at local, regional and global scales. Reversing the process of land degradation using vegetative measures is of utmost importance in such ecosystems. The present study critically analyzes the effect of grasses in reversing the process of land degradation using a systematic review. The collected information was segregated under three different land use and land management situations. Meta-analysis was applied to test the hypothesis that the use of grasses reduces runoff and soil erosion. The effect of grasses was deduced for grass strip and in combination with physical structures. Similarly, the effects of grasses were analyzed in degraded pasture lands. The overall result of the meta-analysis showed that infiltration capacity increased approximately 2-fold after planting grasses across the slopes in agricultural fields. Grazing land management through a cut-and-carry system increased conservation efficiencies by 42 and 63 % with respect to reduction in runoff and erosion, respectively. Considering the comprehensive performance index (CPI), it has been observed that hybrid Napier (Pennisetum purpureum) and sambuta (Saccharum munja) grass seem to posses the most desirable attributes as an effective grass barrier for the western Himalayas and Eastern Ghats, while natural grass (Dichanthium annulatum) and broom grass (Thysanolaena maxima) are found to be most promising grass species for the Konkan region of the Western Ghats and the northeastern Himalayan region, respectively. In addition to these benefits, it was also observed that soil carbon loss can be reduced by 83 % with the use of grasses. Overall, efficacy for erosion control of various grasses was more than 60 %; hence, their selection should be based on the production potential of these grasses under given edaphic and agro

  17. An improved spatial contour tree constructed method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Ling; Guilbert, Eric; Long, Yi

    2018-05-01

    Contours are important data to delineate the landform on a map. A contour tree provides an object-oriented description of landforms and can be used to enrich the topological information. The traditional contour tree is used to store topological relationships between contours in a hierarchical structure and allows for the identification of eminences and depressions as sets of nested contours. This research proposes an improved contour tree so-called spatial contour tree that contains not only the topological but also the geometric information. It can be regarded as a terrain skeleton in 3-dimention, and it is established based on the spatial nodes of contours which have the latitude, longitude and elevation information. The spatial contour tree is built by connecting spatial nodes from low to high elevation for a positive landform, and from high to low elevation for a negative landform to form a hierarchical structure. The connection between two spatial nodes can provide the real distance and direction as a Euclidean vector in 3-dimention. In this paper, the construction method is tested in the experiment, and the results are discussed. The proposed hierarchical structure is in 3-demintion and can show the skeleton inside a terrain. The structure, where all nodes have geo-information, can be used to distinguish different landforms and applied for contour generalization with consideration of geographic characteristics.

  18. Enhancement of Afterimage Colors by Surrounding Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Sato

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Presenting luminance contours surrounding the adapted areas in test phase enhances color afterimages in both duration and color appearance. The presence of surrounding contour is crucial to some color phenomenon such as van Lier's afterimage, but the contour-effect itself has not been seriously examined. In this paper, we compared the contour-effect to color afterimages and to actually colored patches to examine the nature of color information subserving color-aftereffect. In the experiment, observers were adapted for 1 sec to a small colored square (red, green, yellow, or blue presented on a gray background. Then, a test field either with or without surrounding contour was presented. Observers matched the color of a test-patch located near the afterimage to the color of afterimage. It was found that the saturation of negative afterimage was almost doubled by the presence of surrounding contours. There was no effect of luminance contrast or polarity of contours. In contrast, no enhancement of saturation by surrounding contours was observed for actually colored patches even though the colors of patches were equalized to that of afterimage without contours. This dissociation in the contour-effect demonstrates the crucial difference between the color information for aftereffects and for ordinary bottom-up color perception.

  19. Brightness Alteration with Interweaving Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roncato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromatic induction is observed whenever the perceived colour of a target surface shifts towards the hue of a neighbouring surface. Some vivid manifestations may be seen in a white background where thin coloured lines have been drawn (assimilation or when lines of different colours are collinear (neon effect or adjacent (watercolour to each other. This study examines a particular colour induction that manifests in concomitance with an opposite effect of colour saturation (or anti-spread. The two phenomena can be observed when a repetitive pattern is drawn in which outline thin contours intercept wider contours or surfaces, colour spreading appear to fill the surface occupied by surfaces or thick lines whereas the background traversed by thin lines is seen as brighter or filled of a saturated white. These phenomena were first observed by Bozzi (1975 and Kanizsa (1979 in figural conditions that did not allow them to document their conjunction. Here we illustrate various manifestations of this twofold phenomenon and compare its effects with the known effects of brightness and colour induction. Some conjectures on the nature of these effects are discussed.

  20. Selective chemical stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    At the end of the 80's, some of the large European airlines expressed a wish for paint systems with improved strippability on their aircraft, allowing the possibility to strip down to the primer without altering it, using 'mild' chemical strippers based on methylene chloride. These improvements were initially intended to reduce costs and stripping cycle times while facilitating rapid repainting, and this without the need to change the conventionally used industrial facilities. The level of in-service performance of these paint systems was to be the same as the previous ones. Requirements related to hygiene safety and the environment were added to these initial requirements. To meet customers' expectations, Aerospatiale, within the Airbus Industry GIE, formed a work group. This group was given the task of specifying, following up the elaboration and qualifying the paint systems allowing requirements to be met, in relation with the paint suppliers and the airlines. The analysis made in this report showed the interest of transferring as far upstream as possible (to paint conception level) most of the technical constraints related to stripping. Thus, the concept retained for the paint system, allowing selective chemical stripping, is a 3-coat system with characteristics as near as possible to the previously used paints.

  1. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  2. GUI development for GRASS GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Landa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses GUI development for GRASS GIS. Sophisticated native GUI for GRASS is one of the key points (besides the new 2D/3D raster library, vector architecture improvements, etc. for the future development of GRASS. In 2006 the GRASS development team decided to start working on the new generation of GUI instead of improving the current GUI based on Tcl/Tk.

  3. A Method for Denoising Image Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu COSMA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The edge detection techniques have to compromise between sensitivity and noise. In order for the main contours to be uninterrupted, the level of sensitivity has to be raised, which however has the negative effect of producing a multitude of insignificant contours (noise. This article proposes a method of removing this noise, which acts directly on the binary representation of the image contours.

  4. Strip interpolation in silicon and germanium strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulf, E. A.; Phlips, B. F.; Johnson, W. N.; Kurfess, J. D.; Lister, C. J.; Kondev, F.; Physics; Naval Research Lab.

    2004-01-01

    The position resolution of double-sided strip detectors is limited by the strip pitch and a reduction in strip pitch necessitates more electronics. Improved position resolution would improve the imaging capabilities of Compton telescopes and PET detectors. Digitizing the preamplifier waveform yields more information than can be extracted with regular shaping electronics. In addition to the energy, depth of interaction, and which strip was hit, the digitized preamplifier signals can locate the interaction position to less than the strip pitch of the detector by looking at induced signals in neighboring strips. This allows the position of the interaction to be interpolated in three dimensions and improve the imaging capabilities of the system. In a 2 mm thick silicon strip detector with a strip pitch of 0.891 mm, strip interpolation located the interaction of 356 keV gamma rays to 0.3 mm FWHM. In a 2 cm thick germanium detector with a strip pitch of 5 mm, strip interpolation of 356 keV gamma rays yielded a position resolution of 1.5 mm FWHM

  5. Contouring variability of human- and deformable-generated contours in radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, Stephen J; Wen, Ning; Kim, Jinkoo; Liu, Chang; Pradhan, Deepak; Aref, Ibrahim; Cattaneo, Richard II; Vance, Sean; Movsas, Benjamin; Chetty, Indrin J; Elshaikh, Mohamed A

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate contouring variability of human-and deformable-generated contours on planning CT (PCT) and CBCT for ten patients with low-or intermediate-risk prostate cancer. For each patient in this study, five radiation oncologists contoured the prostate, bladder, and rectum, on one PCT dataset and five CBCT datasets. Consensus contours were generated using the STAPLE method in the CERR software package. Observer contours were compared to consensus contour, and contour metrics (Dice coefficient, Hausdorff distance, Contour Distance, Center-of-Mass [COM] Deviation) were calculated. In addition, the first day CBCT was registered to subsequent CBCT fractions (CBCTn: CBCT2–CBCT5) via B-spline Deformable Image Registration (DIR). Contours were transferred from CBCT1 to CBCTn via the deformation field, and contour metrics were calculated through comparison with consensus contours generated from human contour set. The average contour metrics for prostate contours on PCT and CBCT were as follows: Dice coefficient—0.892 (PCT), 0.872 (CBCT-Human), 0.824 (CBCT-Deformed); Hausdorff distance—4.75 mm (PCT), 5.22 mm (CBCT-Human), 5.94 mm (CBCT-Deformed); Contour Distance (overall contour)—1.41 mm (PCT), 1.66 mm (CBCT-Human), 2.30 mm (CBCT-Deformed); COM Deviation—2.01 mm (PCT), 2.78 mm (CBCT-Human), 3.45 mm (CBCT-Deformed). For human contours on PCT and CBCT, the difference in average Dice coefficient between PCT and CBCT (approx. 2%) and Hausdorff distance (approx. 0.5 mm) was small compared to the variation between observers for each patient (standard deviation in Dice coefficient of 5% and Hausdorff distance of 2.0 mm). However, additional contouring variation was found for the deformable-generated contours (approximately 5.0% decrease in Dice coefficient and 0.7 mm increase in Hausdorff distance relative to human-generated contours on CBCT). Though deformable contours provide a reasonable starting point for contouring

  6. Contours of New Economic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The need for a paradigm change in economic thought has been well established, but the contours and fundamental characteristics of a new paradigm in economic theory are yet to be worked out. This article views this transition as an inevitable expression of the maturation of the social sciences into an integrated trans-disciplinary science of society founded on common underlying principles, premises and processes. It calls for evolution of human-centered, value-based economic theory whose objective is to maximize human economic security, welfare and well-being rather than economic growth. It emphasizes the determinative role of fundamental creative social processes expressing in all fields of human endeavor. It argues for extending the boundaries of economics to encompass the entire gamut of political, legal, social, psychological, intellectual, organizational and ecological factors that directly and indirectly contribute to economic security, welfare and well-being. The article concludes with a list of anticipated practical implications.

  7. Photosensitive Strip RETHGEM

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, Vladimir; Nappi, E.; Oliveira, R.; Paic, G.; Pietropaolo, F.; Picchi, P.

    2008-01-01

    An innovative photosensitive gaseous detector, consisting of a GEM like amplification structure with double layered electrodes (instead of commonly used metallic ones) coated with a CsI reflective photocathode, is described. In one of our latest designs, the inner electrode consists of a metallic grid and the outer one is made of resistive strips; the latter are manufactured by a screen printing technology on the top of the metallic strips grid The inner metallic grid is used for 2D position measurements whereas the resistive layer provides an efficient spark protected operation at high gains - close to the breakdown limit. Detectors with active areas of 10cm x10cm and 10cm x20cm were tested under various conditions including the operation in photosensitive gas mixtures containing ethylferrocene or TMAE vapors. The new technique could have many applications requiring robust and reliable large area detectors for UV visualization, as for example, in Cherenkov imaging devices.

  8. Drawing Contour Trees in the Plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, C; Schneider, D; Carr, Hamish; Scheuermann, G

    2011-11-01

    The contour tree compactly describes scalar field topology. From the viewpoint of graph drawing, it is a tree with attributes at vertices and optionally on edges. Standard tree drawing algorithms emphasize structural properties of the tree and neglect the attributes. Applying known techniques to convey this information proves hard and sometimes even impossible. We present several adaptions of popular graph drawing approaches to the problem of contour tree drawing and evaluate them. We identify five esthetic criteria for drawing contour trees and present a novel algorithm for drawing contour trees in the plane that satisfies four of these criteria. Our implementation is fast and effective for contour tree sizes usually used in interactive systems (around 100 branches) and also produces readable pictures for larger trees, as is shown for an 800 branch example.

  9. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92

  10. Image Interpolation with Geometric Contour Stencils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Getreuer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the image interpolation problem where given an image vm,n with uniformly-sampled pixels vm,n and point spread function h, the goal is to find function u(x,y satisfying vm,n = (h*u(m,n for all m,n in Z. This article improves upon the IPOL article Image Interpolation with Contour Stencils. In the previous work, contour stencils are used to estimate the image contours locally as short line segments. This article begins with a continuous formulation of total variation integrated over a collection of curves and defines contour stencils as a consistent discretization. This discretization is more reliable than the previous approach and can effectively distinguish contours that are locally shaped like lines, curves, corners, and circles. These improved contour stencils sense more of the geometry in the image. Interpolation is performed using an extension of the method described in the previous article. Using the improved contour stencils, there is an increase in image quality while maintaining similar computational efficiency.

  11. Strip casting apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

    1988-09-20

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

  12. Spiral Light Beams and Contour Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishkin, Sergey A.; Kotova, Svetlana P.; Volostnikov, Vladimir G.

    Spiral beams of light are characterized by their ability to remain structurally unchanged at propagation. They may have the shape of any closed curve. In the present paper a new approach is proposed within the framework of the contour analysis based on a close cooperation of modern coherent optics, theory of functions and numerical methods. An algorithm for comparing contours is presented and theoretically justified, which allows convincing of whether two contours are similar or not to within the scale factor and/or rotation. The advantages and disadvantages of the proposed approach are considered; the results of numerical modeling are presented.

  13. Noninvasive Body Contouring: A Male Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wat, Heidi; Wu, Douglas C; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2018-01-01

    Noninvasive body contouring is an attractive therapeutic modality to enhance the ideal male physique. Men place higher value on enhancing a well-defined, strong, masculine jawline and developing a V-shaped taper through the upper body. An understanding of the body contour men strive for allows the treating physician to focus on areas that are of most concern to men, thus enhancing patient experience and satisfaction. This article discusses noninvasive body contouring techniques, taking into account the unique aesthetic concerns of the male patient by combining an analysis of the existing literature with our own clinical experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. VT Data - Lidar 1ft Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to contours derived from Quality Level 2 (QL2) Lidar 'collections' with a resolution (RESCLASS) of 0.7m. For an overview of...

  15. Roentgenological differential diagnosis of the psoas contour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voran, G.; Pfab, R.; Hess, F.

    1984-01-01

    The assessment of the psoas border contour in the X-ray photo of the abdomen is important for differential diagnostic considerations. For the separation of fallacious psoas configurations which are similar to the well defined pathological form changes, a regular supine position of the patient was chosen, and the psoas examined without and with muscle tension. The whole visible psoas muscle system did not show any unilateral bulging of the border silhouette during muscle action. Isolated tension of the left psoas muscle induced a distinct deviation of both border contours to the left side, too. There was a clear tendency of a more distinct psoas border contour and of augmented opacity of the muscle over its whole length under muscle tension. Changes similar to the bulging border contour of a psoas abscess were not produced by muscular action. (orig.) [de

  16. New Concept of Cultivation Using Limited Strip-Tillage with Strip Shallow Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Ismi Intara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Dry land is one of land resources which potentially used for food crop cultivation, especially in the areas which have light to medium technical obstacles. The development of technology to improve soil quality in marginal lands to be productive lands is still widely open for agricultural development in Indonesia. Rooting medium quality can be improved by changing soil tillage method and observing the proper crop irrigation technology. It can be the solution for crop cultivation in clay loam soil. This study aimed to obtain water movement model in a minimally-tilled clay soil with strip shallow irrigation. The concept is limited soil-tillage with strip shallow irrigation method, water supply technique, and crop water requirement. Method used in this study includes developing water movement model (software development in a minimally-tilled clay soil with subsurface irrigation. In the final stages, research also conducted water movement analysis testing apparatus in the laboratory, field validation of the subsurface irrigation performance, and cultivation technique testing to chili pepper growth (Capsicum annuumL.. The development of water movement simulation on a limited strip-tillage with subsurface irrigation uses the concept to quantify the amount of water in the soil. The analysis of movement pattern was demonstrated on contour patterns. It showed that the wetting process can reach depth zone – 5 cm to the rooting zone. It was an important discovery on the development of minimum stripe tillage soil with subsurface irrigation. Specifically, it can be concluded that: the result of fitting by eyes to diffusivity graphic and water content obtained the required parameter values for soil physical properties. It was then simulated on horizontal water movement model on a minimum strip-tillage with strip shallow irrigation /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso

  17. A cardiac contouring atlas for radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duane, Frances; Aznar, Marianne C; Bartlett, Freddie

    2017-01-01

    defined from cardiology models and agreed by two cardiologists. Reference atlas contours were delineated and written guidelines prepared. Six radiation oncologists tested the atlas. Spatial variation was assessed using the DICE similarity coefficient (DSC) and the directed Hausdorff average distance (d→H,avg......-observer contour separation (mean d→H,avg) was 1.5-2.2mm for left ventricular segments and 1.3-5.1mm for coronary artery segments. This spatial variation resulted in

  18. Meadow-grass gall midge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Monrad

    The area with meadow-grass (Poa pratensis, L.) grown for seed production in Den-mark is a significant proportion of the entire seed production. The meadow-grass gall midge (Mayetiola schoberi, Barnes 1958) is of considerable economic importance since powerful attacks can reduce the yield...

  19. Dual initiation strip charge apparatus and methods for making and implementing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos [Albuquerque, NM; Todd,; Steven, N [Rio Rancho, NM; Polisar, Stephen [Albuquerque, NM; Hughs, Chance [Tijeras, NM

    2011-03-22

    A Dual Initiation Strip Charge (DISC) apparatus is initiated by a single initiation source and detonates a strip of explosive charge at two separate contacts. The reflection of explosively induced stresses meet and create a fracture and breach a target along a generally single fracture contour and produce generally fragment-free scattering and no spallation. Methods for making and implementing a DISC apparatus provide numerous advantages over previous methods of creating explosive charges by utilizing steps for rapid prototyping; by implementing efficient steps and designs for metering consistent, repeatable, and controlled amount of high explosive; and by utilizing readily available materials.

  20. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  1. Variation in contour and cancer of stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Hong; Hwang, Seon Moon; Yoon, Kwon Ha

    1999-01-01

    There were four types of stomach contour included eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade. The aim of this study is to clarify relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and contour variation of the stomach. Double- contrast upper gastrointestinal study was performed in 1,546 patients, who had dyspepsia or other gastrointestinal tract symptoms. The radiographs were classified into the four types including eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade according to stomach contour in relation to body build. We also reviewed pathologic reports on endoscopic biopsy or surgical specimen. We studied the presence of relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and variation of stomach contour. We also examined the incidence of gastritis and gastric ulcer to the stomach contour variation. Of total 1,546 patients, eutonic stomach were 438(28.3%), hypotonic 911(58.9%), steerhorn 102(6.5%) and cascade 95(6.2%). Stomach cancer was found in 139(31.7%) of 438 eutonic stomachs, in 135(14.8%) of 911 hypotonic, in 42(41.2%) of 102 steerhorn, and in 24(36.9%) of 95 cascade (P=0.001). In hypotonic stomach, the incidence of stomach cancer was lower compared to the other three types significantly (p<0.05). Gastritis or gastric ulcer was found in 146(33.3%) of eutonic stomach, in 293(32.1%) of hypotonic, in 36(35.2%) of steerhorn, and in 26(27.3%) of cascade (p=0.640). In conclusion, gastric contour variation seems to be a factor affecting development of stomach cancer. The patients with hypotonic stomach may have lower incidence of stomach cancer than that of the other types. There was no relationship between the contour and gastric ulcer

  2. Variation in contour and cancer of stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hong; Hwang, Seon Moon [Asan Medical Center, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Kwon Ha [College of Medicine, Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    There were four types of stomach contour included eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade. The aim of this study is to clarify relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and contour variation of the stomach. Double- contrast upper gastrointestinal study was performed in 1,546 patients, who had dyspepsia or other gastrointestinal tract symptoms. The radiographs were classified into the four types including eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade according to stomach contour in relation to body build. We also reviewed pathologic reports on endoscopic biopsy or surgical specimen. We studied the presence of relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and variation of stomach contour. We also examined the incidence of gastritis and gastric ulcer to the stomach contour variation. Of total 1,546 patients, eutonic stomach were 438(28.3%), hypotonic 911(58.9%), steerhorn 102(6.5%) and cascade 95(6.2%). Stomach cancer was found in 139(31.7%) of 438 eutonic stomachs, in 135(14.8%) of 911 hypotonic, in 42(41.2%) of 102 steerhorn, and in 24(36.9%) of 95 cascade (P=0.001). In hypotonic stomach, the incidence of stomach cancer was lower compared to the other three types significantly (p<0.05). Gastritis or gastric ulcer was found in 146(33.3%) of eutonic stomach, in 293(32.1%) of hypotonic, in 36(35.2%) of steerhorn, and in 26(27.3%) of cascade (p=0.640). In conclusion, gastric contour variation seems to be a factor affecting development of stomach cancer. The patients with hypotonic stomach may have lower incidence of stomach cancer than that of the other types. There was no relationship between the contour and gastric ulcer.

  3. Effects of conventional and grass-feeding systems on the nutrient composition of beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leheska, J M; Thompson, L D; Howe, J C; Hentges, E; Boyce, J; Brooks, J C; Shriver, B; Hoover, L; Miller, M F

    2008-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the nutrient composition of grass-fed beef in the United States for inclusion in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, and to compare the fatty acid composition of grass-fed and conventionally fed (control) beef. Ground beef (GB) and strip steaks (SS) were collected on 3 separate occasions from 15 grass-fed beef producers that represented 13 different states, whereas control beef samples were collected from 3 regions (Ohio, South Dakota, and Texas) of the United States on 3 separate occasions. Concentrations of minerals, choline, vitamin B(12), and thiamine were determined for grass-fed beef samples. Grass-fed GB samples had less Mg, P, and K (P < 0.05), and more Na, Zn, and vitamin B(12) (P < 0.05) than SS samples. Fat color, marbling, and pH were assessed for grass-fed and control SS. Subjective evaluation of the SS indicated that grass-fed beef had fat that was more yellow in color than control beef. Percentages of total fat, total cholesterol, and fatty acids along with trans fatty acids and CLA were determined for grass-fed and control SS and GB. Grass-fed SS had less total fat than control SS (P = 0.001), but both grass-fed and control SS were considered lean, because their total fat content was 4.3% or less. For both GB and SS, grass-fed beef had significantly less (P = 0.001 and P = 0.023, respectively) content of MUFA and a greater content of SFA, n-3 fatty acids, CLA, and trans-vaccenic acid than did the control samples. Concentrations of PUFA, trans fatty acids, n-6 fatty acids, and cholesterol did not differ between grass-fed and control ground beef. Trans-vaccenic acid (trans-11 18:1) made up the greatest concentration of the total trans fats in grass-fed beef, whereas CLA accounted for approximately 15% of the total trans fats. Although the fatty acid composition of grass-fed and conventionally fed beef was different, conclusions on the possible effects of these differences on human

  4. A cognitive evaluation procedure for contour based shape descriptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, Anarta; Petkov, Nicolai

    2005-01-01

    Present image processing algorithms are unable to extract a neat and closed contour of an object of interest from a natural image. Advanced contour detection algorithms extract the contour of an object of interest from a natural scene with a side effect of depletion of the contour. Hence in order to

  5. Prostate Contouring Variation: Can It Be Fixed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, Eric L.H.; Schick, Karlissa; Plank, Ashley W.; Poulsen, Michael; Wong, Winnie W.G.; Middleton, Mark; Martin, Jarad M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether an education program on CT and MRI prostate anatomy would reduce inter- and intraobserver prostate contouring variation among experienced radiation oncologists. Methods and Materials: Three patient CT and MRI datasets were selected. Five radiation oncologists contoured the prostate for each patient on CT first, then MRI, and again between 2 and 4 weeks later. Three education sessions were then conducted. The same contouring process was then repeated with the same datasets and oncologists. The observer variation was assessed according to changes in the ratio of the encompassing volume to intersecting volume (volume ratio [VR]), across sets of target volumes. Results: For interobserver variation, there was a 15% reduction in mean VR with CT, from 2.74 to 2.33, and a 40% reduction in mean VR with MRI, from 2.38 to 1.41 after education. A similar trend was found for intraobserver variation, with a mean VR reduction for CT and MRI of 9% (from 1.51 to 1.38) and 16% (from 1.37 to 1.15), respectively. Conclusion: A well-structured education program has reduced both inter- and intraobserver prostate contouring variations. The impact was greater on MRI than on CT. With the ongoing incorporation of new technologies into routine practice, education programs for target contouring should be incorporated as part of the continuing medical education of radiation oncologists.

  6. Development of a CONTOUR-METER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrada Contardi, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Dose calculation in patients undergoing radiotherapy treatments requires the knowledge of their anatomical geometry.Making reference to the specific case of breast cancer, one of the measurement that are made on the patients is the acquisition of the breast's contour, determined in an axial plane from a point marked on the breastbone until another point marked on the thorax side under the armpit.This measurement is normally made with a mechanic contour-meter: a device formed by a series of plastic-covered wires designed to be applied on the patient's skin copying the breast contour after it deformation.The geometrical error associated with this procedure is ± 1 cm. The precision of the dose calculation could be increased acquiring a breast contour more accurate.This objective was achieved developing a method based on breast images from a digital camera.The algorithms to obtain an axial-plane image of the contour from digital photographs taken from arbitrary positions were developed.A geometric transformation is applied to the photograph to correct for perspective distortions, obtaining a frontal - undistorted image (axial-plane image).A software tool to make all the image processing was developed under MatLab.The maximum geometrical error detected during the validation of the process was 2 mm [es

  7. Characterization of galvannealed strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreas, G.; Hardy, Y.

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of enhancing coating quality control during galvannealing process, an online microscopic image acquisition sensor has been developed at CRM. In galvannealing process, the ζ phase surface density is a coating quality characteristic, and the on-line microscope, equipped with optics placed at 20 mm from the surface, grabs 250 μm x 190 μm images on which ζ crystals (approximate dimensions: 1 μm x 10 μm) can be clearly identified. On-line, the sensor is mounted in front of a roll where the strip has a stable position. The coating surface to sensor optics distance is continuously measured by an accurate triangulation sensor (1 μm repeatability) and is adjusted in such a way that, due to roll eccentricity, the image is focused at least twice per revolution. When focused, image of moving product is frozen by a short (10 ns) laser light pulse and is grabbed. The obtained image is then processed to extract ζ phase percentage and allows adjustment of process parameters to reach the desired coating characteristics. (author)

  8. The psychological impact of body contouring surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen Lorenzen, Mike; Poulsen, Lotte; Poulsen, Signe

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Body contouring surgery is associated with changes in body image and identity. The primary aim of the study was to investigate a multidisciplinary assessment of potential psychological challenges before and after body contouring surgery. METHODS: Eight pre- and post-operative patients...... relevant codes had been extracted. RESULTS: A total of seven psychological themes were iden- tified, indicating that surgery alone cannot improve the pa- tients’ psychological difficulties and that psychological care and management of the expected discomfort and body im- age is of considerable importance...... in providing continuity of care. CONCLUSIONS: The reported quality of life is of consider- able importance to patients undergoing body contouring surgery after massive weight loss. Our findings may provide useful information for surgeons and healthcare profes- sionals allowing them to develop patient education...

  9. Prairie revegetation of a strip mine in Illinois: fifteen years after establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, E.A.; Anderson, R.C.; Rodgers, C.S. [Illinois State University, Normal, IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1996-12-01

    The long-term success of prairie planting on a former strip mine in northeastern Illinois was investigated. The site was reclaimed and planted with prairie species in the 1970s. Total biomass increased over time, largely as a result of an increase in biomass of non-prairie species. Biomass of prairie species remained unchanged because of an increase in Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) offsetting decreases in Sorghastrum nutans (Indian grass).

  10. Growth and nutritional evaluation of napier grass hybrids as forage for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Turano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Napier grass is a perennial, tropical C-4 grass that can produce large amounts of forage. However, low temperatures and drought stress limit its productivity and nutritive value as a forage. To overcome these limitations, pearl millet × napier grass hybrids (PMN were developed. It was hypothesized that PMN hybrids were more drought-tolerant, produced higher yields, and had higher nutritive value than napier grass varieties. The yield and nutritive value of 4 napier grass varieties (Bana grass, Mott, MB4 and N51 and 4 PMN hybrids (PMN2, PMN3, 5344 and 4604 were determined with or without irrigation in a strip plot design in Hawaii. Hybrid PMN3 outperformed napier grass varieties and the other hybrids for yield, while 5344 showed higher nutritional content and digestibility than most other grasses. Dry matter yields during the 110-day study period ranged from 10.3 to 32.1 t/ha without irrigation and 19.6 to 55.8 t/ha with irrigation, indicating that moisture stress was limiting performance in raingrown pastures. Only hybrids PMN3 and PMN2 and variety MB4 showed significant growth responses to irrigation. Further work is needed to evaluate the hybrids in a range of environments over much longer periods to determine if these preliminary results can be reproduced over the long term. Similarly, feeding studies with animals are needed to determine if the in vitro data for digestibility are reflected in superior performance for the promising hybrids.Keywords: Biomass, cattle, in vitro digestion, nutrient content, Pennisetum, tropical grasses.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(4168-178

  11. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  12. Magnetic stripping studies for SPL

    CERN Document Server

    Posocco, P; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic stripping of H- can seriously enhance the beam losses along the SPL machine. These losses depend on the beam energy, on the beam transverse distribution and on the intensity of the magnetic field. For radioprotection issues the losses must be limited to 1 W/m. In this paper we will concentrate on the stripping phenomena inside the quadrupole magnets with the aim of defining the quadrupole range for the design phase of SPL.

  13. DESIGN OF GRASS BRIQUETTE MACHINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    E-mail addresses: 1 mike.ajieh@gmail.com, 2 dracigboanugo@yahoo.com, ... machine design was considered for processing biomass of grass origin. The machine operations include pulverization, compaction and extrusion of the briquettes.

  14. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  15. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  16. Automatic Construction by Contour Crafting Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khorramshahi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Contour Crafting is a novel technology in construction industry based on 3D printing that uses robotics to construct free form building structures by repeatedly laying down layers of material such as concrete. It is actually an approach to scale up automatic fabrication from building small industrial parts to constructing buildings. However, there are little information about contour crafting (CC in current use; present paper aims to describe the operational steps of creating a whole building by the machine reviewing relevant literature. Furthermore, it will represent the advantages of CC usage compared to traditional construction methods, as well as its applicability in construction industry.

  17. Deformation of contour and Hawking temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Chikun; Jing Jiliang

    2010-01-01

    It was found that, in an isotropic coordinate system, the tunneling approach brings a factor of 1/2 for the Hawking temperature of a Schwarzschild black hole. In this paper, we address this kind of problem by studying the relation between the Hawking temperature and the deformation of the integral contour for the scalar and Dirac particles tunneling. We find that the correct Hawking temperature can be obtained exactly as long as the integral contour deformed corresponding to the radial coordinate transform if the transformation is a non-regular or zero function at the event horizon.

  18. High green fodder yielding new grass varieties

    OpenAIRE

    C. Babu, K. Iyanar and A. Kalamani

    2014-01-01

    Two high biomass yielding forage grass varieties one each in Cumbu Napier hybrid and Guinea grass have been evolved at the Department of Forage Crops, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore and identified for release at national (All India) level as Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN) 5 and Guinea grass CO (GG) 3 during 2012 and 2013 respectively. Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN) 5 secured first rank at all national level with reference to green ...

  19. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Mølhave, Thomas; Revsbæk, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of maintaining the contour tree T of a terrain Sigma, represented as a triangulated xy-monotone surface, as the heights of its vertices vary continuously with time. We characterize the combinatorial changes in T and how they relate to topological changes in Sigma. We present ...

  20. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars; Mølhave, Thomas

    We consider maintaining the contour tree T of a piecewise-linear triangulation M that is the graph of a time varying height function h:R2→R. We carefully describe the combinatorial change in T that happen as h varies over time and how these changes relate to topological changes in M. We present a...

  1. Subsidence Contours for South Louisiana; UTM 15N NAD83; LRA (2005); [subsidence_contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The GIS data shapefile represents average subsidence contour intervals (0.02 cm/year over 10,000 years) for Coastal LA derived from the following: Kulp, M.A., 2000,...

  2. Anatomical contouring variability in thoracic organs at risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCall, Ross, E-mail: rmccall86@gmail.com [Medical Dosimetry Program, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, WI (United States); MacLennan, Grayden; Taylor, Matthew; Lenards, Nishele [Medical Dosimetry Program, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, WI (United States); Nelms, Benjamin E. [Canis Lupus LLC, Madison, WI (United States); Koshy, Matthew; Lemons, Jeffrey [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Hunzeker, Ashley [Medical Dosimetry Program, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, WI (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether contouring thoracic organs at risk was consistent among medical dosimetrists and to identify how trends in dosimetrist's education and experience affected contouring accuracy. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to contextualize the raw data that were obtained. A total of 3 different computed tomography (CT) data sets were provided to medical dosimetrists (N = 13) across 5 different institutions. The medical dosimetrists were directed to contour the lungs, heart, spinal cord, and esophagus. The medical dosimetrists were instructed to contour in line with their institutional standards and were allowed to use any contouring tool or technique that they would traditionally use. The contours from each medical dosimetrist were evaluated against “gold standard” contours drawn and validated by 2 radiation oncology physicians. The dosimetrist-derived contours were evaluated against the gold standard using both a Dice coefficient method and a penalty-based metric scoring system. A short survey was also completed by each medical dosimetrist to evaluate their individual contouring experience. There was no significant variation in the contouring consistency of the lungs and spinal cord. Intradosimetrist contouring was consistent for those who contoured the esophagus and heart correctly; however, medical dosimetrists with a poor metric score showed erratic and inconsistent methods of contouring.

  3. Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irungu, K.R.G.; Mbugua, P.N.

    1999-01-01

    Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300

  4. USGS Elevation Contours Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Elevation Contours service from The National Map (TNM) consists of contours generated for the conterminous United States from 1- and 1/3 arc-second...

  5. Magnetic ring for stripping enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selph, F.

    1992-10-01

    A ring designed to recycle ions through a stripping medium offers the possibility for increasing output of the desired charge state by up to 4x. This could be a very important component of a Radioactive Nuclear Beam Facility. In order for such a ring to work effectively it must satisfy certain design conditions. These include achromaticity at the stripper, a dispersed region for an extraction magnet, and a number of first and higher order optics constraints which are necessary to insure that the beam emittance is not degraded unduly by the ring. An example is given of a candidate design of a stripping ring

  6. Invariance Signatures: Characterizing contours by their departures from invariance

    OpenAIRE

    Squire, David; Caelli, Terry M.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a new invariant feature of two-dimensional contours is reported: the Invariance Signature. The Invariance Signature is a measure of the degree to which a contour is invariant under a variety of transformations, derived from the theory of Lie transformation groups. It is shown that the Invariance Signature is itself invariant under shift, rotation and scaling of the contour. Since it is derived from local properties of the contour, it is well-suited to a neural network implement...

  7. Sound wave contours around wind turbine arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beek, A.; Van Blokland, G.J.

    1993-02-01

    Noise pollution is an important factor in selecting suitable sites for wind turbines in order to realize 1000 MW of wind power as planned by the Dutch government for the year 2000. Therefore an accurate assessment of wind turbine noise is important. The amount of noise pollution from a wind turbine depends on the wind conditions. An existing standard method to assess wind turbine noise is supplemented and adjusted. In the first part of the investigation the method was developed and applied for a solitary sound source. In the second part attention is paid to the use of the method for wind turbine arrays. It appears that the adjusted method results in a shift of the contours of the permitted noise level. In general the contours are 15-25% closer to the wind farm, which means that the minimal permitted distance between houses and wind turbine arrays can be reduced. 14 figs., 1 tab., 4 appendices, 7 refs

  8. Contour forming of metals by laser peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Lloyd; Harris, Fritz

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for forming shapes and contours in metal sections by generating laser induced compressive stress on the surface of the metal workpiece. The laser process can generate deep compressive stresses to shape even thick components without inducing unwanted tensile stress at the metal surface. The precision of the laser-induced stress enables exact prediction and subsequent contouring of parts. A light beam of 10 to 100 J/pulse is imaged to create an energy fluence of 60 to 200 J/cm.sup.2 on an absorptive layer applied over a metal surface. A tamping layer of water is flowed over the absorptive layer. The absorption of laser light causes a plasma to form and consequently creates a shock wave that induces a deep residual compressive stress into the metal. The metal responds to this residual stress by bending.

  9. Perception of illusory contour figures: Microgenetic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2004-01-01

    Microgenetic analysis was used to investigate perception of illusory contour figures which represent whole, completed forms on the basis of segmented, incomplete stimulation. The analysis provided an experimental approach to this phenomenon which was standardly investigated phenomenologically. Experimental procedure consisted of two phases: a) priming phase and b) test phase which consisted of visual search task. Two types of visual search tasks were applied: (i) classic detection, in which s...

  10. Making the cut for the contour method

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchard, P. John; Ledgard, Peter; Hiller, Stan; Hosseinzadh Torknezhad, Foroogh

    2012-01-01

    The contour method is becoming an increasingly popular measurement technique for mapping residual stress in engineering components. The accuracy of the technique is critically dependent on the quality of the cut performed. This paper presents results from blind cutting trials on austenitic stainless steel using electro-discharge machines made by three manufacturers. The suitability of the machines is assessed based on the surface finish achieved, risk of wire breakages and the nature of cutti...

  11. Edge and line oriented contour detection : State of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papari, Giuseppe; Petkov, Nicolai

    We present an overview of various edge and line oriented approaches to contour detection that have been proposed in the last two decades. By edge and line oriented we mean methods that do not rely on segmentation. Distinction is made between edges and contours. Contour detectors are divided in local

  12. Interactive 3D segmentation using connected orthogonal contours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, P. W.; Dercksen, V. J.; Post, F. H.; Vossepoel, A. M.; Streekstra, G. J.; Vos, F. M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for interactive segmentation that is based on cross-sectional design and 3D modelling. The method represents a 3D model by a set of connected contours that are planar and orthogonal. Planar contours overlayed on image data are easily manipulated and linked contours

  13. Incomplete contour representations and shape descriptors : ICR test studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, Anarta; Petkov, Nicolai; Gregorio, MD; DiMaio,; Frucci, M; Musio, C

    2005-01-01

    Inspired by psychophysical studies of the human cognitive abilities we propose a novel aspect and a method for performance evaluation of contour based shape recognition algorithms regarding their robustness to incompleteness of contours. We use complete contour representations of objects as a

  14. Gait Recognition Based on Outermost Contour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Liu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Gait recognition aims to identify people by the way they walk. In this paper, a simple but e ective gait recognition method based on Outermost Contour is proposed. For each gait image sequence, an adaptive silhouette extraction algorithm is firstly used to segment the frames of the sequence and a series of postprocessing is applied to obtain the normalized silhouette images with less noise. Then a novel feature extraction method based on Outermost Contour is performed. Principal Component Analysis (PCA is adopted to reduce the dimensionality of the distance signals derived from the Outermost Contours of silhouette images. Then Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA is used to optimize the separability of gait features belonging to di erent classes. Nearest Neighbor (NN classifier and Nearest Neighbor classifier with respect to class Exemplars (ENN are used to classify the final feature vectors produced by MDA. In order to verify the e ectiveness and robustness of our feature extraction algorithm, we also use two other classifiers: Backpropagation Neural Network (BPNN and Support Vector Machine (SVM for recognition. Experimental results on a gait database of 100 people show that the accuracy of using MDA, BPNN and SVM can achieve 97.67%, 94.33% and 94.67%, respectively.

  15. Effectiveness of mesotherapy on body contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Ha; Kim, Deok Woo; Lee, Min Ah; Yoo, Sang Chul; Rhee, Seung Chul; Koo, Sang Hwan; Seol, Geun Hye; Cho, Eun Young

    2008-04-01

    Despite the increasing interest in mesotherapy as an alternative method for body contouring, there are few reports of its safety, efficacy, and mechanism of action. A clinical examination was performed to evaluate the efficacy of mesotherapy for body contouring. Twenty women were enrolled in this prospective, case-controlled study over a 12-week period. The authors injected a mixed solution (i.e., aminophylline, buflomedil, and lidocaine) into the superficial dermis of the medial aspect of one thigh weekly using a mechanical delivery gun. There was no treatment to the other thigh. The change in the fat level was evaluated by measuring the girth of the thighs and by computed tomographic scanning. The lipid profiles were checked to determine the effect of mesotherapy on lipid metabolism, and questionnaires were used to determine the satisfaction rate of the patients. The loss of thigh girth on the treated side was not significantly different from that of the untreated side. The computed tomographic scans showed no statistically significant difference in the cross-sectional area or thickness of the fat layer between each group. There were no statistically significant changes in the lipid profiles except for the triglyceride level. A questionnaire asking about the effect of mesotherapy indicated poor patient satisfaction. Mesotherapy is not an effective alternative treatment modality for body contouring.

  16. Semi-automated contour recognition using DICOMautomaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, H; Duzenli, C; Wu, J; Moiseenko, V; Lee, R; Gill, B; Thomas, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A system has been developed which recognizes and classifies Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine contour data with minimal human intervention. It allows researchers to overcome obstacles which tax analysis and mining systems, including inconsistent naming conventions and differences in data age or resolution. Methods: Lexicographic and geometric analysis is used for recognition. Well-known lexicographic methods implemented include Levenshtein-Damerau, bag-of-characters, Double Metaphone, Soundex, and (word and character)-N-grams. Geometrical implementations include 3D Fourier Descriptors, probability spheres, boolean overlap, simple feature comparison (e.g. eccentricity, volume) and rule-based techniques. Both analyses implement custom, domain-specific modules (e.g. emphasis differentiating left/right organ variants). Contour labels from 60 head and neck patients are used for cross-validation. Results: Mixed-lexicographical methods show an effective improvement in more than 10% of recognition attempts compared with a pure Levenshtein-Damerau approach when withholding 70% of the lexicon. Domain-specific and geometrical techniques further boost performance. Conclusions: DICOMautomaton allows users to recognize contours semi-automatically. As usage increases and the lexicon is filled with additional structures, performance improves, increasing the overall utility of the system.

