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Sample records for continuum-discrete damage model

  1. Coupled Hybrid Continuum-Discrete Model of Tumor Angiogenesis and Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Lyu

    Full Text Available The processes governing tumor growth and angiogenesis are codependent. To study the relationship between them, we proposed a coupled hybrid continuum-discrete model. In this model, tumor cells, their microenvironment (extracellular matrixes, matrix-degrading enzymes, and tumor angiogenic factors, and their network of blood vessels, described by a series of discrete points, were considered. The results of numerical simulation reveal the process of tumor growth and the change in microenvironment from avascular to vascular stage, indicating that the network of blood vessels develops gradually as the tumor grows. Our findings also reveal that a tumor is divided into three regions: necrotic, semi-necrotic, and well-vascularized. The results agree well with the previous relevant studies and physiological facts, and this model represents a platform for further investigations of tumor therapy.

  2. Induced seismicity in a salt mine environment evaluated by a coupled continuum-discrete modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercerat, E.; Souley, M.; Driad, L.; Bernard, P.

    2005-12-01

    Within the framework of a research project launched to assess the feasibility of seismic monitoring of underground growing cavities, this specific work focus on two main complementary axis: the validation of seismic monitoring techniques in salt mine environments, and the numerical modelling of deformation and failure mechanisms with their associated acoustic emissions, the induced microseismicity. The underground cavity under monitoring is located at Cerville (Lorraine, France) within a salt layer 180 m deep and it presents a rather regular cylindrical shape of 100 m diameter. Typically, the overburden is characterized by the presence of two competent layers with elasto-brittle behaviour and located 50 m above the salt layer. When the salt exploitation restarts, the cavity will progressively grow causing irreversible damage of the upper layers until its final collapse at a time scale of the order of one year. Numerical modelling of such a complex process requires a large scale model which takes into account both the growing cavity within the salt layer and the mechanical behaviour of the overburden where high deformation and fracturing is expected. To keep the elasto-brittle behaviour of the competent layers where most seismic damage is expected, we use the PFC code (Itasca Cons). To approach the other layers (mainly composed of marls and salt) which present more ductile and/or viscoplastic behaviour, a continuum approach based on the FLAC code (Itasca Cons) is employed. Numerous calibration process were needed to estimate the microproperties used in PFC to reproduce the macroscopic behaviour from laboratory tests performed on samples extracted from the competent layers. As long as the size of the PFC inclusion representing the brittle material is much higher than the core sample sizes, the scale effect of microproperties is examined. The next stage is to perform calculations on the basis of previous macroscopic and microproperties calibration results, and compare

  3. 9Be scattering with microscopic wave functions and the continuum-discretized coupled-channel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descouvemont, P.; Itagaki, N.

    2018-01-01

    We use microscopic 9Be wave functions defined in a α +α +n multicluster model to compute 9Be+target scattering cross sections. The parameter sets describing 9Be are generated in the spirit of the stochastic variational method, and the optimal solution is obtained by superposing Slater determinants and by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian. The 9Be three-body continuum is approximated by square-integral wave functions. The 9Be microscopic wave functions are then used in a continuum-discretized coupled-channel (CDCC) calculation of 9Be+208Pb and of 9Be+27Al elastic scattering. Without any parameter fitting, we obtain a fair agreement with experiment. For a heavy target, the influence of 9Be breakup is important, while it is weaker for light targets. This result confirms previous nonmicroscopic CDCC calculations. One of the main advantages of the microscopic CDCC is that it is based on nucleon-target interactions only; there is no adjustable parameter. The present work represents a first step towards more ambitious calculations involving heavier Be isotopes.

  4. 9Be scattering within a four-body continuum-discretized coupled-channels framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casal J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The scattering of 9Be on 208Pb is addressed within a four-body Continuum-Discretized Coupled-Channels (CDCC framework, considering a three-body α + α + n projectile plus a structureless target. The projectile states are generated using the analytical Transformed Harmonic Oscillator (THO basis in hyperspherical coordinates. Both the elastic and breakup channels are described on the same footing. We find a good agreement between our calculations and the experimental data at beam energies around and below the Coulomb barrier.

  5. Four-body continuum-discretized coupled-channels calculations applied to {sup 6}He reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Gallardo, M. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Estructura de la Materia; Arias, J.M.; Gomez-Camacho, J.M.; Moro, A.M. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear; Thompson, I.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Physical Science Directorate; Tostevin, J.A. [University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    2010-07-01

    Full text. The scattering of a weakly bound three-body system by a target is discussed. The continuum-discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) framework, recently extended to four-body reactions (three-body projectile plus target), is used for the scattering calculations. Two different methods are used to discretized the three-body continuum of the projectile. In the first case, we make use of a Pseudo-State (PS) method in which the states of the projectile are represented by the eigenstates of its internal Hamiltonian in a truncated basis of square-integrable functions. In particular, we use the transformed harmonic oscillator (THO) method, in which the PS basis is obtained by applying a local scale transformation to the Harmonic Oscillator basis. In the second case, we applied the binning procedure that has just been extended to three-body projectiles. This discretization method requires to calculate first the true continuum of the projectile and then this continuum is discretized making bins or packages of energy. This has been the method used for many years in standard three-body (two-body projectile plus target) CDCC calculations. Its extension to three-body projectiles uses the eigenchannel expansion of the three-body S-matrix. We applied this formalism to several reactions induced by the Borromean nucleus {sup 6}He at different energies, namely {sup 6}He+{sup 9}Be at 16.2 MeV, {sup 6}He+{sup 64}Zn at 13.6 MeV, {sup 6}He+{sup 120}Sn at 17.4 MeV, and {sup 6}He+{sup 208}Pb at 22 MeV. Four-body CDCC calculations for elastic and breakup observables are presented for these reactions comparing both discretization methods, THO and binning. The effect of the mass of the target, which is clearly related to the influence of Coulomb couplings, is investigated. The elastic cross sections are also compared to existing experimental data. (author)

  6. On equivalence of discrete-discrete and continuum-discrete design sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung K.; Twu, Sung-Ling

    1989-01-01

    Developments in design sensitivity analysis (DSA) method have been made using two fundamentally different approaches as shown. In the first approach, a discretized structural finite element model is used to carry out DSA. There are three different methods in the discrete DSA approach: finite difference, semi-analytical, and analytical methods. The finite difference method is a popular one due to its simplicity, but a serious shortcoming of the method is the uncertainty in the choice of a perturbation step size of design variables. In the semi-analytical method, the derivatives of stiffness matrix is computed by finite differences, whereas in the analytical method, the derivatives are obtained analytically. For the shape design variable, computation of analytical derivative of stiffness matrix is quite costly. Because of this, the semi-analytical method is a popular choice in discrete shape DSA approach. However, recently, Barthelemy and Haftka presented that the semi-analytical method can have serious accuracy problems for shape design variables in structures modeled by beam, plate, truss, frame, and solid elements. They found that accuracy problems occur even for a simple cantilever beam. In the second approach, a continuum model of the structure is used to carry out DSA.

  7. Modeling damage in concrete pavements and bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This project focused on micromechanical modeling of damage in concrete under general, multi-axial loading. A : continuum-level, three-dimensional constitutive model based on micromechanics was developed. The model : accounts for damage in concrete by...

  8. Damage Models for Soft Tissues: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenguang

    Damage to soft tissues in the human body has been investigated for applications in healthcare, sports, and biomedical engineering. This paper reviews and classifies damage models for soft tissues to summarize achievements, identify new directions, and facilitate finite element analysis. The main ideas of damage modeling methods are illustrated and interpreted. A few key issues related to damage models, such as experimental data curve-fitting, computational effort, connection between damage and fractures/cracks, damage model applications, and fracture/crack extension simulation, are discussed. Several new challenges in the field are identified and outlined. This review can be useful for developing more advanced damage models and extending damage modeling methods to a variety of soft tissues.

  9. Constitutive model for coupled inelasticity and damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, M.

    1995-01-01

    A constitutive model to describe a coupling between deformation and damage due to creep of polycrystalline metallic materials is developed from phenomenological and continuum mechanics points of view. The constitutive modeling is based on the irreversible thermodynamics for internal state variable theories, where the thermodynamic potentials, i.e., free energy and dissipation energy functions, are defined using hardening and damage variables. The material damage is assumed to be isotropic. We first derive a damage coupled kinematic-hardening model in the invariant form on the basis of the Malinin-Khadjinsky model. Then, an isotropic-hardening model which includes a coupling with damage is formulated by assuming a particular representation of the kinematic hardening variable. The evolution equation of the hardening variable is prescribed by the Bailey-Orowan format which includes the effect of damage. The damage rate is governed by the magnitude of the assumed strain hardening variable. These models can describe a transition from primary to tertiary creep stages, and it is applicable to variable loading conditions. In a particular case the expression for the creep rupture time has a similar form to the Kachanov-Rabotnov type, although it depends on the time and damage at the instant of a hardening saturation under the applied stress condition. (author)

  10. Viscoplastic regularization of local damage models: revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, M. S.; Wisselink, H. H.; Meinders, T.

    2013-02-01

    Local damage models are known to produce pathological mesh dependent results. Regularization techniques are therefore mandatory if local damage models are used for academic research or industrial applications. The viscoplastic framework can be used for regularization of local damage models. Despite of the easy implementation of viscoplasticity, this method of regularization did not gain much popularity in comparison to the non-local or gradient damage models. This work is an effort to further explore viscoplastic regularization for quasi-static problems. The focus of this work is on ductile materials. Two different types of strain rate hardening models i.e. the Power law (with a multiplicative strain rate part) and the simplified Bergström van Liempt (with an additive strain rate part) models are used in this study. The modified Lemaitre's anisotropic damage model with a strain rate dependency was used in this study. It was found that the primary viscoplastic length scale is a function of the hardening and softening (damage) parameters and does not depend upon the prescribed strain rate whereas the secondary length scale is a function of the strain rate. As damage grows, the effective regularization length gradually decreases. When the effective regularization length gets shorter than the element length numerical results become mesh dependent again. This loss of objectivity can not be solved but the effect can be minimized by selecting a very fine mesh or by prescribing high deformation velocities.

  11. Artificial neural network modeling of damaged aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Brunger, Clifford A.

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Aircraft design and control techniques rely on the proper modeling of the aircraft's equations of motion. Many of the variables used in these equations are aerodynamic coefficients which are obtained from scale models in wind tunnel tests. In order to model damaged aircraft, every aerodynamic coefficient must be determined for every possible damage mechanism in every flight condition. De...

  12. Model of designating the critical damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwolińska Bożena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article consists of two parts which make for an integral body. This article depicts the method of designating the critical damages in accordance with lean maintenance method. Author considered exemplary production system (serial-parallel in which in time Δt appeared a damage on three different objects. Article depicts the mathematical model which enables determination of an indicator called “prioritized digit of the device”. In the developed model there were considered some parameters: production abilities of devices, existence of potential vicarious devices, position of damage in the production stream based on the capacity of operational buffers, time needed to remove the damages and influence of damages to the finalization of customers’ orders – CEF indicator.

  13. Modeling Propagation of Gas Path Damage

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper describes how damage propagation can be tracked and modeled for a range of fault modes in some modules of commercial high bypass aircraft engines. To that...

  14. Damage modeling in Small Punch Test specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Cuesta, I.I.; Peñuelas, I.

    2016-01-01

    Ductile damage modeling within the Small Punch Test (SPT) is extensively investigated. The capabilities ofthe SPT to reliably estimate fracture and damage properties are thoroughly discussed and emphasis isplaced on the use of notched specimens. First, different notch profiles are analyzed....... Furthermore,Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model predictions from a top-down approach are employed to gain insightinto the mechanisms governing crack initiation and subsequent propagation in small punch experiments.An accurate assessment of micromechanical toughness parameters from the SPT...

  15. Modeling laser damage to the retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Clifton D.

    This dissertation presents recent progress in several areas related to modeling laser damage to the retina. In Chapter 3, we consider the consequences of using the Arrhenius damage model to predict the damage thresholds of multiple pulse, or repetitive pulse, exposures. We have identified a few fundamental trends associated with the multiple pulse damage predictions made by the Arrhenius model. These trends differ from what would be expected by non-thermal mechanisms, and could prove useful in differentiating thermal and non-thermal damage. Chapter 4 presents a new rate equation damage model hypothesized to describe photochemical damage. The model adds a temperature dependent term to the simple rate equation implied by the principle of reciprocity that is characteristic of photochemical damage thresholds. A recent damage threshold study, conducted in-vitro, has revealed a very sharp transition between thermal and photochemical damage threshold trends. For the wavelength used in the experiment (413 nm), thermal damage thresholds were observed at exposure levels that were twice the expected photochemical damage threshold, based on the traditional understanding of photochemical damage. Our model accounts for this observed trend by introducing a temperature dependent quenching, or repair, rate to the photochemical damage rate. For long exposures that give a very small temperature rise, the model reduces to the principle of reciprocity. Near the transition region between thermal and photochemical damage, the model allows the damage threshold to be set by thermal mechanisms, even at exposure above the reciprocity exposure. In Chapter 5, we describe a retina damage model that includes thermal lensing in the eye by coupling beam propagation and heat transfer models together. Thermal lensing has recently been suggested as a contributing factor to the large increase in measured retinal damage thresholds in the near infrared. The transmission of the vitreous decreases

  16. Improving Flood Damage Assessment Models in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, M.; Mysiak, J.; Carrera, L.; Koks, E.

    2015-12-01

    The use of Stage-Damage Curve (SDC) models is prevalent in ex-ante assessments of flood risk. To assess the potential damage of a flood event, SDCs describe a relation between water depth and the associated potential economic damage over land use. This relation is normally developed and calibrated through site-specific analysis based on ex-post damage observations. In some cases (e.g. Italy) SDCs are transferred from other countries, undermining the accuracy and reliability of simulation results. Against this background, we developed a refined SDC model for Northern Italy, underpinned by damage compensation records from a recent flood event. Our analysis considers both damage to physical assets and production losses from business interruptions. While the first is calculated based on land use information, production losses are measured through the spatial distribution of Gross Value Added (GVA). An additional component of the model assesses crop-specific agricultural losses as a function of flood seasonality. Our results show an overestimation of asset damage from non-calibrated SDC values up to a factor of 4.5 for tested land use categories. Furthermore, we estimate that production losses amount to around 6 per cent of the annual GVA. Also, maximum yield losses are less than a half of the amount predicted by the standard SDC methods.

  17. Foam-on-Tile Damage Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koharchik, Michael; Murphy, Lindsay; Parker, Paul

    2012-01-01

    An impact model was developed to predict how three specific foam types would damage the Space Shuttle Orbiter insulating tiles. The inputs needed for the model are the foam type, the foam mass, the foam impact velocity, the foam impact incident angle, the type being impacted, and whether the tile is new or aged (has flown at least one mission). The model will determine if the foam impact will cause damage to the tile. If it can cause damage, the model will output the damage cavity dimensions (length, depth, entry angle, exit angle, and sidewall angles). It makes the calculations as soon as the inputs are entered (less than 1 second). The model allows for the rapid calculation of numerous scenarios in a short time. The model was developed from engineering principles coupled with significant impact testing (over 800 foam impact tests). This model is applicable to masses ranging from 0.0002 up to 0.4 pound (0.09 up to 181 g). A prior tool performed a similar function, but was limited to the assessment of a small range of masses and did not have the large test database for verification. In addition, the prior model did not provide outputs of the cavity damage length, entry angle, exit angle, or sidewall angles.

  18. Early models of DNA damage formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Śmiałek, Małgorzata A

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of DNA damage, induced by various types of incident radiation as well as chemical agents, has been the subject of many theoretical and experimental studies, supporting the development of modern cancer therapy. The primary observations showed that many factors can lead to damage of DNA molecules. It became clear that the development of experimental techniques for exploring this phenomenon is required. Another problem was simultaneously dealt with, anticipating on how the damage is distributed within the double helix of the DNA molecule and how the single strand break formation and accumulation can influence the lethal double strand break formation. In this work the most important probabilistic models for DNA strand breakage and damage propagation are summarized and compared.

  19. Molecular models for DNA damaged by photoreaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlman, D.A.; Holbrook, S.R.; Pirkle, D.H.; Kim, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    Structural models of a DNA molecule containing a radiation-induced psoralen cross-link and of a DNA containing a thymine photodimer were constructed by applying energy-minimization techniques and model-building procedures to data from x-ray crystallographic studies. The helical axes of the models show substantial kinking and unwinding at the sites of the damage, which may have long-range as well as local effects arising from the concomitant changes in the supercoiling and overall structure of the DNA. The damaged areas may also serve as recognition sites for repair enzymes. These results should help in understanding the biologic effects of radiation-induced damage on cells

  20. Impact damages modeling in laminated composite structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreculj Dragan D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminated composites have an important application in modern engineering structures. They are characterized by extraordinary properties, such as: high strength and stiffness and lightweight. Nevertheless, a serious obstacle to more widespread use of those materials is their sensitivity to the impact loads. Impacts cause initiation and development of certain types of damages. Failures that occur in laminated composite structures can be intralaminar and interlaminar. To date it was developed a lot of simulation models for impact damages analysis in laminates. Those models can replace real and expensive testing in laminated structures with a certain accuracy. By using specialized software the damage parameters and distributions can be determined (at certain conditions on laminate structures. With performing numerical simulation of impact on composite laminates there are corresponding results valid for the analysis of these structures.

  1. Modelling of settlement induced building damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giardina, G.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the modelling of settlement induced damage to masonry buildings. In densely populated areas, the need for new space is nowadays producing a rapid increment of underground excavations. Due to the construction of new metro lines, tunnelling activity in urban areas is growing.

  2. Numerical Modelling and Damage Assessment of Rotary Wing Aircraft Cabin Door Using Continuum Damage Mechanics Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyina, Gangadhara Rao T.; Rayavarapu, Vijaya Kumar; V. V., Subba Rao

    2017-02-01

    The prediction of ultimate strength remains the main challenge in the simulation of the mechanical response of composite structures. This paper examines continuum damage model to predict the strength and size effects for deformation and failure response of polymer composite laminates when subjected to complex state of stress. The paper also considers how the overall results of the exercise can be applied in design applications. The continuum damage model is described and the resulting prediction of size effects are compared against the standard benchmark solutions. The stress analysis for strength prediction of rotary wing aircraft cabin door is carried out. The goal of this study is to extend the proposed continuum damage model such that it can be accurately predict the failure around stress concentration regions. The finite element-based continuum damage mechanics model can be applied to the structures and components of arbitrary configurations where analytical solutions could not be developed.

  3. Tree-based flood damage modeling of companies: Damage processes and model performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieg, Tobias; Vogel, Kristin; Merz, Bruno; Kreibich, Heidi

    2017-07-01

    Reliable flood risk analyses, including the estimation of damage, are an important prerequisite for efficient risk management. However, not much is known about flood damage processes affecting companies. Thus, we conduct a flood damage assessment of companies in Germany with regard to two aspects. First, we identify relevant damage-influencing variables. Second, we assess the prediction performance of the developed damage models with respect to the gain by using an increasing amount of training data and a sector-specific evaluation of the data. Random forests are trained with data from two postevent surveys after flood events occurring in the years 2002 and 2013. For a sector-specific consideration, the data set is split into four subsets corresponding to the manufacturing, commercial, financial, and service sectors. Further, separate models are derived for three different company assets: buildings, equipment, and goods and stock. Calculated variable importance values reveal different variable sets relevant for the damage estimation, indicating significant differences in the damage process for various company sectors and assets. With an increasing number of data used to build the models, prediction errors decrease. Yet the effect is rather small and seems to saturate for a data set size of several hundred observations. In contrast, the prediction improvement achieved by a sector-specific consideration is more distinct, especially for damage to equipment and goods and stock. Consequently, sector-specific data acquisition and a consideration of sector-specific company characteristics in future flood damage assessments is expected to improve the model performance more than a mere increase in data.

  4. Model of designating the critical damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwolińska Bożena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Managing company in the lean way presumes no breakdowns nor reserves in the whole delivery chain. However, achieving such low indicators is impossible. That is why in some production plants it is extremely important to focus on preventive actions which can limit damages. This article depicts the method of designating the critical damages in accordance with lean maintenance method. The article consists of two parts which make for an integral body. Part one depicts the characteristic of a realistic object, it also contains productions capabilities analysis of certain areas within the production structure. Part two depicts the probabilistic model of shaping maximal time loss basing on emptying and filling interoperational buffers.

  5. Modeling of Corrosion-induced Concrete Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Anna Emilie A.; Michel, Alexander; Stang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper a finite element model is introduced to simulate corrosion-induced damage in concrete. The model takes into account the penetration of corrosion products into the concrete as well as non-uniform formation of corrosion products around the reinforcement. To ac-count for the non......-uniform formation of corrosion products at the concrete/reinforcement interface, a deterministic approach is used. The model gives good estimates of both deformations in the con-crete/reinforcement interface and crack width when compared to experimental data. Further, it is shown that non-uniform deposition...... of corrosion products affects both the time-to cover cracking and the crack width at the concrete surface....

  6. Modeling the damage of welded steel, using the GTN model

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    El-Ahmar Kadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work is the modeling of the damage in the weld metal according to the finite element method and the concepts of fracture mechanics based on local approaches using the code ABAQUS calculates. The use of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model axisymmetric specimens AE type to three different zones (Base metal, molten metal and heat affected Zone with four levels of triaxiality (AE2, AE4, AE10 and AE80, we have used to model the behavior of damage to welded steel, which is described as being due to the growth and coalescence of cavities with high rates of triaxiality

  7. Exploring the potential of multivariate depth-damage and rainfall-damage models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ootegem, Luc; van Herck, K.; Creten, T.

    2018-01-01

    In Europe, floods are among the natural catastrophes that cause the largest economic damage. This article explores the potential of two distinct types of multivariate flood damage models: ‘depth-damage’ models and ‘rainfall-damage’ models. We use survey data of 346 Flemish households that were vi...

  8. Micromechanical modeling of strength and damage of fiber reinforced composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishnaevsky, L. Jr.; Broendsted, P.

    2007-03-15

    The report for the first year of the EU UpWind project includes three parts: overview of concepts and methods of modelling of mechanical behavior, deformation and damage of unidirectional fiber reinforced composites, development of computational tools for the automatic generation of 3D micromechanical models of fiber reinforced composites, and micromechanical modelling of damage in FRC, and phenomenological analysis of the effect of frequency of cyclic loading on the lifetime and damage evolution in materials. (au)

  9. Extreme value modelling of storm damage in Swedish forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bengtsson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Forests cover about 56% of the land area in Sweden and forest damage due to strong winds has been a recurring problem. In this paper we analyse recorded storm damage in Swedish forests for the years 1965–2007. During the period 48 individual storm events with a total damage of 164 Mm³ have been reported with the severe storm on 8 to 9 January 2005, as the worst with 70 Mm³ damaged forest. For the analysis, storm damage data has been normalised to account for the increase in total forest volume over the period.

    We show that, within the framework of statistical extreme value theory, a Poisson point process model can be used to describe these storm damage events. Damage data supports a heavy-tailed distribution with great variability in damage for the worst storm events. According to the model, and in view of available data, the return period for a storm with damage in size of the severe storm of January 2005 is approximately 80 years, i.e. a storm with damage of this magnitude will happen, on average, once every eighty years.

    To investigate a possible temporal trend, models with time-dependent parameters have been analysed but give no conclusive evidence of an increasing trend in the normalised storm damage data for the period. Using a non-parametric approach with a kernel based local-likelihood method gives the same result.

  10. Nonlinear creep damage constitutive model for soft rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. Z.; Xie, H. Q.; He, J. D.; Xiao, M. L.; Zhuo, L.

    2017-02-01

    In some existing nonlinear creep damage models, it may be less rigorous to directly introduce a damage variable into the creep equation when the damage variable of the viscous component is a function of time or strain. In this paper, we adopt the Kachanov creep damage rate and introduce a damage variable into a rheological differential constitutive equation to derive an analytical integral solution for the creep damage equation of the Bingham model. We also propose a new nonlinear viscous component which reflects nonlinear properties related to the axial stress of soft rock in the steady-state creep stage. Furthermore, we build an improved Nishihara model by using this new component in series with the correctional Nishihara damage model that describes the accelerating creep, and deduce the rheological constitutive relation of the improved model. Based on superposition principle, we obtain the damage creep equation for conditions of both uniaxial and triaxial compression stress, and study the method for determining the model parameters. Finally, this paper presents the laboratory test results performed on mica-quartz schist in parallel with, or vertical to the schistosity direction, and applies the improved Nishihara model to the parameter identification of mica-quartz schist. Using a comparative analysis with test data, results show that the improved model has a superior ability to reflect the creep properties of soft rock in the decelerating creep stage, the steady-state creep stage, and particularly within the accelerating creep stage, in comparison with the traditional Nishihara model.

  11. Analysis of ductile crack growth by a simple damage model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ch.; Gross, D.

    1993-01-01

    A strip damage-zone model of the Dugdale-Barenblatt-model type is presented in this paper for analyzing crack growth in ductile materials with damage evolution. In particular, a semi-infinite Mode-1 crack in plane stress or plane strain is considered. The damage is assumed to be present in form of dispersed microvoids, which are localized into a narrow strip direct ahead of a crack-tip. This configuration approximates the real situation naturally arising due to the high stress and strain concentrations in the proximity of the crack-tip. A simple damage model of the Gurson-model type is developed for uniaxial tension to describe the macroscopic properties of the strip damage-zone. Under small-scale yielding and small-scale damage conditions, a system of nonlinear integral equations for the plastic strain and the length of the damage-zone is derived. Numerical results are presented and discussed for the crack opening displacement, the stress and damage distribution within the plastic/damage zone, and the crack resistance curve. Special attention is devoted to reveal the effect of damage evolution on the ductile crack growth

  12. Modelling direct tangible damages due to natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, H.; Bubeck, P.

    2012-04-01

    Europe has witnessed a significant increase in direct damages from natural hazards. A further damage increase is expected due to the on-going accumulation of people and economic assets in risk-prone areas and the effects of climate change, for instance, on the severity and frequency of drought events in the Mediterranean basin. In order to mitigate the impact of natural hazards an improved risk management based on reliable risk analysis is needed. Particularly, there is still much research effort needed to improve the modelling of damage due to natural hazards. In comparison with hazard modelling, simple approaches still dominate damage assessments, mainly due to limitations in available data and knowledge on damaging processes and influencing factors. Within the EU-project ConHaz, methods as well as data sources and terminology for damage assessments were compiled, systemized and analysed. Similarities and differences between the approaches concerning floods, alpine hazards, coastal hazards and droughts were identified. Approaches for significant improvements of direct tangible damage modelling with a particular focus on cross-hazard-learning will be presented. Examples from different hazards and countries will be given how to improve damage data bases, the understanding of damaging processes, damage models and how to conduct improvements via validations and uncertainty analyses.

  13. Modelling of Damage During Hot Forging of Ingots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Ductile damage modelling in the ingot forging process is discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of both coupled and uncoupled ductile damage models are presented. Some uncoupled damage models are examined in greater detail regarding their applicability to different processes, where hydrostatic...... compression as well as tension, combined with shear stresses, are present. It is shown that the numerical implementation can influence the results substantially and therefore lead to software user dependent conclusions. It may be advantageous for the user of commercial finite element programs to base...... the damage analysis on the Cockcroft & Latham criterion, since this with changing cut-off value does not inconsistently change the location of damage, in contradiction to the other investigated criteria, and since it is able to predict damage in processes, which are slightly compressive....

  14. FRACTAL MODEL OF DAMAGE ACCUMULATION IN SOLID BODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim. Abed Al-Zobaede

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a model of damage accumulation in parts of machines and structures which is based on a theory of fractals. Hidden process of destruction prior to the formation of macroscopic cracks is usually associated with the accumulation of micro-damages. Various models of damage accumulation and crack growth under the influence of power and thermal loads. However, models describing the accumulation process of micro-damages and their outgrowth into macro-crack are practically non-existent. Fractal structures with self-similarity are an adequate model of the fracture process. The MacDonald correlation function describing the medium structure allows to present the self-similarity of structures within a certain range of scales.The paper reviews models of damage accumulation near an opening in a composite medium and at layer boundaries. The Cantor model in a forward algorithm and a backward algorithm have been used in order to describe the model of damage accumulation. As it is known, the Cantor fractal (Cantor dust is obtained by using a recursive algorithm being applied to fracture mechanics can be regarded as a model of stepwise formation of dispersed micro-damages. The process of damage accumulation (latent destruction phase and its transition in the formation process of macro-cracks and their unification in a through-thickness crack can be described, for example, by the Paris' law.

  15. An anisotropic tertiary creep damage constitutive model for anisotropic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Calvin M.; Gordon, Ali P.; Ma, Young Wha; Neu, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    When an anisotropic material is subject to creep conditions and a complex state of stress, an anisotropic creep damage behavior is observed. Previous research has focused on the anisotropic creep damage behavior of isotropic materials but few constitutive models have been developed for anisotropic creeping solids. This paper describes the development of a new anisotropic tertiary creep damage constitutive model for anisotropic materials. An advanced tensorial damage formulation is implemented which includes both material orientation relative to loading and the degree of creep damage anisotropy in the model. A variation of the Norton-power law for secondary creep is implemented which includes the Hill's anisotropic analogy. Experiments are conducted on the directionally-solidified bucket material DS GTD-111. The constitutive model is implemented in a user programmable feature (UPF) in ANSYS FEA software. The ability of the constitutive model to regress to the Kachanov-Rabotnov isotropic tertiary creep damage model is demonstrated through comparison with uniaxial experiments. A parametric study of both material orientation and stress rotation are conducted. Results indicate that creep deformation is modeled accurately; however an improved damage evolution law may be necessary. - Highlights: → The deformation of anisotropic creeping solid is directionally dependent. → Few constitutive models have been developed to deal with anisotropic behavior. → A transversely-isotropic nickel base superalloy, DS GTD-111, is studied. → A vector constitutive model based on the Kachanov-Rabotnov formulation is developed. → The new model accurately models deformation at various orientations.

  16. ARX model-based damage sensitive features for structural damage localization using output-only measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Koushik; Bhattacharya, Bishakh; Ray-Chaudhuri, Samit

    2015-08-01

    The study proposes a set of four ARX model (autoregressive model with exogenous input) based damage sensitive features (DSFs) for structural damage detection and localization using the dynamic responses of structures, where the information regarding the input excitation may not be available. In the proposed framework, one of the output responses of a multi-degree-of-freedom system is assumed as the input and the rest are considered as the output. The features are based on ARX model coefficients, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test statistical distance, and the model residual error. At first, a mathematical formulation is provided to establish the relation between the change in ARX model coefficients and the normalized stiffness of a structure. KS test parameters are then described to show the sensitivity of statistical distance of ARX model residual error with the damage location. The efficiency of the proposed set of DSFs is evaluated by conducting numerical studies involving a shear building and a steel moment-resisting frame. To simulate the damage scenarios in these structures, stiffness degradation of different elements is considered. It is observed from this study that the proposed set of DSFs is good indicator for damage location even in the presence of damping, multiple damages, noise, and parametric uncertainties. The performance of these DSFs is compared with mode shape curvature-based approach for damage localization. An experimental study has also been conducted on a three-dimensional six-storey steel moment frame to understand the performance of these DSFs under real measurement conditions. It has been observed that the proposed set of DSFs can satisfactorily localize damage in the structure.

  17. Integrated geomechanical modelling for deep subsurface damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Orlic, B.; Zijl, W.; Jongerius, P.; Schreppers, G.J.; Hendriks, M.

    2001-01-01

    Government, E&P and mining industry increasingly demand fundamental insight and accurate predictions on subsurface and surface deformation and damage due to exploitation of subsurface natural resources, and subsurface storage of energy residues (e.g. CO2). At this moment deformation is difficult to

  18. Modelling low velocity impact induced damage in composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Soutis, Constantinos

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents recent progress on modelling low velocity impact induced damage in fibre reinforced composite laminates. It is important to understand the mechanisms of barely visible impact damage (BVID) and how it affects structural performance. To reduce labour intensive testing, the development of finite element (FE) techniques for simulating impact damage becomes essential and recent effort by the composites research community is reviewed in this work. The FE predicted damage initiation and propagation can be validated by Non Destructive Techniques (NDT) that gives confidence to the developed numerical damage models. A reliable damage simulation can assist the design process to optimise laminate configurations, reduce weight and improve performance of components and structures used in aircraft construction.

  19. Probabilistic flood damage modelling at the meso-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Botto, Anna; Schröter, Kai; Merz, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    Decisions on flood risk management and adaptation are usually based on risk analyses. Such analyses are associated with significant uncertainty, even more if changes in risk due to global change are expected. Although uncertainty analysis and probabilistic approaches have received increased attention during the last years, they are still not standard practice for flood risk assessments. Most damage models have in common that complex damaging processes are described by simple, deterministic approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel probabilistic, multi-variate flood damage models have been developed and validated on the micro-scale using a data-mining approach, namely bagging decision trees (Merz et al. 2013). In this presentation we show how the model BT-FLEMO (Bagging decision Tree based Flood Loss Estimation MOdel) can be applied on the meso-scale, namely on the basis of ATKIS land-use units. The model is applied in 19 municipalities which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany. The application of BT-FLEMO provides a probability distribution of estimated damage to residential buildings per municipality. Validation is undertaken on the one hand via a comparison with eight other damage models including stage-damage functions as well as multi-variate models. On the other hand the results are compared with official damage data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB). The results show, that uncertainties of damage estimation remain high. Thus, the significant advantage of this probabilistic flood loss estimation model BT-FLEMO is that it inherently provides quantitative information about the uncertainty of the prediction. Reference: Merz, B.; Kreibich, H.; Lall, U. (2013): Multi-variate flood damage assessment: a tree-based data-mining approach. NHESS, 13(1), 53-64.

  20. Animal Models of Ionizing Radiation Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    irradiated vessels of various tissues (54). Severely damaged blood vessels, those with thrombosis or occlusion, can produce marked changes in tissues...X-irradiation of the Rat, Radiat. Res., 20:471-476, 1963. 153. Persinger, M.A., and T.B. Fiss, Mesenteric Mast Cell Degranulation is not Essential... Thrombosis of the Heart Induced by Radiation, Arch. Path., 96:1-4, 1973. 8. Bruner, A., Immediate Changes in Estimated Cardiac Output and Vascular Resistance

  1. Measuring damage in physical model tests of rubble mounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland, B.; Rosa-Santos, Paulo; Taveira-Pinto, Francisco; Lemos, Rute; Mendonça, A.; Juana Fortes, C

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies novel ways to evaluate armour damage in physical models of coastal structures. High-resolution damage data for reference rubble mound breakwaters obtained under the HYDRALAB+ joint-research project are analysed and discussed. These tests are used to analyse the way to describe

  2. Track structure model of cell damage in space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Robert; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Shinn, Judy L.; Ngo, Duc M.

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenological track-structure model of cell damage is discussed. A description of the application of the track-structure model with the NASA Langley transport code for laboratory and space radiation is given. Comparisons to experimental results for cell survival during exposure to monoenergetic, heavy-ion beams are made. The model is also applied to predict cell damage rates and relative biological effectiveness for deep-space exposures.

  3. Modeling of microcrack density based damage evolution in ceramic rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grove, D.J.; Rajendran, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents results from simulations of shock wave propagation in ceramic rods with and without confinement. The experiments involved steel and graded-density flyer plates impacting sleeved and unsleeved AD995 ceramic rods. The main objectives of simulating these experiments were: 1) to validate the Rajendran-Grove (RG) ceramic model constants, and 2) to investigate the effects of confinement on damage evolution in ceramic rods, as predicted by the RG model. While the experimental measurements do not indicate the details of damage evolution in the ceramic rod, the numerical modeling has provided some valuable insight into the damage initiation and propagation processes in ceramic rods

  4. A Progressive Damage Model for Predicting Permanent Indentation and Impact Damage in Composite Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhaojie; Guan, Zhidong; Li, Zengshan

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a progressive damage model was established on the basis of ABAQUS software for predicting permanent indentation and impact damage in composite laminates. Intralaminar and interlaminar damage was modelled based on the continuum damage mechanics (CDM) in the finite element model. For the verification of the model, low-velocity impact tests of quasi-isotropic laminates with material system of T300/5228A were conducted. Permanent indentation and impact damage of the laminates were simulated and the numerical results agree well with the experiments. It can be concluded that an obvious knee point can be identified on the curve of the indentation depth versus impact energy. Matrix cracking and delamination develops rapidly with the increasing impact energy, while considerable amount of fiber breakage only occurs when the impact energy exceeds the energy corresponding to the knee point. Predicted indentation depth after the knee point is very sensitive to the parameter μ which is proposed in this paper, and the acceptable value of this parameter is in range from 0.9 to 1.0.

  5. A Plastic Damage Mechanics Model for Engineered Cementitious Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Lars; Stang, Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the establishment of a plasticity-based damage mechanics model for Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC). The present model differs from existing models by combining a matrix and fiber description in order to describe the behavior of the ECC material. The model provides...

  6. A plastic damage model with stress triaxiality-dependent hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Xinpu; Shen Guoxiao; Zhou Lin

    2005-01-01

    Emphases of this study were placed on the modelling of plastic damage behaviour of prestressed structural concrete, with special attention being paid to the stress-triaxiality dependent plastic hardening law and the corresponding damage evolution law. A definition of stress triaxiality was proposed and introduced in the model presented here. Drucker-Prager -type plasticity was adopted in the formulation of the plastic damage constitutive equations. Numerical validations were performed for the proposed plasticity-based damage model with a driver subroutine developed in this study. The predicted stress-strain behaviour seems reasonably accurate for the uniaxial tension and uniaxial compression compared with the experimental data reported in references. Numerical calculations of compressions under various hydrostatic stress confinements were carried out in order to validate the stress triaxiality dependent properties of the model. (authors)

  7. Flood damage: a model for consistent, complete and multipurpose scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menoni, Scira; Molinari, Daniela; Ballio, Francesco; Minucci, Guido; Mejri, Ouejdane; Atun, Funda; Berni, Nicola; Pandolfo, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    Effective flood risk mitigation requires the impacts of flood events to be much better and more reliably known than is currently the case. Available post-flood damage assessments usually supply only a partial vision of the consequences of the floods as they typically respond to the specific needs of a particular stakeholder. Consequently, they generally focus (i) on particular items at risk, (ii) on a certain time window after the occurrence of the flood, (iii) on a specific scale of analysis or (iv) on the analysis of damage only, without an investigation of damage mechanisms and root causes. This paper responds to the necessity of a more integrated interpretation of flood events as the base to address the variety of needs arising after a disaster. In particular, a model is supplied to develop multipurpose complete event scenarios. The model organizes available information after the event according to five logical axes. This way post-flood damage assessments can be developed that (i) are multisectoral, (ii) consider physical as well as functional and systemic damage, (iii) address the spatial scales that are relevant for the event at stake depending on the type of damage that has to be analyzed, i.e., direct, functional and systemic, (iv) consider the temporal evolution of damage and finally (v) allow damage mechanisms and root causes to be understood. All the above features are key for the multi-usability of resulting flood scenarios. The model allows, on the one hand, the rationalization of efforts currently implemented in ex post damage assessments, also with the objective of better programming financial resources that will be needed for these types of events in the future. On the other hand, integrated interpretations of flood events are fundamental to adapting and optimizing flood mitigation strategies on the basis of thorough forensic investigation of each event, as corroborated by the implementation of the model in a case study.

  8. A 2D Model of Hydraulic Fracturing, Damage and Microseismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangen, Magnus

    2018-03-01

    We present a model for hydraulic fracturing and damage of low-permeable rock. It computes the intermittent propagation of rock damage, microseismic event locations, microseismic frequency-magnitude distributions, stimulated rock volume and the injection pressure. The model uses a regular 2D grid and is based on ideas from invasion percolation. All damaged and connected cells during a time step constitute a microseismic event, where the size of the event is the number of cells in the cluster. The magnitude of the event is the log _{10} of the event size. The model produces events with a magnitude-frequency distribution having a b value that is approximately 0.8. The model is studied with respect to the physical parameters: permeability of damaged rock and the rock strength. "High" permeabilities of the damaged rock give the same b value ≈ 0.8, but "moderate" permeabilities give higher b values. Another difference is that "high" permeabilities produce a percolation-like fracture network, while "moderate" permeabilities result in damage zones that expand circularly away from the injection point. In the latter case of "moderate" permeabilities, the injection pressure increases substantially beyond the fracturing level. The rock strength and the time step do not change the observed b value of the model for moderate changes.

  9. Cross-country transferability of multi-variable damage models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Dennis; Lüdtke, Stefan; Kreibich, Heidi; Bouwer, Laurens

    2017-04-01

    Flood damage assessment is often done with simple damage curves based only on flood water depth. Additionally, damage models are often transferred in space and time, e.g. from region to region or from one flood event to another. Validation has shown that depth-damage curve estimates are associated with high uncertainties, particularly when applied in regions outside the area where the data for curve development was collected. Recently, progress has been made with multi-variable damage models created with data-mining techniques, i.e. Bayesian Networks and random forest. However, it is still unknown to what extent and under which conditions model transfers are possible and reliable. Model validations in different countries will provide valuable insights into the transferability of multi-variable damage models. In this study we compare multi-variable models developed on basis of flood damage datasets from Germany as well as from The Netherlands. Data from several German floods was collected using computer aided telephone interviews. Data from the 1993 Meuse flood in the Netherlands is available, based on compensations paid by the government. The Bayesian network and random forest based models are applied and validated in both countries on basis of the individual datasets. A major challenge was the harmonization of the variables between both datasets due to factors like differences in variable definitions, and regional and temporal differences in flood hazard and exposure characteristics. Results of model validations and comparisons in both countries are discussed, particularly in respect to encountered challenges and possible solutions for an improvement of model transferability.

  10. A constitutive model with damage for high temperature superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, J. A.; Stouffer, D. C.

    1988-01-01

    A unified constitutive model is searched for that is applicable for high temperature superalloys used in modern gas turbines. Two unified inelastic state variable constitutive models were evaluated for use with the damage parameter proposed by Kachanov. The first is a model (Bodner, Partom) in which hardening is modeled through the use of a single state variable that is similar to drag stress. The other (Ramaswamy) employs both a drag stress and back stress. The extension was successful for predicting the tensile, creep, fatigue, torsional and nonproportional response of Rene' 80 at several temperatures. In both formulations, a cumulative damage parameter is introduced to model the changes in material properties due to the formation of microcracks and microvoids that ultimately produce a macroscopic crack. A back stress/drag stress/damage model was evaluated for Rene' 95 at 1200 F and is shown to predict the tensile, creep, and cyclic loading responses reasonably well.

  11. Modelling of creep damage development in ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, R. [Swedish Institute for Metals Research, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The physical creep damage, which is observed in fossil-fired power plants, is mainly due to the formation of cavities and their interaction. It has previously been demonstrated that both the nucleation and growth of creep cavities can be described by power functions in strain for low alloy and 12 % CrMoV creep resistant steels. It possible to show that the physical creep damage is proportional to the product of the number of cavities and their area. Hence, the physical creep damage can also be expressed in terms of the creep strain. In the presentation this physical creep damage is connected to the empirical creep damage classes (1-5). A creep strain-time function, which is known to be applicable to low alloy and 12 % CrMoV creep resistant steels, is used to describe tertiary creep. With this creep strain - time model the residual lifetime can be predicted from the observed damage. For a given damage class the remaining life is directly proportional to the service time. An expression for the time to the next inspection is proposed. This expression is a function of fraction of the total allowed damage, which is consumed till the next inspection. (orig.) 10 refs.

  12. Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Faux, D.R.; Riddle, R.A.; Shapiro, A.; Eder, D.C.; Penetrante, B.M.; Milam, D.; Genin, F.Y.; Kozlowski, M.R.

    1996-11-01

    The authors are engaged in a comprehensive effort to understand and model the initiation and growth of laser damage initiated by surface contaminants. This includes, for example, the initial absorption by the contaminant, heating and plasma generation, pressure and thermal loading of the transparent substrate, and subsequent shockwave propagation, 'splashing' of molten material and possible spallation, optical propagation and scattering, and treatment of material fracture. The integration use of large radiation hydrodynamics codes, optical propagation codes and material strength codes enables a comprehensive view of the damage process The following picture of surface contaminant initiated laser damage is emerging from our simulations

  13. Modelling blast induced damage from a fully coupled explosive charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onederra, Italo A.; Furtney, Jason K.; Sellers, Ewan; Iverson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents one of the latest developments in the blasting engineering modelling field—the Hybrid Stress Blasting Model (HSBM). HSBM includes a rock breakage engine to model detonation, wave propagation, rock fragmentation, and muck pile formation. Results from two controlled blasting experiments were used to evaluate the code’s ability to predict the extent of damage. Results indicate that the code is capable of adequately predicting both the extent and shape of the damage zone associated with the influence of point-of-initiation and free-face boundary conditions. Radial fractures extending towards a free face are apparent in the modelling output and matched those mapped after the experiment. In the stage 2 validation experiment, the maximum extent of visible damage was of the order of 1.45 m for the fully coupled 38-mm emulsion charge. Peak radial velocities were predicted within a relative difference of only 1.59% at the nearest history point at 0.3 m from the explosive charge. Discrepancies were larger further away from the charge, with relative differences of −22.4% and −42.9% at distances of 0.46 m and 0.61 m, respectively, meaning that the model overestimated particle velocities at these distances. This attenuation deficiency in the modelling produced an overestimation of the damage zone at the corner of the block due to excessive stress reflections. The extent of visible damage in the immediate vicinity of the blasthole adequately matched the measurements. PMID:26412978

  14. Comparative flood damage model assessment: towards a European approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, B.; Kreibich, H.; Apel, H.; Barredo, J. I.; Bates, P. D.; Feyen, L.; Gericke, A.; Neal, J.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Ward, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    There is a wide variety of flood damage models in use internationally, differing substantially in their approaches and economic estimates. Since these models are being used more and more as a basis for investment and planning decisions on an increasingly large scale, there is a need to reduce the uncertainties involved and develop a harmonised European approach, in particular with respect to the EU Flood Risks Directive. In this paper we present a qualitative and quantitative assessment of seven flood damage models, using two case studies of past flood events in Germany and the United Kingdom. The qualitative analysis shows that modelling approaches vary strongly, and that current methodologies for estimating infrastructural damage are not as well developed as methodologies for the estimation of damage to buildings. The quantitative results show that the model outcomes are very sensitive to uncertainty in both vulnerability (i.e. depth-damage functions) and exposure (i.e. asset values), whereby the first has a larger effect than the latter. We conclude that care needs to be taken when using aggregated land use data for flood risk assessment, and that it is essential to adjust asset values to the regional economic situation and property characteristics. We call for the development of a flexible but consistent European framework that applies best practice from existing models while providing room for including necessary regional adjustments.

  15. Virtual Mie particle model of laser damage to optical elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Hirata

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, devices being developed for application systems have used laser beams that have high average power, high peak power, short pulse width, and short wavelength. Therefore, optical elements using such application systems require a high laser damage threshold. The laser damage threshold is provided by International Organization for Standardization 11254 (ISO11254. One of the measurement methods of the laser damage threshold provided by ISO11254 is an online method to measure the intensity of light scattering due to a laser damage trace. In this paper, we propose a measurement method for the laser damage threshold that realizes high sensitivity and high accuracy by using polarized light and lock-in detection. Since the scattering light with laser damage is modeled on the asperity of the optical element-surface as Mie particles (virtual Mie particles, we consider the intensity change of scattering light as a change in the radius of a virtual Mie particle. To evaluate this model, the laser damage trace on the optical element-surface was observed by an atomic force microscopy (AFM. Based on the observed AFM image, we analyzed the frequency domain by the Fourier transform, and estimated the dominant virtual Mie particle radius in the AFM measurement area. In addition, we measured the laser damage threshold. The light source was the fifth generation of a Nd:YAG laser (λ =213nm. The specifications of the laser were: repetition frequency 10Hz, pulse width 4ns, linear type polarization, laser pulse energy 4mJ, and laser transverse mode TEM00. The laser specifications were a repetition frequency, pulse width, pulse energy and beam diameter of 10Hz, 4ns, 4mJ and 13mm, respectively. The laser damage thresholds of an aluminum coated mirror and a dielectric multi-layer mirror designed at a wavelength of 213nm as measured by this method were 0.684 J/cm2 and 0.998J/cm2, respectively. These laser damage thresholds were 1/4 the laser damage

  16. Numerical modelling of damage evolution in ingot forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2015-01-01

    The ingot forging process is numerically simulated applying both the Shima-Oyane porous plasticity model as a coupled damage model and the uncoupled normalized Cockcroft & Latham criterion. Four different cases including two different lower die angles (120º and 180º) and two different sizes of feed...

  17. Irreversible entropy model for damage diagnosis in resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuadras, Angel; Crisóstomo, Javier; Ovejas, Victoria J.; Quilez, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to characterize electrical resistor damage based on entropy measurements. Irreversible entropy and the rate at which it is generated are more convenient parameters than resistance for describing damage because they are essentially positive in virtue of the second law of thermodynamics, whereas resistance may increase or decrease depending on the degradation mechanism. Commercial resistors were tested in order to characterize the damage induced by power surges. Resistors were biased with constant and pulsed voltage signals, leading to power dissipation in the range of 4–8 W, which is well above the 0.25 W nominal power to initiate failure. Entropy was inferred from the added power and temperature evolution. A model is proposed to understand the relationship among resistance, entropy, and damage. The power surge dissipates into heat (Joule effect) and damages the resistor. The results show a correlation between entropy generation rate and resistor failure. We conclude that damage can be conveniently assessed from irreversible entropy generation. Our results for resistors can be easily extrapolated to other systems or machines that can be modeled based on their resistance

  18. Continuum damage modeling and simulation of hierarchical dental enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Songyun; Scheider, Ingo; Bargmann, Swantje

    2016-05-01

    Dental enamel exhibits high fracture toughness and stiffness due to a complex hierarchical and graded microstructure, optimally organized from nano- to macro-scale. In this study, a 3D representative volume element (RVE) model is adopted to study the deformation and damage behavior of the fibrous microstructure. A continuum damage mechanics model coupled to hyperelasticity is developed for modeling the initiation and evolution of damage in the mineral fibers as well as protein matrix. Moreover, debonding of the interface between mineral fiber and protein is captured by employing a cohesive zone model. The dependence of the failure mechanism on the aspect ratio of the mineral fibers is investigated. In addition, the effect of the interface strength on the damage behavior is studied with respect to geometric features of enamel. Further, the effect of an initial flaw on the overall mechanical properties is analyzed to understand the superior damage tolerance of dental enamel. The simulation results are validated by comparison to experimental data from micro-cantilever beam testing at two hierarchical levels. The transition of the failure mechanism at different hierarchical levels is also well reproduced in the simulations.

  19. Continuum damage modeling through theoretical and experimental pressure limit formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Majid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we developed a mathematical modeling to represent the damage of thermoplastic pipes. On the one hand, we adapted the theories of the rupture pressure to fit the High Density Polyethylene (HDPE case. Indeed, the theories for calculating the rupture pressure are multiple, designed originally for steels and alloys. For polymer materials, we have found that these theories can be adapted using a coefficient related to the nature of the studied material. The HDPE is characterized by two important values of pressure, deduced from the ductile form of the internal pressures evolution until burst. For this reason, we have designed an alpha coefficient taking into account these two pressures and giving a good approximation of the evolution of the experimental burst pressures through the theoretically corrected ones, using Faupel㒒s pressure formula. Then, we can deduce the evolution of the theoretical damage using the calculated pressures. On the other hand, two other mathematical models were undertaken. The first one has given rise to an adaptive model referring to an expression of the pressure as a function of the life fraction, the characteristic pressures and the critical life fraction. The second model represents a continuum damage model incorporating the pressure equations as a function of the life fraction and based on the burst pressure�s static damage model. These models represent important tools for industrials to assess the failure of thermoplastic pipes and proceed quick checks

  20. Micromechanical modeling of strength and damage of fiber reinforced composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Brøndsted, P.

    The report for the first year of the EU UpWind project includes three parts: overview of concepts and methods of modelling of mechanical behavior, deformation and damage of unidirectional fiber reinforced composites, development of computational tools for the automatic generation of 3D micromecha......The report for the first year of the EU UpWind project includes three parts: overview of concepts and methods of modelling of mechanical behavior, deformation and damage of unidirectional fiber reinforced composites, development of computational tools for the automatic generation of 3D...

  1. Thermomechanics of damageable materials under diffusion: modelling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubíček, Tomáš; Tomassetti, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    We propose a thermodynamically consistent general-purpose model describing diffusion of a solute or a fluid in a solid undergoing possible phase transformations and damage, beside possible visco-inelastic processes. Also heat generation/consumption/transfer is considered. Damage is modelled as rate-independent. The applications include metal-hydrogen systems with metal/hydride phase transformation, poroelastic rocks, structural and ferro/para-magnetic phase transformation, water and heat transport in concrete, and if diffusion is neglected, plasticity with damage and viscoelasticity, etc. For the ensuing system of partial differential equations and inclusions, we prove existence of solutions by a carefully devised semi-implicit approximation scheme of the fractional-step type.

  2. Magnetic measurement of creep damage: modeling and measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablik, Martin J.; Jiles, David C.

    1996-11-01

    Results of inspection of creep damage by magnetic hysteresis measurements on Cr-Mo steel are presented. It is shown that structure-sensitive parameters such as coercivity, remanence and hysteresis loss are sensitive to creep damage. Previous metallurgical studies have shown that creep changes the microstructure of he material by introducing voids, dislocations, and grain boundary cavities. As cavities develop, dislocations and voids move out to grain boundaries; therefore, the total pinning sources for domain wall motion are reduced.This, together with the introduction of a demagnetizing field due to the cavities, results in the decrease of both coercivity, remanence and hence, concomitantly, hysteresis loss. Incorporating these structural effects into a magnetomechanical hysteresis model developed previously by us produces numerical variations of coercivity, remanence and hysteresis loss consistent with what is measured. The magnetic model has therefore been used to obtain appropriately modified magnetization curves for each element of creep-damaged material in a finite element (FE) calculation. The FE calculation has been used to simulate magnetic detection of non-uniform creep damage around a seam weld in a 2.25 Cr 1Mo steam pipe. In particular, in the simulation, a magnetic C-core with primary and secondary coils was placed with its pole pieces flush against the specimen in the vicinity of the weld. The secondary emf was shown to be reduced when creep damage was present inside the pipe wall at the cusp of the weld and in the vicinity of the cusp. The calculation showed that the C- core detected creep damage best if it spanned the weld seam width and if the current in the primary was such that the C- core was not magnetically saturated. Experimental measurements also exhibited the dip predicted in emf, but the measurements are not yet conclusive because the effects of magnetic property changes of weld materials, heat- affected material, and base material have

  3. Verification of flood damage modelling using insurance data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Panduro, T. E.; Thorsen, B. J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis using insurance data for damage description and risk model verification, based on data from a Danish case. The results show that simple, local statistics of rainfall are not able to describe the variation in individual cost per claim, but are, however...

  4. Verification of flood damage modelling using insurance data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Petersen, Toke E. P.; Thorsen, Bo J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis using insurance data for damage description and risk model verification, based on data from a Danish case. The results show that simple, local statistics of rainfall are not able to describe the variation in individual cost per claim, but are, however...

  5. Probabilistic Model for Laser Damage to the Human Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-OR-MS-ENS-12-30 PROBABILISTIC MODEL FOR LASER DAMAGE TO THE HUMAN RETINA THESIS Presented to the Faculty of...described by refractive error. Eyeglasses and contact lenses are able to correct for refractive errors by reforming the light entering into the cornea

  6. A Plastic Damage Mechanics Model for Engineered Cementitious Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Lars; Stang, Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the establishment of a plasticity-based damage mechanics model for Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC). The present model differs from existing models by combining a matrix and fiber description in order to describe the behavior of the ECC material. The model provides in...... information about crack opening and spacing, which makes it possible to assess the condition of a structure in the serviceability state. A simulation of a four point bending beam is performed to demonstrate the capability of the model....

  7. A gradient enhanced plasticity-damage microplane model for concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zreid, Imadeddin; Kaliske, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Computational modeling of concrete poses two main types of challenges. The first is the mathematical description of local response for such a heterogeneous material under all stress states, and the second is the stability and efficiency of the numerical implementation in finite element codes. The paper at hand presents a comprehensive approach addressing both issues. Adopting the microplane theory, a combined plasticity-damage model is formulated and regularized by an implicit gradient enhancement. The plasticity part introduces a new microplane smooth 3-surface cap yield function, which provides a stable numerical solution within an implicit finite element algorithm. The damage part utilizes a split, which can describe the transition of loading between tension and compression. Regularization of the model by the implicit gradient approach eliminates the mesh sensitivity and numerical instabilities. Identification methods for model parameters are proposed and several numerical examples of plain and reinforced concrete are carried out for illustration.

  8. An anisotropic damage model for concrete structures under cyclic loading-uniaxial modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yuchuan; He, Yuming

    2017-05-01

    An anisotropic damage model is developed based on conventional rotating crack approach. It uses nonlinear unloading/linear reloading branches to model the hysteretic behavior of concrete. Two damage variables, determined by the ratio of accumulated dissipating energy to fracture energy, are introduced to represent the stiffness degradation in tension and compression. Three cyclic tests are simulated by this model and sensitivity analyses are conducted as well. The numerical responses calculated by the damage model are consistent with those obtained from the experiments. The numerical results reflect the nonlinear behavior observed in those tests, such as the damage-induced stiffness degradation, accumulation of residual deformation, energy dissipation caused by hysteretic behavior and stiffness recovery effect due to crack closure. Sensitivity analyses show that the damage exponents have significant influence on the computational accuracy. It is concluded that the anisotropic damage model is applicable to the nonlinear analyses of concrete structures subjected to cyclic loading.

  9. Nonlinear ultrasound modelling and validation of fatigue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, G. P. Malfense; Ciampa, F.; Ginzburg, D.; Onder, E.; Meo, M.

    2015-05-01

    Nonlinear ultrasound techniques have shown greater sensitivity to microcracks and they can be used to detect structural damages at their early stages. However, there is still a lack of numerical models available in commercial finite element analysis (FEA) tools that are able to simulate the interaction of elastic waves with the materials nonlinear behaviour. In this study, a nonlinear constitutive material model was developed to predict the structural response under continuous harmonic excitation of a fatigued isotropic sample that showed anharmonic effects. Particularly, by means of Landau's theory and Kelvin tensorial representation, this model provided an understanding of the elastic nonlinear phenomena such as the second harmonic generation in three-dimensional solid media. The numerical scheme was implemented and evaluated using a commercially available FEA software LS-DYNA, and it showed a good numerical characterisation of the second harmonic amplitude generated by the damaged region known as the nonlinear response area (NRA). Since this process requires only the experimental second-order nonlinear parameter and rough damage size estimation as an input, it does not need any baseline testing with the undamaged structure or any dynamic modelling of the fatigue crack growth. To validate this numerical model, the second-order nonlinear parameter was experimentally evaluated at various points over the fatigue life of an aluminium (AA6082-T6) coupon and the crack propagation was measured using an optical microscope. A good correlation was achieved between the experimental set-up and the nonlinear constitutive model.

  10. Bread dough rheology: Computing with a damage function model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Roger I.; Qi, Fuzhong; Dai, Shaocong

    2015-01-01

    We describe an improved damage function model for bread dough rheology. The model has relatively few parameters, all of which can easily be found from simple experiments. Small deformations in the linear region are described by a gel-like power-law memory function. A set of large non-reversing deformations - stress relaxation after a step of shear, steady shearing and elongation beginning from rest, and biaxial stretching, is used to test the model. With the introduction of a revised strain measure which includes a Mooney-Rivlin term, all of these motions can be well described by the damage function described in previous papers. For reversing step strains, larger amplitude oscillatory shearing and recoil reasonable predictions have been found. The numerical methods used are discussed and we give some examples.

  11. Statistical 3D damage accumulation model for ion implant simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Mangas, J.M.; Lazaro, J.; Enriquez, L.; Bailon, L.; Barbolla, J.; Jaraiz, M.

    2003-01-01

    A statistical 3D damage accumulation model, based on the modified Kinchin-Pease formula, for ion implant simulation has been included in our physically based ion implantation code. It has only one fitting parameter for electronic stopping and uses 3D electron density distributions for different types of targets including compound semiconductors. Also, a statistical noise reduction mechanism based on the dose division is used. The model has been adapted to be run under parallel execution in order to speed up the calculation in 3D structures. Sequential ion implantation has been modelled including previous damage profiles. It can also simulate the implantation of molecular and cluster projectiles. Comparisons of simulated doping profiles with experimental SIMS profiles are presented. Also comparisons between simulated amorphization and experimental RBS profiles are shown. An analysis of sequential versus parallel processing is provided

  12. Statistical 3D damage accumulation model for ion implant simulators

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Mangas, J M; Enriquez, L E; Bailon, L; Barbolla, J; Jaraiz, M

    2003-01-01

    A statistical 3D damage accumulation model, based on the modified Kinchin-Pease formula, for ion implant simulation has been included in our physically based ion implantation code. It has only one fitting parameter for electronic stopping and uses 3D electron density distributions for different types of targets including compound semiconductors. Also, a statistical noise reduction mechanism based on the dose division is used. The model has been adapted to be run under parallel execution in order to speed up the calculation in 3D structures. Sequential ion implantation has been modelled including previous damage profiles. It can also simulate the implantation of molecular and cluster projectiles. Comparisons of simulated doping profiles with experimental SIMS profiles are presented. Also comparisons between simulated amorphization and experimental RBS profiles are shown. An analysis of sequential versus parallel processing is provided.

  13. Multilevel modeling of damage accumulation processes in metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurmoiartseva, K. A.; Trusov, P. V.; Kotelnikova, N. V.

    2017-12-01

    To predict the behavior of components and constructions it is necessary to develop the methods and mathematical models which take into account the self-organization of microstructural processes and the strain localization. The damage accumulation processes and the evolution of material properties during deformation are important to take into account. The heterogeneity of the process of damage accumulation is due to the appropriate physical mechanisms at the scale levels, which are lower than the macro-level. The purpose of this work is to develop a mathematical model for analyzing the behavior of polycrystalline materials that allows describing the damage accumulation processes. Fracture is the multistage and multiscale process of the build-up of micro- and mesodefects over the wide range of loading rates. The formation of microcracks by mechanisms is caused by the interactions of the dislocations of different slip systems, barriers, boundaries and the inclusions of the secondary phase. This paper provides the description of some of the most well-known models of crack nucleation and also suggests the structure of a mathematical model based on crystal plasticity and dislocation models of crack nucleation.

  14. Literature study report of plasticity induced anisotropic damage modeling for forming processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad Sohail

    2009-01-01

    A literature study report covering the topics; micromechanics of damage, continuum damage mechanics (gurson model and effective variable concept) and the dependence of damage on strain rate and temperature.

  15. Modelling of Damage Evolution in Braided Composites: Recent Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Roy, Anish; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.; Chen, Zhong

    2017-12-01

    Composites reinforced with woven or braided textiles exhibit high structural stability and excellent damage tolerance thanks to yarn interlacing. With their high stiffness-to-weight and strength-to-weight ratios, braided composites are attractive for aerospace and automotive components as well as sports protective equipment. In these potential applications, components are typically subjected to multi-directional static, impact and fatigue loadings. To enhance material analysis and design for such applications, understanding mechanical behaviour of braided composites and development of predictive capabilities becomes crucial. Significant progress has been made in recent years in development of new modelling techniques allowing elucidation of static and dynamic responses of braided composites. However, because of their unique interlacing geometric structure and complicated failure modes, prediction of damage initiation and its evolution in components is still a challenge. Therefore, a comprehensive literature analysis is presented in this work focused on a review of the state-of-the-art progressive damage analysis of braided composites with finite-element simulations. Recently models employed in the studies on mechanical behaviour, impact response and fatigue analyses of braided composites are presented systematically. This review highlights the importance, advantages and limitations of as-applied failure criteria and damage evolution laws for yarns and composite unit cells. In addition, this work provides a good reference for future research on FE simulations of braided composites.

  16. Ghrelin modulates testicular damage in a cryptorchid mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekelheide, Kim; Sigman, Mark; Hall, Susan J.; Hwang, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Cryptorchidism or undescended testis (UDT) is a common congenital abnormality associated with increased risk for developing male infertility and testicular cancer. This study elucidated the effects of endogenous ghrelin or growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) deletion on mouse reproductive performance and evaluated the ability of ghrelin to prevent testicular damage in a surgical cryptorchid mouse model. Reciprocal matings with heterozygous/homozygous ghrelin and GHSR knockout mice were performed. Litter size and germ cell apoptosis were recorded and testicular histological evaluations were performed. Wild type and GHSR knockout adult mice were subjected to creation of unilateral surgical cryptorchidism that is a model of heat-induced germ cell death. All mice were randomly separated into two groups: treatment with ghrelin or with saline. To assess testicular damage, the following endpoints were evaluated: testis weight, seminiferous tubule diameter, percentage of seminiferous tubules with spermatids and with multinucleated giant cells. Our findings indicated that endogenous ghrelin deletion altered male fertility. Moreover, ghrelin treatment ameliorated the testicular weight changes caused by surgically induced cryptorchidism. Testicular histopathology revealed a significant preservation of spermatogenesis and seminiferous tubule diameter in the ghrelin-treated cryptorchid testes of GHSR KO mice, suggesting that this protective effect of ghrelin was mediated by an unknown mechanism. In conclusion, ghrelin therapy could be useful to suppress testicular damage induced by hyperthermia, and future investigations will focus on the underlying mechanisms by which ghrelin mitigates testicular damage. PMID:28542403

  17. An anisotropic elastic-viscoplastic damage model for bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiedrzik, J J; Zysset, P K

    2013-04-01

    A new anisotropic elastic-viscoplastic damage constitutive model for bone is proposed using an eccentric elliptical yield criterion and nonlinear isotropic hardening. A micromechanics-based multiscale homogenization scheme proposed by Reisinger et al. is used to obtain the effective elastic properties of lamellar bone. The dissipative process in bone is modeled as viscoplastic deformation coupled to damage. The model is based on an orthotropic ecuntric elliptical criterion in stress space. In order to simplify material identification, an eccentric elliptical isotropic yield surface was defined in strain space, which is transformed to a stress-based criterion by means of the damaged compliance tensor. Viscoplasticity is implemented by means of the continuous Perzyna formulation. Damage is modeled by a scalar function of the accumulated plastic strain [Formula: see text] , reducing all element s of the stiffness matrix. A polynomial flow rule is proposed in order to capture the rate-dependent post-yield behavior of lamellar bone. A numerical algorithm to perform the back projection on the rate-dependent yield surface has been developed and implemented in the commercial finite element solver Abaqus/Standard as a user subroutine UMAT. A consistent tangent operator has been derived and implemented in order to ensure quadratic convergence. Correct implementation of the algorithm, convergence, and accuracy of the tangent operator was tested by means of strain- and stress-based single element tests. A finite element simulation of nano- indentation in lamellar bone was finally performed in order to show the abilities of the newly developed constitutive model.

  18. Smeared crack modelling approach for corrosion-induced concrete damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Anna Emilie Anusha; Michel, Alexander; Stang, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a smeared crack modelling approach is used to simulate corrosion-induced damage in reinforced concrete. The presented modelling approach utilizes a thermal analogy to mimic the expansive nature of solid corrosion products, while taking into account the penetration of corrosion...... products into the surrounding concrete, non-uniform precipitation of corrosion products, and creep. To demonstrate the applicability of the presented modelling approach, numerical predictions in terms of corrosion-induced deformations as well as formation and propagation of micro- and macrocracks were...

  19. Damage modelling in concrete subject to sulfate attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cefis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the mechanical effect of the sulfate attack on concrete. The durability analysis of concrete structures in contact to external sulfate solutions requires the definition of a proper diffusion-reaction model, for the computation of the varying sulfate concentration and of the consequent ettringite formation, coupled to a mechanical model for the prediction of swelling and material degradation. In this work, we make use of a two-ions formulation of the reactive-diffusion problem and we propose a bi-phase chemo-elastic damage model aimed to simulate the mechanical response of concrete and apt to be used in structural analyses.

  20. Modelling earthquake ruptures with dynamic off-fault damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Kurama; Bhat, Harsha S.; Klinger, Yann; Rougier, Esteban

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake rupture modelling has been developed for producing scenario earthquakes. This includes understanding the source mechanisms and estimating far-field ground motion with given a priori constraints like fault geometry, constitutive law of the medium and friction law operating on the fault. It is necessary to consider all of the above complexities of a fault systems to conduct realistic earthquake rupture modelling. In addition to the complexity of the fault geometry in nature, coseismic off-fault damage, which is observed by a variety of geological and seismological methods, plays a considerable role on the resultant ground motion and its spectrum compared to a model with simple planer fault surrounded by purely elastic media. Ideally all of these complexities should be considered in earthquake modelling. State of the art techniques developed so far, however, cannot treat all of them simultaneously due to a variety of computational restrictions. Therefore, we adopt the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM), which can effectively deal with pre-existing complex fault geometry such as fault branches and kinks and can describe coseismic off-fault damage generated during the dynamic rupture. The advantage of FDEM is that it can handle a wide range of length scales, from metric to kilometric scale, corresponding to the off-fault damage and complex fault geometry respectively. We used the FDEM-based software tool called HOSSedu (Hybrid Optimization Software Suite - Educational Version) for the earthquake rupture modelling, which was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. We firstly conducted the cross-validation of this new methodology against other conventional numerical schemes such as the finite difference method (FDM), the spectral element method (SEM) and the boundary integral equation method (BIEM), to evaluate the accuracy with various element sizes and artificial viscous damping values. We demonstrate the capability of the FDEM tool for

  1. Local stem cell depletion model for normal tissue damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaes, R.J.; Keland, A.

    1987-01-01

    The hypothesis that radiation causes normal tissue damage by completely depleting local regions of tissue of viable stem cells leads to a simple mathematical model for such damage. In organs like skin and spinal cord where destruction of a small volume of tissue leads to a clinically apparent complication, the complication probability is expressed as a function of dose, volume and stem cell number by a simple triple negative exponential function analogous to the double exponential function of Munro and Gilbert for tumor control. The steep dose response curves for radiation myelitis that are obtained with our model are compared with the experimental data for radiation myelitis in laboratory rats. The model can be generalized to include other types or organs, high LET radiation, fractionated courses of radiation, and cases where an organ with a heterogeneous stem cell population receives an inhomogeneous dose of radiation. In principle it would thus be possible to determine the probability of tumor control and of damage to any organ within the radiation field if the dose distribution in three dimensional space within a patient is known

  2. A Mathematical Model for DNA Damage and Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip S. Crooke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In cells, DNA repair has to keep up with DNA damage to maintain the integrity of the genome and prevent mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. While the importance of both DNA damage and repair is clear, the impact of imbalances between both processes has not been studied. In this paper, we created a combined mathematical model for the formation of DNA adducts from oxidative estrogen metabolism followed by base excision repair (BER of these adducts. The model encompasses a set of differential equations representing the sequence of enzymatic reactions in both damage and repair pathways. By combining both pathways, we can simulate the overall process by starting from a given time-dependent concentration of 17β-estradiol (E2 and 2′-deoxyguanosine, determine the extent of adduct formation and the correction by BER required to preserve the integrity of DNA. The model allows us to examine the effect of phenotypic and genotypic factors such as different concentrations of estrogen and variant enzyme haplotypes on the formation and repair of DNA adducts.

  3. Micromechanics Based Inelastic and Damage Modeling of Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Procházka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Micromechanics based models are considered for application to viscoelasticity and damage in metal matrix composites. The method proposes a continuation and development of Dvooák’s transformation field analysis, considering the piecewise uniform eigenstrains in each material phase. Standard applications of the method to a two-phase are considered in this study model, i.e., only one sub-volume per phase is considered. A continuous model is used, employing transformation field analysis with softening in order to prevent the tensile stress overstepping the tensile strength. At the same time shear cracking occurs in the tangential direction of the possible crack. This is considered in the principal shear stresses and they make disconnections in displacements. In this case, discontinuous models are more promising. Because discrete models, that can describe the situation more realistically have not been worked out in detail, we retain a continuous model and substitute the slip caused by overstepping the damage law by introducing eigenparameters from TFA. The various aspects of the proposed methods are systematically checked by comparing with finite element unit cell analyses, made through periodic homogenization assumptions, for SiC/Ti unidirectional lay-ups. 

  4. Multiscale modeling of damage in multidirectional composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandra Veer

    90°-plies. The predictions agree well with published experimental data as well as independent FE computations. Limited parametric studies are performed to show usability of SDM for more general laminates. To predict the initiation and growth of intralaminar cracks, an energy based model is proposed in which these cracks initiate and multiply when the work required to form new set of cracks exceeds a laminate dependent critical energy release rate. The approach requires determination of average crack opening and sliding displacements at varying crack spacing. This task is performed through a suitable 3-D FE analysis. In case of off-axis ply cracking, a mixed mode fracture criterion is utilized, where the critical energy release rates in normal and shear modes are determined by fitting the damage model with the experimental data for a reference laminate. The predictions from the model for [0/+/-theta4/01/2]s and [0/90/∓45]s laminates show remarkable agreement with the experimental results. The methodology and the results covered in this dissertation will be of interest to mechanics of materials researchers as well as to engineers in industry where composite materials for structural applications are of interest.

  5. Rate equation model of bulk optical damage of silica, and the influence of polishing on surface optical damage of silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Arlee; Do, Binh; Schuster, Rod; Collier, David

    2008-02-01

    Our objective is to understand the mechanism that generates catastrophic optical damage in pulsed fiber amplifiers. We measured optical damage thresholds of bulk fused silica at 1064 nm for 8 ns and 14 ps pulses. The 8 ns pulse is single longitudinal mode from a Q-switched laser, and the 14 ps pulse is from a Q-switched mode-lock laser. The beams in both cases are TEM 00 mode, and they are focused to a 7.5 μm spot inside a fused silica window. The pulse-to-pulse energy variations are 1% for 8 ns pulses and 5% for 14 ps pulses. Under these conditions optical damage is always accompanied by plasma formation at the focal spot; we found the damage threshold fluences are 3854 +/- 85 J/cm2 for the 8 ns pulses and 25.4 +/- 1.0 J/cm2 for the 14 ps pulses. These fluences are corrected for self focusing. Both damage thresholds are deterministic, in contrast to the claim often made in the literature that optical damage is statistical in the nanosecond range. The measured damage threshold fluences for 8 ns and 14 ps pulses do not fit a square root of pulse duration scaling rule. We interpret the damage in terms of plasma formation initiated by multiphoton ionization and amplified by an electron avalanche. The damage threshold irradiance can be matched with a simple rate equation model that includes multiphoton ionization, electron avalanche, and electron-hole recombination. The damage morphologies are dramatically different in the nanosecond and picosecond cases because of the large difference in deposited energy. However, both morphologies are reproducible from pulse to pulse. We also measured surface damage thresholds for silica windows polished by different methods. We find that cerium oxide polished surfaces damage at approximately 40% of the bulk threshold, with a large statistical spread. Surfaces prepared using an Al IIO 3 polish damaged between 50% and 100% of the bulk damage limit, with a substantial fraction at 100%. Surfaces polished using first the Al IIO 3 polish

  6. A transportable system of models for natural resource damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, M.; French, D.

    1992-01-01

    A system of computer models has been developed for assessment of natural resource economic damages resulting from spills of oil and hazardous materials in marine and fresh water environments. Under USA federal legislation, the results of the model system are presumed correct in damage litigation proceedings. The model can address a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The equations describing the motion of both pollutants and biota are solved in three dimensions. The model can simulate continuous releases of a contaminant, with representation of complex coastal boundaries, variable bathymetry, multiple shoreline types, and spatially variable ecosystem habitats. A graphic user interface provides easy control of the system in addition to the ability to display elements of the underlying geographical information system data base. The model is implemented on a personal computer and on a UNIX workstation. The structure of the system is such that transport to new geographic regions can be accomplished relatively easily, requiring only the development of the appropriate physical, toxicological, biological, and economic data sets. Applications are currently in progress for USA inland and coastal waters, the Adriatic Sea, the Strait of Sicily, the Gulf of Suez, and the Baltic Sea. 4 refs., 2 figs

  7. Modeling the viscoplastic and damage behavior in deep argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souley, M.; Armand, G.; Su, K.; Ghoreychi, M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the feasibility of a radioactive waste repository in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stone formation, the French national radioactive waste management agency (ANDRA) started in 2000 to build an underground research laboratory at Bure (East of France). One of the key issues is to understand long term behavior of the drifts. More than 400 m horizontal galleries at the main level of -490 m have been instrumented since April 2005. The continuous measurements of convergence of the galleries are available, allowing a better understanding of the time-dependent response of the clay-stone at natural scale. Results indicate that the viscoplastic strain rates observed in the undamaged area far from the gallery walls are of the same order of magnitude as those obtained on rock samples, whereas those recorded in the damaged or fractured zone near the gallery walls are one to two orders of magnitude higher, indicating the significant influence of damage or/and macro-fractures on the viscoplastic strains. Based on these observations, a macroscopic viscoplastic model which aims to improve the viscoplastic strain prediction in the EDZ is proposed and implemented in FLAC 3Dc . Both the instantaneous and the time-dependent behavior are considered in the model. The short term response is assumed to be elastoplastic with strain hardening/softening whereas the time-dependent behavior is based on the concepts of visco-plasticity (Lemaitre's model). Finally, the damage-induced viscoplastic strains changes is examined through the plastic deformation (assumed to approach the damage rate).In order to verify both constitutive equations and their implementations, several simulations are performed: (a) triaxial tests at different confining pressures; (b) single- and multi-stage creep tests; (c) relaxation tests with different total axial strain levels, etc. Finally, an example of a blind prediction of the excavation of a drift parallel to the horizontal minor stress,

  8. Transgenic Mouse Model for Reducing Oxidative Damage in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Torres, S.; Truong, T.; Moyer, E. L.; Kumar, A.; Tahimic, Candice C. G.; Alwood, J. S.; Limoli, C. L.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Bone loss can occur due to many challenges such age, radiation, microgravity, and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play a critical role in bone resorption by osteoclasts (Bartell et al. 2014). We hypothesize that suppression of excess ROS in skeletal cells, both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, regulates skeletal growth and remodeling. To test our hypothesis, we used transgenic mCAT mice which overexpress the human anti-oxidant catalase gene targeted to the mitochondria, the main site for endogenous ROS production. mCAT mice have a longer life-span than wildtype controls and have been used to study various age-related disorders. To stimulate remodeling, 16 week old mCAT mice or wildtype mice were exposed to treatment (hindlimb-unloading and total body-irradiation) or sham treatment conditions (control). Tissues were harvested 2 weeks later for skeletal analysis (microcomputed tomography), biochemical analysis (gene expression and oxidative damage measurements), and ex vivo bone marrow derived cell culture (osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis). mCAT mice expressed the transgene and displayed elevated catalase activity in skeletal tissue and marrow-derived osteoblasts and osteoclasts grown ex vivo. In addition, when challenged with treatment, bone tissues from wildtype mice showed elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), indicating oxidative damage) whereas mCAT mice did not. Correlation analysis revealed that increased catalase activity significantly correlated with decreased MDA levels and that increased oxidative damage correlated with decreased percent bone volume (BVTV). In addition, ex-vivo cultured osteoblast colony growth correlated with catalase activity in the osteoblasts. Thus, we showed that these transgenic mice can be used as a model to study the relationship between markers of oxidative damage and skeletal properties. mCAT mice displayed reduced BVTV and trabecular number relative to wildtype mice, as well as increased structural model index in the

  9. Modeling the viscoplastic and damage behavior in deep argillaceous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souley, Mountaka; Armand, Gilles; Su, Kun; Ghoreychi, Mehdi

    In order to demonstrate the feasibility of a radioactive waste repository in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone formation, the French national radioactive waste management agency (ANDRA) started in 2000 to build an underground research laboratory at Bure (East of France). One of the key issues is to understand long term behavior of the drifts. More than 400 m horizontal galleries at the main level of -490 m have been instrumented since April 2005. The continuous measurements of convergence of the galleries are available, allowing a better understanding of the time-dependent response of the claystone at natural scale. Results indicate that the viscoplastic strain rates observed in the undamaged area far from the gallery walls are of the same order of magnitude as those obtained on rock samples, whereas those recorded in the damaged or fractured zone near the gallery walls are one to two orders of magnitude higher, indicating the significant influence of damage or/and macro-fractures on the viscoplastic strains. Based on these observations, a macroscopic viscoplastic model which aims to improve the viscoplastic strain prediction in the EDZ is proposed and implemented in FLAC3 D©. Both the instantaneous and the time-dependent behavior are considered in the model. The short term response is assumed to be elactoplastic with strain hardening/softening whereas the time-dependent behavior is based on the concepts of viscoplasticity (Lemaıˆtre’s model). Finally, the damage-induced viscoplastic strains changes is examined through the plastic deformation (assumed to approach the damage rate). In order to verify both constitutive equations and their implementations, several simulations are performed: (a) triaxial tests at different confining pressures; (b) single- and multi-stage creep tests; (c) relaxation tests with different total axial strain levels, etc. Finally, an example of a blind prediction of the excavation of a drift parallel to the horizontal minor stress,

  10. Modelling Of Anticipated Damage Ratio On Breakwaters Using Fuzzy Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercan, D. E.; Yagci, O.; Kabdasli, S.

    2003-04-01

    In breakwater design the determination of armour unit weight is especially important in terms of the structure's life. In a typical experimental breakwater stability study, different wave series composed of different wave heights; wave period and wave steepness characteristics are applied in order to investigate performance the structure. Using a classical approach, a regression equation is generated for damage ratio as a function of characteristic wave height. The parameters wave period and wave steepness are not considered. In this study, differing from the classical approach using a fuzzy logic, a relationship between damage ratio as a function of mean wave period (T_m), wave steepness (H_s/L_m) and significant wave height (H_s) was further generated. The system's inputs were mean wave period (T_m), wave steepness (H_s/L_m) and significant wave height (H_s). For fuzzification all input variables were divided into three fuzzy subsets, their membership functions were defined using method developed by Mandani (Mandani, 1974) and the rules were written. While for defuzzification the centroid method was used. In order to calibrate and test the generated models an experimental study was conducted. The experiments were performed in a wave flume (24 m long, 1.0 m wide and 1.0 m high) using 20 different irregular wave series (P-M spectrum). Throughout the study, the water depth was 0.6 m and the breakwater cross-sectional slope was 1V/2H. In the armour layer, a type of artificial armour unit known as antifer cubes were used. The results of the established fuzzy logic model and regression equation model was compared with experimental data and it was determined that the established fuzzy logic model gave a more accurate prediction of the damage ratio on this type of breakwater. References Mandani, E.H., "Application of Fuzzy Algorithms for Control of Simple Dynamic Plant", Proc. IEE, vol. 121, no. 12, December 1974.

  11. Stochastic models for predicting pitting corrosion damage of HLRW containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshall, G.A.

    1991-10-01

    Stochastic models for predicting aqueous pitting corrosion damage of high-level radioactive-waste containers are described. These models could be used to predict the time required for the first pit to penetrate a container and the increase in the number of breaches at later times, both of which would be useful in the repository system performance analysis. Monte Carlo implementations of the stochastic models are described, and predictions of induction time, survival probability and pit depth distributions are presented. These results suggest that the pit nucleation probability decreases with exposure time and that pit growth may be a stochastic process. The advantages and disadvantages of the stochastic approach, methods for modeling the effects of environment, and plans for future work are discussed

  12. Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) Model for Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, Michael K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scherzinger, William M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hinnerichs, Terry D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lo, Chi S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Numerous experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of several different rigid polyurethane foams (FR3712, PMDI10, PMDI20, and TufFoam35) to large deformation. In these experiments, the effects of load path, loading rate, and temperature were investigated. Results from these experiments indicated that rigid polyurethane foams exhibit significant volumetric and deviatoric plasticity when they are compressed. Rigid polyurethane foams were also found to be very strain-rate and temperature dependent. These foams are also rather brittle and crack when loaded to small strains in tension or to larger strains in compression. Thus, a new Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) model was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Foam Damage to describe the mechanical response of these foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments and experimental findings. Next, development of a UCPD model for rigid, polyurethane foams is described. Selection of material parameters for a variety of rigid polyurethane foams is then discussed and finite element simulations with the new UCPD model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this model.

  13. Micromechanical modeling and inverse identification of damage using cohesive approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blal, Nawfal

    2013-01-01

    In this study a micromechanical model is proposed for a collection of cohesive zone models embedded between two each elements of a standard cohesive-volumetric finite element method. An equivalent 'matrix-inclusions' composite is proposed as a representation of the cohesive-volumetric discretization. The overall behaviour is obtained using homogenization approaches (Hashin Shtrikman scheme and the P. Ponte Castaneda approach). The derived model deals with elastic, brittle and ductile materials. It is available whatever the triaxiality loading rate and the shape of the cohesive law, and leads to direct relationships between the overall material properties and the local cohesive parameters and the mesh density. First, rigorous bounds on the normal and tangential cohesive stiffnesses are obtained leading to a suitable control of the inherent artificial elastic loss induced by intrinsic cohesive models. Second, theoretical criteria on damageable and ductile cohesive parameters are established (cohesive peak stress, critical separation, cohesive failure energy,... ). These criteria allow a practical calibration of the cohesive zone parameters as function of the overall material properties and the mesh length. The main interest of such calibration is its promising capacity to lead to a mesh-insensitive overall response in surface damage. (author) [fr

  14. ITER transient consequences for material damage: modelling versus experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazylev, B.; Janeschitz, G.; Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S.; Loarte, A.; Federici, G.; Merola, M.; Linke, J.; Zhitlukhin, A.; Podkovyrov, V.; Klimov, N.; Safronov, V.

    2007-03-01

    Carbon-fibre composite (CFC) and tungsten macrobrush armours are foreseen as PFC for the ITER divertor. In ITER the main mechanisms of metallic armour damage remain surface melting and melt motion erosion. In the case of CFC armour, due to rather different heat conductivities of CFC fibres a noticeable erosion of the PAN bundles may occur at rather small heat loads. Experiments carried out in the plasma gun facilities QSPA-T for the ITER like edge localized mode (ELM) heat load also demonstrated significant erosion of the frontal and lateral brush edges. Numerical simulations of the CFC and tungsten (W) macrobrush target damage accounting for the heat loads at the face and lateral brush edges were carried out for QSPA-T conditions using the three-dimensional (3D) code PHEMOBRID. The modelling results of CFC damage are in a good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experiments. Estimation of the droplet splashing caused by the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability was performed.

  15. ITER transient consequences for material damage: modelling versus experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazylev, B; Janeschitz, G; Landman, I; Pestchanyi, S; Loarte, A; Federici, G; Merola, M; Linke, J; Zhitlukhin, A; Podkovyrov, V; Klimov, N; Safronov, V

    2007-01-01

    Carbon-fibre composite (CFC) and tungsten macrobrush armours are foreseen as PFC for the ITER divertor. In ITER the main mechanisms of metallic armour damage remain surface melting and melt motion erosion. In the case of CFC armour, due to rather different heat conductivities of CFC fibres a noticeable erosion of the PAN bundles may occur at rather small heat loads. Experiments carried out in the plasma gun facilities QSPA-T for the ITER like edge localized mode (ELM) heat load also demonstrated significant erosion of the frontal and lateral brush edges. Numerical simulations of the CFC and tungsten (W) macrobrush target damage accounting for the heat loads at the face and lateral brush edges were carried out for QSPA-T conditions using the three-dimensional (3D) code PHEMOBRID. The modelling results of CFC damage are in a good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experiments. Estimation of the droplet splashing caused by the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability was performed

  16. The Estimation Modelling of Damaged Areas by Harmful Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, R.; Sung, M.; Hwang, J.; Jeon, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Republic of Korea has undergone rapid development and urban development without sufficient consideration of the environment. This type of growth is accompanied by a reduction in forest area and wildlife habitat. It is a phenomenon that affects the habitat of large mammals more than small. Especially in Korea, the damage caused by wild boar(Sus scrofa) is harsher than other large mammalian species like water deer(Hydropotes inermis), which also means that the number of these reported cases of this species is higher than ones of other mammals. Wild boar has three to eight cubs per year and it is possible to breed every year, which makes it more populous comparing with the fragmented habitats. It could be regarded as one of the top predators in Korea, which it is inevitable for humans to intervene this creature in population control. In addition, some individuals have been forced to be retreated from other habitats in major habitats, or to invade human activity areas for food activity, thereby destroying crops. Ultimately, this mammal species has been treated as farm pest animals through committing road kills and urban emergences. In this study, we has estimated possible farm pest animal present points from the damage district using 2,505 hazardous wildlife damage areas with four types of geological informations, four kinds of forest information, land cover, and distribution of farmland occurred in Gyeongnam province in Korea. In the estimating model, utilizing MAXENT, information of background point was set to 10,000, 70% of the damaged sites were used to construct the model, 30% was used for verification, and 10 times of crossvalidate were proceeded - verified by AUC of ROC. As a result of analyses, AUC was 0.847, and the percent contribution of the forest information was the distance toward inner-forest areas, 36.1%, the land cover, 16.5%, the distance from the field, 14.9%. Furthermore, the permutation importance was 24.9% of the cover, 12.3% of the height

  17. Two-scale modelling for hydro-mechanical damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, J.; Chambon, R.; Dascalu, C.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Excavation works for underground storage create a damage zone for the rock nearby and affect its hydraulics properties. This degradation, already observed by laboratory tests, can create a leading path for fluids. The micro fracture phenomenon, which occur at a smaller scale and affect the rock permeability, must be fully understood to minimize the transfer process. Many methods can be used in order to take into account the microstructure of heterogeneous materials. Among them a method has been developed recently. Instead of using a constitutive equation obtained by phenomenological considerations or by some homogenization techniques, the representative elementary volume (R.E.V.) is modelled as a structure and the links between a prescribed kinematics and the corresponding dual forces are deduced numerically. This yields the so called Finite Element square method (FE2). In a numerical point of view, a finite element model is used at the macroscopic level, and for each Gauss point, computations on the microstructure gives the usual results of a constitutive law. This numerical approach is now classical in order to properly model some materials such as composites and the efficiency of such numerical homogenization process has been shown, and allows numerical modelling of deformation processes associated with various micro-structural changes. The aim of this work is to describe trough such a method, damage of the rock with a two scale hydro-mechanical model. The rock damage at the macroscopic scale is directly link with an analysis on the microstructure. At the macroscopic scale a two phase's problem is studied. A solid skeleton is filled up by a filtrating fluid. It is necessary to enforce two balance equation and two mass conservation equations. A classical way to deal with such a problem is to work with the balance equation of the whole mixture, and the mass fluid conservation written in a weak form, the mass

  18. Modeling radiation damage to pixel sensors in the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ducourthial, Audrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of $10^{15}n_{eq}/cm^2$ and the HL-HLC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is critical in order to make accurate predictions for current future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we present first predictions for basic pixel cluster properties alongside ...

  19. Classification Model for Damage Localization in a Plate Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeliukstis, R.; Ruchevskis, S.; Chate, A.

    2018-01-01

    The present study is devoted to the problem of damage localization by means of data classification. The commercial ANSYS finite-elements program was used to make a model of a cantilevered composite plate equipped with numerous strain sensors. The plate was divided into zones, and, for data classification purposes, each of them housed several points to which a point mass of magnitude 5 and 10% of plate mass was applied. At each of these points, a numerical modal analysis was performed, from which the first few natural frequencies and strain readings were extracted. The strain data for every point were the input for a classification procedure involving k nearest neighbors and decision trees. The classification model was trained and optimized by finetuning the key parameters of both algorithms. Finally, two new query points were simulated and subjected to a classification in terms of assigning a label to one of the zones of the plate, thus localizing these points. Damage localization results were compared for both algorithms and were found to be in good agreement with the actual application positions of point load.

  20. Modeling Radiation Damage to Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ducourthial, Audrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of $10^{15} n_{eq}/cm^2$ and the HL-HLC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is critical in order to make accurate predictions for current future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we present first predictions for basic pixel cluster properties alongside...

  1. Modeling Radiation Damage to Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Rossini, Lorenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 10^15 neq/cm^2 and the HL-HLC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is critical in order to make accurate predictions for current and future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time and considers both planar and 3D sensor designs. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we compare predictions for b...

  2. Modeling radiation damage to pixel sensors in the ATLAS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducourthial, A.

    2018-03-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subject to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) [1], the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 1015 neq/cm2 and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is essential in order to make accurate predictions for current and future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects on the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we present first predictions for basic pixel cluster properties alongside early studies with LHC Run 2 proton-proton collision data.

  3. Stiffness degradation-based damage model for RC members and structures using fiber-beam elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zongming; Zhang, Yaoting; Lu, Jiezhi; Fan, Jian

    2016-12-01

    To meet the demand for an accurate and highly efficient damage model with a distinct physical meaning for performance-based earthquake engineering applications, a stiffness degradation-based damage model for reinforced concrete (RC) members and structures was developed using fiber beam-column elements. In this model, damage indices for concrete and steel fibers were defined by the degradation of the initial reloading modulus and the low-cycle fatigue law. Then, section, member, story and structure damage was evaluated by the degradation of the sectional bending stiffness, rod-end bending stiffness, story lateral stiffness and structure lateral stiffness, respectively. The damage model was realized in Matlab by reading in the outputs of OpenSees. The application of the damage model to RC columns and a RC frame indicates that the damage model is capable of accurately predicting the magnitude, position, and evolutionary process of damage, and estimating story damage more precisely than inter-story drift. Additionally, the damage model establishes a close connection between damage indices at various levels without introducing weighting coefficients or force-displacement relationships. The development of the model has perfected the damage assessment function of OpenSees, laying a solid foundation for damage estimation at various levels of a large-scale structure subjected to seismic loading.

  4. Microstructure - based continuum damage model for Asphalt mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashman, Laith; Masad, Eyad; Zbib, Hussein; Kaloush, Kamil

    2002-01-01

    Full text.Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a complex composite material that consists of different sizes of aggregates, asphalt binder and air voids. One of the most important failures in asphalt pavements is caused by permanent deformation under high service temperature. An HMA with high resistance to permanent deformation work-hardens under repeated loading with accumulating strain. However, HMA that is susceptible to permanenr deformation develop microcracks under repeated loading, which softens the mix and leads ao an increase in the rate of accumulated strain. Most of macroscopic response of HMA, assume isotropic material properties and do not account for the microscopic behavior. This study develops a viscoplastic constitutive model for asphalt mixtures that incorporates microstructure parameters. The model is based on Perzyna's elasto-viscoplastic theory. The viscous flow function is extended to reflect the microstructure anisotropy. In addition, a damage parameter is included in the model to reflect the initiation adn propagation of cracks. The model's parameters are obtained using image analysis procedures, static creep tests and strength tests. The model is used to describe the behavior of number of mixtures with known field performance

  5. Radiation damage of DNA. Model for direct ionization of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kazuo; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2004-01-01

    Current aspects of radiation damage of DNA, particularly induced by the direct effect of radiation, and author's method of pulse radiolysis are described in relation to behavior of ions formed by radiation and active principles to induce the strand break. In irradiation of DNA solution in water, the direct effect of radiation is derived from ionization of DNA itself and indirect one, from the reaction between DNA and radicals generated from water molecules and the former direct one has been scarcely investigated due to difficulty of experimental approach. Radicals generated in sugar moiety of DNA are shown important in the strand break by recent studies on crystalline DNA irradiated by X-ray, DNA solution by electron and photon beams, hydrated DNA by γ-ray and by high linear energy transfer (LET) ion. Author's pulse radiolysis studies have revealed behaviors of guanine and adenine radical cations in dynamics of DNA oxidation. Since reactions described are the model, the experimental approach is thought necessary for elucidation of the actually occurring DNA damage in living cells. (N.I.)

  6. Testicular Damage following Testicular Sperm Retrieval: A Ram Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Fedder

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible development of histological abnormalities such as fibrosis and microcalcifications after sperm retrieval in a ram model. Fourteen testicles in nine rams were exposed to open biopsy, multiple TESAs, or TESE, and the remaining four testicles were left unoperated on as controls. Three months after sperm retrieval, the testicles were removed, fixed, and cut into 1/2 cm thick slices and systematically put onto a glass plate exposing macroscopic abnormalities. Tissue from abnormal areas was cut into 3 μm sections and stained for histological evaluation. Pathological abnormalities were observed in testicles exposed to sperm retrieval (≥11 of 14 compared to 0 of 4 control testicles. Testicular damage was found independently of the kind of intervention used. Therefore, cryopreservation of excess sperm should be considered while retrieving sperm.

  7. Modeling Radiation Damage to Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Nachman, Benjamin Philip; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector. As the detector in closest proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the HL-LHC, the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of $10^{15}$ 1 MeV $n_\\mathrm{eq}/\\mathrm{cm}^2$ and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This talk presents a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS Pixel sensors for the first time. After a thorough description of the setup, predictions for basic Pixel cluster properties are presented alongside first validation studies with Run 2 collision data.

  8. 3D constitutive model of anisotropic damage for unidirectional ply based on physical failure mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qing, Hai; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2010-01-01

    A 3D anisotropic continuum damage model is developed for the computational analysis of the elastic–brittle behaviour of fibre-reinforced composite. The damage model is based on a set of phenomenological failure criteria for fibre-reinforced composite, which can distinguish the matrix and fibre...... failure under tensile and compressive loading. The homogenized continuum theory is adopted for the anisotropic elastic damage constitutive model. The damage modes occurring in the longitudinal and transverse directions of a ply are represented by a damage vector. The elastic damage model is implemented...... in a computational finite element framework, which is capable of predicting initial failure, subsequent progressive damage up to final collapse. Crack band model and viscous regularization are applied to depress the convergence difficulties associated with strain softening behaviours. To verify the accuracy...

  9. A Kriging Model Based Finite Element Model Updating Method for Damage Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuming Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Model updating is an effective means of damage identification and surrogate modeling has attracted considerable attention for saving computational cost in finite element (FE model updating, especially for large-scale structures. In this context, a surrogate model of frequency is normally constructed for damage identification, while the frequency response function (FRF is rarely used as it usually changes dramatically with updating parameters. This paper presents a new surrogate model based model updating method taking advantage of the measured FRFs. The Frequency Domain Assurance Criterion (FDAC is used to build the objective function, whose nonlinear response surface is constructed by the Kriging model. Then, the efficient global optimization (EGO algorithm is introduced to get the model updating results. The proposed method has good accuracy and robustness, which have been verified by a numerical simulation of a cantilever and experimental test data of a laboratory three-story structure.