  17. Bioenergy production from roadside grass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the feasibility of utilising roadside vegetation for biogas production in Denmark. The potential biomass yield, methane yields, and the energy balances of using roadside grass for biogas production was investigated based on spatial analysis. The results show...

  18. Using Comic Strips in Language Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csabay, Noémi

    2006-01-01

    The author believes that using comic strips in language-learning classes has three main benefits. First, comic strips motivate younger learners. Second, they provide a context and logically connected sentences to help language learning. Third, their visual information is helpful for comprehension. The author argues that comic strips can be used in…

  19. VT 10 ft Contour Lines generated from bare earth lidar - Chittenden

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ElevationContours_CN10T (10ft contours) was extracted from ElevationContours_CN2T (2ft contours), which was generated by USGS from the 2004...

  20. Automatic liver contouring for radiotherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dengwang; Kapp, Daniel S; Xing, Lei; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    To develop automatic and efficient liver contouring software for planning 3D-CT and four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) for application in clinical radiation therapy treatment planning systems.The algorithm comprises three steps for overcoming the challenge of similar intensities between the liver region and its surrounding tissues. First, the total variation model with the L1 norm (TV-L1), which has the characteristic of multi-scale decomposition and an edge-preserving property, is used for removing the surrounding muscles and tissues. Second, an improved level set model that contains both global and local energy functions is utilized to extract liver contour information sequentially. In the global energy function, the local correlation coefficient (LCC) is constructed based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix both of the initial liver region and the background region. The LCC can calculate the correlation of a pixel with the foreground and background regions, respectively. The LCC is combined with intensity distribution models to classify pixels during the evolutionary process of the level set based method. The obtained liver contour is used as the candidate liver region for the following step. In the third step, voxel-based texture characterization is employed for refining the liver region and obtaining the final liver contours.The proposed method was validated based on the planning CT images of a group of 25 patients undergoing radiation therapy treatment planning. These included ten lung cancer patients with normal appearing livers and ten patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The method was also tested on abdominal 4D-CT images of a group of five patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The false positive volume percentage, the false negative volume percentage, and the dice similarity coefficient between liver contours obtained by a developed algorithm and a current standard delineated by the expert group

  1. Body contouring following massive weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Langer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global disease with epidemic proportions. Bariatric surgery or modified lifestyles go a long way in mitigating the vast weight gain. Patients following these interventions usually undergo massive weight loss. This results in redundant tissues in various parts of the body. Loose skin causes increased morbidity and psychological trauma. This demands various body contouring procedures that are usually excisional. These procedures are complex and part of a painstaking process that needs a committed patient and an industrious plastic surgeon. As complications in these patients can be quite frequent, both the patient and the surgeon need to be aware and willing to deal with them.

  2. Method of stripping solid particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of stripping loaded solid particles is specified in which uniform batches of the loaded particles are passed successively upwardly through an elution column in the form of discrete plugs, the particles of which do not intermingle substantially with the particles of the vertically adjacent plug(s), and are contacted therein with eluant liquid flowed downwardly, strong eluate being withdrawn from the lower region of the column, the loaded particles being supplied as a slurry in a carrier liquid, and successive batches of loaded particles being isolated as measured batches and being separated from their carrier liquid before being contacted with strong eluate and slurried with the strong eluate into the lower region of the column. An example describes the stripping of ion exchange resin particles loaded with complex uranium ions. (author)

  3. The equivalent internal orientation and position noise for contour integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Alex S; Fu, Minnie; Farivar, Reza; Hess, Robert F

    2017-10-12

    Contour integration is the joining-up of local responses to parts of a contour into a continuous percept. In typical studies observers detect contours formed of discrete wavelets, presented against a background of random wavelets. This measures performance for detecting contours in the limiting external noise that background provides. Our novel task measures contour integration without requiring any background noise. This allowed us to perform noise-masking experiments using orientation and position noise. From these we measure the equivalent internal noise for contour integration. We found an orientation noise of 6° and position noise of 3 arcmin. Orientation noise was 2.6x higher in contour integration compared to an orientation discrimination control task. Comparing against a position discrimination task found position noise in contours to be 2.4x lower. This suggests contour integration involves intermediate processing that enhances the quality of element position representation at the expense of element orientation. Efficiency relative to the ideal observer was lower for the contour tasks (36% in orientation noise, 21% in position noise) compared to the controls (54% and 57%).

  4. Memory for pure tone sequences without contour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Christine; Jolicœur, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We presented pure tones interspersed with white noise sounds to disrupt contour perception in an acoustic short-term memory (ASTM) experiment during which we recorded the electroencephalogram. The memory set consisted of seven stimuli, 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 of which were to-be-remembered tones. We estimated each participant׳s capacity, K, for each set size and measured the amplitude of the SAN (sustained anterior negativity, an ERP related to acoustic short-term memory). We correlated their K slopes with their SAN amplitude slopes as a function of set size, and found a significant link between performance and the SAN: a larger increase in SAN amplitude was linked with a larger number of stimuli maintained in ASTM. The SAN decreased in amplitude in the later portion of the silent retention interval, but the correlation between the SAN and capacity remained strong. These results show the SAN is not an index of contour but rather an index of the maintenance of individual objects in STM. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Human body contour data based activity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myagmarbayar, Nergui; Yuki, Yoshida; Imamoglu, Nevrez; Gonzalez, Jose; Otake, Mihoko; Yu, Wenwei

    2013-01-01

    This research work is aimed to develop autonomous bio-monitoring mobile robots, which are capable of tracking and measuring patients' motions, recognizing the patients' behavior based on observation data, and providing calling for medical personnel in emergency situations in home environment. The robots to be developed will bring about cost-effective, safe and easier at-home rehabilitation to most motor-function impaired patients (MIPs). In our previous research, a full framework was established towards this research goal. In this research, we aimed at improving the human activity recognition by using contour data of the tracked human subject extracted from the depth images as the signal source, instead of the lower limb joint angle data used in the previous research, which are more likely to be affected by the motion of the robot and human subjects. Several geometric parameters, such as, the ratio of height to weight of the tracked human subject, and distance (pixels) between centroid points of upper and lower parts of human body, were calculated from the contour data, and used as the features for the activity recognition. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is employed to classify different human activities from the features. Experimental results showed that the human activity recognition could be achieved with a high correct rate.

  6. Study fidelity spatial contours of industrial robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper to identify deviations fidelity spatial contours of industrial robots, determine the error pattern detected, and define the ways to solve the problem.The paper presents the research results of fidelity spatial contours done by Fanuc M- 710iC/50 industrial robot when moving along a predetermined path. The proposed method uses a QC20-W ballbar wireless system of Renishaw company, designed to diagnose the state of the measurement and playback linear and angular displacements of the CNC.The solutions to adapt the QC20-W ballbar system to the constructive peculiarities of industrial robots with five or more independently controlled axes are given. The stages of the preparation of diagnostic systems and software robot movements are described.According to study results of errors that arise while playing back the programmed motions of a fixed point of robot capture in three mutually perpendicular planes its practical accuracy has been defined when performing movements in a given region of the working area, thereby allowing us, eventually, to draw a conclusion on the possibility to use a robot in one technological process or another.The study has resulted in emerging the guidelines for the operation of industrial robots with five or more independently controlled axes. Using these guidelines enables us to increase the playback accuracy of the industrial robot to 0.01 mm.

  7. What is in a contour map? A region-based logical formalization of contour semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usery, E. Lynn; Hahmann, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Contours maps (such as topographic maps) compress the information of a function over a two-dimensional area into a discrete set of closed lines that connect points of equal value (isolines), striking a fine balance between expressiveness and cognitive simplicity. They allow humans to perform many common sense reasoning tasks about the underlying function (e.g. elevation).

  8. Collisional stripping of planetary crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Philip J.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Elliott, Tim; Stewart, Sarah T.; Walter, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Geochemical studies of planetary accretion and evolution have invoked various degrees of collisional erosion to explain differences in bulk composition between planets and chondrites. Here we undertake a full, dynamical evaluation of 'crustal stripping' during accretion and its key geochemical consequences. Crusts are expected to contain a significant fraction of planetary budgets of incompatible elements, which include the major heat producing nuclides. We present smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of collisions between differentiated rocky planetesimals and planetary embryos. We find that the crust is preferentially lost relative to the mantle during impacts, and we have developed a scaling law based on these simulations that approximates the mass of crust that remains in the largest remnant. Using this scaling law and a recent set of N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation, we have estimated the maximum effect of crustal stripping on incompatible element abundances during the accretion of planetary embryos. We find that on average approximately one third of the initial crust is stripped from embryos as they accrete, which leads to a reduction of ∼20% in the budgets of the heat producing elements if the stripped crust does not reaccrete. Erosion of crusts can lead to non-chondritic ratios of incompatible elements, but the magnitude of this effect depends sensitively on the details of the crust-forming melting process on the planetesimals. The Lu/Hf system is fractionated for a wide range of crustal formation scenarios. Using eucrites (the products of planetesimal silicate melting, thought to represent the crust of Vesta) as a guide to the Lu/Hf of planetesimal crust partially lost during accretion, we predict the Earth could evolve to a superchondritic 176Hf/177Hf (3-5 parts per ten thousand) at present day. Such values are in keeping with compositional estimates of the bulk Earth. Stripping of planetary crusts during accretion can lead to

  9. Pitch contour impairment in congenital amusia: New insights from the Self-paced Audio-visual Contour Task (SACT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejing Lu

    Full Text Available Individuals with congenital amusia usually exhibit impairments in melodic contour processing when asked to compare pairs of melodies that may or may not be identical to one another. However, it is unclear whether the impairment observed in contour processing is caused by an impairment of pitch discrimination, or is a consequence of poor pitch memory. To help resolve this ambiguity, we designed a novel Self-paced Audio-visual Contour Task (SACT that evaluates sensitivity to contour while placing minimal burden on memory. In this task, participants control the pace of an auditory contour that is simultaneously accompanied by a visual contour, and they are asked to judge whether the two contours are congruent or incongruent. In Experiment 1, melodic contours varying in pitch were presented with a series of dots that varied in spatial height. Amusics exhibited reduced sensitivity to audio-visual congruency in comparison to control participants. To exclude the possibility that the impairment arises from a general deficit in cross-modal mapping, Experiment 2 examined sensitivity to cross-modal mapping for two other auditory dimensions: timbral brightness and loudness. Amusics and controls were significantly more sensitive to large than small contour changes, and to changes in loudness than changes in timbre. However, there were no group differences in cross-modal mapping, suggesting that individuals with congenital amusia can comprehend spatial representations of acoustic information. Taken together, the findings indicate that pitch contour processing in congenital amusia remains impaired even when pitch memory is relatively unburdened.

  10. Pitch contour impairment in congenital amusia: New insights from the Self-paced Audio-visual Contour Task (SACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuejing; Sun, Yanan; Ho, Hao Tam; Thompson, William Forde

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with congenital amusia usually exhibit impairments in melodic contour processing when asked to compare pairs of melodies that may or may not be identical to one another. However, it is unclear whether the impairment observed in contour processing is caused by an impairment of pitch discrimination, or is a consequence of poor pitch memory. To help resolve this ambiguity, we designed a novel Self-paced Audio-visual Contour Task (SACT) that evaluates sensitivity to contour while placing minimal burden on memory. In this task, participants control the pace of an auditory contour that is simultaneously accompanied by a visual contour, and they are asked to judge whether the two contours are congruent or incongruent. In Experiment 1, melodic contours varying in pitch were presented with a series of dots that varied in spatial height. Amusics exhibited reduced sensitivity to audio-visual congruency in comparison to control participants. To exclude the possibility that the impairment arises from a general deficit in cross-modal mapping, Experiment 2 examined sensitivity to cross-modal mapping for two other auditory dimensions: timbral brightness and loudness. Amusics and controls were significantly more sensitive to large than small contour changes, and to changes in loudness than changes in timbre. However, there were no group differences in cross-modal mapping, suggesting that individuals with congenital amusia can comprehend spatial representations of acoustic information. Taken together, the findings indicate that pitch contour processing in congenital amusia remains impaired even when pitch memory is relatively unburdened.

  11. Data integrity systems for organ contours in radiation therapy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Veeraj P; Lakshminarayanan, Pranav; Moore, Joseph; Tran, Phuoc T; Quon, Harry; Deville, Curtiland; McNutt, Todd R

    2018-06-12

    The purpose of this research is to develop effective data integrity models for contoured anatomy in a radiotherapy workflow for both real-time and retrospective analysis. Within this study, two classes of contour integrity models were developed: data driven models and contiguousness models. The data driven models aim to highlight contours which deviate from a gross set of contours from similar disease sites and encompass the following regions of interest (ROI): bladder, femoral heads, spinal cord, and rectum. The contiguousness models, which individually analyze the geometry of contours to detect possible errors, are applied across many different ROI's and are divided into two metrics: Extent and Region Growing over volume. After analysis, we found that 70% of detected bladder contours were verified as suspicious. The spinal cord and rectum models verified that 73% and 80% of contours were suspicious respectively. The contiguousness models were the most accurate models and the Region Growing model was the most accurate submodel. 100% of the detected noncontiguous contours were verified as suspicious, but in the cases of spinal cord, femoral heads, bladder, and rectum, the Region Growing model detected additional two to five suspicious contours that the Extent model failed to detect. When conducting a blind review to detect false negatives, it was found that all the data driven models failed to detect all suspicious contours. The Region Growing contiguousness model produced zero false negatives in all regions of interest other than prostate. With regards to runtime, the contiguousness via extent model took an average of 0.2 s per contour. On the other hand, the region growing method had a longer runtime which was dependent on the number of voxels in the contour. Both contiguousness models have potential for real-time use in clinical radiotherapy while the data driven models are better suited for retrospective use. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical

  12. Contour Tracking Control for the REMUS Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Reet, Alan R

    2005-01-01

    In the interest of enhancing the capabilities of autonomous underwater vehicles used in US Naval Operations, controlling vehicle position to follow depth contours presents exciting potential for navigation...

  13. Contour plotting programs for printer and Calcomp plotter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moller, P.

    1980-07-01

    Contour plotting programs for plotting contour diagrams on printers or Calcomp plotters are described. The subroutines also exist in versions that are useful for the special application of finding minima and saddlepoints of nuclear potential energy surfaces generated by the subroutine PETR3 of another program package. For the general user, however, the most interesting aspect of the plotting package is probably the possibility of generating printer contour plots. The plotting of printer contour plots is a very fast and convenient way of displaying two-dimensional functions. 3 figures

  14. India-Pakistan: Contours of Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devika Mittal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Even after about 70 years of separation, India and Pakistan continue to live in the prison of the past. The rhetoric of partition is still alive in the memory of the people of both the countries. They have constructed fixed, unchanging and competing images for each other. While Pakistan became an Islamic Republic, India adopted secularism, thereby, negating the two-nation theory. The ‘differences’ along with memories of partition has made Indian and Pakistani to remain in permanent hostile situation. The leaders of the two countries try to settle their disputes but fails because of lack of support from their social and political institutions. Since its coming into power in 2014, the NDA government under the Indian Prime Minister, Mr. Narendra Modi has managed to engage the Pakistani establishment, despite many problems between the two countries. This article tries to highlight upon the contours of relationships post-2014.

  15. Automatic Contour Extraction from 2D Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis GIOANNIS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a method for automatic contour extraction from a 2D image. Material and Method: The method is divided in two basic parts where the user initially chooses the starting point and the threshold. Finally the method is applied to computed tomography of bone images. Results: An interesting method is developed which can lead to a successful boundary extraction of 2D images. Specifically data extracted from a computed tomography images can be used for 2D bone reconstruction. Conclusions: We believe that such an algorithm or part of it can be applied on several other applications for shape feature extraction in medical image analysis and generally at computer graphics.

  16. Contour Propagation With Riemannian Elasticity Regularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Troels; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Sapru, W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): Adaptive techniques allow for correction of spatial changes during the time course of the fractionated radiotherapy. Spatial changes include tumor shrinkage and weight loss, causing tissue deformation and residual positional errors even after translational and rotational image...... the planning CT onto the rescans and correcting to reflect actual anatomical changes. For deformable registration, a free-form, multi-level, B-spline deformation model with Riemannian elasticity, penalizing non-rigid local deformations, and volumetric changes, was used. Regularization parameters was defined...... on the original delineation and tissue deformation in the time course between scans form a better starting point than rigid propagation. There was no significant difference of locally and globally defined regularization. The method used in the present study suggests that deformed contours need to be reviewed...

  17. CMOS image sensor with contour enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Liya; Lai, Xiaofeng; Chen, Kun; Yuan, Xianghui

    2010-10-01

    Imitating the signal acquisition and processing of vertebrate retina, a CMOS image sensor with bionic pre-processing circuit is designed. Integration of signal-process circuit on-chip can reduce the requirement of bandwidth and precision of the subsequent interface circuit, and simplify the design of the computer-vision system. This signal pre-processing circuit consists of adaptive photoreceptor, spatial filtering resistive network and Op-Amp calculation circuit. The adaptive photoreceptor unit with a dynamic range of approximately 100 dB has a good self-adaptability for the transient changes in light intensity instead of intensity level itself. Spatial low-pass filtering resistive network used to mimic the function of horizontal cell, is composed of the horizontal resistor (HRES) circuit and OTA (Operational Transconductance Amplifier) circuit. HRES circuit, imitating dendrite of the neuron cell, comprises of two series MOS transistors operated in weak inversion region. Appending two diode-connected n-channel transistors to a simple transconductance amplifier forms the OTA Op-Amp circuit, which provides stable bias voltage for the gate of MOS transistors in HRES circuit, while serves as an OTA voltage follower to provide input voltage for the network nodes. The Op-Amp calculation circuit with a simple two-stage Op-Amp achieves the image contour enhancing. By adjusting the bias voltage of the resistive network, the smoothing effect can be tuned to change the effect of image's contour enhancement. Simulations of cell circuit and 16×16 2D circuit array are implemented using CSMC 0.5μm DPTM CMOS process.

  18. 3D silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzefall, Ulrich; Bates, Richard; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Eckert, Simon; Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste; Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne; Lozano, Manuel; Pahn, Gregor; Parkes, Chris; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pennicard, David; Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina; Szumlak, Tomasz; Zoboli, Andrea; Zorzi, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10 15 N eq /cm 2 , which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10 15 N eq /cm 2 . The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5μm spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr 90 β-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of the results obtained with 3D-STC-modules.

  19. 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

  20. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; udel, K.

    1992-03-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  1. Combining prior day contours to improve automated prostate segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godley, Andrew; Sheplan Olsen, Lawrence J.; Stephans, Kevin; Zhao Anzi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the accuracy of automatically segmented prostate, rectum, and bladder contours required for online adaptive therapy. The contouring accuracy on the current image guidance [image guided radiation therapy (IGRT)] scan is improved by combining contours from earlier IGRT scans via the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm. Methods: Six IGRT prostate patients treated with daily kilo-voltage (kV) cone-beam CT (CBCT) had their original plan CT and nine CBCTs contoured by the same physician. Three types of automated contours were produced for analysis. (1) Plan: By deformably registering the plan CT to each CBCT and then using the resulting deformation field to morph the plan contours to match the CBCT anatomy. (2) Previous: The contour set drawn by the physician on the previous day CBCT is similarly deformed to match the current CBCT anatomy. (3) STAPLE: The contours drawn by the physician, on each prior CBCT and the plan CT, are deformed to match the CBCT anatomy to produce multiple contour sets. These sets are combined using the STAPLE algorithm into one optimal set. Results: Compared to plan and previous, STAPLE improved the average Dice's coefficient (DC) with the original physician drawn CBCT contours to a DC as follows: Bladder: 0.81 ± 0.13, 0.91 ± 0.06, and 0.92 ± 0.06; Prostate: 0.75 ± 0.08, 0.82 ± 0.05, and 0.84 ± 0.05; and Rectum: 0.79 ± 0.06, 0.81 ± 0.06, and 0.85 ± 0.04, respectively. The STAPLE results are within intraobserver consistency, determined by the physician blindly recontouring a subset of CBCTs. Comparing plans recalculated using the physician and STAPLE contours showed an average disagreement less than 1% for prostate D98 and mean dose, and 5% and 3% for bladder and rectum mean dose, respectively. One scan takes an average of 19 s to contour. Using five scans plus STAPLE takes less than 110 s on a 288 core graphics processor unit. Conclusions: Combining the plan and all prior days via

  2. Cheap contouring of costly functions: the Pilot Approximation Trajectory algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttunen, Janne M J; Stark, Philip B

    2012-01-01

    The Pilot Approximation Trajectory (PAT) contour algorithm can find the contour of a function accurately when it is not practical to evaluate the function on a grid dense enough to use a standard contour algorithm, for instance, when evaluating the function involves conducting a physical experiment or a computationally intensive simulation. PAT relies on an inexpensive pilot approximation to the function, such as interpolating from a sparse grid of inexact values, or solving a partial differential equation (PDE) numerically using a coarse discretization. For each level of interest, the location and ‘trajectory’ of an approximate contour of this pilot function are used to decide where to evaluate the original function to find points on its contour. Those points are joined by line segments to form the PAT approximation of the contour of the original function. Approximating a contour numerically amounts to estimating a lower level set of the function, the set of points on which the function does not exceed the contour level. The area of the symmetric difference between the true lower level set and the estimated lower level set measures the accuracy of the contour. PAT measures its own accuracy by finding an upper confidence bound for this area. In examples, PAT can estimate a contour more accurately than standard algorithms, using far fewer function evaluations than standard algorithms require. We illustrate PAT by constructing a confidence set for viscosity and thermal conductivity of a flowing gas from simulated noisy temperature measurements, a problem in which each evaluation of the function to be contoured requires solving a different set of coupled nonlinear PDEs. (paper)

  3. Automatic re-contouring in 4D radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Weiguo; Olivera, Gustavo H; Chen, Quan; Chen, Ming-Li; Ruchala, Kenneth J

    2006-01-01

    Delineating regions of interest (ROIs) on each phase of four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) images is an essential step for 4D radiotherapy. The requirement of manual phase-by-phase contouring prohibits the routine use of 4D radiotherapy. This paper develops an automatic re-contouring algorithm that combines techniques of deformable registration and surface construction. ROIs are manually contoured slice-by-slice in the reference phase image. A reference surface is constructed based on these reference contours using a triangulated surface construction technique. The deformable registration technique provides the voxel-to-voxel mapping between the reference phase and the test phase. The vertices of the reference surface are displaced in accordance with the deformation map, resulting in a deformed surface. The new contours are reconstructed by cutting the deformed surface slice-by-slice along the transversal, sagittal or coronal direction. Since both the inputs and outputs of our automatic re-contouring algorithm are contours, it is relatively easy to cope with any treatment planning system. We tested our automatic re-contouring algorithm using a deformable phantom and 4D CT images of six lung cancer patients. The proposed algorithm is validated by visual inspections and quantitative comparisons of the automatic re-contours with both the gold standard segmentations and the manual contours. Based on the automatic delineated ROIs, changes of tumour and sensitive structures during respiration are quantitatively analysed. This algorithm could also be used to re-contour daily images for treatment evaluation and adaptive radiotherapy

  4. Depletive stripping chronopotentiometry : a major step forward in electrochemical stripping techniques for metal ion speciation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the utility of the various modes of stripping chronopotentiometry (SCP) for trace metal speciation analysis is presented in the broad context of stripping voltammetric techniques. The remarkable fundamental advantages of depletive SCP at scanned deposition potential

  5. Potential profile in a conducting polymer strip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos

    2002-01-01

    Many conjugated polymers show an appreciable difference in volume between their oxidized and reduced forms. This property can be utilized in soft electrochemically driven actuators, "artificial muscles". Several geometries have been proposed for the conversion of the volume expansion into useful...... mechanical work. In a particularly simple geometry, the length change of polymer strips is exploited. The polymer strips are connected to the driving circuit at the end of the strip that is attached to the support of the device. The other end of the strip is connected to the load. The advantage of this set...

  6. Optimizing the Stripping Procedure for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment faces a major challenge from the large amounts of data received while the LHC is running. The ability to sort this information in a useful manner is important for working groups to perform physics analyses. Both hardware and software triggers are used to decrease the data rate and then the stripping process is used to sort the data into streams and further into stripping lines. This project studies the hundreds of stripping lines to look for overlaps between them in order to make the stripping process more efficient.

  7. Study on lifetime of C stripping foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongbin; Lu Ziwei; Zhao Yongtao; Li Zhankui; Xu Hushan; Xiao Guoqing; Wang Yuyu; Zhang Ling; Li Longcai; Fang Yan

    2007-01-01

    The carbon stripping foils can be prepared with the AC and DC arc discharge methods, or even sandwiched with AC-DC alternative layers. The lifetime of the carbon stripping foils of 19 μg/cm 2 prepared with different methods and/or structures was measured. The factors affecting the bombarding lifetime of the carbon stripping foils, especially the method of the foil preparation and the structure of the carbon stripping foils, were discussed. It is observed that the foils prepared with the DC arc discharge method have a longer bombarding lifetime than those prepared with the AC arc discharge method. (authors)

  8. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution. PMID:27226761

  9. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emma Victoria; Elia Ntandu, John; Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution.

  10. The Whipple Strip Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertzman, M. P.

    As part of the normal operation of the Whipple 10m Gamma Ray telescope, ten minute drift scan “zenith” runs are made each night of observation for use as calibration. Most of the events recorded during a zenith run are due to the background of cosmic ray showers. However, it would be possible for a hitherto unknown source of gamma rays to drift through the field. This paper reports the results of a search for serendipitous high energy gamma ray sources in the Whipple 10m nightly calibration zenith data. From 2000-2004 nightly calibration runs were taken at an elevation of 89 º. A 2- D analysis of these drift scan runs produces a strip of width ~ 3.5º in declination and spanning the full range of right ascension. In the 2004-05 observing season the calibration runs were taken at elevations of 86° and 83°. Beginning in the 2005-06 season, the nightly calibration runs were taken at an elevation of 80º. Collectively, these drift scans cover a strip approximately 12.5º wide in declination, centered at declination 37.18º, and spanning the full range of RA. The analysis procedures developed for drift scan data, the sensitivity of the method, and the results will be presented.

  11. Contour adaptation reduces the spreading of edge induced colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, Andrew J; Crognale, Michael A

    2017-04-25

    Brief exposure to flickering achromatic outlines of an area causes a reduction in the brightness contrast of the surface inside the area. This contour adaptation to achromatic contours does not reduce surface contrast when the surface is chromatic (the saturation or colorimetric purity of the surface is maintained). In addition to reducing the brightness of physical luminance contrast, contour adaptation also reduces (or even reverses) the illusory brightness contrast seen in the Craik-O'Brien-Cornsweet illusion, in which two physically identical grey areas appear different brightness because of a sharp luminance edge separating them. Chromatic color spreading illusions also occur with chromatic inducing edges, and an unanswered question is whether contour adaptation can reduce the perceived contrast of illusory color spreading from edges, even though it cannot reduce the perceived contrast of physical surface color. The current studies use a color spreading illusion known as the watercolor effect in order to test whether illusory color spreading is affected by contour adaptation. The general findings of physical achromatic contrast being reduced and chromatic contrast being robust to contour adaptation were replicated. However, both illusory brightness and color were reduced by contour adaptation, even when the illusion edges only differed in chromatic contrast with each other and the background. Additional studies adapting to chromatic contours showed opposite effects on illusory color contrast than achromatic adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of contour images using optics of spiral beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volostnikov, V. G.; Kishkin, S. A.; Kotova, S. P.

    2018-03-01

    An approach is outlined to the recognition of contour images using computer technology based on coherent optics principles. A mathematical description of the recognition process algorithm and the results of numerical modelling are presented. The developed approach to the recognition of contour images using optics of spiral beams is described and justified.

  13. Hand-Geometry Recognition Based on Contour Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Bazen, A.M.; Booij, W.D.T.; Hendrikse, A.J.; Jain, A.K.; Ratha, N.K.

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a new method of hand-geometry recognition based on parameters derived from the contour of the hand. The contour is completely determined by the black-and-white image of the hand and can be derived from it by means of simple image-processing techniques. It

  14. Adaptive Pseudo Dilation for Gestalt Edge Grouping and Contour Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papari, Giuseppe; Petkov, Nicolai

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of detecting object contours in natural images. In many cases, local luminance changes turn out to be stronger in textured areas than on object contours. Therefore, local edge features, which only look at a small neighborhood of each pixel, cannot be reliable indicators of

  15. Automatic programming of grinding robot restoration of contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Are Willersrud

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available A new programming method has been developed for grinding robots. Instead of using the conventional jog-and-teach method, the workpiece contour is automatically tracked by the robot. During the tracking, the robot position is stored in the robot control system every 8th millisecond. After filtering and reducing this contour data, a robot program is automatically generated.

  16. Automatic programming of grinding robot restoration of contours

    OpenAIRE

    Are Willersrud; Fred Godtliebsen; Trygve Thomessen

    1995-01-01

    A new programming method has been developed for grinding robots. Instead of using the conventional jog-and-teach method, the workpiece contour is automatically tracked by the robot. During the tracking, the robot position is stored in the robot control system every 8th millisecond. After filtering and reducing this contour data, a robot program is automatically generated.

  17. The 'KATOD-1' strip readout ASIC for cathode strip chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.A.; Gorbunov, N.V.; Karzhavin, V.Yu.; Khabarov, V.S.; Movchan, S.A.; Smolin, D.A.; Dvornikov, O.V.; Shumejko, N.M.; Chekhovskij, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The 'KATOD-1', a 16-channels readout ASIC, has been designed to perform tests of P3 and P4 full-scale prototypes of the cathode strip chamber for the ME1/1 forward muon station of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. The ASIC channel consists of two charge-sensitive preamplifiers, a three-stage shaper with cancellation, and an output driver. The ASIC is instrumented with control of gain, in the range of (-4.2 : +5.0) mV/fC, and control of output pulse-shape. The equivalent input noise is equal to 2400 e with the slope of 12 e/pF for detector capacity up to 200 pF. The peaking time is 100 ns for the chamber signal. The ASIC has been produced by a microwave Bi-jFET technology

  18. The "KATOD-1" Strip Readout ASIC for Cathode Strip Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Golutvin, I A; Karjavin, V Yu; Khabarov, V S; Movchan, S A; Smolin, D A; Dvornikov, O V; Shumeiko, N M; Tchekhovski, V A

    2001-01-01

    The "KATOD-1", a 16-channels readout ASIC, has been designed to perform tests of P3 and P4 full-scale prototypes of the cathode strip chamber for the ME1/1 forward muon station of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. The ASIC channel consists of two charge-sensitive preamplifiers, a three-stage shaper with tail cancellation, and an output driver. The ASIC is instrumented with control of gain, in the range of (-4.2\\div +5.0) mV/fC, and control of output pulse-shape. The equivalent input noise is equal to 2400 e with the slope of 12 e/pF for detector capacity up to 200 pF. The peaking time is 100 ns for the chamber signal. The ASIC has been produced by a microwave Bi-jFET technology.

  19. Some distinguishing characteristics of contour and texture phenomena in images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Daniel J.

    1992-01-01

    The development of generalized contour/texture discrimination techniques is a central element necessary for machine vision recognition and interpretation of arbitrary images. Here, the visual perception of texture, selected studies of texture analysis in machine vision, and diverse small samples of contour and texture are all used to provide insights into the fundamental characteristics of contour and texture. From these, an experimental discrimination scheme is developed and tested on a battery of natural images. The visual perception of texture defined fine texture as a subclass which is interpreted as shading and is distinct from coarse figural similarity textures. Also, perception defined the smallest scale for contour/texture discrimination as eight to nine visual acuity units. Three contour/texture discrimination parameters were found to be moderately successful for this scale discrimination: (1) lightness change in a blurred version of the image, (2) change in lightness change in the original image, and (3) percent change in edge counts relative to local maximum.

  20. Ingenious Snake: An Adaptive Multi-Class Contours Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baolin; Zhou, Shoujun

    2018-04-01

    Active contour model (ACM) plays an important role in computer vision and medical image application. The traditional ACMs were used to extract single-class of object contours. While, simultaneous extraction of multi-class of interesting contours (i.e., various contours with closed- or open-ended) have not been solved so far. Therefore, a novel ACM model named “Ingenious Snake” is proposed to adaptively extract these interesting contours. In the first place, the ridge-points are extracted based on the local phase measurement of gradient vector flow field; the consequential ridgelines initialization are automated with high speed. Secondly, the contours’ deformation and evolvement are implemented with the ingenious snake. In the experiments, the result from initialization, deformation and evolvement are compared with the existing methods. The quantitative evaluation of the structure extraction is satisfying with respect of effectiveness and accuracy.

  1. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  2. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  3. Thermogravimetric analysis of forest understory grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Elder; John S. Kush; Sharon M. Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Forest understory grasses are of significance in the initiation, establishment and maintenance of fire, whether used as a management tool or when occurring as wildfire. The fundamental thermal properties of such grasses are critical to their behavior in fire situations and have been investigated in the current work by the application of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA...

  4. Mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip under opposite-sense bending was investigated. It was found that a simple crease, which led to the increase of the second moment of area, could significantly alter the overall mechanical behaviour of a thin strip, for example the peak moment could be increased by 100 times. The crease was treated as a cylindrical segment of a small radius. Parametric studies demonstrated that the geometry of the strip could strongly influence its flexural behaviour. We showed that the uniform thickness and the radius of the creased segment had the greatest and the least influence on the mechanical behaviour, respectively. We further revealed that material properties could dramatically affect the overall mechanical behaviour of the creased strip by gradually changing the material from being linear elastic to elastic-perfect plastic. After the formation of the fold, the moment of the two ends of the strip differed considerably when the elasto-plastic materials were used, especially for materials with smaller tangent modulus in the plastic range. The deformation patterns of the thin strips from the finite element simulations were verified by physical models made of thin metal strips. The findings from this study provide useful information for designing origami structures for engineering applications using creased thin strips.

  5. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    A bimetallic grid spacer is described comprising a grid structure of zircaloy formed by intersecting striplike members which define fuel element openings for receiving fuel elements and spring strips made of Inconel positioned within the grid structure for cooperating with the fuel elements to maintain them in their desired position. A plurality of these spring strips extend longitudinally between sides of the grid structure, being locked in position by the grid retaining strips. The fuel rods, which are disposed in the fuel openings formed in the grid structure, are positioned by means of the springs associated with the spring strips and a plurality of dimples which extend from the zircaloy grid structure into the openings. In one embodiment the strips are disposed in a plurality of arrays with those spring strip arrays situated in opposing diagonal quadrants of the grid structure extending in the same direction and adjacent spring strip arrays in each half of the spacer extending in relatively perpendicular directions. Other variations of the spring strip arrangements for a particular fuel design are disclosed herein

  6. Optical Character Recognition Using Active Contour Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel Oudah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Document analysis of images snapped by camera is a growing challenge. These photos are often poor-quality compound images, composed of various objects and text; this makes automatic analysis complicated. OCR is one of the image processing techniques which is used to perform automatic identification of texts. Existing image processing techniques need to manage many parameters in order to clearly recognize the text in such pictures. Segmentation is regarded one of these essential parameters. This paper discusses the accuracy of segmentation process and its effect over the recognition process. According to the proposed method, the images were firstly filtered using the wiener filter then the active contour algorithm could be applied in the segmentation process. The Tesseract OCR Engine was selected in order to evaluate the performance and identification accuracy of the proposed method. The results showed that a more accurate segmentation process shall lead to a more accurate recognition results. The rate of recognition accuracy was 0.95 for the proposed algorithm compared with 0.85 for the Tesseract OCR Engine.

  7. Perception of illusory contour figures: Microgenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Microgenetic analysis was used to investigate perception of illusory contour figures which represent whole, completed forms on the basis of segmented, incomplete stimulation. The analysis provided an experimental approach to this phenomenon which was standardly investigated phenomenologically. Experimental procedure consisted of two phases: a priming phase and b test phase which consisted of visual search task. Two types of visual search tasks were applied: (i classic detection, in which subjects were detecting presence or absence of the target stimuli and (ii two-alternative forced choice, 2AFC, in which subjects performed discrimination between two concurrent targets (target A vs. target B. Variation of exposition of prim stimuli was used as an indication of the percept formation period. Concepts like early vision, visual attention and feature binding were investigated. Four experiments were conducted. Their outcome showed that (i perception of amodal figure requires visual attention, (ii features binding precedes spatial attention and (iii time period of percept formation is dependent of task properties and varies between 50 - 150 ms. Some results obtained in this research could be explained by feature-integration theory (Treisman & Gelade, 1980; Treisman, 1986. Furthermore, percept formation period data comply with data acquired in Elliott & Müller's psychophysical research (1998.

  8. Ovate pontics: Phoenixing the gingival contour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medha Vivek Bhuskute

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's busy world, most patients do not have time for long, drawn-out dental treatment. The time span between extraction and healing after loss of tooth in the anterior esthetic zone can be esthetically and psychologically devastating on the part of the patient. Especially, when a maxillary anterior tooth must be extracted and replaced, immediate tooth replacement with an ovate pontic on a provisional bridge is a good alternative. Ovate pontic helps in preservation of the interdental papilla, which in turn preserves the natural gingival contour that would have otherwise been lost after extraction. An immediate tooth replacement using ovate pontic not only eliminates the psychologically disturbing partially edentulous phase but also results in a much more esthetically pleasing replacement of tooth that is both hygienic and natural in appearance. Another added advantage of the use of ovate pontic is that it rules out the dissatisfaction resulting from an unesthetic ridge lap pontic placed directly over edentulous ridge. Just like the long-lived bird “Phoenix,” arising out of its own ashes, the ovate pontic creates an illusion that the pontic is emerging from the gingiva, even after tooth loss. This case report discusses how an integrated approach of fabricating heat cure provisional bridge with ovate pontics before extractions, benefitted a young patient in whom fractured anterior teeth were proposed for extraction.

  9. Contour tracing for segmentation of mammographic masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elter, Matthias; Held, Christian; Wittenberg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    CADx systems have the potential to support radiologists in the difficult task of discriminating benign and malignant mammographic lesions. The segmentation of mammographic masses from the background tissue is an important module of CADx systems designed for the characterization of mass lesions. In this work, a novel approach to this task is presented. The segmentation is performed by automatically tracing the mass' contour in-between manually provided landmark points defined on the mass' margin. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to the performance of implementations of three state-of-the-art approaches based on region growing and dynamic programming. For an unbiased comparison of the different segmentation approaches, optimal parameters are selected for each approach by means of tenfold cross-validation and a genetic algorithm. Furthermore, segmentation performance is evaluated on a dataset of ROI and ground-truth pairs. The proposed method outperforms the three state-of-the-art methods. The benchmark dataset will be made available with publication of this paper and will be the first publicly available benchmark dataset for mass segmentation.

  10. Costs of Producing Biomass from Riparian Buffer Strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow, A.

    2000-09-01

    Nutrient runoff from poultry litter applied to agricultural fields in the Delmarva Peninsula contributes to high nutrient loadings in Chesapeake Bay. One potential means of ameliorating this problem is the use of riparian buffer strips. Riparian buffer strips intercept overland flows of water, sediments, nutrients, and pollutants; and ground water flows of nutrients and pollutants. Costs are estimated for three biomass systems grown on buffer strips: willow planted at a density of 15,300 trees/ha (6200 trees/acre); poplar planted at a density of 1345 trees/ha (545 trees/acre); and switchgrass. These costs are estimated for five different scenarios: (1) total economic costs, where everything is costed [cash costs, noncash costs (e.g., depreciation), land rent, labor]; (2) costs with Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) payments (which pays 50% of establishment costs and an annual land rent); (3) costs with enhanced CRP payments (which pays 95% of establishment costs and an annual payment of approximately 170% of land rent for trees and 150% of land rent for grasses); (4) costs when buffer strips are required, but harvest of biomass is not required [costs borne by biomass are for yield enhancing activities (e.g., fertilization), harvest, and transport]; and (5) costs when buffer strips are required. and harvest of biomass is required to remove nutrients (costs borne by biomass are for yield enhancing activities and transport). CRP regulations would have to change to allow harvest. Delivered costs of willow, poplar, and switchgrass [including transportation costs of $0.38/GJ ($0.40/million Btu) for switchgrass and $0.57/GJ ($0.60/million Btu) for willow and poplar] at 11.2 dry Mg/ha-year (5 dry tons/acre-year) for the five cost scenarios listed above are [$/GJ ($million BIN)]: (1) 3.30-5.45 (3.45-5.75); (2) 2.30-3.80 (2.45-4.00); (3) 1.70-2.45 (1.80-2.60); (4) l-85-3.80 (1.95-4.05); and (5) 0.80-1.50 (0.85-1.60). At yields of 15.7 to 17.9 GJ/ha-year (7 to 8 dry tons

  11. SQ grass sublingual allergy immunotherapy tablet for disease-modifying treatment of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Ronald; Roberts, Graham; de Blic, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy immunotherapy is a treatment option for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). It is unique compared with pharmacotherapy in that it modifies the immunologic pathways that elicit an allergic response. The SQ Timothy grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet is approved in North...... America and throughout Europe for the treatment of adults and children (≥5 years old) with grass pollen-induced ARC. OBJECTIVE: The clinical evidence for the use of SQ grass SLIT-tablet as a disease-modifying treatment for grass pollen ARC is discussed in this review. METHODS: The review included...... the suitability of SQ grass SLIT-tablet for patients with clinically relevant symptoms to multiple Pooideae grass species, single-season efficacy, safety, adherence, coseasonal initiation, and cost-effectiveness. The data from the long-term SQ grass SLIT-tablet clinical trial that evaluated a clinical effect 2...