  10. Modeling Ballistic Penetration of Multi-Layered Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavattieri, Pablo Daniel; Dante Espinosa, Horacio; Dwivedi, Sunil

    1999-06-01

    There have been several efforts to experimentally design suitable multi-layered ceramic targets. The focus of these experiments has been to minimize ceramic damage and flow to maximize penetration resistance. But the challenge of developing effective ceramic armor systems by experiments alone is a difficult task. In general, experiments do not always provide direct information on material behavior. The implementation of an iterative computational/experimental procedure requires reliable material models incorporating microfailure and macrofracture of ceramics and penetrator materials. A dynamic finite element analysis of large displacements, high strain rate deformation behavior of materials is presented in total lagrangian coordinates. An isochoric finite deformation plasticity model for metals, including rate and temperature effecs, and a continuum/discrete damage model capable of capturing fragmentation at two size scales is derived by combining continuum damage model and a discrete damage model for brittle failure. It is assumed that size and distribution of potential fragments are known a-priori, through either experimental findings or material properties, and that macrocracks can nucleate and propagate along the boundaries of these potential fragments. The finite deformation continuum multiple-plane microcracking damage model accounts for microcracks within fragments and interface elements, with cohesive strength, between potential fragments describe the behavior of macrocracks. A versatile adaptive remeshing technique has been implemented to have well conditioned fine mesh in zones with high rate of inelastic deformation and coarse mesh in zones with low rate of inelastic deformation. The results are presented for the ballistic penetration of multi-layered ceramic/steel targets using the above model. The effect of ceramic materials and target configuration design for ceramic confinement on the response of multi-layered targets subjected to high velocity

  11. Simplified damage models applied in the numerical analysis of reinforced concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. C. Pituba

    Full Text Available This work presents one and two-dimensional numerical analyses using isotropic and anisotropic damage models for the concrete in order to discuss the advantages of these modeling. Initially, it is shortly described the damage model proposed by Mazars. This constitutive model assumes the concrete as isotropic and elastic material, where locally the damage is due to extensions. On the other hand, the damage model proposed by Pituba, the material is assumed as initial elastic isotropic medium presenting anisotropy, plastic strains and bimodular response (distinct elastic responses whether tension or compression stress states prevail induced by the damage. To take into account for bimodularity two damage tensors governing the rigidity in tension and compression regimes, respectively, are introduced. Damage activation is expressed by two criteria indicating the initial and further evolution of damage. Soon after, the models are used in numerical analyses of the mechanical behavior of reinforced concrete structures. Accordingly with comparison of the obtained responses, considerations about the application of the isotropic and anisotropic damage models are presented for 1D and 2D reinforced concrete structures modeling as well as the potentialities of the simplified versions of damage models applied in situations of structural engineering.

  12. Computational Modelling of Fracture Propagation in Rocks Using a Coupled Elastic-Plasticity-Damage Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Kolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A coupled elastic-plasticity-damage constitutive model, AK Model, is applied to predict fracture propagation in rocks. The quasi-brittle material model captures anisotropic effects and the distinct behavior of rocks in tension and compression. Calibration of the constitutive model is realized using experimental data for Carrara marble. Through the Weibull distribution function, heterogeneity effect is captured by spatially varying the elastic properties of the rock. Favorable comparison between model predictions and experiments for single-flawed specimens reveal that the AK Model is reliable and accurate for modelling fracture propagation in rocks.

  13. A model based bayesian solution for characterization of complex damage scenarios in aerospace composite structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, H; Leckey, Cara A C; Dick, A; Harvey, G; Dobson, J

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasonic damage detection and characterization is commonly used in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aerospace composite components. In recent years there has been an increased development of guided wave based methods. In real materials and structures, these dispersive waves result in complicated behavior in the presence of complex damage scenarios. Model-based characterization methods utilize accurate three dimensional finite element models (FEMs) of guided wave interaction with realistic damage scenarios to aid in defect identification and classification. This work describes an inverse solution for realistic composite damage characterization by comparing the wavenumber-frequency spectra of experimental and simulated ultrasonic inspections. The composite laminate material properties are first verified through a Bayesian solution (Markov chain Monte Carlo), enabling uncertainty quantification surrounding the characterization. A study is undertaken to assess the efficacy of the proposed damage model and comparative metrics between the experimental and simulated output. The FEM is then parameterized with a damage model capable of describing the typical complex damage created by impact events in composites. The damage is characterized through a transdimensional Markov chain Monte Carlo solution, enabling a flexible damage model capable of adapting to the complex damage geometry investigated here. The posterior probability distributions of the individual delamination petals as well as the overall envelope of the damage site are determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ductile failure analysis of high strength steel in hot forming based on micromechanical damage model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The damage evolution of high strength steel at elevated temperature is investigated by using the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN model. A hybrid method integrated thermal tensile test and numerical technique is employed to identify the damage parameters. The analysis results show that the damage parameters are different at different temperature as the variation of tested material microstructure. Furthermore, the calibrated damage parameters are implemented to simulate a bugling forming at elevated temperature. The experimental results show the availability of GTN damage model in analyzing sheet formability in hot forming.

  15. Automated 3D Damaged Cavity Model Builder for Lower Surface Acreage Tile on Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belknap, Shannon; Zhang, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The 3D Automated Thermal Tool for Damaged Acreage Tile Math Model builder was developed to perform quickly and accurately 3D thermal analyses on damaged lower surface acreage tiles and structures beneath the damaged locations on a Space Shuttle Orbiter. The 3D model builder created both TRASYS geometric math models (GMMs) and SINDA thermal math models (TMMs) to simulate an idealized damaged cavity in the damaged tile(s). The GMMs are processed in TRASYS to generate radiation conductors between the surfaces in the cavity. The radiation conductors are inserted into the TMMs, which are processed in SINDA to generate temperature histories for all of the nodes on each layer of the TMM. The invention allows a thermal analyst to create quickly and accurately a 3D model of a damaged lower surface tile on the orbiter. The 3D model builder can generate a GMM and the correspond ing TMM in one or two minutes, with the damaged cavity included in the tile material. A separate program creates a configuration file, which would take a couple of minutes to edit. This configuration file is read by the model builder program to determine the location of the damage, the correct tile type, tile thickness, structure thickness, and SIP thickness of the damage, so that the model builder program can build an accurate model at the specified location. Once the models are built, they are processed by the TRASYS and SINDA.

  16. The additive damage model: a mathematical model for cellular responses to drug combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leslie Braziel; Secomb, Timothy W; Dewhirst, Mark W; El-Kareh, Ardith W

    2014-09-21

    Mathematical models to describe dose-dependent cellular responses to drug combinations are an essential component of computational simulations for predicting therapeutic responses. Here, a new model, the additive damage model, is introduced and tested in cases where varying concentrations of two drugs are applied with a fixed exposure schedule. In the model, cell survival is determined by whether cellular damage, which depends on the concentrations of the drugs, exceeds a lethal threshold, which varies randomly in the cell population with a prescribed statistical distribution. Cellular damage is assumed to be additive, and is expressed as a sum of separate terms for each drug. Each term has a saturable dependence on drug concentration. The model has appropriate behavior over the entire range of drug concentrations, and is predictive, given single-agent dose-response data for each drug. The proposed model is compared with several other models, by testing their ability to fit 24 data sets for platinum-taxane combinations and 21 data sets for various other combinations. The Akaike Information Criterion is used to assess goodness of fit, taking into account the number of unknown parameters in each model. Overall, the additive damage model provides a better fit to the data sets than any previous model. The proposed model provides a basis for computational simulations of therapeutic responses. It predicts responses to drug combinations based on data for each drug acting as a single agent, and can be used as an improved null reference model for assessing synergy in the action of drug combinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The degree of housing damage model for a flood affected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Thuraiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Floods can cause damage like slightly damaged, significantly damaged or destroyed to homes and possessions as well as disruption to communications. Inherently, victims should be given temporary or permanent houses depending on the degree of damage to their houses. Therefore, an assessment on the levels of damage must be carried out in the aftermath of a flood as a direction for recovery effort, for example housing resettlement. The fact is, in Malaysia, there is still no standardized damage assessment used by the relevant authorities in assessing the degree of housing damage after a disaster. As a result, errors in assessing the degree of housing damage and providing inaccurate type of assistance might occur. Thus, this research emphasis on the understanding the degree of house damage and recommend the significant input in developing the damage assessment model in Malaysia. To achieve the objective, this research applies a self-developed model that is derived from the literature review (framework or model of the degrees of housing damage after flood and the observation at the case study area to see the actual conditions of the affected houses. After that, questionnaires were distributed to 50 respondents consist of engineers (n=10, architects (n=10, quantity surveyors (n=10, real estate valuers (n=10 and building surveyor (n=10 by using purposive sampling to gauge their perceptions on attributes of degree of housing damage and eventually conducting a focus group consist of ten (10 technical experts involved in MERCY Malaysia in assessing the housing damage for model validation. The findings indicate that the degree of damage can be classified as ‘minor’, ‘major’ and ‘destroyed’. Research findings will give input in the form of a Housing Damage Assessment Framework for the government, NGOs, MERCY, insurers or other appropriate bodies involve in assessing or evaluating the condition of houses affected by floods.

  18. Development of a Computational Model for Predicting Damage to Tankers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Little, P.; Pippenger, D.; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1996-01-01

    A windows based computer program DAMAGE has been developed for analysis of ship grounding on a pinnacle shaped rock. The paper presents part of the theory and the overall ideas of the computerprogram.......A windows based computer program DAMAGE has been developed for analysis of ship grounding on a pinnacle shaped rock. The paper presents part of the theory and the overall ideas of the computerprogram....

  19. A Continuum Damage Mechanics Model for the Static and Cyclic Fatigue of Cellular Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Otto

    2017-01-01

    The fatigue behavior of a cellular composite with an epoxy matrix and glass foam granules is analyzed and modeled by means of continuum damage mechanics. The investigated cellular composite is a particular type of composite foam, and is very similar to syntactic foams. In contrast to conventional syntactic foams constituted by hollow spherical particles (balloons), cellular glass, mineral, or metal place holders are combined with the matrix material (metal or polymer) in the case of cellular composites. A microstructural investigation of the damage behavior is performed using scanning electron microscopy. For the modeling of the fatigue behavior, the damage is separated into pure static and pure cyclic damage and described in terms of the stiffness loss of the material using damage models for cyclic and creep damage. Both models incorporate nonlinear accumulation and interaction of damage. A cycle jumping procedure is developed, which allows for a fast and accurate calculation of the damage evolution for constant load frequencies. The damage model is applied to examine the mean stress effect for cyclic fatigue and to investigate the frequency effect and the influence of the signal form in the case of static and cyclic damage interaction. The calculated lifetimes are in very good agreement with experimental results. PMID:28809806

  20. Study on Shale’s Dynamic Damage Constitutive Model Based on Statistical Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic constitutive model of shale is basic for shale gas reservoir reforming. In order to investigate the dynamic mechanism of shale, a new dynamic damage constitutive model of shale under uniaxial impact load was established based on the statistical damage theory and the laboratory test results of deformation and the damage characteristics under the action of SHPB impact. Compared with the theoretical results, the model can describe shale’s mechanical attributes and reveal the fracture damage mechanism as well. The results will provide theoretical basis for hydraulic fracturing on shale and other dynamic reforming technics.

  1. Comparative Study of Fatigue Damage Models Using Different Number of Classes Combined with the Rainflow Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zengah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue damage increases with applied load cycles in a cumulative manner. Fatigue damage models play a key role in life prediction of components and structures subjected to random loading. The aim of this paper is the examination of the performance of the “Damaged Stress Model”, proposed and validated, against other fatigue models under random loading before and after reconstruction of the load histories. To achieve this objective, some linear and nonlinear models proposed for fatigue life estimation and a batch of specimens made of 6082T6 aluminum alloy is subjected to random loading. The damage was cumulated by Miner’s rule, Damaged Stress Model (DSM, Henry model and Unified Theory (UT and random cycles were counted with a rain-flow algorithm. Experimental data on high-cycle fatigue by complex loading histories with different mean and amplitude stress values are analyzed for life calculation and model predictions are compared.

  2. Implementation of an anisotropic damage material model for non-proportional loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad Sohail; Wisselink, H.H.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Huetink, Han; Onate, E; Owen, D.R.J

    2009-01-01

    Anisotropic damage for non-proportional loading is incorporated in an implicit finite element code under the framework of continuum damage models, using two different methodologies. Simple simulations are carried out to check the performance of the models. The advantages and drawbacks of both

  3. Basic Modelling principles and Validation of Software for Prediction of Collision Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2000-01-01

    This report describes basic modelling principles, the theoretical background and validation examples for the collision damage prediction module in the ISESO stand-alone software.......This report describes basic modelling principles, the theoretical background and validation examples for the collision damage prediction module in the ISESO stand-alone software....

  4. Micromechanics Modeling of Composites Subjected to Multiaxial Progressive Damage in the Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob; Amold, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    The high-fidelity generalized method of cells composite micromechanics model is extended to include constituent-scale progressive damage via a proposed damage model. The damage model assumes that all material nonlinearity is due to damage in the form of reduced stiffness, and it uses six scalar damage variables (three for tension and three for compression) to track the damage. Damage strains are introduced that account for interaction among the strain components and that also allow the development of the damage evolution equations based on the constituent material uniaxial stress strain response. Local final-failure criteria are also proposed based on mode-specific strain energy release rates and total dissipated strain energy. The coupled micromechanics-damage model described herein is applied to a unidirectional E-glass/epoxy composite and a proprietary polymer matrix composite. Results illustrate the capability of the coupled model to capture the vastly different character of the monolithic (neat) resin matrix and the composite in response to far-field tension, compression, and shear loading.

  5. Comparison of Two Models for Damage Accumulation in Simulations of System Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, R. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, D. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    A comprehensive simulation study of system performance needs to address variations in component behavior, variations in phenomenology, and the coupling between phenomenology and component failure. This paper discusses two models of this: 1. damage accumulation is modeled as a random walk process in each time history, with component failure occurring when damage accumulation reaches a specified threshold; or 2. damage accumulation is modeled mechanistically within each time history, but failure occurs when damage reaches a time-history-specific threshold, sampled at time zero from each component’s distribution of damage tolerance. A limiting case of the latter is classical discrete-event simulation, with component failure times sampled a priori from failure time distributions; but in such models, the failure times are not typically adjusted for operating conditions varying within a time history. Nowadays, as discussed below, it is practical to account for this. The paper compares the interpretations and computational aspects of the two models mentioned above.

  6. Statistical modelling of compression and fatigue damage of unidirectional fiber reinforced composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Brøndsted, Povl

    2009-01-01

    A statistical computational model of strength and damage of unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced composites under compressive and cyclic compressive loading is presented in this paper. The model is developed on the basis of the Budiansky–Fleck fiber kinking condition, continuum damage mechanics...... concept and the Monte-Carlo method. The effects of fiber misalignment variability, fiber clustering, load sharing rules on the damage in composite are studied numerically. It is demonstrated that the clustering of fibers has a negative effect of the damage resistance of a composite. Further, the static...

  7. Transgenic Mouse Model for Reducing Oxidative Damage in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, A.-S.; Torres, S.; Truong, T.; Kumar, A.; Alwood, J. S.; Limoli, C. L.; Globus, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to musculoskeletal disuse and radiation result in bone loss; we hypothesized that these catabolic treatments cause excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thereby alter the tight balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, culminating in bone loss. To test this, we used transgenic mice which over-express the human gene for catalase, targeted to mitochondria (MCAT). Catalase is an anti-oxidant that converts the ROS hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. MCAT mice were shown previously to display reduced mitochondrial oxidative stress and radiosensitivity of the CNS compared to wild type controls (WT). As expected, MCAT mice expressed the transgene in skeletal tissue, and in marrow-derived osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors cultured ex vivo, and also showed greater catalase activity compared to wildtype (WT) mice (3-6 fold). Colony expansion in marrow cells cultured under osteoblastogenic conditions was 2-fold greater in the MCAT mice compared to WT mice, while the extent of mineralization was unaffected. MCAT mice had slightly longer tibiae than WT mice (2%, P less than 0.01), although cortical bone area was slightly lower in MCAT mice than WT mice (10%, p=0.09). To challenge the skeletal system, mice were treated by exposure to combined disuse (2 wk Hindlimb Unloading) and total body irradiation Cs(137) (2 Gy, 0.8 Gy/min), then bone parameters were analyzed by 2-factor ANOVA to detect possible interaction effects. Treatment caused a 2-fold increase (p=0.015) in malondialdehyde levels of bone tissue (ELISA) in WT mice, but had no effect in MCAT mice. These findings indicate that the transgene conferred protection from oxidative damage caused by treatment. Unexpected differences between WT and MCAT mice emerged in skeletal responses to treatment.. In WT mice, treatment did not alter osteoblastogenesis, cortical bone area, moment of inertia, or bone perimeter, whereas in MCAT mice, treatment increased these

  8. Statistical Damage Detection of Civil Engineering Structures using ARMAV Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    In this paper a statistically based damage detection of a lattice steel mast is performed. By estimation of the modal parameters and their uncertainties it is possible to detect whether some of the modal parameters have changed with a statistical significance. The estimation of the uncertainties ...

  9. A diagnostic ontological model for damages to historical constructions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cacciotti, Riccardo; Blaško, M.; Valach, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2015), s. 40-48 ISSN 1296-2074 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF11P01OVV002 Keywords : historical constructions * conservation * ontologies * damage Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1296207414000259

  10. Computational stress and damage modelling for rolling contact fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerullo, Michele

    and of compressive residual stresses are also analyzed. The stress history of a material point at the depth where the maximum Dang Van damage factor is reached is then recorded and used in a subsequent micro-mechanical analysis. The stress history is applied as periodic boundary conditions in a representative volume...

  11. Damage severity assessment in wind turbine blade laboratory model through fuzzy finite element model updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Heather; Omenzetter, Piotr

    2017-04-01

    The recent shift towards development of clean, sustainable energy sources has provided a new challenge in terms of structural safety and reliability: with aging, manufacturing defects, harsh environmental and operational conditions, and extreme events such as lightning strikes wind turbines can become damaged resulting in production losses and environmental degradation. To monitor the current structural state of the turbine, structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques would be beneficial. Physics based SHM in the form of calibration of a finite element model (FEMs) by inverse techniques is adopted in this research. Fuzzy finite element model updating (FFEMU) techniques for damage severity assessment of a small-scale wind turbine blade are discussed and implemented. The main advantage is the ability of FFEMU to account in a simple way for uncertainty within the problem of model updating. Uncertainty quantification techniques, such as fuzzy sets, enable a convenient mathematical representation of the various uncertainties. Experimental frequencies obtained from modal analysis on a small-scale wind turbine blade were described by fuzzy numbers to model measurement uncertainty. During this investigation, damage severity estimation was investigated through addition of small masses of varying magnitude to the trailing edge of the structure. This structural modification, intended to be in lieu of damage, enabled non-destructive experimental simulation of structural change. A numerical model was constructed with multiple variable additional masses simulated upon the blades trailing edge and used as updating parameters. Objective functions for updating were constructed and minimized using both particle swarm optimization algorithm and firefly algorithm. FFEMU was able to obtain a prediction of baseline material properties of the blade whilst also successfully predicting, with sufficient accuracy, a larger magnitude of structural alteration and its location.

  12. Multi-physics modeling of multifunctional composite materials for damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujidkul, Thanyawalai

    This study presents a modeling of multifunction composite materials for damage detection with its verification and validation to mechanical behavior predictions of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer composites (CFRPs), CFRPs laminated composites, and woven SiC/SiC matrix composites that are subjected to fracture damage. Advantages of those materials are low cost, low density, high strength-to-weight ratio, and comparable specific tensile properties, the special of SiC/SiC is good environmental stability at high temperature. Resulting in, the composite has been used for many important structures such as helicopter rotors, aerojet engines, gas turbines, hot control surfaces, sporting goods, and windmill blades. Damage or material defect detection in a mechanical component can provide vital information for the prediction of remaining useful life, which will result in the prevention of catastrophic failures. Thus the understanding of the mechanical behavior have been challenge to the prevent damage and failure of composites in different scales. The damage detection methods in composites have been investigated widely in recent years. Non-destructive techniques are the traditional methods to detect the damage such as X-ray, acoustic emission and thermography. However, due to the invisible damage in composite can be occurred, to prevent the failure in composites. The developments of damage detection methods have been considered. Due to carbon fibers are conductive materials, in resulting CFRPs can be self-sensing to detect damage. As is well known, the electrical resistance has been shown to be a sensitive measure of internal damage, and also this work study in thermal resistance can detect damage in composites. However, there is a few number of different micromechanical modeling schemes has been proposed in the published literature for various types of composites. This works will provide with a numerical, analytical, and theoretical failure models in different damages to

  13. Modeling Soft Tissue Damage and Failure Using a Combined Particle/Continuum Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, M. K.; Karniadakis, G. E.; Humphrey, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Biological soft tissues experience damage and failure as a result of injury, disease, or simply age; examples include torn ligaments and arterial dissections. Given the complexity of tissue geometry and material behavior, computational models are often essential for studying both damage and failure. Yet, because of the need to account for discontinuous phenomena such as crazing, tearing, and rupturing, continuum methods are limited. Therefore, we model soft tissue damage and failure using a particle/continuum approach. Specifically, we combine continuum damage theory with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). Because SPH is a meshless particle method, and particle connectivity is determined solely through a neighbor list, discontinuities can be readily modeled by modifying this list. We show, for the first time, that an anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model commonly employed for modeling soft tissue can be conveniently implemented within a SPH framework and that SPH results show excellent agreement with analytical solutions for uniaxial and biaxial extension as well as finite element solutions for clamped uniaxial extension in 2D and 3D. We further develop a simple algorithm that automatically detects damaged particles and disconnects the spatial domain along rupture lines in 2D and rupture surfaces in 3D. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by simulating damage and failure under clamped uniaxial extension and in a peeling experiment of virtual soft tissue samples. In conclusion, SPH in combination with continuum damage theory may provide an accurate and efficient framework for modeling damage and failure in soft tissues. PMID:27538848

  14. A New In Vitro Model to Study Cellular Responses after Thermomechanical Damage in Monolayer Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettler, Alice; Werner, Simon; Eick, Stefan; Laufer, Stefan; Weise, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Although electrosurgical instruments are widely used in surgery to cut tissue layers or to achieve hemostasis by coagulation (electrocautery), only little information is available concerning the inflammatory or immune response towards the debris generated. Given the elevated local temperatures required for successful electrocautery, the remaining debris is likely to contain a plethora of compounds entirely novel to the intracorporal setting. A very common in vitro method to study cell migration after mechanical damage is the scratch assay, however, there is no established model for thermomechanical damage to characterise cellular reactions. In this study, we established a new in vitro model to investigate exposure to high temperature in a carefully controlled cell culture system. Heatable thermostat-controlled aluminium stamps were developed to induce local damage in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The thermomechanical damage invoked is reproducibly locally confined, therefore allowing studies, under the same experimental conditions, of cells affected to various degrees as well as of unaffected cells. We show that the unaffected cells surrounding the thermomechanical damage zone are able to migrate into the damaged area, resulting in a complete closure of the ‘wound’ within 48 h. Initial studies have shown that there are significant morphological and biological differences in endothelial cells after thermomechanical damage compared to the mechanical damage inflicted by using the unheated stamp as a control. Accordingly, after thermomechanical damage, cell death as well as cell protection programs were activated. Mononuclear cells adhered in the area adjacent to thermomechanical damage, but not to the zone of mechanical damage. Therefore, our model can help to understand the differences in wound healing during the early phase of regeneration after thermomechanical vs. mechanical damage. Furthermore, this model lends itself to study the

  15. Flood vulnerability assessment of residential buildings by explicit damage process modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custer, Rocco; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The present paper introduces a vulnerability modelling approach for residential buildings in flood. The modelling approach explicitly considers relevant damage processes, i.e. water infiltration into the building, mechanical failure of components in the building envelope and damage from water...... masonry building. Results are presented in terms of a parameter study for several building parameters and hazard characteristics, as well as, in terms of a comparison with damage data and literature vulnerability models. The parameter study indicates that hazard characteristics and building...... characteristics impact damage ratios as expected. Furthermore, the results are comparable to vulnerability models in literature. Strengths and shortcomings of the model are discussed. The modelling approach is considered as a step towards the establishment of vulnerability models that can serve as a basis...

  16. Probabilistic Fatigue Damage Prognosis Using a Surrogate Model Trained Via 3D Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leser, Patrick E.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.; Newman, John A.; Leser, William P.; Warner, James E.; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing inverse uncertainty quantification techniques, structural health monitoring can be integrated with damage progression models to form probabilistic predictions of a structure's remaining useful life. However, damage evolution in realistic structures is physically complex. Accurately representing this behavior requires high-fidelity models which are typically computationally prohibitive. In the present work, a high-fidelity finite element model is represented by a surrogate model, reducing computation times. The new approach is used with damage diagnosis data to form a probabilistic prediction of remaining useful life for a test specimen under mixed-mode conditions.

  17. Two scale damage model and related numerical issues for thermo-mechanical high cycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmorat, R.; Kane, A.; Seyedi, M.; Sermage, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    On the idea that fatigue damage is localized at the microscopic scale, a scale smaller than the mesoscopic one of the Representative Volume Element (RVE), a three-dimensional two scale damage model has been proposed for High Cycle Fatigue applications. It is extended here to aniso-thermal cases and then to thermo-mechanical fatigue. The modeling consists in the micro-mechanics analysis of a weak micro-inclusion subjected to plasticity and damage embedded in an elastic meso-element (the RVE of continuum mechanics). The consideration of plasticity coupled with damage equations at micro-scale, altogether with Eshelby-Kroner localization law, allows to compute the value of microscopic damage up to failure for any kind of loading, 1D or 3D, cyclic or random, isothermal or aniso-thermal, mechanical, thermal or thermo-mechanical. A robust numerical scheme is proposed in order to make the computations fast. A post-processor for damage and fatigue (DAMAGE-2005) has been developed. It applies to complex thermo-mechanical loadings. Examples of the representation by the two scale damage model of physical phenomena related to High Cycle Fatigue are given such as the mean stress effect, the non-linear accumulation of damage. Examples of thermal and thermo-mechanical fatigue as well as complex applications on real size testing structure subjected to thermo-mechanical fatigue are detailed. (authors)

  18. Modelling of damage development and ductile failure in welded joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau

    This thesis focuses on numerical analysis of damage development and ductile failure in welded joints. Two types of welds are investigated here. First, a study of the localization of plastic flow and failure in aluminum sheets, welded by the relatively new Friction Stir (FS) Welding method, has been...... conducted ([P1], [P2], [P7]-[P9]). The focus in the thesis is on FS-welded 2xxx and 6xxx series of aluminum alloys, which are attractive, for example, to the aerospace industry, since the 2024 aluminum in particular, is typically classified as un-weldable by conventional fusion welding techniques. Secondly......, a study of the damage development in Resistance SpotWelded joints, when subject to the commonly used static shear-lab or cross-tension testing techniques, has been carried out ([P3]-[P6]). The focus in thesis is on the Advanced High Strength Steels, Dual-Phase 600, which is used in for example...

  19. Thermomechanics of damageable materials under diffusion: modelling and analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubíček, Tomáš; Tomassetti, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 6 (2015), s. 3535-3572 ISSN 0044-2275 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : visco-elastic porous solids * incomplete damage * diffusion driven by chemical-potential gradient Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.560, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00033-015-0566-2

  20. Relations between a micro-mechanical model and a damage model for ductile failure in shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2010-01-01

    Gurson type constitutive models that account for void growth to coalescence are not able to describe ductile fracture in simple shear, where there is no hydrostatic tension in the material. But recent micro-mechanical studies have shown that in shear the voids are flattened out to micro......-cracks, which rotate and elongate until interaction with neighbouring micro-cracks gives coalescence. Thus, the failure mechanism is very different from that under tensile loading. Also, the Gurson model has recently been extended to describe failure in shear, by adding a damage term to the expression...... for the growth of the void volume fraction, and it has been shown that this extended model can represent experimental observations. Here, numerical studies are carried out to compare predictions of the shear-extended Gurson model with the shear failures predicted by the micro-mechanical cell model. Both models...

  1. DAMAGE MODELING OF INJECTION-MOLDED SHORT- AND LONG-FIBER THERMOPLASTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Bapanapalli, Satish K.; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.

    2009-10-30

    This article applies the recent anisotropic rotary diffusion – reduced strain closure (ARD-RSC) model for predicting fiber orientation and a new damage model for injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs) to analyze progressive damage leading to total failure of injection-molded long-glass-fiber/polypropylene (PP) specimens. The ARD-RSC model was implemented in a research version of the Autodesk Moldflow Plastics Insight (MPI) processing code, and it has been used to simulate injection-molding of a long-glass-fiber/PP plaque. The damage model combines micromechanical modeling with a continuum damage mechanics description to predict the nonlinear behavior due to plasticity coupled with damage in LFTs. This model has been implemented in the ABAQUS finite element code via user-subroutines and has been used in the damage analyses of tensile specimens removed from the injection-molded long-glass-fiber/PP plaques. Experimental characterization and mechanical testing were performed to provide input data to support and validate both process modeling and damage analyses. The predictions are in agreement with the experimental results.

  2. Application of a damage model for rock fragmentation to the Straight Creek Mine blast experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorne, B.J.

    1991-09-01

    Early attempts at estimation of stress wave damage due to blasting by use of finite element calculations met with limited success due to numerical instabilities that prevented calculations from being carried past the fragmentation limit. More recently, the improved damage model PRONTO has allowed finite element calculations which remain stable and yield good agreement between calculated fragmented regions and excavated crater profiles for blasting experiments in granite. Application of this damage model to blast experiments at the Straight Creek Mine in Bell County, Kentucky were complicated by anisotropic conditions and uncertainties in material properties. It appears that significant modifications to the damage model and extensive material testing may be necessary in order to estimate damage in these anisotropic materials. 18 refs., 18 figs.

  3. Synthetic Modifications In the Frequency Domain for Finite Element Model Update and Damage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Aeronautical Society , 24, pp. 590–591. [23] Fritzen, C., and Kiefer, T., 1992, “Localization and Correction of Errors in Finite Element Models Based on...MODIFICATIONS IN THE FREQUENCY DOMAIN FOR FINITE ELEMENT MODEL UPDATE AND DAMAGE DETECTION by Ryun J. C. Konze September 2017 Thesis Advisor...FINITE ELEMENT MODEL UPDATE AND DAMAGE DETECTION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Ryun J. C. Konze 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES

  4. Identification Damage Model for Thermomechanical Degradation of Ductile Heterogeneous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, A. El; Yakhloufi, M. H. El; Khamlichi, A.

    2017-05-01

    The failure of ductile materials subject to high thermal and mechanical loading rates is notably affected by material inertia. The mechanisms of fatigue-crack propagation are examined with particular emphasis on the similarities and differences between cyclic crack growth in ductile materials, such as metals, and corresponding behavior in brittle materials, such as intermetallic and ceramics. Numerical simulations of crack propagation in a cylindrical specimen demonstrate that the proposed method provides an effective means to simulate ductile fracture in large scale cylindrical structures with engineering accuracy. The influence of damage on the intensity of the destruction of materials is studied as well.

  5. Model-based Prognostics with Concurrent Damage Progression Processes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Model-based prognostics approaches rely on physics-based models that describe the behavior of systems and their components. These models must account for the several...

  6. A cohesive plastic/damage-zone model for ductile crack analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, C.; Gross, D.

    1995-01-01

    A cohesive plastic/damage-zone model of the Dugdale-Barenblatt type (G.I. Barenblatt, Adv. Appl. Mech. 7 (1962) 55-129; D.S. Dugdale, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 8 (1960) 100-104) is presented for analyzing crack growth in ductile materials with damage evolution. A semi-infinite Mode I crack in plane stress or plane stress is considered. The damage is assumed to be present in form of dispersed microvoids which are localized into a narrow strip ahead of the crack-tip. A simple damage model of the Gurson model type (A.L. Gurson, J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 99 (1977) 2-15; V. Tvergaard, Advances in Applied Mechanics, Vol. 27, Academic Press, 1990, pp. 83-151) is developed for uniaxial tension to describe the macroscopic properties of the cohesive plastic/damage-zone. Under small-scale yielding and small-scale damage conditions, a system of nonlinear integral equations for the plastic strain and the length of the cohesive plastic/damage-zone is derived. Numerical results are presented and discussed to reveal the effect of damage evolution on the ductile crack growth. (orig.)

  7. Computer simulation of radiation damage in NaCl using a kinetic rate reaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soppe, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    Sodium chloride and other alkali halides are known to be very susceptible to radiation damage in the halogen sublattice when exposed to ionizing radiation. The formation of radiation damage in NaCl has generated interest because of the relevance of this damage to the disposal of radioactive waste in rock salt formations. In order to estimate the long-term behaviour of a rock salt repository, an accurate theory describing the major processes of radiation damage in NaCl is required. The model presented in this paper is an extended version of the Jain-Lidiard model; its extensions comprise the effect of impurities and the colloid nucleation stage on the formation of radiation damage. The new model has been tested against various experimental data obtained from the literature and accounts for several well known aspects of radiation damage in alkali halides which were not covered by the original Jain-Lidiard model. The new model thus may be expected to provide more reliable predictions for the build-up of radiation damage in a rock salt nuclear waste repository. (Author)

  8. A micro-macro relationship for modeling the damage of discontinuous reinforced composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, N. (Lab. MSS-MAT, Ecole Centrale de Paris, 92 Chatenay-Malabry (France)); Keyvani, M. (Lab. MSS-MAT, Ecole Centrale de Paris, 92 Chatenay-Malabry (France)); Baptiste, D. (Lab. MSS-MAT, Ecole Centrale de Paris, 92 Chatenay-Malabry (France) Lab. LM3, ENSAM, 75 Paris (France))

    1993-11-01

    In discontinuous reinforced composites, different damage processes are observed : reinforcement fracture, interface debonding and matrix failure depending on the type of material and loading. So, local criteria of damage initiation were introduced in a micromechanical model to reproduce these phenomena and predict the material behavior. The model is based on the stiffness prediction by the Mori and Tanaka approach. Tensile stress-strain curves until total failure are simulated in the case of SMC type composite. The evolution with damage of all the elastic constants is also compared with ultrasonic measurements. In an Al/SiCp composite, damage was identified to be particle fracture. Tensile behaviors with or without damage are compared. Three solutions to replace the broken particles are studied. (orig.).

  9. A model for damage load and its implications for the evolution of bacterial aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Deleterious mutations appearing in a population increase in frequency until stopped by natural selection. The ensuing equilibrium creates a stable frequency of deleterious mutations or the mutational load. Here I develop the comparable concept of a damage load, which is caused by harmful non-heritable changes to the phenotype. A damage load also ensues when the increase of damage is opposed by selection. The presence of a damage load favors the evolution of asymmetrical transmission of damage by a mother to her daughters. The asymmetry is beneficial because it increases fitness variance, but it also leads to aging or senescence. A mathematical model based on microbes reveals that a cell lineage dividing symmetrically is immortal if lifetime damage rates do not exceed a threshold. The evolution of asymmetry allows the lineage to persist above the threshold, but the lineage becomes mortal. In microbes with low genomic mutation rates, it is likely that the damage load is much greater than the mutational load. In metazoans with higher genomic mutation rates, the damage and the mutational load could be of the same magnitude. A fit of the model to experimental data shows that Escherichia coli cells experience a damage rate that is below the threshold and are immortal under the conditions examined. The model estimates the asymmetry level of E. coli to be low but sufficient for persisting at higher damage rates. The model also predicts that increasing asymmetry results in diminishing fitness returns, which may explain why the bacterium has not evolved higher asymmetry.

  10. The Pore Collapse “Hot-Spots” Model Coupled with Brittle Damage for Solid Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the building of a numerical pore collapse model with “hot-spots” formation for the impacted damage explosives. According to damage mechanical evolution of brittle material, the one-dimensional elastic-viscoplastic collapse model was improved to incorporate the impact damage during the dynamic collapse of pores. The damage of explosives was studied using the statistical crack mechanics (SCRAM. The effects of the heat conduction and the chemical reaction were taken into account in the formation of “hot-spots.” To verify the improved model, numerical simulations were carried out for different pressure states and used to model a multiple-impact experiment. The results show that repeated weak impacts can lead to the collapse of pores and the “hot-spots” may occur due to the accumulation of internal defects accompanied by the softening of explosives.

  11. Application of a Brittle Damage Model to Normal Plate-on-Plate Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raftenberg, Martin N

    2005-01-01

    A brittle damage model presented by Grinfeld and Wright of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory was implemented in the LS-DYNA finite element code and applied to the simulation of normal plate-on-plate impact...

  12. Damage Propagation Modeling for Aircraft Engine Run-to-Failure Simulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper describes how damage propagation can be modeled within the modules of aircraft gas turbine engines. To that end, response surfaces of all sensors are...

  13. Multi-Physics Computational Modeling Tool for Materials Damage Assessment, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here is to provide a multi-physics modeling tool for materials damage assessment for application to future aircraft design. The software...

  14. An approach for the modeling of interface-body coupled nonlocal damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Toti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP can be used for strengthening concrete or masonry constructions. One of the main problem in the use of FRP is the possible detachment of the reinforcement from the support material. This paper deals with the modeling of the FRP-concrete or masonry damage interface, accounting for the coupling occurring between the degradation of the cohesive material and the FRP detachment. To this end, a damage model is considered for the quasi-brittle material. In order to prevent strain localization and strong mesh sensitivity of the solution, an integral-type of nonlocal model based on the weighted spatial averaging of a strain-like quantity is developed. Regarding the interface, the damage is governed by the relative displacement occurring at bond. A suitable interface model which accounts for the mode I, mode II and mixed mode of damage is developed. The coupling between the body damage and the interface damage is performed computing the body damage on the bond surface. Numerical examples are presented.

  15. Thermal Model of Laser-Induced Eye Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-08

    respectively. We will return to this point later. The damage calculations are made from sequence numbers 1,21 jthrough A32 . Two criteria are used to assess...i’I IMAC-E (CORNEAL) I . IF(X3.(’F1.60.)LO TU 217 bu HR(J)=ExPC-x3) 6~1a 217 CUNTINUiE 62, @P2.*U( 30) - 1 ~/3,1L41 o*STGmA*STtMA~I b., GO TO 250 b14 ...9 1Nc. 1* 3. ASChIIF F LI AL HLA T TRANSFER 1HROUGH1 lPF blAIN ANOU 11SCHANGE. 1- 4,~ QHAIu J C sAVA’CEI) HEAT 1RAN,5FLP IN ~ C;HACt H, Is * Uis

  16. A continuous damage model based on stepwise-stress creep rupture tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    A creep damage accumulation model is presented that makes use of the Kachanov damage rate concept with a provision accounting for damage that results from a variable stress history. This is accomplished through the introduction of an additional term in the Kachanov rate equation that is linear in the stress rate. Specification of the material functions and parameters in the model requires two types of constituting a data base: (1) standard constant-stress creep rupture tests, and (2) a sequence of two-step creep rupture tests.

  17. Model-Based Fatigue Prognosis of Fiber-Reinforced Laminates Exhibiting Concurrent Damage Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbetta, M.; Sbarufatti, C.; Saxena, A.; Giglio, M.; Goebel, K.

    2016-01-01

    Prognostics of large composite structures is a topic of increasing interest in the field of structural health monitoring for aerospace, civil, and mechanical systems. Along with recent advancements in real-time structural health data acquisition and processing for damage detection and characterization, model-based stochastic methods for life prediction are showing promising results in the literature. Among various model-based approaches, particle-filtering algorithms are particularly capable in coping with uncertainties associated with the process. These include uncertainties about information on the damage extent and the inherent uncertainties of the damage propagation process. Some efforts have shown successful applications of particle filtering-based frameworks for predicting the matrix crack evolution and structural stiffness degradation caused by repetitive fatigue loads. Effects of other damage modes such as delamination, however, are not incorporated in these works. It is well established that delamination and matrix cracks not only co-exist in most laminate structures during the fatigue degradation process but also affect each other's progression. Furthermore, delamination significantly alters the stress-state in the laminates and accelerates the material degradation leading to catastrophic failure. Therefore, the work presented herein proposes a particle filtering-based framework for predicting a structure's remaining useful life with consideration of multiple co-existing damage-mechanisms. The framework uses an energy-based model from the composite modeling literature. The multiple damage-mode model has been shown to suitably estimate the energy release rate of cross-ply laminates as affected by matrix cracks and delamination modes. The model is also able to estimate the reduction in stiffness of the damaged laminate. This information is then used in the algorithms for life prediction capabilities. First, a brief summary of the energy-based damage model

  18. Seismic behavior of an Italian Renaissance Sanctuary: Damage assessment by numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Francesco; Nespeca, Andrea; Lenci, Stefano

    2016-12-01

    The paper deals with modelling and analysis of architectural heritage through the discussion of an illustrative case study: the Medieval Sanctuary of Sant'Agostino (Offida, Italy). Using the finite element technique, a 3D numerical model of the sanctuary is built, and then used to identify the main sources of the damages. The work shows that advanced numerical analyses could offer significant information for the understanding of the causes of existing damage and, more generally, on the seismic vulnerability.

  19. Rock Failure Analysis Based on a Coupled Elastoplastic-Logarithmic Damage Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdia, M.; Molladavoodi, H.; Salarirad, H.

    2017-12-01

    The rock materials surrounding the underground excavations typically demonstrate nonlinear mechanical response and irreversible behavior in particular under high in-situ stress states. The dominant causes of irreversible behavior are plastic flow and damage process. The plastic flow is controlled by the presence of local shear stresses which cause the frictional sliding. During this process, the net number of bonds remains unchanged practically. The overall macroscopic consequence of plastic flow is that the elastic properties (e.g. the stiffness of the material) are insensitive to this type of irreversible change. The main cause of irreversible changes in quasi-brittle materials such as rock is the damage process occurring within the material. From a microscopic viewpoint, damage initiates with the nucleation and growth of microcracks. When the microcracks length reaches a critical value, the coalescence of them occurs and finally, the localized meso-cracks appear. The macroscopic and phenomenological consequence of damage process is stiffness degradation, dilatation and softening response. In this paper, a coupled elastoplastic-logarithmic damage model was used to simulate the irreversible deformations and stiffness degradation of rock materials under loading. In this model, damage evolution & plastic flow rules were formulated in the framework of irreversible thermodynamics principles. To take into account the stiffness degradation and softening on post-peak region, logarithmic damage variable was implemented. Also, a plastic model with Drucker-Prager yield function was used to model plastic strains. Then, an algorithm was proposed to calculate the numerical steps based on the proposed coupled plastic and damage constitutive model. The developed model has been programmed in VC++ environment. Then, it was used as a separate and new constitutive model in DEM code (UDEC). Finally, the experimental Oolitic limestone rock behavior was simulated based on the developed

  20. Micro-mechanics based damage mechanics for 3D Orthogonal Woven Composites: Experiment and Numerical Modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Saleh, Mohamed Nasr

    2016-01-08

    Damage initiation and evolution of three-dimensional (3D) orthogonal woven carbon fibre composite (3DOWC) is investigated experimentally and numerically. Meso-scale homogenisation of the representative volume element (RVE) is utilised to predict the elastic properties, simulate damage initiation and evolution when loaded in tension. The effect of intra-yarns transverse cracking and shear diffused damage on the in-plane transverse modulus and shear modulus is investigated while one failure criterion is introduced to simulate the matrix damage. The proposed model is based on two major assumptions. First, the effect of the binder yarns, on the in-plane properties, is neglected, so the 3DOWC unit cell can be approximated as a (0o/90o) cross-ply laminate. Second, a micro-mechanics based damage approach is used at the meso-scale, so damage indicators can be correlated, explicitly, to the density of cracks within the material. Results from the simulated RVE are validated against experimental results along the warp (0o direction) and weft (90o direction). This approach paves the road for more predictive models as damage evolution laws are obtained from micro mechanical considerations and rely on few well-defined material parameters. This largely differs from classical damage mechanics approaches in which the evolution law is obtained by retrofitting experimental observations.

  1. Distributed Damage Estimation for Prognostics based on Structural Model Decomposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Model-based prognostics approaches capture system knowl- edge in the form of physics-based models of components that include how they fail. These methods consist of...

  2. Multiple Damage Progression Paths in Model-based Prognostics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Model-based prognostics approaches employ do- main knowledge about a system, its components, and how they fail through the use of physics-based models. Compo- nent...

  3. ON THE ISSUE OF "MEMORY" MARKOV MODEL OF DAMAGE ACCUMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Lantuh-Lyaschenko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of a probabilistic approach for the modeling of service life of highway bridge elements. The focus of this paper is on the Markov stochastic deterioration models. These models can be used as effective tool for technical state assessments and prediction of residual resource of a structure. For the bridge maintenance purpose these models can give quantitative criteria of a reliability level, risk and prediction algorithms of the residual resource.

  4. A coupled mechanical and chemical damage model for concrete affected by alkali–silica reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignatelli, Rossella, E-mail: rossellapignatelli@gmail.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Lombardi Ingegneria S.r.l., Via Giotto 36, 20145 Milano (Italy); Comi, Claudia, E-mail: comi@stru.polimi.it [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Monteiro, Paulo J.M., E-mail: monteiro@ce.berkeley.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    To model the complex degradation phenomena occurring in concrete affected by alkali–silica reaction (ASR), we formulate a poro-mechanical model with two isotropic internal variables: the chemical and the mechanical damage. The chemical damage, related to the evolution of the reaction, is caused by the pressure generated by the expanding ASR gel on the solid concrete skeleton. The mechanical damage describes the strength and stiffness degradation induced by the external loads. As suggested by experimental results, degradation due to ASR is considered to be localized around reactive sites. The effect of the degree of saturation and of the temperature on the reaction development is also modeled. The chemical damage evolution is calibrated using the value of the gel pressure estimated by applying the electrical diffuse double-layer theory to experimental values of the surface charge density in ASR gel specimens reported in the literature. The chemo-damage model is first validated by simulating expansion tests on reactive specimens and beams; the coupled chemo-mechanical damage model is then employed to simulate compression and flexure tests results also taken from the literature. -- Highlights: •Concrete degradation due to ASR in variable environmental conditions is modeled. •Two isotropic internal variables – chemical and mechanical damage – are introduced. •The value of the swelling pressure is estimated by the diffuse double layer theory. •A simplified scheme is proposed to relate macro- and microscopic properties. •The chemo-mechanical damage model is validated by simulating tests in literature.

  5. A coupled mechanical and chemical damage model for concrete affected by alkali–silica reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignatelli, Rossella; Comi, Claudia; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2013-01-01

    To model the complex degradation phenomena occurring in concrete affected by alkali–silica reaction (ASR), we formulate a poro-mechanical model with two isotropic internal variables: the chemical and the mechanical damage. The chemical damage, related to the evolution of the reaction, is caused by the pressure generated by the expanding ASR gel on the solid concrete skeleton. The mechanical damage describes the strength and stiffness degradation induced by the external loads. As suggested by experimental results, degradation due to ASR is considered to be localized around reactive sites. The effect of the degree of saturation and of the temperature on the reaction development is also modeled. The chemical damage evolution is calibrated using the value of the gel pressure estimated by applying the electrical diffuse double-layer theory to experimental values of the surface charge density in ASR gel specimens reported in the literature. The chemo-damage model is first validated by simulating expansion tests on reactive specimens and beams; the coupled chemo-mechanical damage model is then employed to simulate compression and flexure tests results also taken from the literature. -- Highlights: •Concrete degradation due to ASR in variable environmental conditions is modeled. •Two isotropic internal variables – chemical and mechanical damage – are introduced. •The value of the swelling pressure is estimated by the diffuse double layer theory. •A simplified scheme is proposed to relate macro- and microscopic properties. •The chemo-mechanical damage model is validated by simulating tests in literature

  6. Damage characterization and modeling of a 7075-T651 aluminum plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordon, J.B.; Horstemeyer, M.F.; Solanki, K.; Bernard, J.D.; Berry, J.T.; Williams, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the damage-induced anisotropy arising from material microstructure heterogeneities at two different length scales was characterized and modeled for a wrought aluminum alloy. Experiments were performed on a 7075-T651 aluminum alloy plate using sub-standard tensile specimens in three different orientations with respect to the rolling direction. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to characterize the stereology of the final damage state in terms of cracked and or debonded particles. A physically motivated internal state variable continuum model was used to predict fracture by incorporating material microstructural features. The continuum model showed good comparisons to the experimental data by capturing the damage-induced anisotropic material response. Estimations of the mechanical stress-strain response, material damage histories, and final failure were numerically calculated and experimentally validated thus demonstrating that the final failure state was strongly dependent on the constituent particle morphology.

  7. Multi-variable flood damage modelling with limited data using supervised learning approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wagenaar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flood damage assessment is usually done with damage curves only dependent on the water depth. Several recent studies have shown that supervised learning techniques applied to a multi-variable data set can produce significantly better flood damage estimates. However, creating and applying a multi-variable flood damage model requires an extensive data set, which is rarely available, and this is currently holding back the widespread application of these techniques. In this paper we enrich a data set of residential building and contents damage from the Meuse flood of 1993 in the Netherlands, to make it suitable for multi-variable flood damage assessment. Results from 2-D flood simulations are used to add information on flow velocity, flood duration and the return period to the data set, and cadastre data are used to add information on building characteristics. Next, several statistical approaches are used to create multi-variable flood damage models, including regression trees, bagging regression trees, random forest, and a Bayesian network. Validation on data points from a test set shows that the enriched data set in combination with the supervised learning techniques delivers a 20 % reduction in the mean absolute error, compared to a simple model only based on the water depth, despite several limitations of the enriched data set. We find that with our data set, the tree-based methods perform better than the Bayesian network.