  12. CMS Silicon Strip Tracker Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Agram, Jean-Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), consisting of 9.6 million readout channels from 15148 modules and covering an area of 198 square meters, needs to be precisely calibrated in order to correctly reconstruct the events recorded. Calibration constants are derived from different workflows, from promptly reconstructed events with particles as well as from commissioning events gathered just before the acquisition of physics runs. The performance of the SST has been carefully studied since the beginning of data taking: the noise of the detector, data integrity, signal-over-noise ratio, hit reconstruction efficiency and resolution have been all investigated with time and for different conditions. In this paper we describe the reconstruction strategies, the calibration procedures and the detector performance results from the latest CMS operation.

  13. The CMS silicon strip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focardi, E.; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Bartalini, P.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Civinini, C.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; Demaria, N.; De Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Marina, R. Della; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammerstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B. Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Raffaelli, F.; Raso, G.; Raymond, M.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Skog, K.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Wang, Y.; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) is the intermediate part of the CMS Central Tracker System. SST is based on microstrip silicon devices and in combination with pixel detectors and the Microstrip Gas Chambers aims at performing pattern recognition, track reconstruction and momentum measurements for all tracks with p T ≥2 GeV/c originating from high luminosity interactions at √s=14 TeV at LHC. We aim at exploiting the advantages and the physics potential of the precise tracking performance provided by the microstrip silicon detectors on a large scale apparatus and in a much more difficult environment than ever. In this paper we describe the actual SST layout and the readout system. (author)

  14. Ultrasonic examination of JBK-75 strip material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, K.V.; Cunningham, R.A. Jr.; Lewis, J.C.; McClung, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    An ultrasonic inspection system was assembled to inspect the JBK-75 stainless steel sheath material (for the Large Coil Project) for the Westinghouse-Airco superconducting magnet program. The mechanical system provided for handling the 180-kg (400-lb) coils of strip material [1.6 mm thick by 78 mm wide by 90 to 120 m long (0.064 by 3.07 in. by 300 to 400 ft)], feeding the strip through the ultrasonic inspection and cleaning stations, and respooling the coils. We inspected 54 coils of strip for both longitudinal and laminar flaws. Simulated flaws were used to calibrate both inspections. Saw-cut notches [0.28 mm deep (0.011 in., about 17% of the strip thickness)] were used to calibrate the longitudinal flaw inspections; 1.59-mm-diam (0.063-in.) flat-bottom holes drilled halfway through a calibration strip were used to calibrate the laminar flaw tests

  15. Model for prediction of strip temperature in hot strip steel mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panjkovic, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Proper functioning of set-up models in a hot strip steel mill requires reliable prediction of strip temperature. Temperature prediction is particularly important for accurate calculation of rolling force because of strong dependence of yield stress and strip microstructure on temperature. A comprehensive model was developed to replace an obsolete model in the Western Port hot strip mill of BlueScope Steel. The new model predicts the strip temperature evolution from the roughing mill exit to the finishing mill exit. It takes into account the radiative and convective heat losses, forced flow boiling and film boiling of water at strip surface, deformation heat in the roll gap, frictional sliding heat, heat of scale formation and the heat transfer between strip and work rolls through an oxide layer. The significance of phase transformation was also investigated. Model was tested with plant measurements and benchmarked against other models in the literature, and its performance was very good

  16. Model for prediction of strip temperature in hot strip steel mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panjkovic, Vladimir [BlueScope Steel, TEOB, 1 Bayview Road, Hastings Vic. 3915 (Australia)]. E-mail: Vladimir.Panjkovic@BlueScopeSteel.com

    2007-10-15

    Proper functioning of set-up models in a hot strip steel mill requires reliable prediction of strip temperature. Temperature prediction is particularly important for accurate calculation of rolling force because of strong dependence of yield stress and strip microstructure on temperature. A comprehensive model was developed to replace an obsolete model in the Western Port hot strip mill of BlueScope Steel. The new model predicts the strip temperature evolution from the roughing mill exit to the finishing mill exit. It takes into account the radiative and convective heat losses, forced flow boiling and film boiling of water at strip surface, deformation heat in the roll gap, frictional sliding heat, heat of scale formation and the heat transfer between strip and work rolls through an oxide layer. The significance of phase transformation was also investigated. Model was tested with plant measurements and benchmarked against other models in the literature, and its performance was very good.

  17. Spatial profile of contours inducing long-range color assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinck, Frédéric; Spillmann, Lothar; Werner, John S

    2006-01-01

    Color induction was measured using a matching method for two spatial patterns, each composed of double contours. In one pattern (the standard), the contours had sharp edges to induce the Watercolor Effect (WCE); in the other, the two contours had a spatial taper so that the overall profile produced a sawtooth edge, or ramped stimulus. These patterns were chosen based on our previous study demonstrating that the strength of the chromatic WCE depends on a luminance difference between the two contours. Low-pass chromatic mechanisms, unlike bandpass luminance mechanisms, may be expected to be insensitive to the difference between the two spatial profiles. The strength of the watercolor spreading was similar for the two patterns at narrow widths of the contour possibly because of chromatic aberration, but with wider contours, the standard stimulus produced stronger assimilation than the ramped stimulus. This research suggests that luminance-dependent chromatic mechanisms mediate the WCE and that these mechanisms are sensitive to differences in the two spatial profiles of the pattern contours only when they are wide.

  18. GPU based contouring method on grid DEM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liheng; Wan, Gang; Li, Feng; Chen, Xiaohui; Du, Wenlong

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel method to generate contour lines from grid DEM data based on the programmable GPU pipeline. The previous contouring approaches often use CPU to construct a finite element mesh from the raw DEM data, and then extract contour segments from the elements. They also need a tracing or sorting strategy to generate the final continuous contours. These approaches can be heavily CPU-costing and time-consuming. Meanwhile the generated contours would be unsmooth if the raw data is sparsely distributed. Unlike the CPU approaches, we employ the GPU's vertex shader to generate a triangular mesh with arbitrary user-defined density, in which the height of each vertex is calculated through a third-order Cardinal spline function. Then in the same frame, segments are extracted from the triangles by the geometry shader, and translated to the CPU-side with an internal order in the GPU's transform feedback stage. Finally we propose a "Grid Sorting" algorithm to achieve the continuous contour lines by travelling the segments only once. Our method makes use of multiple stages of GPU pipeline for computation, which can generate smooth contour lines, and is significantly faster than the previous CPU approaches. The algorithm can be easily implemented with OpenGL 3.3 API or higher on consumer-level PCs.

  19. Low level constraints on dynamic contour path integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Hall

    Full Text Available Contour integration is a fundamental visual process. The constraints on integrating discrete contour elements and the associated neural mechanisms have typically been investigated using static contour paths. However, in our dynamic natural environment objects and scenes vary over space and time. With the aim of investigating the parameters affecting spatiotemporal contour path integration, we measured human contrast detection performance of a briefly presented foveal target embedded in dynamic collinear stimulus sequences (comprising five short 'predictor' bars appearing consecutively towards the fovea, followed by the 'target' bar in four experiments. The data showed that participants' target detection performance was relatively unchanged when individual contour elements were separated by up to 2° spatial gap or 200 ms temporal gap. Randomising the luminance contrast or colour of the predictors, on the other hand, had similar detrimental effect on grouping dynamic contour path and subsequent target detection performance. Randomising the orientation of the predictors reduced target detection performance greater than introducing misalignment relative to the contour path. The results suggest that the visual system integrates dynamic path elements to bias target detection even when the continuity of path is disrupted in terms of spatial (2°, temporal (200 ms, colour (over 10 colours and luminance (-25% to 25% information. We discuss how the findings can be largely reconciled within the functioning of V1 horizontal connections.

  20. Prototype Strip Barrel Modules for the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sawyer, Craig; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The module design for the Phase II Upgrade of the new ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) detector at the LHC employs integrated low mass assembly using single-sided flexible circuits with readout ASICs and a powering circuit incorporating control and monitoring of HV, LV and temperature on the module. Both readout and powering circuits are glued directly onto the silicon sensor surface resulting in a fully integrated, extremely low radiation length module which simultaneously reduces the material requirements of the local support structure by allowing a reduced width stave structure to be employed. Such a module concept has now been fully demonstrated using so-called ABC130 and HCC130 ASICs fabricated in 130nm CMOS technology to readout ATLAS12 n+-in-p silicon strip sensors. Low voltage powering for these demonstrator modules has been realised by utilising a DCDC powerboard based around the CERN FEAST ASIC. This powerboard incorporates an HV multiplexing switch based on a Panasonic GaN transistor. Control and monitori...

  1. Grass leaves as potential hominin dietary resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Oliver C C; Koppa, Abigale; Henry, Amanda G; Leichliter, Jennifer N; Codron, Daryl; Codron, Jacqueline; Lambert, Joanna E; Sponheimer, Matt

    2018-04-01

    Discussions about early hominin diets have generally excluded grass leaves as a staple food resource, despite their ubiquity in most early hominin habitats. In particular, stable carbon isotope studies have shown a prevalent C 4 component in the diets of most taxa, and grass leaves are the single most abundant C 4 resource in African savannas. Grass leaves are typically portrayed as having little nutritional value (e.g., low in protein and high in fiber) for hominins lacking specialized digestive systems. It has also been argued that they present mechanical challenges (i.e., high toughness) for hominins with bunodont dentition. Here, we compare the nutritional and mechanical properties of grass leaves with the plants growing alongside them in African savanna habitats. We also compare grass leaves to the leaves consumed by other hominoids and demonstrate that many, though by no means all, compare favorably with the nutritional and mechanical properties of known primate foods. Our data reveal that grass leaves exhibit tremendous variation and suggest that future reconstructions of hominin dietary ecology take a more nuanced approach when considering grass leaves as a potential hominin dietary resource. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraner, H.W.; Beuttenmuller, R.; Ludlam, T.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Radeka, V.; Heijne, E.H.M.

    1982-11-01

    The use of position sensitive silicon detectors as very high resolution tracking devices in high energy physics experiments has been a subject of intense development over the past few years. Typical applications call for the detection of minimum ionizing particles with position measurement accuracy of 10 μm in each detector plane. The most straightforward detector geometry is that in which one of the collecting electrodes is subdivided into closely spaced strips, giving a high degree of segmentation in one coordinate. Each strip may be read out as a separate detection element, or, alternatively, resistive and/or capacitive coupling between adjacent strips may be exploited to interpolate the position via charge division measrurements. With readout techniques that couple several strips, the numer of readout channels can, in principle, be reduced by large factors without sacrificing the intrinsic position accuracy. The testing of individual strip properties and charge division between strips has been carried out with minimum ionizing particles or beams for the most part except in one case which used alphs particless scans. This paper describes the use of a highly collimated MeV proton beam for studies of the position sensing properties of representative one dimensional strip detectors

  3. Transfusion and blood donation in comic strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    The representation of blood transfusion and donation of blood in the comic strip has never been studied. The comic strip, which is a relatively recent art, emerged in the 19th century before becoming a mass medium during the 20th century. We have sought, by calling on collectors and using the resources of Internet, comic strips devoted, wholly or in part, to the themes of transfusion and blood donation. We present some of them here in chronologic order, indicating the title, country of origin, year of publication, and names of authors. The theme of the superhero using transfusion to transmit his virtues or his powers is repeated throughout the 20th century in North American comic strips. More recently, comic strips have been conceived from the outset with a promotional aim. They perpetuate positive images and are directed toward a young readership, wielding humor to reduce the fear of venipuncture. Few comic strips denounce the abuse of the commercialization of products derived from the human body. The image of transfusion and blood donation given by the comic strips is not to be underestimated because their readership is primarily children, some of whom will become blood donors. Furthermore, if some readers are transfused during their lives, the impact of a memory more or less conscious of these childhood readings may resurface, both in hopes and in fears. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stripping voltammetry in environmental and food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainina, K Z; Malakhova, N A; Stojko, N Y

    2000-10-01

    The review covers over 230 papers published mostly in the last 5 years. The goal of the review is to attract the attention of researchers and users to stripping voltammetry in particular, its application in environmental monitoring and analysis of foodstuffs. The sensors employed are impregnated graphite, carbon paste, thick film carbon/graphite and thin film metallic electrodes modified in-situ or beforehand. Hanging mercury drop electrodes and mercury coated glassy carbon electrodes are also mentioned. Strip and long-lived sensors for portable instruments and flow through systems are discussed as devices for future development and application of stripping voltammetry.

  5. Hardness of approximation for strip packing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamaszek, Anna Maria; Kociumaka, Tomasz; Pilipczuk, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Strip packing is a classical packing problem, where the goal is to pack a set of rectangular objects into a strip of a given width, while minimizing the total height of the packing. The problem has multiple applications, for example, in scheduling and stock-cutting, and has been studied extensively......)-approximation by two independent research groups [FSTTCS 2016,WALCOM 2017]. This raises a questionwhether strip packing with polynomially bounded input data admits a quasi-polynomial time approximation scheme, as is the case for related twodimensional packing problems like maximum independent set of rectangles or two...

  6. Grass Biomethane for Agriculture and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korres, N.E.; Thamsiriroj, T.; Smith, B.

    2011-01-01

    have advanced the role of grassland as a renewable source of energy in grass biomethane production with various environmental and socio-economic benefits. It is underlined that the essential question whether the gaseous biofuel meets the EU sustainability criteria of 60% greenhouse gas emission savings...... by 2020 can be met since savings up to 89.4% under various scenarios can be achieved. Grass biomethane production compared to other liquid biofuels either when these are produced by indigenous of imported feedstocks is very promising. Grass biomethane, given the mature and well known technology...

  7. Shape reconstruction from apparent contours theory and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Bellettini, Giovanni; Paolini, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by a variational model concerning the depth of the objects in a picture and the problem of hidden and illusory contours, this book investigates one of the central problems of computer vision: the topological and algorithmic reconstruction of a smooth three dimensional scene starting from the visible part of an apparent contour. The authors focus their attention on the manipulation of apparent contours using a finite set of elementary moves, which correspond to diffeomorphic deformations of three dimensional scenes. A large part of the book is devoted to the algorithmic part, with implementations, experiments, and computed examples. The book is intended also as a user's guide to the software code appcontour, written for the manipulation of apparent contours and their invariants. This book is addressed to theoretical and applied scientists working in the field of mathematical models of image segmentation.

  8. MAP Estimation of Chin and Cheek Contours in Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampmann Markus

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for the estimation of chin and cheek contours in video sequences is proposed. This algorithm exploits a priori knowledge about shape and position of chin and cheek contours in images. Exploiting knowledge about the shape, a parametric 2D model representing chin and cheek contours is introduced. Exploiting knowledge about the position, a MAP estimator is developed taking into account the observed luminance gradient as well as a priori probabilities of chin and cheek contours positions. The proposed algorithm was tested with head and shoulder video sequences (image resolution CIF. In nearly 70% of all investigated video frames, a subjectively error free estimation could be achieved. The 2D estimate error is measured as on average between 2.4 and .

  9. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  10. Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y

    2004-10-10

    Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

  11. The Panda Strip Asic: Pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, A.

    2018-01-01

    PASTA is the 64 channel front-end chip, designed in a 110 nm CMOS technology to read out the strip sensors of the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) of the PANDA experiment. This chip provides high resolution timestamp and deposited charge information by means of the time-over-threshold technique. Its working principle is based on a predecessor, the TOFPET ASIC, that was designed for medical applications. A general restructuring of the architecture was needed, in order to meet the specific requirements imposed by the physics programme of PANDA, especially in terms of radiation tolerance, spatial constraints, and readout in absence of a first level hardware trigger. The first revision of PASTA is currently under evaluation at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, where a data acquisition system dedicated to the MVD prototypes has been developed. This paper describes the main aspect of the chip design, gives an overview of the data acquisition system used for the verification, and shows the first results regarding the performance of PASTA.

  12. Dynamic underground stripping demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation techniques for rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called dynamic stripping to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first eight months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques. Tests then began on the contaminated site in FY 1992. This report describes the work at the Clean Site, including design and performance criteria, test results, interpretations, and conclusions. We fielded 'a wide range of new designs and techniques, some successful and some not. In this document, we focus on results and performance, lessons learned, and design and operational changes recommended for work at the contaminated site. Each section focuses on a different aspect of the work and can be considered a self-contained contribution

  13. Auto-propagation of contours for adaptive prostate radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao Ming; Xie Yaoqin; Xing Lei

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop an effective technique to automatically propagate contours from planning CT to cone beam CT (CBCT) to facilitate CBCT-guided prostate adaptive radiation therapy. Different from other disease sites, such as the lungs, the contour mapping here is complicated by two factors: (i) the physical one-to-one correspondence may not exist due to the insertion or removal of some image contents within the region of interest (ROI); and (ii) reduced contrast to noise ratio of the CBCT images due to increased scatter. To overcome these issues, we investigate a strategy of excluding the regions with variable contents by a careful design of a narrow shell signifying the contour of an ROI. For rectum, for example, a narrow shell with the delineated contours as its interior surface was constructed to avoid the adverse influence of the day-to-day content change inside the rectum on the contour mapping. The corresponding contours in the CBCT were found by warping the narrow shell through the use of BSpline deformable model. Both digital phantom experiments and clinical case testing were carried out to validate the proposed ROI mapping method. It was found that the approach was able to reliably warp the constructed narrow band with an accuracy better than 1.3 mm. For all five clinical cases enrolled in this study, the method yielded satisfactory results even when there were significant rectal content changes between the planning CT and CBCT scans. The overlapped area of the auto-mapped contours over 90% to the manually drawn contours is readily achievable. The proposed approach permits us to take advantage of the regional calculation algorithm yet avoiding the nuisance of rectum/bladder filling and provide a useful tool for adaptive radiotherapy of prostate in the future

  14. Auto-propagation of contours for adaptive prostate radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ming; Xie, Yaoqin; Xing, Lei

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop an effective technique to automatically propagate contours from planning CT to cone beam CT (CBCT) to facilitate CBCT-guided prostate adaptive radiation therapy. Different from other disease sites, such as the lungs, the contour mapping here is complicated by two factors: (i) the physical one-to-one correspondence may not exist due to the insertion or removal of some image contents within the region of interest (ROI); and (ii) reduced contrast to noise ratio of the CBCT images due to increased scatter. To overcome these issues, we investigate a strategy of excluding the regions with variable contents by a careful design of a narrow shell signifying the contour of an ROI. For rectum, for example, a narrow shell with the delineated contours as its interior surface was constructed to avoid the adverse influence of the day-to-day content change inside the rectum on the contour mapping. The corresponding contours in the CBCT were found by warping the narrow shell through the use of BSpline deformable model. Both digital phantom experiments and clinical case testing were carried out to validate the proposed ROI mapping method. It was found that the approach was able to reliably warp the constructed narrow band with an accuracy better than 1.3 mm. For all five clinical cases enrolled in this study, the method yielded satisfactory results even when there were significant rectal content changes between the planning CT and CBCT scans. The overlapped area of the auto-mapped contours over 90% to the manually drawn contours is readily achievable. The proposed approach permits us to take advantage of the regional calculation algorithm yet avoiding the nuisance of rectum/bladder filling and provide a useful tool for adaptive radiotherapy of prostate in the future.

  15. Auto-propagation of contours for adaptive prostate radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao Ming; Xie Yaoqin; Xing Lei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 875 Blake Wilbur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5847 (United States)], E-mail: lei@reyes.stanford.edu

    2008-09-07

    The purpose of this work is to develop an effective technique to automatically propagate contours from planning CT to cone beam CT (CBCT) to facilitate CBCT-guided prostate adaptive radiation therapy. Different from other disease sites, such as the lungs, the contour mapping here is complicated by two factors: (i) the physical one-to-one correspondence may not exist due to the insertion or removal of some image contents within the region of interest (ROI); and (ii) reduced contrast to noise ratio of the CBCT images due to increased scatter. To overcome these issues, we investigate a strategy of excluding the regions with variable contents by a careful design of a narrow shell signifying the contour of an ROI. For rectum, for example, a narrow shell with the delineated contours as its interior surface was constructed to avoid the adverse influence of the day-to-day content change inside the rectum on the contour mapping. The corresponding contours in the CBCT were found by warping the narrow shell through the use of BSpline deformable model. Both digital phantom experiments and clinical case testing were carried out to validate the proposed ROI mapping method. It was found that the approach was able to reliably warp the constructed narrow band with an accuracy better than 1.3 mm. For all five clinical cases enrolled in this study, the method yielded satisfactory results even when there were significant rectal content changes between the planning CT and CBCT scans. The overlapped area of the auto-mapped contours over 90% to the manually drawn contours is readily achievable. The proposed approach permits us to take advantage of the regional calculation algorithm yet avoiding the nuisance of rectum/bladder filling and provide a useful tool for adaptive radiotherapy of prostate in the future.

  16. A historical note on illusory contours in shadow writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzani, Stefano; Marino, Barbara F M

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that illusory contours have been first displayed and discussed by Schumann (1900, Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesorgane 23 1-32). Here we show that, before him, Jastrow (1899, Popular Science Monthly 54 299-312) produced illusory contours consisting of a shadow word. A brief history of shadow writing in psychological literature from Jastrow to Brunswik is presented, in which the contributions of Pillsbury, Warren, Koffka, and Benussi are examined.

  17. Grass survey of the Itremo Massif records endemic central highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty species are endemic to the central highlands, and a further 1 4 species are restricted to Madagascar. Five ecological groups of grasses were identified in the Itremo Massif: shade species in gallery forests, open wet area species, fire grasses, anthropogenic disturbance associated grasses and rock-dwelling grasses.

  18. Visual search of illusory contours: Shape and orientation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Illusory contours are specific class of visual stimuli that represent stimuli configurations perceived as integral irrespective of the fact that they are given in fragmented uncompleted wholes. Due to their specific features, illusory contours gained much attention in last decade representing prototype of stimuli used in investigations focused on binding problem. On the other side, investigations of illusory contours are related to problem of the level of their visual processing. Neurophysiologic studies show that processing of illusory contours proceed relatively early, on the V2 level, on the other hand most of experimental studies claim that illusory contours are perceived with engagement of visual attention, binding their elements to whole percept. This research is focused on two experiments in which visual search of illusory contours are based on shape and orientation. The main experimental procedure evolved the task proposed by Bravo and Nakayama where instead of detection, subjects were performing identification of one among two possible targets. In the first experiment subjects detected the presence of illusory square or illusory triangle, while in the second experiment subject were detecting two different orientations of illusory triangle. The results are interpreted in terms of visual search and feature integration theory. Beside the type of visual search task, search type proved to be dependent of specific features of illusory shapes which further complicate theoretical interpretation of the level of their perception.

  19. Contour junctions defined by dynamic image deformations enhance perceptual transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2017-11-01

    The majority of work on the perception of transparency has focused on static images with luminance-defined contour junctions, but recent work has shown that dynamic image sequences with dynamic image deformations also provide information about transparency. The present study demonstrates that when part of a static image is dynamically deformed, contour junctions at which deforming and nondeforming contours are connected facilitate the deformation-based perception of a transparent layer. We found that the impression of a transparent layer was stronger when a dynamically deforming area was adjacent to static nondeforming areas than when presented alone. When contour junctions were not formed at the dynamic-static boundaries, however, the impression of a transparent layer was not facilitated by the presence of static surrounding areas. The effect of the deformation-defined junctions was attenuated when the spatial pattern of luminance contrast at the junctions was inconsistent with the perceived transparency related to luminance contrast, while the effect did not change when the spatial luminance pattern was consistent with it. In addition, the results showed that contour completions across the junctions were required for the perception of a transparent layer. These results indicate that deformation-defined junctions that involve contour completion between deforming and nondeforming regions enhance the perception of a transparent layer, and that the deformation-based perceptual transparency can be promoted by the simultaneous presence of appropriately configured luminance and contrast-other features that can also by themselves produce the sensation of perceiving transparency.

  20. Summing over Feynman histories by functional contour integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, J.C.; Wright, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors show how complex paths can be consistently introduced into sums for Feynman histories by using the notion of functional contour integration. For a kappa-dimensional system specified by a potential with suitable analyticity properties, each coordinate axis is replaced by a copy of the complex plane, and at each instant of time a contour is chosen in each plane. This map from the time axis into the set of complex contours defines a functional contour. The family of contours labelled by time generates a (kappa+1)-dimensional submanifold of the (2kappa+1)-dimensional space defined by the cartesian product of the time axis and the coordinate planes. The complex Feynman paths lie on this submanifold. An application of this idea to systems described by absorptive potentials yields a simple derivation of the correct WKB result in terms of a complex path that extremalises the action. The method can also be applied to spherically symmetric potentials by using a partial wave expansion and restricting the contours appropriately. (author)

  1. Comparative limnology of strip-mine lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, J D

    1964-01-01

    Lakes were classified according to chemical properties. The concentration of the ferric iron oxides was responsible for a reddish-black turbidity which, in turn, played a major role in the thermal stratification of red strip-mine lakes. Owing to the lack of measurable turbidity and as a result of selective absorption of visible solar radiation, other strip-mine lakes appeared blue in color. The annual heat budget and the summer heat budget are essentially equivalent under saline conditions. Regardless of the physical and chemical conditions of the strip-mine lakes, heat income was a function of the circulating water mass. The progressive oxidation and precipitation of the iron oxides is the key to the classification of strip-mine lakes.

  2. Buffer Strips for Riparian Zone Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    This study provides a review of technical literature concerning the width of riparian buffer strips needed to protect water quality and maintain other important values provided by riparian ecosystem...

  3. Pampas Grass - Orange Co. [ds351

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...

  4. Tree-grass interactions in savannas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Savannas occur where trees and grasses interact to create a biome that is neither grassland nor forest. Woody and gramineous plants interact by many mechanisms, some negative (competition) and some positive (facilitation). The strength and sign...

  5. POTENTIALS OF AGRICULTURAL WASTE AND GRASSES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shima

    Potentials of some agricultural waste and grasses were investigated. ... to education, printing, publishing and ... technical form, paper is an aqueous deposit ..... Period of. Soaking. Overnight. Overnight. Overnight. Overnight. Overnight.

  6. Grasses for energy production: hydrological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.L.

    2003-07-01

    This report provides hydrological guidelines for growers, land and water resource managers, environmental groups and other parties interested in utilising grasses for energy production. The aim of the report is to help interested parties decide if a location is suitable for planting energy grasses by considering whether potential hydrological impacts will have an adverse effect on crop productivity and yield. The guidelines consider: the water use of energy grasses compared with other crops; the factors governing water use; the water requirements for a productive crop; and the likely impacts on the availability and quantity of water. The report points out that there are still gaps in our knowledge of the processes controlling the water use and growth of energy grasses and notes that, in some situations, there will be considerable uncertainty in predictions of water use and the magnitude of the associated hydrological impacts.

  7. Imaging spectroscopy for characterisation of grass swards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Imaging spectroscopy, imaging spectrometry, remote sensing, reflection, reflectance, grass sward, white clover, recognition, characterisation, ground cover, growth monitoring, stress detection, heterogeneity quantification

    The potential of imaging spectroscopy as a tool for

  8. Karl Konrad Grass jumalainimeste uurijana / Alar Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laats, Alar

    2006-01-01

    Karl Konrad Grass oli 19. sajandil Dorpati keiserliku ülikooli usuteaduskonna Uue Testamendi õppejõud, kes tegeles hobi korras idakristluse (vene sektid) uurimisega. Tema peateoseks on uurimus "Die russischen Sekten". Ettekanne konverentsil 15.-16. aprill 2005. a.

  9. Deuteron stripping reactions using dirac phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, E. A.; McNeil, J. A.

    2001-04-01

    In this work deuteron stripping reactions are studied using the distorted wave born approximation employing dirac phenomenological potentials. In 1982 Shepard and Rost performed zero-range dirac phenomenological stripping calculations and found a dramatic reduction in the predicted cross sections when compared with similar nonrelativistic calculations. We extend the earlier work by including full finite range effects as well as the deuteron's internal D-state. Results will be compared with traditional nonrelativistic approaches and experimental data at low energy.

  10. Flexible strip supercapacitors for future energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, R-R; Xu, Y-M; Harrison, D; Fyson, J; Qiu, F-L; Southee, D

    2015-01-01

    Flexible strip supercapacitors are developed and their electrochemical properties are characterized. Activated carbon is used as the electrode material and it is found to have a good porous structure which provides a large surface area for energy storage. Furthermore, this activated carbon performs well. The manufacturing processes for the supercapacitors are described in detail and the preparation process has good reproducibility. The strip supercapacitors are combined in series and parallel...

  11. The charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, T.; Hubbeling, L.; Weilhammer, P.; Kemmer, J.; Koetz, U.; Riebesell, M.; Belau, E.; Klanner, R.; Lutz, G.; Neugebauer, E.; Seebrunner, H.J.; Wylie, A.

    1983-02-01

    The charge collection in silicon detectors has been studied, by measuring the response to high-energy particles of a 20μm pitch strip detector as a function of applied voltage and magnetic field. The results are well described by a simple model. The model is used to predict the spatial resolution of silicon strip detectors and to propose a detector with optimized spatial resolution. (orig.)

  12. LYCORIS - A Large Area Strip Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, U; Stanitzki, M; Wu, M

    2018-01-01

    The LYCORIS Large Area Silicon Strip Telescope for the DESY II Test Beam Facility is presented. The DESY II Test Beam Facility provides elec- tron and positron beams for beam tests of up to 6 GeV. A new telescope with a large 10 × 20 cm2 coverage area based on a 25 μm pitch strip sensor is to be installed within the PCMAG 1 T solenoid. The current state of the system is presented.

  13. Quantitative comparison of 3 enamel-stripping devices in vitro: how precisely can we strip teeth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johner, Alexander Marc; Pandis, Nikolaos; Dudic, Alexander; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2013-04-01

    In this in-vitro study, we aimed to investigate the predictability of the expected amount of stripping using 3 common stripping devices on premolars. One hundred eighty extracted premolars were mounted and aligned in silicone. Tooth mobility was tested with Periotest (Medizintechnik Gulden, Modautal, Germany) (8.3 ± 2.8 units). The selected methods for interproximal enamel reduction were hand-pulled strips (Horico, Hapf Ringleb & Company, Berlin, Germany), oscillating segmental disks (O-drive-OD 30; KaVo Dental, Biberach, Germany), and motor-driven abrasive strips (Orthofile; SDC Switzerland, Lugano-Grancia, Switzerland). With each device, the operator intended to strip 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 mm on the mesial side of 15 teeth. The teeth were scanned before and after stripping with a 3-dimensional laser scanner. Superposition and measurement of stripped enamel on the most mesial point of the tooth were conducted with Viewbox software (dHal Software, Kifissia, Greece). The Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were applied; statistical significance was set at alpha ≤ 0.05. Large variations between the intended and the actual amounts of stripped enamel, and between stripping procedures, were observed. Significant differences were found at 0.1 mm of intended stripping (P ≤ 0.05) for the hand-pulled method and at 0.4 mm of intended stripping (P ≤ 0.001 to P = 0.05) for all methods. For all scenarios of enamel reduction, the actual amount of stripping was less than the predetermined and expected amount of stripping. The Kruskal-Wallis analysis showed no significant differences between the 3 methods. There were variations in the stripped amounts of enamel, and the stripping technique did not appear to be a significant predictor of the actual amount of enamel reduction. In most cases, actual stripping was less than the intended amount of enamel reduction. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  14. Definition of rehabilitation strategies for pre-strip tertiary spoil at coal mines in central Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, L.C.; Mulligan, D.R.; Mitchell, R.J.; Philp, M.W.; Roe, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    In the open-cut coal mines of central Queensland, the conventional dragline removal of overburden results in a spoil surface dominated by Permian sediments. In recent years, however, a number of mines have changed their coal exposure methods to include a pre-stripping operation to create a bench for the dragline up to 50 m below the surface. This approach has allowed economic coal recovery from greater depths, but, since this pre-strip material is being deposited on existing spoil piles, it has resulted in a major change in the type of spoil material on the surface. The aims of this project were, firstly, to define the characteristics of this pre-strip material that could cause problems for the establishment and growth of both introduced pasture grasses and native tree species, and secondly, to explore possible spoil amendments which could ameliorate some or all of these limitations. Analyses on the range of spoils included pH, EC and sodicity. Straw mulch also reduced the crust strength and was an effective means of improving vegetative establishment. A complementary field trial was established at Saraji mine in April 1991, and after 4 months, treatments which involved a 30 cm capping of soil on the spoil resulted in the highest densities of tree seedling

  15. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Saikkonen

    Full Text Available Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1 and F(2 generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1 genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2 these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars.

  16. Treatment with grass allergen peptides improves symptoms of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Anne K; Frankish, Charles W; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Armstrong, Kristen; Steacy, Lisa; Larché, Mark; Hafner, Roderick P

    2017-08-01

    Synthetic peptide immunoregulatory epitopes are a new class of immunotherapy to treat allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). Grass allergen peptides, comprising 7 synthetic T-cell epitopes derived from Cyn d 1, Lol p 5, Dac g 5, Hol l 5, and Phl p 5, is investigated for treatment of grass pollen-induced ARC. We sought to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intradermally administered grass allergen peptides. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated 3 regimens of grass allergen peptides versus placebo in patients with grass pollen-induced allergy (18-65 years). After a 4-day baseline challenge to rye grass in the environmental exposure unit (EEU), subjects were randomized to receive grass allergen peptides at 6 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x6Q2W), grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 4-week intervals for a total of 4 doses (4x12Q4W), or grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x12Q2W) or placebo and treated before the grass pollen season. The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline in total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score across days 2 to 4 of a 4-day posttreatment challenge (PTC) in the EEU after the grass pollen season. Secondary efficacy end points and safety were also assessed. Two hundred eighty-two subjects were randomized. Significantly greater improvement (reduction of total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score from baseline to PTC) occurred across days 2 to 4 with grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (-5.4 vs -3.8, respectively; P = .0346). Greater improvement at PTC also occurred for grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (P = .0403) in patients with more symptomatic ARC. No safety signals were detected. Grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W significantly improved ARC symptoms after rye grass allergen challenge in an EEU with an acceptable safety profile. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  17. Brightness/darkness induction and the genesis of a contour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eRoncato

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual contours often result from the integration or interpolation of fragmented edges.The strength of the completion increases when the edges share the same contrast polarity (CP. Here we demonstrate that the appearance in the perceptual field of this integrated unit, or contour of invariant CP, is concomitant with a vivid brightness alteration of the surfaces at its opposite sides. To observe this effect requires some stratagems because the formation in the visual field of a contour of invariant CP normally engenders the formation of a second contour and then the rise of two streams of induction signals that interfere in different ways. Particular configurations have been introduced that allow us to observe the induction effects of one contour taken in isolation. I documented these effects by phenomenological observations and psychophysical measurement of the brightness alteration in relation to luminance contrast. When the edges of the same CP complete to form a contour, the background of homogeneous luminance appears to dim at one side and to brighten at the opposite side (in accord with the CP. The strength of the phenomenon is proportional to the local luminance contrast. This effect weakens or nulls when the contour of the invariant CP separates surfaces filled with different grey shades.These conflicting results stimulate a deeper exploration of the induction phenomena and their role in the computation of brightness contrast. An alternative perspective is offered to account for some brightness illusions and their relation to the phenomenal transparency. The main assumption asserts that, when in the same region induction signals of opposite CP overlap, the filling-in are blocked unless the image is stratified into different layers, one for each signal of the same polarity. Phenomenological observations document this solution by the visual system

  18. Some aspects of fracture assessment diagrams, plastic zone size corrections and contour integrals in post-yield fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, R.A.

    1981-03-01

    The CEGB failure assessment route is briefly described and is shown to be consistent with a plastic zone size correction method. Modifications to the assessment route which have recently been suggested for describing the effects of thermal and residual stresses are examined. It is shown that the plastic zone size correction method may be used to include local thermal and residual stresses in the assessment route in a simple manner. The assessment route is compared with finite-element solutions for a thermal stress problem and with strip-yield model solutions for a residual stress problem. In using finite-element solutions there are different contour integral methods available for calculating a post-yield fracture parameter. The J-integral of Rice and the J*-integral of Blackburn are examined and compared and the appropriate parameter is identified. (author)

  19. Nutritional value of cabbage and kikuyu grass as food for grass carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and digestibility coefficients were obtained for the protein, fibre, ash and fat contents of both ... Cabbage is a superior feed compared to grass for raising grass carp and a suitable low-cost alternative ... Materials and Methods ... from jumping out and was fitted with an air lift under- .... In: Aquatic weeds in South East Asia.

  20. Gene Expression Profiling of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Crisp Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermeng Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus is one of the most important freshwater fish that is native to China, and crisp grass carp is a kind of high value-added fishes which have higher muscle firmness. To investigate biological functions and possible signal transduction pathways that address muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp, microarray analysis of 14,900 transcripts was performed. Compared with grass carp, 127 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in crisp grass carp. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed 30 GOs of differentially expressed genes in crisp grass carp. And strong correlation with muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp was found for these genes from differentiation of muscle fibers and deposition of ECM, and also glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway and calcium metabolism may contribute to muscle firmness increase. In addition, a number of genes with unknown functions may be related to muscle firmness, and these genes are still further explored. Overall, these results had been demonstrated to play important roles in clarifying the molecular mechanism of muscle firmness increase in crisp grass carp.

  1. Different techniques to study rumen fermentation characteristics of maturing grass and grass silage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Soliman, I.A.; Visser, de H.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Grass samples were harvested during the 1993 growing season after a precut on April 27, 1993 and were stored frozen or left to ensile in 30-L buckets. Effects on chemical composition and fermentation kinetics of the maturation of the grass and of ensiling were investigated. Chemical composition and

  2. Analysis of the soil food web structure under grass and grass clover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Smeding, F.W.; Vries, de F.T.; Bloem, J.

    2006-01-01

    The below ground biodiversity of soil organisms plays an important role in the functioning of the the soil ecosystem, and consequently the above ground plant production. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of grass or grass-clover in combination with fertilisation on the soil

  3. Post-ruminal digestibility of crude protein from grass and grass silages in cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Mathijssen-Kamman, A.A.; Hindle, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    Grass samples were grown on a clay or sandy soil, fertilised with 150 or 300 kg N/ha per year, and harvested on different days during two consecutive growing seasons. The grass samples were stored frozen or ensiled after wilting to approximately 250 or 450 g DM/kg. The recoveries of crude protein

  4. A new template matching method based on contour information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huiying; Zhu, Feng; Wu, Qingxiao; Li, Sicong

    2014-11-01

    Template matching is a significant approach in machine vision due to its effectiveness and robustness. However, most of the template matching methods are so time consuming that they can't be used to many real time applications. The closed contour matching method is a popular kind of template matching methods. This paper presents a new closed contour template matching method which is suitable for two dimensional objects. Coarse-to-fine searching strategy is used to improve the matching efficiency and a partial computation elimination scheme is proposed to further speed up the searching process. The method consists of offline model construction and online matching. In the process of model construction, triples and distance image are obtained from the template image. A certain number of triples which are composed by three points are created from the contour information that is extracted from the template image. The rule to select the three points is that the template contour is divided equally into three parts by these points. The distance image is obtained here by distance transform. Each point on the distance image represents the nearest distance between current point and the points on the template contour. During the process of matching, triples of the searching image are created with the same rule as the triples of the model. Through the similarity that is invariant to rotation, translation and scaling between triangles, the triples corresponding to the triples of the model are found. Then we can obtain the initial RST (rotation, translation and scaling) parameters mapping the searching contour to the template contour. In order to speed up the searching process, the points on the searching contour are sampled to reduce the number of the triples. To verify the RST parameters, the searching contour is projected into the distance image, and the mean distance can be computed rapidly by simple operations of addition and multiplication. In the fine searching process

  5. After massive weight loss: patients' expectations of body contouring surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzinger, Hugo B; Abayev, Sara; Pittermann, Anna; Karle, Birgit; Bohdjalian, Arthur; Langer, Felix B; Prager, Gerhard; Frey, Manfred

    2012-04-01

    Massive weight loss following bariatric surgery leads to excess skin with functional and aesthetic impairments. Surplus skin can then contribute to problems with additional weight loss or gain. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the frequency of massive soft tissue development in gastric bypass patients, to determine whether males and females experience similar post-bypass body changes, and to learn about the expectations and impairments related to body contouring surgery. A questionnaire addressing information on the satisfaction of body image, quality of life, and expectation of body contouring surgery following massive weight loss was mailed to 425 patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery between 2003 and 2009. Of these 425 individuals, 252 (59%) patients completed the survey. Ninety percent of women and 88% of men surveyed rated their appearance following massive weight loss as satisfactory, good, or very good. However, 96% of all patients developed surplus skin, which caused intertriginous dermatitis and itching. In addition, patients reported problems with physical activity (playing sports) and finding clothing that fit appropriately. Moreover, 75% of female and 68% of male patients reported desiring body contouring surgery. The most important expectation of body contouring surgery was improved appearance, followed by improved self-confidence and quality of life. Surplus skin resulting from gastric bypass surgery is a common issue that causes functional and aesthetic impairments in patients. Consequently, this increases the desire for body contouring surgery with high expectations for the aesthetic outcome as well as improved life satisfaction.

  6. Color and Contour Based Identification of Stem of Coconut Bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan Megalingam, Rajesh; Manoharan, Sakthiprasad K.; Reddy, Rajesh G.; Sriteja, Gone; Kashyap, Ashwin

    2017-08-01

    Vision is the key component of Artificial Intelligence and Automated Robotics. Sensors or Cameras are the sight organs for a robot. Only through this, they are able to locate themselves or identify the shape of a regular or an irregular object. This paper presents the method of Identification of an object based on color and contour recognition using a camera through digital image processing techniques for robotic applications. In order to identify the contour, shape matching technique is used, which takes the input data from the database provided, and uses it to identify the contour by checking for shape match. The shape match is based on the idea of iterating through each contour of the threshold image. The color is identified on HSV Scale, by approximating the desired range of values from the database. HSV data along with iteration is used for identifying a quadrilateral, which is our required contour. This algorithm could also be used in a non-deterministic plane, which only uses HSV values exclusively.

  7. Parallel peak pruning for scalable SMP contour tree computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, Hamish A. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom); Weber, Gunther H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Sewell, Christopher M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ahrens, James P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-09

    As data sets grow to exascale, automated data analysis and visualisation are increasingly important, to intermediate human understanding and to reduce demands on disk storage via in situ analysis. Trends in architecture of high performance computing systems necessitate analysis algorithms to make effective use of combinations of massively multicore and distributed systems. One of the principal analytic tools is the contour tree, which analyses relationships between contours to identify features of more than local importance. Unfortunately, the predominant algorithms for computing the contour tree are explicitly serial, and founded on serial metaphors, which has limited the scalability of this form of analysis. While there is some work on distributed contour tree computation, and separately on hybrid GPU-CPU computation, there is no efficient algorithm with strong formal guarantees on performance allied with fast practical performance. Here in this paper, we report the first shared SMP algorithm for fully parallel contour tree computation, withfor-mal guarantees of O(lgnlgt) parallel steps and O(n lgn) work, and implementations with up to 10x parallel speed up in OpenMP and up to 50x speed up in NVIDIA Thrust.

  8. Development of floating strip micromegas detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan

    2014-04-28

    Micromegas are high-rate capable, high-resolution micro-pattern gaseous detectors. Square meter sized resistive strip Micromegas are foreseen as replacement of the currently used precision tracking detectors in the Small Wheel, which is part of the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The replacement is necessary to ensure tracking and triggering performance of the muon spectrometer after the luminosity increase of the Large Hadron Collider beyond its design value of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} around 2020. In this thesis a novel discharge tolerant floating strip Micromegas detector is presented and described. By individually powering copper anode strips, the effects of a discharge are confined to a small region of the detector. This reduces the impact of discharges on the efficiency by three orders of magnitude, compared to a standard Micromegas. The physics of the detector is studied and discussed in detail. Several detectors are developed: A 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas with exchangeable SMD capacitors and resistors allows for an optimization of the floating strip principle. The discharge behavior is investigated on this device in depth. The microscopic structure of discharges is quantitatively explained by a detailed detector simulation. A 48 x 50 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas is studied in high energy pion beams. Its homogeneity with respect to pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution is investigated. The good performance in high-rate background environments is demonstrated in cosmic muon tracking measurements with a 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas under lateral irradiation with 550 kHz 20 MeV proton beams. A floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is developed for ion tracking without limitations from multiple scattering in imaging applications during medical ion therapy. Highly efficient tracking of 20 MeV protons at particle rates of 550 kHz is possible. The reconstruction of the

  9. Development of floating strip micromegas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Micromegas are high-rate capable, high-resolution micro-pattern gaseous detectors. Square meter sized resistive strip Micromegas are foreseen as replacement of the currently used precision tracking detectors in the Small Wheel, which is part of the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The replacement is necessary to ensure tracking and triggering performance of the muon spectrometer after the luminosity increase of the Large Hadron Collider beyond its design value of 10 34 cm -2 s -1 around 2020. In this thesis a novel discharge tolerant floating strip Micromegas detector is presented and described. By individually powering copper anode strips, the effects of a discharge are confined to a small region of the detector. This reduces the impact of discharges on the efficiency by three orders of magnitude, compared to a standard Micromegas. The physics of the detector is studied and discussed in detail. Several detectors are developed: A 6.4 x 6.4 cm 2 floating strip Micromegas with exchangeable SMD capacitors and resistors allows for an optimization of the floating strip principle. The discharge behavior is investigated on this device in depth. The microscopic structure of discharges is quantitatively explained by a detailed detector simulation. A 48 x 50 cm 2 floating strip Micromegas is studied in high energy pion beams. Its homogeneity with respect to pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution is investigated. The good performance in high-rate background environments is demonstrated in cosmic muon tracking measurements with a 6.4 x 6.4 cm 2 floating strip Micromegas under lateral irradiation with 550 kHz 20 MeV proton beams. A floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is developed for ion tracking without limitations from multiple scattering in imaging applications during medical ion therapy. Highly efficient tracking of 20 MeV protons at particle rates of 550 kHz is possible. The reconstruction of the track inclination in a single

  10. Superconducting nano-strip particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiano, R; Ejrnaes, M; Casaburi, A; Zen, N; Ohkubo, M

    2015-01-01

    We review progress in the development and applications of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors. Particle detectors based on superconducting nano-strips stem from the parent devices developed for single photon detection (SSPD) and share with them ultra-fast response times (sub-nanosecond) and the ability to operate at a relatively high temperature (2–5 K) compared with other cryogenic detectors. SSPDs have been used in the detection of electrons, neutral and charged ions, and biological macromolecules; nevertheless, the development of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors has mainly been driven by their use in time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MSs) where the goal of 100% efficiency at large mass values can be achieved. Special emphasis will be given to this case, reporting on the great progress which has been achieved and which permits us to overcome the limitations of existing mass spectrometers represented by low detection efficiency at large masses and charge/mass ambiguity. Furthermore, such progress could represent a breakthrough in the field. In this review article we will introduce the device concept and detection principle, stressing the peculiarities of the nano-strip particle detector as well as its similarities with photon detectors. The development of parallel strip configuration is introduced and extensively discussed, since it has contributed to the significant progress of TOF-MS applications. (paper)

  11. Factors affecting hydrocarbon removal by air stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper includes an overview of the theory of air stripping design considerations and the factors affecting stripper performance. Effects of temperature, contaminant characteristics, stripping tower geometry and air/water ratios on removal performance are discussed. The discussion includes treatment of groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents such as TCE and PCE. Control of VOC emissions from air strippers has become a major concern in recent years, due to more stringent restrictions on air quality in many areas. This paper includes an overview of available technology to control air emissions (including activated carbon adsorption, catalytic oxidation and steam stripping) and the effects of air emission control on overall efficiency of the treatment process. The paper includes an overview of the relative performance of various packing materials for air strippers and explains the relative advantages and disadvantages of comparative packing materials. Field conditions affecting selection of packing materials are also discussed. Practical guidelines for the design of air stripping systems are presented, as well as actual case studies of full-scale air stripping projects

  12. Properties isotropy of magnesium alloy strip workpieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. Кавалла

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of obtaining high quality cast workpieces of magnesium alloys produced by strip roll-casting. Producing strips of magnesium alloys by combining the processes of casting and rolling when liquid melt is fed continuously to fast rolls is quite promising and economic. In the process of sheet stamping considerable losses of metal occur on festoons formed due to anisotropy of properties of foil workpiece, as defined by the macro- and microstructure and modes of rolling and annealing. The principal causes of anisotropic mechanical properties of metal strips produced by the combined casting and rolling technique are the character of distribution of intermetallic compounds in the strip, orientation of phases of metal defects and the residual tensions. One of the tasks in increasing the output of fit products during stamping operations consists in minimizing the amount of defects. To lower the level of anisotropy in mechanical properties various ways of treating the melt during casting are suggested. Designing the technology of producing strips of magnesium alloys opens a possibility of using them in automobile industry to manufacture light-weight body elements instead of those made of steel.

  13. Area specific stripping factors for AGS. A method for extracting stripping factors from survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K.; Korsbech, U. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    In order to use Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) for contamination mapping, for source search etc. one must to be able to eliminate the contribution to the spectra from natural radioactivity. This in general is done by a stripping technique. The parameters for performing a stripping have until recently been measured by recording gamma spectra at special calibration sites (pads). This may be cumbersome and the parameters may not be correct when used at low gamma energies for environmental spectra. During 2000-2001 DTU tested with success a new technique for Carborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (CGS) where the spectra from the surveyed area (or from a similar area) were used for calculating the stripping parameters. It was possible to calculate usable stripping ratios for a number of low energy windows - and weak source signals not detectable by other means were discovered with the ASS technique. In this report it is shown that the ASS technique also works for AGS data, and it has been used for recent Danish AGS tests with point sources. (Check of calibration of AGS parameters.) By using the ASS technique with the Boden data (Barents Rescue) an exercise source was detected that has not been detected by any of the teams during the exercise. The ASS technique therefore seems to be better for search for radiation anomalies than any other method known presently. The experiences also tell that although the stripping can be performed correctly at any altitude there is a variation of the stripping parameters with altitude that has not yet been quite understood. However, even with the oddly variations the stripping worked as expected. It was also observed that one might calculate a single common set of usable stripping factors for all altitudes from the entire data set i.e. some average a, b and c values. When those stripping factors were used the stripping technique still worked well. (au)

  14. Color contributes to object-contour perception in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2017-03-01

    The magnitudes of chromatic and achromatic edge contrast are statistically independent and thus provide independent information, which can be used for object-contour perception. However, it is unclear if and how much object-contour perception benefits from chromatic edge contrast. To address this question, we investigated how well human-marked object contours can be predicted from achromatic and chromatic edge contrast. We used four data sets of human-marked object contours with a total of 824 images. We converted the images to the Derrington-Krauskopf-Lennie color space to separate chromatic from achromatic information in a physiologically meaningful way. Edges were detected in the three dimensions of the color space (one achromatic and two chromatic) and compared to human-marked object contours using receiver operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis for a threshold-independent evaluation. Performance was quantified by the difference of the area under the ROC curves (ΔAUC). Results were consistent across different data sets and edge-detection methods. If chromatic edges were used in addition to achromatic edges, predictions were better for 83% of the images, with a prediction advantage of 3.5% ΔAUC, averaged across all data sets and edge detectors. For some images the prediction advantage was considerably higher, up to 52% ΔAUC. Interestingly, if achromatic edges were used in addition to chromatic edges, the average prediction advantage was smaller (2.4% ΔAUC). We interpret our results such that chromatic information is important for object-contour perception.

  15. Neuronal oscillations form parietal/frontal networks during contour integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Marta; Plöchl, Michael; Vicente, Raul; Pipa, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    The ability to integrate visual features into a global coherent percept that can be further categorized and manipulated are fundamental abilities of the neural system. While the processing of visual information involves activation of early visual cortices, the recruitment of parietal and frontal cortices has been shown to be crucial for perceptual processes. Yet is it not clear how both cortical and long-range oscillatory activity leads to the integration of visual features into a coherent percept. Here, we will investigate perceptual grouping through the analysis of a contour categorization task, where the local elements that form contour must be linked into a coherent structure, which is then further processed and manipulated to perform the categorization task. The contour formation in our visual stimulus is a dynamic process where, for the first time, visual perception of contours is disentangled from the onset of visual stimulation or from motor preparation, cognitive processes that until now have been behaviorally attached to perceptual processes. Our main finding is that, while local and long-range synchronization at several frequencies seem to be an ongoing phenomena, categorization of a contour could only be predicted through local oscillatory activity within parietal/frontal sources, which in turn, would synchronize at gamma (>30 Hz) frequency. Simultaneously, fronto-parietal beta (13-30 Hz) phase locking forms a network spanning across neural sources that are not category specific. Both long range networks, i.e., the gamma network that is category specific, and the beta network that is not category specific, are functionally distinct but spatially overlapping. Altogether, we show that a critical mechanism underlying contour categorization involves oscillatory activity within parietal/frontal cortices, as well as its synchronization across distal cortical sites.

  16. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and "real" colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstis, Stuart; Vergeer, Mark; Van Lier, Rob

    2012-09-06

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The color of the afterimage depends on two adapting colors, those both inside and outside the test. Here, we further explore this phenomenon and show that the color-contour interactions shown for afterimage colors also occur for "real" colors. We argue that similar mechanisms apply for both types of stimulation.

  17. The Main Cognitive Model of Visual Recognition: Contour Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, YongHong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we will study the following pattern recognition problem: Every pattern is a 3-dimensional graph, its surface can be split up into some regions, every region is composed of the pixels with the approximately same colour value and the approximately same depth value that is distance to eyes, and there may also be some contours, e.g., literal contours, on a surface of every pattern. For this problem we reveal the inherent laws. Moreover, we establish a cognitive model to reflect the...

  18. Contour extraction of echocardiographic images based on pre-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Zinah Rajab; Rahmat, Rahmita Wirza; Abdullah, Lili Nurliyana [Department of Multimedia, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Department of Computer and Communication Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering University Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zamrin, D M [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Malaysia, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Saripan, M Iqbal

    2011-02-15

    In this work we present a technique to extract the heart contours from noisy echocardiograph images. Our technique is based on improving the image before applying contours detection to reduce heavy noise and get better image quality. To perform that, we combine many pre-processing techniques (filtering, morphological operations, and contrast adjustment) to avoid unclear edges and enhance low contrast of echocardiograph images, after implementing these techniques we can get legible detection for heart boundaries and valves movement by traditional edge detection methods.

  19. Contour extraction of echocardiographic images based on pre-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Zinah Rajab; Rahmat, Rahmita Wirza; Abdullah, Lili Nurliyana; Zamrin, D M; Saripan, M Iqbal

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a technique to extract the heart contours from noisy echocardiograph images. Our technique is based on improving the image before applying contours detection to reduce heavy noise and get better image quality. To perform that, we combine many pre-processing techniques (filtering, morphological operations, and contrast adjustment) to avoid unclear edges and enhance low contrast of echocardiograph images, after implementing these techniques we can get legible detection for heart boundaries and valves movement by traditional edge detection methods.

  20. Complications following body contouring surgery after massive weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasanbegovic, Emir; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is a way to achieve lasting weight loss in the obese. Body contouring surgery seeks to alleviate some of the discomfort caused by the excessive loose skin following massive weight loss. Higher complication rates are described in this type of surgery when done post......-bariatric. The purpose of this article is to compare complication rates of body contouring surgery when performed on patients with weight loss due to bariatric surgery compared to patients who lost weight due to dietary changes and/or exercise....

  1. Analysis of 'Coma strip' galaxy redshift catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klypin, A.A.; Karachentsev, I.D.; Lebedev, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    We present results of the analysis of a galaxy redshift catalog made at the 6-m telescope by Karachentsev and Kopylov (1990. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 243, 390). The catalog covers a long narrow strip on the sky (10 arcmin by 63 0 ) and lists 283 galaxies up to limiting blue magnitude m B = 17.6. The strip goes through the core of Coma cluster and this is called the 'Coma strip' catalog. The catalog is almost two times deeper than the CfA redshift survey and creates the possibility of studying the galaxy distribution on scales of 100-250 Mpc. Due to the small number of galaxies in the catalog, we were able to estimate only very general and stable parameters of the distribution. (author)

  2. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  3. Controlling grass weeds on hard surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Anne Merete; Kristoffersen, Palle; Andreasen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on a specially designed hard surface to study the impact of time interval between flaming treatments on the regrowth and flower production of two grass weeds. The goal of this experiment was to optimize the control of annual bluegrass and perennial ryegrass, both species...... that are very difficult to control without herbicides. Aboveground biomass from 72 plants per treatment was harvested and dry weights were recorded at regular intervals to investigate how the plants responded to flaming. Regrowth of the grasses was measured by harvesting aboveground biomass 2 wk after......, as they did not increase the reduction of aboveground biomass compared with the 7-d treatment interval. Knowledge on the regrowth of grass weeds after flaming treatments provided by this study can help improve recommendations given to road keepers and park managers for management on these weeds. Nomenclature...

  4. Biogas and Methane Yield from Rye Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production in the Czech Republic has expanded substantially, including marginal regions for maize cultivation. Therefore, there are increasingly sought materials that could partially replace maize silage, as a basic feedstock, while secure both biogas production and its quality.Two samples of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum var. westerwoldicum silage with different solids content 21% and 15% were measured for biogas and methane yield. Rye grass silage with solid content of 15% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.431 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.249 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter. Rye grass silage with solid content 21% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.654 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.399 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter.

  5. Rehabilitation experiment by phytoremediation using lawn grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    Measures against environmental contamination by radioactive materials originated from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (May, 2011), are being conducted in Fukushima and surrounding prefectures. Regarding to the measures, a phytoremediation experiment with several types of lawn grasses in a field scale have been carried out. Lawn grasses are generally characterized by shallow rhizosphere, high density and root mat formation. Decontamination effectiveness of radioactive cesium by plant uptake and by sod removing was investigated. As a result, the range of decontamination factors by plant uptake was below than 1% because of low transfer rate form soil to plant. On the other hand, maximum decontamination factor by sod removing reached about 100%. Decontamination activities with various methods will be implemented according to the national decontamination policy and related plans in each municipality. The phytoremediation method with lawn grass would be applicable in limited circumstances. (author)

  6. Test strip and method for its use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A test strip device is described which is useful in performing binding assays involving antigens, antibodies, hormones, vitamins, metabolites or pharmacological agents. The device is capable of application to analytical methods in which a set of sequential test reactions is involved and in which a minute sample size may be used. This test strip is particularly useful in radioimmunoassays. The use of the device is illustrated in radioimmunoassays for 1) thyroxine in serum, 2) the triiodothyronine binding capacity of serum and 3) folic acid and its analogues in serum. (U.K.)

  7. Stage- vs. Channel-strip Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Korsgaard, Dannie Michael; Büchert, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the stage metaphor and the channel strip metaphor in terms of performance. Traditionally, music mixing consoles employ a channels strip control metaphor for adjusting parameters such as volume and panning of each track. An alternative control metaphor, the so-called stage meta...... is surprisingly similar and thus we are not able to detect any significant difference in performance between the two interfaces. Qualitative data however, suggests that the stage metaphor is largely favoured for its intuitive interaction - confirming earlier studies....

  8. slice of LEP beamtube with getter strip

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    A section of the LEP beam pipe. This is the chamber in which LEP's counter-rotating electron and positron beams travel. It is made of lead-clad aluminium. The beams circulate in the oval cross-section part of the chamber. In the rectangular cross-section part, LEP's innovative getter-strip vacuum pump is installed. After heating to purify the surface of the getter, the strip acts like molecular sticky tape, trapping any stray molecules left behind after the accelerator's traditional vacuum pumps have done their job.

  9. Comparative characteristics of polystyrene scintillation strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gapienko, V.A.; Denisov, A.G.; Mel'nikov, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are provided for a study of the main characteristics of polystyrene scintillation strips with a cross-section of 200 x 10 mm with two different scintillation-additive compositions: 1.5% p-terphenyl + 0.01% POPOP and 1.5% p-terphenyl + 0.01% DBP. The mean light-attenuation lengths are 180 cm and 260 cm, respectively, for strips with POPOP and DBP. The emittances of the polystyrene scintillators with DBP and POPOP additives have a ratio of 0.8:1.0 as recorded by an FEU-110 photomultiplier. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  10. Wide Strip Casting Technology of Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, W.-J.; Kim, J. J.; Kim, I. J.; Choo, D.

    Extensive investigations relating to the production of high performance and low cost magnesium sheet by strip casting have been performed for the application to automotive parts and electronic devices. Research on magnesium sheet production technology started in 2004 by Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (RIST) with support of Pohang Iron and Steel Company (POSCO). POSCO has completed the world's first plant to manufacture magnesium coil. Another big project in order to develop wide strip casting technology for the automotive applications of magnesium sheets was started in succession.

  11. Asset Stripping in a Mature Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Møller, Ulrik Gorm

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to document a Danish fraud scheme, in which a large number of limited companies were stripped of their assets leaving them with nothing but tax debt, eventually causing the Danish Tax and Customs Administration to lose large sums. Furthermore, the purpose...... indicates that asset stripping may take place in mature market economies to the extent that perpetrators are able to circumvent the corporate governance system by giving lawyers, public accountants and banks incentives to act less critically towards dubious business transactions. Research limitations...

  12. [Development of a Software for Automatically Generated Contours in Eclipse TPS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhao; Hu, Jinyou; Zou, Lian; Zhang, Weisha; Zou, Yuxin; Luo, Kelin; Liu, Xiangxiang; Yu, Luxin

    2015-03-01

    The automatic generation of planning targets and auxiliary contours have achieved in Eclipse TPS 11.0. The scripting language autohotkey was used to develop a software for automatically generated contours in Eclipse TPS. This software is named Contour Auto Margin (CAM), which is composed of operational functions of contours, script generated visualization and script file operations. RESULTS Ten cases in different cancers have separately selected, in Eclipse TPS 11.0 scripts generated by the software could not only automatically generate contours but also do contour post-processing. For different cancers, there was no difference between automatically generated contours and manually created contours. The CAM is a user-friendly and powerful software, and can automatically generated contours fast in Eclipse TPS 11.0. With the help of CAM, it greatly save plan preparation time and improve working efficiency of radiation therapy physicists.

  13. Clinical evaluation of atlas and deep learning based automatic contouring for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustberg, Tim; van Soest, Johan; Gooding, Mark; Peressutti, Devis; Aljabar, Paul; van der Stoep, Judith; van Elmpt, Wouter; Dekker, Andre

    2018-02-01

    Contouring of organs at risk (OARs) is an important but time consuming part of radiotherapy treatment planning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether using institutional created software-generated contouring will save time if used as a starting point for manual OAR contouring for lung cancer patients. Twenty CT scans of stage I-III NSCLC patients were used to compare user adjusted contours after an atlas-based and deep learning contour, against manual delineation. The lungs, esophagus, spinal cord, heart and mediastinum were contoured for this study. The time to perform the manual tasks was recorded. With a median time of 20 min for manual contouring, the total median time saved was 7.8 min when using atlas-based contouring and 10 min for deep learning contouring. Both atlas based and deep learning adjustment times were significantly lower than manual contouring time for all OARs except for the left lung and esophagus of the atlas based contouring. User adjustment of software generated contours is a viable strategy to reduce contouring time of OARs for lung radiotherapy while conforming to local clinical standards. In addition, deep learning contouring shows promising results compared to existing solutions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Variation in important pasture grasses: I. Morphological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in important pasture grasses: I. Morphological and geographical variation. ... Seven species are important pasture grasses throughout the western Transvaal, Orange Free State, northern Cape and Natal. ... Language: English.

  15. Assessment of some macromineral concentration of a grass/ legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of some macromineral concentration of a grass/ legume sward in ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... The study aimed to determine the concentration of some macromineral elements in the grass/legume pasture ...

  16. Modelling of excess noise attnuation by grass and forest | Onuu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , guinea grass (panicum maximum) and forest which comprises iroko (milicia ezcelea) and white afara (terminalia superba) trees in the ratio of 2:1 approximately. Excess noise attenuation spectra have been plotted for the grass and forest for ...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF VISUALLY GUIDED BEHAVIOR REQUIRES ORIENTED CONTOURS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRENNER, E; CORNELISSEN, FW

    1992-01-01

    Kittens do not learn to use visual information to guide their behaviour if they are deprived of the optic flow that accompanies their own movements. We show that the optic flow that is required for developing visually guided behaviour is derived from changes in contour orientations, rather than from

  18. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and 'real' colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anstis, S.; Vergeer, M.L.T.; Lier, R.J. van

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The

  19. The role of non-CRF inhibition in contour detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, C.; Petkov, N.; Westenberg, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a biologically motivated computational step, called non-classical receptive field (non-CRF) inhibition, to improve the performance of contour detectors. Non-CRF inhibition is exhibited by 80% of the orientation selective neurons in the primary visual cortex of macaque monkeys and has been

  20. Contour detection based on nonclassical receptive field inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, Cosmin; Petkov, Nicolai; Westenberg, Michel A.

    We propose a biologically motivated computational step, called nonclassical receptive field (non-CRF) inhibition, more generally surround inhibition or suppression, to improve contour detection in machine vision. Non-CRF inhibition is exhibited by 80% of the orientation-selective neurons in the

  1. Diffusion coefficients gases, dissolved in fluid of NPPs circulation contours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piontkovskij, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    In article is brought analysis of diverse gases diffusion coefficients computation methods, dissolved in liquid. On the basis of this analysis and treatment of being equalizations for concrete gases and certain parameters offers universal diffusion coefficients determination dependence for diverse gases in wide range of parameters, circulation contours typical for work NPP

  2. Dynamic contour tonometry: presentation of a new tonometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanngiesser, Hartmut E; Kniestedt, Christoph; Robert, Yves C A

    2005-10-01

    With tonometers currently in use intraocular pressure is indirectly determined by measuring a physical quantity related to a specified deformation of the cornea. We present a new principle of direct, continuous, and transcorneal intraocular pressure measurement, describe its theoretical foundation, and evaluate its application on the basis of an in vitro model. On a living human eye an optimized pressure-sensitive contact surface was determined by performing pressure measurements with differently shaped tonometer heads. Based on these results and on the theoretical model, a Dynamic Contour Tonometer was constructed and validated on eye bank bulbi against a manometric reference pressure. A concave contact surface with a radius of curvature of 10.5 mm creates a distribution of forces between the central contour matching area of the tip and the cornea that equals the forces generated by the internal pressure of the eye. A sensor integrated into the surface having the same contour measures the intraocular pressure closely to the manometric reference pressure in human cadaver eyes. The accuracy of the tonometer appears to be unaffected by variations in corneal properties. Dynamic Contour Tonometry eliminates most of the systematic errors arising from individual changes of corneal properties that adversely influence all types of applanation tonometers. The advantage of measuring the true pressure in combination with the capability of registering dynamic pressure fluctuations discloses new tonometric opportunities to diagnose and classify different types of glaucoma.

  3. Contour tracking and corner detection in a logic programming environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bell, Benjamin; Pau, L. F.

    1990-01-01

    The added functionality such as contour tracking and corner detection which logic programming lends to standard image operators is described. An environment for implementing low-level imaging operations with Prolog predicates is considered. Within this environment, higher-level image predicates (...

  4. Purse-string platysmaplasty: the third dimension for neck contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Richard D

    2005-11-01

    Techniques and concepts for treatment of the aging neck have been evolving since the late 1960s and rely on two-dimensional anterior approximation with lateral imbrication of the platysma with or without submental fat reduction, However, the medial approximation can sometimes give a "boxy" appearance to the anterior neck, especially if anterior shifting of the platysma recurs after platysmaplasty with laxity redeveloping in this midline location. The "purse-string" platysmaplasty (PSP) is a new concept in neck contouring that facilitates an enhanced definition for the cervicomandibular transition to better simulate the well-defined contour of this transition that is present in youth. It aids in the contouring of difficult poorly defined necks and in male patients. The PSP adds a "third dimension" to neck recontouring by invaginating the platysma with a plication suture and pexing the platysma, without incising it, to deeper neck fascia with a technique that adds support and definition to the neck contour. The PSP can be performed in patients undergoing a full rhytidectomy as well as in individuals having isolated neck rejuvenation. The PSP is especially helpful in rejuvenating the male lower face and neck because of the relatively heavier deeper structures of the male neck and the need to enhance definition along the jawline.

  5. Automatic Image Segmentation Using Active Contours with Univariate Marginal Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cruz-Aceves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel automatic image segmentation method based on the theory of active contour models and estimation of distribution algorithms. The proposed method uses the univariate marginal distribution model to infer statistical dependencies between the control points on different active contours. These contours have been generated through an alignment process of reference shape priors, in order to increase the exploration and exploitation capabilities regarding different interactive segmentation techniques. This proposed method is applied in the segmentation of the hollow core in microscopic images of photonic crystal fibers and it is also used to segment the human heart and ventricular areas from datasets of computed tomography and magnetic resonance images, respectively. Moreover, to evaluate the performance of the medical image segmentations compared to regions outlined by experts, a set of similarity measures has been adopted. The experimental results suggest that the proposed image segmentation method outperforms the traditional active contour model and the interactive Tseng method in terms of segmentation accuracy and stability.

  6. LV challenge LKEB contribution : fully automated myocardial contour detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhout, J.S.; Hendriksen, D.; Assen, van H.C.; Geest, van der R.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a contour detection method is described and evaluated on the evaluation data sets of the Cardiac MR Left Ventricle Segmentation Challenge as part of MICCAI 2009s 3D Segmentation Challenge for Clinical Applications. The proposed method, using 2D AAM and 3D ASM, performs a fully

  7. Design of a Vibrotactile Vest for Contour Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A vibrotactile array is a promising human computer interface which could display graphical information to users in a tactile form. This paper presents the design and testing of an image contour display system with a vibrotactile array. The tactile image display system is attached to the back of the user. It converts visual graphics into 2D tactile images and allows subjects to feel the contours of objects through vibration stimulus. The system consists of a USB camera, 48 (6×8 vibrating motors and an embedded control system. The image is captured by the camera and the 2D contour is extracted and transformed into vibrotactile stimuli using a temporal-spatial dynamic coding method. Preliminary experiments were carried out and the optimal parameters of the vibrating time and duration were explored. To evaluate the feasibility and robustness of this vibration mode, letters were also tactilely displayed and the recognition rate about the alphabet letter display was investigated. It was shown that under the condition of no pre-training for the subjects, the recognition rate was 82%. Such a recognition rate is higher than that of the scanning mode (47.5% and the improved handwriting mode (76.8%. The results indicated that the proposed method was efficient in conveying the contour information to the visually impaired by means of vibrations.

  8. Ship-borne contour integration for flux determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeskamp, S.; Maas, L.R.M.

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of nutrients by mussel beds can be monitored by measuring the net nutrient flux across a circumscribing vertical surface. Measuring this nutrient flux not only requires resolving the spatial (and temporal) distribution of nutrients at the bounding contour, but also an ability to

  9. A phantom study of tumor contouring on PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Song; Li Xuena; Li Yaming; Yin Yafu; Li Na; Han Chunqi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore an algorithm to define the threshold value for tumor contouring on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET imaging. Methods: A National Electrical Manufacturing Association (NEMA)NU 2 1994 PET phantom with 5 spheres of different diameters were filled with 18 F-FDG. Seven different sphere-to-background ratios were obtained and the phantom was scanned by Discovery LS 4. For each sphere-to-background ratio, the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) of each sphere, the SUV of the border of each sphere (SUV border ), the mean SUV of a 1 cm region of background (SUV bg ) and the diameter (D) of each sphere were measured. SPSS 13.0 software was used for curve fitting and regression analysis to obtain the threshold algorithm. The calculated thresholds were applied to delineate 29 pathologically confirmed lung cancer lesions on PET images and the obtained volumes were compared with the volumes contoured on CT images in lung window. Results: The algorithm for defining contour threshold is TH% = 33.1% + 46.8% SUV bg /SUV max + 13.9%/D (r = 0.994) by phantom studies. For 29 lung cancer lesions, the average gross tumor volumes (GTV) delineated on PET and CT are (7.36±1.62) ml and (8.31±2.05) ml, respectively (t = -1.26, P>0.05). Conclusion: The proposed threshold algorithm for tumor contouring on PET image could provide comparable GTV with CT. (authors)

  10. Linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry: Determination of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this work is to determine Cr(VI) in water resources by anodic stripping voltammetry using SPE-. AuNPs modified electrode .... surface area about 4 fold). 3.2 Optimization of Parameters ..... in water samples. The above system offers a.

  11. Physical distribution of oak strip flooring 1969

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Miller; William C. Miller

    1971-01-01

    As an aid to the marketing of oak strip flooring, a study was made of the distribution process for this product, from manufacture to consumer-where the flooring came from, where it went, how much was shipped, and who handled it.

  12. The Advantages of Lateral Tarsal Strip Procedure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally in surgery, an ideal operation should be effective, cause minimal discomfort and morbidity, give an aesthetic result, and have a lasting effect.[4]. Lateral strip procedure (LSP) has those characteristics and it does restore normal lid function and give a rapid rehabilitation with few complications and excellent.

  13. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    An improved and novel grid spacer for maintaining the fuel rods of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly in substantially parallel array is described. The invention provides for spring strips to maintain the fuel elements in their desired orientation which have more positive alignment than previous types while allowing greater flexibility to counterbalance the effects of differential thermal expansion. (UK)

  14. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A critical component of the DNA Medicine Institute's Reusable Handheld Electrolyte and Lab Technology for Humans (rHEALTH) sensor are nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, that enable multiplexed blood analysis. Nanostrips are conceptually similar to the standard urinalysis test strip, but the strips are shrunk down a billionfold to the microscale. Each nanostrip can have several sensor pads that fluoresce in response to different targets in a sample. The strips carry identification tags that permit differentiation of a specific panel from hundreds of other nanostrip panels during a single measurement session. In Phase I of the project, the company fabricated, tested, and demonstrated functional parathyroid hormone and vitamin D nanostrips for bone metabolism, and thrombin aptamer and immunoglobulin G antibody nanostrips. In Phase II, numerous nanostrips were developed to address key space flight-based medical needs: assessment of bone metabolism, immune response, cardiac status, liver metabolism, and lipid profiles. This unique approach holds genuine promise for space-based portable biodiagnostics and for point-of-care (POC) health monitoring and diagnostics here on Earth.

  15. KRITIK SOSIAL DALAM KOMIK STRIP PAK BEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudhi Novriansyah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to do interpret the marking which flange social criticism and know laboring ideology in story of Comic Strip Pak Bei. Research based on theory of structural semiotic according to Ferdinand De Saussure. Using analysis of Syntagmatic as first level of meaning to the text network and also picture, and analysis of Paradigmatic as second level of meaning or implicit meaning (connota-tion, myth, ideology Analysis done to six Comic choice edition of Strip Pak Bei period of November 2004 - Februari 2005 which tend to flange social criticism. At band of syntagmatic, result of research indicate that story theme lifted from social problems that happened in major society. The fact clear progressively when connected by Intertextual with information and texts which have preexisted. At band of Paradigmatic, social criticism tend to emerge dimly, is not transparent. Because of Comic Strip Pak Bei expand in the middle of Java cultural domination that developing myth of criticize as action menacing compatibility and orderliness of society. Story of Comic Strip Pak Bei also confirm dominant ideology in Java society culture, namely ideology of Patriarkhi and Feudalism which still go into effect until now. This prove ideology idea according to Louis Althusser which not again opposition between class, but have been owned and practiced by all social class.

  16. Polymer Inclusion Membranes with Strip Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Hsien Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the permeation of indium ions through a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM, prepared with cellulose triacetate (CTA as the base polymer, tris(2-butoxyethyl phosphate (TBEP as the plasticizer and di-(2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA as the extractant. With 5 M HCl aqueous solution as the strip solution, we observed an initial indium permeability of 2.4 × 10−4 m/min. However, the permeability decreases with time, dropping to about 3.4 × 10−5 m/min after 200 min of operation. Evidence was obtained showing that hydrolysis of CTA occurred, causing a dramatic decrease in the feed pH (protons transported from strip to feed solutions and a loss of extractant and plasticizer from the membrane, and then leading to the loss of indium permeability. To alleviate the problem of hydrolysis, we proposed an operation scheme called polymer inclusion membranes with strip dispersion: dispersing the strip solution in extractant-containing oil and then bringing the dispersion to contact with the polymer membrane. Since the strong acid was dispersed in oil, the membrane did not directly contact the strong acid at all times, and membrane hydrolysis was thus alleviated and the loss of indium permeability was effectively prevented. With the proposed scheme, a stable indium permeability of 2.5 × 10−4 m/min was obtained during the whole time period of the permeation experiment.

  17. Comic Strips to Accompany Science Museum Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Park, Eun-mi; Kim, Sang-Hee; Cho, Sook-kyoung; Chung, Min Suk

    2016-01-01

    Science museums make the effort to create exhibits with amusing explanations. However, existing explanation signs with lengthy text are not appealing, and as such, visitors do not pay attention to them. In contrast, conspicuous comic strips composed of simple drawings and humors can attract science museum visitors. This study attempted to reveal…

  18. Standardization of surgical techniques used in facial bone contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Sung

    2015-12-01

    Since the introduction of facial bone contouring surgery for cosmetic purposes, various surgical methods have been used to improve the aesthetics of facial contours. In general, by standardizing the surgical techniques, it is possible to decrease complication rates and achieve more predictable surgical outcomes, thereby increasing patient satisfaction. The technical strategies used by the author to standardize facial bone contouring procedures are introduced here. The author uses various pre-manufactured surgical tools and hardware for facial bone contouring. During a reduction malarplasty or genioplasty procedure, double-bladed reciprocating saws and pre-bent titanium plates customized for the zygomatic body, arch and chin are used. Various guarded oscillating saws are used for mandibular angloplasty. The use of double-bladed saws and pre-bent plates to perform reduction malarplasty reduces the chances of post-operative asymmetry or under- or overcorrection of the zygoma contours due to technical faults. Inferior alveolar nerve injury and post-operative jawline asymmetry or irregularity can be reduced by using a guarded saw during mandibular angloplasty. For genioplasty, final placement of the chin in accordance with preoperative quantitative analysis can be easily performed with pre-bent plates, and a double-bladed saw allows more procedural accuracy during osteotomies. Efforts by the surgeon to avoid unintentional faults are key to achieving satisfactory results and reducing the incidence of complications. The surgical techniques described in this study in conjunction with various in-house surgical tools and modified hardware can be used to standardize techniques to achieve aesthetically gratifying outcomes. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ductility of reinforced concrete columns confined with stapled strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.F.; Khan, Q.U.Z.; Shabbir, F.; Sharif, M.B.; Ijaz, N.

    2015-01-01

    Response of three 150x150x450mm short reinforced concrete (RC) columns confined with different types of confining steel was investigated. Standard stirrups, strips and stapled strips, each having same cross-sectional area, were employed as confining steel around four comer column bars. Experimental work was aimed at probing into the affect of stapled strip confinement on post elastic behavior and ductility level under cyclic axial load. Ductility ratios, strength enhancement factor and core concrete strengths were compared to study the affect of confinement. Results indicate that strength enhancement in RC columns due to strip and stapled strip confinement was not remarkable as compared to stirrup confined column. It was found that as compared to stirrup confined column, stapled strip confinement enhanced the ductility of RC column by 183% and observed axial capacity of stapled strip confined columns was 41 % higher than the strip confined columns. (author)

  20. Strip reduction testing of lubricants developed during ENFORM project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gazvoda, S.; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam

    Strip reduction testing of lubricants developed during ENFORM project. Experiments were conducted with the strip reduction test [1] in order to classify experimental lubricants, developed during concerned project. One reference lubricant was used during testing....

  1. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  2. Notes on Alien Bromus Grasses in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jung

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn., Bromus hordeaceus L., Bromus pubescens Muhl. ex Willd. and Bromus secalinus L. were recently found at middle elevations of southern and central Taiwan, respectively. We present taxonomic treatments, distribution map, and line-drawings of these introduced alien brome grasses.

  3. Notes on the nomenclature of some grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1941-01-01

    In a former article 1) many new combinations and critical observations were published on various grasses all over the world. New investigations in critical genera together with the study of the existing literature made it necessary to accept various other arrangements in this important family. The

  4. Grass Pollen Pollution from Biofuels Farming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ratajová, A.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Kolář, L.; Kužel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2013), s. 199-203 ISSN 2151-321X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : grass pollen pollution * biofuels farming * temperate climate * PK-fertilization * N-fertilization * phenolic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.556, year: 2013

  5. Germination of Themeda triandra (Kangaroo grass) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low rainfall in range areas restricts germination, growth and development of majority of range grasses. However, germination and establishment potential of forage grasses vary and depends on environmental conditions. Themeda triandra is an excellent known grass to grow under different environmental conditions.

  6. Convex relationships in ecosystems containing mixtures of trees and grass

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between grass production and the quantity of trees in mixed tree-grass ecosystems (savannas) is convex for all or most of its range. In other words, the grass production declines more steeply per unit increase in tree quantity...

  7. Names of Southern African grasses: Name changes and additional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main reasons for changes in botanical names are briefly reviewed, with examples from the lists. At this time, about 1040 grass species and subspecific taxa are recognized in the subcontinent. Keywords: botanical research; botanical research institute; botany; grass; grasses; identification; name change; nomenclature; ...

  8. Parallel superconducting strip-line detectors: reset behaviour in the single-strip switch regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casaburi, A; Heath, R M; Tanner, M G; Hadfield, R H; Cristiano, R; Ejrnaes, M; Nappi, C

    2014-01-01

    Superconducting strip-line detectors (SSLDs) are an important emerging technology for the detection of single molecules in time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). We present an experimental investigation of a SSLD laid out in a parallel configuration, designed to address selected single strip-lines operating in the single-strip switch regime. Fast laser pulses were tightly focused onto the device, allowing controllable nucleation of a resistive region at a specific location and study of the subsequent device response dynamics. We observed that in this regime, although the strip-line returns to the superconducting state after triggering, no effective recovery of the bias current occurs, in qualitative agreement with a phenomenological circuit simulation that we performed. Moreover, from theoretical considerations and by looking at the experimental pulse amplitude distribution histogram, we have the first confirmation of the fact that the phenomenological London model governs the current redistribution in these large area devices also after detection events. (paper)

  9. Study the Z-Plane Strip Capacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, H.; Swain, S.

    2005-01-01

    The BaBaR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is currently undergoing an upgrade to improve its muon and neutral hadron detection system. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) that had been used till now have deteriorated in performance over the past few years and are being replaced by Limited Streamer Tube (LSTs). Each layer of the system consists of a set of up to 10 streamer tube modules which provide one coordinate (φ coordinate) and a single ''Z-plane'' which provides the Z coordinate of the hit. The large area Z-planes (up to 12m 2 ) are 1mm thick and contain 96 copper strips that detect the induced charge from avalanches created in the streamer tube wires. All the Z-planes needed for the upgrade have already been constructed, but only a third of the planes were installed last summer. After installing the 24 Z-planes last year, it was learned that 0.7% of the strips were dead when put inside the detector. This was mainly due to the delicate solder joint between the read-out cable and the strip, and since it is difficult to access or replace the Z-planes inside the detector, it is very important to perform various tests to make sure that the Z-planes will be efficient and effective in the long term. We measure the capacitance between the copper strips and the ground plane, and compare it to the theoretical value that we expect. Instead of measuring the capacitance channel by channel, which would be a very tedious job, we developed a more effective method of measuring the capacitance. Since all the Z-planes were built at SLAC, we also built a smaller 46 cm by 30 cm Z-plane with 12 strips just to see how they were constructed and to gain a better understanding about the solder joints

  10. Advection endash diffusion past a strip. II. Oblique incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knessl, C.; Keller, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Advection and diffusion of particles past an impenetrable strip is considered when the strip is oblique to the advection or drift velocity. The particle concentration p(x,y) is determined asymptotically for large values of vL/D, where v is the drift velocity, D is the diffusion coefficient, and 2L is the width of the strip. The results complement those of Part I, which treated a strip normal to the drift velocity. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Testbeam evaluation of silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase - II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration; Ai, Xiaocong; Allport, Phillip; Arling, Jan-Hendrik; Atkin, Ryan Justin; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Carli, Ina; Casse, Gianluigi; Chen, Liejian; Chisholm, Andrew; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cunningham, William Reilly; Dervan, Paul; Diez Cornell, Sergio; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dopke, Jens; Dreyer, Etienne; Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan Linus Roderik; Escobar, Carlos; Fabiani, Veronica; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Fernandez Tejero, Javier; Fleta Corral, Maria Celeste; Gallop, Bruce; Garcia-Argos, Carlos; Greenall, Ashley; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Greig, Graham George; Guescini, Francesco; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hauser, Marc Manuel; Huang, Yanping; Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; Keller, John; Klein, Christoph; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Kotek, Zdenek; Kroll, Jiri; Kuehn, Susanne; Lee, Steven Juhyung; Liu, Yi; Lohwasser, Kristin; Meszarosova, Lucia; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mi\\~nano Moya, Mercedes; Mori, Riccardo; Moser, Brian; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Peschke, Richard; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Phillips, Peter William; Poley, Anne-luise; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Ravotti, Federico; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of \\mbox{$7.5\\times10^{34}\\;\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$}. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over $1x10^{15}$ 1 MeV neutron equivalent per $cm^{2}$ in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II test beam facility to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before irradiation. The DURANTA telescope was used to obtain a pointing...