  8. Probabilistic, multi-variate flood damage modelling using random forests and Bayesian networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Schröter, Kai

    2015-04-01

    Decisions on flood risk management and adaptation are increasingly based on risk analyses. Such analyses are associated with considerable uncertainty, even more if changes in risk due to global change are expected. Although uncertainty analysis and probabilistic approaches have received increased attention recently, they are hardly applied in flood damage assessments. Most of the damage models usually applied in standard practice have in common that complex damaging processes are described by simple, deterministic approaches like stage-damage functions. This presentation will show approaches for probabilistic, multi-variate flood damage modelling on the micro- and meso-scale and discuss their potential and limitations. Reference: Merz, B.; Kreibich, H.; Lall, U. (2013): Multi-variate flood damage assessment: a tree-based data-mining approach. NHESS, 13(1), 53-64. Schröter, K., Kreibich, H., Vogel, K., Riggelsen, C., Scherbaum, F., Merz, B. (2014): How useful are complex flood damage models? - Water Resources Research, 50, 4, p. 3378-3395.

  9. Multi-variable flood damage modelling with limited data using supervised learning approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Dennis; de Jong, Jurjen; Bouwer, Laurens M.

    2017-09-01

    Flood damage assessment is usually done with damage curves only dependent on the water depth. Several recent studies have shown that supervised learning techniques applied to a multi-variable data set can produce significantly better flood damage estimates. However, creating and applying a multi-variable flood damage model requires an extensive data set, which is rarely available, and this is currently holding back the widespread application of these techniques. In this paper we enrich a data set of residential building and contents damage from the Meuse flood of 1993 in the Netherlands, to make it suitable for multi-variable flood damage assessment. Results from 2-D flood simulations are used to add information on flow velocity, flood duration and the return period to the data set, and cadastre data are used to add information on building characteristics. Next, several statistical approaches are used to create multi-variable flood damage models, including regression trees, bagging regression trees, random forest, and a Bayesian network. Validation on data points from a test set shows that the enriched data set in combination with the supervised learning techniques delivers a 20 % reduction in the mean absolute error, compared to a simple model only based on the water depth, despite several limitations of the enriched data set. We find that with our data set, the tree-based methods perform better than the Bayesian network.

  10. Dose-rate and temperature dependent statistical damage accumulation model for ion implantation into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Mangas, J.M. [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicaciones, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid E-47011 (Spain)]. E-mail: jesus.hernandez.mangas@tel.uva.es; Arias, J. [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicaciones, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid E-47011 (Spain); Marques, L.A. [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicaciones, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid E-47011 (Spain); Ruiz-Bueno, A. [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicaciones, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid E-47011 (Spain); Bailon, L. [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicaciones, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid E-47011 (Spain)

    2005-01-01

    Currently there are extensive atomistic studies that model some characteristics of the damage buildup due to ion irradiation (e.g. L. Pelaz et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 82 (2003) 2038-2040). Our interest is to develop a novel statistical damage buildup model for our BCA ion implant simulator (IIS) code in order to extend its ranges of applicability. The model takes into account the abrupt regime of the crystal-amorphous transition. It works with different temperatures and dose-rates and also models the transition temperature. We have tested it with some projectiles (Ge, P) implanted into silicon. In this work we describe the new statistical damage accumulation model based on the modified Kinchin-Pease model. The results obtained have been compared with existing experimental results.

  11. Dose-rate and temperature dependent statistical damage accumulation model for ion implantation into silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Mangas, J.M.; Arias, J.; Marques, L.A.; Ruiz-Bueno, A.; Bailon, L.

    2005-01-01

    Currently there are extensive atomistic studies that model some characteristics of the damage buildup due to ion irradiation (e.g. L. Pelaz et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 82 (2003) 2038-2040). Our interest is to develop a novel statistical damage buildup model for our BCA ion implant simulator (IIS) code in order to extend its ranges of applicability. The model takes into account the abrupt regime of the crystal-amorphous transition. It works with different temperatures and dose-rates and also models the transition temperature. We have tested it with some projectiles (Ge, P) implanted into silicon. In this work we describe the new statistical damage accumulation model based on the modified Kinchin-Pease model. The results obtained have been compared with existing experimental results

  12. Identification of damage in composite structures using Gaussian mixture model-processed Lamb waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Ma, Shuxian; Yue, Dong

    2018-04-01

    Composite materials have comprehensively better properties than traditional materials, and therefore have been more and more widely used, especially because of its higher strength-weight ratio. However, the damage of composite structures is usually varied and complicated. In order to ensure the security of these structures, it is necessary to monitor and distinguish the structural damage in a timely manner. Lamb wave-based structural health monitoring (SHM) has been proved to be effective in online structural damage detection and evaluation; furthermore, the characteristic parameters of the multi-mode Lamb wave varies in response to different types of damage in the composite material. This paper studies the damage identification approach for composite structures using the Lamb wave and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). The algorithm and principle of the GMM, and the parameter estimation, is introduced. Multi-statistical characteristic parameters of the excited Lamb waves are extracted, and the parameter space with reduced dimensions is adopted by principal component analysis (PCA). The damage identification system using the GMM is then established through training. Experiments on a glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composite laminate plate are conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed approach in terms of damage classification. The experimental results show that different types of damage can be identified according to the value of the likelihood function of the GMM.

  13. Wind turbine fatigue damage evaluation based on a linear model and a spectral method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaldi, Carlo; Henriksen, Lars Christian; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2015-01-01

    presents a method to estimate wind turbine fatigue damage suited for optimization design applications. The method utilizes a high-order linear wind turbine model. The model comprehends a detailed description of the wind turbine and the controller. The fatigue is computed with a spectral method applied...... to power spectral densities of wind turbine sensor responses to turbulent wind. In this paper, the model is validated both in time domain and frequency domain with a nonlinear aeroservoelastic model. The approach is compared quantitatively against fatigue damage obtained from the power spectra of time...

  14. A prediction and damage assessment model for snowmelt flood events in middle and high latitudes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, C.; Huang, Q.; Chen, T.; Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    In the context of global warming, the snowmelt flood events in the mountainous area of the middle and high latitudes are increasingly frequent and create severe casualties and property damages. Carrying out the prediction and risk assessment of the snowmelt flood is of great importance in the water resources management, the flood warning and prevention. Based on the remote sensing and GIS techniques, the relationships of the variables influencing the snowmelt flood such as the snow area, the snow depth, the air temperature, the precipitation, the land topography and land covers are analyzed and a prediction and damage assessment model for snowmelt floods is developed. This model analyzes and predicts the flood submerging area, flood depth, flood grade, and the damages of different underlying surfaces in the study area in a given time period based on the estimation of snowmelt amount, the snowmelt runoff, the direction and velocity of the flood. Then it was used to predict a snowmelt flood event in the Ertis River Basin in northern Xinjiang, China, during March and June, 2005 and to assess its damages including the damages of roads, transmission lines, settlements caused by the floods and the possible landslides using the hydrological and meteorological data, snow parameter data, DEM data and land use data. A comparison was made between the prediction results from this model and observation data including the flood measurement and its disaster loss data, which suggests that this model performs well in predicting the strength and impact area of snowmelt flood and its damage assessment. This model will be helpful for the prediction and damage assessment of snowmelt flood events in the mountainous area in the middle and high latitudes in spring, which has great social and economic significance because it provides a relatively reliable method for snowmelt flood prediction and reduces the possible damages caused by snowmelt floods.

  15. Experimental characterization and numerical modelling of polymeric film damage, constituting the stratospheric super pressurized balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabane, Makram; Chaabane, Makram; Dalverny, Olivier; Deramecourt, Arnaud; Mistou, Sébastien

    The super-pressure balloons developed by CNES are a great challenge in scientific ballooning. Whatever the balloon type considered (spherical, pumpkin...), it is necessary to have good knowledge of the mechanical behavior of the envelope regarding to the flight level and the lifespan of the balloon. It appears during the working stages of the super pressure balloons that these last can exploded prematurely in the course of the first hours of flight. For this reason CNES and LGP are carrying out research programs about experimentations and modelling in order to predict a good stability of the balloons flight and guarantee a life time in adequacy with the technical requirement. This study deals with multilayered polymeric film damage which induce balloons failure. These experimental and numerical study aims, are a better understanding and predicting of the damage mechanisms bringing the premature explosion of balloons. The following damages phenomena have different origins. The firsts are simple and triple wrinkles owed during the process and the stocking stages of the balloons. The second damage phenomenon is associated to the creep of the polymeric film during the flight of the balloon. The first experimental results we present in this paper, concern the mechanical characterization of three different damage phenomena. The severe damage induced by the wrinkles of the film involves a significant loss of mechanical properties. In a second part the theoretical study, concerns the choice and the development of a non linear viscoelastic coupled damage behavior model in a finite element code.

  16. A Calibration of the Wierzbicki-Xue Damage Model Using Charpy Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jong-Bong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage models are frequently used to predict fractures in large deformation problems such as penetration of a projectile into a target. Though many damage models have been proposed so far, coefficients of each model have been provided for only a few materials. In this study, the coefficients of the Wierzbicki-Xue (2005 damage model for tungsten heavy alloy (DX2HCMF are determined using the Charpy impact test. The Wierzbicki-Xue fracture criterion is implemented into NET3D code in which a node-split algorithm is built in. By comparing the energy absorbed in the Charpy test with the results of finite element analysis, the fracture model coefficients are determined.

  17. Creep crack growth predictions in INCO 718 using a continuum damage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, K. P.; Wilson, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Creep crack growth tests have been carried out in compact type specimens of INCO 718 at 1200 F (649 C). Theoretical creep crack growth predictions have been carried out by incorporating a unified viscoplastic constitutive model and a continuum damage model into the ARAQUS nonlinear finite element program. Material constants for both the viscoplastic model and the creep continuum damage model were determined from tests carried out on uniaxial bar specimens of INCO 718 at 1200 F (649 C). A comparison of the theoretical creep crack growth rates obtained from the finite element predictions with the experimentally observed creep crack growth rates indicates that the viscoplastic/continuum damage model can be used to successfully predict creep crack growth in compact type specimens using material constants obtained from uniaxial bar specimens of INCO 718 at 1200 F (649 C).

  18. Model for visualizing high energy laser (HEL) damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten, Gail

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes and presents results from a model created in MATLAB® to calculate and display the time dependent temperature profile on a target aimpoint as it is being engaged by a high energy laser (HEL) beam. The model uses public domain information namely physics equations of heat conduction and phase changes and material properties such as thermal conductivity/diffusivity, latent heat, specific heat, melting and evaporation points as well as user input material type and thickness. The user also provides time varying characteristics of the HEL beam on the aimpoint, including beam size and intensity distribution (in Watts per centimeter square). The model calculates the temperature distribution at and around the aimpoint and also shows the phase changes of the aimpoint with the material first melting and then evaporating. User programmable features (selecting materials and thickness, erosion rates for melting) make the model highly versatile. The objective is to bridge the divide between remaining faithful to theoretical formulations such as the partial differential equations of heat conduction and at the same time serving practical concerns of the model user who needs to rapidly evaluate HEL thermal effects. One possible use of the tool is to assess lethality values of different aimpoints without costly (as well as often dangerous and destructive) experiments.

  19. Hysteretic MDOF Model to Quantify Damage for RC Shear Frames Subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. Ugur; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, Ahmet S.

    A hysteretic mechanical formulation is derived to quantify local, modal and overall damage in reinforced concrete (RC) shear frames subject to seismic excitation. Each interstorey is represented by a Clough and Johnston (1966) hysteretic constitutive relation with degrading elastic fraction of th...... shear frame is subject to simulated earthquake excitations, which are modelled as a stationary Gaussian stochastic process with Kanai-Tajimi spectrum, multiplied by an envelope function. The relationship between local, modal and overall damage indices is investigated statistically....

  20. Influence of Different Yield Loci on Failure Prediction with Damage Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heibel, S.; Nester, W.; Clausmeyer, T.; Tekkaya, A. E.

    2017-09-01

    Advanced high strength steels are widely used in the automotive industry to simultaneously improve crash performance and reduce the car body weight. A drawback of these multiphase steels is their sensitivity to damage effects and thus the reduction of ductility. For that reason the Forming Limit Curve is only partially suitable for this class of steels. An improvement in failure prediction can be obtained by using damage mechanics. The objective of this paper is to comparatively review the phenomenological damage model GISSMO and the Enhanced Lemaitre Damage Model. GISSMO is combined with three different yield loci, namely von Mises, Hill48 and Barlat2000 to investigate the influence of the choice of the plasticity description on damage modelling. The Enhanced Lemaitre Model is used with Hill48. An inverse parameter identification strategy for a DP1000 based on stress-strain curves and optical strain measurements of shear, uniaxial, notch and (equi-)biaxial tension tests is applied to calibrate the models. A strong dependency of fracture strains on the choice of yield locus can be observed. The identified models are validated on a cross-die cup showing ductile fracture with slight necking.

  1. Comprehensive flood economic losses: review of the potential damage and implementation of an agricultural impact model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Gwladys

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With an annual loss averaging 580 M€ between 1990 and 2014, floods are the main natural catastrophe (Nat Cat risk for the French Nat Cat compensation scheme. As part of its role in this scheme, the Caisse Centrale de Réassurance (CCR offers state guaranteed reinsurance programs and has been modelling the risk of flooding since 2003. This model is based on the traditional valuation approach of direct tangible costs which pairs a physical model with exposure through damage curves. CCR wishes now to widen the studied damage scope to insured and noninsured economic costs and has been collaborating with the SAF research laboratory from the Institute of Financial and Insurance Sciences (ISFA since 2014. CCR’s model has been used to estimate the insured direct damage to residential and non-residential properties and it is now being developed to include damage to vehicles, agriculture and network infrastructures. Research is also being carried out to take into account business interruptions and indirect losses using an Input-Output model. This article describes the undergoing work on model development to estimate the damage to agriculture.

  2. Phase separation coupled with damage processes analysis of phase field models in elastic media

    CERN Document Server

    Heinemann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The authors explore a unifying model which couples phase separation and damage processes in a system of partial differential equations. The model has technological applications to solder materials where interactions of both phenomena have been observed and cannot be neglected for a realistic description. The equations are derived in a thermodynamically consistent framework and suitable weak formulations for various types of this coupled system are presented. In the main part, existence of weak solutions is proven and degenerate limits are investigated. Contents Modeling of Phase Separation and Damage Processes Notion of Weak Solutions Existence of Weak Solutions Degenerate Limit Target Groups Researchers, academics and scholars in the field of (applied) mathematics Material scientists in the field of modeling damaging processes The Authors Christian Heinemann earned his doctoral degree at the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Jürgen Sprekels and Dr. Christiane Kraus. He is a ...

  3. Multiphysics model of thermomechanical and helium-induced damage of tungsten during plasma heat transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosby, Tamer; Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    2013-01-01

    A combination of transient heating and bombardment by helium and hydrogen atoms has been experimentally proven to lead to severe surface and sub-surface damage. We developed a computational model to determine the relationship between the thermomechanical loading conditions and the onset of damage and failure of tungsten surfaces. The model is based on a thermoelasticity fracture damage approach that was developed using the phase field method. The model simulates the distribution of helium bubbles inside the grains and on grain boundaries using space-dependent rate theory. In addition, the model is coupled with a transient heat conduction analysis for temperature distributions inside the material. The results show the effects of helium bubbles on reducing tungsten surface energy. Further, a temperature gradient in the material equals to 10 K/μm, resulted in deep cracks propagating from the tungsten surface

  4. Computational model for supporting SHM systems design: Damage identification via numerical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorato, Murilo; de Medeiros, Ricardo; Vandepitte, Dirk; Tita, Volnei

    2017-02-01

    This work presents a computational model to simulate thin structures monitored by piezoelectric sensors in order to support the design of SHM systems, which use vibration based methods. Thus, a new shell finite element model was proposed and implemented via a User ELement subroutine (UEL) into the commercial package ABAQUS™. This model was based on a modified First Order Shear Theory (FOST) for piezoelectric composite laminates. After that, damaged cantilever beams with two piezoelectric sensors in different positions were investigated by using experimental analyses and the proposed computational model. A maximum difference in the magnitude of the FRFs between numerical and experimental analyses of 7.45% was found near the resonance regions. For damage identification, different levels of damage severity were evaluated by seven damage metrics, including one proposed by the present authors. Numerical and experimental damage metrics values were compared, showing a good correlation in terms of tendency. Finally, based on comparisons of numerical and experimental results, it is shown a discussion about the potentials and limitations of the proposed computational model to be used for supporting SHM systems design.

  5. Asymmetrical Damage Partitioning in Bacteria: A Model for the Evolution of Stochasticity, Determinism, and Genetic Assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Lin; Rang, Camilla Ulla; Proenca, Audrey Menegaz; Chao, Jasper Ubirajara

    2016-01-01

    Non-genetic phenotypic variation is common in biological organisms. The variation is potentially beneficial if the environment is changing. If the benefit is large, selection can favor the evolution of genetic assimilation, the process by which the expression of a trait is transferred from environmental to genetic control. Genetic assimilation is an important evolutionary transition, but it is poorly understood because the fitness costs and benefits of variation are often unknown. Here we show that the partitioning of damage by a mother bacterium to its two daughters can evolve through genetic assimilation. Bacterial phenotypes are also highly variable. Because gene-regulating elements can have low copy numbers, the variation is attributed to stochastic sampling. Extant Escherichia coli partition asymmetrically and deterministically more damage to the old daughter, the one receiving the mother's old pole. By modeling in silico damage partitioning in a population, we show that deterministic asymmetry is advantageous because it increases fitness variance and hence the efficiency of natural selection. However, we find that symmetrical but stochastic partitioning can be similarly beneficial. To examine why bacteria evolved deterministic asymmetry, we modeled the effect of damage anchored to the mother's old pole. While anchored damage strengthens selection for asymmetry by creating additional fitness variance, it has the opposite effect on symmetry. The difference results because anchored damage reinforces the polarization of partitioning in asymmetric bacteria. In symmetric bacteria, it dilutes the polarization. Thus, stochasticity alone may have protected early bacteria from damage, but deterministic asymmetry has evolved to be equally important in extant bacteria. We estimate that 47% of damage partitioning is deterministic in E. coli. We suggest that the evolution of deterministic asymmetry from stochasticity offers an example of Waddington's genetic assimilation

  6. Spectral algorithm for non-destructive damage localisation: Application to an ancient masonry arch model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciotta, Maria-Giovanna; Ramos, Luís F.; Lourenço, Paulo B.; Vasta, Marcello

    2017-02-01

    Structural monitoring and vibration-based damage identification methods are fundamental tools for condition assessment and early-stage damage identification, especially when dealing with the conservation of historical constructions and the maintenance of strategic civil structures. However, although the substantial advances in the field, several issues must still be addressed to broaden the application range of such tools and to assert their reliability. This study deals with the experimental validation of a novel method for non-destructive damage identification purposes. This method is based on the use of spectral output signals and has been recently validated by the authors through a numerical simulation. After a brief insight into the basic principles of the proposed approach, the spectral-based technique is applied to identify the experimental damage induced on a masonry arch through statically increasing loading. Once the direct and cross spectral density functions of the nodal response processes are estimated, the system's output power spectrum matrix is built and decomposed in eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The present study points out how the extracted spectral eigenparameters contribute to the damage analysis allowing to detect the occurrence of damage and to locate the target points where the cracks appear during the experimental tests. The sensitivity of the spectral formulation to the level of noise in the modal data is investigated and discussed. As a final evaluation criterion, the results from the spectrum-driven method are compared with the ones obtained from existing non-model based damage identification methods.

  7. Model-Trained Neural Networks and Electronic Holography Demonstrated to Detect Damage in Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Arthur J.; Fite, E. Brian; Mehmed, Oral; Thorp, Scott A.

    1998-01-01

    Detect Damage in Blades Electronic holography can show damaged regions in fan blades at 30 frames/sec. The electronic holograms are transformed by finite-element-model-trained artificial neural networks to visualize the damage. The trained neural networks are linked with video and graphics to visualize the bending-induced strain distribution, which is very sensitive to damage. By contrast, it is very difficult to detect damage by viewing the raw, speckled, characteristic fringe patterns. For neural-network visualization of damage, 2 frames or 2 fields are used, rather than the 12 frames normally used to compute the displacement distribution from electronic holograms. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, finite element models are used to compute displacement and strain distributions for the vibration modes of undamaged and cracked blades. A model of electronic time-averaged holography is used to transform the displacement distributions into finite-element-resolution characteristic fringe patterns. Then, a feedforward neural network is trained with the fringe-pattern/strain-pattern pairs, and the neural network, electronic holography, and video are implemented on a workstation. Now that the neural networks have been tested successfully at 30 frames/sec on undamaged and cracked cantilevers, the electronic holography and neural-network processing are being adapted for onsite damage inspection of twisted fan blades and rotormounted blades. Our conclusion is that model-trained neural nets are effective when they are trained with good models whose application is well understood. This work supports the aeromechanical testing portion of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Project.

  8. On the need for data for the verification of service life models for frost damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Engelund, Sven

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to draw the attention to the need for the verification of service life models for frost attack on concrete and the collection of relevant data. To illustrate the type of data needed the paper presents models for internal freeze/thaw damage (internal cracking including...

  9. Ozone damage to crops in southern Africa: An initial modeling study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zunckel, M

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available of this research is to investigate the feasibility of including the stomatal flux algorithms in the CAMx model, and so improve the estimates of ozone uptake in plants and the subsequent risk of ozone damage posed to crops. The initial model results indicate...

  10. THREE-PARAMETER CREEP DAMAGE CONSTITUTIVE MODEL AND ITS APPLICATION IN HYDRAULIC TUNNELLING

    OpenAIRE

    Luo Gang; Chen Liang

    2016-01-01

    Rock deformation is a time-dependent process, generally referred to as rheology. Especially for soft rock strata, design and construction of tunnel shall take full account of rheological properties of adjoining rocks. Based on classic three-parameter HK model (generalized Kelvin model), this paper proposes a three-parameter H-K damage model of which parameters attenuate with increase of equivalent strain, provides attenuation equation of model parameters in the first, second and third stage o...

  11. The Involvement of the Oxidative Stress in Murine Blue LED Light-Induced Retinal Damage Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Maho; Kuse, Yoshiki; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    The aim of study was to establish a mouse model of blue light emitting diode (LED) light-induced retinal damage and to evaluate the effects of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Mice were exposed to 400 or 800 lx blue LED light for 2 h, and were evaluated for retinal damage 5 d later by electroretinogram amplitude and outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness. Additionally, we investigated the effect of blue LED light exposure on shorts-wave-sensitive opsin (S-opsin), and rhodopsin expression by immunohistochemistry. Blue LED light induced light intensity dependent retinal damage and led to collapse of S-opsin and altered rhodopsin localization from inner and outer segments to ONL. Conversely, NAC administered at 100 or 250 mg/kg intraperitoneally twice a day, before dark adaptation and before light exposure. NAC protected the blue LED light-induced retinal damage in a dose-dependent manner. Further, blue LED light-induced decreasing of S-opsin levels and altered rhodopsin localization, which were suppressed by NAC. We established a mouse model of blue LED light-induced retinal damage and these findings indicated that oxidative stress was partially involved in blue LED light-induced retinal damage.

  12. Numerical modeling of the viscoplastic damage behaviour of rocks and application to underground storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajdu, A.

    2003-12-01

    The long-term behavior of large, underground works of a civil engineering nature carried out in a rock mass is currently the subject of numerous studies. The object is to attain a better understanding of complex phenomena, such as the convergence of excavated cavities or the outbreak and development of damaged zones in the rock mass neighboring the works, in order to foresee them. This Ph.D. thesis is devoted to the analysis of viscoplastic strain in rocks and to the degradation of their mechanical properties with time, often referred to as deferred damage. A bibliographical record presents the current depth of understanding as regards underlying microstructural phenomena and summarizes the main theories upon which the modeling of these phenomena at the macroscopic scale is based. The formulations enabling a coupling between the viscous effects and the deferred damage are revisited and discussed in detail. One phenomenological model in particular, Lemaitre's viscoplastic constitutive damage law is retained for the numerical modeling. The calculations were performed with the help of a finite element code (CAST3M). Designs of nuclear waste disposal structures at great depth make up the subject of different case studies. The Lemaitre model, originally designed for metallic materials, is next the subject of a theoretical development of which the aim is to better adapt it to the description of the long-term mechanical behavior of rocks. The modifications focus on several points; notably that the hypotheses of anelastic strain at constant volume and of isotropy of damage are rejected. The main characteristics of time-dependent strain in rocks; in particular the phenomena of viscoplastic dilation and contraction as well as the anisotropy induced by damage to the rock matrix are reproduced by the proposed model. A parametric study is then undertaken, using the experimental results obtained on different types of rock, in order to demonstrate the model's capabilities

  13. Interpretation of the Superpave IDT strength test using a viscoelastic-damage constitutive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onifade, Ibrahim; Balieu, Romain; Birgisson, Bjorn

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a new interpretation for the Superpave IDT strength test based on a viscoelastic-damage framework. The framework is based on continuum damage mechanics and the thermodynamics of irreversible processes with an anisotropic damage representation. The new approach introduces considerations for the viscoelastic effects and the damage accumulation that accompanies the fracture process in the interpretation of the Superpave IDT strength test for the identification of the Dissipated Creep Strain Energy (DCSE) limit from the test result. The viscoelastic model is implemented in a Finite Element Method (FEM) program for the simulation of the Superpave IDT strength test. The DCSE values obtained using the new approach is compared with the values obtained using the conventional approach to evaluate the validity of the assumptions made in the conventional interpretation of the test results. The result shows that the conventional approach over-estimates the DCSE value with increasing estimation error at higher deformation rates.

  14. Vasculotide, an Angiopoietin-1 mimetic, reduces acute skin ionizing radiation damage in a preclinical mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Elina; Yohan, Darren; Chin, Lee Cl; Kim, Anthony; Huang, Xiaoyong; Sade, Shachar; Van Slyke, Paul; Dumont, Daniel J; Liu, Stanley K

    2014-08-26

    Most cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy, but the treatment can also damage the surrounding normal tissue. Acute skin damage from cancer radiotherapy diminishes patients' quality of life, yet effective biological interventions for this damage are lacking. Protecting microvascular endothelial cells from irradiation-induced perturbations is emerging as a targeted damage-reduction strategy. Since Angiopoetin-1 signaling through the Tie2 receptor on endothelial cells opposes microvascular perturbations in other disease contexts, we used a preclinical Angiopoietin-1 mimic called Vasculotide to investigate its effect on skin radiation toxicity using a preclinical model. Athymic mice were treated intraperitoneally with saline or Vasculotide and their flank skin was irradiated with a single large dose of ionizing radiation. Acute cutaneous damage and wound healing were evaluated by clinical skin grading, histology and immunostaining. Diffuse reflectance optical spectroscopy, myeloperoxidase-dependent bioluminescence imaging of neutrophils and a serum cytokine array were used to assess inflammation. Microvascular endothelial cell response to radiation was tested with in vitro clonogenic and Matrigel tubule formation assays. Tumour xenograft growth delay experiments were also performed. Appreciable differences between treatment groups were assessed mainly using parametric and non-parametric statistical tests comparing areas under curves, followed by post-hoc comparisons. In vivo, different schedules of Vasculotide treatment reduced the size of the irradiation-induced wound. Although skin damage scores remained similar on individual days, Vasculotide administered post irradiation resulted in less skin damage overall. Vasculotide alleviated irradiation-induced inflammation in the form of reduced levels of oxygenated hemoglobin, myeloperoxidase bioluminescence and chemokine MIP-2. Surprisingly, Vasculotide-treated animals also had higher microvascular endothelial cell

  15. Integrating Machine Learning into a Crowdsourced Model for Earthquake-Induced Damage Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebbapragada, Umaa; Oommen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    On January 12th, 2010, a catastrophic 7.0M earthquake devastated the country of Haiti. In the aftermath of an earthquake, it is important to rapidly assess damaged areas in order to mobilize the appropriate resources. The Haiti damage assessment effort introduced a promising model that uses crowdsourcing to map damaged areas in freely available remotely-sensed data. This paper proposes the application of machine learning methods to improve this model. Specifically, we apply work on learning from multiple, imperfect experts to the assessment of volunteer reliability, and propose the use of image segmentation to automate the detection of damaged areas. We wrap both tasks in an active learning framework in order to shift volunteer effort from mapping a full catalog of images to the generation of high-quality training data. We hypothesize that the integration of machine learning into this model improves its reliability, maintains the speed of damage assessment, and allows the model to scale to higher data volumes.

  16. Mesoscale modeling of solute precipitation and radiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yongfeng [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schwen, Daniel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ke, Huibin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Bai, Xianming [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hales, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report summarizes the low length scale effort during FY 2014 in developing mesoscale capabilities for microstructure evolution in reactor pressure vessels. During operation, reactor pressure vessels are subject to hardening and embrittlement caused by irradiation-induced defect accumulation and irradiation-enhanced solute precipitation. Both defect production and solute precipitation start from the atomic scale, and manifest their eventual effects as degradation in engineering-scale properties. To predict the property degradation, multiscale modeling and simulation are needed to deal with the microstructure evolution, and to link the microstructure feature to material properties. In this report, the development of mesoscale capabilities for defect accumulation and solute precipitation are summarized. Atomic-scale efforts that supply information for the mesoscale capabilities are also included.

  17. Numerical simulation of self-piercing riveting process (SRP using continuum damage mechanics modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Bonora

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The extended Bonora damage model was used to investigate joinability of materials in self-piercing riveting process. This updated model formulation accounts for void nucleation and growth process and shear-controlled damage which is critical for shear fracture sensitive materials. Potential joint configurations with dissimilar materials have been investigated computationally. In particular the possible combination of DP600 steel, which is widely used in the automotive industry, with AL2024-T351, which is known to show shear fracture sensitivity, and oxygen-free pure copper, which is known to fail by void nucleation and growth, have been investigated. Preliminary numerical simulation results indicate that the damage modelling is capable to discriminate potential criticalities occurring in the SPR joining process opening the possibility for process parameters optimization and screening of candidate materials for optimum joint

  18. Mathematical models for estimating earthquake casualties and damage cost through regression analysis using matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrutia, J D; Bautista, L A; Baccay, E B

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop mathematical models for estimating earthquake casualties such as death, number of injured persons, affected families and total cost of damage. To quantify the direct damages from earthquakes to human beings and properties given the magnitude, intensity, depth of focus, location of epicentre and time duration, the regression models were made. The researchers formulated models through regression analysis using matrices and used α = 0.01. The study considered thirty destructive earthquakes that hit the Philippines from the inclusive years 1968 to 2012. Relevant data about these said earthquakes were obtained from Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Data on damages and casualties were gathered from the records of National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council. This study will be of great value in emergency planning, initiating and updating programs for earthquake hazard reduction in the Philippines, which is an earthquake-prone country.

  19. A viscoplastic model including anisotropic damage for the time dependent behaviour of rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellet, F.; Hajdu, A.; Deleruyelle, F.; Besnus, F.

    2005-08-01

    This paper presents a new constitutive model for the time dependent mechanical behaviour of rock which takes into account both viscoplastic behaviour and evolution of damage with respect to time. This model is built by associating a viscoplastic constitutive law to the damage theory. The main characteristics of this model are the account of a viscoplastic volumetric strain (i.e. contractancy and dilatancy) as well as the anisotropy of damage. The latter is described by a second rank tensor. Using this model, it is possible to predict delayed rupture by determining time to failure, in creep tests for example. The identification of the model parameters is based on experiments such as creep tests, relaxation tests and quasi-static tests. The physical meaning of these parameters is discussed and comparisons with lab tests are presented. The ability of the model to reproduce the delayed failure observed in tertiary creep is demonstrated as well as the sensitivity of the mechanical response to the rate of loading. The model could be used to simulate the evolution of the excavated damage zone around underground openings.

  20. A new coupled elastoplastic damage model for clay-stone and its parameter identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, S.P.; Chen, W.Z.; Yu, H.D.; Li, X.L.; Sillen, X.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In Belgium, the Boom Clay is considered as a potential host rock for the geological disposal of the high level nuclear waste and is intensively studied from hydro-mechanical point of view. Laboratory tests on Boom clay shown that the Boom clay presents very complex stress strain behaviour. Undrained triaxial tests indicated often a hardening behaviour at small deformation and softening at larger deformation. It is not easy to give an explicit function to describe the stress-strain behaviour under triaxial stress state. The mechanical characteristics are obviously affected by the porosity, fractures growth, water content, and stress, etc., four stages can be usually distinguished from the stress-strain curve of Boom Clay, named as OA, AB, BC and CD. 1) Stage OA, the relation between stress and strain is linear. This stage is elastic state, and point A is called as yield strength σ c0 . 2) Stage AB, the weak fractures in the rock appear, develop and cumulate gradually. Point B is called peak strength σ cu . 3) Stage BC, peak strength is reached and stress reduces with the increasing of strain, up to the residual strength. This stage is called strain softening and point C is the residual strength σ cr . The axial pressure causes the fracture developing and strength reducing. 4) Stage CD, the final strength doesn't reduce obviously with the development of plastic deformation. This stage is called plastic flow. Obviously, The conventional elasto-plastic constitutive model can not describe the mechanical behaviours of Boom Clay. Based on damage mechanics theory, an new elasto-plastic damage constitutive model is put forward and applied to Boom Clay, which can describe the complex stress-strain behaviour of clay. It is described as follows: stage OA with an elastic model, stage AB with elastic damage model, stage BC and stage CD with plastic damage model. The complete process curve of stress-strain can be divided

  1. Natural resource damage assessment models for Great Lakes, coastal, and marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.P.; Reed, M.

    1993-01-01

    A computer model of the physical fates, biological effects, and economic damages resulting from releases of oil and other hazardous materials has been developed by Applied Science Associates to be used in Type A natural resource damage assessments under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Natural resource damage assessment models for great lakes environments and for coastal and marine environments will become available. A coupled geographical information system allows gridded representation of complex coastal boundaries, variable bathymetry, shoreline types, and multiple biological habitats. The physical and biological models are three dimensional. Direct mortality from toxic concentrations and oiling, impacts of habitat loss, and food web losses are included in the model. Estimation of natural resource damages is based both on the lost value of injured resources and on the costs of restoring or replacing those resources. The models are implemented on a personal computer, with a VGA graphical user interface. Following public review, the models will become a formal part of the US regulatory framework. The models are programmed in a modular and generic fashion, to facilitate transportability and application to new areas. The model has several major components. Physical fates and biological effects submodels estimate impacts or injury resulting from a spill. The hydrodynamic submodel calculates currents that transport contaminant(s) or organisms. The compensable value submodel values injuries to help assess damages. The restoration submodel determines what restoration actions will most cost-effectively reduce injuries as measured by compensable values. Injury and restoration costs are assessed for each of a series of habitats (environments) affected by the spill. Environmental, chemical, and biological databases supply required information to the model for computing fates and effects (injury)

  2. Evaluation of Progressive Failure Analysis and Modeling of Impact Damage in Composite Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) is leading an evaluation effort in advanced destructive and nondestructive testing of composite pressure vessels and structures. WSTF is using progressive finite element analysis methods for test design and for confirmation of composite pressure vessel performance. Using composite finite element analysis models and failure theories tested in the World-Wide Failure Exercise, WSTF is able to estimate the static strength of composite pressure vessels. Additionally, test and evaluation on composites that have been impact damaged is in progress so that models can be developed to estimate damage tolerance and the degradation in static strength.

  3. Electrical Resistance Based Damage Modeling of Multifunctional Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert James

    In the current thesis, the 4-probe electrical resistance of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites is utilized as a metric for sensing low-velocity impact damage. A robust method has been developed for recovering the directionally dependent electrical resistivities using an experimental line-type 4-probe resistance method. Next, the concept of effective conducting thickness was uniquely applied in the development of a brand new point-type 4-probe method for applications with electrically anisotropic materials. An extensive experimental study was completed to characterize the 4-probe electrical resistance of CFRP specimens using both the traditional line-type and new point-type methods. Leveraging the concept of effective conducting thickness, a novel method was developed for building 4-probe electrical finite element (FE) models in COMSOL. The electrical models were validated against experimental resistance measurements and the FE models demonstrated predictive capabilities when applied to CFRP specimens with varying thickness and layup. These new models demonstrated a significant improvement in accuracy compared to previous literature and could provide a framework for future advancements in FE modeling of electrically anisotropic materials. FE models were then developed in ABAQUS for evaluating the influence of prescribed localized damage on the 4-probe resistance. Experimental data was compiled on the impact response of various CFRP laminates, and was used in the development of quasi- static FE models for predicting presence of impact-induced delamination. The simulation-based delamination predictions were then integrated into the electrical FE models for the purpose of studying the influence of realistic damage patterns on electrical resistance. When the size of the delamination damage was moderate compared to the electrode spacing, the electrical resistance increased by less than 1% due to the delamination damage. However, for a specimen with large

  4. Cutting Modeling of Hybrid CFRP/Ti Composite with Induced Damage Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinyang; El Mansori, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    In hybrid carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP)/Ti machining, the bi-material interface is the weakest region vulnerable to severe damage formation when the tool cutting from one phase to another phase and vice versa. The interface delamination as well as the composite-phase damage is the most serious failure dominating the bi-material machining. In this paper, an original finite element (FE) model was developed to inspect the key mechanisms governing the induced damage formation when cutting this multi-phase material. The hybrid composite model was constructed by establishing three disparate physical constituents, i.e., the Ti phase, the interface, and the CFRP phase. Different constitutive laws and damage criteria were implemented to build up the entire cutting behavior of the bi-material system. The developed orthogonal cutting (OC) model aims to characterize the dynamic mechanisms of interface delamination formation and the affected interface zone (AIZ). Special focus was made on the quantitative analyses of the parametric effects on the interface delamination and composite-phase damage. The numerical results highlighted the pivotal role of AIZ in affecting the formation of interface delamination, and the significant impacts of feed rate and cutting speed on delamination extent and fiber/matrix failure. PMID:28787824

  5. Failure Mechanisms and Damage Model of Ductile Cast Iron Under Low-Cycle Fatigue Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xijia; Quan, Guangchun; MacNeil, Ryan; Zhang, Zhong; Sloss, Clayton

    2014-10-01

    Strain-controlled low-cycle fatigue (LCF) tests were conducted on ductile cast iron (DCI) at strain rates of 0.02, 0.002, and 0.0002/s in the temperature range from room temperature to 1073 K (800 °C). A constitutive-damage model was developed within the integrated creep-fatigue theory (ICFT) framework on the premise of strain decomposition into rate-independent plasticity and time-dependent creep. Four major damage mechanisms: (i) plasticity-induced fatigue, (ii) intergranular embrittlement (IE), (iii) creep, and (iv) oxidation were considered in a nonlinear creep-fatigue interaction model which represents the overall damage accumulation process consisting of oxidation-assisted fatigue crack nucleation and propagation in coalescence with internally distributed damage ( e.g., IE and creep), leading to final fracture. The model was found to agree with the experimental observations of the complex DCI-LCF phenomena, for which the linear damage summation rule would fail.

  6. Damage Detection of Refractory Based on Principle Component Analysis and Gaussian Mixture Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changming Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission (AE technique is a common approach to identify the damage of the refractories; however, there is a complex problem since there are as many as fifteen involved parameters, which calls for effective data processing and classification algorithms to reduce the level of complexity. In this paper, experiments involving three-point bending tests of refractories were conducted and AE signals were collected. A new data processing method of merging the similar parameters in the description of the damage and reducing the dimension was developed. By means of the principle component analysis (PCA for dimension reduction, the fifteen related parameters can be reduced to two parameters. The parameters were the linear combinations of the fifteen original parameters and taken as the indexes for damage classification. Based on the proposed approach, the Gaussian mixture model was integrated with the Bayesian information criterion to group the AE signals into two damage categories, which accounted for 99% of all damage. Electronic microscope scanning of the refractories verified the two types of damage.

  7. Dynamics-based model-independent local inspection method for damage detection of large structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, P. Frank; Huang, Lu

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents recent development and current capabilities of a dynamics-based Boundary Effect Evaluation Method (BEEM) for damage inspection of large structures. Damage introduces new boundaries to a structure, and influences of boundaries on steady-state high-frequency dynamic response are localized effects. The BEEM is a signal processing method that takes advantage of these localized effects to perform area-by-area extraction of damage-induced boundary effects from steady-state Operational Deflection Shapes (ODSs) to reveal damage locations. Steady-state ODSs of a structure can be measured using any full-field measurement tool, and the BEEM decomposes an ODS into central and boundary solutions using a sliding-window least-squares data-fitting technique. Numerical and experimental results show that boundary solutions are excellent damage indicators because of Gibbs' phenomenon, and the central solutions can be used to easily identify actual structural boundary conditions. Except experimental ODSs of the damaged structure under inspection the method requires no model or historical data for comparison. Experimental results of many one- and two-dimensional structures validates the capabilities of BEEM in detecting and estimating multiple small defects in large structures.

  8. Comprehensive flood economic losses: review of the potential damage and implementation of an agricultural impact model

    OpenAIRE

    Mao Gwladys; Onfroy Thomas; Moncoulon David; Quantin Antoine; Robert Christian

    2016-01-01

    With an annual loss averaging 580 M€ between 1990 and 2014, floods are the main natural catastrophe (Nat Cat) risk for the French Nat Cat compensation scheme. As part of its role in this scheme, the Caisse Centrale de Réassurance (CCR) offers state guaranteed reinsurance programs and has been modelling the risk of flooding since 2003. This model is based on the traditional valuation approach of direct tangible costs which pairs a physical model with exposure through damage curves. CCR wishes ...

  9. Track structure model for damage to mammalian cell cultures during solar proton events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Katz, R.

    1992-01-01

    Solar proton events (SPEs) occur infrequently and unpredictably, thus representing a potential hazard to interplanetary space missions. Biological damage from SPEs will be produced principally through secondary electron production in tissue, including important contributions due to delta rays from nuclear reaction products. We review methods for estimating the biological effectiveness of SPEs using a high energy proton model and the parametric cellular track model. Results of the model are presented for several of the historically largest flares using typical levels and body shielding.

  10. EQUATIONS OF NONLINEAR SOIL DAMAGE BASED ON RESULTS OF TESTING OF LATERALLY LOADED PILE MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buslov Anatoliy Semenovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of testing of laterally loaded pile models demonstrate that the "load -to-displacement" dependency has a nonlinear character. This dependency may be regarded as linear within the interval of (0.2…0.3 Pul only. Tests were performed in a box with displacement indicators and power equipment. The pile model length was 200 mm, and its diameter was 40 mm. A hollow steel tube was used as the material for tested piles. Based on the analysis of testing results, a pattern of the non-linear damage of the base was formulated. According to the pattern, the increase of the load intensity (damage factor m=Ph/Pul involves an increase in the damage of the continuity, or the rebuff ability of the soil foundation.

  11. Effect of a shear modified Gurson model on damage development in a FSW tensile specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2009-01-01

    For a friction stir welded aluminum plate the resistance to ductile failure is studied by analyzing tensile test specimens cut out across the weldline. As the stress triaxiality is rather low in these tests, the Gurson material model is not expected to give a very accurate description of the void....... It is found that the modification does provide additional damage development in the friction stir weld, which may help to fit experimental data. But the suggested modification depends strongly on the overall stress state, and may have a too strong effect in some cases where the stress triaxiality is rather......, such that the damage parameter does not really represent the void volume fraction. Various amounts of the additional damage evolution are compared with predictions of the original Gurson model. The analyses are carried out for different yield stress profiles transverse to the weld and for different specimen widths...

  12. A LATIN-based model reduction approach for the simulation of cycling damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Mainak; Fau, Amelie; Nackenhorst, Udo; Néron, David; Ladevèze, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this article is to introduce a new method including model order reduction for the life prediction of structures subjected to cycling damage. Contrary to classical incremental schemes for damage computation, a non-incremental technique, the LATIN method, is used herein as a solution framework. This approach allows to introduce a PGD model reduction technique which leads to a drastic reduction of the computational cost. The proposed framework is exemplified for structures subjected to cyclic loading, where damage is considered to be isotropic and micro-defect closure effects are taken into account. A difficulty herein for the use of the LATIN method comes from the state laws which can not be transformed into linear relations through an internal variable transformation. A specific treatment of this issue is introduced in this work.

  13. \\title{Development of Radiation Damage Models for Irradiated Silicon Sensors Using TCAD Tools}

    CERN Document Server

    Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Lalwani, Kavita; Ranjan, Kirti; Printz, Martin; Ranjeet, Ranjeet; Eber, Robert; Eichhorn, Thomas; Peltola, Timo Hannu Tapani

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. During the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) the CMS tracking system will face a more intense radiation environment than the present system was designed for. In order to design radiation tolerant silicon sensors for the future CMS tracker upgrade it is fundamental to complement the measurement with device simulation. This will help in both the understanding of the device performance and in the optimization of the design parameters. One of the important ingredients of the device simulation is to develop a radiation damage model incorporating both bulk and surface damage. In this paper we will discuss the development of a radiation damage model by using commercial TCAD packages (Silvaco and Synopsys), which successfully reproduce the recent measurements like leakage current, depletion voltage, interstrip capacitance and interstrip resistance, and provides an insight into the performance of irradiated silicon strip sensors.

  14. Damage based constitutive model for predicting the performance degradation of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Wang

    Full Text Available An anisotropic elastic-damage coupled constitutive model for plain concrete is developed, which describes the concrete performance degradation. The damage variable, related to the surface density of micro-cracks and micro-voids, and represented by a second order tensor, is governed by the principal tension strain components. For adequately describing the partial crack opening/closure effect under tension and compression for concrete, a new suitable thermodynamic potential is proposed to express the state equations for modeling the mechanical behaviors. Within the frame-work of thermodynamic potential, concrete strain mechanisms are identified in the proposed anisotropic damage model while each state variable is physically explained and justified. The strain equivalence hypothesis is used for deriving the constitutive equations, which leads to the development of a decoupled algorithm for effective stress computation and damage evolution. Additionally, a detailed numerical algorithm is described and the simulations are shown for uni-axial compression, tension and multi-axial loadings. For verifying the numerical results, a series of experiments on concrete were carried out. Reasonably good agreement between experimental results and the predicted values was observed. The proposed constitutive model can be used to accurately model the concrete behaviors under uni-axial compression, tension and multi-axial loadings. Additionally, the presented work is expected to be very useful in the nonlinear finite element analysis of large-scale concrete structures.

  15. Simulating damage for wind storms in the land surface model ORCHIDEE-CAN (revision 4262)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ying; Gardiner, Barry; Pasztor, Ferenc; Blennow, Kristina; Ryder, James; Valade, Aude; Naudts, Kim; Otto, Juliane; McGrath, Matthew J.; Planque, Carole; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

    2018-03-01

    Earth system models (ESMs) are currently the most advanced tools with which to study the interactions among humans, ecosystem productivity, and the climate. The inclusion of storm damage in ESMs has long been hampered by their big-leaf approach, which ignores the canopy structure information that is required for process-based wind-throw modelling. Recently the big-leaf assumptions in the large-scale land surface model ORCHIDEE-CAN were replaced by a three-dimensional description of the canopy structure. This opened the way to the integration of the processes from the small-scale wind damage risk model ForestGALES into ORCHIDEE-CAN. The integration of ForestGALES into ORCHIDEE-CAN required, however, developing numerically efficient solutions to deal with (1) landscape heterogeneity, i.e. account for newly established forest edges for the parameterization of gusts; (2) downscaling spatially and temporally aggregated wind fields to obtain more realistic wind speeds that would represents gusts; and (3) downscaling storm damage within the 2500 km2 pixels of ORCHIDEE-CAN. This new version of ORCHIDEE-CAN was parameterized over Sweden. Subsequently, the performance of the model was tested against data for historical storms in southern Sweden between 1951 and 2010 and south-western France in 2009. In years without big storms, here defined as a storm damaging less than 15 × 106 m3 of wood in Sweden, the model error is 1.62 × 106 m3, which is about 100 % of the observed damage. For years with big storms, such as Gudrun in 2005, the model error increased to 5.05 × 106 m3, which is between 10 and 50 % of the observed damage. When the same model parameters were used over France, the model reproduced a decrease in leaf area index and an increase in albedo, in accordance with SPOT-VGT and MODIS records following the passing of Cyclone Klaus in 2009. The current version of ORCHIDEE-CAN (revision 4262) is therefore expected to have the capability to capture the dynamics of

  16. Thermomechanics-based nonlinear rate-dependent coupled damage-plasticity granular micromechanics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anil; Singh, Viraj

    2015-09-01

    Thermomechanics and granular micromechanics approaches are combined to derive constitutive equations for modeling rate-dependent granular materials with damage and plasticity. The derivation is motivated by the recognition that the effect of micro-scale mechanisms upon the macro-scale behavior is known to be significant for granular materials. A general thermomechanical framework applicable to rate-dependent granular materials with damage and plasticity is developed. Based upon this framework, an expression for macro-scale Cauchy stress tensor is obtained in terms of the micro-scale grain interaction forces and the relationship between micro- and macro-scale kinematics. In addition, a Clausius-Duhem type inequality applicable to inter-granular interaction is derived, which is used to establish micro-scale constitutive relations for particular type of inter-granular interactions. The expression for Cauchy stress tensor and the micro-scale constitutive relations is then combined under a mean field kinematic assumption to obtain evolution-type macro-scale constitutive equations. The advantage of the granular micromechanics approach is that the damage and plasticity are defined using simple 1d functions at micro-scale, and complicated plastic potentials, damage functions and rules for their evolution are not required. The resultant model is applied to investigate primary, secondary and tertiary creep, creep-recovery as well as rate-dependent response under uniaxial compressive loading. Model applicability is also demonstrated for asymmetric tensile-compressive response under creep-recovery loading. The model is used to evaluate the evolution of elastic energy, and viscous, plastic and damage dissipation at the macro- and micro-scale with respect to creep time and loading level. The results show the development of loading-induced anisotropy due to damage and plasticity in these materials.