  12. Estimating grass and grass silage degradation characteristics by in situ and in vitro gas production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Karolyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation characteristics of grass and grass silage at different maturities were studied using in situ and in vitro gas production methods. In situ data determined difference between grass and silage. Degradable fraction decreased as grass matured while the undegradable fraction increased. Rate of degradation (kd was slower for silage than fresh grass. Gas production method (GP data showed that fermentation of degradable fraction was different between stage of maturity in both grass and silage. Other data did not show any difference with the exception for the rate of GP of soluble and undegradable fraction. The in situ degradation characteristics were estimated from GP characteristics. The degradable and undegradable fractions could be estimated by multiple relationships. Using the three-phases model for gas production kd and fermentable organic matter could be estimated from the same parameters. The only in situ parameter that could not be estimated with GP parameters was the soluble fraction. The GP method and the three phases model provided to be an alternative to the in situ method for animal feed evaluations.

  13. 7 CFR 29.6128 - Straight Stripped (X Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Straight Stripped (X Group). 29.6128 Section 29.6128... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6128 Straight Stripped (X Group). This group consists of..., and tolerances X1 Fine Quality Straight Stripped. Heavy, ripe, firm, semielastic, normal strength and...

  14. SU-E-J-129: Atlas Development for Cardiac Automatic Contouring Using Multi-Atlas Segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, R; Yang, J; Pan, T; Milgrom, S; Pinnix, C; Shi, A; Yang, J; Liu, Y; Nguyen, Q; Gomez, D; Dabaja, B; Balter, P; Court, L; Liao, Z

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a set of atlases for automatic contouring of cardiac structures to determine heart radiation dose and the associated toxicity. Methods: Six thoracic cancer patients with both contrast and non-contrast CT images were acquired for this study. Eight radiation oncologists manually and independently delineated cardiac contours on the non-contrast CT by referring to the fused contrast CT and following the RTOG 1106 atlas contouring guideline. Fifteen regions of interest (ROIs) were delineated, including heart, four chambers, four coronary arteries, pulmonary artery and vein, inferior and superior vena cava, and ascending and descending aorta. Individual expert contours were fused using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm for each ROI and each patient. The fused contours became atlases for an in-house multi-atlas segmentation. Using leave-one-out test, we generated auto-segmented contours for each ROI and each patient. The auto-segmented contours were compared with the fused contours using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the mean surface distance (MSD). Results: Inter-observer variability was not obvious for heart, chambers, and aorta but was large for other structures that were not clearly distinguishable on CT image. The average DSC between individual expert contours and the fused contours were less than 50% for coronary arteries and pulmonary vein, and the average MSD were greater than 4.0 mm. The largest MSD of expert contours deviating from the fused contours was 2.5 cm. The mean DSC and MSD of auto-segmented contours were within one standard deviation of expert contouring variability except the right coronary artery. The coronary arteries, vena cava, and pulmonary vein had DSC<70% and MSD>3.0 mm. Conclusion: A set of cardiac atlases was created for cardiac automatic contouring, the accuracy of which was comparable to the variability in expert contouring. However, substantial modification may need

  15. Active contour-based visual tracking by integrating colors, shapes, and motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Zhou, Xue; Li, Wei; Luo, Wenhan; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Maybank, Stephen

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we present a framework for active contour-based visual tracking using level sets. The main components of our framework include contour-based tracking initialization, color-based contour evolution, adaptive shape-based contour evolution for non-periodic motions, dynamic shape-based contour evolution for periodic motions, and the handling of abrupt motions. For the initialization of contour-based tracking, we develop an optical flow-based algorithm for automatically initializing contours at the first frame. For the color-based contour evolution, Markov random field theory is used to measure correlations between values of neighboring pixels for posterior probability estimation. For adaptive shape-based contour evolution, the global shape information and the local color information are combined to hierarchically evolve the contour, and a flexible shape updating model is constructed. For the dynamic shape-based contour evolution, a shape mode transition matrix is learnt to characterize the temporal correlations of object shapes. For the handling of abrupt motions, particle swarm optimization is adopted to capture the global motion which is applied to the contour in the current frame to produce an initial contour in the next frame.

  16. An investigation into positron emission tomography contouring methods across two treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Tony; Som, Seu; Sathiakumar, Chithradevi; Holloway, Lois

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to provide additional information regarding patient tumor location, size, and staging for radiotherapy treatment planning purposes. This additional information reduces interobserver variability and produces more consistent contouring. It is well recognized that different contouring methodology for PET data results in different contoured volumes. The goal of this study was to compare the difference in PET contouring methods for 2 different treatment planning systems using a phantom dataset and a series of patient datasets. Contouring methodology was compared on the ADAC Pinnacle Treatment Planning System and the CMS XiO Treatment Planning System. Contours were completed on the phantom and patient datasets using a number of PET contouring methods—the standardized uptake value 2.5 method, 30%, 40%, and 50% of the maximum uptake method and the signal to background ratio method. Differences of >15% were observed for PET-contoured volumes between the different treatment planning systems for the same data and the same PET contouring methodology. Contoured volume differences between treatment planning systems were caused by differences in data formatting and display and the different contouring tools available. Differences in treatment planning system as well as contouring methodology should be considered carefully in dose-volume contouring and reporting, especially between centers that may use different treatment planning systems or those that have several different treatment planning systems

  17. Grass pollen immunotherapy induces highly cross-reactive IgG antibodies to group V allergen from different grass species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Brewczyński, P. Z.; Tan, K. Y.; Mulder-Willems, H. J.; Widjaja, P.; Stapel, S. O.; Aalberse, R. C.; Kroon, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    Sera from two groups of patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy were tested on IgG reactivity with group V allergen from six different grass species. One group of patients was treated with a mixture of 10 grass species, and the other with a mixture of five. Only Lolium perenne, Dactylis

  18. Stripping of gas and dust from the elliptical galaxy M86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.A.; Fabian, A.C.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Stern, C.

    1990-01-01

    Past observations of the x ray morphology of M86 have revealed that the galaxy is experiencing ram-pressure stripping due to its large velocity (1500 km s(-1)) relative to the intracluster medium of Virgo (Forman et al. 1979, Fabian, Schwartz, and Forman 1980). Observations indicate that the x ray emitting gas in the plume of M86 is still being produced from the continual heating of gas and dust stripped from nearer the galaxy's center. Researchers obtained two-dimensional Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) images of M86 which have revealed that there are two spatially separated regions of emission, one at 60 microns and the other at 100 microns of the IRAS wavebands. The 100 microns emission, presumably from cool dust (at approximately 20 K), appears to be located near the center of the galaxy together with HI (detected by Bregman, Roberts and Giovanelli 1988), while the 60 microns emission appears to lie more than 3 arcminutes away from the optical center in a direction slightly south of the center of the plume. Optical images produced by scanning U.K. Schmidt plates, reveal asymmetric isophotal contours along the major axis of the galaxy (first reported by Nulsen and Carter in 1987, which they propose as excess emission due to star formation). This excess optical emission is co-incident with the direction of the 60 micron infra-red emission

  19. Comparison of Flow Structures in the Downstream Region of a Cylinder with Flexible Strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekşin Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the details of flow structure to downstream of a circular cylinder mounted on a flat surface, in successive plan-view plane both in the boundary layer and up level region. The behavior of the flow in the wake of the bare cylinder and attached a flexible strip which has a 1400 N/mm2 modulus of elasticity vinyl PVC transperent film. The length of strip 240 mm (L/D=4 is investigated using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV technique for Reynolds numbers based on the cylinder diameter of 2500. The flow data downstream of the cylinder are presented using time-averaged velocity vector map, Vavg, streamline patterns, ψavg, vorticity contours, ωavg, and Reynolds stress correlations, u’u’ avg, v’v’ avg, u’v’ avg and rms velocity values. The locations of the peak values of Reynolds stress correlations and other data are also presented in both bare cylinder and attached body in order to determine the regions under high fluctuations. Another L/D ratios will be investigated in other experiments.

  20. Calf Contouring with Endoscopic Fascial Release, Calf Implant, and Structural Fat Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Karacaoglu, MD

    2013-08-01

    Conclusions: A novel endoscopic approach for lower leg contouring is discussed. Endoscopic fasciotomy technique with calf implant and structural fat grafting for improved lower leg aesthetics is a simple, effective, reliable, and predictable technique for calf contouring.

  1. Automatic pre-processing for an object-oriented distributed hydrological model using GRASS-GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzana, P.; Jankowfsky, S.; Branger, F.; Braud, I.; Vargas, X.; Hitschfeld, N.

    2012-04-01

    Landscapes are very heterogeneous, which impact the hydrological processes occurring in the catchments, especially in the modeling of peri-urban catchments. The Hydrological Response Units (HRUs), resulting from the intersection of different maps, such as land use, soil types and geology, and flow networks, allow the representation of these elements in an explicit way, preserving natural and artificial contours of the different layers. These HRUs are used as model mesh in some distributed object-oriented hydrological models, allowing the application of a topological oriented approach. The connectivity between polygons and polylines provides a detailed representation of the water balance and overland flow in these distributed hydrological models, based on irregular hydro-landscape units. When computing fluxes between these HRUs, the geometrical parameters, such as the distance between the centroid of gravity of the HRUs and the river network, and the length of the perimeter, can impact the realism of the calculated overland, sub-surface and groundwater fluxes. Therefore, it is necessary to process the original model mesh in order to avoid these numerical problems. We present an automatic pre-processing implemented in the open source GRASS-GIS software, for which several Python scripts or some algorithms already available were used, such as the Triangle software. First, some scripts were developed to improve the topology of the various elements, such as snapping of the river network to the closest contours. When data are derived with remote sensing, such as vegetation areas, their perimeter has lots of right angles that were smoothed. Second, the algorithms more particularly address bad-shaped elements of the model mesh such as polygons with narrow shapes, marked irregular contours and/or the centroid outside of the polygons. To identify these elements we used shape descriptors. The convexity index was considered the best descriptor to identify them with a threshold

  2. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  3. Perceptual representation and effectiveness of local figure-ground cues in natural contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Ko; Matsuoka, Shouhei; Kurematsu, Ken; Hatori, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    A contour shape strongly influences the perceptual segregation of a figure from the ground. We investigated the contribution of local contour shape to figure-ground segregation. Although previous studies have reported local contour features that evoke figure-ground perception, they were often image features and not necessarily perceptual features. First, we examined whether contour features, specifically, convexity, closure, and symmetry, underlie the perceptual representation of natural contour shapes. We performed similarity tests between local contours, and examined the contribution of the contour features to the perceptual similarities between the contours. The local contours were sampled from natural contours so that their distribution was uniform in the space composed of the three contour features. This sampling ensured the equal appearance frequency of the factors and a wide variety of contour shapes including those comprised of contradictory factors that induce figure in the opposite directions. This sampling from natural contours is advantageous in order to randomly pickup a variety of contours that satisfy a wide range of cue combinations. Multidimensional scaling analyses showed that the combinations of convexity, closure, and symmetry contribute to perceptual similarity, thus they are perceptual quantities. Second, we examined whether the three features contribute to local figure-ground perception. We performed psychophysical experiments to judge the direction of the figure along the local contours, and examined the contribution of the features to the figure-ground judgment. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that closure was a significant factor, but that convexity and symmetry were not. These results indicate that closure is dominant in the local figure-ground perception with natural contours when the other cues coexist with equal probability including contradictory cases.

  4. Perceptual representation and effectiveness of local figure–ground cues in natural contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Ko; Matsuoka, Shouhei; Kurematsu, Ken; Hatori, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    A contour shape strongly influences the perceptual segregation of a figure from the ground. We investigated the contribution of local contour shape to figure–ground segregation. Although previous studies have reported local contour features that evoke figure–ground perception, they were often image features and not necessarily perceptual features. First, we examined whether contour features, specifically, convexity, closure, and symmetry, underlie the perceptual representation of natural contour shapes. We performed similarity tests between local contours, and examined the contribution of the contour features to the perceptual similarities between the contours. The local contours were sampled from natural contours so that their distribution was uniform in the space composed of the three contour features. This sampling ensured the equal appearance frequency of the factors and a wide variety of contour shapes including those comprised of contradictory factors that induce figure in the opposite directions. This sampling from natural contours is advantageous in order to randomly pickup a variety of contours that satisfy a wide range of cue combinations. Multidimensional scaling analyses showed that the combinations of convexity, closure, and symmetry contribute to perceptual similarity, thus they are perceptual quantities. Second, we examined whether the three features contribute to local figure–ground perception. We performed psychophysical experiments to judge the direction of the figure along the local contours, and examined the contribution of the features to the figure–ground judgment. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that closure was a significant factor, but that convexity and symmetry were not. These results indicate that closure is dominant in the local figure–ground perception with natural contours when the other cues coexist with equal probability including contradictory cases. PMID:26579057

  5. Perceptual Representation and Effectiveness of Local Figure-Ground Cues in Natural Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko eSakai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A contour shape strongly influences the perceptual segregation of a figure from the ground. We investigated the contribution of local contour shape to figure-ground segregation. Although previous studies have reported local contour features that evoke figure-ground perception, they were often image features and not necessarily perceptual features. First, we examined whether contour features, specifically, convexity, closure, and symmetry, underlie the perceptual representation of natural contour shapes. We performed similarity tests between local contours, and examined the contribution of the contour features to the perceptual similarities between the contours. The local contours were sampled from natural contours so that their distribution was uniform in the space composed of the three contour features. This sampling ensured the equal appearance frequency of the factors and a wide variety of contour shapes including those comprised of contradictory factors that induce figure in the opposite directions. This sampling from natural contours is advantageous in order to randomly pickup a variety of contours that satisfy a wide range of cue combinations. Multidimensional scaling analyses showed that the combinations of convexity, closure, and symmetry contribute to perceptual similarity, thus they are perceptual quantities. Second, we examined whether the three features contribute to local figure-ground perception. We performed psychophysical experiments to judge the direction of the figure along the local contours, and examined the contribution of the features to the figure-ground judgment. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that closure was a significant factor, but that convexity and symmetry were not. These results indicate that closure is dominant in the local figure-ground perception with natural contours when the other cues coexist with equal probability including contradictory cases.

  6. Perceptual representation and effectiveness of local figure?ground cues in natural contours

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Ko; Matsuoka, Shouhei; Kurematsu, Ken; Hatori, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    A contour shape strongly influences the perceptual segregation of a figure from the ground. We investigated the contribution of local contour shape to figure–ground segregation. Although previous studies have reported local contour features that evoke figure–ground perception, they were often image features and not necessarily perceptual features. First, we examined whether contour features, specifically, convexity, closure, and symmetry, underlie the perceptual representation of natural cont...

  7. Contour analysis of steady state tokamak reactor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devoto, R.S.; Fenstermacher, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    A new method of analysis for presenting the possible operating space for steady state, non-ignited tokamak reactors is proposed. The method uses contours of reactor performance and plasma characteristics, fusion power gain, wall neutron flux, current drive power, etc., plotted on a two-dimensional grid, the axes of which are the plasma current I p and the normalized beta, β n = β/(I p /aB 0 ), to show possible operating points. These steady state operating contour plots are called SOPCONS. This technique is illustrated in an application to a design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) with neutral beam, lower hybrid and bootstrap current drive. The utility of the SOPCON plots for pointing out some of the non-intuitive considerations in steady state reactor design is shown. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 16 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  8. Diffusion tensor driven contour closing for cell microinjection targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becattini, Gabriele; Mattos, Leonardo S; Caldwell, Darwin G

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a novel approach to robust automatic detection of unstained living cells in bright-field (BF) microscope images with the goal of producing a target list for an automated microinjection system. The overall image analysis process is described and includes: preprocessing, ridge enhancement, image segmentation, shape analysis and injection point definition. The developed algorithm implements a new version of anisotropic contour completion (ACC) based on the partial differential equation (PDE) for heat diffusion which improves the cell segmentation process by elongating the edges only along their tangent direction. The developed ACC algorithm is equivalent to a dilation of the binary edge image with a continuous elliptic structural element that takes into account local orientation of the contours preventing extension towards normal direction. Experiments carried out on real images of 10 to 50 microm CHO-K1 adherent cells show a remarkable reliability in the algorithm along with up to 85% success for cell detection and injection point definition.

  9. Fast Graph Partitioning Active Contours for Image Segmentation Using Histograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath SumitK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a method to improve the accuracy and speed, as well as significantly reduce the memory requirements, for the recently proposed Graph Partitioning Active Contours (GPACs algorithm for image segmentation in the work of Sumengen and Manjunath (2006. Instead of computing an approximate but still expensive dissimilarity matrix of quadratic size, , for a 2D image of size and regular image tiles of size , we use fixed length histograms and an intensity-based symmetric-centrosymmetric extensor matrix to jointly compute terms associated with the complete dissimilarity matrix. This computationally efficient reformulation of GPAC using a very small memory footprint offers two distinct advantages over the original implementation. It speeds up convergence of the evolving active contour and seamlessly extends performance of GPAC to multidimensional images.

  10. Dynamic identification of plasma magnetic contour in fusion machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettini, P.; Trevisan, F.; Cavinato, M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a method to identify the plasma magnetic contour in fusion machines, when eddy currents are present in the conducting structures surrounding the plasma. The approach presented is based on the integration of an electromagnetic model of the plasma with a lumped parameters model of the conducting structures around the plasma. This approach has been validated against experimental data from RFX, a reversed field pinch machine. (author)

  11. An improved active contour model for glacial lake extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H.; Chen, F.; Zhang, M.

    2017-12-01

    Active contour model is a widely used method in visual tracking and image segmentation. Under the driven of objective function, the initial curve defined in active contour model will evolve to a stable condition - a desired result in given image. As a typical region-based active contour model, C-V model has a good effect on weak boundaries detection and anti noise ability which shows great potential in glacial lake extraction. Glacial lake is a sensitive indicator for reflecting global climate change, therefore accurate delineate glacial lake boundaries is essential to evaluate hydrologic environment and living environment. However, the current method in glacial lake extraction mainly contains water index method and recognition classification method are diffcult to directly applied in large scale glacial lake extraction due to the diversity of glacial lakes and masses impacted factors in the image, such as image noise, shadows, snow and ice, etc. Regarding the abovementioned advantanges of C-V model and diffcults in glacial lake extraction, we introduce the signed pressure force function to improve the C-V model for adapting to processing of glacial lake extraction. To inspect the effect of glacial lake extraction results, three typical glacial lake development sites were selected, include Altai mountains, Centre Himalayas, South-eastern Tibet, and Landsat8 OLI imagery was conducted as experiment data source, Google earth imagery as reference data for varifying the results. The experiment consequence suggests that improved active contour model we proposed can effectively discriminate the glacial lakes from complex backgound with a higher Kappa Coefficient - 0.895, especially in some small glacial lakes which belongs to weak information in the image. Our finding provide a new approach to improved accuracy under the condition of large proportion of small glacial lakes and the possibility for automated glacial lake mapping in large-scale area.

  12. Development of optical surface contouring technique using laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Sung Hoon; Kim, Min Suk; Park, Seung Kyu

    1998-12-01

    Laser contouring system capable of measuring relief profiles using a line-shaped laser beam with anisotropic magnification optics composed with two cylindrical lenses was developed. The anisotropic magnification optical system allows it to obtain higher resolution in the relief profile measurements. The image processing and 3-D display software are developed to reconstruct 3-D shape. The power supply of laser diode with adaptive current control circuit is designed. (author). 4 refs., 5 tabs., 33 figs.

  13. The extent of the stop coannihilation strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Olive, Keith A. [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zheng, Jiaming [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Many supersymmetric models such as the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM) feature a strip in parameter space where the lightest neutralino χ is identified as the lightest supersymmetric particle, the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), and the relic χ cold darkmatter density is brought into the range allowed by astrophysics and cosmology by coannihilation with the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} NLSP. We calculate the stop coannihilation strip in the CMSSM, incorporating Sommerfeld enhancement effects, and we explore the relevant phenomenological constraints and phenomenological signatures. In particular, we show that the t{sub 1} may weigh several TeV, and its lifetime may be in the nanosecond range, features that are more general than the specific CMSSM scenarios that we study in this paper. (orig.)

  14. Strip-till seeder for sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulze Lammers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till save costs by reducing tillage on the area of sugar beet rows only. The seeding system is characterized by a deep loosening of soil with a tine combined with a share and by following tools generating fine-grained soil as seed bed. In cooperation with the Kverneland company group Soest/Germany a strip tiller combined with precision seeder was designed and tested in field experiments. Tilling and seeding was performed in one path on fields with straw and mustard mulch. Even the plant development was slower as compared to conventional sawn sugar beets the yield was on equivalent level. Further field experiments are planned to attest constant yield, cost and energy efficiency of the seeding system.

  15. Dual deflectable beam strip engine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulgeroff, C. R.; Zuccaro, D. E.; Kami, S.; Schnelker, D. E.; Ward, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes a dual beam thruster that has been designed, constructed, and tested. The system is suitable for two-axes attitude control and is comprised of two orthogonal strips, each capable of producing 0.30 mlb thrust and beam deflections of more than plus or minus 20 deg. The nominal specific impulse for the thruster is 5000 sec, and the thrust level from each strip can be varied from 0 to 100%. Neutralizer filaments that were developed and life tested over 2000 hours producing more than 40 mA of electron emission per watt of input power are also discussed. The system power required for clean ionizers is approximately 200 W.

  16. L-strip proximity fed ga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the analysis of dualband L-strip fed compact semi-circular disk microstrip patch antenna has been presented using circuit theory concept. The antenna parameters such as return loss, VSWR and radiation pattern are calculated. The effect of geometric dimensions of the proposed antenna such as length of vertical and horizontal portion of L-strip is investigated. It is found that antenna resonate at two distinct modes i.e. 1.3 GHz and 6.13 GHz for lower and upper resonance frequencies respectively. The bandwidth of the proposed antenna at lower resonance frequency is 6.61% (simulated and 10.64% (theoretical whereas at upper resonance frequency, it is 6.02% (simulated and 9.06 % (theoretical. The theoretical results are compared with IE3D simulation results as well as experimental results and they are in close agreement.

  17. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    An improved and novel grid spacer was developed for use in nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. It is comprised of a series of intersecting support strips and a peripheral support band attached to the ends of the support strips. Each of the openings into which the fuel element is inserted has a number of protruding dimples and springs extending in different directions. The dimples coact with the springs to secure the fuel rods in the openings. Compared with previous designs, this design gives more positive alignment of the support stips while allowing greater flexibility to counterbalance the effects of thermal expansion. The springs are arranged in alternating directions so that the reaction forces tend to counterbalance each other, which in turn minimizes the reaction loads on the supporting structure. (D.N.)

  18. Electron capture by highly stripped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenland, P.T.

    1981-06-01

    This review describes theories of electron capture suitable for the description of rearrangement collisions between atomic hydrogen and completely stripped projectiles with charge greater than unity. The region of impact velocity considered lies between 0.05 and 3 au, which is of technological importance in fusion power devices. The semiclassical, impact parameter formalism is discussed and the use of atomic expansions at medium impact velocity is described. Experimental results for both completely and partially stripped projectiles are reviewed. The use of a molecular basis at low energy, and the role of pseudocrossings peculiar to the two centre Coulomb interaction are described. Finally, purely classical techniques, in which the electron wavefunction is represented by an ensemble of Kepler orbits are considered. The review was completed in February 1981. (author)

  19. Continuous liquid sheet generator for ion stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, B.; Batson, P.; Leemann, B.; Rude, B.

    1984-10-01

    Many of the technical problems of generating a large thin liquid sheet from 0.02 to 0.20 μm thick (3 to 40 μgm/cm 2 ) have been solved. It is shown that this perennial sheet is stable and consonant in dimension. Several ion beam species from the SuperHILAC have been used for evaluation; at 0.11 MeV/n. In one of three modes this sheet serves as an equivalent substitute for a carbon foil. The second mode is characterized by a solid-like charge state distribution but with a varying fraction of unstripped ions. The third mode gives stripping performance akin to a vapor stripping medium. 9 references, 7 figures

  20. Large strip RPCs for the LEPS2 TOF system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomida, N., E-mail: natsuki@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Niiyama, M. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ohnishi, H. [RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tran, N. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Hsieh, C.-Y.; Chu, M.-L.; Chang, W.-C. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Chen, J.-Y. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-01

    High time-resolution resistive plate chambers (RPCs) with large-size readout strips are developed for the time-of-flight (TOF) detector system of the LEPS2 experiment at SPring-8. The experimental requirement is a 50-ps time resolution for a strip size larger than 100 cm{sup 2}/channel. We are able to achieve 50-ps time resolutions with 2.5×100 cm{sup 2} strips by directly connecting the amplifiers to strips. With the same time resolution, the number of front-end electronics (FEE) is also reduced by signal addition. - Highlights: • Find a way to achieve a good time resolution with a large strip RPC. • 2.5 cm narrow strips have better resolutions than 5.0 cm ones. • The 0.5 mm narrow strip interval shows flat time resolutions between strips. • FEEs directly connected to strips make the signal reflection at the strip edge small. • A time resolution of 50 ps was achieved with 2.5 cm×100 cm strips.

  1. The Effect of Contouring Variability on Dosimetric Parameters for Brain Metastases Treated With Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, Julia; Dunscombe, Peter; Lau, Harold; Burns, Paul; Lim, Gerald; Liu, Hong-Wei; Nordal, Robert; Starreveld, Yves; Valev, Boris; Voroney, Jon-Paul; Spencer, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the effect of contouring variation on stereotactic radiosurgery plan quality metrics for brain metastases. Methods and Materials: Fourteen metastases, each contoured by 8 physicians, formed the basis of this study. A template-based dynamic conformal 5-arc dose distribution was developed for each of the 112 contours, and each dose distribution was applied to the 7 other contours in each patient set. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) plan quality metrics and the Paddick conformity index were calculated for each of the 896 combinations of dose distributions and contours. Results: The ratio of largest to smallest contour volume for each metastasis varied from 1.25 to 4.47, with a median value of 1.68 (n=8). The median absolute difference in RTOG conformity index between the value for the reference contour and the values for the alternative contours was 0.35. The variation of the range of conformity index for all contours for a given tumor varied with the tumor size. Conclusions: The high degree of interobserver contouring variation strongly suggests that peer review or consultation should be adopted to standardize tumor volume prescription. Observer confidence was not reflected in contouring consistency. The impact of contouring variability on plan quality metrics, used as criteria for clinical trial protocol compliance, was such that the category of compliance was robust to interobserver effects only 70% of the time

  2. Transference of Fermi Contour Anisotropy to Composite Fermions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Insun; Rosales, K A Villegas; Mueed, M A; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W; Baldwin, K W; Winkler, R; Padmanabhan, Medini; Shayegan, M

    2017-07-07

    There has been a surge of recent interest in the role of anisotropy in interaction-induced phenomena in two-dimensional (2D) charged carrier systems. A fundamental question is how an anisotropy in the energy-band structure of the carriers at zero magnetic field affects the properties of the interacting particles at high fields, in particular of the composite fermions (CFs) and the fractional quantum Hall states (FQHSs). We demonstrate here tunable anisotropy for holes and hole-flux CFs confined to GaAs quantum wells, via applying in situ in-plane strain and measuring their Fermi wave vector anisotropy through commensurability oscillations. For strains on the order of 10^{-4} we observe significant deformations of the shapes of the Fermi contours for both holes and CFs. The measured Fermi contour anisotropy for CFs at high magnetic field (α_{CF}) is less than the anisotropy of their low-field hole (fermion) counterparts (α_{F}), and closely follows the relation α_{CF}=sqrt[α_{F}]. The energy gap measured for the ν=2/3 FQHS, on the other hand, is nearly unaffected by the Fermi contour anisotropy up to α_{F}∼3.3, the highest anisotropy achieved in our experiments.

  3. Gallbladder shape extraction from ultrasound images using active contour models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciecholewski, Marcin; Chochołowicz, Jakub

    2013-12-01

    Gallbladder function is routinely assessed using ultrasonographic (USG) examinations. In clinical practice, doctors very often analyse the gallbladder shape when diagnosing selected disorders, e.g. if there are turns or folds of the gallbladder, so extracting its shape from USG images using supporting software can simplify a diagnosis that is often difficult to make. The paper describes two active contour models: the edge-based model and the region-based model making use of a morphological approach, both designed for extracting the gallbladder shape from USG images. The active contour models were applied to USG images without lesions and to those showing specific disease units, namely, anatomical changes like folds and turns of the gallbladder as well as polyps and gallstones. This paper also presents modifications of the edge-based model, such as the method for removing self-crossings and loops or the method of dampening the inflation force which moves nodes if they approach the edge being determined. The user is also able to add a fragment of the approximated edge beyond which neither active contour model will move if this edge is incomplete in the USG image. The modifications of the edge-based model presented here allow more precise results to be obtained when extracting the shape of the gallbladder from USG images than if the morphological model is used. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Contour Detection for UAV-Based Cadastral Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Crommelinck

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs provide a flexible and low-cost solution for the acquisition of high-resolution data. The potential of high-resolution UAV imagery to create and update cadastral maps is being increasingly investigated. Existing procedures generally involve substantial fieldwork and many manual processes. Arguably, multiple parts of UAV-based cadastral mapping workflows could be automated. Specifically, as many cadastral boundaries coincide with visible boundaries, they could be extracted automatically using image analysis methods. This study investigates the transferability of gPb contour detection, a state-of-the-art computer vision method, to remotely sensed UAV images and UAV-based cadastral mapping. Results show that the approach is transferable to UAV data and automated cadastral mapping: object contours are comprehensively detected at completeness and correctness rates of up to 80%. The detection quality is optimal when the entire scene is covered with one orthoimage, due to the global optimization of gPb contour detection. However, a balance between high completeness and correctness is hard to achieve, so a combination with area-based segmentation and further object knowledge is proposed. The localization quality exhibits the usual dependency on ground resolution. The approach has the potential to accelerate the process of general boundary delineation during the creation and updating of cadastral maps.

  5. The relative pose estimation of aircraft based on contour model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tai; Sun, Xiangyi

    2017-02-01

    This paper proposes a relative pose estimation approach based on object contour model. The first step is to obtain a two-dimensional (2D) projection of three-dimensional (3D)-model-based target, which will be divided into 40 forms by clustering and LDA analysis. Then we proceed by extracting the target contour in each image and computing their Pseudo-Zernike Moments (PZM), thus a model library is constructed in an offline mode. Next, we spot a projection contour that resembles the target silhouette most in the present image from the model library with reference of PZM; then similarity transformation parameters are generated as the shape context is applied to match the silhouette sampling location, from which the identification parameters of target can be further derived. Identification parameters are converted to relative pose parameters, in the premise that these values are the initial result calculated via iterative refinement algorithm, as the relative pose parameter is in the neighborhood of actual ones. At last, Distance Image Iterative Least Squares (DI-ILS) is employed to acquire the ultimate relative pose parameters.

  6. Closed contour fractal dimension estimation by the Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florindo, J.B.; Bruno, O.M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A novel fractal dimension concept, based on Fourier spectrum, is proposed. → Computationally simple. Computational time smaller than conventional fractal methods. → Results are closer to Hausdorff-Besicovitch than conventional methods. → The method is more accurate and robustness to geometric operations and noise addition. - Abstract: This work proposes a novel technique for the numerical calculus of the fractal dimension of fractal objects which can be represented as a closed contour. The proposed method maps the fractal contour onto a complex signal and calculates its fractal dimension using the Fourier transform. The Fourier power spectrum is obtained and an exponential relation is verified between the power and the frequency. From the parameter (exponent) of the relation, is obtained the fractal dimension. The method is compared to other classical fractal dimension estimation methods in the literature, e.g., Bouligand-Minkowski, box-counting and classical Fourier. The comparison is achieved by the calculus of the fractal dimension of fractal contours whose dimensions are well-known analytically. The results showed the high precision and robustness of the proposed technique.

  7. Heavy ion scattering in 3D TDHF. [Isodensity contours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, M.S.

    1977-09-01

    Results of three-dimensional (3D) time-dependent Hartree--Fock (TDHF) calculations are presented. The assumptions used in the calculations are summarized. The first reaction considered is /sup 16/O + /sup 16/O at 105 MeV (lab); isodensity contours integrated perpendicular to the reaction plane are shown for several impact parameters as a function of time. Trajectories are also shown, and the kinetics of the reaction is discussed; several other energies were also examined. Most of the deeply inelastic scattering seems to come from small impact parameters. Density contours and trajectories are next shown for /sup 40/Ca + /sup 40/Ca at 278 MeV (lab). Finally, density contours are shown for asymmetric systems: /sup 4/He + /sup 16/O at l = 5 h-bar and 50 MeV (lab) and /sup 16/O + /sup 40/Ca at l = 20, 40, 60, 80 h-bar and 315 MeV (lab). The light fragment seems to maintain the same average number of nucleons with which it started. 25 figures. (RWR)

  8. Moving strip technique of electron beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, Kishio; Wakasa, Hiroyuki; Oguri, Nobuhiro; Kitayama, Takuichi; Nakagiri, Yoshitada; Mikami, Yasutaka; Hashimoto, Keiji; Hiraki, Yoshio; Aono, Kaname

    1984-12-01

    The fieldsize in electron beam therapy is determined by the cone size. In case of skin metastasis of a malignant tumor and so on, which need a large field size and whose area is much larger than the size of the cone, a large field size is usually produced by dividing the portals. However, the dose distribution at the border of the field becomes unequal, and hot and cold dose areas are produced according to the distance between portals. We tried the strip field technique in a large field along the long axis of the body in order to flatten the dose of the border employing the moving strip used for whole abdominal irradiation in ovarian cancer. We set the film in Mix-DP and used the strip field technique with 2.5cm steps. We discussed the relationship between the interval (distance between portals) and the flattening of the dose within the field. Skin movement due to breathing and influences on the flattening of the dose were considered. The proper flatness was obtained at depths of 0,1,2, and 3cm by setting the interval at 0.5cm. When skin movement was produced by breathing in +-1.5mm, the proper flaness was obtained also at a 0.5-cm interval. It seems that smoothing is increased by breathing. An ''electron beam moving strip'' with a 2.5-cm step and 0.5-cm interval was clinically effective in the treatment of patients with skin metastasis of colon cancer. (author).

  9. Ram pressure stripping of tilted galaxies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jáchym, Pavel; Köppen, J.; Palouš, Jan; Combes, F.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 500, č. 2 (2009), s. 693-703 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014; GA ČR GP205/08/P556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : interstellar medium * clusters of galaxies * gas stripping Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.179, year: 2009

  10. Cathode readout with stripped resistive drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Novikov, E.A.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Shafranov, M.D.; Zhiltsov, V.E.

    1995-01-01

    A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with a carbon layer with a resistivity of 0.5, 30 and 70 kΩ/□. Both the anode wire and the cathode strip signals were detected to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented. (orig.)

  11. Cathode readout with stripped resistive drift tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkov, V. N.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Novikov, E. A.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Shafranov, M. D.; Zhiltsov, V. E.

    1995-12-01

    A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with a carbon layer with a resistivity of 0.5, 30 and 70 kΩ/□. Both the anode wire and the cathode strip signals were detected to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented.

  12. Imidacloprid sorption and transport in cropland, grass buffer and riparian buffer soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satkowski, Laura E.; Goyne, Keith W.; Anderson, Stephen H.; Lerch, Robert N.; Allen, Craig R.; Snow, Daniel D.

    2018-01-01

    An understanding of neonicotinoid sorption and transport in soil is critical for determining and mitigating environmental risk associated with the most widely used class of insecticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate mobility and transport of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid (ICD) in soils collected from cropland, grass vegetative buffer strip (VBS), and riparian VBS soils. Soils were collected at six randomly chosen sites within grids that encompassed all three land uses. Single-point equilibrium batch sorption experiments were conducted using radio-labeled (14C) ICD to determine solid–solution partition coefficients (Kd). Column experiments were conducted using soils collected from the three vegetation treatments at one site by packing soil into glass columns. Water flow was characterized by applying Br− as a nonreactive tracer. A single pulse of 14C-ICD was then applied, and ICD leaching was monitored for up to 45 d. Bromide and ICD breakthrough curves for each column were simulated using CXTFIT and HYDRUS-1D models. Sorption results indicated that ICD sorbs more strongly to riparian VBS (Kd = 22.6 L kg−1) than crop (Kd = 11.3 L kg−1) soils. Soil organic C was the strongest predictor of ICD sorption (p < 0.0001). The column transport study found mean peak concentrations of ICD at 5.83, 10.84, and 23.8 pore volumes for crop, grass VBS, and riparian VBS soils, respectively. HYDRUS-1D results indicated that the two-site, one-rate linear reversible model best described results of the breakthrough curves, indicating the complexity of ICD sorption and demonstrating its mobility in soil. Greater sorption and longer retention by the grass and riparian VBS soils than the cropland soil suggests that VBS may be a viable means to mitigate ICD loss from agroecosystems, thereby preventing ICD transport into surface water, groundwater, or drinking water resources.

  13. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.; Watson, R. L.; Horvat, V.; Zaharakis, K. E.; Peng, Y.

    2002-01-01

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters

  14. Deuteron stripping reactions with Tabakin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.

    1976-05-01

    Deuteron stripping reactions are considered. Due to the strong repulsion between nucleons at very short distances, we have investigated the nuclear short-range correlations. The neutron proton nuclear potential in the deuteron is taken as a short-range repulsive core surrounded by a long-range attractive potential. The neutron-proton potential is taken as the Tabakin separable potential to take into account the short-range correlations. The differential cross-sections for deuteron stripping reactions have been calculated in two different cases by taking Yamaguchi or Breit et al type parameters for the Tabakin potential used. The angular distributions for different (d,p) stripping reactions on the different target nuclei 28 Si, 32 , 34 S, 36 Ar, 40 , 48 Ca, 50 , 52 , 54 Cr have been calculated using the DWBA calculations. Our present theoretical calculations for the angular distributions of the different reactions cosidered have been fitted to the experimental data, where good agreement is obtained. The extracted spectroscopic factors from the present work are found to be more reliable

  15. The Argonne silicon strip-detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuosmaa, A H; Back, B B; Betts, R R; Freer, M; Gehring, J; Glagola, B G; Happ, Th; Henderson, D J; Wilt, P [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bearden, I G [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-08-01

    Many nuclear physics experiments require the ability to analyze events in which large numbers of charged particles are detected and identified simultaneously, with good resolution and high efficiency, either alone, or in coincidence with gamma rays. The authors have constructed a compact large-area detector array to measure these processes efficiently and with excellent energy resolution. The array consists of four double-sided silicon strip detectors, each 5x5 cm{sup 2} in area, with front and back sides divided into 16 strips. To exploit the capability of the device fully, a system to read each strip-detector segment has been designed and constructed, based around a custom-built multi-channel preamplifier. The remainder of the system consists of high-density CAMAC modules, including multi-channel discriminators, charge-sensing analog-to-digital converters, and time-to-digital converters. The array`s performance has been evaluated using alpha-particle sources, and in a number of experiments conducted at Argonne and elsewhere. Energy resolutions of {Delta}E {approx} 20-30 keV have been observed for 5 to 8 MeV alpha particles, as well as time resolutions {Delta}T {<=} 500 ps. 4 figs.

  16. CLOSED-LOOP STRIPPING ANALYSIS (CLSA) OF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic musk compounds have been found in surface water, fish tissues, and human breast milk. Current techniques for separating these compounds from fish tissues require tedious sample clean-upprocedures A simple method for the deterrnination of these compounds in fish tissues has been developed. Closed-loop stripping of saponified fish tissues in a I -L Wheaton purge-and-trap vessel is used to strip compounds with high vapor pressures such as synthetic musks from the matrix onto a solid sorbent (Abselut Nexus). This technique is useful for screening biological tissues that contain lipids for musk compounds. Analytes are desorbed from the sorbent trap sequentially with polar and nonpolar solvents, concentrated, and directly analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating in the selected ion monitoring mode. In this paper, we analyzed two homogenized samples of whole fish tissues with spiked synthetic musk compounds using closed-loop stripping analysis (CLSA) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The analytes were not recovered quantitatively but the extraction yield was sufficiently reproducible for at least semi-quantitative purposes (screening). The method was less expensive to implement and required significantly less sample preparation than the PLE technique. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water,

  17. Lead-210 and polonium-210 in grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, C R

    1960-07-16

    It appears that an important contribution to the observed ..cap alpha..-activity of grass may be provided by a process of natural fall-out in which lead-210 resulting from decay of atmospheric radon, together with a fraction of the equilibrium amount of its descendant polonium-210 are deposited by rainfall directly on to foliage. Metabolic uptake of part of this activity by sheep is indicated by the presence in the kidney of polonium-210. 6 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  18. Noise analysis due to strip resistance in the ATLAS SCT silicon strip module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipnis, I.

    1996-08-01

    The module is made out of four 6 cm x 6 cm single sided Si microstrip detectors. Two detectors are butt glued to form a 12 cm long mechanical unit and strips of the two detectors are electrically connected to form 12 cm long strips. The butt gluing is followed by a back to back attachment. The module in this note is the Rφ module where the electronics is oriented parallel to the strip direction and bonded directly to the strips. This module concept provides the maximum signal-to-noise ratio, particularly when the front-end electronics is placed near the middle rather than at the end. From the noise analysis, it is concluded that the worst-case ΔENC (far-end injection) between end- and center-tapped modules will be 120 to 210 el. rms (9 to 15%) for a non-irradiated detector and 75 to 130 el. rms (5 to 9%) for an irradiated detector, for a metal strip resistance of 10 to 20 Ω/cm

  19. Time contour expression of limited range phenomena on stack chart; Jugo chart jo deno kyokuchi gensho jikan contour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kametani, T

    1997-05-27

    Time contour expression of limited range phenomena on stack chart is examined for further improvement on the result of the ultimate interpretation in the seismic reflection survey. The policy is made clear from the beginning that local phenomena are to be discussed, and data prior CMP stacking is interpreted in detail. For this purpose, it is effective to make use of the time contour expression in the midpoint-offset plane simultaneously with the CMP and COP panels. For the review of data prior to CMP stacking, it is convenient to use the CMP (CDP) stacking chart in which the data is arranged methodically. In this chart, all the channels which are crude data prior to stacking are plotted on midpoint-offset coordinates, which plane is called the MOD (Midpoint Offset Domain) panel. Various panels can be chosen unrestrictedly, and their mutual relations can be easily grasped. When data points are given a time axis, they can be expressed in a time contour. Studies are conducted about the underground structure, multiple reflection paths divided by it, and characteristics of detour reflection attributable to faults. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Pancreatic gross tumor volume contouring on computed tomography (CT) compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Results of an international contouring conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William A; Heerkens, Hanne D; Paulson, Eric S; Meijer, Gert J; Kotte, Alexis N; Knechtges, Paul; Parikh, Parag J; Bassetti, Michael F; Lee, Percy; Aitken, Katharine L; Palta, Manisha; Myrehaug, Sten; Koay, Eugene J; Portelance, Lorraine; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Erickson, Beth A

    Accurate identification of the gross tumor volume (GTV) in pancreatic adenocarcinoma is challenging. We sought to understand differences in GTV delineation using pancreatic computed tomography (CT) compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twelve attending radiation oncologists were convened for an international contouring symposium. All participants had a clinical and research interest in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. CT and MRI scans from 3 pancreatic cases were used for contouring. CT and MRI GTVs were analyzed and compared. Interobserver variability was compared using Dice's similarity coefficient (DSC), Hausdorff distances, and Jaccard indices. Mann-Whitney tests were used to check for significant differences. Consensus contours on CT and MRI scans and constructed count maps were used to visualize the agreement. Agreement regarding the optimal method to determine GTV definition using MRI was reached. Six contour sets (3 from CT and 3 from MRI) were obtained and compared for each observer, totaling 72 contour sets. The mean volume of contours on CT was significantly larger at 57.48 mL compared with a mean of 45.76 mL on MRI, P = .011. The standard deviation obtained from the CT contours was significantly larger than the standard deviation from the MRI contours (P = .027). The mean DSC was 0.73 for the CT and 0.72 for the MRI (P = .889). The conformity index measurement was similar for CT and MRI (P = .58). Count maps were created to highlight differences in the contours from CT and MRI. Using MRI as a primary image set to define a pancreatic adenocarcinoma GTV resulted in smaller contours compared with CT. No differences in DSC or the conformity index were seen between MRI and CT. A stepwise method is recommended as an approach to contour a pancreatic GTV using MRI. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A review of methods of analysis in contouring studies for radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, Michael G.; Holloway, Lois C.; Metcalfe, Peter E.; Vial, Philip J.; Vinod, Shalini K.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Inter-observer variability in anatomical contouring is the biggest contributor to uncertainty in radiation treatment planning. Contouring studies are frequently performed to investigate the differences between multiple contours on common datasets. There is, however, no widely accepted method for contour comparisons. The purpose of this study is to review the literature on contouring studies in the context of radiation oncology, with particular consideration of the contouring comparison methods they employ. A literature search, not limited by date, was conducted using Medline and Google Scholar with key words; contour, variation, delineation, inter/intra observer, uncertainty and trial dummy-run. This review includes a description of the contouring processes and contour comparison metrics used. The use of different processes and metrics according to tumour site and other factors were also investigated with limitations described. A total of 69 relevant studies were identified. The most common tumour sites were prostate (26), lung (10), head and neck cancers (8) and breast (7).The most common metric of comparison was volume used 59 times, followed by dimension and shape used 36 times, and centre of volume used 19 times. Of all 69 publications, 67 used a combination of metrics and two used only one metric for comparison. No clear relationships between tumour site or any other factors that may in Auence the contouring process and the metrics used to compare contours were observed from the literature. Further studies are needed to assess the advantages and disadvantages of each metric in various situations.

  2. Consensus Recommendations for Radiation Therapy Contouring and Treatment of Vulvar Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, David K., E-mail: david.gaffney@hci.utah.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); King, Bronwyn [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and Epworth Radiation Oncology, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Viswanathan, Akila N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Barkati, Maroie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre hospitalier de l' universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Beriwal, Sushil [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Eifel, Patricia [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Erickson, Beth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Proedtert and Medical College Clinical Cancer Center, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Fyles, Anthony [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Goulart, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Harkenrider, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University, Maywood, Illinois (United States); Jhingran, Anuja; Klopp, Ann [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Koh, Wui-Jin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Lim, Karen [Liverpool Cancer Therapy Centre, Radiation Oncology Unit, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Petersen, Ivy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Portelance, Lorraine [Radiation Oncology Department, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); and others

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a radiation therapy (RT) contouring atlas and recommendations for women with postoperative and locally advanced vulvar carcinoma. Methods and Materials: An international committee of 35 expert gynecologic radiation oncologists completed a survey of the treatment of vulvar carcinoma. An initial set of recommendations for contouring was discussed and generated by consensus. Two cases, 1 locally advanced and 1 postoperative, were contoured by 14 physicians. Contours were compared and analyzed using an expectation-maximization algorithm for simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE), and a 95% confidence interval contour was developed. The level of agreement among contours was assessed using a kappa statistic. STAPLE contours underwent full committee editing to generate the final atlas consensus contours. Results: Analysis of the 14 contours showed substantial agreement, with kappa statistics of 0.69 and 0.64 for cases 1 and 2, respectively. There was high specificity for both cases (≥99%) and only moderate sensitivity of 71.3% and 64.9% for cases 1 and 2, respectively. Expert review and discussion generated consensus recommendations for contouring target volumes and treatment for postoperative and locally advanced vulvar cancer. Conclusions: These consensus recommendations for contouring and treatment of vulvar cancer identified areas of complexity and controversy. Given the lack of clinical research evidence in vulvar cancer radiation therapy, the committee advocates a conservative and consistent approach using standardized recommendations.

  3. Consensus Recommendations for Radiation Therapy Contouring and Treatment of Vulvar Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffney, David K.; King, Bronwyn; Viswanathan, Akila N.; Barkati, Maroie; Beriwal, Sushil; Eifel, Patricia; Erickson, Beth; Fyles, Anthony; Goulart, Jennifer; Harkenrider, Matthew; Jhingran, Anuja; Klopp, Ann; Koh, Wui-Jin; Lim, Karen; Petersen, Ivy; Portelance, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a radiation therapy (RT) contouring atlas and recommendations for women with postoperative and locally advanced vulvar carcinoma. Methods and Materials: An international committee of 35 expert gynecologic radiation oncologists completed a survey of the treatment of vulvar carcinoma. An initial set of recommendations for contouring was discussed and generated by consensus. Two cases, 1 locally advanced and 1 postoperative, were contoured by 14 physicians. Contours were compared and analyzed using an expectation-maximization algorithm for simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE), and a 95% confidence interval contour was developed. The level of agreement among contours was assessed using a kappa statistic. STAPLE contours underwent full committee editing to generate the final atlas consensus contours. Results: Analysis of the 14 contours showed substantial agreement, with kappa statistics of 0.69 and 0.64 for cases 1 and 2, respectively. There was high specificity for both cases (≥99%) and only moderate sensitivity of 71.3% and 64.9% for cases 1 and 2, respectively. Expert review and discussion generated consensus recommendations for contouring target volumes and treatment for postoperative and locally advanced vulvar cancer. Conclusions: These consensus recommendations for contouring and treatment of vulvar cancer identified areas of complexity and controversy. Given the lack of clinical research evidence in vulvar cancer radiation therapy, the committee advocates a conservative and consistent approach using standardized recommendations.

  4. The importance of cross-reactivity in grass pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data obtained from in vivo and in vitro testing in Serbia, a significant number of patients have allergic symptoms caused by grass pollen. We examined the protein composition of grass pollens (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne and Phleum pratense and cross-reactivity in patients allergic to grass pollen from our region. The grass pollen allergen extract was characterized by SDS-PAGE, while cross-reactivity of single grass pollens was revealed by immunoblot analysis. A high degree of cross-reactivity was demonstrated for all three single pollens in the sera of allergic patients compared to the grass pollen extract mixture. Confirmation of the existence of cross-reactivity between different antigenic sources facilitates the use of monovalent vaccines, which are easier to standardize and at the same time prevent further sensitization of patients and reduces adverse reactions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172049 i br. 172024

  5. Evaluating grasses as a long-term energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, D.G.; Riche, A.B.

    2001-07-01

    The work reported here is part of an ongoing project that aims to evaluate the yields of three perennial rhizomatous grasses and determine their suitability as bio-energy crops. The work began in 1993, and the grasses have been monitored continuously since that time. This report covers the period 1999/2000, and includes: the performance of plots of the energy grasses Miscanthus grass, switchgrass and reed canary grass seven years after they were planted; assessment of the yield of 15 genotypes of Miscanthus planted in 1997; monitoring all the species throughout the growing period for the presence of pests, weeds and diseases; measurement of the amount of nitrate leached from below Miscanthus grass; investigating the occurrence of lodging in switchgrass. (Author)

  6. Anatomically contoured plates for fixation of rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottlang, Michael; Helzel, Inga; Long, William B; Madey, Steven

    2010-03-01

    : Intraoperative contouring of long bridging plates for stabilization of flail chest injuries is difficult and time consuming. This study implemented for the first time biometric parameters to derive anatomically contoured rib plates. These plates were tested on a range of cadaveric ribs to quantify plate fit and to extract a best-fit plating configuration. : Three left and three right rib plates were designed, which accounted for anatomic parameters required when conforming a plate to the rib surface. The length lP over which each plate could trace the rib surface was evaluated on 109 cadaveric ribs. For each rib level 3-9, the plate design with the highest lP value was extracted to determine a best-fit plating configuration. Furthermore, the characteristic twist of rib surfaces was measured on 49 ribs to determine the surface congruency of anatomic plates with a constant twist. : The tracing length lP of the best-fit plating configuration ranged from 12.5 cm to 14.7 cm for ribs 3-9. The corresponding range for standard plates was 7.1-13.7 cm. The average twist of ribs over 8-cm, 12-cm, and 16-cm segments was 8.3 degrees, 20.6 degrees, and 32.7 degrees, respectively. The constant twist of anatomic rib plates was not significantly different from the average rib twist. : A small set of anatomic rib plates can minimize the need for intraoperative plate contouring for fixation of ribs 3-9. Anatomic rib plates can therefore reduce the time and complexity of flail chest stabilization and facilitate spanning of flail segments with long plates.

  7. Determining the regional potential for a grass biomethane industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, Beatrice M.; Smyth, Henry; Murphy, Jerry D.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We identified assessment criteria for determining the regional potential for grass biomethane. → Grass biomethane is distributed via the natural gas grid. → The criteria include: land use; grass yields; gas grid coverage; availability of co-substrates. → The county with the highest potential can fuel 50% of cars or supply 130% of domestic gas consumption. - Abstract: Grass biogas/biomethane has been put forward as a renewable energy solution and it has been shown to perform well in terms of energy balance, greenhouse gas emissions and policy constraints. Biofuel and energy crop solutions are country-specific and grass biomethane has strong potential in countries with temperate climates and a high proportion of grassland, such as Ireland. For a grass biomethane industry to develop in a country, suitable regions (i.e. those with the highest potential) must be identified. In this paper, factors specifically related to the assessment of the potential of a grass biogas/biomethane industry are identified and analysed. The potential for grass biogas and grass biomethane is determined on a county-by-county basis using multi-criteria decision analysis. Values are assigned to each county and ratings and weightings applied to determine the overall county potential. The potential for grass biomethane with co-digestion of slaughter waste (belly grass) is also determined. The county with the highest potential (Limerick) is analysed in detail and is shown to have ready potential for production of gaseous biofuel to meet either 50% of the vehicle fleet or 130% of the domestic natural gas demand, through 25 facilities at a scale of ca. 30 kt yr -1 of feedstock. The assessment factors developed in this paper can be used in other resource studies into grass biomethane or other energy crops.

  8. Gallbladder Boundary Segmentation from Ultrasound Images Using Active Contour Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciecholewski, Marcin

    Extracting the shape of the gallbladder from an ultrasonography (US) image allows superfluous information which is immaterial in the diagnostic process to be eliminated. In this project an active contour model was used to extract the shape of the gallbladder, both for cases free of lesions, and for those showing specific disease units, namely: lithiasis, polyps and changes in the shape of the organ, such as folds or turns of the gallbladder. The approximate shape of the gallbladder was found by applying the motion equation model. The tests conducted have shown that for the 220 US images of the gallbladder, the area error rate (AER) amounted to 18.15%.

  9. Tritium stripping by a catalytic exchange stripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heung, L.K.; Gibson, G.W.; Ortman, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    A catalytic exchange process for stripping elemental tritium from gas streams has been demonstrated. The process uses a catalyzed isotopic exchange reaction between tritium in the gas phase and protium or deuterium in the solid phase on alumina. The reaction is catalyzed by platinum deposited on the alumina. The process has been tested with both tritium and deuterium. Decontamination factors (ration of inlet and outlet tritium concentrations) as high as 1000 have been achieved, depending on inlet concentration. The test results and some demonstrated applications are presented

  10. High pressure water jet cutting and stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, David T.; Babai, Majid K.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure water cutting techniques have a wide range of applications to the American space effort. Hydroblasting techniques are commonly used during the refurbishment of the reusable solid rocket motors. The process can be controlled to strip a thermal protective ablator without incurring any damage to the painted surface underneath by using a variation of possible parameters. Hydroblasting is a technique which is easily automated. Automation removes personnel from the hostile environment of the high pressure water. Computer controlled robots can perform the same task in a fraction of the time that would be required by manual operation.

  11. Nonlinear optical model for strip plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of nonlinear optical properties for strip plasmonic waveguides. The particular waveguides geometry that we investigate contains a gold core, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. It is shown that the third-order susceptibility of the gold core...... significantly depends on the layer thickness and has the dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the long-range plasmon polariton mode. This results in two nonlinear optical effects in plasmonic waveguides, which we experimentally observed and reported in [Opt. Lett. 41, 317 (2016...... approaches. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  12. Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc. Arizona Strip Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, T.C.

    1993-01-01

    Founded in 1975 by uranium pioneer, Robert W. Adams, Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc. (EFNI) emerged as the largest US uranium mining company by the mid-1980s. Confronting the challenges of declining uranium market prices and the development of high-grade ore bodies in Australia and Canada, EFNI aggressively pursued exploration and development of breccia-pipe ore bodies in Northwestern Arizona. As a result, EFNI's production for the Arizona Strip of 18.9 million pounds U 3 O 8 over the period 1980 through 1991, maintained the company's status as a leading US uranium producer

  13. Investigation of Desso GrassMaster® as application in hydraulic engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, van der P.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.; Roex, E.; Mommer, L.

    2015-01-01

    Dessa GrassMaster® is a reinforced grass system which is applied successfully on sports fields and enables to use a sports field more intensively than a normal grass field. In this report the possibility of an application of Dessa GrassMaster®in hydraulic conditions, with a focus on grass dikes, is

  14. Early inflorescence development in the grasses (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Kellogg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The shoot apical meristem of grasses produces the primary branches of the inflorescence, controlling inflorescence architecture and hence seed production. Whereas leaves are produced in a distichous pattern, with the primordia separated from each other by an angle of 180o, inflorescence branches are produced in a spiral in most species. The morphology and developmental genetics of the shift in phyllotaxis have been studied extensively in maize and rice. However, in wheat, Brachypodium, and oats, all in the grass subfamily Pooideae, the change in phyllotaxis does not occur; primary inflorescence branches are produced distichously. It is unknown whether the distichous inflorescence originated at the base of Pooideae, or whether it appeared several times independently. In this study, we show that Brachyelytrum, the genus sister to all other Pooideae has spiral phyllotaxis in the inflorescence, but that in the remaining 3000+ species of Pooideae, the phyllotaxis is two-ranked. These two-ranked inflorescences are not perfectly symmetrical, and have a clear front and back; this developmental axis has never been described in the literature and it is unclear what establishes its polarity. Strictly distichous inflorescences appear somewhat later in the evolution of the subfamily. Two-ranked inflorescences also appear in a few grass outgroups and sporadically elsewhere in the family, but unlike in Pooideae do not generally correlate with a major radiation of species. After production of branches, the inflorescence meristem may be converted to a spikelet meristem or may simply abort; this developmental decision appears to be independent of the branching pattern.

  15. ANATOMIC STRUCTURE OF CAMPANULA ROTUNDIFOLIA L. GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bubenchikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article present results of the study for a anatomic structure of Campanula rotundifolia grass from Campanulaceae family. Despite its dispersion and application in folk medicine, there are no data about its anatomic structure, therefore to estimate the indices of authenticity and quality of raw materials it is necessary to develop microdiagnostical features in the first place, which could help introducing of thisplant in a medical practice. The purpose of this work is to study anatomical structureof Campanula rotundifolia grass to determine its diagnostic features. Methods. Thestudy for anatomic structure was carried out in accordance with the requirements of State Pharmacopoeia, edition XIII. Micromed laboratory microscope with digital adjutage was used to create microphotoes, Photoshop CC was used for their processing. Result. We have established that stalk epidermis is prosenchymal, slightly winding with straight of splayed end cells. After study for the epidermis cells we established that upper epidermis cells had straight walls and are slightly winding. The cells of lower epidermishave more winding walls with prolong wrinkled cuticule. Presence of simple one-cell, thin wall, rough papillose hair on leaf and stalk epidermis. Cells of epidermis in fauces of corolla are prosenchymal, with winding walls, straight or winding walls in a cup. Papillary excrescences can be found along the cup edges. Stomatal apparatus is anomocytic. Conclusion. As the result of the study we have carried out the research for Campanula rotundifolia grass anatomic structure, and determined microdiagnostic features for determination of raw materials authenticity, which included presence of simple, one-cell, thin-walled, rough papillose hair on both epidermises of a leaf, along the veins, leaf edge, and stalk epidermis, as well as the presence of epidermis cells with papillary excrescences along the edges of leaves and cups. Intercellular canals are situatedalong the

  16. Apparatus for measuring profile thickness of strip material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hold, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for measuring the thickness profile of steel strip comprises a radiation source reciprocally movable in a stepwise fashion (by a belt) across the strip width on one side thereof and a single elongated detector on the other side of the strip aligned with the scanning source. This detector may be a fluorescent scintillator detector or an ionisation chamber. Means are provided for sensing the degree of excitation in the detector in synchronism with the scanning source whereby to provide an output representative of the thickness profile of the strip. (author)

  17. Stability of barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Ik; Sakajo, Takashi; Kim, Sun-Chul

    2018-02-01

    We study the stability of a barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere, as a simple model of jet streams. The flow is approximated by a piecewise-continuous vorticity distribution by zonal bands of uniform vorticity. The linear stability analysis shows that the vortex strip becomes stable as the strip widens or the rotation speed increases. When the vorticity constants in the upper and the lower regions of the vortex strip have the same positive value, the inner flow region of the vortex strip becomes the most unstable. However, when the upper and the lower vorticity constants in the polar regions have different signs, a complex pattern of instability is found, depending on the wavenumber of perturbations, and interestingly, a boundary far away from the vortex strip can be unstable. We also compute the nonlinear evolution of the vortex strip on the rotating sphere and compare with the linear stability analysis. When the width of the vortex strip is small, we observe a good agreement in the growth rate of perturbation at an early time, and the eigenvector corresponding to the unstable eigenvalue coincides with the most unstable part of the flow. We demonstrate that a large structure of rolling-up vortex cores appears in the vortex strip after a long-time evolution. Furthermore, the geophysical relevance of the model to jet streams of Jupiter, Saturn and Earth is examined.

  18. Strip type radiation detector and method of making same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantsch, O.; Feigt, I.; Willig, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    An improved strip detector and a method for making such a detector in which a high resistivity N conduction semiconductor body has electrode strips formed thereon by diffusion is described. The strips are formed so as to be covered by an oxide layer at the surface point of the PN junction and in which the opposite side of the semiconductor body then has a substantial amount of material etched away to form a thin semiconductor upon which strip electrodes which are perpendicular to the electrodes on the first side are then placed

  19. Stability of barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Ik; Sakajo, Takashi; Kim, Sun-Chul

    2018-02-01

    We study the stability of a barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere, as a simple model of jet streams. The flow is approximated by a piecewise-continuous vorticity distribution by zonal bands of uniform vorticity. The linear stability analysis shows that the vortex strip becomes stable as the strip widens or the rotation speed increases. When the vorticity constants in the upper and the lower regions of the vortex strip have the same positive value, the inner flow region of the vortex strip becomes the most unstable. However, when the upper and the lower vorticity constants in the polar regions have different signs, a complex pattern of instability is found, depending on the wavenumber of perturbations, and interestingly, a boundary far away from the vortex strip can be unstable. We also compute the nonlinear evolution of the vortex strip on the rotating sphere and compare with the linear stability analysis. When the width of the vortex strip is small, we observe a good agreement in the growth rate of perturbation at an early time, and the eigenvector corresponding to the unstable eigenvalue coincides with the most unstable part of the flow. We demonstrate that a large structure of rolling-up vortex cores appears in the vortex strip after a long-time evolution. Furthermore, the geophysical relevance of the model to jet streams of Jupiter, Saturn and Earth is examined.

  20. Strip defect recognition in electrical tests of silicon microstrip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentan, Manfred, E-mail: valentan@mpp.mpg.de

    2017-02-11

    This contribution describes the measurement procedure and data analysis of AC-coupled double-sided silicon microstrip sensors with polysilicon resistor biasing. The most thorough test of a strip sensor is an electrical measurement of all strips of the sensor; the measured observables include e.g. the strip's current and the coupling capacitance. These measurements are performed to find defective strips, e.g. broken capacitors (pinholes) or implant shorts between two adjacent strips. When a strip has a defect, its observables will show a deviation from the “typical value”. To recognize and quantify certain defects, it is necessary to determine these typical values, i.e. the values the observables would have without the defect. As a novel approach, local least-median-of-squares linear fits are applied to determine these “would-be” values of the observables. A least-median-of-squares fit is robust against outliers, i.e. it ignores the observable values of defective strips. Knowing the typical values allows to recognize, distinguish and quantify a whole range of strip defects. This contribution explains how the various defects appear in the data and in which order the defects can be recognized. The method has been used to find strip defects on 30 double-sided trapezoidal microstrip sensors for the Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector, which have been measured at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Vienna (Austria).

  1. Pavement Stripping in Saudi Arabia: Prediction and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. Al-Abdul Wahhab

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pavement weathering or stripping is a major distress in highway networks in arid regions. Using the Saudi Arabian road network as a case study area, seventeen road test sections were selected, out of which eight were stripped and nine were non-stripped. Aggregates from quarries used to build these sections were also collected and subjected to detailed physical and chemical tests to evaluate the ability of these tests to distinguish between stripped and non-stripped sections. The modified Lottman test was used to distinguish between compacted mixes. In addition, the Swedish Rolling Bottle test, was also found to be effective in being able to distinguish between different asphalt-aggregates for stripping potential. Eleven anti-stripping liquid additives, lime and cement, in addition to two polymers, were evaluated for their ability to reduce/eliminate stripping potential of stripping-prone aggregates. It was found that EE-2 Polymer, Portland cement, and their combination were effective with all aggregate sources.

  2. Upgrated fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Results described in this presentation are from a large EU-project - Development of a new crop production system based on delayed harvesting and system for its combined processing to chemical pulp and biofuel powder. This is a project to develop the use of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris Arundinaceae) both for pulp industry and energy production. The main contractor of the project is Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), task coordinators are United Milling Systems A/S from Denmark, and Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy from Finland In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project

  3. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    , we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods...

  4. Grass-on-grass competition along a catenal gradient in mesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three aboveground treatments (full light competition, no light competition and clipping to simulate grazing), and two belowground treatments (full belowground competition and belowground competition excluded by a root tube), were used. On all soil depths the three grass species differed in mean mass, with E. racemosa ...

  5. The role of shape complexity in the detection of closed contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, John; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2016-09-01

    The detection of contours in noise has been extensively studied, but the detection of closed contours, such as the boundaries of whole objects, has received relatively little attention. Closed contours pose substantial challenges not present in the simple (open) case, because they form the outlines of whole shapes and thus take on a range of potentially important configural properties. In this paper we consider the detection of closed contours in noise as a probabilistic decision problem. Previous work on open contours suggests that contour complexity, quantified as the negative log probability (Description Length, DL) of the contour under a suitably chosen statistical model, impairs contour detectability; more complex (statistically surprising) contours are harder to detect. In this study we extended this result to closed contours, developing a suitable probabilistic model of whole shapes that gives rise to several distinct though interrelated measures of shape complexity. We asked subjects to detect either natural shapes (Exp. 1) or experimentally manipulated shapes (Exp. 2) embedded in noise fields. We found systematic effects of global shape complexity on detection performance, demonstrating how aspects of global shape and form influence the basic process of object detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Contoured-gap coaxial guns for imploding plasma liner experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F. D.; Case, A.; Brockington, S.; Cassibry, J. T.; Hsu, S. C.

    2014-10-01

    Arrays of supersonic, high momentum flux plasma jets can be used as standoff compression drivers for generating spherically imploding plasma liners for driving magneto-inertial fusion, hence the name plasma-jet-driven MIF (PJMIF). HyperV developed linear plasma jets for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at LANL where two guns were successfully tested. Further development at HyperV resulted in achieving the PLX goal of 8000 μg at 50 km/s. Prior work on contoured-gap coaxial guns demonstrated an approach to control the blowby instability and achieved substantial performance improvements. For future plasma liner experiments we propose to use contoured-gap coaxial guns with small Minirailgun injectors. We will describe such a gun for a 60-gun plasma liner experiment. Discussion topics will include impurity control, plasma jet symmetry and topology (esp. related to uniformity and compactness), velocity capability, and techniques planned for achieving gun efficiency of >50% using tailored impedance matched pulse forming networks. Mach2 and UAH SPH code simulations will be included. Work supported by US DOE DE-FG02-05ER54810.

  7. Automated identification of the lung contours in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nery, F; Ferreira, N C; Faustino, R; Silva, J Silvestre; Caramelo, F J

    2013-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine imaging technique that permits to analyze, in three dimensions, the physiological processes in vivo. One of the areas where PET has demonstrated its advantages is in the staging of lung cancer, where it offers better sensitivity and specificity than other techniques such as CT. On the other hand, accurate segmentation, an important procedure for Computer Aided Diagnostics (CAD) and automated image analysis, is a challenging task given the low spatial resolution and the high noise that are intrinsic characteristics of PET images. This work presents an algorithm for the segmentation of lungs in PET images, to be used in CAD and group analysis in a large patient database. The lung boundaries are automatically extracted from a PET volume through the application of a marker-driven watershed segmentation procedure which is robust to the noise. In order to test the effectiveness of the proposed method, we compared the segmentation results in several slices using our approach with the results obtained from manual delineation. The manual delineation was performed by nuclear medicine physicians that used a software routine that we developed specifically for this task. To quantify the similarity between the contours obtained from the two methods, we used figures of merit based on region and also on contour definitions. Results show that the performance of the algorithm was similar to the performance of human physicians. Additionally, we found that the algorithm-physician agreement is similar (statistically significant) to the inter-physician agreement.

  8. Gestalten of today: early processing of visual contours and surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, I

    1996-12-01

    While much is known about the specialized, parallel processing streams of low-level vision that extract primary visual cues, there is only limited knowledge about the dynamic interactions between them. How are the fragments, caught by local analyzers, assembled together to provide us with a unified percept? How are local discontinuities in texture, motion or depth evaluated with respect to object boundaries and surface properties? These questions are presented within the framework of orientation-specific spatial interactions of early vision. Key observations of psychophysics, anatomy and neurophysiology on interactions of various spatial and temporal ranges are reviewed. Aspects of the functional architecture and possible neural substrates of local orientation-specific interactions are discussed, underlining their role in the integration of information across the visual field, and particularly in contour integration. Examples are provided demonstrating that global context, such as contour closure and figure-ground assignment, affects these local interactions. It is illustrated that figure-ground assignment is realized early in visual processing, and that the pattern of early interactions also brings about an effective and sparse coding of visual shape. Finally, it is concluded that the underlying functional architecture is not only dynamic and context dependent, but the pattern of connectivity depends as much on past experience as on actual stimulation.

  9. Lymph node segmentation by dynamic programming and active contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yongqiang; Lu, Lin; Bonde, Apurva; Wang, Deling; Qi, Jing; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Zhao, Binsheng

    2018-03-03

    Enlarged lymph nodes are indicators of cancer staging, and the change in their size is a reflection of treatment response. Automatic lymph node segmentation is challenging, as the boundary can be unclear and the surrounding structures complex. This work communicates a new three-dimensional algorithm for the segmentation of enlarged lymph nodes. The algorithm requires a user to draw a region of interest (ROI) enclosing the lymph node. Rays are cast from the center of the ROI, and the intersections of the rays and the boundary of the lymph node form a triangle mesh. The intersection points are determined by dynamic programming. The triangle mesh initializes an active contour which evolves to low-energy boundary. Three radiologists independently delineated the contours of 54 lesions from 48 patients. Dice coefficient was used to evaluate the algorithm's performance. The mean Dice coefficient between computer and the majority vote results was 83.2%. The mean Dice coefficients between the three radiologists' manual segmentations were 84.6%, 86.2%, and 88.3%. The performance of this segmentation algorithm suggests its potential clinical value for quantifying enlarged lymph nodes. © 2018 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  10. Limited capacity for contour curvature in iconic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Koji

    2006-06-01

    We measured the difference threshold for contour curvature in iconic memory by using the cued discrimination method. The study stimulus consisting of 2 to 6 curved contours was briefly presented in the fovea, followed by two lines as cues. Subjects discriminated the curvature of two cued curves. The cue delays were 0 msec. and 300 msec. in Exps. 1 and 2, respectively, and 50 msec. before the study offset in Exp. 3. Analysis of data from Exps. 1 and 2 showed that the Weber fraction rose monotonically with the increase in set size. Clear set-size effects indicate that iconic memory has a limited capacity. Moreover, clear set-size effect in Exp. 3 indicates that perception itself has a limited capacity. Larger set-size effects in Exp. 1 than in Exp. 3 suggest that iconic memory after perceptual process has limited capacity. These properties of iconic memory at threshold level are contradictory to the traditional view that iconic memory has a high capacity both at suprathreshold and categorical levels.

  11. Functional Contour-following via Haptic Perception and Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Randall B; Tekin, Cem; van der Schaar, Mihaela; Santos, Veronica J

    2018-01-01

    Many tasks involve the fine manipulation of objects despite limited visual feedback. In such scenarios, tactile and proprioceptive feedback can be leveraged for task completion. We present an approach for real-time haptic perception and decision-making for a haptics-driven, functional contour-following task: the closure of a ziplock bag. This task is challenging for robots because the bag is deformable, transparent, and visually occluded by artificial fingertip sensors that are also compliant. A deep neural net classifier was trained to estimate the state of a zipper within a robot's pinch grasp. A Contextual Multi-Armed Bandit (C-MAB) reinforcement learning algorithm was implemented to maximize cumulative rewards by balancing exploration versus exploitation of the state-action space. The C-MAB learner outperformed a benchmark Q-learner by more efficiently exploring the state-action space while learning a hard-to-code task. The learned C-MAB policy was tested with novel ziplock bag scenarios and contours (wire, rope). Importantly, this work contributes to the development of reinforcement learning approaches that account for limited resources such as hardware life and researcher time. As robots are used to perform complex, physically interactive tasks in unstructured or unmodeled environments, it becomes important to develop methods that enable efficient and effective learning with physical testbeds.

  12. Ultrasound cavitation versus cryolipolysis for non-invasive body contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud ELdesoky, Mohamed Taher; Mohamed Abutaleb, Enas ELsayed; Mohamed Mousa, Gihan Samir

    2015-08-24

    The demand for non-surgical and non-invasive devices is continuous and increasing. Such devices have gradually gained ground in the reduction of localised fat and the improvement of body contouring. The study aimed to compare the effects of ultrasound cavitation and cryolipolysis on localised abdominal fat. In total, 60 participants with a body mass index (BMI) over 30 kg/m 2 , whose age ranged between 25 and 45 years, were included. The participants were randomly assigned to three groups of 20 each, using ultrasound cavitation and diet, cryolipolysis and diet, and diet only (the control group), respectively. Measures were bodyweight, BMI, waist circumference and suprailiac skinfold were measured at the beginning of the study and 2 months later. The three groups showed significant improvements in all measured variables after 2 months. There was no statistically significant difference in bodyweight or in BMI among the groups after treatment. However, the groups using ultrasound cavitation and cryolipolysis showed better post-treatment improvement than the diet-only group in waist circumference and suprailiac skinfold. There was no statistically significant difference post-treatment between the cavitation and cryolipolysis groups in waist circumference or suprailiac skinfold. Both ultrasound cavitation and cryolipolysis are safe and effective for the reduction of abdominal fat thickness and for abdominal contouring. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  13. Monitoring the CMS strip tracker readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mersi, S; Bainbridge, R; Cripps, N; Fulcher, J; Wingham, M; Baulieu, G; Bel, S; Delaere, C; Drouhin, F; Mirabito, L; Cole, J; Giassi, A; Gross, L; Hahn, K; Nikolic, M; Tkaczyk, S

    2008-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker at the LHC comprises a sensitive area of approximately 200 m 2 and 10 million readout channels. Its data acquisition system is based around a custom analogue front-end chip. Both the control and the readout of the front-end electronics are performed by off-detector VME boards in the counting room, which digitise the raw event data and perform zero-suppression and formatting. The data acquisition system uses the CMS online software framework to configure, control and monitor the hardware components and steer the data acquisition. The first data analysis is performed online within the official CMS reconstruction framework, which provides many services, such as distributed analysis, access to geometry and conditions data, and a Data Quality Monitoring tool based on the online physics reconstruction. The data acquisition monitoring of the Strip Tracker uses both the data acquisition and the reconstruction software frameworks in order to provide real-time feedback to shifters on the operational state of the detector, archiving for later analysis and possibly trigger automatic recovery actions in case of errors. Here we review the proposed architecture of the monitoring system and we describe its software components, which are already in place, the various monitoring streams available, and our experiences of operating and monitoring a large-scale system

  14. Microwave assisted synthesis of hydroxyapatite nano strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruban Kumar, A.; Kalainathan, S.; Saral, A.M. [School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-07-15

    Synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nano strips was carried out by chemical precipitation method followed by microwave irradiation. The microwave assisted reactions proceed at fast rates. It is found that the presence of the complex reagent EDTA plays an important role in the morphological changes of nanostructure hydroxyapatite. EDTA acts as a hexadentate unit by wrapping itself around the Ca{sup 2+} metal ion with, four oxygen and two nitrogen atoms and forms several five member chelate rings. The relative specific surface energies associated with the facets of the crystal determines the shape of the crystal. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of hydroxyapatite nano strips with the range 50-100 nm in EDTA influenced HAP powders. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) result combined with the X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicates the presence of amorphous hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the as-prepared material. X-ray patterns collected on the powder after heat-treatment at 1100 C for 2 h in air exhibits single phase of HAP. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. The structure of the Cepheid instability strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernie, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    About 100 classical Cepheids having color excesses on a homogeneous system with standard errors of 0.02 or less mag are used with the Feast-Walker period-luminosity-color relation to study the distribution of such stars in the instability strip. It is found that mean (B-V)mag is a better indicator of mean effective temperature than is mean B(i) - mean V(i)(i). The blue edge of the color-magnitude distribution is consistent with the theoretical blue edge for Y = 0.28 and Z = 0.02. Although the highest amplitude stars are found near the center of the period-color array, high- and low-amplitude stars can intermingle, and both kinds are to be found near the edges of the distribution. The same is true on the C-M array. Finally, it is pointed out that the Cepheids do not populate the instability strip uniformly if the red edge is taken to be parallel to the theoretical blue edge. Rather, the local instability region runs as a parallelogram in the C-M array from the theoretical blue edge upward and to the red. 24 refs

  16. Evaluation of silicon micro strip detectors with large read-out pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyo, K.; Yamamura, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Avrillon, S.; Asano, Y.; Bozek, A.; Natkaniec, Z.; Palka, H.; Rozanska, M.; Rybicki, K.

    1996-01-01

    For the development of the silicon micro-strip detector with the pitch of the readout strips as large as 250 μm on the ohmic side, we made samples with different structures. Charge collection was evaluated to optimize the width of implant strips, aluminum read-out strips, and/or the read-out scheme among strips. (orig.)

  17. From pasture grass to cattle milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Susumu

    1979-01-01

    Iodine-131 is one of the important fission products since it is selectively accumulated in the thyroid gland of man. The transfer of this isotope from contaminated grass to cows' milk is therefore of particular importance since milk is a major constituent of the diet especially for infants. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the transfer rate of this isotope from grass to milk of lactuating cows and its distribution in milk. It is said that the orally administered iodide is rapidly absorbed through the rumen wall and excreted mainly to urine. The absorbed iodine is accumulated highly in the thyroid gland and the considerable amount is secreted to milk. Garner et al. showed that about 5% of a dose of 131 I was found in the milk within 7 days. The extremes were 1.43 to 16.4%. Present author obtained that 18 - 30% of the dosed 131 I was secreted into milk within 7 days, indicating somewhat higher transfer rate than that of Garner et al. It was reported that more than 90% of 131 I was found in milk serum in the ionic form. The countermeasures for diminishing 131 I in milk were also presented. (author)

  18. Genetic modification of wetland grasses for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czako, M.; Liang Dali; Marton, L. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Feng Xianzhong; He Yuke [National Lab. of Plant Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Inst. of Plant Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, SH (China)

    2005-04-01

    Wetland grasses and grass-like monocots are very important natural remediators of pollutants. Their genetic improvement is an important task because introduction of key transgenes can dramatically improve their remediation potential. Tissue culture is prerequisite for genetic manipulation, and methods are reported here for in vitro culture and micropropagation of a number of wetland plants of various ecological requirements such as salt marsh, brackish water, riverbanks, and various zones of lakes and ponds, and bogs. The monocots represent numerous genera in various families such as Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and Typhaceae. The reported species are in various stages of micropropagation and Arundo donax is scaled for mass propagation for selecting elite lines for pytoremediation. Transfer of key genes for mercury phytoremediation into the salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is also reported here. All but one transgenic lines contained both the organomercurial lyase (merB) and mercuric reductase (merA) sequences showing that co-introduction into Spartina of two genes from separate Agrobacterium strains is possible. (orig.)

  19. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  20. Elephant grass clones for silage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

  1. A Voronoi interior adjacency-based approach for generating a contour tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Qiao, Chaofei; Zhao, Renliang

    2004-05-01

    A contour tree is a good graphical tool for representing the spatial relations of contour lines and has found many applications in map generalization, map annotation, terrain analysis, etc. A new approach for generating contour trees by introducing a Voronoi-based interior adjacency set concept is proposed in this paper. The immediate interior adjacency set is employed to identify all of the children contours of each contour without contour elevations. It has advantages over existing methods such as the point-in-polygon method and the region growing-based method. This new approach can be used for spatial data mining and knowledge discovering, such as the automatic extraction of terrain features and construction of multi-resolution digital elevation model.

  2. Measurement of laser welding pool geometry using a closed convex active contour model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Rui; Zhang, Pu; Duan, Aiqing; Xiao, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a computer vision method to measure geometric parameters of the weld pool in a deep penetration CO 2 laser welding system. Accurate measurement was achieved by removing a huge amount of interference caused by spatter, arc light and plasma to extract the true weld pool contour. This paper introduces a closed convex active contour (CCAC) model derived from the active contour model (snake model), which is a more robust high-level vision method than the traditional low-level vision methods. We made an improvement by integrating an active contour with the information that the weld pool contour is almost a closed convex curve. An effective thresholding method and an improved greedy algorithm are also given to complement the CCAC model. These influences can be effectively removed by using the CCAC model to acquire and measure the weld pool contour accurately and relatively fast. (paper)

  3. Contouring algorithm for two dimensional data- an application to airborne surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryakumar, N.V.; Rohatgi, Savita; Raghuwanshi, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes in general the contouring algorithm for two dimensional projection of aeroradiometric data and considers not only irregularly spaced flight lines but also solves the other problems related to voluminous data acquired during the airborne surveys. Several simple logics have been described for drawing the contours using scan method and taking care of annotations, identification marking, geographical locations, map size, contour density for visual distinctness and many such problems which may arise during contouring. The present paper also discusses various possibilities of contour line segments in the mini-grid and the criterion for selection of suitable segments has been described in detail. A novel approach to avoid the crossing of contours or missing data is also briefly discussed. The simplicity of the algorithm is mentioned for its ready implementation or any computer/plotter. (author). 8 refs., 8 figs

  4. A fully automated contour detection algorithm the preliminary step for scatter and attenuation compensation in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, R.B.; Mas, J.; Bidet, R.