  17. An improved Corten-Dolan's model based on damage and stress state effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Huiying; Huang, Hong Zhong; Lv, Zhiqiang; Zuo, Fang Jun; Wang, Hai Kun

    2015-01-01

    The value of exponent d in Corten-Dolan's model is generally considered to be a constant. Nonetheless, the results predicted on the basis of this statement deviate significantly from the real values. In consideration of the effects of damage and stress state on fatigue life prediction, Corten-Dolan's model is improved by redefining the exponent d used in the traditional model. The improved model performs better than the traditional one with respect to the demonstration of a fatigue failure mechanism. Predictions of fatigue life on the basis of investigations into three metallic specimens indicate that the errors caused by the improved model are significantly smaller than those induced by the traditional model. Meanwhile, predictions derived according to the improved model fall into a narrower dispersion zone than those made as per Miner's rule and the traditional model. This finding suggests that the proposed model improves the life prediction accuracy of the other two models. The predictions obtained using the improved Corten-Dolan's model differ slightly from those derived according to a model proposed in previous literature; a few life predictions obtained on the basis of the former are more accurate than those derived according to the latter. Therefore, the improved model proposed in this paper is proven to be rational and reliable given the proven validity of the existing model. Therefore, the improved model can be feasibly and credibly applied to damage accumulation and fatigue life prediction to some extent.

  18. Rheological-dynamical continuum damage model for concrete under uniaxial compression and its experimental verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milašinović Dragan D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new analytical model for the prediction of concrete response under uniaxial compression and its experimental verification is presented in this paper. The proposed approach, referred to as the rheological-dynamical continuum damage model, combines rheological-dynamical analogy and damage mechanics. Within the framework of this approach the key continuum parameters such as the creep coefficient, Poisson’s ratio and damage variable are functionally related. The critical values of the creep coefficient and damage variable under peak stress are used to describe the failure mode of the concrete cylinder. The ultimate strain is determined in the post-peak regime only, using the secant stress-strain relation from damage mechanics. The post-peak branch is used for the energy analysis. Experimental data for five concrete compositions were obtained during the examination presented herein. The principal difference between compressive failure and tensile fracture is that there is a residual stress in the specimens, which is a consequence of uniformly accelerated motion of load during the examination of compressive strength. The critical interpenetration displacements and crushing energy are obtained theoretically based on the concept of global failure analysis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 174027: Computational Mechanics in Structural Engineering i br. TR 36017: Utilization of by-products and recycled waste materials in concrete composites for sustainable construction development in Serbia: Investigation and environmental assessment of possible applications

  19. On the relation between phase-field crack approximation and gradient damage modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Christian; Zreid, Imadeddin; Kaliske, Michael

    2017-05-01

    The finite element implementation of a gradient enhanced microplane damage model is compared to a phase-field model for brittle fracture. Phase-field models and implicit gradient damage models share many similarities despite being conceived from very different standpoints. In both approaches, an additional differential equation and a length scale are introduced. However, while the phase-field method is formulated starting from the description of a crack in fracture mechanics, the gradient method starts from a continuum mechanics point of view. At first, the scope of application for both models is discussed to point out intersections. Then, the analysis of the employed mathematical methods and their rigorous comparison are presented. Finally, numerical examples are introduced to illustrate the findings of the comparison which are summarized in a conclusion at the end of the paper.

  20. Probability-Based Damage Detection of Structures Using Model Updating with Enhanced Ideal Gas Molecular Movement Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Ghasemi; R. Ghiasi; H. Varaee

    2017-01-01

    Model updating method has received increasing attention in damage detection structures based on measured modal parameters. Therefore, a probability-based damage detection (PBDD) procedure based on a model updating procedure is presented in this paper, in which a one-stage model-based damage identification technique based on the dynamic features of a structure is investigated. The presented framework uses a finite element updating method with a Monte Carlo simulation that ...

  1. A thermovisco-hyperelastic constitutive model of HTPB propellant with damage at intermediate strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhejun; Qiang, Hongfu; Wang, Tiejun; Wang, Guang; Hou, Xiao

    2017-08-01

    The uniaxial compressive tests at different temperatures (223-298 K) and strain rates ( 0.40-63 s^{-1}) are reported to study the properties of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant at intermediate strain rates, using a new INSTRON testing machine. The experimental results indicate that the compressive properties (mechanical properties and damage) of HTPB propellant are remarkably affected by temperature and strain rate and display significant nonlinear material behaviors at large strains under all the test conditions. Continuously decreasing temperature and increasing strain rate, the characteristics of stress-strain curves and damage for HTPB propellant are more complex and are significantly different from that at room temperature or at lower strain rates. A new constitutive model was developed to describe the compressive behaviors of HTPB propellant at room temperature and intermediate strain rates by simply coupling the effect of strain rate into the conventional hyperelastic model. Based on the compressive behaviors of HTPB propellant and the nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive theories, a new thermovisco-hyperelastic constitutive model with damage was proposed to predict the stress responses of the propellant at low temperatures and intermediate strain rates. In this new model, the damage is related to the viscoelastic properties of the propellant. Meanwhile, the effect of temperature on the hyperelastic properties, viscoelastic properties and damage are all considered by the macroscopical method. The constitutive parameters in the proposed constitutive models were identified by the genetic algorithm (GA)-based optimization method. By comparing the predicted and experimental results, it can be found that the developed constitutive models can correctly describe the uniaxial compressive behaviors of HTPB propellant at intermediate strain rates and different temperatures.

  2. 3D Progressive Damage Modeling for Laminated Composite Based on Crack Band Theory and Continuum Damage Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John T.; Pineda, Evan J.; Ranatunga, Vipul; Smeltzer, Stanley S.

    2015-01-01

    A simple continuum damage mechanics (CDM) based 3D progressive damage analysis (PDA) tool for laminated composites was developed and implemented as a user defined material subroutine to link with a commercially available explicit finite element code. This PDA tool uses linear lamina properties from standard tests, predicts damage initiation with an easy-to-implement Hashin-Rotem failure criteria, and in the damage evolution phase, evaluates the degradation of material properties based on the crack band theory and traction-separation cohesive laws. It follows Matzenmiller et al.'s formulation to incorporate the degrading material properties into the damaged stiffness matrix. Since nonlinear shear and matrix stress-strain relations are not implemented, correction factors are used for slowing the reduction of the damaged shear stiffness terms to reflect the effect of these nonlinearities on the laminate strength predictions. This CDM based PDA tool is implemented as a user defined material (VUMAT) to link with the Abaqus/Explicit code. Strength predictions obtained, using this VUMAT, are correlated with test data for a set of notched specimens under tension and compression loads.

  3. Development of a Damage Quantification Model for Composite Skin-Stiffener Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loendersloot, Richard; Ooijevaar, T.H.; de Boer, Andries; Akkerman, Remko; Boller, C; Janocha, H

    2011-01-01

    The development of a model-based approach for a damage severity assessment applied on a complex composite skin structure with stiffeners is presented in this paper. Earlier investigations on composite structures with stiffeners revealed that a vibration based structural health monitoring approach,

  4. Modeling the Dynamic Failure of Railroad Tank Cars Using a Physically Motivated Internal State Variable Plasticity/Damage Nonlocal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazle R. Ahad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a physically motivated internal state variable plasticity/damage model containing a mathematical length scale to idealize the material response in finite element simulations of a large-scale boundary value problem. The problem consists of a moving striker colliding against a stationary hazmat tank car. The motivations are (1 to reproduce with high fidelity finite deformation and temperature histories, damage, and high rate phenomena that may arise during the impact accident and (2 to address the material postbifurcation regime pathological mesh size issues. We introduce the mathematical length scale in the model by adopting a nonlocal evolution equation for the damage, as suggested by Pijaudier-Cabot and Bazant in the context of concrete. We implement this evolution equation into existing finite element subroutines of the plasticity/failure model. The results of the simulations, carried out with the aid of Abaqus/Explicit finite element code, show that the material model, accounting for temperature histories and nonlocal damage effects, satisfactorily predicts the damage progression during the tank car impact accident and significantly reduces the pathological mesh size effects.

  5. Iodoacetic acid, but not sodium iodate, creates an inducible swine model of photoreceptor damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jennifer M; Fernandez de Castro, Juan P; Demarco, Paul J; Franco, Luisa M; Wang, Wei; Vukmanic, Eric V; Peng, Xiaoyan; Sandell, Julie H; Scott, Patrick A; Kaplan, Henry J; McCall, Maureen A

    2012-04-01

    Our purpose was to find a method to create a large animal model of inducible photoreceptor damage. To this end, we tested in domestic swine the efficacy of two chemical toxins, known to create photoreceptor damage in other species: Iodoacetic Acid (IAA) and Sodium Iodate (NaIO(3)). Intravenous (IV) administration of NaIO(3) up to 90 mg/kg had no effect on retinal function and 110 mg/kg was lethal. IV administration of IAA (5-20 mg/kg) produced concentration-dependent changes in visual function as measured by full-field and multi-focal electroretinograms (ffERG and mfERG), and 30 mg/kg IAA was lethal. The IAA-induced effects measured at two weeks were stable through eight weeks post-injection, the last time point investigated. IAA at 7.5, 10, and 12 mg/kg produce a concentration-dependent reduction in both ffERG b-wave and mfERG N1-P1 amplitudes compared to baseline at all post-injection times. Comparisons of dark- and light-adapted ffERG b-wave amplitudes show a more significant loss of rod relative to cone function. The fundus of swine treated with ≥10 mg/kg IAA was abnormal with thinner retinal vessels and pale optic discs, and we found no evidence of bone spicule formation. Histological evaluations show concentration-dependent outer retinal damage that correlates with functional changes. We conclude that NaIO(3,) is not an effective toxin in swine. In contrast, IAA can be used to create a rapidly inducible, selective, stable and concentration-dependent model of photoreceptor damage in swine retina. Because of these attributes this large animal model of controlled photoreceptor damage should be useful in the investigation of treatments to replace damaged photoreceptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Finite strain formulation of viscoelastic damage model for simulation of fabric reinforced polymers under dynamic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treutenaere S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of fabric reinforced polymers in the automotive industry is growing significantly. The high specific stiffness and strength, the ease of shaping as well as the great impact performance of these materials widely encourage their diffusion. The present model increases the predictability of explicit finite element analysis and push the boundaries of the ongoing phenomenological model. Carbon fibre composites made up various preforms were tested by applying different mechanical load up to dynamic loading. This experimental campaign highlighted the physical mechanisms affecting the initial mechanical properties, namely intra- and interlaminar matrix damage, viscoelasticty and fibre failure. The intralaminar behaviour model is based on the explicit formulation of the matrix damage model developed by the ONERA as the given damage formulation correlates with the experimental observation. Coupling with a Maxwell-Wiechert model, the viscoelasticity is included without losing the direct explicit formulation. Additionally, the model is formulated under a total Lagrangian scheme in order to maintain consistency for finite strain. Thus, the material frame-indifference as well as anisotropy are ensured. This allows reorientation of fibres to be taken into account particularly for in-plane shear loading. Moreover, fall within the framework of the total Lagrangian scheme greatly makes the parameter identification easier, as based on the initial configuration. This intralaminar model thus relies upon a physical description of the behaviour of fabric composites and the numerical simulations show a good correlation with the experimental results.

  7. Validation Testing of a Peridynamic Impact Damage Model Using NASA's Micro-Particle Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, Forrest E.; Zelinski, Brian J.; Guven, Ibrahim; Gray, Perry

    2017-01-01

    Through a collaborative effort between the Virginia Commonwealth University and Raytheon, a peridynamic model for sand impact damage has been developed1-3. Model development has focused on simulating impacts of sand particles on ZnS traveling at velocities consistent with aircraft take-off and landing speeds. The model reproduces common features of impact damage including pit and radial cracks, and, under some conditions, lateral cracks. This study focuses on a preliminary validation exercise in which simulation results from the peridynamic model are compared to a limited experimental data set generated by NASA's recently developed micro-particle gun (MPG). The MPG facility measures the dimensions and incoming and rebound velocities of the impact particles. It also links each particle to a specific impact site and its associated damage. In this validation exercise parameters of the peridynamic model are adjusted to fit the experimentally observed pit diameter, average length of radial cracks and rebound velocities for 4 impacts of 300 µm glass beads on ZnS. Results indicate that a reasonable fit of these impact characteristics can be obtained by suitable adjustment of the peridynamic input parameters, demonstrating that the MPG can be used effectively as a validation tool for impact modeling and that the peridynamic sand impact model described herein possesses not only a qualitative but also a quantitative ability to simulate sand impact events.

  8. Dynamical Modelling, Stochastic Simulation and Optimization in the Context of Damage Tolerant Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Butkewitsch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the situation in which some form of damage is induced by cyclic mechanical stresses yielded by the vibratory motion of a system whose dynamical behaviour is, in turn, affected by the evolution of the damage. It is assumed that both phenomena, vibration and damage propagation, can be modeled by means of time depended equations of motion whose coupled solution is sought. A brief discussion about the damage tolerant design philosophy for aircraft structures is presented at the introduction, emphasizing the importance of the accurate definition of inspection intervals and, for this sake, the need of a representative damage propagation model accounting for the actual loading environment in which a structure may operate. For the purpose of illustration, the finite element model of a cantilever beam is formulated, providing that the stiffness matrix can be updated as long as a crack of an assumed initial length spreads in a given location of the beam according to a proper propagation model. This way, it is possible to track how the mechanical vibration, through its varying amplitude stress field, activates and develops the fatigue failure mechanism. Conversely, it is also possible to address how the effect of the fatigue induced stiffness degradation influences the motion of the beam, closing the loop for the analysis of a coupled vibration-degradation dynamical phenomenon. In the possession of this working model, stochastic simulation of the beam behaviour is developed, aiming at the identification of the most influential parameters and at the characterization of the probability distributions of the relevant responses of interest. The knowledge of the parameters and responses allows for the formulation of optimization problems aiming at the improvement of the beam robustness with respect to the fatigue induced stiffness degradation. The overall results are presented and analyzed, conducting to the conclusions and outline of future

  9. A 3D multilevel model of damage and strength of wood: Analysis of microstructural effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qing, Hai; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2011-01-01

    A 3D hierarchical computational model of damage and strength of wood is developed. The model takes into account the four scale microstructures of wood, including the microfibril reinforced structure at nanoscale, multilayered cell walls at microscale, hexagon-shape-tube cellular structure at meso...... arrangements and cellulose strength distributions on the tensile strength of wood is studied numerically. Good agreement of the theoretical results with experimental data has been obtained.......A 3D hierarchical computational model of damage and strength of wood is developed. The model takes into account the four scale microstructures of wood, including the microfibril reinforced structure at nanoscale, multilayered cell walls at microscale, hexagon-shape-tube cellular structure...

  10. A 3D intestinal tissue model supports Clostridioides difficile germination, colonization, toxin production and epithelial damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Lamyaa; Chen, Ying; Fasciano, Alyssa C; Lin, Yinan; Kaplan, David L; Kumamoto, Carol A; Mecsas, Joan

    2018-04-01

    Endospore-forming Clostridioides difficile is a causative agent of antibiotic-induced diarrhea, a major nosocomial infection. Studies of its interactions with mammalian tissues have been hampered by the fact that C. difficile requires anaerobic conditions to survive after spore germination. We recently developed a bioengineered 3D human intestinal tissue model and found that low O 2 conditions are produced in the lumen of these tissues. Here, we compared the ability of C. difficile spores to germinate, produce toxin and cause tissue damage in our bioengineered 3D tissue model versus in a 2D transwell model in which human cells form a polarized monolayer. 3D tissue models or 2D polarized monolayers on transwell filters were challenged with the non-toxin producing C. difficile CCUG 37787 serotype X (ATCC 43603) and the toxin producing UK1 C. difficile spores in the presence of the germinant, taurocholate. Spores germinated in both the 3D tissue model as well as the 2D transwell system, however toxin activity was significantly higher in the 3D tissue models compared to the 2D transwells. Moreover, the epithelium damage in the 3D tissue model was significantly more severe than in 2D transwells and damage correlated significantly with the level of toxin activity detected but not with the amount of germinated spores. Combined, these results show that the bioengineered 3D tissue model provides a powerful system with which to study early events leading to toxin production and tissue damage of C. difficile with mammalian cells under anaerobic conditions. Furthermore, these systems may be useful for examining the effects of microbiota, novel drugs and other potential therapeutics directed towards C. difficile infections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling the role of p53 pulses in DNA damage- induced cell death decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Jun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tumor suppressor p53 plays pivotal roles in tumorigenesis suppression. Although oscillations of p53 have been extensively studied, the mechanism of p53 pulses and their physiological roles in DNA damage response remain unclear. Results To address these questions we presented an integrated model in which Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM activation and p53 oscillation were incorporated with downstream apoptotic events, particularly the interplays between Bcl-2 family proteins. We first reproduced digital oscillation of p53 as the response of normal cells to DNA damage. Subsequent modeling in mutant cells showed that high basal DNA damage is a plausible cause for sustained p53 pulses observed in tumor cells. Further computational analyses indicated that p53-dependent PUMA accumulation and the PUMA-controlled Bax activation switch might play pivotal roles to count p53 pulses and thus decide the cell fate. Conclusion The high levels of basal DNA damage are responsible for generating sustained pulses of p53 in the tumor cells. Meanwhile, the Bax activation switch can count p53 pulses through PUMA accumulation and transfer it into death signal. Our modeling provides a plausible mechanism about how cells generate and orchestrate p53 pulses to tip the balance between survival and death.

  12. Modelling of microstructural creep damage in welded joints of 316L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouche, G.

    2000-01-01

    Welded joints of 316L stainless steel under service conditions at elevated temperature are known to be preferential sites of creep damage, as compared to the base material. This damage results in the formation of cavities and the development of creep cracks which can lead to a premature failure of welded components. The complex two-phase microstructure of 316L welds was simulated by manually filling a mould with longitudinal deposited weld beads. The moulded material was then aged during 2000 hours at 600 deg. C. High resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy was largely used to examine the microstructure of the simulated material before and after ageing. Smooth and notched creep specimens were cut from the mould and tested at 600 deg. C under various stress levels. A comparison of the lifetime versus nominal stress curves for the base and welded materials shows a greater dependence of the welded material to creep phenomena. Observation and EBSD analysis show that damage is preferentially located along the austenite grain boundaries. The stress and strain fields in the notched specimens were calculated by finite element method. A correlation of this field to the observed damage was made in order to propose a predictive law relating the creep damage to the mechanical conditions applied locally. Further mechanical tests and simulation on CT specimens and mode II tubular specimens allowed validating the model under various multiaxial loading conditions. (author)

  13. Oxidative Damage and Cellular Defense Mechanisms in Sea Urchin Models of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Colin; Anderson, Arielle; Lortie, Mae; Parsons, Rachel; Bodnar, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The free radical or oxidative stress theory of aging proposes that the accumulation of oxidative cellular damage is a major contributor to the aging process and a key determinant of species longevity. This study investigates the oxidative stress theory in a novel model for aging research, the sea urchin. Sea urchins present a unique model for the study of aging due to the existence of species with tremendously different natural life spans including some species with extraordinary longevity and negligible senescence. Cellular oxidative damage, antioxidant capacity and proteasome enzyme activities were measured in the tissues of three sea urchin species: short-lived Lytechinus variegatus, long-lived Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus which has an intermediate lifespan. Levels of protein carbonyls and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) measured in tissues (muscle, nerve, esophagus, gonad, coelomocytes, ampullae) and 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) measured in cell-free coelomic fluid showed no general increase with age. The fluorescent age-pigment lipofuscin measured in muscle, nerve and esophagus, increased with age however it appeared to be predominantly extracellular. Antioxidant mechanisms (total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase) and proteasome enzyme activities were maintained with age. In some instances, levels of oxidative damage were lower and antioxidant activity higher in cells or tissues of the long-lived species compared to the short-lived species, however further studies are required to determine the relationship between oxidative damage and longevity in these animals. Consistent with the predictions of the oxidative stress theory of aging, the results suggest that negligible senescence is accompanied by a lack of accumulation of cellular oxidative damage with age and maintenance of antioxidant capacity and proteasome enzyme activities may be important mechanisms to mitigate damage. PMID:23707327

  14. Creep-Fatigue Damage Investigation and Modeling of Alloy 617 at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Fraaz

    imaging analysis showed that the microstructural damage features (cracks and voids) are correlated with a new mechanical driving force parameter. The results from this image-based damage analysis were used to develop a phenomenological life-prediction methodology called the effective time fraction approach. Finally, the constitutive creep-fatigue response of the material at 950°C was modeled using a unified viscoplastic model coupled with a damage accumulation model. The simulation results were used to validate an energy-based constitutive life-prediction model, as a mechanistic model for potential component and structure level creep-fatigue analysis.

  15. Nanodosimetric Simulation of Direct Ion-Induced DNA Damage Using Different Chromatin Geometry Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henthorn, N T; Warmenhoven, J W; Sotiropoulos, M; Mackay, R I; Kirkby, K J; Merchant, M J

    2017-12-01

    Monte Carlo based simulation has proven useful in investigating the effect of proton-induced DNA damage and the processes through which this damage occurs. Clustering of ionizations within a small volume can be related to DNA damage through the principles of nanodosimetry. For simulation, it is standard to construct a small volume of water and determine spatial clusters. More recently, realistic DNA geometries have been used, tracking energy depositions within DNA backbone volumes. Traditionally a chromatin fiber is built within the simulation and identically replicated throughout a cell nucleus, representing the cell in interphase. However, the in vivo geometry of the chromatin fiber is still unknown within the literature, with many proposed models. In this work, the Geant4-DNA toolkit was used to build three chromatin models: the solenoid, zig-zag and cross-linked geometries. All fibers were built to the same chromatin density of 4.2 nucleosomes/11 nm. The fibers were then irradiated with protons (LET 5-80 keV/μm) or alpha particles (LET 63-226 keV/μm). Nanodosimetric parameters were scored for each fiber after each LET and used as a comparator among the models. Statistically significant differences were observed in the double-strand break backbone size distributions among the models, although nonsignificant differences were noted among the nanodosimetric parameters. From the data presented in this article, we conclude that selection of the solenoid, zig-zag or cross-linked chromatin model does not significantly affect the calculated nanodosimetric parameters. This allows for a simulation-based cell model to make use of any of these chromatin models for the scoring of direct ion-induced DNA damage.

  16. An effective continuum damage mechanics model for creep-fatigue life assessment of a steam turbine rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JianPing, Jing; Guang, Meng; Yi, Sun; SongBo, Xia

    2003-01-01

    A nonlinear Continuum Damage Mechanics model is proposed to assess the creep-fatigue life of a steam turbine rotor, in which the effects of complex multiaxial stress and the coupling of fatigue and creep are taken into account. The nonlinear evolution of damage is also considered. The model is applied to a 600 MW steam turbine under a practical start-stop operation. The results are compared with those from the linear accumulation theory that is dominant in life assessment of steam turbine rotors at present. The comparison show that the nonlinear continuum damage mechanics model describes the accumulation and development of damage better than the linear accumulation theory

  17. Prediction of irradiation damage effects by multi-scale modelling: EURATOM 3 Framework integrated project perfect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massoud, J.P.; Bugat, St.; Marini, B.; Lidbury, D.; Van Dyck, St.; Debarberis, L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. In nuclear PWRs, materials undergo degradation due to severe irradiation conditions that may limit their operational life. Utilities operating these reactors must quantify the aging and the potential degradations of reactor pressure vessels and also of internal structures to ensure safe and reliable plant operation. The EURATOM 6. Framework Integrated Project PERFECT (Prediction of Irradiation Damage Effects in Reactor Components) addresses irradiation damage in RPV materials and components by multi-scale modelling. This state-of-the-art approach offers potential advantages over the conventional empirical methods used in current practice of nuclear plant lifetime management. Launched in January 2004, this 48-month project is focusing on two main components of nuclear power plants which are subject to irradiation damage: the ferritic steel reactor pressure vessel and the austenitic steel internals. This project is also an opportunity to integrate the fragmented research and experience that currently exists within Europe in the field of numerical simulation of radiation damage and creates the links with international organisations involved in similar projects throughout the world. Continuous progress in the physical understanding of the phenomena involved in irradiation damage and continuous progress in computer sciences make possible the development of multi-scale numerical tools able to simulate the effects of irradiation on materials microstructure. The consequences of irradiation on mechanical and corrosion properties of materials are also tentatively modelled using such multi-scale modelling. But it requires to develop different mechanistic models at different levels of physics and engineering and to extend the state of knowledge in several scientific fields. And the links between these different kinds of models are particularly delicate to deal with and need specific works. Practically the main objective of PERFECT is to build

  18. An inverse problem approach for structural damage detection - Finite element model refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, D. C.; Kaouk, M.

    1992-01-01

    In this work, a methodology for incorporating measured modal data into an existing refined finite element model is examined with the objective of detecting and locating structural damage. This same algorithm is also useful in terms of finite element model refinement. The algorithm is based on the partial inverse problem, in that only partial spectral information is required. The technique utilizes a symmetric eigenstructure assignment algorithm to perform the partial spectral assignment. Algorithms to enhance mode shape assignability and to preserve sparsity in the updated model are developed. The sparsity preservation is of particular importance when considering damage detection in truss-like structures. Several examples are presented which highlight the key points made within the paper.

  19. Development of a Nondestructive Impulse Device and Damage Model for Unreinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane D. Boone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unconstrained compression waves were measured using a newly developed, nondestructive, short impulse excitation device developed for long-term structural health monitoring. The measurements, using this innovative device, were used to determine the variation in the first longitudinal modal frequency as a function of loading magnitude and loading cycles to failure of various concrete mixes. Longitudinal frequency and cumulative energy variations were found to be a function of concrete compressive strength. These results imply that higher-strength concrete more easily absorbs energy and restricts the growth of microcracks. Based on the results, a new damage model is proposed that was shown to correlate with measured values to within 7%. This proposed model was found to have a closer correlation than Miner’s hypothesis and damage index models from other reviewed research.

  20. Monitoring the Activation of the DNA Damage Response Pathway in a 3D Spheroid Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondesert, Odile; Frongia, Céline; Clayton, Olivia; Boizeau, Marie-Laure; Lobjois, Valérie; Ducommun, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the DNA-Damage Response (DDR) activated pathway in multicellular tumor spheroid models is an important challenge as these 3D models have demonstrated their major relevance in pharmacological evaluation. Herein we present DDR-Act-FP, a fluorescent biosensor that allows detection of DDR activation through monitoring of the p21 promoter p53-dependent activation. We show that cells expressing the DDR-Act-FP biosensor efficiently report activation of the DDR pathway after DNA damage and its pharmacological manipulation using ATM kinase inhibitors. We also report the successful use of this assay to screen a small compound library in order to identify activators of the DDR response. Finally, using multicellular spheroids expressing the DDR-Act-FP we demonstrate that DDR activation and its pharmacological manipulation with inhibitory and activatory compounds can be efficiently monitored in live 3D spheroid model. This study paves the way for the development of innovative screening and preclinical evaluation assays.

  1. Comparative analysis among deterministic and stochastic collision damage models for oil tanker and bulk carrier reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Campanile

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of collision damage models on oil tanker and bulk carrier reliability is investigated considering the IACS deterministic model against GOALDS/IMO database statistics for collision events, substantiating the probabilistic model. Statistical properties of hull girder residual strength are determined by Monte Carlo simulation, based on random generation of damage dimensions and a modified form of incremental-iterative method, to account for neutral axis rotation and equilibrium of horizontal bending moment, due to cross-section asymmetry after collision events. Reliability analysis is performed, to investigate the incidence of collision penetration depth and height statistical properties on hull girder sagging/hogging failure probabilities. Besides, the incidence of corrosion on hull girder residual strength and reliability is also discussed, focussing on gross, hull girder net and local net scantlings, respectively. The ISSC double hull oil tanker and single side bulk carrier, assumed as test cases in the ISSC 2012 report, are taken as reference ships.

  2. A simple model of space radiation damage in GaAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Stith, J. J.; Stock, L. V.

    1983-01-01

    A simple model is derived for the radiation damage of shallow junction gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells. Reasonable agreement is found between the model and specific experimental studies of radiation effects with electron and proton beams. In particular, the extreme sensitivity of the cell to protons stopping near the cell junction is predicted by the model. The equivalent fluence concept is of questionable validity for monoenergetic proton beams. Angular factors are quite important in establishing the cell sensitivity to incident particle types and energies. A fluence of isotropic incidence 1 MeV electrons (assuming infinite backing) is equivalent to four times the fluence of normal incidence 1 MeV electrons. Spectral factors common to the space radiations are considered, and cover glass thickness required to minimize the initial damage for a typical cell configuration is calculated. Rough equivalence between the geosynchronous environment and an equivalent 1 MeV electron fluence (normal incidence) is established.

  3. Multiscale damage and strength of lamellar bone modeled by cohesive finite elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Elham; Jasiuk, Iwona

    2013-12-01

    A computational multiscale model of damage mechanisms and strength of lamellar bone is presented. The analysis incorporates the hierarchical structure of bone spanning the nanoscale (mineralized collagen fibril), the sub-microscale (single lamella) and the microscale (lamellar structure) levels. Due to the presence of several constituents (collagen, hydroxyapatite minerals, and non-collagenous proteins) and the different microstructural features at each scale, various deformation and failure mechanisms occur in bone at its several levels of hierarchy. The model takes into account the dominant damage mechanisms at the above mentioned three scales and predicts the strength of bone by using a cohesive finite element method. Elastic moduli of bone at these three different scales are also obtained as part of these calculations. The obtained modeling results compare well with other theoretical and experimental data available in the literature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling of Metal Structure Corrosion Damage: A State of the Art Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Portioli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The durability of metal structures is strongly influenced by damage due to atmospheric corrosion, whose control is a key aspect for design and maintenance of both new constructions and historical buildings. Nevertheless, only general provisions are given in European codes to prevent the effects of corrosion during the lifetime of metal structures. In particular, design guidelines such as Eurocode 3 do not provide models for the evaluation of corrosion depth that are able to predict the rate of thickness loss as a function of different influencing parameters. In this paper, the modeling approaches of atmospheric corrosion damage of metal structures, which are available in both ISO standards and the literature, are presented. A comparison among selected degradation models is shown in order to evaluate the possibility of developing a general approach to the evaluation of thickness loss due to corrosion.

  5. Risk Modelling of Late Spring Frost Damage on Fruit Trees, Case Study; Apple Tree, Mashhad Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rahimi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mashhad plain is one of the most important regions of Apple cultivated areas. Occurring spring late frost creates a lot of damages on bud and decreasing the yield of Apple in this region. Assessment and risk modeling of frost damage would be useful to manage and decrease the damage. The study area is a part of Khorasan Razavi province which is located in Mashhad plain. This region is located in Northeast Iran (36º to 37 º N, 58 º 30' to 60 º E. The area of this region is about 13000 square km which is about one tenth of Khorasan province area. In order to modeling frost damage risk 12 affective parameters including climatological(Minimum temperature, temperature decreasing rate, temperature Increasing rate, Julian days of frost, cumulative degree days, Area under zero line, and frost duration and geographical parameters (Elevation, Longitude, Latitude, Aspect, and slope were selected. 3 damage full radiative frosts were selected in the period of Apple flowering time which was dated 20 April 2003, 8 April 2005, and 28 March 2005. Required meteorological data were collected from 9 meteorological standard stations inside and outside of study area. Linear multiple regression were used to modeling the relationship. The map for each parameter was plotted by using suitable interpolation method including IDW; Spline; Kriging. A grid map was defined with 5 by 5 kilometers to extract enough data for entering to the model. The regression equation was significant at the level of 99% significance. By using this equation the predicted amounts of frost risk damage were calculated for each point of grid and also the map was plotted. The regression equation of observed and predicted frost damage risk was provided by correlation of 0.93 and the error map also was prepared. According to this study in frost of 31 Farvardin 1388 South West parts of the plain estimated as the most frost risk areas by %53.19 and the southeast parts were estimated as the least

  6. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE DAMAGE ANALYSIS OF RAILWAY TRACTION ENERGY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Matusevych

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study provides the methods and models development of reducing damages of traction energy systems (TES at electrified railways of Ukraine. Definition the indicator of preventing damage evaluation TES at electrified railways is necessary. Paper is aimed to search the modern methods and approaches to improve the system of TES monitoring, diagnosis and maintenance. Methodology. To achieve this purpose a study of foreign experience and publications that focus on problem-solving quality of TES using a linguistic approach based on the theory of fuzzy multiple numbers and linguistic variable were done. Findings. In result of research an algorithm to reduce TPS damages which operates under uncertainty was developed. It is found that the solution of this problem is possible by timely detection of actual technical condition of equipment in terms of quality maintenance, diagnostics and update resource of electrical equipment traction substations (TS power supply TES. The study examined the fuzzy inference scheme, which is based on the use of mechanisms to minimize the area of decision-making. It contributes not only to structural identification in the process of developing a database, but also can significantly improve the efficiency of finding the parameters of fuzzy model, which in turn reduces the efforts that are necessary for the analysis and the design of effective control systems maintenance and repair (M and R TES. Originality. For the first time the algorithm of reduction the damage of traction energy system of electrified railways of Ukraine was offered. The mathematical model of reduction the damage calculation of TES from TP power equipment failures by improving system maintenance (M and P was developed. Firstly evaluation index was proposed to prevent the damage of traction energy system. Practical value. The article describes the fuzzy inference scheme, which is based on the use of the mechanism to minimize the area of decision

  7. On the formulation, parameter identification and numerical integration of the EMMI model :plasticity and isotropic damage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bammann, Douglas J.; Johnson, G. C. (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Marin, Esteban B.; Regueiro, Richard A. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO)

    2006-01-01

    In this report we present the formulation of the physically-based Evolving Microstructural Model of Inelasticity (EMMI) . The specific version of the model treated here describes the plasticity and isotropic damage of metals as being currently applied to model the ductile failure process in structural components of the W80 program . The formulation of the EMMI constitutive equations is framed in the context of the large deformation kinematics of solids and the thermodynamics of internal state variables . This formulation is focused first on developing the plasticity equations in both the relaxed (unloaded) and current configurations. The equations in the current configuration, expressed in non-dimensional form, are used to devise the identification procedure for the plasticity parameters. The model is then extended to include a porosity-based isotropic damage state variable to describe the progressive deterioration of the strength and mechanical properties of metals induced by deformation . The numerical treatment of these coupled plasticity-damage constitutive equations is explained in detail. A number of examples are solved to validate the numerical implementation of the model.

  8. Application and Comparison of Tsunami Vulnerability and Damage Models for the Town of Siracusa, Sicily, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-12-01

    Siracusa is one of the most important cities of the eastern coast of Sicily, which according to historical records and to the present knowledge of the tectonic setting, is exposed to tsunamis generated by landslides on the Malta escarpment and by local and remote (e.g., Eastern Hellenic Arc) earthquakes. For this reason, the area of Siracusa has been selected as one of the test sites to conduct specific studies within the European FP7 project ASTARTE. In this frame, this work focuses on the assessment of tsunami vulnerability of (and damage to) the building stock of the town. The analysis is carried out following two different models, namely the SCHEMA and the Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment (PTVA-3) methods. Topographic and building stock data in the potentially flooded areas are taken from detailed digital databases produced by the region of Sicily, integrated with satellite and photographic imagery from Google Earth and further validated by field surveys. We have explored three inundation scenarios corresponding to a constant-level tsunami flooding with assumed sea level rise of 1, 3 and 5 m, and evaluated the damage to the town buildings using both methods that make use of a 5-degree scale. The main result is that the level of damage of both models is not consistent, and that consistency may be improved if one changes from a 5- to a 3-degree damage scale.

  9. Highlighting the DNA damage response with ultrashort laser pulses in the near infrared and kinetic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eFerrando-May

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the mechanisms governing the response to DNA damage in higher eucaryotes crucially depends on our ability to dissect the temporal and spatial organization of the cellular machinery responsible for maintaining genomic integrity. To achieve this goal, we need experimental tools to inflict DNA lesions with high spatial precision at pre-defined locations, and to visualize the ensuing reactions with adequate temporal resolution. Near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses focused through high-aperture objective lenses of advanced scanning microscopes offer the advantage of inducing DNA damage in a 3D-confined volume of subnuclear dimensions. This high spatial resolution results from the highly nonlinear nature of the excitation process. Here we review recent progress based on the increasing availability of widely tunable and user-friendly technology of ultrafast lasers in the near infrared. We present a critical evaluation of this approach for DNA microdamage as compared to the currently prevalent use of UV or VIS laser irradiation, the latter in combination with photosensitizers. Current and future applications in the field of DNA repair and DNA-damage dependent chromatin dynamics are outlined. Finally, we discuss the requirement for proper simulation and quantitative modeling. We focus in particular on approaches to measure the effect of DNA damage on the mobility of nuclear proteins and consider the pros and cons of frequently used analysis models for FRAP and photoactivation and their applicability to nonlinear photoperturbation experiments.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of a model of stimulant use, oxidative damage and executive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winhusen, Theresa; Walker, Jessica; Brigham, Gregory; Lewis, Daniel; Somoza, Eugene; Theobald, Jeff; Somoza, Veronika

    2013-07-01

    Illicit stimulant use increases oxidative stress and oxidative stress has been found to be associated with deficits in memory, attention and problem-solving. To test a model of the association among oxidative DNA damage, a severe form of oxidative stress, and stimulant use, executive function and stimulant-use outcomes. Six sites evaluating 12-step facilitation for stimulant abusers obtained peripheral blood samples from methamphetamine-dependent (n = 45) and cocaine-dependent (n = 120) participants. The blood samples were submitted to a comet assay to assess oxidative DNA damage. Executive Dysfunction was assessed with the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe), which is a reliable and valid self-report assessment of executive dysfunction, disinhibition and apathy. Stimulant-use measures included self-reported stimulant use and stimulant urine drug screens (UDS). While more recent cocaine use (executive dysfunction and stimulant use outcomes for cocaine-dependent patients. Support for the model was found for methamphetamine-dependent patients, with oxidative DNA damage significantly greater in methamphetamine-dependent patients with executive dysfunction (W = 2.2, p executive dysfunction being a significant mediator of oxidative DNA damage and stimulant use during active treatment (ab = 0.089, p executive dysfunction, which in turn increases vulnerability to future stimulant use.

  11. Irreversible thermodynamics models and constitutive equations of the irradiation induced deformation and damage accumulating processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wassilew, C.

    1989-11-01

    This report gives an overall evaluation of several in-reactor deformation and creep-rupture experiments performed in BR-2, FFTF, and Rapsodie on pressurised tubes of the stabilized austenitic stainless steels 1.4970, 1.4981, 1.4988, and the nickel base alloy Hastelloy-X. The irradiation induced deformation processes observed in the components operating in a neutron environment can be divided into two main groups: 1. volume conserving creep and 2. volumetric swelling. Since the observed deformation as well as damage accumulating phenomena are caused by the same constrained generated and free disposable point defects and helium atoms, it is obvious and advisable to analyze, and to model simultaneously the ensemble of the elementary mechanisms and processes effective at the same time. Phenomenological models based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes have been developed, with the aim of: 1. grasping the partial relationships between the external variables and the response functions (creep, swelling, creep driven swelling, and time to rupture), 2. fathoming the rate-controlling mechanisms, 3. providing insight into the structural details and changes occurring during the deformation and the damage accumulating processes, 4. integrating the damage accumulating processes comprehensively, and 5. formulating the constitutive equations required to describe the elementary processes that generate plastic deformations as well as damage accumulation. (orig./MM)

  12. Economic damages of ozone air pollution to crops using combined air quality and GIS modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachokostas, Ch.; Nastis, S. A.; Achillas, Ch.; Kalogeropoulos, K.; Karmiris, I.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Chourdakis, E.; Banias, G.; Limperi, N.

    2010-09-01

    This study aims at presenting a combined air quality and GIS modelling methodological approach in order to estimate crop damages from photochemical air pollution, depict their spatial resolution and assess the order of magnitude regarding the corresponding economic damages. The analysis is conducted within the Greater Thessaloniki Area, Greece, a Mediterranean territory which is characterised by high levels of photochemical air pollution and considerable agricultural activity. Ozone concentration fields for 2002 and for specific emission reduction scenarios for the year 2010 were estimated with the Ozone Fine Structure model in the area under consideration. Total economic damage to crops turns out to be significant and estimated to be approximately 43 M€ for the reference year. Production of cotton presents the highest economic loss, which is over 16 M€, followed by table tomato (9 M€), rice (4.2 M€), wheat (4 M€) and oilseed rape (2.8 M€) cultivations. Losses are not spread uniformly among farmers and the major losses occur in areas with valuable ozone-sensitive crops. The results are very useful for highlighting the magnitude of the total economic impacts of photochemical air pollution to the area's agricultural sector and can potentially be used for comparison with studies worldwide. Furthermore, spatial analysis of the economic damage could be of importance for governmental authorities and decision makers since it provides an indicative insight, especially if the economic instruments such as financial incentives or state subsidies to farmers are considered.

  13. Continuum Damage Mechanics Models for the Analysis of Progressive Failure in Open-Hole Tension Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyonchan; Li, Yingyong; Rose, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of a state-of-the-art continuum damage mechanics model for interlaminar damage, coupled with a cohesive zone model for delamination is examined for failure prediction of quasi-isotropic open-hole tension laminates. Limitations of continuum representations of intra-ply damage and the effect of mesh orientation on the analysis predictions are discussed. It is shown that accurate prediction of matrix crack paths and stress redistribution after cracking requires a mesh aligned with the fiber orientation. Based on these results, an aligned mesh is proposed for analysis of the open-hole tension specimens consisting of different meshes within the individual plies, such that the element edges are aligned with the ply fiber direction. The modeling approach is assessed by comparison of analysis predictions to experimental data for specimen configurations in which failure is dominated by complex interactions between matrix cracks and delaminations. It is shown that the different failure mechanisms observed in the tests are well predicted. In addition, the modeling approach is demonstrated to predict proper trends in the effect of scaling on strength and failure mechanisms of quasi-isotropic open-hole tension laminates.

  14. A coupled interface-body nonlocal damage model for the analysis of FRP strengthening detachment from cohesive material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Toti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a new model of the FRP-concrete or masonry interface, which accounts for the coupling occurring between the degradation of the cohesive material and the FRP detachment, is presented; in particular, a coupled interface-body nonlocal damage model is proposed. A nonlocal damage and plasticity model is developed for the quasi-brittle material. For the interface, a model which accounts for the mode I, mode II and mixed mode of damage and for the unilateral contact and friction effects is developed. Two different ways of performing the coupling between the body damage and the interface damage are proposed and compared. Some numerical applications are carried out in order to assess the performances of the proposed model in reproducing the mechanical behavior of the masonry elements strengthened with external FRP reinforcements.

  15. The assessment of damages due to climate change in a situation of uncertainty: the contribution of adaptation cost modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, P.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research is to introduce new elements for the assessment of damages due to climate changes within the frame of compact models aiding the decision. Two types of methodologies are used: sequential optimisation stochastic models and simulation stochastic models using optimal assessment methods. The author first defines the damages, characterizes their different categories, and reviews the existing assessments. Notably, he makes the distinction between damages due to climate change and damages due to its rate. Then, he presents the different models used in this study, the numerical solutions, and gives a rough estimate of the importance of the considered phenomena. By introducing a new category of capital in an optimal growth model, he tries to establish a framework allowing the representation of adaptation and of its costs. He introduces inertia in macro-economical evolutions, climatic variability, detection of climate change and damages due to climate hazards

  16. The Finite Strain Johnson Cook Plasticity and Damage Constitutive Model in ALEGRA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Jason James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    A finite strain formulation of the Johnson Cook plasticity and damage model and it's numerical implementation into the ALEGRA code is presented. The goal of this work is to improve the predictive material failure capability of the Johnson Cook model. The new implementation consists of a coupling of damage and the stored elastic energy as well as the minimum failure strain criteria for spall included in the original model development. This effort establishes the necessary foundation for a thermodynamically consistent and complete continuum solid material model, for which all intensive properties derive from a common energy. The motivation for developing such a model is to improve upon ALEGRA's present combined model framework. Several applications of the new Johnson Cook implementation are presented. Deformation driven loading paths demonstrate the basic features of the new model formulation. Use of the model produces good comparisons with experimental Taylor impact data. Localized deformation leading to fragmentation is produced for expanding ring and exploding cylinder applications.

  17. A Continuum Damage Mechanics Model to Predict Kink-Band Propagation Using Deformation Gradient Tensor Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergan, Andrew C.; Leone, Frank A., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    A new model is proposed that represents the kinematics of kink-band formation and propagation within the framework of a mesoscale continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model. The model uses the recently proposed deformation gradient decomposition approach to represent a kink band as a displacement jump via a cohesive interface that is embedded in an elastic bulk material. The model is capable of representing the combination of matrix failure in the frame of a misaligned fiber and instability due to shear nonlinearity. In contrast to conventional linear or bilinear strain softening laws used in most mesoscale CDM models for longitudinal compression, the constitutive response of the proposed model includes features predicted by detailed micromechanical models. These features include: 1) the rotational kinematics of the kink band, 2) an instability when the peak load is reached, and 3) a nonzero plateau stress under large strains.

  18. Modeling technical change in climate analysis: evidence from agricultural crop damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Adeel; Devadason, Evelyn S; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem

    2017-05-01

    This study accounts for the Hicks neutral technical change in a calibrated model of climate analysis, to identify the optimum level of technical change for addressing climate changes. It demonstrates the reduction to crop damages, the costs to technical change, and the net gains for the adoption of technical change for a climate-sensitive Pakistan economy. The calibrated model assesses the net gains of technical change for the overall economy and at the agriculture-specific level. The study finds that the gains of technical change are overwhelmingly higher than the costs across the agriculture subsectors. The gains and costs following technical change differ substantially for different crops. More importantly, the study finds a cost-effective optimal level of technical change that potentially reduces crop damages to a minimum possible level. The study therefore contends that the climate policy for Pakistan should consider the role of technical change in addressing climate impacts on the agriculture sector.

  19. A method of modeling time-dependent rock damage surrounding underground excavations in multiphase groundwater flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian-Frear, T.; Freeze, G.

    1997-01-01

    Underground excavations produce damaged zones surrounding the excavations which have disturbed hydrologic and geomechanical properties. Prediction of fluid flow in these zones must consider both the mechanical and fluid flow processes. Presented here is a methodology which utilizes a mechanical model to predict damage and disturbed rock zone (DRZ) development around the excavation and then uses the predictions to develop time-dependent DRZ porosity relationships. These relationships are then used to adjust the porosity of the DRZ in the fluid flow model based upon the time and distance from the edge of the excavation. The application of this methodology is presented using a site-specific example from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a US Department of Energy facility in bedded salts being evaluated for demonstration of the safe underground disposal of transuranic waste from US defense-related activities

  20. Analysis and Characterization of Damage and Failure Utilizing a Generalized Composite Material Model Suitable for Use in Impact Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.; DuBois, Paul; Khaled, Bilal; Hoffarth, Canio; Rajan, Subramaniam; Blankenhorn, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    A material model which incorporates several key capabilities which have been identified by the aerospace community as lacking in state-of-the art composite impact models is under development. In particular, a next generation composite impact material model, jointly developed by the FAA and NASA, is being implemented into the commercial transient dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA. The material model, which incorporates plasticity, damage, and failure, utilizes experimentally based tabulated input to define the evolution of plasticity and damage and the initiation of failure as opposed to specifying discrete input parameters (such as modulus and strength). The plasticity portion of the orthotropic, three-dimensional, macroscopic composite constitutive model is based on an extension of the Tsai-Wu composite failure model into a generalized yield function with a non-associative flow rule. For the damage model, a strain equivalent formulation is utilized to allow for the uncoupling of the deformation and damage analyses. In the damage model, a semi-coupled approach is employed where the overall damage in a particular coordinate direction is assumed to be a multiplicative combination of the damage in that direction resulting from the applied loads in the various coordinate directions. Due to the fact that the plasticity and damage models are uncoupled, test procedures and methods to both characterize the damage model and to covert the material stress-strain curves from the true (damaged) stress space to the effective (undamaged) stress space have been developed. A methodology has been developed to input the experimentally determined composite failure surface in a tabulated manner. An analytical approach is then utilized to track how close the current stress state is to the failure surface.

  1. Real time damage detection using recursive principal components and time varying auto-regressive modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, M.; Bhowmik, B.; Hazra, B.; Pakrashi, V.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a novel baseline free approach for continuous online damage detection of multi degree of freedom vibrating structures using Recursive Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) in conjunction with Time Varying Auto-Regressive Modeling (TVAR) is proposed. In this method, the acceleration data is used to obtain recursive proper orthogonal components online using rank-one perturbation method, followed by TVAR modeling of the first transformed response, to detect the change in the dynamic behavior of the vibrating system from its pristine state to contiguous linear/non-linear-states that indicate damage. Most of the works available in the literature deal with algorithms that require windowing of the gathered data owing to their data-driven nature which renders them ineffective for online implementation. Algorithms focussed on mathematically consistent recursive techniques in a rigorous theoretical framework of structural damage detection is missing, which motivates the development of the present framework that is amenable for online implementation which could be utilized along with suite experimental and numerical investigations. The RPCA algorithm iterates the eigenvector and eigenvalue estimates for sample covariance matrices and new data point at each successive time instants, using the rank-one perturbation method. TVAR modeling on the principal component explaining maximum variance is utilized and the damage is identified by tracking the TVAR coefficients. This eliminates the need for offline post processing and facilitates online damage detection especially when applied to streaming data without requiring any baseline data. Numerical simulations performed on a 5-dof nonlinear system under white noise excitation and El Centro (also known as 1940 Imperial Valley earthquake) excitation, for different damage scenarios, demonstrate the robustness of the proposed algorithm. The method is further validated on results obtained from case studies involving

  2. Flood damage: a model for consistent, complete and multipurpose scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Menoni

    2016-12-01

    implemented in ex post damage assessments, also with the objective of better programming financial resources that will be needed for these types of events in the future. On the other hand, integrated interpretations of flood events are fundamental to adapting and optimizing flood mitigation strategies on the basis of thorough forensic investigation of each event, as corroborated by the implementation of the model in a case study.