    1988-01-01

    Contour detection is an important step in information extraction from nuclear medicine images. In order to perform accurate quantitative studies in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) a new procedure is described which can rapidly derive the best fit contour of an attenuated medium. Some authors evaluate the influence of the detected contour on the reconstructed images with various attenuation correction techniques. Most of the methods are strongly affected by inaccurately detected contours. This approach uses the Compton window to redetermine the convex contour: It seems to be simpler and more practical in clinical SPECT studies. The main advantages of this procedure are the high speed of computation, the accuracy of the contour found and the programme's automation. Results obtained using computer simulated and real phantoms or clinical studies demonstrate the reliability of the present algorithm. (orig.)

  5. Perennial Grass Bioenergy Cropping on Wet Marginal Land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Srabani; Teuffer, Karin; Stoof, Cathelijne R.; Walter, Michael F.; Walter, M.T.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Richards, Brian K.

    2018-01-01

    The control of soil moisture, vegetation type, and prior land use on soil health parameters of perennial grass cropping systems on marginal lands is not well known. A fallow wetness-prone marginal site in New York (USA) was converted to perennial grass bioenergy feedstock production. Quadruplicate

  6. No positive feedback between fire and a nonnative perennial grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika L. Geiger; Guy R. McPherson

    2005-01-01

    Semi-desert grasslands flank the “Sky Island” mountains in southern Arizona and Northern Mexico. Many of these grasslands are dominated by nonnative grasses, which potentially alter native biotic communities. One specific concern is the potential for a predicted feedback between nonnative grasses and fire. In a large-scale experiment in southern Arizona we investigated...

  7. Analysis of Fusarium causing dermal toxicosis in marram grass planters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, CHA; Samson, RA; Hoekstra, ES; Ouellet, T; Miller, JD; deRooijvanderGoes, PCEM; Baar, AJM; Dubois, AEJ; Kauffman, HF

    1996-01-01

    In the European coastal dunes, marram grass (Ammophila arenaria) is planted in order to control sand erosion. In the years 1986 to 1991, workers on the Wadden islands in the Netherlands planting marram grass showed lesions of skin and mucous membranes, suggesting a toxic reaction. Fusarium culmorum

  8. Conceptual model for reinforced grass on inner dike slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; ComCoast

    2005-01-01

    A desk study has been carried out in order to develop a conceptual model for the erosion of inner dike slopes with reinforced grass cover. Based on the results the following can be concluded: The presence of a geosynthetic in a grass slope can be taken into account in the EPM method by increasing

  9. Grass defoliation affecting survival and growth of seedlings of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted, one in the field and the other in the greenhouse, to investigate the effects of the intensity and frequency of grass defoliation on the survival and growth of Acacia karroo seedlings. In the greenhouse, seedlings growing with heavily clipped grasses had higher biomass production than those ...

  10. Defoliation effects of perennial grasses – continuing confusion | DL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although an adequate knowledge of growth patterns and defoliation effects in perennial grasses is a prerequisite for the rational use of veld and pastures for animal production, our knowledge of this subject is far from adequate. The results of various physiological and clipping studies on tropical and sub-tropical grasses are ...

  11. MACRO NUTRIENTS UPTAKE OF FORAGE GRASSES AT DIFFERENT SALINITY STRESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kusmiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl in saline soils has negative effects on the growth ofmost plants. The experiment was designed to evaluate macro nutrient uptake (Nitrogen, Phosphorus andPotassium of forage grasses at different NaCl concentrations in growth media. The experiment wasconducted in a greenhouse at Forage Crops Laboratory of Animal Agriculture Faculty, Diponegoro University.Split plot design was used to arrange the experiment. The main plot was forage grasses (Elephant grass(Pennisetum purpureum and King grass (Pennisetum hybrida. The sub plot was NaCl concentrationin growth media (0, 150, and 300 mM. The nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K uptake in shootand root of plant were measured. The result indicated increasing NaCl concentration in growth mediasignificantly decreased the N, P and K uptake in root and shoot of the elephant grass and king grass. Thepercentage reduction percentage of N, P and K uptake at 150 mM and 300 mM were high in elephant grassand king grass. It can be concluded that based on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake, elephantgrass and king grass are not tolerant to strong and very strong saline soil.

  12. EBIPM | Finding the Tools to Manage Invasive Annual Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    management decisions for a given landscape based on ecological principles. Take a look at our video " Grass Management How much could prevention save you? Guidelines to Implement EBIPM Weed Prevention Areas Grass Facts/ID The EBIPM Model Crooked River Weed Management Area Guide Tools for Educators EBIPM High

  13. Lessons learned in managing alfalfa-grass mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass-alfalfa mixtures have a number of benefits that make them attractive to producers. However, they can be problematic to establish and maintain. Research programs have made progress in understanding the benefits and challenges of alfalfa-grass mixtures. Mixtures may have greater winter survival ...

  14. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Cure

    2013-01-01

    Developing a method of agricultural field reclamation to native grasses in the Lower San Pedro Watershed could prove to be a valuable tool for educational and practical purposes. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production will address water table depletion, soil degradation and the economic viability of the communities within the watershed....

  15. Effect of grass species on NDF ruminal degradability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uzivatel

    Abstract. The objective of this study was to compare the ruminal degradability of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) .... Felina were evaluated in the present study. The grass was harvested from the primary growth of monocultured grasses on 19 and 26 May of 2004 and 27 May and 10 ...... Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant.

  16. Soil nitrogen mineralization not affected by grass species traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged Ikram Nosshi; Jack Butler; M. J. Trlica

    2007-01-01

    Species N use traits was evaluated as a mechanism whereby Bromus inermis (Bromus), an established invasive, might alter soil N supply in a Northern mixed-grass prairie. We compared soils under stands of Bromus with those from three representative native grasses of different litter C/N: Andropogon...

  17. Seed production and establishment of western Oregon native grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale C. Darris

    2005-01-01

    It is well understood that native grasses are ecologically important and provide numerous benefits. However, unfavorable economics, low seed yields for some species, genetic issues, and a lack of experience behind the production and establishment of most western Oregon native grasses remain significant impediments for their expanded use. By necessity, adaptation of...

  18. Analysis of Some Heavy Metals in Grass ( Paspalum Orbiculare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased deposition of trace metals from vehicle exhausts on plants has raised concerns about the risks of the quality of food consumed by humans since the heavy metals emitted through the exhaust by vehicles can enter food chain through deposition on grass grazed by animals. Grass (Paspalum Orbiculare) and ...

  19. Identification of grazed grasses using epidermal characters | R ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of anatomical features of the abaxial epidermis of grasses is discussed for the identification of fragments of epidermis present in samples of rumen. The reliability of this technique, and the variation of the epidermal characters in two widely distributed species of grass, is given. A "Key" to identity certain genera of ...

  20. Invasive grasses change landscape structure and fire behavior in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa M. Ellsworth; Creighton M. Litton; Alexander P. Dale; Tomoaki Miura

    2014-01-01

    How does potential fire behavior differ in grass-invaded non-native forests vs open grasslands? How has land cover changed from 1950–2011 along two grassland/forest ecotones in Hawaii with repeated fires? A study on non-native forest with invasive grass understory and invasive grassland (Megathyrsus maximus) ecosystems on Oahu, Hawaii, USA was...

  1. Segmentation of solid subregion of high grade gliomas in MRI images based on active contour model (ACM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, P.; Win, M. T.; Wong, J. H. D.; Abdullah, N. A.; Ramli, N.

    2016-03-01

    Gliomas are tumours arising from the interstitial tissue of the brain which are heterogeneous, infiltrative and possess ill-defined borders. Tumour subregions (e.g. solid enhancing part, edema and necrosis) are often used for tumour characterisation. Tumour demarcation into substructures facilitates glioma staging and provides essential information. Manual segmentation had several drawbacks that include laborious, time consuming, subjected to intra and inter-rater variability and hindered by diversity in the appearance of tumour tissues. In this work, active contour model (ACM) was used to segment the solid enhancing subregion of the tumour. 2D brain image acquisition data using 3T MRI fast spoiled gradient echo sequence in post gadolinium of four histologically proven high-grade glioma patients were obtained. Preprocessing of the images which includes subtraction and skull stripping were performed and then followed by ACM segmentation. The results of the automatic segmentation method were compared against the manual delineation of the tumour by a trainee radiologist. Both results were further validated by an experienced neuroradiologist and a brief quantitative evaluations (pixel area and difference ratio) were performed. Preliminary results of the clinical data showed the potential of ACM model in the application of fast and large scale tumour segmentation in medical imaging.

  2. Segmentation of solid subregion of high grade gliomas in MRI images based on active contour model (ACM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seow, P; Win, M T; Wong, J H D; Ramli, N; Abdullah, N A

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are tumours arising from the interstitial tissue of the brain which are heterogeneous, infiltrative and possess ill-defined borders. Tumour subregions (e.g. solid enhancing part, edema and necrosis) are often used for tumour characterisation. Tumour demarcation into substructures facilitates glioma staging and provides essential information. Manual segmentation had several drawbacks that include laborious, time consuming, subjected to intra and inter-rater variability and hindered by diversity in the appearance of tumour tissues. In this work, active contour model (ACM) was used to segment the solid enhancing subregion of the tumour. 2D brain image acquisition data using 3T MRI fast spoiled gradient echo sequence in post gadolinium of four histologically proven high-grade glioma patients were obtained. Preprocessing of the images which includes subtraction and skull stripping were performed and then followed by ACM segmentation. The results of the automatic segmentation method were compared against the manual delineation of the tumour by a trainee radiologist. Both results were further validated by an experienced neuroradiologist and a brief quantitative evaluations (pixel area and difference ratio) were performed. Preliminary results of the clinical data showed the potential of ACM model in the application of fast and large scale tumour segmentation in medical imaging. (paper)

  3. Do repeated rumble strip hits improve driver alertness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watling, C.N.; Akerstedt, T.; Kecklund, L.G.; Anund, A.

    2016-01-01

    Driving while sleepy is associated with increased crash risk. Rumble strips are designed to alert a sleepy or inattentive driver when they deviate outside their driving lane. The current study sought to examine the effects of repeated rumble strip hits on levels of physiological and subjective

  4. Metal films with imprinted nanostructures by template stripping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, René Lynge; Pors, Anders; Dreier, Jes

    We present a novel template stripping procedure for fabricating metal films with imprinted nanostructures. The basic idea is to deposit a gold film onto a nano-structured substrate and subsequently strip the film from the substrate surface thereby revealing imprinted nanostructures in the film...... result is a thin gold film with imprinted nano-cavities....

  5. Reforestation of strip-mined lands in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Spencer Potter; Sidney Weitzman; George R., Jr. Trimble

    1951-01-01

    The early 1940's witnessed a striking increase in strip-mining throughout the eastern coal region. West Virginia, with its extensive coal resources, naturally was caught in the full current of this shift in mining methods. Today the raw gash on the hillside - almost infallibly the mark of a strip-mine operation - is a familiar sight in the State.

  6. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D. E-mail: dirk.meier@cern.ch; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2000-10-11

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  7. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetstein, M; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zoeller, M M

    2000-01-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  8. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation

  9. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    2000-10-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  10. Determination of residual stresses in roll compacted titanium strips

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mothosi, KL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available residual stresses using x-ray diffraction (XRD) surface probing technique. Preliminary results were obtained for the surface residual stress at the center of the titanium strips for the 100 and 325 mesh strips rolled at 0.1 roll gap for 20 and 50 mm set...

  11. Stripping foils for the PSB H- injection system

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Goddard, B; Weterings, W

    2009-01-01

    Beam physics considerations for the stripping foil of the PSB H- injection system are described, including the arguments for the foil type, thickness, geometry and positioning. The foil performance considerations are described, including expected stripping efficiency, emittance growth, energy straggling, temperature and lifetime. The required movement ranges and tolerances are detailed, together with the assumptions used.

  12. Electrode/Dielectric Strip For High-Energy-Density Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.

    1994-01-01

    Improved unitary electrode/dielectric strip serves as winding in high-energy-density capacitor in pulsed power supply. Offers combination of qualities essential for high energy density: high permittivity of dielectric layers, thinness, and high resistance to breakdown of dielectric at high electric fields. Capacitors with strip material not impregnated with liquid.

  13. Laser stripping of relativistic H- ions with practical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlin, R.

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes laser stripping of H - ions. Some applications are suggested for HEP including stripping 2GeV ions circulating in an accelerator with radius 75 meters where laser meets ion head on in a three meter interaction region. The paper describes photoionizaton cross section, laser power calculation, and how to generate the 5 micrometer light

  14. Using Comic Strips as a Book Report Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Comic strips are great to share with parents, younger students, and peers. This article presents an activity where students use a six-paneled comic strip to summarize a story. This activity allows for multiple interpretations and enhances comprehension by drawing attention to story elements.

  15. Quality Tests of Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cambon, T; CERN. Geneva; Fintz, P; Guillaume, G; Jundt, F; Kuhn, C; Lutz, Jean Robert; Pagès, P; Pozdniakov, S; Rami, F; Sparavec, K; Dulinski, W; Arnold, L

    1997-01-01

    The quality of the SiO2 insulator (AC coupling between metal and implanted strips) of double-sided Silicon strip detectors has been studied by using a probe station. Some tests performed on 23 wafers are described and the results are discussed. Remark This note seems to cause problems with ghostview but it can be printed without any problem.

  16. Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, Michael G [ORNL; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL; Cohen, Kari [ORNL

    2007-06-01

    Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

  17. Area of isodensity contours in Gaussian and non-Gaussian fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryden, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    The area of isodensity contours in a smoothed density field can be measured by the contour-crossing statistic N1, the number of times per unit length that a line drawn through the density field pierces an isodensity contour. The contour-crossing statistic distinguishes between Gaussian and non-Gaussian fields and provides a measure of the effective slope of the power spectrum. The statistic is easy to apply and can be used on pencil beams and slices as well as on a three-dimensional field. 10 references

  18. Extension of Fourier methods to the calculation of effective depths in heterogeneous media of arbitrary contour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkschall, G.

    1986-01-01

    The description of patient contours and internal structures by means of truncated Fourier series can be extended to continuous contours of arbitrary shape and location by expressing the x and z Cartesian coordinates of the contour as independent Fourier series in a parameter t. An analytic equation for the intersection of the contour and a ray line is then written as an equation in the parameter t. The equation can be solved using numerical methods yielding the Cartesian coordinates of the intersection point directly

  19. Optical fiber cable chemical stripping fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasinski, John R. (Inventor); Coleman, Alexander M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An elongated fixture handle member is connected to a fixture body member with both members having interconnecting longitudinal central axial bores for the passage of an optical cable therethrough. The axial bore of the fixture body member, however, terminates in a shoulder stop for the outer end of a jacket of the optical cable covering both an optical fiber and a coating therefor, with an axial bore of reduced diameter continuing from the shoulder stop forward for a predetermined desired length to the outer end of the fixture body member. A subsequent insertion of the fixture body member including the above optical fiber elements into a chemical stripping solution results in a softening of the exposed external coating thereat which permits easy removal thereof from the optical fiber while leaving a desired length coated fiber intact within the fixture body member.

  20. Dynamic underground stripping. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) is a combination of technologies targeted to remediate soil and ground water contaminated with organic compounds. DUS is effective both above and below the water table and is especially well suited for sites with interbedded sand and clay layers. The main technologies comprising DUS are steam injection at the periphery of a contaminated area to heat permeable subsurface areas, vaporize volatile compounds bound to the soil, and drive contaminants to centrally located vacuum extraction wells; electrical heating of less permeable sediments to vaporize contaminants and drive them into the steam zone; and underground imaging such as Electrical Resistance Tomography to delineate heated areas to ensure total cleanup and process control. A full-scale demonstration was conducted on a gasoline spill site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California from November 1992 through December 1993

  1. Digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overdick, M.

    1998-05-01

    Spatially resolving radiation detection systems operating in real time can be used to acquire autoradiographic images. An overview over alternatives to traditional autoradiography is given and the special features of these filmless methods are discussed. On this basis the design of a system for digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors is presented. Special emphasis is put on the physical background of the detection process in the semiconductor and on the self-triggering read-out technique. The practical performance of the system is analyzed with respect to energy and spatial resolution. This analysis is complemented by case studies from cell biology (especially electrophoresis), botany and mineralogy. Also the results from a time-resolved autoradiographic experiment are presented. (orig.) 80 refs.

  2. Coplanar strips for Josephson voltage standard circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, M.; May, T.; Wende, G.; Fritzsch, L.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2001-01-01

    We present a microwave circuit for Josephson voltage standards. Here, the Josephson junctions are integrated in a microwave transmission line designed as coplanar strips (CPS). The new layout offers the possibility of achieving a higher scale of integration and to considerably simplify the fabrication technology. The characteristic impedance of the CPS is about 50 Ω, and this should be of interest for programmable Josephson voltage standard circuits with SNS or SINIS junctions. To demonstrate the function of the microwave circuit design, conventional 10 V Josephson voltage standard circuits with 17000 Nb/AlO x /Nb junctions were prepared and tested. Stable Shapiro steps at the 10 V level were generated. Furthermore, arrays of 1400 SINIS junctions in this microwave layout exhibited first-order Shapiro steps. Copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  3. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Sevilla, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will extend its current physics program by increasing the peak luminosity by one order of magnitude. For ATLAS, one of the two general-purpose experiments of the LHC, an upgrade scenario will imply the complete replacement of its internal tracker due to the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. New radiation-hard prototype n-in-p silicon sensors have been produced for the short-strip region of the future ATLAS tracker. The sensors have been irradiated up to the fluences expected in the high-luminous LHC collider. This paper summarizes recent results on the performance of the irradiated n-in-p detectors.

  4. Building Contour Extraction Based on LiDAR Point Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xu-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for solving the problem of utilizing the LiDAR data to extract the building contour line. For detection of the edge points between the building test points by using the least squares fitting to get the edge line of buildings and give the weight determining of the building of edge line slope depend on the length of the edge line. And then get the weighted mean of the positive and negative slope of the building edge line. Based on the structure of the adjacent edge perpendicular hypothesis, regularization processing to extract the edge of the skeleton line perpendicular. The experiments show that the extracted building edges have the good accuracy and have the good applicability in complex urban areas.

  5. The application of volume-outcome contouring in data warehousing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnicki, James; Berndt, Donald J; Luther, Stephen L; Fisher, John W

    2004-01-01

    Despite a compelling body of published research on the nature of provider volume and clinical outcomes, healthcare executives and policymakers have not managed to develop and implement systems that are useful in directing patients to higher volume providers via selective referral or avoidance. A specialized data warehouse application, utilizing hospital discharge data linked to physician biographical information, allows detailed analysis of physician and hospital volume and the resulting pattern (contour) of related outcomes such as mortality, complications, and medical errors. The approach utilizes a historical repository of hospital discharge data in which the outcomes of interest, important patient characteristics and risk factors used in severity-adjusting of the outcomes are derived from the coding structure of the data.

  6. CT assessment of muscle hypertrophy utilizing automatic contouring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbach, L.S.; Block, J.; Steiger, P.W.; Ellis, W.; Morris, J.; Genant, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    Quantitative CT was one method used to assess changes in density and area of thigh muscles in paraplegics before and after aerobic leg training. Muscle density and area were measured from the CT image by an automatic contouring algorithm. In the first three patients, total muscle density increased from 11.5% to 18.3% and area increased from 18.3% to 31.3%. In one patient who did not comply with the exercise regimen, only a 10% increase in muscle density and area was detected. This CT program is valuable in the assessment of composition and alteration of limb musculature in the treatment and follow-up of muscular disorders

  7. High-accuracy contouring using projection moiré

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Lamberti, Luciano; Sciammarella, Federico M.

    2005-09-01

    Shadow and projection moiré are the oldest forms of moiré to be used in actual technical applications. In spite of this fact and the extensive number of papers that have been published on this topic, the use of shadow moiré as an accurate tool that can compete with alternative devices poses very many problems that go to the very essence of the mathematical models used to obtain contour information from fringe pattern data. In this paper some recent developments on the projection moiré method are presented. Comparisons between the results obtained with the projection method and the results obtained by mechanical devices that operate with contact probes are presented. These results show that the use of projection moiré makes it possible to achieve the same accuracy that current mechanical touch probe devices can provide.

  8. Changes of cartilaginous contour of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumasaka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Higashihara, Tokuro; Kishimoto, Haruyoshi; Harada, Koushi; Kozuka, Takahiro.

    1991-01-01

    T 1 -weighted MR images of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) were classified into three groups on the basis of radiographic stage, and morphological differentiation for staging was attempted. In the stage of fragmentation, both enlargement and flattening of the cartilaginous contour surrounding the epiphysis could be recognized on MRI, and the growth plate showed more curvature than normal. This produced flattening of the epiphysis in the shape of a crescent. We confirmed these findings using four indices for the measurement of cartilaginous outline, and the stage of avascular necrosis and fragmentation could be clearly differentiated. Cartilaginous deformities on MRI are very useful for differentiating between the stage of avascular necrosis and fragmentation. (author)

  9. Prepolishing on a CNC platform with bound abrasive contour tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeffler, Adrienne E.; Gregg, Leslie L.; Schoen, John M.; Fess, Edward M.; Hakiel, Michael; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2003-05-01

    Deterministic microgrinding (DMG) of optical glasses and ceramics is the commercial manufacturing process of choice to shape glass surfaces prior to final finishing. This process employs rigid bound matrix diamond tooling resulting in surface roughness values of 3-5μm peak to valley and 100-400nm rms, as well as mid-spatial frequency tool marks that require subsequent removal in secondary finishing steps. The ability to pre-polish optical surfaces within the grinding platform would reduce final finishing process times. Bound abrasive contour wheels containing cerium oxide, alumina or zirconia abrasives were constructed with an epoxy matrix. The effects of abrasive type, composition, and erosion promoters were examined for tool hardness (Shore D), and tested with commercial optical glasses in an Optipro CNC grinding platform. Metrology protocols were developed to examine tool wear and subsequent surface roughness. Work is directed to demonstrating effective material removal, improved surface roughness and cutter mark removal.

  10. Processed bovine cartilage: an improved biosynthetic implant for contour defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersek, R.A.; Hart, W.G. Jr.; Greer, D.; Beisang, A.A.; Flynn, P.J.; Denton, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    Irradiated human cartilage has been found to be a superior implant material for correction of contour defects; however, availability problems have prevented this material from gaining wide acceptance. Implantation of processed irradiated bovine cartilage in primates and rabbits, as described here, provides strong evidence that this material performs like irradiated allograft cartilage antigenically and has certain cosmetic advantages over allograft cartilage. Our studies in primates have shown that there is no systemically measurable antibody-antigen reaction, either cellular or noncellular, to irradiated processed bovine cartilage. Neither primary nor second-set provocative implantations produced any measurable rejection. In rabbits, composite grafts of two pieces of irradiated bovine cartilage adjacent to each other were also well tolerated, with no measurable absorption and with capsule formation typical of a foreign body reaction to an inert object

  11. Active contour based segmentation of resected livers in CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelmann, Simon; Oyarzun Laura, Cristina; Drechsler, Klaus; Wesarg, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    The majority of state of the art segmentation algorithms are able to give proper results in healthy organs but not in pathological ones. However, many clinical applications require an accurate segmentation of pathological organs. The determination of the target boundaries for radiotherapy or liver volumetry calculations are examples of this. Volumetry measurements are of special interest after tumor resection for follow up of liver regrow. The segmentation of resected livers presents additional challenges that were not addressed by state of the art algorithms. This paper presents a snakes based algorithm specially developed for the segmentation of resected livers. The algorithm is enhanced with a novel dynamic smoothing technique that allows the active contour to propagate with different speeds depending on the intensities visible in its neighborhood. The algorithm is evaluated in 6 clinical CT images as well as 18 artificial datasets generated from additional clinical CT images.

  12. Investigation of nozzle contours in the CSIR supersonic wind tunnel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vallabh, Bhavya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Contours in the CSIR Supersonic Wind Tunnel B Vallabha,b and BW Skewsa Received 17 February 2017, in revised form 23 June 2017 and accepted 25 June 2017 R & D Journal of the South African Institution of Mechanical Engineering 2017, 33, 32-41 http... with the Sivells’ nozzle design method and the method of characteristics technique to design the nozzle profiles for the full supersonic Mach number range 𝟏𝟏 ≀ 𝑎𝑎 ≀ 𝟒𝟒.5 of the facility. Automatic computation was used for the profile...

  13. Pair Fermi contour and high-temperature superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Belyavsky, V I

    2002-01-01

    The holes superconducting coupling with the pair high summarized pulse and the relative motion low pulses is considered with an account of the quasi-two-dimensional electron structure of the HTSC-cuprates with the clearly-pronounced nesting of the Fermi contour. The superconducting energy gap and the condensation energy are determined and their dependences on the doping level are qualitatively studied. It is shown that the energy gap takes place in some holes concentration area, limited on both sides. The superconducting state, whereby the condensation energy is positive, originates in the more narrower doping interval inside this area. The hole pair redistribution in the pulse space constitutes the cause of the superconducting state origination by the holes repulsive screened Coulomb interaction. The coupling mechanism discussed hereby, males it possible to explain qualitatively not only the phase diagram basic peculiarities but also the key experimental facts, related to the cuprate HTSC-materials

  14. Noninvasive radio frequency for skin tightening and body contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Robert A

    2013-03-01

    The medical use of radio frequency (RF) is based on an oscillating electrical current forcing collisions between charged molecules and ions, which are then transformed into heat. RF heating occurs irrespective of chromophore or skin type and is not dependent on selective photothermolysis. RF can be delivered using monopolar, bipolar, and unipolar devices, and each method has theoretical limits of depth penetration. A variant of bipolar delivery is fractional RF delivery. In monopolar configurations, RF will penetrate deeply and return via a grounding electrode. Multiple devices are available and are detailed later in the text. RF thermal stimulation is believed to result in a microinflammatory process that promotes new collagen. By manipulating skin cooling, RF can also be used for heating and reduction of fat. Currently, the most common uses of RF-based devices are to noninvasively manage and treat skin tightening of lax skin (including sagging jowls, abdomen, thighs, and arms), as well as wrinkle reduction, cellulite improvement, and body contouring.

  15. Strip specimen tests for pipeline materials and girth welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, William C. [Edison Welding Institute (EWI), Columbus, Ohio (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Strip specimen testing of pipeline materials has been widely applied as a method of getting data relevant to the performance of pipelines under axial direction loading. Comparisons of strip specimen against smaller standard tests (round tensile bar, fracture toughness specimens, polished round bars) and against full-scale or large-scale testing will be explored. Data from early-generation pipe welds from the 1920's to the 1940's to the most recent materials for offshore reeled pipe will be used for examples. Strip samples can provide full thickness information to take account of varying material properties or imperfection distribution through the thickness. Strip samples can also accommodate measurement of effects of the original surface finish or weld surface shape. Strip samples have more design flexibility than standard tests, but must be designed to limit stress concentrations and effects of local bending. (author)

  16. Eddy current distribution and lift force for finite MAGLEV strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atherton, D L; Eastham, A R; Fombrun, C; Chong, M

    1974-07-01

    The transverse distribution of induced eddy currents across a flat conducing strip of finite width, due to a rectangular dc magnet moving above it, was modelled experimentally, and was compared with that calculated for an infinite sheet. The electrodynamic suspension was simulated by means of a stationary ac-excited copper magnet suspended above an aluminum strip, and the induced surface current density was measured by a voltage pickup probe connected to a lock-in amplifier. The effect of reducing strip width is examined and shown to produce high current densities close to the edges. These results are related to the variation of lift force with strip width, determined by impedance modelling. A slight enhancement of lift is evident for intermediate strip widths.

  17. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon

    2013-01-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed. PMID:24179697

  18. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-09-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed.

  19. Modulating Phonation Through Alteration of Vocal Fold Medial Surface Contour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, Ted; Muhlestein, Joseph; Callahan, Sean; Chan, Roger W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives 1. To test whether alteration of the vocal fold medial surface contour can improve phonation. 2. To demonstrate that implant material properties affect vibration even when implant is deep to the vocal fold lamina propria. Study Design Induced phonation of excised human larynges. Methods Thirteen larynges were harvested within 24 hours post-mortem. Phonation threshold pressure (PTP) and flow (PTF) were measured before and after vocal fold injections using either calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) or hyaluronic acid (HA). Small-volume injections (median 0.0625 mL) were targeted to the infero-medial aspect of the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle. Implant locations were assessed histologically. Results The effect of implantation on PTP was material-dependent. CaHA tended to increase PTP, whereas HA tended to decrease PTP (Wilcoxon test P = 0.00013 for onset). In contrast, the effect of implantation on PTF was similar, with both materials tending to decrease PTF (P = 0.16 for onset). Histology confirmed implant presence in the inferior half of the vocal fold vertical thickness. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggested the implants may have altered the vocal fold medial surface contour, potentially resulting in a less convergent or more rectangular glottal geometry as a means to improve phonation. An implant with a closer viscoelastic match to vocal fold cover is desirable for this purpose, as material properties can affect vibration even when the implant is not placed within the lamina propria. This result is consistent with theoretical predictions and implies greater need for surgical precision in implant placement and care in material selection. PMID:22865592

  20. Standardization of Head and Neck Contouring Using the Acanthiomeatal Line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Snehal; Teh, Bin S.; Hinojosa, Jose; Bell, Bent C.; Paulino, Arnold C.; Butler, E. Brian

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived and actual chin position(s) used for radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancers in a variety of clinical settings. Dosimetrists were asked to describe the external landmarks used to set the chin position. The lateral treatment planning radiographic figures in Ang's textbook, Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancers: Indications and Techniques, were analyzed for chin position by drawing a horizontal line from the tip of the chin to the cervical spine. The physicians at 7 departments were asked to rate the chin positions used in their departments for head-and-neck simulations. Choices included: (1) mildly flexed, (2) neutral, (3) mildly extended, and (4) hyperextended. In addition, each center was asked to select 2 representative cases to show routine chin position. The dosimetrists fixed the chin in neutral position by placing a virtual plane defined by 3 points (the base of the nasal septum [acanthus] and the external auditory canals) perpendicular to the table top. The type of head holder was irrelevant. Eighty-two percent (31/38) of the figures in Ang's text showed positioning in the neutral position (tip of the chin intersected the cervical spine between C2-3/C3-4). Most (71.4%) of the radiotherapists thought their patients were treated in the hyperextended neck position but, in fact, 85.7% (12/14) of the simulations showed a neural neck position. Reproducible chin positioning can be obtained by using the acanthiomeatal line. Consistent use of this technique will create a uniformly positioned set of axial co-images that have consistent appearance of avoidance and lymphatic areas. This will simplify contouring on axial computed tomography (CT) images of the neck. Standardizing the chin position is an important step to developing a standardized atlas and developing an information tool for automated contouring.

  1. New method of 2-dimensional metrology using mask contouring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Yamagata, Yoshikazu; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2008-10-01

    We have developed a new method of accurately profiling and measuring of a mask shape by utilizing a Mask CD-SEM. The method is intended to realize high accuracy, stability and reproducibility of the Mask CD-SEM adopting an edge detection algorithm as the key technology used in CD-SEM for high accuracy CD measurement. In comparison with a conventional image processing method for contour profiling, this edge detection method is possible to create the profiles with much higher accuracy which is comparable with CD-SEM for semiconductor device CD measurement. This method realizes two-dimensional metrology for refined pattern that had been difficult to measure conventionally by utilizing high precision contour profile. In this report, we will introduce the algorithm in general, the experimental results and the application in practice. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device has further advanced, an aggressive OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) is indispensable in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). From the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), a dramatic increase of data processing cost for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) for instance and surge of mask making cost have become a big concern to the device manufacturers. This is to say, demands for quality is becoming strenuous because of enormous quantity of data growth with increasing of refined pattern on photo mask manufacture. In the result, massive amount of simulated error occurs on mask inspection that causes lengthening of mask production and inspection period, cost increasing, and long delivery time. In a sense, it is a trade-off between the high accuracy RET and the mask production cost, while it gives a significant impact on the semiconductor market centered around the mask business. To cope with the problem, we propose the best method of a DFM solution using two-dimensional metrology for refined pattern.

  2. Rumen escape protein in grass and grass silage deterimened with a nylon bag and an enzymatic technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Mathijssen-Kamman, A.A.; Hindle, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Rumen escape protein (REP) was determined for six grasses and 16 grass silages using a nylon bag technique and an in vitro technique using a proteolytic enzyme preparation of Streptomyces griseus. In vitro, the samples were incubated for 0, 1, 6 and 24 h. The highest correlation observed between

  3. EroGRASS : Failure of grass cover layers at seaward and shoreward dike slopes. design, construction and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Verheij, H.J.; Cao, T.M.; Dassanayake, D.; Roelvink, D.; Piontkowitz, T.

    2009-01-01

    A large number of the dikes in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions are covered with grass that is exposed to hydraulic loading from waves and currents during storm surges. During previous storm surges the grass cover layers often showed large strength and remained undamaged. A clear physical

  4. Established native perennial grasses out-compete an invasive annual grass regardless of soil water and nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. McGlone; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Thomas E. Kolb; Ty Nietupsky

    2012-01-01

    Competition and resource availability influence invasions into native perennial grasslands by nonnative annual grasses such as Bromus tectorum. In two greenhouse experiments we examined the influence of competition, water availability, and elevated nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability on growth and reproduction of the invasive annual grass B. tectorum and two...

  5. Study of inter-strip gap effects and efficiency for full energy detection of double sided silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisichella, M.; Forneris, J.; Grassi, L.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a characterization of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSD) with the aim to carry out a systematic study of the inter-strip effects on the energy measurement of charged particles. The dependence of the DSSSD response on ion, energy and applied bias has been investigated. (author)

  6. Perrenial Grasses for Sustainable European Protein Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    reduction goals for agriculture. Denmark has an especially vulnerable aquatic environment due to sandy soils, a long coast line, and high precipitation. Thus, fulfilling the WFD means some areas must halve their nitrate leaching, and radical changes are required to reduce losses while maintaining profitable...... crop production. National scenarios show that up to ten million tonnes of additional biomass can be sourced in Denmark without reducing food production or increasing the area under cultivation if a biorefinery industry is established. In one of the scenarios optimized for additional environmental...... in the “environment” scenario. This scenario was achieved by converting approx. 9 % of agricultural land from annual crops into perennial grass. New experimental results support the anticipated increase in total biomass yield and reduction in nitrate leaching, when converting land currently used for grain crop...

  7. SU-C-BRB-05: Determining the Adequacy of Auto-Contouring Via Probabilistic Assessment of Ensuing Treatment Plan Metrics in Comparison with Manual Contours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourzadeh, H; Watkins, W; Siebers, J; Ahmad, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if auto-contour and manual-contour—based plans differ when evaluated with respect to probabilistic coverage metrics and biological model endpoints for prostate IMRT. Methods: Manual and auto-contours were created for 149 CT image sets acquired from 16 unique prostate patients. A single physician manually contoured all images. Auto-contouring was completed utilizing Pinnacle’s Smart Probabilistic Image Contouring Engine (SPICE). For each CT, three different 78 Gy/39 fraction 7-beam IMRT plans are created; PD with drawn ROIs, PAS with auto-contoured ROIs, and PM with auto-contoured OARs with the manually drawn target. For each plan, 1000 virtual treatment simulations with different sampled systematic errors for each simulation and a different sampled random error for each fraction were performed using our in-house GPU-accelerated robustness analyzer tool which reports the statistical probability of achieving dose-volume metrics, NTCP, TCP, and the probability of achieving the optimization criteria for both auto-contoured (AS) and manually drawn (D) ROIs. Metrics are reported for all possible cross-evaluation pairs of ROI types (AS,D) and planning scenarios (PD,PAS,PM). Bhattacharyya coefficient (BC) is calculated to measure the PDF similarities for the dose-volume metric, NTCP, TCP, and objectives with respect to the manually drawn contour evaluated on base plan (D-PD). Results: We observe high BC values (BC≥0.94) for all OAR objectives. BC values of max dose objective on CTV also signify high resemblance (BC≥0.93) between the distributions. On the other hand, BC values for CTV’s D95 and Dmin objectives are small for AS-PM, AS-PD. NTCP distributions are similar across all evaluation pairs, while TCP distributions of AS-PM, AS-PD sustain variations up to %6 compared to other evaluated pairs. Conclusion: No significant probabilistic differences are observed in the metrics when auto-contoured OARs are used. The prostate auto-contour needs

  8. SU-C-BRB-05: Determining the Adequacy of Auto-Contouring Via Probabilistic Assessment of Ensuing Treatment Plan Metrics in Comparison with Manual Contours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nourzadeh, H; Watkins, W; Siebers, J; Ahmad, M [University of Virginia Health Systems, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To determine if auto-contour and manual-contour—based plans differ when evaluated with respect to probabilistic coverage metrics and biological model endpoints for prostate IMRT. Methods: Manual and auto-contours were created for 149 CT image sets acquired from 16 unique prostate patients. A single physician manually contoured all images. Auto-contouring was completed utilizing Pinnacle’s Smart Probabilistic Image Contouring Engine (SPICE). For each CT, three different 78 Gy/39 fraction 7-beam IMRT plans are created; PD with drawn ROIs, PAS with auto-contoured ROIs, and PM with auto-contoured OARs with the manually drawn target. For each plan, 1000 virtual treatment simulations with different sampled systematic errors for each simulation and a different sampled random error for each fraction were performed using our in-house GPU-accelerated robustness analyzer tool which reports the statistical probability of achieving dose-volume metrics, NTCP, TCP, and the probability of achieving the optimization criteria for both auto-contoured (AS) and manually drawn (D) ROIs. Metrics are reported for all possible cross-evaluation pairs of ROI types (AS,D) and planning scenarios (PD,PAS,PM). Bhattacharyya coefficient (BC) is calculated to measure the PDF similarities for the dose-volume metric, NTCP, TCP, and objectives with respect to the manually drawn contour evaluated on base plan (D-PD). Results: We observe high BC values (BC≥0.94) for all OAR objectives. BC values of max dose objective on CTV also signify high resemblance (BC≥0.93) between the distributions. On the other hand, BC values for CTV’s D95 and Dmin objectives are small for AS-PM, AS-PD. NTCP distributions are similar across all evaluation pairs, while TCP distributions of AS-PM, AS-PD sustain variations up to %6 compared to other evaluated pairs. Conclusion: No significant probabilistic differences are observed in the metrics when auto-contoured OARs are used. The prostate auto-contour needs

  9. Microstructural research on hot strips of low carbon steel produced by a compact strip production line under different thermal histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hao; Chen Qixiang; Kang Yonglin; Sun Yi

    2005-01-01

    Coupons with the same composition and thickness (4.0 mm nominal gauge) obtained from hot strips of low carbon steel underwent a series of investigations to analyze the microstructural characteristics and mechanisms responsible for their differences in mechanical properties. Two different industrial technologies were adopted, although the strips used in this research were produced on the same Compact Strip Production (CSP) line. One of the strips was produced with a routine γ→α CSP thermal history, but the other with a γ→α→γ* conventional thermal history. The only difference between them was that one technology had a α→γ* thermal history. Different specimens of both types of strips were prepared for metallographic observation, tensile tests, electron back-scattered diffraction tests and positron annihilation technique tests. Experimental results showed that the differences in mechanical properties could be ascribed to dissimilarities not only in the grain size and textural components but also in dislocation density

  10. Effects of background and contour luminance on the hue and brightness of the Watercolor effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardin, Peggy; Dojat, Michel; Knoblauch, Kenneth; Devinck, Frédéric

    2018-03-01

    Conjoint measurement was used to investigate the joint influences of the luminance of the background and the inner contour on hue- and brightness filling-in for a stimulus configuration generating a water-color effect (WCE), i.e., a wiggly bi-chromatic contour enclosing a region with the lower luminance component on the exterior. Two stimuli with the background and inner contour luminances covarying independently were successively presented, and in separate experiments, the observer judged which member of the pair's interior regions contained a stronger hue or was brighter. Braided-contour control stimuli that generated little or no perceptual filling-in were also used to assess whether observers were judging the interior regions and not the contours themselves. Three nested models of the contributions of the background and inner contour to the judgments were fit to the data by maximum likelihood and evaluated by likelihood ratio tests. Both stimulus components contributed to both the hue and brightness of the interior region with increasing luminance of the inner contour generating an assimilative filling-in for the hue judgments but a contrast effect for the brightness judgments. Control analyses showed negligible effects for the order of the luminance of the background or inner contour on the judgments. An additive contribution of both components was rejected in favor of a saturated model in which the responses depended on the levels of both stimulus components. For the hue judgments, increased background luminance led to greater hue filling-in at higher luminances of the interior contour. For the brightness judgments, the higher background luminance generated less brightness filling-in at higher luminances of the interior contour. The results indicate different effects of the inner contour and background on the induction of the brightness and coloration percepts of the WCE, suggesting that they are mediated by different mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier

  11. Retroperitoneal Sarcoma Target Volume and Organ at Risk Contour Delineation Agreement Among NRG Sarcoma Radiation Oncologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini, Elizabeth H., E-mail: ebaldini@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Abrams, Ross A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Bosch, Walter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Roberge, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Haas, Rick L.M. [Department of Radiotherapy, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Catton, Charles N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Indelicato, Daniel J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Medical Center, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Olsen, Jeffrey R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Deville, Curtiland [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Chen, Yen-Lin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Finkelstein, Steven E. [Translational Research Consortium, 21st Century Oncology, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); DeLaney, Thomas F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wang, Dian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variability in target volume and organ at risk (OAR) contour delineation for retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) among 12 sarcoma radiation oncologists. Methods and Materials: Radiation planning computed tomography (CT) scans for 2 cases of RPS were distributed among 12 sarcoma radiation oncologists with instructions for contouring gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV), high-risk CTV (HR CTV: area judged to be at high risk of resulting in positive margins after resection), and OARs: bowel bag, small bowel, colon, stomach, and duodenum. Analysis of contour agreement was performed using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm and kappa statistics. Results: Ten radiation oncologists contoured both RPS cases, 1 contoured only RPS1, and 1 contoured only RPS2 such that each case was contoured by 11 radiation oncologists. The first case (RPS 1) was a patient with a de-differentiated (DD) liposarcoma (LPS) with a predominant well-differentiated (WD) component, and the second case (RPS 2) was a patient with DD LPS made up almost entirely of a DD component. Contouring agreement for GTV and CTV contours was high. However, the agreement for HR CTVs was only moderate. For OARs, agreement for stomach, bowel bag, small bowel, and colon was high, but agreement for duodenum (distorted by tumor in one of these cases) was fair to moderate. Conclusions: For preoperative treatment of RPS, sarcoma radiation oncologists contoured GTV, CTV, and most OARs with a high level of agreement. HR CTV contours were more variable. Further clarification of this volume with the help of sarcoma surgical oncologists is necessary to reach consensus. More attention to delineation of the duodenum is also needed.

  12. Can Images Obtained With High Field Strength Magnetic Resonance Imaging Reduce Contouring Variability of the Prostate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmani, Nawaid; Sloboda, Ron; Kamal, Wafa; Ghosh, Sunita; Pervez, Nadeem; Pedersen, John; Yee, Don; Danielson, Brita; Murtha, Albert; Amanie, John; Monajemi, Tara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to determine whether there is less contouring variability of the prostate using higher-strength magnetic resonance images (MRI) compared with standard MRI and computed tomography (CT). Methods and Materials: Forty patients treated with prostate brachytherapy were accrued to a prospective study that included the acquisition of 1.5-T MR and CT images at specified time points. A subset of 10 patients had additional 3.0-T MR images acquired at the same time as their 1.5-T MR scans. Images from each of these patients were contoured by 5 radiation oncologists, with a random subset of patients repeated to quantify intraobserver contouring variability. To minimize bias in contouring the prostate, the image sets were placed in folders in a random order with all identifiers removed from the images. Results: Although there was less interobserver contouring variability in the overall prostate volumes in 1.5-T MRI compared with 3.0-T MRI (p < 0.01), there was no significant differences in contouring variability in the different regions of the prostate between 1.5-T MRI and 3.0-T MRI. MRI demonstrated significantly less interobserver contouring variability in both 1.5-T and 3.0-T compared with CT in overall prostate volumes (p < 0.01, p = 0.01), with the greatest benefits being appreciated in the base of the prostate. Overall, there was less intraobserver contouring variability than interobserver contouring variability for all of the measurements analyzed. Conclusions: Use of 3.0-T MRI does not demonstrate a significant improvement in contouring variability compared with 1.5-T MRI, although both magnetic strengths demonstrated less contouring variability compared with CT.

  13. Retroperitoneal Sarcoma Target Volume and Organ at Risk Contour Delineation Agreement Among NRG Sarcoma Radiation Oncologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldini, Elizabeth H.; Abrams, Ross A.; Bosch, Walter; Roberge, David; Haas, Rick L.M.; Catton, Charles N.; Indelicato, Daniel J.; Olsen, Jeffrey R.; Deville, Curtiland; Chen, Yen-Lin; Finkelstein, Steven E.; DeLaney, Thomas F.; Wang, Dian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variability in target volume and organ at risk (OAR) contour delineation for retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) among 12 sarcoma radiation oncologists. Methods and Materials: Radiation planning computed tomography (CT) scans for 2 cases of RPS were distributed among 12 sarcoma radiation oncologists with instructions for contouring gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV), high-risk CTV (HR CTV: area judged to be at high risk of resulting in positive margins after resection), and OARs: bowel bag, small bowel, colon, stomach, and duodenum. Analysis of contour agreement was performed using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm and kappa statistics. Results: Ten radiation oncologists contoured both RPS cases, 1 contoured only RPS1, and 1 contoured only RPS2 such that each case was contoured by 11 radiation oncologists. The first case (RPS 1) was a patient with a de-differentiated (DD) liposarcoma (LPS) with a predominant well-differentiated (WD) component, and the second case (RPS 2) was a patient with DD LPS made up almost entirely of a DD component. Contouring agreement for GTV and CTV contours was high. However, the agreement for HR CTVs was only moderate. For OARs, agreement for stomach, bowel bag, small bowel, and colon was high, but agreement for duodenum (distorted by tumor in one of these cases) was fair to moderate. Conclusions: For preoperative treatment of RPS, sarcoma radiation oncologists contoured GTV, CTV, and most OARs with a high level of agreement. HR CTV contours were more variable. Further clarification of this volume with the help of sarcoma surgical oncologists is necessary to reach consensus. More attention to delineation of the duodenum is also needed

  14. Residual stress measurement of EB-welded plates with contour method. Part 2: FEM analysis of contour profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romppanen, A.-J.; Immonen, E.

    2013-12-01

    The residual stresses formed as a result of Electronic Beam welding (EB-welding) in copper are investigated by Posiva. In the present study, residual stresses of EB-welded copper plates were studied with contour method. In the method eleven copper plates (X436 - X440 and X453 - X458) were cut in half with wire electric discharge machining (EDM) after which the deformation due to stress relaxation was measured with coordinate measurement system. The measured data was then used as boundary displacement data for the FEM analyses, in which the corresponding residual stresses were calculated. Before giving the corresponding displacement boundary conditions to the FE models, the deformation data was processed and smoothed appropriately. The residual stress levels of the copper plates were found to be around 40 - 55 MPa at maximum. This corresponds to other reported residual stress measurements and current state of knowledge with this material in Posiva. (orig.)

  15. Membrane air stripping utilizing a plate and frame configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boswell, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Membrane air stripping has recently been proposed as a possible method to remove volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and radon from drinking water supplies. Current and anticipated regulatory requirements, driven by health consequences, make the removal of these contaminants mandatory. This work examines the use of plate and frame membrane air stripping for the removal of VOCs and radon from a water supply. The theoretical basis of membrane air stripping and a literature review are included. The advantages of membrane air stripping versus other methods of removal, as well as the advantages of a plate and frame configuration versus a hollow fiber configuration for membrane air stripping are discussed. Multiple regression/correlation techniques are used to model mass transfer coefficients and fluid resistances. An economic evaluation is performed using the developed models. The costs of comparable membrane and packed tower air stripping systems are 4.86 cents per thousand gallons versus 4.36 cents per thousand gallons, respectively. This work indicates that plate and frame membrane air stripping may, in fact, prove to be an economical alternative to packed tower aeration and carbon adsorption for the removal of VOCs and radon

  16. 47 CFR 73.6010 - Class A TV station protected contour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class A TV station protected contour. 73.6010... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6010 Class A TV station protected contour. (a) A Class A TV station will be protected from interference within the following predicted...

  17. I/O-Efficient Algorithms for Computing Contour Lines on a Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj Kumar; Arge, Lars; Sadri, Bardia

    2008-01-01

    A terrain M is the graph of a bivariate function. We assume that M is represented as a triangulated surface with N vertices. A contour (or isoline) of M is a connected component of a level set of M. Generically, each contour is a closed polygonal curve; at "critical" levels these curves may touch...

  18. Free-convective flow of fluid in a thin porous contour and geothermal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magomedbekov Kh.G.; Ramazanov, M.M.; Vagabov, M.V.

    1996-01-24

    The problem of free convection in a thin porous contour, placed in uniform impermeable massif is considered. The approximate analitical solution of conjugate problem is obtained. The critical Rayleigh number is determined, by exceeding of which the steady fluid circulation in an annulus is established. The computations of abnormal heat flow near surface are carried out, stipulated by thermoconvection in a contour.

  19. Tonal Language Background and Detecting Pitch Contour in Spoken and Musical Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Catherine J.; Keller, Peter E.; Tyler, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment investigated the effect of tonal language background on discrimination of pitch contour in short spoken and musical items. It was hypothesized that extensive exposure to a tonal language attunes perception of pitch contour. Accuracy and reaction times of adult participants from tonal (Thai) and non-tonal (Australian English) language…

  20. Contour Propagation Using Feature-Based Deformable Registration for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate target delineation of CT image is a critical step in radiotherapy treatment planning. This paper describes a novel strategy for automatic contour propagation, based on deformable registration, for CT images of lung cancer. The proposed strategy starts with a manual-delineated contour in one slice of a 3D CT image. By means of feature-based deformable registration, the initial contour in other slices of the image can be propagated automatically, and then refined by active contour approach. Three algorithms are employed in the strategy: the Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF, Thin-Plate Spline (TPS, and an adapted active contour (Snake, used to refine and modify the initial contours. Five pulmonary cancer cases with about 400 slices and 1000 contours have been used to verify the proposed strategy. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed strategy can improve the segmentation performance in the pulmonary CT images. Jaccard similarity (JS mean is about 0.88 and the maximum of Hausdorff distance (HD is about 90%. In addition, delineation time has been considerably reduced. The proposed feature-based deformable registration method in the automatic contour propagation improves the delineation efficiency significantly.

  1. Iterative Method of Regularization with Application of Advanced Technique for Detection of Contours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedziela, T.; Stankiewicz, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel iterative method of regularization with application of an advanced technique for detection of contours. To eliminate noises, the properties of convolution of functions are utilized. The method can be accomplished in a simple neural cellular network, which creates the possibility of extraction of contours by automatic image recognition equipment. (author)

  2. What Property of the Contour of a Deforming Region Biases Percepts toward Liquid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Kawabe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human observers can perceive the existence of a transparent surface from dynamic image deformation. They can also easily discriminate a transparent solid material such as plastic and glass from a transparent fluid one such as water and shampoo just by viewing them. However, the image information required for material discrimination of this sort is still unclear. A liquid changes its contour shape non-rigidly. We therefore examined whether additional properties of the contour of a deformation-defined region, which indicated contour non-rigidity, biased percepts of the region toward liquid materials. Our stimuli had a translating circular region wherein a natural texture image was deformed at the spatiotemporal deformation frequency that was optimal for the perception of a transparent layer. In Experiment 1, we dynamically deformed the contour of the circular region and found that large deformation of the contour biased the percept toward liquid. In Experiment 2, we manipulated the blurriness of the contour and observed that a strongly blurred contour biased percepts toward liquid. Taken together, the results suggest that a deforming region lacking a discrete contour biases percepts toward liquid.

  3. An Investigation of Visual Contour Integration Ability in Relation to Writing Performance in Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Tsang, Cecilia W. P.; Wong, Agnes S. K.; Chan, Jackson Y.; Lee, Amos Y. T.; Lam, Miko C. Y.; Wong, C. W.; Lu, Zhonglin

    2012-01-01

    A previous study found a visual deficit in contour integration in English readers with dyslexia (Simmers & Bex, 2001). Visual contour integration may play an even more significant role in Chinese handwriting particularly due to its logographic presentation (Lam, Au, Leung, & Li-Tsang, 2011). The current study examined the relationship…

  4. 30 CFR 785.16 - Permits incorporating variances from approximate original contour restoration requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... approximate original contour restoration requirements for steep slope mining. 785.16 Section 785.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL... approximate original contour restoration requirements for steep slope mining. (a) The regulatory authority may...

  5. Fourier Descriptor Analysis and Unification of Voice Range Profile Contours: Method and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Peter; Ternstrom, Sten; Lamarche, Anick

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a method for unified description, statistical modeling, and comparison of voice range profile (VRP) contours, even from diverse sources. Method: A morphologic modeling technique, which is based on Fourier descriptors (FDs), is applied to the VRP contour. The technique, which essentially involves resampling of the curve of the…

  6. ANALYTICAL ENGINEERING OF A TELECONTROLLED PILOTLESS AIRCRAFT CONTOUR IN ACCORDANCE WITH GENERALIZED WORK CRITERION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Eromin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the non­terminal problem for neutral contour of a telecontrolled pilotless aircraft. Optimal control synthesis is provided on the basis of minimization of generalized work functional. The analysis of optimal telecontrolled pilotless aircraft contour is carried out.

  7. Differential contribution of early visual areas to the perceptual process of contour processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schira, Mark M; Fahle, Manfred; Donner, Tobias H; Kraft, Antje; Brandt, Stephan A

    2004-04-01

    We investigated contour processing and figure-ground detection within human retinotopic areas using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 6 healthy and naïve subjects. A figure (6 degrees side length) was created by a 2nd-order texture contour. An independent and demanding foveal letter-discrimination task prevented subjects from noticing this more peripheral contour stimulus. The contour subdivided our stimulus into a figure and a ground. Using localizers and retinotopic mapping stimuli we were able to subdivide each early visual area into 3 eccentricity regions corresponding to 1) the central figure, 2) the area along the contour, and 3) the background. In these subregions we investigated the hemodynamic responses to our stimuli and compared responses with or without the contour defining the figure. No contour-related blood oxygenation level-dependent modulation in early visual areas V1, V3, VP, and MT+ was found. Significant signal modulation in the contour subregions of V2v, V2d, V3a, and LO occurred. This activation pattern was different from comparable studies, which might be attributable to the letter-discrimination task reducing confounding attentional modulation. In V3a, but not in any other retinotopic area, signal modulation corresponding to the central figure could be detected. Such contextual modulation will be discussed in light of the recurrent processing hypothesis and the role of visual awareness.

  8. Environmental performance assessment of Napier grass for bioenergy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimmanterdwong, Prathana; Chalermsinsuwan, Benjapon; Østergård, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    equivalence. This idea provides the quantitative indicators involving the resource use and the percent renewability of the systems. For the proposed biorefinery model, Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) grown in Thailand was used as lignocellulosic feedstock. An emergy assessment was performed in two parts...... cultivation and biorefinery stages. For Napier grass cultivation, most of the emergy support came from local resources in term of evapotranspiration of Napier grass (33%) and the diesel consumption during the cultivation process (21%). The emergy sustainability indicator of the cultivation was 0...

  9. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T; Slater, F

    2005-07-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

  10. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2005-01-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI

  11. Principle and realization of segmenting contour series algorithm in reverse engineering based on X-ray computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanfang; Liu Li; Yan Yonglian; Shan Baoci; Tang Xiaowei

    2007-01-01

    A new algorithm of segmenting contour series of images is presented, which can achieve three dimension reconstruction with parametric recognition in Reverse Engineering based on X-ray CT. First, in order to get the nested relationship between contours, a method of a certain angle ray is used. Second, for realizing the contour location in one slice, another approach is presented to generate the contour tree by scanning the relevant vector only once. Last, a judge algorithm is put forward to accomplish the contour match between slices by adopting the qualitative and quantitative properties. The example shows that this algorithm can segment contour series of CT parts rapidly and precisely. (authors)

  12. Robust iterative learning contouring controller with disturbance observer for machine tool feed drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simba, Kenneth Renny; Bui, Ba Dinh; Msukwa, Mathew Renny; Uchiyama, Naoki

    2018-04-01

    In feed drive systems, particularly machine tools, a contour error is more significant than the individual axial tracking errors from the view point of enhancing precision in manufacturing and production systems. The contour error must be within the permissible tolerance of given products. In machining complex or sharp-corner products, large contour errors occur mainly owing to discontinuous trajectories and the existence of nonlinear uncertainties. Therefore, it is indispensable to design robust controllers that can enhance the tracking ability of feed drive systems. In this study, an iterative learning contouring controller consisting of a classical Proportional-Derivative (PD) controller and disturbance observer is proposed. The proposed controller was evaluated experimentally by using a typical sharp-corner trajectory, and its performance was compared with that of conventional controllers. The results revealed that the maximum contour error can be reduced by about 37% on average. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiodiagnosis of gastric diseases on the basis of thin contour findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubarev, A.V.; Zavodnov, V.Ya.; Sklyanskaya, O.A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have analyzed the role of the thin contour in radiodiagnisis of various diseases of the gastric mucosa. Altogether 140 patients with various gastric diseases were investigated. Using X-ray examination of the stomach based on the common 2-phase method, thin contour images were obtained in 80 % of the cases. The results of the investigation have revealed direct correlation between the type of the thin contour and a morphological picture of the gastric mucosa in chronic gastritis. Early stomach cancer was characterized by the local absence or rearrangement of a usual pattern of the thin contour on stomach radiograms. It was difficult to defect single erosions or polyps with a diameter under 5 mm against a background of the gastric mucosa thin contour. Good visualization of stomach areolae, particularly those of a rough nodular type in the proximal part of the stomach was suggestive of an ulcerative lesion

  14. An automated approach for segmentation of intravascular ultrasound images based on parametric active contour models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vard, Alireza; Jamshidi, Kamal; Movahhedinia, Naser

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a fully automated approach to detect the intima and media-adventitia borders in intravascular ultrasound images based on parametric active contour models. To detect the intima border, we compute a new image feature applying a combination of short-term autocorrelations calculated for the contour pixels. These feature values are employed to define an energy function of the active contour called normalized cumulative short-term autocorrelation. Exploiting this energy function, the intima border is separated accurately from the blood region contaminated by high speckle noise. To extract media-adventitia boundary, we define a new form of energy function based on edge, texture and spring forces for the active contour. Utilizing this active contour, the media-adventitia border is identified correctly even in presence of branch openings and calcifications. Experimental results indicate accuracy of the proposed methods. In addition, statistical analysis demonstrates high conformity between manual tracing and the results obtained by the proposed approaches.

  15. THz Wave Propagation on Strip Lines: Devices, Properties, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kadoya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the propagation characteristics of THz pulses on micro-strip-lines and coplanar strip-lines, in which low permittivity polymer materials are used as the dielectric layer or the substrate. As a result of the low attenuation and small dispersion in the devices, the spectral width up to 3 THz can be achieved even after the 1 mm propagation. Spectroscopic characterizations of liquid or powder specimens are demonstrated using the devices. We also show a possibility of realizing a very low attenuation using a quadrupole mode in three strip coplanar lines on the polymer substrate.

  16. Improved dielectric functions in metallic films obtained via template stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyuk Park, Jong; Nagpal, Prashant; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Norris, David J.

    2012-02-01

    We compare the dielectric functions of silver interfaces obtained via thermal evaporation with those obtained with template stripping. Ellipsometry measurements show that the smoother template-stripped surfaces exhibit effective dielectric functions with a more negative real component and a smaller imaginary component, implying higher conductivity and less energy loss, respectively. These results agree with the relation between dielectric function and surface roughness derived from combining the effective-medium model and the Drude-Lorentz model. The improvement in the effective dielectric properties shows that metallic films prepared via template stripping can be favorable for applications in electronics, nanophotonics, and plasmonics.

  17. New technology for the production of magnesium strips and sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kawalla

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A new production technology for magnesium strip, based on twin-roll-casting and strip rolling was developed in Freiberg Germany. By means of this economic method it is possible to produce strips in deep drawing quality with good forming properties in order to satisfy the request for low cost Mg sheets in the automotive and electronic industry. Both, coils as single sheets, were manufactured and rolled to a thickness of 1mm(0,5 mm. The technology of the new process and the properties of the twin-roll-casted material and the final sheets are presented.

  18. Expert Consensus Contouring Guidelines for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Esophageal and Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Abraham J.; Bosch, Walter R.; Chang, Daniel T.; Hong, Theodore S.; Jabbour, Salma K.; Kleinberg, Lawrence R.; Mamon, Harvey J.; Thomas, Charles R.; Goodman, Karyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): Current guidelines for esophageal cancer contouring are derived from traditional 2-dimensional fields based on bony landmarks, and they do not provide sufficient anatomic detail to ensure consistent contouring for more conformal radiation therapy techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Therefore, we convened an expert panel with the specific aim to derive contouring guidelines and generate an atlas for the clinical target volume (CTV) in esophageal or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Methods and Materials: Eight expert academically based gastrointestinal radiation oncologists participated. Three sample cases were chosen: a GEJ cancer, a distal esophageal cancer, and a mid-upper esophageal cancer. Uniform computed tomographic (CT) simulation datasets and accompanying diagnostic positron emission tomographic/CT images were distributed to each expert, and the expert was instructed to generate gross tumor volume (GTV) and CTV contours for each case. All contours were aggregated and subjected to quantitative analysis to assess the degree of concordance between experts and to generate draft consensus contours. The panel then refined these contours to generate the contouring atlas. Results: The κ statistics indicated substantial agreement between panelists for each of the 3 test cases. A consensus CTV atlas was generated for the 3 test cases, each representing common anatomic presentations of esophageal cancer. The panel agreed on guidelines and principles to facilitate the generalizability of the atlas to individual cases. Conclusions: This expert panel successfully reached agreement on contouring guidelines for esophageal and GEJ IMRT and generated a reference CTV atlas. This atlas will serve as a reference for IMRT contours for clinical practice and prospective trial design. Subsequent patterns of failure analyses of clinical datasets using these guidelines may require modification in the future

  19. Assessment and improvement of radiation oncology trainee contouring ability utilizing consensus-based penalty metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallock, Abhirami; Read, Nancy; D'Souza, David

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and assess the feasibility of utilizing consensus-based penalty metrics for the purpose of critical structure and organ at risk (OAR) contouring quality assurance and improvement. A Delphi study was conducted to obtain consensus on contouring penalty metrics to assess trainee-generated OAR contours. Voxel-based penalty metric equations were used to score regions of discordance between trainee and expert contour sets. The utility of these penalty metric scores for objective feedback on contouring quality was assessed by using cases prepared for weekly radiation oncology radiation oncology trainee treatment planning rounds. In two Delphi rounds, six radiation oncology specialists reached agreement on clinical importance/impact and organ radiosensitivity as the two primary criteria for the creation of the Critical Structure Inter-comparison of Segmentation (CriSIS) penalty functions. Linear/quadratic penalty scoring functions (for over- and under-contouring) with one of four levels of severity (none, low, moderate and high) were assigned for each of 20 OARs in order to generate a CriSIS score when new OAR contours are compared with reference/expert standards. Six cases (central nervous system, head and neck, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, gynaecological and thoracic) then were used to validate 18 OAR metrics through comparison of trainee and expert contour sets using the consensus derived CriSIS functions. For 14 OARs, there was an improvement in CriSIS score post-educational intervention. The use of consensus-based contouring penalty metrics to provide quantitative information for contouring improvement is feasible.

  20. Object segmentation using graph cuts and active contours in a pyramidal framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subudhi, Priyambada; Mukhopadhyay, Susanta

    2018-03-01

    Graph cuts and active contours are two very popular interactive object segmentation techniques in the field of computer vision and image processing. However, both these approaches have their own well-known limitations. Graph cut methods perform efficiently giving global optimal segmentation result for smaller images. However, for larger images, huge graphs need to be constructed which not only takes an unacceptable amount of memory but also increases the time required for segmentation to a great extent. On the other hand, in case of active contours, initial contour selection plays an important role in the accuracy of the segmentation. So a proper selection of initial contour may improve the complexity as well as the accuracy of the result. In this paper, we have tried to combine these two approaches to overcome their above-mentioned drawbacks and develop a fast technique of object segmentation. Here, we have used a pyramidal framework and applied the mincut/maxflow algorithm on the lowest resolution image with the least number of seed points possible which will be very fast due to the smaller size of the image. Then, the obtained segmentation contour is super-sampled and and worked as the initial contour for the next higher resolution image. As the initial contour is very close to the actual contour, so fewer number of iterations will be required for the convergence of the contour. The process is repeated for all the high-resolution images and experimental results show that our approach is faster as well as memory efficient as compare to both graph cut or active contour segmentation alone.

  1. Fast timing readout for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhingan, A.; Saneesh, N.; Kumar, M.

    2016-01-01

    The development and performance of a 16 channel hybrid fast timing amplifier (FTA), for extracting timing information from silicon strip detectors (SSD), is described. The FTA will be used in a time of flight (TOF) measurement, in which one SSD is used to obtain the ion velocity (A) as well as the energy information of a scattered particle. The TOF information with a thin transmission SSD, acting as ΔE detector (Z) in a detector telescope, will provide a unique detection system for the identification of reaction products in the slowed down beam campaign of low energy branch (LEB) at NUSTAR-FAIR. Such a system will also provide large solid angle coverage with ~ 100% detection efficiency, and adequate segmentation for angular information. A good timing resolution (≤ 100 ps) enables to have shorter flight paths, thus a closely packed 4π array should be feasible. Preamplifiers for energy readout in SSD are easily available. A major constraint with SSDs is the missing high density multichannel preamplifiers which can provide both fast timing as well as energy. Provision of both timing and energy processing, generally makes circuit bulky, with higher power consumption, which may not be suitable in SSD arrays. In case of DSSSD, the problem was overcome by using timing from one side and energy from the other side. A custom designed 16 channel FTA has been developed for DSSSD design W from Micron Semiconductors, UK

  2. Process Simulation Analysis of HF Stripping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaer A. Abdulla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available    HYSYS process simulator is used for the analysis of existing HF stripping column in LAB plant (Arab Detergent Company, Baiji-Iraq. Simulated column performance and profiles curves are constructed. The variables considered are the thermodynamic model option, bottom temperature, feed temperature, and column profiles for the temperature, vapor flow rate, liquid flow rate and composition. The five thermodynamic models options used (Margules, UNIQUAC, van laar, Antoine, and Zudkevitch-Joffee, affecting the results within (0.1-58% variation for the most cases.        The simulated results show that about 4% of paraffin (C10 & C11 presents at the top stream, which may cause a problem in the LAB production plant. The major variations were noticed for the total top vapor flow rate with bottom temperature and with feed composition. The column profiles maintain fairly constants from tray 5 to tray 18. The study gives evidence about a successful simulation with HYSYS because the results correspond with the real plant operation data.

  3. Profile of a science comic strip author

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    After studying visual arts, Lison Bernet worked as a lock keeper, waitress, grape picker, farm labourer and chef before finally returning to her first love: drawing. Today a scientific illustrator, Lison is the author of the cartoon strip "La BD du LHC", which she draws every month for LHC France (by CNRS/IN2P3 and CEA/Irfu, see here).   © Lison Bernet. Lison’s career path might seem somewhat chaotic, but it is a reflection of the artist herself: original and passionate. “I never do anything by half measures. When I got into cooking for example [Lison took a chef training course for adults], I became completely wrapped up in it. I even went as far as cooking roasts during my lunch hour, just for practice…” says Lison. On completing the course, Lison got a job as a chef on a canal boat. And it was then that she got the drawing bug again. “I started keeping an illustrated travel diary,” she says. &ldquo...

  4. The GLAST silicon-strip tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Robert P.

    2000-01-01

    The GLAST instrument concept is a gamma-ray pair conversion telescope that uses silicon microstrip detector technology to track the electron-positron pairs resulting from gamma-ray conversions in thin lead foils. A cesium iodide calorimeter following the tracker is used to measure the gamma-ray energy. Silicon strip technology is mature and robust, with an excellent heritage in space science and particle physics. It has many characteristics important for optimal performance of a pair conversion telescope, including high efficiency in thin detector planes, low noise, and excellent resolution and two-track separation. The large size of GLAST and high channel count in the tracker puts demands on the readout technology to operate at very low power, yet with sufficiently low noise occupancy to allow self triggering. A prototype system employing custom-designed ASIC's has been built and tested that meets the design goal of approximately 200 W per channel power consumption with a noise occupancy of less than one hit per trigger per 10,000 channels. Detailed design of the full-scale tracker is well advanced, with non-flight prototypes built for all components, and a complete 50,000 channel engineering demonstration tower module is currently under construction and will be tested in particle beams in late 1999. The flight-instrument conceptual design is for a 4x4 array of tower modules with an aperture of 2.9 m2 and an effective area of greater than 8000 cm2

  5. The GLAST Silicon-Strip Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R

    2004-01-01

    The GLAST instrument concept is a gamma-ray pair conversion telescope that uses silicon microstrip detector technology to track the electron-positron pairs resulting from gamma ray conversions in thin lead foils. A cesium iodide calorimeter following the tracker is used to measure the gamma-ray energy. Silicon strip technology is mature and robust, with an excellent heritage in space science and particle physics. It has many characteristics important for optimal performance of a pair conversion telescope, including high efficiency in thin detector planes, low noise, and excellent resolution and two-track separation. The large size of GLAST and high channel count in the tracker puts demands on the readout technology to operate at very low power, yet with sufficiently low noise occupancy to allow self triggering. A prototype system employing custom-designed ASIC's has been built and tested that meets the design goal of approximately 200 (micro)W per channel power consumption with a noise occupancy of less than one hit per trigger per 10,000 channels. Detailed design of the full-scale tracker is well advanced, with non-flight prototypes built for all components, and a complete 50,000 channel engineering demonstration tower module is currently under construction and will be tested in particle beams in late 1999. The flight-instrument conceptual design is for a 4 x 4 array of tower modules with an aperture of 2.9 m 2 and an effective area of greater than 8000 cm 2

  6. Energy evaluation of fresh grass in the diets of lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, M.H.; Zom, R.L.G.; Valk, H.

    2002-01-01

    The discrepancy between the estimated feeding value of fresh grass and the output per kg grass in terms of milk and maintenance was studied by evaluating 12 experiments with grass-fed dairy cows. The percentage grass in the diets varied between 40 and 90. Intake and milk production were recorded

  7. An evaluation of the contouring abilities of medical dosimetry students for the anatomy of a prostate cancer patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common diseases treated in a radiation oncology department. One of the major predictors of the treatment outcome and patient side effects is the accuracy of the anatomical contours for the treatment plan. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine which anatomical structures are most often contoured correctly and incorrectly by medical dosimetry students. The author also wanted to discover whether a review of the contouring rules would increase contouring accuracy. To achieve this, a male computed tomography dataset consisting of 72 transverse slices was sent to students for contouring. The students were instructed to import this dataset into their treatment planning system and contour the following structures: skin, bladder, rectum, prostate, penile bulb, seminal vesicles, left femoral head, and right femoral head. Upon completion of the contours, the contour file was evaluated against a “gold standard” contour set using StructSure software (Standard Imaging, Inc). A review of the initial contour results was conducted and then students were instructed to contour the dataset a second time. The results of this study showed significant differences between contouring sessions. These results and the standardization of contouring rules should benefit all individuals who participate in the treatment planning of cancer patients.

  8. 3D Filament Network Segmentation with Multiple Active Contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Huang, Xiaolei

    2014-03-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is frequently used to study two and three dimensional network structures formed by cytoskeletal polymer fibers such as actin filaments and microtubules. While these cytoskeletal structures are often dilute enough to allow imaging of individual filaments or bundles of them, quantitative analysis of these images is challenging. To facilitate quantitative, reproducible and objective analysis of the image data, we developed a semi-automated method to extract actin networks and retrieve their topology in 3D. Our method uses multiple Stretching Open Active Contours (SOACs) that are automatically initialized at image intensity ridges and then evolve along the centerlines of filaments in the network. SOACs can merge, stop at junctions, and reconfigure with others to allow smooth crossing at junctions of filaments. The proposed approach is generally applicable to images of curvilinear networks with low SNR. We demonstrate its potential by extracting the centerlines of synthetic meshwork images, actin networks in 2D TIRF Microscopy images, and 3D actin cable meshworks of live fission yeast cells imaged by spinning disk confocal microscopy.

  9. Lung segmentation from HRCT using united geometric active contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junwei; Li, Chuanfu; Xiong, Jin; Feng, Huanqing

    2007-12-01

    Accurate lung segmentation from high resolution CT images is a challenging task due to various detail tracheal structures, missing boundary segments and complex lung anatomy. One popular method is based on gray-level threshold, however its results are usually rough. A united geometric active contours model based on level set is proposed for lung segmentation in this paper. Particularly, this method combines local boundary information and region statistical-based model synchronously: 1) Boundary term ensures the integrality of lung tissue.2) Region term makes the level set function evolve with global characteristic and independent on initial settings. A penalizing energy term is introduced into the model, which forces the level set function evolving without re-initialization. The method is found to be much more efficient in lung segmentation than other methods that are only based on boundary or region. Results are shown by 3D lung surface reconstruction, which indicates that the method will play an important role in the design of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system.

  10. The Development of Skull Prosthesis Through Active Contour Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Shih, Cheng-Ting; Cheng, Chen-Yang; Lin, Yu-Cheng

    2017-09-09

    Skull defects result in brain infection and inadequate brain protection and pose a general danger to patient health. To avoid these situations and prevent re-injury, a prosthesis must be constructed and grafted onto the deficient region. With the development of rapid customization through additive manufacturing and 3D printing technology, skull prostheses can be fabricated accurately and efficiently prior to cranioplasty. However, an unfitted skull prosthesis made with a metal implant can cause repeated infection, potentially necessitating secondary surgery. This paper presents a method of creating suitably geometric graphics of skull defects to be applied in skull repair through active contour models. These models can be adjusted in each computed tomography slice according to the graphic features, and the curves representing the skull defect can be modeled. The generated graphics can adequately mimic the natural curvature of the complete skull. This method will enable clinical surgeons to rapidly implant customized prostheses, which is of particular importance in emergency surgery. The findings of this research can help surgeons provide patients with skull defects with treatment of the highest quality.

  11. A review: aluminum nitride MEMS contour-mode resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunhong, Hou; Meng, Zhang; Guowei, Han; Chaowei, Si; Yongmei, Zhao; Jin, Ning

    2016-10-01

    Over the past several decades, the technology of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) has advanced. A clear need of miniaturization and integration of electronics components has had new solutions for the next generation of wireless communications. The aluminum nitride (AlN) MEMS contour-mode resonator (CMR) has emerged and become promising and competitive due to the advantages of the small size, high quality factor and frequency, low resistance, compatibility with integrated circuit (IC) technology, and the ability of integrating multi-frequency devices on a single chip. In this article, a comprehensive review of AlN MEMS CMR technology will be presented, including its basic working principle, main structures, fabrication processes, and methods of performance optimization. Among these, the deposition and etching process of the AlN film will be specially emphasized and recent advances in various performance optimization methods of the CMR will be given through specific examples which are mainly focused on temperature compensation and reducing anchor losses. This review will conclude with an assessment of the challenges and future trends of the CMR. Project supported by National Natural Science Foundation (Nos. 61274001, 61234007, 61504130), the Nurturing and Development Special Projects of Beijing Science and Technology Innovation Base's Financial Support (No. Z131103002813070), and the National Defense Science and Technology Innovation Fund of CAS (No. CXJJ-14-M32).

  12. Multiphase Interface Tracking with Fast Semi-Lagrangian Contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaosheng; He, Xiaowei; Liu, Xuehui; Zhang, Jian J; Liu, Baoquan; Wu, Enhua

    2016-08-01

    We propose a semi-Lagrangian method for multiphase interface tracking. In contrast to previous methods, our method maintains an explicit polygonal mesh, which is reconstructed from an unsigned distance function and an indicator function, to track the interface of arbitrary number of phases. The surface mesh is reconstructed at each step using an efficient multiphase polygonization procedure with precomputed stencils while the distance and indicator function are updated with an accurate semi-Lagrangian path tracing from the meshes of the last step. Furthermore, we provide an adaptive data structure, multiphase distance tree, to accelerate the updating of both the distance function and the indicator function. In addition, the adaptive structure also enables us to contour the distance tree accurately with simple bisection techniques. The major advantage of our method is that it can easily handle topological changes without ambiguities and preserve both the sharp features and the volume well. We will evaluate its efficiency, accuracy and robustness in the results part with several examples.

  13. Brassinosteroid Mediated Cell Wall Remodeling in Grasses under Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Rao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unlike animals, plants, being sessile, cannot escape from exposure to severe abiotic stresses such as extreme temperature and water deficit. The dynamic structure of plant cell wall enables them to undergo compensatory changes, as well as maintain physical strength, with changing environments. Plant hormones known as brassinosteroids (BRs play a key role in determining cell wall expansion during stress responses. Cell wall deposition differs between grasses (Poaceae and dicots. Grass species include many important food, fiber, and biofuel crops. In this article, we focus on recent advances in BR-regulated cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling in response to stresses, comparing our understanding of the mechanisms in grass species with those in the more studied dicots. A more comprehensive understanding of BR-mediated changes in cell wall integrity in grass species will benefit the development of genetic tools to improve crop productivity, fiber quality and plant biomass recalcitrance.

  14. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...... 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology   Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk     Abstract   Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass...... and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17...

  15. Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas

    2014-01-01

    the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods......In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish...... of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season...

  16. The design and development of GRASS file reservation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qiulan; Zhu Suijiang; Cheng Yaodong; Chen Gang

    2010-01-01

    GFRS (GRASS File Reservation System) is designed to improve the file access performance of GRASS (Grid-enabled Advanced Storage System) which is a Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system developed at Computing Center, Institute of High Energy Physics. GRASS can provide massive storage management and data migration, but the data migration policy is simply based factors such as pool water level, the intervals for migration and so on, so it is short of precise control over files. As for that, we design GFRS to implement user-based file reservation which is to reserve and keep the required files on disks for High Energy physicists. CFRS can improve file access speed for users by avoiding migrating frequently accessed files to tapes. In this paper we first give a brief introduction of GRASS system and then detailed architecture and implementation of GFRS. Experiments results from GFRS have shown good performance and a simple analysis is made based on it. (authors)

  17. Designing a New Raster Sub-System for GRASS-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hruby

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a design of a new raster sub-system intended for modern GIS systems open for client and server operation, database connection and strong application interface (API. Motivation for such a design comes from the current state of API working in GRASS 6. If found attractive, the here presented design and its implementation (referred as RG7 may be integrated to the future new generation of the GRASS Geographical Information System version 7-8. The paper describes in details the concept of raster tiling, computer storage of rasters and basic raster access procedures. Finally, the paper gives a simple benchmarking experiment of random read access to raster files imported from the Spearfish dataset. The experiment compares the early implementation of RG7 with the current implementation of rasters in GRASS 6. As the result, the experiment shows the RG7 to be significantly faster than GRASS in random read access to large raster files.

  18. Grass survey of the Itremo Massif records endemic central highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grasses are members of the plant family Poaceae, and are primar- ily known for their ... Madagascar Conservation & Development is the journal of. Indian Ocean .... cording to the classification by Kellogg (2015). With 64 ..... Flowering plants.

  19. Statistical Modeling Approach to Quantitative Analysis of Interobserver Variability in Breast Contouring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jinzhong, E-mail: jyang4@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Woodward, Wendy A.; Reed, Valerie K.; Strom, Eric A.; Perkins, George H.; Tereffe, Welela; Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhang, Lifei; Balter, Peter; Court, Laurence E. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Dong, Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, California (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To develop a new approach for interobserver variability analysis. Methods and Materials: Eight radiation oncologists specializing in breast cancer radiation therapy delineated a patient's left breast “from scratch” and from a template that was generated using deformable image registration. Three of the radiation oncologists had previously received training in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group consensus contouring for breast cancer atlas. The simultaneous truth and performance level estimation algorithm was applied to the 8 contours delineated “from scratch” to produce a group consensus contour. Individual Jaccard scores were fitted to a beta distribution model. We also applied this analysis to 2 or more patients, which were contoured by 9 breast radiation oncologists from 8 institutions. Results: The beta distribution model had a mean of 86.2%, standard deviation (SD) of ±5.9%, a skewness of −0.7, and excess kurtosis of 0.55, exemplifying broad interobserver variability. The 3 RTOG-trained physicians had higher agreement scores than average, indicating that their contours were close to the group consensus contour. One physician had high sensitivity but lower specificity than the others, which implies that this physician tended to contour a structure larger than those of the others. Two other physicians had low sensitivity but specificity similar to the others, which implies that they tended to contour a structure smaller than the others. With this information, they could adjust their contouring practice to be more consistent with others if desired. When contouring from the template, the beta distribution model had a mean of 92.3%, SD ± 3.4%, skewness of −0.79, and excess kurtosis of 0.83, which indicated a much better consistency among individual contours. Similar results were obtained for the analysis of 2 additional patients. Conclusions: The proposed statistical approach was able to measure interobserver variability quantitatively

  20. SU-E-J-108: Solving the Chinese Postman Problem for Effective Contour Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J; Zhang, L; Balter, P; Court, L [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Zhang, Y; Dong, L [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a practical approach for accurate contour deformation when deformable image registration (DIR) is used for atlas-based segmentation or contour propagation in image-guided radiotherapy. Methods: A contour deformation approach was developed on the basis of 3D mesh operations. The 2D contours represented by a series of points in each slice were first converted to a 3D triangular mesh, which was deformed by the deformation vectors resulting from DIR. A set of parallel 2D planes then cut through the deformed 3D mesh, generating unordered points and line segments, which should be reorganized into a set of 2D contour points. It was realized that the reorganization problem was equivalent to solving the Chinese Postman Problem (CPP) by traversing a graph built from the unordered points with the least cost. Alternatively, deformation could be applied to a binary mask converted from the original contours. The deformed binary mask was then converted back into contours at the CT slice locations. We performed a qualitative comparison to validate the mesh-based approach against the image-based approach. Results: The DIR could considerably change the 3D mesh, making complicated 2D contour representations after deformation. CPP was able to effectively reorganize the points in 2D planes no matter how complicated the 2D contours were. The mesh-based approach did not require a post-processing of the contour, thus accurately showing the actual deformation in DIR. The mesh-based approach could keep some fine details and resulted in smoother contours than the image-based approach did, especially for the lung structure. Image-based approach appeared to over-process contours and suffered from image resolution limits. The mesh-based approach was integrated into in-house DIR software for use in routine clinic and research. Conclusion: We developed a practical approach for accurate contour deformation. The efficiency of this approach was demonstrated in both clinic and