  3. Geophysical models of heat and fluid flow in damageable poro-elastic continua

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubíček, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2017), s. 625-646 ISSN 0935-1175 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03823S; GA ČR GA14-15264S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : poro-elastic rocks * damage * biot model Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 2.529, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00161-016-0547-5

  4. Tp53 gene mediates distinct dopaminergic neuronal damage in different dopaminergic neurotoxicant models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tp53, a stress response gene, is involved in diverse cell death pathways and its activation is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. However, whether the neuronal Tp53 protein plays a direct role in regulating dopaminergic (DA neuronal cell death or neuronal terminal damage in different neurotoxicant models is unknown. In our recent studies, in contrast to the global inhibition of Tp53 function by pharmacological inhibitors and in traditional Tp53 knock-out mice, we examined the effects of DA-specific Tp53 gene deletion after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and methamphetamine exposure. Our data suggests that the Tp53 gene might be involved in both neuronal apoptosis and neuronal terminal damage caused by different neurotoxicants. Additional results from other studies also suggest that as a master regulator of many pathways that regulate apoptosis and synaptic terminal damage, it is possible that Tp53 may function as a signaling hub to integrate different signaling pathways to mediate distinctive target pathways. Tp53 protein as a signaling hub might be able to evaluate the microenvironment of neurons, assess the forms and severities of injury incurred, and determine whether apoptotic cell death or neuronal terminal degeneration occurs. Identification of the precise mechanisms activated in distinct neuronal damage caused by different forms and severities of injuries might allow for development of specific Tp53 inhibitors or ways to modulate distinct downstream target pathways involved.

  5. Chewing as a forming application: A viscoplastic damage law in modelling food oral breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skamniotis, C. G.; Charalambides, M. N.; Elliott, M.

    2017-10-01

    The first bite mechanical response of a food item resembles compressive forming processes, where a tool is pressed into a workpiece. The present study addresses ongoing interests in the deformations and damage of food products, particularly during the first bite, in relation to their mechanical properties. Uniaxial tension, compression and shear tests on a starch based food reveal stress-strain response and fracture strains strongly dependent on strain rate and stress triaxiality, while damage mechanisms are identified in the form of stress softening. A pressure dependent viscoplastic constitutive law reproduces the behavior with the aid of ABAQUS subroutines, while a ductile damage initiation and evolution framework based on fracture toughness data enables accurate predictions of the product breakdown. The material model is implemented in a Finite Element (FE) chewing model based on digital pet teeth geometry where the first bite of molar teeth against a food item is simulated. The FE force displacement results match the experimental data obtained by a physical replicate of the bite model, lending weight to the approach as a powerful tool in understanding of food breakdown and product development.

  6. Multi-Physics Modeling of Fire-Induced Damage in High-Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Lammi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The response of high-performance concrete (HPC to rapid heating due to exposure to fire with air temperatures exceeding 700°C is analyzed. The analysis focuses on coupled thermal-mechanical-transport processes at the mesoscale in the first 10 minutes of exposure during which heating rates on the order of 10 °C/minute and temperature gradients on the order of 15 °C/cm are involved. The driving forces for damage considered are thermomechanical stresses and internal pore pressure resulting from the expansion of water within the material. The HPC is modeled as a two-phase composite consisting of a cementitious matrix and a population of quartz aggregate particles. Mesostructures with aggregate sizes of 400-1600 μm and aggregate volume fractions of 10-30% are considered. To capture the development of stresses and pore pressure, the cementitious matrix is modeled using a coupled thermal-mechanical-transport formulation and the aggregate is modeled using a thermal-mechanical formulation. Simulations show that the composition of the mesostructures significantly influences the time and spatial distribution of damage. Materials with smaller aggregate sizes and the lower effective permeability are found to exhibit more rapid property degradation. The time to failure and depth of thermal spall are quantified as functions of structural variables. This framework and the mesostructure-response relations obtained serves as a tool for the design of HPC that are more resistant to fire-induced damage.

  7. Melanin granule model for laser-induced thermal damage in the retina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C.R.; Rogers, M.E. [Armstrong Laboratory, Brooks AFB, TX (United States). Optical Radiation Division; Gerstman, B.S. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Physics Dept.; Jacques, S.L. [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States). Laser Biology Research Lab.

    1996-05-01

    An analytical model for thermal damage of retinal tissue due to absorption of laser energy by finite-sized melanin granules is developed. Since melanin is the primary absorber of visible and near-IR light in the skin and in the retina, bulk heating of tissue can be determined by superposition of individual melanin granule effects. Granules are modeled as absorbing spheres surrounded by an infinite medium of water. Analytical solutions to the heat equation result in computations that are quick and accurate. Moreover, the model does not rely on symmetric beam profiles, and so arbitrary images can be studied. The important contribution of this model is to provide a more accurate biological description of submillisecond pulse exposures than previous retinal models, while achieving agreement for longer pulses. This model can also be naturally extended into the sub-microsecond domain by including vaporization as a damage mechanism. It therefore represents the beginning of a model which can be applied across the entire pulse duration domain.

  8. Failure Predictions for VHTR Core Components using a Probabilistic Contiuum Damage Mechanics Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fok, Alex

    2013-10-30

    The proposed work addresses the key research need for the development of constitutive models and overall failure models for graphite and high temperature structural materials, with the long-term goal being to maximize the design life of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). To this end, the capability of a Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM) model, which has been used successfully for modeling fracture of virgin graphite, will be extended as a predictive and design tool for the core components of the very high- temperature reactor (VHTR). Specifically, irradiation and environmental effects pertinent to the VHTR will be incorporated into the model to allow fracture of graphite and ceramic components under in-reactor conditions to be modeled explicitly using the finite element method. The model uses a combined stress-based and fracture mechanics-based failure criterion, so it can simulate both the initiation and propagation of cracks. Modern imaging techniques, such as x-ray computed tomography and digital image correlation, will be used during material testing to help define the baseline material damage parameters. Monte Carlo analysis will be performed to address inherent variations in material properties, the aim being to reduce the arbitrariness and uncertainties associated with the current statistical approach. The results can potentially contribute to the current development of American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes for the design and construction of VHTR core components.

  9. THE ONE CINETIC MODEL DAMAGE OF CELL BY SMALL DOSES OF RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Gubin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To explain the known differences in the dose and age dependences of radiogenic mortality from leukemia and solid tumors after single exposure, a model was developed, which is a modification of the Kellerer-Rossi theory of dual radiation action. The model assumes formation in a cell of both single and double primary damages due to radiation and other carcinogens, while the recovery rate of single damages (φ significantly exceeds that for double ones (ψ. Upon achieving a certain stage of the cell cycle (the critical age of cell – T, double damages become permanent and with probability of А can be inherited to daughter cells as “premalignant” defects. In contrast, in the Kellerer-Rossi theory, permanent damage is formed immediately after formation of the second damage at the next energy absorption event in the cell, i.e. ψ=0 .On the assumption that the premalignant defects only occur based on the double primary damages, i.e. φ>>ψ, the expressions for А were derived for the prompt radiation exposure and radiation exposure at a constant dose rate. They reproduce the effect increasing with decreasing of T, whereas the influence of T on the linear term of the dose expression in both cases is the same, but with decreasing of T the quadratic term increases faster for exposure at a constant dose rate than that for the prompt one. Thus, presence of the quadratic term in the dose expression for leukemia and its virtual complete absence for solid tumors may be due to lower T-value for hemopoietic stem cells. Predicted by the model dose rate influence on the quadratic term does not depend on the dose, so the reduction factor should be only applied to the quadratic term of the dose expression. This follows as well from the original version of the Kellerer-Rossi theory.

  10. Building damage assessment from PolSAR data using texture parameters of statistical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Liu, Xiuguo; Chen, Qihao; Yang, Shuai

    2018-04-01

    Accurate building damage assessment is essential in providing decision support for disaster relief and reconstruction. Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) has become one of the most effective means of building damage assessment, due to its all-day/all-weather ability and richer backscatter information of targets. However, intact buildings that are not parallel to the SAR flight pass (termed oriented buildings) and collapsed buildings share similar scattering mechanisms, both of which are dominated by volume scattering. This characteristic always leads to misjudgments between assessments of collapsed buildings and oriented buildings from PolSAR data. Because the collapsed buildings and the intact buildings (whether oriented or parallel buildings) have different textures, a novel building damage assessment method is proposed in this study to address this problem by introducing texture parameters of statistical models. First, the logarithms of the estimated texture parameters of different statistical models are taken as a new texture feature to describe the collapse of the buildings. Second, the collapsed buildings and intact buildings are distinguished using an appropriate threshold. Then, the building blocks are classified into three levels based on the building block collapse rate. Moreover, this paper also discusses the capability for performing damage assessment using texture parameters from different statistical models or using different estimators. The RADARSAT-2 and ALOS-1 PolSAR images are used to present and analyze the performance of the proposed method. The results show that using the texture parameters avoids the problem of confusing collapsed and oriented buildings and improves the assessment accuracy. The results assessed by using the K/G0 distribution texture parameters estimated based on the second moment obtain the highest extraction accuracies. For the RADARSAT-2 and ALOS-1 data, the overall accuracy (OA) for these three types of

  11. THREE-PARAMETER CREEP DAMAGE CONSTITUTIVE MODEL AND ITS APPLICATION IN HYDRAULIC TUNNELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Gang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rock deformation is a time-dependent process, generally referred to as rheology. Especially for soft rock strata, design and construction of tunnel shall take full account of rheological properties of adjoining rocks. Based on classic three-parameter HK model (generalized Kelvin model, this paper proposes a three-parameter H-K damage model of which parameters attenuate with increase of equivalent strain, provides attenuation equation of model parameters in the first, second and third stage of creep deformation and introduces equivalent strain threshold value. When the equivalent strain is greater than the threshold value, the third stage of accelerating creep will be conducted. The three-parameter H-K damage model is used for numerical calculation of finite difference method FLAC3D and deformation features of soft rock with time under high ground stress are described based on diversion tunnel project of Jinping Hydropower Station, of which model parameters can be obtained by back analysis according to measured site data and BP neural network.

  12. Rupture Complexity Promoted by Damaged Fault Zones in Earthquake Cycle Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idini, B.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Pulse-like ruptures tend to be more sensitive to stress heterogeneity than crack-like ones. For instance, a stress-barrier can more easily stop the propagation of a pulse than that of a crack. While crack-like ruptures tend to homogenize the stress field within their rupture area, pulse-like ruptures develop heterogeneous stress fields. This feature of pulse-like ruptures can potentially lead to complex seismicity with a wide range of magnitudes akin to the Gutenberg-Richter law. Previous models required a friction law with severe velocity-weakening to develop pulses and complex seismicity. Recent dynamic rupture simulations show that the presence of a damaged zone around a fault can induce pulse-like rupture, even under a simple slip-weakening friction law, although the mechanism depends strongly on initial stress conditions. Here we aim at testing if fault zone damage is a sufficient ingredient to generate complex seismicity. In particular, we investigate the effects of damaged fault zones on the emergence and sustainability of pulse-like ruptures throughout multiple earthquake cycles, regardless of initial conditions. We consider a fault bisecting a homogeneous low-rigidity layer (the damaged zone) embedded in an intact medium. We conduct a series of earthquake cycle simulations to investigate the effects of two fault zone properties: damage level D and thickness H. The simulations are based on classical rate-and-state friction, the quasi-dynamic approximation and the software QDYN (https://github.com/ydluo/qdyn). Selected fully-dynamic simulations are also performed with a spectral element method. Our numerical results show the development of complex rupture patterns in some damaged fault configurations, including events of different sizes, as well as pulse-like, multi-pulse and hybrid pulse-crack ruptures. We further apply elasto-static theory to assess how D and H affect ruptures with constant stress drop, in particular the flatness of their slip profile

  13. From fracture mechanics to damage mechanics: how to model structural deterioration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolet, S.; Lorentz, E.; Barbier, G.

    1998-01-01

    Modelling of structural deteriorations of thermo-mechanical origin is highly enhanced when using damage mechanics. Indeed, the latter offers both a fine description of the material behaviour and an ability to deal with any loading conditions, moving away the current limits of fracture mechanics. But new difficulties can arise, depending on the examined problem: if forecasts of rack initiation are well mastered, the study of crack propagation remains more complex and needs sophisticated modelizations, which are nevertheless on the point of being well understood too. (authors)

  14. A comprehensive model of catastrophic optical-damage in broad-area laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, A. K.; Bertaska, R. K.; Jaspan, M. A.; Flusberg, A. M.; Swartz, S. D.; Knapczyk, M. T.; Petr, R.; Smilanski, I.; Jacob, J. H.

    2009-02-01

    The present model of formation and propagation of catastrophic optical-damage (COD), a random failure-mode in laser diodes, was formulated in 1974 and has remained substantially unchanged. We extend the model of COD phenomena, based on analytical studies involving EBIC (electron-beam induced current), STEM (scanning transmission-electron microscopy) and sophisticated optical-measurements. We have determined that a ring-cavity mode, whose presence has not been previously reported, significantly contributes to COD initiation and propagation in broad-area laser-diodes.

  15. Intervention of Peiyuan Huayu Decoction on the neuron damage in model rats with acute subdural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xuan Fan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the intervention effect of Peiyuan Huayu Decoction on the neuron damage in model rats with acute subdural hematoma (ASDH. Methods: 160 SD rats were randomly divided into four groups, and the ASDH model rats were made by stereotactic autoblood injection, and sham operation group received craniotomy without blood injection. Sham operation group and model group were normally bred after model establishment, and 6 h after model establishment, the treatment group received intragastric administration of Peiyuan Huayu Decoction, and control group received intragastric administration of Piracetam Tablets, 1 time a day. On the 1d, 3d, 5d and 7d after model establishment, the general conditions of rats (activity, food intake and mental state were observed, blood was collected via auricula dextra, ELISA method was used to determine peripheral plasma NSE and S100毬 protein contents, routine HE staining was conducted after perfusion fixation, the neurons in blood injection side of brain tissue were counted, and the neuron damage was observed. Results: 26 rats were dead in the experiment. The general conditions of sham operation group were significantly better than those of other groups, treatment group was significantly better than model group and control group on the 5d group (P0.05; neuron count of sham operation group was basically stable, treatment group was not different from model group and control group on the 1d (P>0.05, treatment group was better than model group (P0.05 on the 3d, and treatment group was better than model group and control group on the 5d and 7d (P0.05, S100毬 protein and NSE contents decreased significantly on the 3d, and treatment group was significantly different from model group and control group (P<0.05, S100毬 protein and NSE contents increased on the 5d and 7d, the increase in treatment group was slower than that in model group and control group, and there was significant difference (P<0.05. Conclusion

  16. Inspection of the Math Model Tools for On-Orbit Assessment of Impact Damage Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles E.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Piascik, Robert S> KramerWhite, Julie A.; KramerWhite, Julie A.; Labbe, Steve G.; Rotter, Hank A.

    2007-01-01

    In Spring of 2005, the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) was engaged by the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to peer review the suite of analytical tools being developed to support the determination of impact and damage tolerance of the Orbiter Thermal Protection Systems (TPS). The NESC formed an independent review team with the core disciplines of materials, flight sciences, structures, mechanical analysis and thermal analysis. The Math Model Tools reviewed included damage prediction and stress analysis, aeroheating analysis, and thermal analysis tools. Some tools are physics-based and other tools are empirically-derived. Each tool was created for a specific use and timeframe, including certification, real-time pre-launch assessments. In addition, the tools are used together in an integrated strategy for assessing the ramifications of impact damage to tile and RCC. The NESC teams conducted a peer review of the engineering data package for each Math Model Tool. This report contains the summary of the team observations and recommendations from these reviews.

  17. Modeling of thermo-mechanical fatigue and damage in shape memory alloy axial actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Robert W.; Hartl, Darren J.; Chemisky, Yves; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2015-04-01

    The aerospace, automotive, and energy industries have seen the potential benefits of using shape memory alloys (SMAs) as solid state actuators. Thus far, however, these actuators are generally limited to non-critical components or over-designed due to a lack of understanding regarding how SMAs undergo thermomechanical or actuation fatigue and the inability to accurately predict failure in an actuator during use. The purpose of this study was to characterize the actuation fatigue response of Nickel-Titanium-Hafnium (NiTiHf) axial actuators and, in turn, use this characterization to predict failure and monitor damage in dogbone actuators undergoing various thermomechanical loading paths. Calibration data was collected from constant load, full cycle tests ranging from 200-600MPa. Subsequently, actuator lifetimes were predicted for four additional loading paths. These loading paths consisted of linearly varying load with full transformation (300-500MPa) and step loads which transition from zero stress to 300-400MPa at various martensitic volume fractions. Thermal cycling was achieved via resistive heating and convective cooling and was controlled via a state machine developed in LabVIEW. A previously developed fatigue damage model, which is formulated such that the damage accumulation rate is general in terms of its dependence on current and local stress and actuation strain states, was utilized. This form allows the model to be utilized for specimens undergoing complex loading paths. Agreement between experiments and simulations is discussed.

  18. Phase-field modeling of thermomechanical damage in tungsten under severe plasma transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Tamer; Ghoniem, Nasr

    2012-08-01

    Tungsten is now a primary candidate for plasma facing components in fusion energy systems because of its numerous superior thermophysical properties. International efforts are currently focused on the development of tungsten surfaces that can intercept ionized plasma and pulsed high heat flux in magnetic fusion confinement devices. Thermal shock under transient operating conditions, such as edge localized modes, have experimentally been shown to lead to severe surface and sub-surface damage. We present here a computational multiphysics model to determine the relationship between the thermomechanical loading conditions and the onset of damage and failure of tungsten surfaces. The model is based on thermo-elasto-plasticity constitutive relations, and is developed within the framework of the phase-field method. A coupled set of partial differential equations is solved for the temperature, displacement, and a damage phase fields under severe plasma transient loads. The results clearly show the initiation and propagation of surface and sub-surface cracks as a result of the transient high heat flux. The severity of surface cracking is found to correlate primarily with the magnitude of the near-surface temperature gradient.

  19. Mouse model of diffuse brain damage following anoxia, evaluated by a new assay of generalized arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta-Cruz, Isabel; Pfaff, Donald W; Shelley, Deborah N

    2007-06-01

    Diffuse brain damage following anoxia due to cardiac failure, drowning, carbon monoxide exposure or other accidents constitutes a major medical problem. We have created a novel mouse model using the breathing of pure nitrogen, followed by a recently developed assay that reflects an operational definition of generalized arousal. The operational definition is precise, complete, and leads to quantitative, physical measures in a genetically tractable animal. Exposure to pure nitrogen for controlled periods had a surprising bifurcate effect: about half the mice survived with neurological measures that were virtually normal while the other half died. The new assay detected behavioral deficits unrevealed by neurological screening. Two important features of the results were that (i) deficits were not equal across the circadian cycle, and (ii) deficits were not equal across all the measures within the operational definition of arousal. Specific voluntary motor measurements were decreased in a manner that depended on the phase of the circadian cycle. Sensory responses were also decreased, with an emphasis on vertical movement responses; but, interestingly, fear learning was not damaged. This study establishes the first useful approach to diffuse brain damage in a genetically tractable animal. The model and its outcome measurements will be useful during future attempts at amelioration of acquired neurological disabilities following hypoxic-ischemic injuries.

  20. Modeling thermal spike driven reactions at low temperature and application to zirconium carbide radiation damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Christopher J.; Motta, Arthur T.

    2017-11-01

    The development of TEM-visible damage in materials under irradiation at cryogenic temperatures cannot be explained using classical rate theory modeling with thermally activated reactions since at low temperatures thermal reaction rates are too low. Although point defect mobility approaches zero at low temperature, the thermal spikes induced by displacement cascades enable some atom mobility as it cools. In this work a model is developed to calculate "athermal" reaction rates from the atomic mobility within the irradiation-induced thermal spikes, including both displacement cascades and electronic stopping. The athermal reaction rates are added to a simple rate theory cluster dynamics model to allow for the simulation of microstructure evolution during irradiation at cryogenic temperatures. The rate theory model is applied to in-situ irradiation of ZrC and compares well at cryogenic temperatures. The results show that the addition of the thermal spike model makes it possible to rationalize microstructure evolution in the low temperature regime.

  1. ANALYTICAL MODEL OF DAMAGED AIRCRAFT SKIN BONDED REPAIRS ASSUMING THE MATERIAL PROPERTIES DEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search of optimal variants for composite repair patches allows to increase the service life of a damaged air- plane structure. To sensibly choose the way of repair, it is necessary to have a computational complex to predict the stress- strain condition of "structure-adhesive-patch" system and to take into account the damage growth considering the material properties change. The variant of the computational complex based on inclusion method is proposed.For calculation purposes the repair bonded joint is divided into two areas: a metal plate with patch-shaped hole and a "patch-adhesive layer-skin" composite plate (inclusion.Calculation stages:Evaluation of the patch influence to the skin stress-strain condition, stress distribution between skin and patch in the case of no damage. Calculation of the stress-strain condition is performed separately for the skin with hole and for the inclusion; solutions are coupled based on strain compatibility.Definition of the damage growth parameters at new stress-strain condition due to bonded patch existence. Skincrack stress intensity factors are found to identify the crack growth velocity. Patch is modelled as a set of "springs" bridging the crack.Degradation analysis of elasticity properties for the patch material.Repair effectiveness is evaluated with respect to crack growth velocity reduction in the initial material in compari- son with the case of the patch absence.Calculation example for the crack repair effectiveness depending on number of loading cycles for the 7075-T6 aluminum skin is given. Repair patches are carbon-epoxy, glass-epoxy and boron-epoxy material systems with quasi- isotropic layup and GLARE hybrid metal-polymeric material.The analysis shows the high effectiveness of the carbon-epoxy patch. Due to low stiffness, the glass-epoxy patchdemonstrates the least effectiveness. GLARE patch containing the fiberglass plies oriented across the crack has the same effectiveness as the carbon and

  2. Optimal policies for cumulative damage models with maintenance last and first

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xufeng; Qian, Cunhua; Nakagawa, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    From the economical viewpoint of several combined PM policies in reliability theory, this paper takes up a standard cumulative damage model in which the notion of maintenance last is applied, i.e., the unit undergoes preventive maintenances before failure at a planned time T, at a damage level Z, or at a shock number N, whichever occurs last. Expected cost rates are detailedly formulated, and optimal problems of two alternative policies which combine time-based with condition-based preventive maintenances are discussed, i.e., optimal T L ⁎ for N, Z L ⁎ for T, and N L ⁎ for T are rigorously obtained. Comparison methods between such maintenance last and conventional maintenance first are explored. It is determined theoretically and numerically which policy should be adopted, according to the different methods in different cases when the time-based or the condition-based PM policy is optimized.

  3. Simulation of delamination crack growth in composite laminates: application of local and non-local interface damage models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijaz, H.; Asad, M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of composite laminates is increasing in these days due to higher strength and low density values in comparison of metals. Delamination is a major source of failure in composite laminates. Damage mechanics based theories are employed to simulate the delamination phenomena between composite laminates. These damage models are inherently local and can cause the concentration of stresses around the crack tip. In the present study integral type non-local damage formulation is proposed to avoid the localization problem associated to damage formulation. A comprehensive study is carried out for the models and classical local damage model are performed and results are compared with available experimental data for un IMS/924 Carbon/fiber epoxy composite laminate. (author)

  4. Validation of the natural resource damage assessment model using historical observations on oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.; Rines, H.

    1995-01-01

    The Natural Resource Damage Assessment Model for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/CME) was developed by Applied Science Associates to simulate the fate and effects of oil and chemical spills into estuarine and marine environments. The US Department of the Interior has proposed the NRDAM/CME for use in Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) regulations under CERCLA. As part of the evaluation of model performance, the NRDAM/CME has been validated with observational data from case histories of oil spills, including the Exxon Valdez, World Prodigy, Mega Borg, Apex Houston and a number of others. Primarily, the data available for validation were of oil slick trajectory and coverage (e.g., overflight maps), length of shoreline oiled, area of marshes oiled, and a number of oiled birds recovered. Model performance was dependent on the accuracy of available wind and current data (the primary forces affecting fate) and bird abundances. Where these data sources were good (relatively well quantified), model performance was excellent. Results of the model simulations also provide an interesting sensitivity analysis and indications of relative effects of oil under various spill scenarios and conditions

  5. Formulation and computational aspects of plasticity and damage models with application to quasi-brittle materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.; Schreyer, H.L. [New Mexico Engineering Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The response of underground structures and transportation facilities under various external loadings and environments is critical for human safety as well as environmental protection. Since quasi-brittle materials such as concrete and rock are commonly used for underground construction, the constitutive modeling of these engineering materials, including post-limit behaviors, is one of the most important aspects in safety assessment. From experimental, theoretical, and computational points of view, this report considers the constitutive modeling of quasi-brittle materials in general and concentrates on concrete in particular. Based on the internal variable theory of thermodynamics, the general formulations of plasticity and damage models are given to simulate two distinct modes of microstructural changes, inelastic flow and degradation of material strength and stiffness, that identify the phenomenological nonlinear behaviors of quasi-brittle materials. The computational aspects of plasticity and damage models are explored with respect to their effects on structural analyses. Specific constitutive models are then developed in a systematic manner according to the degree of completeness. A comprehensive literature survey is made to provide the up-to-date information on prediction of structural failures, which can serve as a reference for future research.

  6. Validation of the natural resource damage assessment model using historical observations on oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, D.; Rines, H. [Applied Science Associates, Inc., Narragansett, RI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Natural Resource Damage Assessment Model for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/CME) was developed by Applied Science Associates to simulate the fate and effects of oil and chemical spills into estuarine and marine environments. The US Department of the Interior has proposed the NRDAM/CME for use in Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) regulations under CERCLA. As part of the evaluation of model performance, the NRDAM/CME has been validated with observational data from case histories of oil spills, including the Exxon Valdez, World Prodigy, Mega Borg, Apex Houston and a number of others. Primarily, the data available for validation were of oil slick trajectory and coverage (e.g., overflight maps), length of shoreline oiled, area of marshes oiled, and a number of oiled birds recovered. Model performance was dependent on the accuracy of available wind and current data (the primary forces affecting fate) and bird abundances. Where these data sources were good (relatively well quantified), model performance was excellent. Results of the model simulations also provide an interesting sensitivity analysis and indications of relative effects of oil under various spill scenarios and conditions.

  7. Why does brain damage impair memory? A connectionist model of object recognition memory in perirhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Rosemary A; Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, Lisa M

    2006-11-22

    Object recognition is the canonical test of declarative memory, the type of memory putatively impaired after damage to the temporal lobes. Studies of object recognition memory have helped elucidate the anatomical structures involved in declarative memory, indicating a critical role for perirhinal cortex. We offer a mechanistic account of the effects of perirhinal cortex damage on object recognition memory, based on the assumption that perirhinal cortex stores representations of the conjunctions of visual features possessed by complex objects. Such representations are proposed to play an important role in memory when it is difficult to solve a task using representations of only individual visual features of stimuli, thought to be stored in regions of the ventral visual stream caudal to perirhinal cortex. The account is instantiated in a connectionist model, in which development of object representations with visual experience provides a mechanism for judgment of previous occurrence. We present simulations addressing the following empirical findings: (1) that impairments after damage to perirhinal cortex (modeled by removing the "perirhinal cortex" layer of the network) are exacerbated by lengthening the delay between presentation of to-be-remembered items and test, (2) that such impairments are also exacerbated by lengthening the list of to-be-remembered items, and (3) that impairments are revealed only when stimuli are trial unique rather than repeatedly presented. This study shows that it may be possible to account for object recognition impairments after damage to perirhinal cortex within a hierarchical, representational framework, in which complex conjunctive representations in perirhinal cortex play a critical role.

  8. Modeling the Effects of Ion Strike Displacement Damage on the 3D Reciprocal Space of Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Manuel Uriel

    Silicon is the backbone to today's modern society and used in everything from children's toys to mission sensitive electronics in the form of semiconductors. It is because of its usefulness that silicon is extremely well studied, and has found applications in a variety of fields of study and harsh working environments. Semiconductors see use in the depths of space and the interior of reactor containment building to name just two potential harsh working environments. In these environments, it is very important to predict the degradation exhibited by electronics due to radiation damage. This allows one to know when failure will occur or keep track of other potential problems. Currently the study of displacement damage effects on semiconductors due to ion strikes is focused on the research at the macroscale. Minimal work exists investigating the same phenomena at the microscale. This research aims to expand the available literature by modeling how diffraction peaks in reciprocal space change when a single ion strike occurs in single crystal silicon. LAMMPS is a molecular dynamics code that will be used to model displacement damage due to ion strike at the atomistic level. It also generates virtual electron diffraction patterns to investigate the impact of radiation on reciprocal space. By characterizing the changes in peak broadening and peak shifting due to macro or micro strains, the planes in real space most affected by radiation damage are determined. In this study, it was found that in general low order planes are affected the most by peak broadening. In addition, high order planes are affected the most by peak shifting.

  9. Combining tape stripping and non-invasive reflectance confocal microscopy : an in vivo model to study skin damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peppelman, M.; Eijnde, W.A. van den; Jaspers, E.J.; Gerritsen, M.J.P.; Erp, P.E.J. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evaluation of (immuno)histological and cell biological changes in damaged skin requires often an invasive skin biopsy, making in vivo models inappropriate to study skin damage. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) might overcome this limitation. Therefore, we evaluated the use of a

  10. The effect of spatially heterogeneous damage in simple models of earthquake fault networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiampo, K. F.; Dominguez, R.; Klein, W.; Serino, C.; Kazemian, J.

    2011-12-01

    Natural earthquake fault systems are highly heterogeneous in space; inhomogeneities occur because the earth is made of a variety of materials of different strengths and dissipate stress differently. Because the spatial arrangement of these materials is dependent on the geologic history, the spatial distribution of these various materials can be quite complex and occur over a variety of length scales. One way that the inhomogeneous nature of fault systems manifests itself is in the spatial patterns which emerge in seismicity (Tiampo et al., 2002, 2007). Despite their inhomogeneous nature, real faults are often modeled as spatially homogeneous systems. One argument for this approach is that earthquake faults experience long range stress transfer, and if this range is longer than the length scales associated with the inhomogeneities of the system, the dynamics of the system may be unaffected by the inhomogeneities. However, it is not clear that this is always the case. In this work we study the scaling of earthquake models that are variations of Olami-Feder-Christensen (OFC) and Burridge-Knopoff (BK) models, in order to explore the effect of spatial inhomogeneities on earthquake-like systems when interaction ranges are long, but not necessarily longer than the distances associated with the inhomogeneities of the system (Burridge and L. Knopoff, 1967; Rundle and Jackson, 1977; Olami et al., 1988). For long ranges and without inhomogeneities, such models have been found to produce scaling similar to GR scaling found in real earthquake systems (Rundle and Klein, 1993). In the earthquake models discussed here, damage is distributed inhomogeneously throughout and the interaction ranges, while long, are not longer than all of the damage length scales. In addition, we attempt to model the effect of a fixed distribution of asperities, and find that this has an effect on the magnitude-frequency relation, producing larger events at regular intervals, We find that the scaling

  11. Application of Different HSI Color Models to Detect Fire-Damaged Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Luo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a better understanding of the effect of vehicle fires on rigid pavement, a nondestructive test method utilizing an ordinary digital camera to capture images of mortar at five elevated temperatures was undertaken. These images were then analyzed by “image color-intensity analyzer” software. In image analysis, the RGB color model was the basic system used to represent the color information of images. HSI is a derived-color model that is transformed from an RGB model by formulae. In order to understand more about surface color changes and temperatures after a vehicle fire, various transformation formulae used in different research areas were applied in this study. They were then evaluated to obtain the optimum HSI model for further studies of fire-damaged mortar through the use of image analysis.

  12. A coupled damage-plasticity model for the cyclic behavior of shear-loaded interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, P.; De Lorenzis, L.

    2015-12-01

    The present work proposes a novel thermodynamically consistent model for the behavior of interfaces under shear (i.e. mode-II) cyclic loading conditions. The interface behavior is defined coupling damage and plasticity. The admissible states' domain is formulated restricting the tangential interface stress to non-negative values, which makes the model suitable e.g. for interfaces with thin adherends. Linear softening is assumed so as to reproduce, under monotonic conditions, a bilinear mode-II interface law. Two damage variables govern respectively the loss of strength and of stiffness of the interface. The proposed model needs the evaluation of only four independent parameters, i.e. three defining the monotonic mode-II interface law, and one ruling the fatigue behavior. This limited number of parameters and their clear physical meaning facilitate experimental calibration. Model predictions are compared with experimental results on fiber reinforced polymer sheets externally bonded to concrete involving different load histories, and an excellent agreement is obtained.

  13. Fracture simulation of restored teeth using a continuum damage mechanics failure model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Li, Jianying; Zou, Zhenmin; Fok, Alex Siu-Lun

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to validate the use of a finite-element (FE) based continuum damage mechanics (CDM) failure model to simulate the debonding and fracture of restored teeth. Fracture testing of plastic model teeth, with or without a standard Class-II MOD (mesial-occusal-distal) restoration, was carried out to investigate their fracture behavior. In parallel, 2D FE models of the teeth are constructed and analyzed using the commercial FE software ABAQUS. A CDM failure model, implemented into ABAQUS via the user element subroutine (UEL), is used to simulate the debonding and/or final fracture of the model teeth under a compressive load. The material parameters needed for the CDM model to simulate fracture are obtained through separate mechanical tests. The predicted results are then compared with the experimental data of the fracture tests to validate the failure model. The failure processes of the intact and restored model teeth are successfully reproduced by the simulation. However, the fracture parameters obtained from testing small specimens need to be adjusted to account for the size effect. The results indicate that the CDM model is a viable model for the prediction of debonding and fracture in dental restorations. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modelling the induction of cell death and chromosome damage by therapeutic protons

    CERN Document Server

    Carante, M P

    2015-01-01

    A two-parameter biophysical model cal led BIANCA (BIophysical ANalysis of Cell death and chromosome Aberrations), which assumes a pivotal role for DNA cluster damage and for “lethal” chromosome aberrations, was applied to calculate cell death and chromosome aberrations for normal and radio-resistant cells along a 62-MeV eye melanoma proton beam. The yield of DNA “Cluster Lesions” and the probability for a chromosome fragment of not being rejoined with any partne r were adjustable parameters. In line with other works, the beam effectiveness at inducing both biological endpoints was found to increase with increasing depth, and high levels of damage were found also beyond the dose fall-off, due to the higher biological effectiveness of low-energy protons. This implies that assuming a constant RBE along the whole SOBP, as is currently done in clinical practice, may be sub-optimal, also implying a possible underestimation of normal tissue damage. Furthermore, the calculations suggested that fo...

  15. Curcumin Anti-Apoptotic Action in a Model of Intestinal Epithelial Inflammatory Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganes, Claudia; Lega, Sara; Bramuzzo, Matteo; Vecchi Brumatti, Liza; Piscianz, Elisa; Valencic, Erica; Tommasini, Alberto; Marcuzzi, Annalisa

    2017-06-06

    The purpose of this study is to determine if a preventive treatment with curcumin can protect intestinal epithelial cells from inflammatory damage induced by IFNγ. To achieve this goal we have used a human intestinal epithelial cell line (HT29) treated with IFNγ to undergo apoptotic changes that can reproduce the damage of intestinal epithelia exposed to inflammatory cytokines. In this model, we measured the effect of curcumin (curcuminoid from Curcuma Longa ) added as a pre-treatment at different time intervals before stimulation with IFNγ. Curcumin administration to HT29 culture before the inflammatory stimulus IFNγ reduced the cell apoptosis rate. This effect gradually declined with the reduction of the curcumin pre-incubation time. This anti-apoptotic action by curcumin pre-treatment was paralleled by a reduction of secreted IL7 in the HT29 culture media, while there was no relevant change in the other cytokine levels. Even though curcumin pre-administration did not impact the activation of the NF-κB pathway, a slight effect on the phosphorylation of proteins in this inflammatory signaling pathway was observed. In conclusion, curcumin pre-treatment can protect intestinal cells from inflammatory damage. These results can be the basis for studying the preventive role of curcumin in inflammatory bowel diseases.

  16. Omega-3 prevents behavior response and brain oxidative damage in the ketamine model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugno, A I; Chipindo, H L; Volpato, A M; Budni, J; Steckert, A V; de Oliveira, M B; Heylmann, A S; da Rosa Silveira, F; Mastella, G A; Maravai, S G; Wessler, P G; Binatti, A R; Panizzutti, B; Schuck, P F; Quevedo, J; Gama, C S

    2014-02-14

    Supplementation with omega-3 has been identified as an adjunctive alternative for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, in order to minimize symptoms. Considering the lack of understanding concerning the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, the present study hypothesized that omega 3 prevents the onset of symptoms similar to schizophrenia in young Wistar rats submitted to ketamine treatment. Moreover, the role of oxidative stress in this model was assessed. Omega-3 (0.8g/kg) or vehicle was given by orogastric gavage once daily. Both treatments were performed during 21days, starting at the 30th day of life in young rats. After 14days of treatment with omega-3 or vehicle, a concomitant treatment with saline or ketamine (25mg/kg ip daily) was started and maintained until the last day of the experiment. We evaluated the pre-pulse inhibition of the startle reflex, activity of antioxidant systems and damage to proteins and lipids. Our results demonstrate that supplementation of omega-3 prevented: decreased inhibition of startle reflex, damage to lipids in the hippocampus and striatum and damage to proteins in the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, these changes are associated with decreased GPx in brain tissues evaluated. Together, our results suggest the prophylactic role of omega-3 against the outcome of symptoms associated with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Creating rat model for hypoxic brain damage in neonates by oxygen deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaoli; Ding, Yingxue; Yao, Yanqing; Yu, Yang; Yang, Lijun; Cui, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Current study explores the feasibility of using a non-surgical method of oxygen deprivation to create Hypoxic brain damage in neonatal rats for medical studies. 7-day-old Sprague Dowley (SD) rats were kept in a container with low oxygen level (8%) for 1.5h. A second group had bilateral cephalic artery ligation before the 1.5h-low oxygen treatment, a method similar to the popular Rice method, to expose the brain to both hypoxic and ischemic situations. Short term neural functions and brain water weights were evaluated 1 day after the hypoxic treatment. Brain pathology and histology were also examined at 1 day and 3 days after the hypoxic treatment. Both groups showed impaired neural functions and increased brain water weight compared to the controls. Histology studies also revealed injuries in the subcortex, hippocampus and lateral ventricle in the brains from both groups. There is no significant difference in the degree of brain damages observed in the two groups. Our work demonstrated that oxygen deprivation alone is sufficient to cause brain damages similar to those seen in Hypoxic-ischemic brain disease (HIBD). Because this method avoids the invasive surgical procedure and therefore reduces the stress and mortality of laboratory animals during the experiment, we recommend it to be the favorable method for creating rat models for HIBD studies.

  18. Creating rat model for hypoxic brain damage in neonates by oxygen deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoli Zhang

    Full Text Available Current study explores the feasibility of using a non-surgical method of oxygen deprivation to create Hypoxic brain damage in neonatal rats for medical studies. 7-day-old Sprague Dowley (SD rats were kept in a container with low oxygen level (8% for 1.5h. A second group had bilateral cephalic artery ligation before the 1.5h-low oxygen treatment, a method similar to the popular Rice method, to expose the brain to both hypoxic and ischemic situations. Short term neural functions and brain water weights were evaluated 1 day after the hypoxic treatment. Brain pathology and histology were also examined at 1 day and 3 days after the hypoxic treatment. Both groups showed impaired neural functions and increased brain water weight compared to the controls. Histology studies also revealed injuries in the subcortex, hippocampus and lateral ventricle in the brains from both groups. There is no significant difference in the degree of brain damages observed in the two groups. Our work demonstrated that oxygen deprivation alone is sufficient to cause brain damages similar to those seen in Hypoxic-ischemic brain disease (HIBD. Because this method avoids the invasive surgical procedure and therefore reduces the stress and mortality of laboratory animals during the experiment, we recommend it to be the favorable method for creating rat models for HIBD studies.

  19. A 3D Lattice Modelling Study of Drying Shrinkage Damage in Concrete Repair Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladena Luković

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Differential shrinkage between repair material and concrete substrate is considered to be the main cause of premature failure of repair systems. The magnitude of induced stresses depends on many factors, for example the degree of restraint, moisture gradients caused by curing and drying conditions, type of repair material, etc. Numerical simulations combined with experimental observations can be of great use when determining the influence of these parameters on the performance of repair systems. In this work, a lattice type model was used to simulate first the moisture transport inside a repair system and then the resulting damage as a function of time. 3D simulations were performed, and damage patterns were qualitatively verified with experimental results and cracking tendencies in different brittle and ductile materials. The influence of substrate surface preparation, bond strength between the two materials, and thickness of the repair material were investigated. Benefits of using a specially tailored fibre reinforced material, namely strain hardening cementitious composite (SHCC, for controlling the damage development due to drying shrinkage in concrete repairs was also examined.

  20. A 3D Lattice Modelling Study of Drying Shrinkage Damage in Concrete Repair Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luković, Mladena; Šavija, Branko; Schlangen, Erik; Ye, Guang; van Breugel, Klaas

    2016-07-14

    Differential shrinkage between repair material and concrete substrate is considered to be the main cause of premature failure of repair systems. The magnitude of induced stresses depends on many factors, for example the degree of restraint, moisture gradients caused by curing and drying conditions, type of repair material, etc. Numerical simulations combined with experimental observations can be of great use when determining the influence of these parameters on the performance of repair systems. In this work, a lattice type model was used to simulate first the moisture transport inside a repair system and then the resulting damage as a function of time. 3D simulations were performed, and damage patterns were qualitatively verified with experimental results and cracking tendencies in different brittle and ductile materials. The influence of substrate surface preparation, bond strength between the two materials, and thickness of the repair material were investigated. Benefits of using a specially tailored fibre reinforced material, namely strain hardening cementitious composite (SHCC), for controlling the damage development due to drying shrinkage in concrete repairs was also examined.

  1. Predicting knee replacement damage in a simulator machine using a computational model with a consistent wear factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Sawyer, W Gregory; Banks, Scott A; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2008-02-01

    Wear of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene remains a primary factor limiting the longevity of total knee replacements (TKRs). However, wear testing on a simulator machine is time consuming and expensive, making it impractical for iterative design purposes. The objectives of this paper were first, to evaluate whether a computational model using a wear factor consistent with the TKR material pair can predict accurate TKR damage measured in a simulator machine, and second, to investigate how choice of surface evolution method (fixed or variable step) and material model (linear or nonlinear) affect the prediction. An iterative computational damage model was constructed for a commercial knee implant in an AMTI simulator machine. The damage model combined a dynamic contact model with a surface evolution model to predict how wear plus creep progressively alter tibial insert geometry over multiple simulations. The computational framework was validated by predicting wear in a cylinder-on-plate system for which an analytical solution was derived. The implant damage model was evaluated for 5 million cycles of simulated gait using damage measurements made on the same implant in an AMTI machine. Using a pin-on-plate wear factor for the same material pair as the implant, the model predicted tibial insert wear volume to within 2% error and damage depths and areas to within 18% and 10% error, respectively. Choice of material model had little influence, while inclusion of surface evolution affected damage depth and area but not wear volume predictions. Surface evolution method was important only during the initial cycles, where variable step was needed to capture rapid geometry changes due to the creep. Overall, our results indicate that accurate TKR damage predictions can be made with a computational model using a constant wear factor obtained from pin-on-plate tests for the same material pair, and furthermore, that surface evolution method matters only during the initial

  2. A helium-based model for the effects of radiation damage annealing on helium diffusion kinetics in apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Chelsea D.; Fox, Matthew; Shuster, David L.

    2017-11-01

    Widely used to study surface processes and the development of topography through geologic time, (U-Th)/He thermochronometry in apatite depends on a quantitative description of the kinetics of 4He diffusion across a range of temperatures, timescales, and geologic scenarios. Empirical observations demonstrate that He diffusivity in apatite is not solely a function of temperature, but also depends on damage to the crystal structure from radioactive decay processes. Commonly-used models accounting for the influence of thermal annealing of radiation damage on He diffusivity assume the net effects evolve in proportion to the rate of fission track annealing, although the majority of radiation damage results from α-recoil. While existing models adequately quantify the net effects of damage annealing in many geologic scenarios, experimental work suggests different annealing rates for the two damage types. Here, we introduce an alpha-damage annealing model (ADAM) that is independent of fission track annealing kinetics, and directly quantifies the influence of thermal annealing on He diffusivity in apatite. We present an empirical fit to diffusion kinetics data and incorporate this fit into a model that tracks the competing effects of radiation damage accumulation and annealing on He diffusivity in apatite through geologic time. Using time-temperature paths to illustrate differences between models, we highlight the influence of damage annealing on data interpretation. In certain, but not all, geologic scenarios, the interpretation of low-temperature thermochronometric data can be strongly influenced by which model of radiation damage annealing is assumed. In particular, geologic scenarios involving 1-2 km of sedimentary burial are especially sensitive to the assumed rate of annealing and its influence on He diffusivity. In cases such as basement rocks in Grand Canyon and the Canadian Shield, (U-Th)/He ages predicted from the ADAM can differ by hundreds of Ma from those

  3. Detection of Earthquake-Induced Damage in a Framed Structure Using a Finite Element Model Updating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Nam; Park, Taewon; Lee, Sang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Damage of a 5-story framed structure was identified from two types of measured data, which are frequency response functions (FRF) and natural frequencies, using a finite element (FE) model updating procedure. In this study, a procedure to determine the appropriate weightings for different groups of observations was proposed. In addition, a modified frame element which included rotational springs was used to construct the FE model for updating to represent concentrated damage at the member ends (a formulation for plastic hinges in framed structures subjected to strong earthquakes). The results of the model updating and subsequent damage detection when the rotational springs (RS model) were used were compared with those obtained using the conventional frame elements (FS model). Comparisons indicated that the RS model gave more accurate results than the FS model. That is, the errors in the natural frequencies of the updated models were smaller, and the identified damage showed clearer distinctions between damaged and undamaged members and was more consistent with observed damage. PMID:24574888

  4. Detection of Earthquake-Induced Damage in a Framed Structure Using a Finite Element Model Updating Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjong Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage of a 5-story framed structure was identified from two types of measured data, which are frequency response functions (FRF and natural frequencies, using a finite element (FE model updating procedure. In this study, a procedure to determine the appropriate weightings for different groups of observations was proposed. In addition, a modified frame element which included rotational springs was used to construct the FE model for updating to represent concentrated damage at the member ends (a formulation for plastic hinges in framed structures subjected to strong earthquakes. The results of the model updating and subsequent damage detection when the rotational springs (RS model were used were compared with those obtained using the conventional frame elements (FS model. Comparisons indicated that the RS model gave more accurate results than the FS model. That is, the errors in the natural frequencies of the updated models were smaller, and the identified damage showed clearer distinctions between damaged and undamaged members and was more consistent with observed damage.

  5. Detection of earthquake-induced damage in a framed structure using a finite element model updating procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Eunjong; Kim, Seung-Nam; Park, Taewon; Lee, Sang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Damage of a 5-story framed structure was identified from two types of measured data, which are frequency response functions (FRF) and natural frequencies, using a finite element (FE) model updating procedure. In this study, a procedure to determine the appropriate weightings for different groups of observations was proposed. In addition, a modified frame element which included rotational springs was used to construct the FE model for updating to represent concentrated damage at the member ends (a formulation for plastic hinges in framed structures subjected to strong earthquakes). The results of the model updating and subsequent damage detection when the rotational springs (RS model) were used were compared with those obtained using the conventional frame elements (FS model). Comparisons indicated that the RS model gave more accurate results than the FS model. That is, the errors in the natural frequencies of the updated models were smaller, and the identified damage showed clearer distinctions between damaged and undamaged members and was more consistent with observed damage.

  6. Primary Radiation Damage in Materials. Review of Current Understanding and Proposed New Standard Displacement Damage Model to Incorporate in Cascade Defect Production Efficiency and Mixing Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordlund, Kai; Sand, Andrea E.; Granberg, Fredric; Zinkle, Steven J.; Stoller, Roger; Averback, Robert S.; Suzudo, Tomoaki; Malerba, Lorenzo; Banhart, Florian; Weber, William J.; Willaime, Francois; Dudarev, Sergei; Simeone, David

    2015-01-01

    Under the auspices of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC), the Working Party on Multi-scale Modelling of Fuels and Structural Materials for Nuclear Systems (WPMM) was established in 2008 to assess the scientific and engineering aspects of fuels and structural materials, aiming at evaluating multi-scale models and simulations as validated predictive tools for the design of nuclear systems, fuel fabrication and performance. The WPMM's objective is to promote the exchange of information on models and simulations of nuclear materials, theoretical and computational methods, experimental validation, and related topics. It also provides member countries with up-to-date information, shared data, models and expertise. The WPMM Expert Group on Primary Radiation Damage (PRD) was established in 2009 to determine the limitations of the NRT-dpa standard, in the light of both atomistic simulations and known experimental discrepancies, to revisit the NRT-dpa standard and to examine the possibility of proposing a new improved standard of primary damage characteristics. This report reviews the current understanding of primary radiation damage from neutrons, ions and electrons (excluding photons, atomic clusters and more exotic particles), with emphasis on the range of validity of the 'displacement per atom' (dpa) concept in all major classes of materials with the exception of organics. The report also introduces an 'athermal recombination-corrected dpa' (arc-dpa) relation that uses a relatively simple functional to address the well-known issue that 'displacement per atom' (dpa) overestimates damage production in metals under energetic displacement cascade conditions, as well as a 'replacements-per-atom' (rpa) equation, also using a relatively simple functional, that accounts for the fact that dpa is understood to severely underestimate actual atom relocation (ion beam mixing) in metals. (authors)

  7. Modeling variability in air pollution-related health damages from individual airport emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Stefani L; Boone, Scott T; Harvey, Brian C; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy; Tripodis, Yorghos; Arunachalam, Sarav; Levy, Jonathan I

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we modeled concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ozone (O 3 ) attributable to precursor emissions from individual airports in the United States, developing airport-specific health damage functions (deaths per 1000t of precursor emissions) and physically-interpretable regression models to explain variability in these functions. We applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality model using the Decoupled Direct Method to isolate PM 2.5 - or O 3 -related contributions from precursor pollutants emitted by 66 individual airports. We linked airport- and pollutant-specific concentrations with population data and literature-based concentration-response functions to create health damage functions. Deaths per 1000t of primary PM 2.5 emissions ranged from 3 to 160 across airports, with variability explained by population patterns within 500km of the airport. Deaths per 1000t of precursors for secondary PM 2.5 varied across airports from 0.1 to 2.7 for NOx, 0.06 to 2.9 for SO 2 , and 0.06 to 11 for VOCs, with variability explained by population patterns and ambient concentrations influencing particle formation. Deaths per 1000t of O 3 precursors ranged from -0.004 to 1.0 for NOx and 0.03 to 1.5 for VOCs, with strong seasonality and influence of ambient concentrations. Our findings reinforce the importance of location- and source-specific health damage functions in design of health-maximizing emissions control policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nonlinear analysis of pre-stressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) using the damage plasticity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokoohfar, Ahmad; Rahai, Alireza, E-mail: rahai@aut.ac.ir

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • This paper describes nonlinear analyses of a 1:4 scale model of a (PCCV). • Coupled temp-disp. analysis and concrete damage plasticity are considered. • Temperature has limited effects on correct failure mode estimation. • Higher pre-stressing forces have limited effects on ultimate radial displacements. • Anchorage details of liner plates leads to prediction of correct failure mode. - Abstract: This paper describes the nonlinear analyses of a 1:4 scale model of a pre-stressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). The analyses are performed under pressure and high temperature effects with considering anchorage details of liner plate. The temperature-time history of the model test is considered as an input boundary condition in the coupled temp-displacement analysis. The constitutive model developed by Chang and Mander (1994) is adopted in the model as the basis for the concrete stress–strain relation. To trace the crack pattern of the PCCV concrete faces, the concrete damage plasticity model is applied. This study includes the results of the thermal and mechanical behaviors of the PCCV subject to temperature loading and internal pressure at the same time. The test results are compared with the analysis results. The analysis results show that the temperature has little impact on the ultimate pressure capacity of the PCCV. To simulate the exact failure mode of the PCCV, the anchorage details of the liner plates around openings should be maintained in the analytical models. Also the failure mode of the PCCV structure hasn’t influenced by hoop tendons pre-stressing force variations.

  9. Literature Reviews on Modeling Internal Geometry of Textile Composites and Rate-Independent Continuum Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su-Yuen, Hsu

    2011-01-01

    Textile composite materials have good potential for constructing composite structures where the effects of three-dimensional stresses are critical or geometric complexity is a manufacturing concern. There is a recent interest in advancing competence within Langley Research Center for modeling the degradation of mechanical properties of textile composites. In an initial effort, two critical areas are identified to pursue: (1) Construction of internal geometry of textile composites, and (2) Rate-independent continuum damage mechanics. This report documents reviews on the two subjects. Various reviewed approaches are categorized, their assumptions, methods, and progress are briefed, and then critiques are presented. Each review ends with recommended research.

  10. RPV steel embrittlement: Damage modeling and micro-mechanics in an engineering perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Walle, E.V.; Chaouadi, R.; Wannijn, J.P.; Werstrepen, A.; Puzzolante, J.L.; VanRansbeeck, T.H.; VandeVelde, J.

    1993-01-01

    A new, consolidated strategy for improved Light Water Reactor pressure vessel surveillance is proposed. The methodology includes statistical fracture mechanics and damage modeling, while taking maximum advantage of the data generated by conventional surveillance practices. Available reconstitution and miniaturization allow to implement such strategy with minimal material inventory. The themes of the paper are: general philosophy of Belgian surveillance R D program; ductile-brittle transition temperature by use of instrumented C v load-time traces; towards an enhanced surveillance practice by combined use of instrumented C v load-time traces and uniaxial tensile tests; constraint, size and strain rate effects for C v notch impact test. 109 refs., 27 figs

  11. WE-DE-202-03: Modeling of Biological Processes - What Happens After Early Molecular Damage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, S.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer has been established as a highly precise and effective way to eradicate a localized region of diseased tissue. To achieve further significant gains in the therapeutic ratio, we need to move towards biologically optimized treatment planning. To achieve this goal, we need to understand how the radiation-type dependent patterns of induced energy depositions within the cell (physics) connect via molecular, cellular and tissue reactions to treatment outcome such as tumor control and undesirable effects on normal tissue. Several computational biology approaches have been developed connecting physics to biology. Monte Carlo simulations are the most accurate method to calculate physical dose distributions at the nanometer scale, however simulations at the DNA scale are slow and repair processes are generally not simulated. Alternative models that rely on the random formation of individual DNA lesions within one or two turns of the DNA have been shown to reproduce the clusters of DNA lesions, including single strand breaks (SSBs), double strand breaks (DSBs) without the need for detailed track structure simulations. Efficient computational simulations of initial DNA damage induction facilitate computational modeling of DNA repair and other molecular and cellular processes. Mechanistic, multiscale models provide a useful conceptual framework to test biological hypotheses and help connect fundamental information about track structure and dosimetry at the sub-cellular level to dose-response effects on larger scales. In this symposium we will learn about the current state of the art of computational approaches estimating radiation damage at the cellular and sub-cellular scale. How can understanding the physics interactions at the DNA level be used to predict biological outcome? We will discuss if and how such calculations are relevant to advance our understanding of radiation damage and its repair, or, if the underlying biological

  12. Modeling Radiation Damage Effects in 3D Pixel Digitization for the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Giugliarelli, Gilberto; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector. As the detector in closest proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the HL-LHC, the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 10^15 neq/cm2 and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This poster presents the details of a new digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the 3D Pixel sensors for the ATLAS Detector.

  13. Modeling Radiation Damage Effects in 3D Pixel Digitization for the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wallangen, Veronica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector. As the detector in closest proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the HL-LHC, the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 10$^{15}$ n$_\\mathrm{eq}$/cm$^2$ and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This work presents the details of a new digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the 3D Pixel sensors for the ATLAS detector.

  14. Radiation Damage Modeling for 3D Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wallangen, Veronica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector. As the detector in closest proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the HL-LHC, the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 10^15 neq/cm2 and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This poster presents the details of a new digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the 3D Pixel sensors for the ATLAS Detector.

  15. Finite-Element Modeling of a Damaged Pipeline Repaired Using the Wrap of a Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyapin, A. A.; Chebakov, M. I.; Dumitrescu, A.; Zecheru, G.

    2015-07-01

    The nonlinear static problem of FEM modeling of a damaged pipeline repaired by a composite material and subjected to internal pressure is considered. The calculation is carried out using plasticity theory for the pipeline material and considering the polymeric filler and the composite wrap. The level of stresses in various zones of the structure is analyzed. The most widespread alloy used for oil pipelines is selected as pipe material. The contribution of each component of the pipeline-filler-wrap system to the level of stresses is investigated. The effect of the number of composite wrap layers is estimated. The results obtained allow one to decrease the costs needed for producing test specimens.

  16. Modeled changes in 100 year Flood Risk and Asset Damages within Mapped Floodplains of the Contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobus, C. W.; Gutmann, E. D.; Jones, R.; Rissing, M.; Mizukami, N.; Lorie, M.; Mahoney, H.; Wood, A.; Mills, D.; Martinich, J.

    2017-12-01

    A growing body of recent work suggests that the extreme weather events that drive inland flooding are likely to increase in frequency and magnitude in a warming climate, thus increasing monetary damages from flooding in the future. We use hydrologic projections based on the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) to estimate changes in the frequency of modeled 1% annual exceedance probability flood events at 57,116 locations across the contiguous United States (CONUS). We link these flood projections to a database of assets within mapped flood hazard zones to model changes in inland flooding damages throughout the CONUS over the remainder of the 21st century, under two greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios. Our model generates early 21st century flood damages that reasonably approximate the range of historical observations, and trajectories of future damages that vary substantially depending on the GHG emissions pathway. The difference in modeled flood damages between higher and lower emissions pathways approaches $4 billion per year by 2100 (in undiscounted 2014 dollars), suggesting that aggressive GHG emissions reductions could generate significant monetary benefits over the long-term in terms of reduced flood risk. Although the downscaled hydrologic data we used have been applied to flood impacts studies elsewhere, this research expands on earlier work to quantify changes in flood risk by linking future flood exposure to assets and damages at a national scale. Our approach relies on a series of simplifications that could ultimately affect damage estimates (e.g., use of statistical downscaling, reliance on a nationwide hydrologic model, and linking damage estimates only to 1% AEP floods). Although future work is needed to test the sensitivity of our results to these methodological choices, our results suggest that monetary damages from inland flooding could be substantially reduced through more aggressive GHG mitigation policies.

  17. Structural equation modeling identifies markers of damage and function in the aging male Fischer 344 rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunz-Borgmann, Elizabeth A; Nichols, LaNita A; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Spagnoli, Sean; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Parrish, Alan R

    2016-06-01

    The male Fischer 344 rat is an established model to study progressive renal dysfunction that is similar, but not identical, to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in humans. These studies were designed to assess age-dependent alterations in renal structure and function at late-life timepoints, 16-24 months. Elevations in BUN and plasma creatinine were not significant until 24 months, however, elevations in the more sensitive markers of function, plasma cystatin C and proteinuria, were detectable at 16 and 18 months, respectively. Interestingly, cystatin C levels were not corrected by caloric restriction. Urinary Kim-1, a marker of CKD, was elevated as early as 16 months. Klotho gene expression was significantly decreased at 24 months, but not at earlier timepoints. Alterations in renal structure, glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, were noted at 16 months, with little change from 18 to 24 months. Tubulointerstitial inflammation was increased at 16 months, and remained similar from 18 to 24 months. A SEM (structural equation modeling) model of age-related renal dysfunction suggests that proteinuria is a marker of renal damage, while urinary Kim-1 is a marker of both damage and function. Taken together, these results demonstrate that age-dependent nephropathy begins as early as 16 months and progresses rapidly over the next 8 months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of Retinal Vascular and Neural Damage in a Novel Model of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasekera, Lakshini Y; Balmer, Lois A; Ram, Ramesh; Morahan, Grant

    2015-06-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major cause of blindness globally. Investigating the underlying mechanisms of DR would be aided by a suitable mouse model that developed key features seen in the human disease, and did so without carrying genetic modifications. This study was undertaken to produce such a model. Our panel of Collaborative Cross strains was screened for DR-like features after induction of diabetes by intravenous injection with alloxan or streptozotocin. Both flat-mounted whole-retina and histologic sections were studied for the presence of retinal lesions. Progression of DR was also studied by histologic examination of the retinal vascular and neural structure at various time points after diabetes onset. In addition, microarray investigations were conducted on retinas from control and diabetic mice. Features of DR such as degenerated pericytes, acellular capillaries, minor vascular proliferation, gliosis of Müller cells, and loss of ganglion cells were noted as early as day 7 in some mice. These lesions became more evident with time. After 21 days of diabetes, severe vascular proliferation, microaneurysms, preretinal damage, increased Müller cell gliosis, and damage to the outer retina were all obvious. Microarray studies found significant differential expression of multiple genes known to be involved in DR. The FOT_FB strain provides a useful model to investigate the pathogenesis of DR and to develop treatments for this vision-threatening disease.

  19. Micromechanics Fatigue Damage Analysis Modeling for Fabric Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, J. B.; Xue, D.; Shi, Y.

    2013-01-01

    A micromechanics analysis modeling method was developed to analyze the damage progression and fatigue failure of fabric reinforced composite structures, especially for the brittle ceramic matrix material composites. A repeating unit cell concept of fabric reinforced composites was used to represent the global composite structure. The thermal and mechanical properties of the repeating unit cell were considered as the same as those of the global composite structure. The three-phase micromechanics, the shear-lag, and the continuum fracture mechanics models were integrated with a statistical model in the repeating unit cell to predict the progressive damages and fatigue life of the composite structures. The global structure failure was defined as the loss of loading capability of the repeating unit cell, which depends on the stiffness reduction due to material slice failures and nonlinear material properties in the repeating unit cell. The present methodology is demonstrated with the analysis results evaluated through the experimental test performed with carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix plain weave composite specimens.

  20. Micromechanical modeling of damage in periodic composites using strain gradient plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azizi, Reza

    2012-01-01

    model for the fiber–matrix interface. For the micro structure, free energy holds both elastic strains and plastic strain gradients. Due to the gradient theory, higher order boundary conditions must be considered. A unit cell with a circular elastic fiber is studied by the numerical finite element cell......Damage evolution at the fiber matrix interface in Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) is studied using strain gradient theory of plasticity. The study includes the rate independent formulation of energetic strain gradient plasticity for the matrix, purely elastic model for the fiber and cohesive zone...... model under simple shear and transverse uniaxial tension using plane strain and periodic boundary conditions. The result of the overall response curve, effective plastic strain, effective stress and higher order stress distributions are shown. The effect of the material length scale, maximum stress...

  1. Creep Tests and Modeling Based on Continuum Damage Mechanics for T91 and T92 Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, J. P.; Tu, S. H.; Zhu, X. W.; Tan, L. J.; Hu, B.; Wang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    9-11%Cr ferritic steels play an important role in high-temperature and high-pressure boilers of advanced power plants. In this paper, a continuum damage mechanics (CDM)-based creep model was proposed to study the creep behavior of T91 and T92 steels at high temperatures. Long-time creep tests were performed for both steels under different conditions. The creep rupture data and creep curves obtained from creep tests were captured well by theoretical calculation based on the CDM model over a long creep time. It is shown that the developed model is able to predict creep data for the two ferritic steels accurately up to tens of thousands of hours.

  2. A generalized linear-quadratic model incorporating reciprocal time pattern of radiation damage repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhibin; Mayr, Nina A.; Lo, Simon S.; Wang, Jian Z.; Jia Guang; Yuh, William T. C.; Johnke, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: It has been conventionally assumed that the repair rate for sublethal damage (SLD) remains constant during the entire radiation course. However, increasing evidence from animal studies suggest that this may not the case. Rather, it appears that the repair rate for radiation-induced SLD slows down with increasing time. Such a slowdown in repair would suggest that the exponential repair pattern would not necessarily accurately predict repair process. As a result, the purpose of this study was to investigate a new generalized linear-quadratic (LQ) model incorporating a repair pattern with reciprocal time. The new formulas were tested with published experimental data. Methods: The LQ model has been widely used in radiation therapy, and the parameter G in the surviving fraction represents the repair process of sublethal damage with T r as the repair half-time. When a reciprocal pattern of repair process was adopted, a closed form of G was derived analytically for arbitrary radiation schemes. The published animal data adopted to test the reciprocal formulas. Results: A generalized LQ model to describe the repair process in a reciprocal pattern was obtained. Subsequently, formulas for special cases were derived from this general form. The reciprocal model showed a better fit to the animal data than the exponential model, particularly for the ED50 data (reduced χ 2 min of 2.0 vs 4.3, p = 0.11 vs 0.006), with the following gLQ parameters: α/β = 2.6-4.8 Gy, T r = 3.2-3.9 h for rat feet skin, and α/β = 0.9 Gy, T r = 1.1 h for rat spinal cord. Conclusions: These results of repair process following a reciprocal time suggest that the generalized LQ model incorporating the reciprocal time of sublethal damage repair shows a better fit than the exponential repair model. These formulas can be used to analyze the experimental and clinical data, where a slowing-down repair process appears during the course of radiation therapy.

  3. A generalized linear-quadratic model incorporating reciprocal time pattern of radiation damage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhibin; Mayr, Nina A; Lo, Simon S; Wang, Jian Z; Jia, Guang; Yuh, William T C; Johnke, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    It has been conventionally assumed that the repair rate for sublethal damage (SLD) remains constant during the entire radiation course. However, increasing evidence from animal studies suggest that this may not the case. Rather, it appears that the repair rate for radiation-induced SLD slows down with increasing time. Such a slowdown in repair would suggest that the exponential repair pattern would not necessarily accurately predict repair process. As a result, the purpose of this study was to investigate a new generalized linear-quadratic (LQ) model incorporating a repair pattern with reciprocal time. The new formulas were tested with published experimental data. The LQ model has been widely used in radiation therapy, and the parameter G in the surviving fraction represents the repair process of sublethal damage with T(r) as the repair half-time. When a reciprocal pattern of repair process was adopted, a closed form of G was derived analytically for arbitrary radiation schemes. The published animal data adopted to test the reciprocal formulas. A generalized LQ model to describe the repair process in a reciprocal pattern was obtained. Subsequently, formulas for special cases were derived from this general form. The reciprocal model showed a better fit to the animal data than the exponential model, particularly for the ED50 data (reduced χ(2) (min) of 2.0 vs 4.3, p = 0.11 vs 0.006), with the following gLQ parameters: α/β = 2.6-4.8 Gy, T(r) = 3.2-3.9 h for rat feet skin, and α/β = 0.9 Gy, T(r) = 1.1 h for rat spinal cord. These results of repair process following a reciprocal time suggest that the generalized LQ model incorporating the reciprocal time of sublethal damage repair shows a better fit than the exponential repair model. These formulas can be used to analyze the experimental and clinical data, where a slowing-down repair process appears during the course of radiation therapy.

  4. Blasting Damage Predictions by Numerical Modeling in Siahbishe Pumped Storage Powerhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Majid; Goshtasbi, Kamran

    2017-04-01

    One of the popular methods of underground and surface excavations is the use of blasting. Throughout this method of excavation, the loading resulted from blasting can be affected by different geo-mechanical and structural parameters of rock mass. Several factors affect turbulence in underground structures some of which are explosion, vibration, and stress impulses caused by the neighbouring blasting products. In investigating the blasting mechanism one should address the processes which expand with time and cause seismic events. To protect the adjoining structures against any probable deconstruction or damage, it is very important to model the blasting process prior to any actual operation. Efforts have been taken in the present study to demonstrate the potentiality of numerical methods in predicting the specified parameters in order to prevent any probable destruction. For this purpose the blasting process was modeled, according to its natural implementation, in one of the tunnels of Siahbishe dam by the 3DEC and AUTODYN 3D codes. 3DEC was used for modeling the blasting environment as well as the blast holes and AUTODYN 3D for modeling the explosion process in the blast hole. In this process the output of AUTODYN 3D, which is a result of modeling the blast hole and is in the form of stress waves, is entered into 3DEC. For analyzing the amount of destruction made by the blasting operation, the key parameter of Peak Particle Velocity was used. In the end, the numerical modeling results have been compared with the data recorded by the seismographs planted through the tunnel. As the results indicated 3DEC and AUTODYN 3D proved appropriate for analyzing such an issue. Therefore, by means of these two softwares one can analyze explosion processes prior to their implementation and make close estimation of the damage resulting from these processes.

  5. Comparison of Model Calculations of Biological Damage from Exposure to Heavy Ions with Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    The space environment consists of a varying field of radiation particles including high-energy ions, with spacecraft shielding material providing the major protection to astronauts from harmful exposure. Unlike low-LET gamma or X rays, the presence of shielding does not always reduce the radiation risks for energetic charged-particle exposure. Dose delivered by the charged particle increases sharply at the Bragg peak. However, the Bragg curve does not necessarily represent the biological damage along the particle path since biological effects are influenced by the track structures of both primary and secondary particles. Therefore, the ''biological Bragg curve'' is dependent on the energy and the type of the primary particle and may vary for different biological end points. Measurements of the induction of micronuclei (MN) have made across the Bragg curve in human fibroblasts exposed to energetic silicon and iron ions in vitro at two different energies, 300 MeV/nucleon and 1 GeV/nucleon. Although the data did not reveal an increased yield of MN at the location of the Bragg peak, the increased inhibition of cell progression, which is related to cell death, was found at the Bragg peak location. These results are compared to the calculations of biological damage using a stochastic Monte-Carlo track structure model, Galactic Cosmic Ray Event-based Risk Model (GERM) code (Cucinotta, et al., 2011). The GERM code estimates the basic physical properties along the passage of heavy ions in tissue and shielding materials, by which the experimental set-up can be interpreted. The code can also be used to describe the biophysical events of interest in radiobiology, cancer therapy, and space exploration. The calculation has shown that the severely damaged cells at the Bragg peak are more likely to go through reproductive death, the so called "overkill".

  6. A mouse model of ocular blast injury that induces closed globe anterior and posterior pole damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines-Beard, Jessica; Marchetta, Jeffrey; Gordon, Sarah; Chaum, Edward; Geisert, Eldon E; Rex, Tonia S

    2012-06-01

    We developed and characterized a mouse model of primary ocular blast injury. The device consists of: a pressurized air tank attached to a regulated paintball gun with a machined barrel; a chamber that protects the mouse from direct injury and recoil, while exposing the eye; and a secure platform that enables fine, controlled movement of the chamber in relation to the barrel. Expected pressures were calculated and the optimal pressure transducer, based on the predicted pressures, was positioned to measure output pressures at the location where the mouse eye would be placed. Mice were exposed to one of three blast pressures (23.6, 26.4, or 30.4 psi). Gross pathology, intraocular pressure, optical coherence tomography, and visual acuity were assessed 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after exposure. Contralateral eyes and non-blast exposed mice were used as controls. We detected increased damage with increased pressures and a shift in the damage profile over time. Gross pathology included corneal edema, corneal abrasions, and optic nerve avulsion. Retinal damage was detected by optical coherence tomography and a deficit in visual acuity was detected by optokinetics. Our findings are comparable to those identified in Veterans of the recent wars with closed eye injuries as a result of blast exposure. In summary, this is a relatively simple system that creates injuries with features similar to those seen in patients with ocular blast trauma. This is an important new model for testing the short-term and long-term spectrum of closed globe blast injuries and potential therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tornadoes and related damage costs: statistical modelling with a semi-Markov approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guglielmo D’Amico

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a statistical approach to modelling for predicting and simulating occurrences of tornadoes and accumulated cost distributions over a time interval. This is achieved by modelling the tornado intensity, measured with the Fujita scale, as a stochastic process. Since the Fujita scale divides tornado intensity into six states, it is possible to model the tornado intensity by using Markov and semi-Markov models. We demonstrate that the semi-Markov approach is able to reproduce the duration effect that is detected in tornado occurrence. The superiority of the semi-Markov model as compared to the Markov chain model is also affirmed by means of a statistical test of hypothesis. As an application, we compute the expected value and the variance of the costs generated by the tornadoes over a given time interval in a given area. The paper contributes to the literature by demonstrating that semi-Markov models represent an effective tool for physical analysis of tornadoes as well as for the estimation of the economic damages to human things.

  8. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Contributes to Hypertensive Target Organ Damage: Lessons from an Animal Model of Human Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speranza Rubattu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying hypertensive target organ damage (TOD are not completely understood. The pathophysiological role of mitochondrial oxidative stress, resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction, in development of TOD is unclear. The stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP is a suitable model of human hypertension and of its vascular consequences. Pathogenesis of TOD in SHRSP is multifactorial, being determined by high blood pressure levels, high salt/low potassium diet, and genetic factors. Accumulating evidence points to a key role of mitochondrial dysfunction in increased susceptibility to TOD development of SHRSP. Mitochondrial abnormalities were described in both heart and brain of SHRSP. Pharmacological compounds able to protect mitochondrial function exerted a significant protective effect on TOD development, independently of blood pressure levels. Through our research efforts, we discovered that two genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, one (Ndufc2 involved in OXPHOS complex I assembly and activity and the second one (UCP2 involved in clearance of mitochondrial ROS, are responsible, when dysregulated, for vascular damage in SHRSP. The suitability of SHRSP as a model of human disease represents a promising background for future translation of the experimental findings to human hypertension. Novel therapeutic strategies toward mitochondrial molecular targets may become a valuable tool for prevention and treatment of TOD in human hypertension.

  9. Study on Meshfree Hermite Radial Point Interpolation Method for Flexural Wave Propagation Modeling and Damage Quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Ghaffarzadeh

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates the numerical modeling of the flexural wave propagation in Euler-Bernoulli beams using the Hermite-type radial point interpolation method (HRPIM under the damage quantification approach. HRPIM employs radial basis functions (RBFs and their derivatives for shape function construction as a meshfree technique. The performance of Multiquadric(MQ RBF to the assessment of the reflection ratio was evaluated. HRPIM signals were compared with the theoretical and finite element responses. Results represent that MQ is a suitable RBF for HRPIM and wave propagation. However, the range of the proper shape parameters is notable. The number of field nodes is the main parameter for accurate wave propagation modeling using HRPIM. The size of support domain should be less thanan upper bound in order to prevent high error. With regard to the number of quadrature points, providing the minimum numbers of points are adequate for the stable solution, but the existence of more points in damage region does not leads to necessarily the accurate responses. It is concluded that the pure HRPIM, without any polynomial terms, is acceptable but considering a few terms will improve the accuracy; even though more terms make the problem unstable and inaccurate.

  10. Damaging process of graphite - new model and its impact on degradation of materials performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, T.; Muto, S.

    1999-01-01

    The most widely accepted model for development of defect structure in neutron irradiated graphite has been such that following the first production of a pair of an interstitial and vacancy, di-interstitials and vacancies are formed and their subsequent growth would result in the production of an interstitial plane or loop in-between the basal planes and vacancy clusters, respectively, which could cause the loss of thermal conductivity and dimensional change. Recently we have claimed that the formation of vacancy clusters and growth of the interstitial planes are not necessarily a unique interpretation of the damaging process. Instead, the damaging process is described by orientational disordering within the basal planes, i.e. fragmentation into small crystallites and rotation of their crystalline axes, change of stacking order and elongation of the interplanar spacing. The orientational disordering within the basal planes proceeds coordinately over a few layers with their layered correlation maintained. This process accompanies changes in bonding nature producing 5 member- and 7 member-atomic rings as appeared in fullerenes. This is so to speak ''self-restoring or reconstruction'' to maintain resonance bonds as strict as possible without the formation of dangling bonds. This paper reviews irradiation effects in graphite such as increase of hydrogen retention, loss of thermal conductivity and dimensional change on the bases of our new model, taking account of the changes of the bonding nature in irradiated graphite. (orig.)

  11. Establishment of a blue light damage model of human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, G; Cai, S J; Gong, X; Wang, L L; Li, H H; Wang, L M

    2016-06-24

    To establish a blue-light damage model of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Fourth-generation human RPE cells were randomly divided into two groups. In group A, cells were exposed to blue light (2000 ± 500 lux) for 0 (control), 3, 6, 9, and 12 h, and cell culture was stopped after 12 h. In group B, cells were exposed to blue light at the same intensity and time periods, but cell culture was stopped after 24 h. TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed to determine the most suitable illuminating time with apoptotic index. Flow cytometry was used to determine apoptotic ratio of RPEs. In group A, the apoptotic index of cells that received 6, 9 and 12 h of blue light was higher than that of control. The apoptotic index of cells receiving 9 and 12 h was higher than that of 6 h (P = 0.000). In group B, the apoptotic index and RPE cell apoptosis ratio of cells exposed to 6, 9 and 12 h of blue light were higher than that of 3 h (P = 0.000); and cells receiving 9 and 12 h had higher values than that of 6 h. This study demonstrated that the best conditions to establish a blue light damage model of human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro are 2000 ± 500 lux light intensity for 6 h, with 24 h of cell culture post-exposure.

  12. Alternative approaches to electronic damage by ion-beam irradiation: Exciton models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo-Lopez, F.; Munoz-Martin, A.; Zucchiatti, A. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    The paper briefly describes the main features of the damage produced by swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. After a short revision of the widely used thermal spike concept, it focuses on cumulative mechanisms of track formation which are alternative to those based on lattice melting (thermal spike models). These cumulative mechanisms rely on the production of point defects around the ion trajectory, and their accumulation up to a final lattice collapse or amorphization. As to the formation of point defects, the paper considers those mechanisms relying on direct local conversion of the excitation energy into atomic displacements (exciton models). A particular attention is given to processes based on the non-radiative recombination of excitons that have become self-trapped as a consequence of a strong electron-phonon interaction (STEs). These mechanisms, although operative under purely ionizing radiation in some dielectric materials, have been rarely invoked, so far, to discuss SHI damage. They are discussed in this paper together with relevant examples to materials such as Cu{sub 3}N, alkali halides, SiO{sub 2}, and LiNbO{sub 3}. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Damage Detection in Flexible Plates through Reduced-Order Modeling and Hybrid Particle-Kalman Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Capellari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Health monitoring of lightweight structures, like thin flexible plates, is of interest in several engineering fields. In this paper, a recursive Bayesian procedure is proposed to monitor the health of such structures through data collected by a network of optimally placed inertial sensors. As a main drawback of standard monitoring procedures is linked to the computational costs, two remedies are jointly considered: first, an order-reduction of the numerical model used to track the structural dynamics, enforced with proper orthogonal decomposition; and, second, an improved particle filter, which features an extended Kalman updating of each evolving particle before the resampling stage. The former remedy can reduce the number of effective degrees-of-freedom of the structural model to a few only (depending on the excitation, whereas the latter one allows to track the evolution of damage and to locate it thanks to an intricate formulation. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed procedure, the case of a plate subject to bending is investigated; it is shown that, when the procedure is appropriately fed by measurements, damage is efficiently and accurately estimated.

  14. Nuclear analysis of structural damage and nuclear heating on enhanced K-DEMO divertor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Im, K.; Kwon, S.; Kim, J.; Kim, D.; Woo, M.; Shin, C.

    2017-12-01

    This paper addresses nuclear analysis on the Korean fusion demonstration reactor (K-DEMO) divertor to estimate the overall trend of nuclear heating values and displacement damages. The K-DEMO divertor model was created and converted by the CAD (Pro-Engineer™) and Monte Carlo automatic modeling programs as a 22.5° sector of the tokamak. The Monte Carlo neutron photon transport and ADVANTG codes were used in this calculation with the FENDL-2.1 nuclear data library. The calculation results indicate that the highest values appeared on the upper outboard target (OT) area, which means the OT is exposed to the highest radiation conditions among the three plasma-facing parts (inboard, central and outboard) in the divertor. Especially, much lower nuclear heating values and displacement damages are indicated on the lower part of the OT area than others. These are important results contributing to thermal-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical analyses on the divertor and also it is expected that the copper alloy materials may be partially used as a heat sink only at the lower part of the OT instead of the reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel due to copper alloy’s high thermal conductivity.

  15. A model for high temperature creep of single crystal superalloys based on nonlocal damage and viscoplastic material behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, B. T.; Hackl, K.

    2014-07-01

    A model for high temperature creep of single crystal superalloys is developed, which includes constitutive laws for nonlocal damage and viscoplasticity. It is based on a variational formulation, employing potentials for free energy, and dissipation originating from plasticity and damage. Evolution equations for plastic strain and damage variables are derived from the well-established minimum principle for the dissipation potential. The model is capable of describing the different stages of creep in a unified way. Plastic deformation in superalloys incorporates the evolution of dislocation densities of the different phases present. It results in a time dependence of the creep rate in primary and secondary creep. Tertiary creep is taken into account by introducing local and nonlocal damage. Herein, the nonlocal one is included in order to model strain localization as well as to remove mesh dependence of finite element calculations. Numerical results and comparisons with experimental data of the single crystal superalloy LEK94 are shown.

  16. A Nonlocal Damage Model for Elastoplastic Materials based on Gradient Plasticity Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Yuan, H.; Kalkhof, D.

    2001-10-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that size effects in structure deformations and failure become significant as soon as strain gradients are high. For instance as soon as material failure dominates a deformation process, the specimen displays increasingly softening and the finite element computation is significantly affected by the element size. Without considering this effect in the constitutive model one cannot hope a reliable prediction to the ductile material failure process. To give an accurate prediction of the structure integrity and to quantify the material failure process, it is necessary to introduce the strain gradients into constitutive equations. Gradient plasticity models have been discussed extensively in recent years. The mesh-sensitivity in numerical analysis has been successfully eliminated and analytical explanations for size effects were given. In the present work, a general framework for a nonlocal micromechanical damage model based on the gradient-dependent plasticity theory is presented and its finite element algorithm for finite strains is developed and implemented. In the finite element algorithm, equivalent plastic strain and plastic multiplier have been taken as the unknown variables. Due to the implementation of the Lapacian term, the implicit C 1 shape function is applied for equivalent plastic strain and can be transformed to arbitrary quadrilateral elements. Computational analysis of material failure is consistent to the known size effects. By incorporating the Laplacian of plastic strain into the GTN constitutive relationship, the known mesh-dependence is overcome for the simulation of ductile damage processes and numerical results correlate uniquely with the given material parameters. In the chapters of applications, we discuss simulations of micro-indentation tests based on the gradient plasticity model. The role of intrinsic material length parameters in the gradient plasticity model is investigated. The

  17. Fucoidan Extracted from Fucus evanescens Prevents Endotoxin-Induced Damage in a Mouse Model of Endotoxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Kuznetsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An important problem of treating patients with endotoxemia is to find drugs to reduce the negative effects of endotoxin on the organism. We tested fucoidan (sulfated polysaccharide from the brown alga Fucus evanescens as a potential drug in a mouse model of endotoxemia inducted by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. The survival time of mice injected with LPS increased under fucoidan treatment compared with the group of mice injected with LPS only. The preventive administration of fucoidan to mice with endotoxemia resulted in inhibition of increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-6, as well as decreasing of the processes of hypercoagulability. The parenteral or per os administration of fucoidan resulted in decreasing the degree of microcirculatory disorders and secondary dystrophic-destructive changes in parenchymal organs of mice with endotoxemia. Taken together, these results demonstrate that fucoidan prevents endotoxin-induced damage in a mouse model of endotoxemia and increases the mice’s resistance to LPS.

  18. A coupled carbonation-rust formation mechanical damage model for steel corrosion in reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Huyen; Bary, B.; L'Hostis, Valerie; DeLarrard, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting a strategy to simulate the corrosion of steel reinforcement due to carbonation of concrete in atmospheric environment. We propose a model coupling drying, carbonation, diffusion of oxygen, formation of rust and mechanics to describe these phenomena. The rust layer is assumed to be composed of two sub-layers with different elastic modulus. An unstable layer with a low modulus (from 0.1 to 5 GPa) is located next to the transformed medium, and another more stable one with a higher modulus (from 100 to 150 GPa) at the interface with steel reinforcement. This model is applied to a numerical meso-structure composed of 4 phases: mortar matrix, randomly distributed aggregates, steel rebar and rust layers to underline the effect of aggregates on damage initiation and corresponding crack pattern of concrete cover. (authors)

  19. Topology optimization of fail-safe structures using a simplified local damage model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Miche; Lombaert, Geert; Schevenels, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    Topology optimization of mechanical structures often leads to efficient designs which resemble statically determinate structures. These economical structures are especially vulnerable to local loss of stiffness due to material failure. This paper therefore addresses local failure of continuum...... structures in topology optimization in order to design fail-safe structures which remain operable in a damaged state.A simplified model for local failure in continuum structures is adopted in the robust approach. The complex phenomenon of local failure is modeled by removal of material stiffness in patches...... for minimum compliance and a compliant mechanism. The robust approach is applied successfully in the design of fail-safe alternatives for the structures in these examples....

  20. Analysis and Characterization of Damage Utilizing an Orthotropic Generalized Composite Material Model Suitable for Use in Impact Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.; DuBois, Paul; Hoffarth, Canio; Rajan, Subramaniam; Blankenhorn, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    The need for accurate material models to simulate the deformation, damage and failure of polymer matrix composites under impact conditions is becoming critical as these materials are gaining increased usage in the aerospace and automotive communities. In order to address a series of issues identified by the aerospace community as being desirable to include in a next generation composite impact model, an orthotropic, macroscopic constitutive model incorporating both plasticity and damage suitable for implementation within the commercial LS-DYNA computer code is being developed. The plasticity model is based on extending the Tsai-Wu composite failure model into a strain hardening-based orthotropic plasticity model with a non-associative flow rule. The evolution of the yield surface is determined based on tabulated stress-strain curves in the various normal and shear directions and is tracked using the effective plastic strain. To compute the evolution of damage, a strain equivalent semi-coupled formulation is used in which a load in one direction results in a stiffness reduction in multiple material coordinate directions. A detailed analysis is carried out to ensure that the strain equivalence assumption is appropriate for the derived plasticity and damage formulations that are employed in the current model. Procedures to develop the appropriate input curves for the damage model are presented and the process required to develop an appropriate characterization test matrix is discussed

  1. Quantification of seismic damage in steel beam-column connection using PVDF strain sensors and model-updating technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Akiko; Kurata, Masahiro; Li, Xiaohua; Minegishi, Kaede; Tang, Zhenyun; Burton, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental verification of a method of evaluating local damage in steel beam-column connections using modal vibratory characteristics under ambient vibrations. First, a unique testing method is proposed to provide a vibration-test environment which enables measurements of modal vibration characteristics of steel beamcolumn connection as damage proceeds. In the testing method, a specimen of structural component is installed in a resonance frame that supports large fictitious mass and the resonance frequency of the entire system is set as the natural frequency of a mid-rise steel building. The specimen is damaged quasi-statically, and resonance vibration tests are conducted with a modal shaker. The proposed method enables evaluation of realistic damage in structural components without constructing a large specimen of an entire structural system. The transition of the neutral axis and the reduction of the root mean square (RMS) of dynamic strain response are tracked in order to quantify damage in floor slabs and steel beams, respectively. Two specimens of steel beam-column connection with or without floor slab were tested to investigate sensitivity of the damage-related features to loss of floor composite action and fractures in steel beams. In the end, by updating numerical models of the specimens using the identified damage-related features, seismic capacities of damaged specimens were estimated.

  2. Flood Damage Analysis: First Floor Elevation Uncertainty Resulting from LiDAR-Derived Digital Surface Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Bodoque

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of high resolution ground-based light detection and ranging (LiDAR datasets provides spatial density and vertical precision for obtaining highly accurate Digital Surface Models (DSMs. As a result, the reliability of flood damage analysis has improved significantly, owing to the increased accuracy of hydrodynamic models. In addition, considerable error reduction has been achieved in the estimation of first floor elevation, which is a critical parameter for determining structural and content damages in buildings. However, as with any discrete measurement technique, LiDAR data contain object space ambiguities, especially in urban areas where the presence of buildings and the floodplain gives rise to a highly complex landscape that is largely corrected by using ancillary information based on the addition of breaklines to a triangulated irregular network (TIN. The present study provides a methodological approach for assessing uncertainty regarding first floor elevation. This is based on: (i generation an urban TIN from LiDAR data with a density of 0.5 points·m−2, complemented with the river bathymetry obtained from a field survey with a density of 0.3 points·m−2. The TIN was subsequently improved by adding breaklines and was finally transformed to a raster with a spatial resolution of 2 m; (ii implementation of a two-dimensional (2D hydrodynamic model based on the 500-year flood return period. The high resolution DSM obtained in the previous step, facilitated addressing the modelling, since it represented suitable urban features influencing hydraulics (e.g., streets and buildings; and (iii determination of first floor elevation uncertainty within the 500-year flood zone by performing Monte Carlo simulations based on geostatistics and 1997 control elevation points in order to assess error. Deviations in first floor elevation (average: 0.56 m and standard deviation: 0.33 m show that this parameter has to be neatly characterized in order

  3. Damage estimation of subterranean building constructions due to groundwater inundation – the GIS-based model approach GRUWAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schinke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and management of flood risk commonly focuses on surface water floods, because these types are often associated with high economic losses due to damage to buildings and settlements. The rising groundwater as a secondary effect of these floods induces additional damage, particularly in the basements of buildings. Mostly, these losses remain underestimated, because they are difficult to assess, especially for the entire building stock of flood-prone urban areas. For this purpose an appropriate methodology has been developed and lead to a groundwater damage simulation model named GRUWAD. The overall methodology combines various engineering and geoinformatic methods to calculate major damage processes by high groundwater levels. It considers a classification of buildings by building types, synthetic depth-damage functions for groundwater inundation as well as the results of a groundwater-flow model. The modular structure of this procedure can be adapted in the level of detail. Hence, the model allows damage calculations from the local to the regional scale. Among others it can be used to prepare risk maps, for ex-ante analysis of future risks, and to simulate the effects of mitigation measures. Therefore, the model is a multifarious tool for determining urban resilience with respect to high groundwater levels.

  4. Viscoelastic-damage interface model formulation with friction to simulate the delamination growth in mode II shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Mohammad Saeed; Hosseini-Toudeshky, Hossein

    2017-11-01

    In this paper a formulation of a viscoelastic-damage interface model with friction in mode-II is presented. The cohesive constitutive law contains elastic and damage regimes. It has been assumed that the shear stress in the elastic regime follows the viscoelastic properties of the matrix material. The three element Voigt model has been used for the formulation of relaxation modulus of the material. Damage evolution proceeds according to the bilinear cohesive constitutive law combined with friction stress consideration. Combination of damage and friction is based on the presumption that the damaged area, related to an integration point, can be dismembered into the un-cracked area with the cohesive damage and cracked area with friction. Samples of a one element model have been presented to see the effect of parameters on the cohesive constitutive law. A comparison between the predicted results with available results of end-notched flexure specimens in the literature is also presented to verify the model. Transverse crack tension specimens are also simulated for different applied displacement velocities.

  5. Study on quantitative risk assessment model of the third party damage for natural gas pipelines based on fuzzy comprehensive assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Zeyang; Liang, Wei; Lin, Yang; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Xue

    2017-01-01

    As an important part of national energy supply system, transmission pipelines for natural gas are possible to cause serious environmental pollution, life and property loss in case of accident. The third party damage is one of the most significant causes for natural gas pipeline system accidents, and it is very important to establish an effective quantitative risk assessment model of the third party damage for reducing the number of gas pipelines operation accidents. Against the third party damage accident has the characteristics such as diversity, complexity and uncertainty, this paper establishes a quantitative risk assessment model of the third party damage based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE). Firstly, risk sources of third party damage should be identified exactly, and the weight of factors could be determined via improved AHP, finally the importance of each factor is calculated by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model. The results show that the quantitative risk assessment model is suitable for the third party damage of natural gas pipelines and improvement measures could be put forward to avoid accidents based on the importance of each factor. (paper)

  6. Study of cumulative fatigue damage detection for used parts with nonlinear output frequency response functions based on NARMAX modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Honglan; Mao, Hanying; Mao, Hanling; Zheng, Weixue; Huang, Zhenfeng; Li, Xinxin; Wang, Xianghong

    2017-12-01

    Cumulative fatigue damage detection for used parts plays a key role in the process of remanufacturing engineering and is related to the service safety of the remanufactured parts. In light of the nonlinear properties of used parts caused by cumulative fatigue damage, the based nonlinear output frequency response functions detection approach offers a breakthrough to solve this key problem. First, a modified PSO-adaptive lasso algorithm is introduced to improve the accuracy of the NARMAX model under impulse hammer excitation, and then, an effective new algorithm is derived to estimate the nonlinear output frequency response functions under rectangular pulse excitation, and a based nonlinear output frequency response functions index is introduced to detect the cumulative fatigue damage in used parts. Then, a novel damage detection approach that integrates the NARMAX model and the rectangular pulse is proposed for nonlinear output frequency response functions identification and cumulative fatigue damage detection of used parts. Finally, experimental studies of fatigued plate specimens and used connecting rod parts are conducted to verify the validity of the novel approach. The obtained results reveal that the new approach can detect cumulative fatigue damages of used parts effectively and efficiently and that the various values of the based nonlinear output frequency response functions index can be used to detect the different fatigue damages or working time. Since the proposed new approach can extract nonlinear properties of systems by only a single excitation of the inspected system, it shows great promise for use in remanufacturing engineering applications.

  7. A geometry-based anisotropic gradient-enhanced damage model for modelling masonry failure

    OpenAIRE

    Vandoren, Bram; Simone, A.; Sluys, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    While masonry is known for its simple method of construction, its computational analysis poses many challenges. Since masonry consists of two distinct materials, i.e. mortar joints and clay bricks, the use of a suitable and efficient numerical model is essential in order to accurately model the orthotropic structural behaviour. Moreover, due to the quasi-brittle nature of both constituents, a numerical masonry model should incorporate a robust and objective description of strain localisation ...

  8. Finite element model updating and damage detection for bridges using vibration measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    In this report, the results of a study on developing a damage detection methodology based on Statistical Pattern Recognition are : presented. This methodology uses a new damage sensitive feature developed in this study that relies entirely on modal :...

  9. Development of a new damage function model for power plants: Methodology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, J.I.; Hammitt, J.K.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Spengler, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    Recent models have estimated the environmental impacts of power plants, but differences in assumptions and analytical methodologies have led to diverging findings. In this paper, the authors present a new damage function model that synthesizes previous efforts and refines components that have been associated with variations in impact estimates. Their model focuses on end-use emissions and quantified the direct human health impacts of criteria air pollutants. To compare their model to previous efforts and to evaluate potential policy applications, the authors assess the impacts of an oil and natural gas-fueled cogeneration power plant in Boston, MA. Impacts under baseline assumptions are estimated to be $0.007/kWh of electricity, $0.23/klb of steam, and $0.004/ton-h of chilled water (representing 2--9% of the market value of outputs). Impacts are largely related to ozone (48%) and particulate matter (42%). Addition of upstream emissions and nonpublic health impacts increases externalities by as much as 50%. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate the importance of plant siting, meteorological conditions, epidemiological assumptions, and the monetary value placed on premature mortality as well as the potential influence of global warming. Comparative analyses demonstrate that their model provides reasonable impact estimates and would therefore be applicable in a broad range of policy settings

  10. T Helper 17/Regulatory T Cell Balance and Experimental Models of Peritoneal Dialysis-Induced Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Liappas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrosis is a general complication in many diseases. It is the main complication during peritoneal dialysis (PD treatment, a therapy for renal failure disease. Local inflammation and mesothelial to mesenchymal transition (MMT are well known key phenomena in peritoneal damage during PD. New data suggest that, in the peritoneal cavity, inflammatory changes may be regulated at least in part by a delicate balance between T helper 17 and regulatory T cells. This paper briefly reviews the implication of the Th17/Treg-axis in fibrotic diseases. Moreover, it compares current evidences described in PD animal experimental models, indicating a loss of Th17/Treg balance (Th17 predominance leading to peritoneal damage during PD. In addition, considering the new clinical and animal experimental data, new therapeutic strategies to reduce the Th17 response and increase the regulatory T response are proposed. Thus, future goals should be to develop new clinical biomarkers to reverse this immune misbalance and reduce peritoneal fibrosis in PD.

  11. Nuclear aggregates of polyamines in a radiation-induced DNA damage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacomino, Giuseppe; Picariello, Gianluca; Stillitano, Ilaria; D'Agostino, Luciano

    2014-02-01

    Polyamines (PA) are believed to protect DNA minimizing the effect of radiation damage either by inducing DNA compaction and aggregation or acting as scavengers of free radicals. Using an in vitro pDNA double strand breakage assay based on gel electrophoretic mobility, we compared the protective capability of PA against γ-radiation with that of compounds generated by the supramolecular self-assembly of nuclear polyamines and phosphates, named Nuclear Aggregates of Polyamines (NAPs). Both unassembled PA and in vitro produced NAPs (ivNAPs) were ineffective in conferring pDNA protection at the sub-mM concentration. Single PA showed an appreciable protective effect only at high (mM) concentrations. However, concentrations of spermine (4+) within a critical range (0.481 mM) induced pDNA precipitation, an event that was not observed with NAPs-pDNA interaction. We conclude that the interaction of individual PA is ineffective to assure DNA protection, simultaneously preserving the flexibility and charge density of the double strand. Furthermore, data obtained by testing polyamine and ivNAPS with the current radiation-induced DNA damage model support the concept that PA-phosphate aggregates are the only forms through which PA interact with DNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Improving atomic displacement and replacement calculations with physically realistic damage models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, Kai; Zinkle, Steven J; Sand, Andrea E; Granberg, Fredric; Averback, Robert S; Stoller, Roger; Suzudo, Tomoaki; Malerba, Lorenzo; Banhart, Florian; Weber, William J; Willaime, Francois; Dudarev, Sergei L; Simeone, David

    2018-03-14

    Atomic collision processes are fundamental to numerous advanced materials technologies such as electron microscopy, semiconductor processing and nuclear power generation. Extensive experimental and computer simulation studies over the past several decades provide the physical basis for understanding the atomic-scale processes occurring during primary displacement events. The current international standard for quantifying this energetic particle damage, the Norgett-Robinson-Torrens displacements per atom (NRT-dpa) model, has nowadays several well-known limitations. In particular, the number of radiation defects produced in energetic cascades in metals is only ~1/3 the NRT-dpa prediction, while the number of atoms involved in atomic mixing is about a factor of 30 larger than the dpa value. Here we propose two new complementary displacement production estimators (athermal recombination corrected dpa, arc-dpa) and atomic mixing (replacements per atom, rpa) functions that extend the NRT-dpa by providing more physically realistic descriptions of primary defect creation in materials and may become additional standard measures for radiation damage quantification.

  13. Mechanical modeling of creep, swelling and damage under irradiation for polycrystalline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, S.; Mizuno, M.; Okamoto, T.

    1991-01-01

    A constitutive equation of creep, swelling and damage under irradiation for polycrystalline metals applicable to structural analyses in multiaxial state of stress is developed. After reviewing microscopic mechanisms of irradiation creep and swelling, the relevant theories proposed so far from the view point of metallurgical physics and their applicability are discussed first. Then a constitutive model is developed by assuming that creep under irradiation can be decomposed into irradiation-affected thermal creep and irradiation-induced creep. By taking account of the Stress-Induced Preferential Absorption (SIPA) mechanism, the irradiation-induced creep is represented by an isotropic tensor function of order one and zero with respect to stress, which is, at the same time, the function of neutron flux and neutron fluence. The volumetric part of the irradiation-induced creep is identified with swelling. The irradiation-affected thermal creep is described by modifying Kachanov-Rabotnov theory for stress-controlled creep and creep damage by incorporating the effect of irradiation. Finally irradiation creep and swelling of 20% cold-worked type 316 stainless steel at elevated temperature are predicted by the proposed constitutive equations, and the numerical results are compared with the corresponding experimental results. (orig.)

  14. Swept-sine noise-induced damage as a hearing loss model for preclinical assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena eSanz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mouse models are key tools for studying cochlear alterations in noise-induced hearing loss and for evaluating new therapies. Stimuli used to induce deafness in mice are usually white and octave band noises that include very low frequencies, considering the large mouse auditory range. We designed different sound stimuli, enriched in frequencies up to 20 kHz (violet noises to examine their impact on hearing thresholds and cochlear cytoarchitecture after short exposure. In addition, we developed a cytocochleogram to quantitatively assess the ensuing structural degeneration and its functional correlation. Finally, we used this mouse model and cochleogram procedure to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of transforming growth factor β1 inhibitors P17 and P144 on noise-induced hearing loss. CBA mice were exposed to violet swept-sine noise with different frequency ranges (2-20 or 9-13 kHz and levels (105 or 120 dB SPL for 30 minutes. Mice were evaluated by auditory brainstem response and otoacoustic emission tests prior to and 2, 14 and 28 days after noise exposure. Cochlear pathology was assessed with gross histology; hair cell number was estimated by a stereological counting method. Our results indicate that functional and morphological changes induced by violet swept-sine noise depend on the sound level and frequency composition. Partial hearing recovery followed the exposure to 105 dB SPL, whereas permanent cochlear damage resulted from the exposure to 120 dB SPL. Exposure to 9-13 kHz noise caused an auditory threshold shift in those frequencies that correlated with hair cell loss in the corresponding areas of the cochlea that were spotted on the cytocochleogram. In summary, we present mouse models of noise-induced hearing loss, which depending on the sound properties of the noise, cause different degrees of cochlear damage, and could therefore be used to study molecules which are potential players in hearing loss protection and repair.

  15. Comparison of Model Calculations of Biological Damage from Exposure to Heavy Ions with Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Wu, Honglu; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis

    The space environment consists of a varying field of radiation particles including high-energy ions, with spacecraft shielding material providing the major protection to astronauts from harmful exposure. Unlike low-LET g or X rays, the presence of shielding does not always reduce the radiation risks for energetic charged-particle exposure. Dose delivered by the charged particle increases sharply at the Bragg peak. However, the Bragg curve does not necessarily represent the biological damage along the particle path since biological effects are influenced by the track structures of both primary and secondary particles. Therefore, the ‘‘biological Bragg curve’’ is dependent on the energy and the type of the primary particle and may vary for different biological end points. Measurements of the induction of micronuclei (MN) have made across the Bragg curve in human fibroblasts exposed to energetic silicon and iron ions in vitro at two different energies, 300 MeV/nucleon and 1 GeV/nucleon. Although the data did not reveal an increased yield of MN at the location of the Bragg peak, the increased inhibition of cell progression, which is related to cell death, was found at the Bragg peak location. These results are compared to the calculations of biological damage using a stochastic Monte-Carlo track structure model, Galactic Cosmic Ray Event-based Risk Model (GERM) code (Cucinotta et al., 2011). The GERM code estimates the basic physical properties along the passage of heavy ions in tissue and shielding materials, by which the experimental set-up can be interpreted. The code can also be used to describe the biophysical events of interest in radiobiology, cancer therapy, and space exploration. The calculation has shown that the severely damaged cells at the Bragg peak are more likely to go through reproductive death, the so called “overkill”. F. A. Cucinotta, I. Plante, A. L. Ponomarev, and M. Y. Kim, Nuclear Interactions in Heavy Ion Transport and Event

  16. Atomistic modeling of nanowires, small-scale fatigue damage in cast magnesium, and materials for MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Martin L. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Talmage, Mellisa J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); McDowell, David L. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); West, Neil [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Gullett, Philip Michael [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Miller, David C. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Spark, Kevin [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Diao, Jiankuai [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Horstemeyer, Mark F. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Zimmerman, Jonathan A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gall, K. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Lightweight and miniaturized weapon systems are driving the use of new materials in design such as microscale materials and ultra low-density metallic materials. Reliable design of future weapon components and systems demands a thorough understanding of the deformation modes in these materials that comprise the components and a robust methodology to predict their performance during service or storage. Traditional continuum models of material deformation and failure are not easily extended to these new materials unless microstructural characteristics are included in the formulation. For example, in LIGA Ni and Al-Si thin films, the physical size is on the order of microns, a scale approaching key microstructural features. For a new potential structural material, cast Mg offers a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, but the microstructural heterogeneity at various scales requires a structure-property continuum model. Processes occurring at the nanoscale and microscale develop certain structures that drive material behavior. The objective of the work presented in this report was to understand material characteristics in relation to mechanical properties at the nanoscale and microscale in these promising new material systems. Research was conducted primarily at the University of Colorado at Boulder to employ tightly coupled experimentation and simulation to study damage at various material size scales under monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. Experimental characterization of nano/micro damage will be accomplished by novel techniques such as in-situ environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), 1 MeV transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). New simulations to support experimental efforts will include modified embedded atom method (MEAM) atomistic simulations at the nanoscale and single crystal micromechanical finite element simulations. This report summarizes the major research and development accomplishments for the LDRD project

  17. Modelling the benefits of flood emergency management measures in reducing damages: a case study on Sondrio, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Molinari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The European "Floods Directive" 2007/60/EU has produced an important shift from a traditional approach to flood risk management centred only on hazard analysis and forecast to a newer one which encompasses other aspects relevant to decision-making and which reflect recent research advances in both hydraulic engineering and social studies on disaster risk. This paper accordingly proposes a way of modelling the benefits of flood emergency management interventions calculating the possible damages by taking into account exposure, vulnerability, and expected damage reduction. The results of this model can be used to inform decisions and choices for the implementation of flood emergency management measures. A central role is played by expected damages, which are the direct and indirect consequence of the occurrence of floods in exposed and vulnerable urban systems. How damages should be defined and measured is a key question that this paper tries to address. The Floods Directive suggests that mitigation measures taken to reduce flood impact need to be evaluated also by means of a cost–benefit analysis. The paper presents a methodology for assessing the effectiveness of early warning for flash floods, considering its potential impact in reducing direct physical damage, and it assesses the general benefit in regard to other types of damages and losses compared with the emergency management costs. The methodology is applied to the case study area of the city of Sondrio in the northern Alpine region of Italy. A critical discussion follows the application. Its purpose is to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of available models for quantifying direct physical damage and of the general model proposed, given the current state of the art in damage and loss assessment.

  18. Oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines contribute to demyelination and axonal damage in a cerebellar culture model of neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Penta, Alessandra; Moreno, Beatriz; Reix, Stephanie; Fernandez-Diez, Begoña; Villanueva, Maite; Errea, Oihana; Escala, Nagore; Vandenbroeck, Koen; Comella, Joan X; Villoslada, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Demyelination and axonal damage are critical processes in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines elicited by inflammation mediates tissue damage. To monitor the demyelination and axonal injury associated with microglia activation we employed a model using cerebellar organotypic cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Microglia activated by LPS released pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα), and increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This activation was associated with demyelination and axonal damage in cerebellar cultures. Axonal damage, as revealed by the presence of non-phosphorylated neurofilaments, mitochondrial accumulation in axonal spheroids, and axonal transection, was associated with stronger iNOS expression and concomitant increases in ROS. Moreover, we analyzed the contribution of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in demyelination and axonal degeneration using the iNOS inhibitor ethyl pyruvate, a free-scavenger and xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol, as well as via blockage of pro-inflammatory cytokines using a Fc-TNFR1 construct. We found that blocking microglia activation with ethyl pyruvate or allopurinol significantly decreased axonal damage, and to a lesser extent, demyelination. Blocking TNFα significantly decreased demyelination but did not prevented axonal damage. Moreover, the most common therapy for MS, interferon-beta, was used as an example of an immunomodulator compound that can be tested in this model. In vitro, interferon-beta treatment decreased oxidative stress (iNOS and ROS levels) and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines after LPS stimulation, reducing axonal damage. The model of neuroinflammation using cerebellar culture stimulated with endotoxin mimicked myelin and axonal damage mediated by the combination of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines

  19. A simplified baseline prediction model for joint damage progression in rheumatoid arthritis: a step toward personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Punder, Yvonne M R; van Riel, Piet L C M; Fransen, Jaap

    2015-03-01

    To compare the performance of an extended model and a simplified prognostic model for joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) based on 3 baseline risk factors: anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP), erosions, and acute-phase reaction. Data were used from the Nijmegen early RA cohort. An extended model and a simplified baseline prediction model were developed to predict joint damage progression between 0 and 3 years. Joint damage progression was assessed using the Ratingen score. In the extended model, prediction factors were positivity for anti-CCP and/or rheumatoid factor, the level of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the quantity of erosions. The prediction score was calculated as the sum of the regression coefficients. In the simplified model, the prediction factors were dichotomized and the number of risk factors was counted. Performances of both models were compared using discrimination and calibration. The models were internally validated using bootstrapping. The extended model resulted in a prediction score between 0 and 5.6 with an area under the receiver-operation characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.77 (95% CI 0.72-0.81). The simplified model resulted in a prediction score between 0 and 3. This model had an area under the ROC curve of 0.75 (95% CI 0.70-0.80). In internal validation, the 2 models showed reasonably well the agreement between observed and predicted probabilities for joint damage progression (Hosmer-Lemeshow test p > 0.05 and calibration slope near 1.0). A simple prediction model for joint damage progression in early RA, by only counting the number of risk factors, has adequate performance. This facilitates the translation of the theoretical prognostic models to daily clinical practice.

  20. Flood Damage Modeling on the Basis of Urban Structure Mapping Using High-Resolution Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Gerl

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of flood damage is an important component for risk analyses, which are the basis for risk-oriented flood management, risk mapping, and financial appraisals. An automatic urban structure type mapping approach was applied on a land use/land cover classification generated from multispectral Ikonos data and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging data in order to provide spatially detailed information about the building stock of the case study area of Dresden, Germany. The multi-parameter damage models FLEMOps (Flood Loss Estimation Model for the private sector and regression-tree models have been adapted to the information derived from remote sensing data and were applied on the basis of the urban structure map. To evaluate this approach, which is suitable for risk analyses, as well as for post-disaster event analyses, an estimation of the flood losses caused by the Elbe flood in 2002 was undertaken. The urban structure mapping approach delivered a map with a good accuracy of 74% and on this basis modeled flood losses for the Elbe flood in 2002 in Dresden were in the same order of magnitude as official damage data. It has been shown that single-family houses suffered significantly higher damages than other urban structure types. Consequently, information on their specific location might significantly improve damage modeling, which indicates a high potential of remote sensing methods to further improve risk assessments.

  1. Recent Developments of the Local Effect Model (LEM) - Implications of clustered damage on cell transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsässer, Thilo

    Exposure to radiation of high-energy and highly charged ions (HZE) causes a major risk to human beings, since in long term space explorations about 10 protons per month and about one HZE particle per month hit each cell nucleus (1). Despite the larger number of light ions, the high ionisation power of HZE particles and its corresponding more complex damage represents a major hazard for astronauts. Therefore, in order to get a reasonable risk estimate, it is necessary to take into account the entire mixed radiation field. Frequently, neoplastic cell transformation serves as an indicator for the oncogenic potential of radiation exposure. It can be measured for a small number of ion and energy combinations. However, due to the complexity of the radiation field it is necessary to know the contribution to the radiation damage of each ion species for the entire range of energies. Therefore, a model is required which transfers the few experimental data to other particles with different LETs. We use the Local Effect Model (LEM) (2) with its cluster extension (3) to calculate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neoplastic transformation. It was originally developed in the framework of hadrontherapy and is applicable for a large range of ions and energies. The input parameters for the model include the linear-quadratic parameters for the induction of lethal events as well as for the induction of transformation events per surviving cell. Both processes of cell inactivation and neoplastic transformation per viable cell are combined to eventually yield the RBE for cell transformation. We show that the Local Effect Model is capable of predicting the RBE of neoplastic cell transformation for a broad range of ions and energies. The comparison of experimental data (4) with model calculations shows a reasonable agreement. We find that the cluster extension results in a better representation of the measured RBE values. With this model it should be possible to better

  2. Predicting neutron damage using TEM with in situ ion irradiation and computer modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Marquis A.; Li, Meimei; Xu, Donghua; Wirth, Brian D.

    2018-01-01

    We have constructed a computer model of irradiation defect production closely coordinated with TEM and in situ ion irradiation of Molybdenum at 80 °C over a range of dose, dose rate and foil thickness. We have reexamined our previous ion irradiation data to assign appropriate error and uncertainty based on more recent work. The spatially dependent cascade cluster dynamics model is updated with recent Molecular Dynamics results for cascades in Mo. After a careful assignment of both ion and neutron irradiation dose values in dpa, TEM data are compared for both ion and neutron irradiated Mo from the same source material. Using the computer model of defect formation and evolution based on the in situ ion irradiation of thin foils, the defect microstructure, consisting of densities and sizes of dislocation loops, is predicted for neutron irradiation of bulk material at 80 °C and compared with experiment. Reasonable agreement between model prediction and experimental data demonstrates a promising direction in understanding and predicting neutron damage using a closely coordinated program of in situ ion irradiation experiment and computer simulation.

  3. AFM assessment of the surface nano/microstructure on chemically damaged historical and model glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona, Noemi; Kowal, Andrzej; Rincon, Jesus-Maria; Villegas, Maria-Angeles

    2010-01-01

    Surface chemical damage on selected historical glasses from 13th to 19th centuries was evaluated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Nano- and microstructure, roughness and topography of ancient glass samples have been compared with those of model glasses prepared by conventional melting at the laboratory with similar compositions to those most frequently found in historical glass pieces. The results obtained allow discussing the chemical degradation mechanisms in terms of the acid and/or basic chemical attack carried out by the combination of gaseous pollutants and environmental humidity. Even though deep corrosion features escape to the observation order of magnitude of the AF microscope used, the AFM technique proves to be quite useful for the study and evaluation of the most common surface pathologies of historical glasses with different compositions once submitted to natural weathering.

  4. AFM assessment of the surface nano/microstructure on chemically damaged historical and model glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona, Noemi [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kowal, Andrzej [Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, PAN, ul. Niezapominajek 8, 30239 Cracow (Poland); Rincon, Jesus-Maria [Instituto Eduardo Torroja de Ciencias de la Construccion, CSIC, C. Serrano Galvache s/n, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Villegas, Maria-Angeles, E-mail: mariangeles.villegas@cchs.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Historia, Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, C. Albasanz, 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Surface chemical damage on selected historical glasses from 13th to 19th centuries was evaluated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Nano- and microstructure, roughness and topography of ancient glass samples have been compared with those of model glasses prepared by conventional melting at the laboratory with similar compositions to those most frequently found in historical glass pieces. The results obtained allow discussing the chemical degradation mechanisms in terms of the acid and/or basic chemical attack carried out by the combination of gaseous pollutants and environmental humidity. Even though deep corrosion features escape to the observation order of magnitude of the AF microscope used, the AFM technique proves to be quite useful for the study and evaluation of the most common surface pathologies of historical glasses with different compositions once submitted to natural weathering.

  5. A Damaged Constitutive Model for Rock under Dynamic and High Stress State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Long Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main research work of this paper focuses on the theoretical prediction of the constitutive relationship for rock, concrete, and other quasi-brittle materials under dynamic and complex stress state and the influence of dynamic mechanical behavior of rock on practical engineering problems was studied. A damaged elastoplastic model (DEPM is established for the investigation and prediction of static or dynamic mechanical behavior of rock material. The mechanical behavior (brittleness or plasticity and dynamic response (due to underground impact pressure and high-velocity impact of projectile of rock under high in situ stress were investigated via the DEPM combined with the explicit finite element method. This paper suggests the influence of the brittle or plastic mechanical behavior of rock material on deep underground rock engineering.

  6. Modeling and characterization of wavefront morphologies of laser induced damages on dielectric coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Liu, Zhichao; Luo, Jin; Pan, Feng; Wang, Jian; Xu, Qiao

    2017-11-01

    The specific morphologies of laser induced damages on dielectric coating can cause wavefront modulations and influence the downstream propagation properties of transmitted beam, which is so called wavefront morphologies. In this paper, the modeling and characterization of these wavefront morphologies are carried out. In theory, the modulation effects of different morphologies are discussed and their influence on downstream beam propagation properties are simulated based on diffraction integral. In experiment, a pump-and-probe system is developed to characterize different wavefront morphologies, and in correspondence, their geometric morphologies are characterized by microscopic instruments. The simulation and experiment match well with each other, and the geometric characterization explains the origins of wavefront properties of different morphologies.

  7. Study on Tensile Damage Constitutive Model for Multiscale Polypropylene Fiber Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninghui Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene fibers perform well in roughness enhancement and corrosion resistance. They can dissipate energy when cracks occur in concrete. Furthermore, they can improve the concrete tensile properties by synergistic work with it. To study the tensile properties of the multiscale polypropylene concrete, uniaxial tensile strength of 18 fiber reinforced and 3 plain concrete specimens was experimentally tested using the paste steel method. The test results indicate that both the strength and the peak strain can be substantially improved. Based on the results, a tensile damage constitutive model was proposed and implemented into FLAC3D for numerical experimentation. The numerical results are consistent with the experimental observations in general and some discrepancies are discussed.

  8. Modeling Radiation Damage Effects in 3D Pixel Digitization for the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Giugliarelli, Gilberto; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS experiment. They constitute the part of ATLAS closest to the interaction point and for this reason they will be exposed – over their lifetime – to a significant amount of radiation: prior to the HL-LHC, the innermost layers will receive a fluence of 10^15 neq/cm2 and their HL–LHC upgrades will have to cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This poster presents the details of a new digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the 3D Pixel sensors for the ATLAS Detector.

  9. Calpeptin Attenuated Inflammation, Cell Death, and Axonal Damage in Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, M. Kelly; Das, Arabinda; Samantaray, Supriti; Wallace, Gerald C.; Butler, Jonathan T.; Ray, Swapan K.; Banik, Naren L.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model for studying multiple sclerosis (MS). Calpain has been implicated in many inflammatory and neurodegenerative events that lead to disability in EAE and MS. Thus, treating EAE animals with calpain inhibitors may block these events and ameliorate disability. To test this hypothesis, acute EAE Lewis rats were treated dose-dependently with the calpain inhibitor calpeptin (50 – 250 µg/kg). Calpain activity, gliosis, loss of myelin, and axonal damage were attenuated by calpeptin therapy, leading to improved clinical scores. Neuronal and oligodendrocyte death were also decreased with down regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins, suggesting that decreases in cell death were due to decreases in the expression or activity of pro-apoptotic proteins. These results indicate that calpain inhibition may offer a novel therapeutic avenue for treating EAE and MS. PMID:20623621

  10. Modelling of Zircaloy-steam-oxidation under severe fuel damage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Neitzel, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Small break loss-of-coolant accidents and special transients in an LWR, in combination with loss of required safety systems, may lead to an uncovered core for an extended period of time. As a consequence, the cladding temperature could rise up to the melting point due to the decay heat, resulting in severely damaged fuel rods. During heat-up the claddings oxidize due to oxygen uptake from the steam atmosphere in the core. The modeling and assessment of the Zircaloy-steam oxidation under such conditions is important, mainly for two reasons: The oxidation of the cladding influences the temperature transients due to the exothermic heat of reaction; the amount of liquified fuel depends on the oxide layer thickness and the oxygen content of the remaining Zircaloy metal when the melting point is reached. (author)

  11. Determination of the numerical parameters of a continuous damage model for the structural analysis of clay brick masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Barbosa Mangueira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Models based on the continuous damage theory present good responses in representing the nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete structures with loss of strength and stiffness of the material. However, damage theory is rarely employed in the analysis of masonry structures and numerical simulations are currently performed mostly by Finite Element Method formulations. A computational program was designed to determine the numerical parameters of a damage model of the physical properties of masonry components, solid clay brick and mortar. The model was formulated based on the composition of tensile and compressive surface strengths in the plane stress state. The numerical parameters, the corresponding curves of the activation surfaces and the evolution of the surfaces are presented. The results were fed into the computational program based on the Boundary Element Method (BEM for the simulation of masonry walls, and two types of masonry were simulated. The results confirm the good performance of the model and the program based on the BEM.

  12. Biomechanics Analysis of Pressure Ulcer Using Damaged Interface Model between Bone and Muscle in the Human Buttock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, Samuel Susanto; Takano, Naoki; Tanabe, Yoshiyuki; Hatano, Asako; Nagasao, Tomohisa

    This paper aims at building up a computational procedure to study the bio-mechanism of pressure ulcer using the finite element method. Pressure ulcer is a disease that occurs in the human body after 2 hours of continuous external force. In the very early stage of pressure ulcer, it is found that the tissues inside the body are damaged, even though skin surface looks normal. This study assumes that tension and/or shear strain will cause damage to loose fibril tissue between the bone and muscle and that propagation of damaged area will lead to fatal stage. Analysis was performed using the finite element method by modeling the damaged fibril tissue as a cutout. By varying the loading directions and watching both tensile and shear strains, the risk of fibril tissue damage and propagation of the damaged area is discussed, which may give new insight for the careful nursing for patients, particularly after surgical treatment. It was found that the pressure ulcer could reoccur for a surgical flap treatment. The bone cut and surgical flap surgery is not perfect to prevent the bone-muscle interfacial damage.

  13. Material Induced Anisotropic Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad Sohail; Wisselink, H.H.; Meinders, Vincent T.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Hora, P.

    2012-01-01

    The anisotropy in damage can be driven by two different phenomena; anisotropic defor-mation state named Load Induced Anisotropic Damage (LIAD) and anisotropic (shape and/or distribution) second phase particles named Material Induced Anisotropic Damage (MIAD). Most anisotropic damage models are based

  14. DNA damage and repair in plants – from models to crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilissa eManova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The genomic integrity of every organism is constantly challenged by endogenous and exogenous DNA-damaging factors. Mutagenic agents cause reduced stability of plant genome and have a deleterious effect on development, and in the case of crop species lead to yield reduction. It is crucial for all organisms, including plants, to develop efficient mechanisms for maintenance of the genome integrity. DNA repair processes have been characterized in bacterial, fungal and mammalian model systems. The description of these processes in plants, in contrast, was initiated relatively recently and has been focused largely on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Consequently, our knowledge about DNA repair in plant genomes- particularly in the genomes of crops plants- is by far more limited. However, the relatively small size of the Arabidopsis genome, its rapid life cycle and availability of various transformation methods make this species an attractive model for the study of eukaryotic DNA repair mechanisms and mutagenesis. Moreover, abnormalities in DNA repair which proved to be lethal for animal models are tolerated in plant genomes, although sensitivity to DNA damaging agents is retained. Due to the high conservation of DNA repair processes and factors mediating them among eukaryotes, genes and proteins that have been identified in model species may serve to identify homologous sequences in other species, including crop plants, in which these mechanisms are poorly understood. Crop breeding programs have provided remarkable advances in food quality and yield over the last century. Although the human population is predicted to peak by 2050, further advances in yield will be required to feed this population. Breeding requires genetic diversity. The biological impact of any mutagenic agent used for the creation of genetic diversity depends on the chemical nature of the induced lesions and on the efficiency and accuracy of their repair. More recent targeted

  15. Modeling of the fracture behavior of spot welds using advanced micro-mechanical damage models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, Silke

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling of deformation and fracture behavior of resistance spot welded joints in DP600 steel sheets. Spot welding is still the most commonly used joining technique in automotive engineering. In overloading situations like crash joints are often the weakest link in a structure. For those reasons, crash simulations need reliable and applicable tools to predict the load bearing capacity of spot welded components. Two series of component tests with different spot weld diameters have shown that the diameter of the weld nugget is the main influencing factor affecting fracture mode (interfacial or pull-out fracture), load bearing capacity and energy absorption. In order to find a correlation between nugget diameter, load bearing capacity and fracture mode, the spot welds are simulated with detailed finite element models containing base metal, heat affected zone and weld metal in lap-shear loading conditions. The change in fracture mode from interfacial to pull-out or peel-out fracture with growing nugget diameter under lap-shear loading was successfully modeled using the Gologanu-Leblond model in combination with the fracture criteria of Thomason and Embury. A small nugget diameter is identified to be the main cause for interfacial fracture. In good agreement with experimental observations, the calculated pull-out fracture initiates in the base metal at the boundary to the heat affected zone.

  16. Modeling of the fracture behavior of spot welds using advanced micro-mechanical damage models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Silke

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents the modeling of deformation and fracture behavior of resistance spot welded joints in DP600 steel sheets. Spot welding is still the most commonly used joining technique in automotive engineering. In overloading situations like crash joints are often the weakest link in a structure. For those reasons, crash simulations need reliable and applicable tools to predict the load bearing capacity of spot welded components. Two series of component tests with different spot weld diameters have shown that the diameter of the weld nugget is the main influencing factor affecting fracture mode (interfacial or pull-out fracture), load bearing capacity and energy absorption. In order to find a correlation between nugget diameter, load bearing capacity and fracture mode, the spot welds are simulated with detailed finite element models containing base metal, heat affected zone and weld metal in lap-shear loading conditions. The change in fracture mode from interfacial to pull-out or peel-out fracture with growing nugget diameter under lap-shear loading was successfully modeled using the Gologanu-Leblond model in combination with the fracture criteria of Thomason and Embury. A small nugget diameter is identified to be the main cause for interfacial fracture. In good agreement with experimental observations, the calculated pull-out fracture initiates in the base metal at the boundary to the heat affected zone.

  17. Test validation of environmental barrier coating (EBC) durability and damage tolerance modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Najafi, Ali; Abdi, Frank; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Grady, Joseph E.

    2014-03-01

    Protection of Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) is rather an important element for the engine manufacturers and aerospace companies to help improve the durability of their hot engine components. The CMC's are typically porous materials which permits some desirable infiltration that lead to strength enhancements. However, they experience various durability issues such as degradation due to coating oxidation. These concerns are being addressed by introducing a high temperature protective system, Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC) that can operate at temperature applications1, 3 In this paper, linear elastic progressive failure analyses are performed to evaluate conditions that would cause crack initiation in the EBC. The analysis is to determine the overall failure sequence under tensile loading conditions on different layers of material including the EBC and CMC in an attempt to develop a life/failure model. A 3D finite element model of a dogbone specimen is constructed for the analyses. Damage initiation, propagation and final failure is captured using a progressive failure model considering tensile loading conditions at room temperature. It is expected that this study will establish a process for using a computational approach, validated at a specimen level, to predict reliably in the future component level performance without resorting to extensive testing.

  18. Damage-induced hydrolyses modelling of biodegradable polymers for tendons and ligaments repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, André C; Guedes, Rui M; Tita, Volnei

    2015-09-18

    The use of biodegradable synthetic grafts to repair injured ligaments may overcome the disadvantages of other solutions. Apart from biological compatibility, these devices shall also be functionally compatible and temporarily displayed, during the healing process, adequate mechanical support. Laxity of these devices is an important concern. This can cause failure since it may result in joint instability. Laxity results from a progressive accumulation of plastic strain during the cyclic loading. The functional compatibility of a biodegradable synthetic graft and, therefore, the global mechanical properties of the scaffold during degradation, can be optimised using computer-aiding and numerical tools. Therefore, in this work, the ability of numerical tools to predict the mechanical behaviour of the device during its degradation is discussed. Computational approaches based on elastoplastic and viscoplastic constitutive models are also presented. These models enable to simulate the plastic strain accumulation. These computational approaches, where the material model parameters depend on the hydrolytic degradation damage, are calibrated using experimental data measured from biodegradable suture fibres at different degradation steps. Due to durability requirements the selected materials are polydioxone (PDO) and polylactic acid and poly-caprolactone blend (PLA-PCL). Computational approaches investigated are able to predict well the experimental results for both materials, in full strain range until rupture and for different degradation steps. These approaches can be further used in more complex fibrous structures, to predict its global mechanical behaviour during degradation process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Brazilian red propolis attenuates hypertension and renal damage in 5/6 renal ablation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Teles

    Full Text Available The pathogenic role of inflammation and oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease (CKD is well known. Anti-inflammatories and antioxidant drugs has demonstrated significant renoprotection in experimental nephropathies. Moreover, the inclusion of natural antioxidants derived from food and herbal extracts (such as polyphenols, curcumin and lycopene as an adjuvant therapy for slowing CKD progression has been largely tested. Brazilian propolis is a honeybee product, whose anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects have been widely shown in models of sepsis, cancer, skin irritation and liver fibrosis. Furthermore, previous studies demonstrated that this compound promotes vasodilation and reduces hypertension. However, potential renoprotective effects of propolis in CKD have never been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a subtype of Brazilian propolis, the Red Propolis (RP, in the 5/6 renal ablation model (Nx. Adult male Wistar rats underwent Nx and were divided into untreated (Nx and RP-treated (Nx+RP groups, after 30 days of surgery; when rats already exhibited marked hypertension and proteinuria. Animals were observed for 90 days from the surgery day, when Nx+RP group showed significant reduction of hypertension, proteinuria, serum creatinine retention, glomerulosclerosis, renal macrophage infiltration and oxidative stress, compared to age-matched untreated Nx rats, which worsened progressively over time. In conclusion, RP treatment attenuated hypertension and structural renal damage in Nx model. Reduction of renal inflammation and oxidative stress could be a plausible mechanism to explain this renoprotection.

  20. The study of the carriers’ transport mechanism of GaAs/Ge solar cells based on irradiation damage model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanhui, Sheng [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Jianmin, Hu, E-mail: hujianmin@foxmail.com [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Jiahong, Qi [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Yueyuan, Wang, E-mail: yywang72@foxmail.com [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Yiyong, Wu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Jianwen, Xu [Shanghai Institute of Space Power Sources, Shanghai 200233 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Based on the irradiation damage model of solar cells, the irradiation damage mechanism of space solar cells from the aspect of the carriers’ transport is studied. The basic rules of electrical parameter degradation of GaAs/Ge solar cells under different energy proton and electron irradiation are obtained through the ground-accelerated equivalent simulation test for space-charged particles. The open-circuit voltage degradation curves of the solar cells are fitted nonlinearly by its mathematical model. The change laws of damage coefficient of majority carriers’ removal rate with the incident proton and electron energy are given. The damage coefficient of GaAs/Ge solar cells first increases and then decreases with increasing incident proton energy, and it reaches a maximum at 100 keV proton irradiation. In addition, the damage coefficient increases with increasing incident electron energy. The studies show that open-circuit voltage degradation is closely related to the removal effect of the majority carriers under charged particle irradiation. The results have important significance to reveal the irradiation damage mechanism of the space solar cells.

  1. Combined model of strain-induced phase transformation and orthotropic damage in ductile materials at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, Cedric

    2003-01-01

    Ductile materials (like stainless steel or copper) show at cryogenic temperatures three principal phenomena: serrated yielding (discontinuous in terms of dsigma/depsilon), plastic strain-induced phase transformations and evolution of ductile damage. The present paper deals exclusively with the two latter cases. Thus, it is assumed that the plastic flow is perfectly smooth. Both in the case of damage evolution and for the gamma-alpha prime phase transformation, the principal mechanism is related to the formation of plastic strain fields. In the constitutive modeling of both phenomena, a crucial role is played by the accumulated plastic strain, expressed by the Odqvist parameter p. Following the general trends, both in the literature concerning the phase transformation and the ductile damage, it is assumed that the rate of transformation and the rate of damage are proportional to the accumulated plastic strain rate. The gamma-alpha prime phase transformation converts the initially homogenous material to a two-p...

  2. Study on Creep Damage Model of 1Cr1Mo1/4V Steel for Turbine Rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Woo Sung; Song, Gee Wook; Kim, Bum Shin; Chang, Sung Ho; Fleury, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the dominant damage mechanisms in high-temperature steam turbine facilities such as rotor and casing are creep and fatigue damages. Even though coupling of creep and fatigue should be considered while predicting the life of turbine facilities, the remaining life of large steam turbine facilities is generally determined on the basis of creep damage because the turbines must generate stable base-load power and because they are operated at a high temperature and pressure for a long time. Almost every large steam turbine in Korea has been operated for more than 20 years and is made of steel containing various amounts of principal alloying elements nickel, chromium, molybdenum, and vanadium. In this study, creep damage model of 1Cr1Mo1/4V steel for turbine rotor is proposed and that can assess the high temperature creep life of large steam turbine facilities is proposed

  3. Modeling early physical and chemical events for DNA damage induced by photons and tritium beta particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moiseenko, V. [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Waker, A.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Prestwich, W.V. [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-02-01

    A method has been developed to model production of single-strand breaks (SSB) and double-strand breaks (DSB) in Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid (DNA) by ionizing radiations. Modeling is carried out by Monte Carlo means and includes consideration of direct energy depositions in DNA molecules, production of chemical species following water radiolysis, diffusion of chemical species, and their interactions with each other and DNA. Computer-generated electron tracks in liquid water are used to model energy deposition and to derive the initial localization of chemical species. Atomistic representation of the DNA with a first hydration shell is used to derive direct energy depositions in DNA molecules and the resulting consequences, and to derive coordinates of reactive sites for modeling of the chemical stage of radiation damage. Diffusion of chemical species is followed in time, and the reactions of species with each other and DNA are considered to occur in an encounter-controlled manner. Time of diffusion follow-up is restricted to 10{sup -12}- 10{sup -9} s, which yields a diffusion length of hydroxyl radicals comparable to that in the cellular environment. DNA SSB are assumed to result from any direct energy depositions in the sugar/phosphate moiety, ionizations in water molecules bound to sugar/phosphate and hydroxyl attacks on deoxyribose. DSB are assumed to result from two SSB on opposite strands separated by 10 or fewer base pairs. Photon radiations in the energy range 70 keV-1 MeV and tritium beta particles are considered. It is shown that for naked DNA in B-form (the configuration thought to be most biologically relevant) the effectiveness of tritium for SSB and DSB production is, within statistical uncertainties, comparable to photon radiation with energies in the range 70 keV-1 MeV, although a tendency for increased DSB production has been observed for 70 keV photons that represent orthovoltage X-rays and for tritium beta particles. It is predicted that hydroxyl

  4. Modeling early physical and chemical events for DNA damage induced by photons and tritium beta particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseenko, V.; Waker, A.J.; Prestwich, W.V.

    1998-02-01

    A method has been developed to model production of single-strand breaks (SSB) and double-strand breaks (DSB) in Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid (DNA) by ionizing radiations. Modeling is carried out by Monte Carlo means and includes consideration of direct energy depositions in DNA molecules, production of chemical species following water radiolysis, diffusion of chemical species, and their interactions with each other and DNA. Computer-generated electron tracks in liquid water are used to model energy deposition and to derive the initial localization of chemical species. Atomistic representation of the DNA with a first hydration shell is used to derive direct energy depositions in DNA molecules and the resulting consequences, and to derive coordinates of reactive sites for modeling of the chemical stage of radiation damage. Diffusion of chemical species is followed in time, and the reactions of species with each other and DNA are considered to occur in an encounter-controlled manner. Time of diffusion follow-up is restricted to 10 -12 - 10 -9 s, which yields a diffusion length of hydroxyl radicals comparable to that in the cellular environment. DNA SSB are assumed to result from any direct energy depositions in the sugar/phosphate moiety, ionizations in water molecules bound to sugar/phosphate and hydroxyl attacks on deoxyribose. DSB are assumed to result from two SSB on opposite strands separated by 10 or fewer base pairs. Photon radiations in the energy range 70 keV-1 MeV and tritium beta particles are considered. It is shown that for naked DNA in B-form (the configuration thought to be most biologically relevant) the effectiveness of tritium for SSB and DSB production is, within statistical uncertainties, comparable to photon radiation with energies in the range 70 keV-1 MeV, although a tendency for increased DSB production has been observed for 70 keV photons that represent orthovoltage X-rays and for tritium beta particles. It is predicted that hydroxyl radicals react

  5. Target model of nucleosome particle for track structure calculations and DNA damage modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michalik, Věslav; Běgusová, Marie

    1994-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (1994), s. 267-277 ISSN 0955-3002 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/93/2451; GA AV ČR(CZ) IA135102; GA AV ČR(CZ) IA50405 Keywords : DNA nucleosome * ionizing radiation * theoretical modeling Subject RIV: AQ - Safety, Health Protection, Human - Machine Impact factor: 2.761, year: 1994

  6. Flood damage in Italy: towards an assessment model of reconstruction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterlacchini, Simone; Zazzeri, Marco; Genovese, Elisabetta; Modica, Marco; Zoboli, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Recent decades in Italy have seen a very rapid expansion of urbanisation in terms of physical assets, while demographics have remained stable. Both the characteristics of Italian soil and anthropic development, along with repeated global climatic stress, have made the country vulnerable to floods, the intensity of which is increasingly alarming. The combination of these trends will contribute to large financial losses due to property damage in the absence of specific mitigation strategies. The present study focuses on the province of Sondrio in Northern Italy (area of about 3,200 km²), which is home to more than 180,000 inhabitants and the population is growing slightly. It is clearly a hot spot for flood exposure, as it is primarily a mountainous area where floods and flash floods hit frequently. The model we use for assessing potential flood damage determines risk scenarios by overlaying flood hazard maps and economic asset data. In Italy, hazard maps are provided by Regional Authorities through the Hydrogeological System Management Plan (PAI) based on EU Flood Directive guidelines. The PAI in the study area includes both the large plain and the secondary river system and considers three hazard scenarios of Low, Medium and High Frequency associated with return periods of 20, 200 and 500 years and related water levels. By an overlay of PAI maps and residential areas, visualized on a GIS, we determine which existing built-up areas are at risk for flood according to each scenario. Then we investigate the value of physical assets potentially affected by floods in terms of market values, using the database of the Italian Property Market Observatory (OMI), and in terms of reconstruction costs, by considering synthetic cost indexes of predominant building types (from census information) and PAI water height. This study illustrates a methodology to assess flood damage in urban settlements and aims to determine general guidelines that can be extended throughout Italy

  7. A Modified Fatigue Damage Model for High-Cycle Fatigue Life Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the assumption of quasibrittle failure under high-cycle fatigue for the metal material, the damage constitutive equation and the modified damage evolution equation are obtained with continuum damage mechanics. Then, finite element method (FEM is used to describe the failure process of metal material. The increment of specimen’s life and damage state can be researched using damage mechanics-FEM. Finally, the lifetime of the specimen is got at the given stress level. The damage mechanics-FEM is inserted into ABAQUS with subroutine USDFLD and the Python language is used to simulate the fatigue process of titanium alloy specimens. The simulation results have a good agreement with the testing results under constant amplitude loading, which proves the accuracy of the method.

  8. Numerical study of the EDZ by a thermo-hydro-mechanical damage model dedicated to unsaturated geo-materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arson, Chloe; Gatmiri, Behrouz

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The design of deep nuclear waste repositories requires the modelling of the effects of thermal loadings in the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ). The containers are to be stored in bentonite buffers surrounded by a geological massif. These two barriers are multi-phase porous media, in which coupled mechanical, capillary and thermal phenomena occur. The aim of this study is to develop a new damage model dedicated to non-isothermal unsaturated porous media, the 'THHMD' model. Contrary to almost all of the existing damage models dedicated to non dry media, it is formulated in independent stress state variables (net stress, suction and thermal stress). The damage variable is a second-order tensor, which gives a good approximation for the representation of anisotropic cracking in three dimensions. The behaviour laws stem from the combination of phenomenological and micromechanical principles. The total strain tensor is split into three components, each of which being conjugated to a stress state variable. The Helmholtz free energy is written as the sum of damaged elastic energies and residual-strain-potentials. The concept of effective stress, frequently used in Continuum Damaged Mechanics, is extended to the three stress state variables, by using the operator of Cordebois and Sidoroff. The damaged rigidities are computed by application of the Principle of Equivalent Elastic Energy (PEEE). The non-elastic strain components depend on the increment of damage, which is determined by an associative flow rule. Fracturing is also modelled in the transfer equations. The Representative Elementary Volume (REV) is assumed to be damaged by a microcrack network, among which liquid water and vapour flows are homogenized. A damaged intrinsic conductivity, which plays the role of an internal length parameter, is introduced. The influence of damage on air and heat flows is taken into account by means of porosity, which is also

  9. Long Mantle Mixing Times for the early Earth Inferred from Convection Models with Grain-Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, B. J.; Rizo, H.

    2015-12-01

    Mantle dynamics on the Hadean and Archean Earth, particularly whether plate tectonics was in operation or not, is hotly debated. One important constraint comes from evidence for long mantle mixing timescales in the early Earth based on observations of early-formed geochemical heterogeneities. Specifically, 142Nd anomalies recorded in 3.8 to 3.4 Ga rocks from southwest Greenland [e.g. 1] and 2.7 Ga rocks from the Superior Province (Canada) [2] indicate that chemically heterogeneous reservoirs, formed during the first ~ 10-100 million years of Earths' history, survived their remixing into the mantle for over 1 Gyr. Such a long mantle mixing time is difficult to explain with a traditional model of plate tectonics, where plate speeds increase significantly in the past due to a hotter mantle, thus prompting appeals to stagnant lid convection on the early Earth [e.g. 2]. However, a new model for generating plate tectonics from mantle convection based on grainsize reduction (called grain-damage) proposes that plate speeds may have decreased with increasing mantle temperature. Higher mantle temperatures lead to higher grain-growth rates that inhibit the formation of weak lithospheric shear zones. As a result, plate boundaries are more viscous and provide a stronger resistance to plate motions, and thus mantle-mixing times in the mobile lid regime may still be long even at Hadean or Archean mantle temperatures. We use new numerical models of convection with grain-damage to constrain mantle-mixing times for the early Earth with the effects of grainsize variation included. We find that mantle mixing times for mobile lid convection remain long as mantle temperature increases because of faster grain-growth rates in the mantle and lithosphere. Therefore the preservation of chemical heterogeneities for over 1 Gyr in the Hadean-Archean mantle is not inconsistent with the operation of mobile lid convection and subduction at this time. Early Earth subduction may still have differed

  10. Damage Detection of Structures Identified with Deterministic-Stochastic Models Using Seismic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chih Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A deterministic-stochastic subspace identification method is adopted and experimentally verified in this study to identify the equivalent single-input-multiple-output system parameters of the discrete-time state equation. The method of damage locating vector (DLV is then considered for damage detection. A series of shaking table tests using a five-storey steel frame has been conducted. Both single and multiple damage conditions at various locations have been considered. In the system identification analysis, either full or partial observation conditions have been taken into account. It has been shown that the damaged stories can be identified from global responses of the structure to earthquakes if sufficiently observed. In addition to detecting damage(s with respect to the intact structure, identification of new or extended damages of the as-damaged counterpart has also been studied. This study gives further insights into the scheme in terms of effectiveness, robustness, and limitation for damage localization of frame systems.

  11. Phase-field modelling of ductile fracture: a variational gradient-extended plasticity-damage theory and its micromorphic regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miehe, C; Teichtmeister, S; Aldakheel, F

    2016-04-28

    This work outlines a novel variational-based theory for the phase-field modelling of ductile fracture in elastic-plastic solids undergoing large strains. The phase-field approach regularizes sharp crack surfaces within a pure continuum setting by a specific gradient damage modelling. It is linked to a formulation of gradient plasticity at finite strains. The framework includes two independent length scales which regularize both the plastic response as well as the crack discontinuities. This ensures that the damage zones of ductile fracture are inside of plastic zones, and guarantees on the computational side a mesh objectivity in post-critical ranges. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Integrating hydrodynamic models and COSMO-SkyMed derived products for flood damage assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffra, Flavio; Boni, Giorgio; Pulvirenti, Luca; Pierdicca, Nazzareno; Rudari, Roberto; Fiorini, Mattia

    2015-04-01

    Floods are the most frequent weather disasters in the world and probably the most costly in terms of social and economic losses. They may have a strong impact on infrastructures and health because the range of possible damages includes casualties, loss of housing and destruction of crops. Presently, the most common approach for remotely sensing floods is the use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Key features of SAR data for inundation mapping are the synoptic view, the capability to operate even in cloudy conditions and during both day and night time and the sensitivity of the microwave radiation to water. The launch of a new generation of instruments, such as TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) allows producing near real time flood maps having a spatial resolution in the order of 1-5 m. Moreover, the present (CSK) and upcoming (Sentinel-1) constellations permit the acquisition of radar data characterized by a short revisit time (in the order of some hours for CSK), so that the production of frequent inundation maps can be envisaged. Nonetheless, gaps might be present in the SAR-derived flood maps because of the limited area imaged by SAR; moreover, the detection of floodwater may be complicated by the presence of very dense vegetation or urban settlements. Hence the need to complement SAR-derived flood maps with the outputs of physical models. Physical models allow delivering to end users very useful information for a complete flood damage assessment, such as data on water depths and flow directions, which cannot be directly derived from satellite remote sensing images. In addition, the flood extent predictions of hydraulic models can be compared to SAR-derived inundation maps to calibrate the models, or to fill the aforementioned gaps that can be present in the SAR-derived maps. Finally, physical models enable the construction of risk scenarios useful for emergency managers to take their decisions and for programming additional SAR acquisitions in order to

  13. Treatment with antioxidants ameliorates oxidative damage in a mouse model of propionic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Barahona, Ana; Alonso-Barroso, Esmeralda; Pérez, Belén; Murphy, Michael P; Richard, Eva; Desviat, Lourdes R

    2017-09-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of propionic acidemia (PA), a life threatening disease caused by the deficiency of propionyl CoA-carboxylase, in the catabolic pathway of branched-chain amino acids, odd-number chain fatty acids and cholesterol. Patients develop multisystemic complications including seizures, extrapyramidal symptoms, basal ganglia deterioration, pancreatitis and cardiomyopathy. The accumulation of toxic metabolites results in mitochondrial dysfunction, increased reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage, all of which have been documented in patients' samples and in a hypomorphic mouse model. Here we set out to investigate whether treatment with a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, MitoQ, or with the natural polyphenol resveratrol, which is reported to have antioxidant and mitochondrial activation properties, could ameliorate the altered redox status and its functional consequences in the PA mouse model. The results show that oral treatment with MitoQ or resveratrol decreases lipid peroxidation and the expression levels of DNA repair enzyme OGG1 in PA mouse liver, as well as inducing tissue-specific changes in the expression of antioxidant enzymes. Notably, treatment decreased the cardiac hypertrophy marker BNP that is found upregulated in the PA mouse heart. Overall, the results provide in vivo evidence to justify more in depth investigations of antioxidants as adjuvant therapy in PA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamic In Vivo Profiling of DNA Damage and Repair after Radiotherapy Using Canine Patients as a Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schulz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Time resolved data of DNA damage and repair after radiotherapy elucidates the relation between damage, repair, and cell survival. While well characterized in vitro, little is known about the time-course of DNA damage response in tumors sampled from individual patients. Kinetics of DNA damage after radiotherapy was assessed in eight dogs using repeated in vivo samples of tumor and co-irradiated normal tissue analyzed with comet assay and phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX immunohistochemistry. In vivo results were then compared (in silico with a dynamic mathematical model for DNA damage formation and repair. Maximum %DNA in tail was observed at 15–60 min after irradiation, with a rapid decrease. Time-courses of γH2AX-foci paralleled these findings with a small time delay and were not influenced by covariates. The evolutionary parameter search based on %DNA in tail revealed a good fit of the DNA repair model to in vivo data for pooled sarcoma time-courses, but fits for individual sarcoma time-courses suffer from the heterogeneous nature of the in vivo data. It was possible to follow dynamics of comet tail intensity and γH2AX-foci during a course of radiation using a minimally invasive approach. DNA repair can be quantitatively investigated as time-courses of individual patients by integrating this resulting data into a dynamic mathematical model.

  15. Effect of inclusion matrix model on temperature and thermal stress fields of K9-glass damaged by long-pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yunxiang; Wang, Bin; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2013-04-01

    A model containing an inclusion matrix heated by a millisecond laser is proposed to calculate temperature and thermal stress fields of K9-glass using a finite element method. First, the evolution of temperature and thermal stress fields is analyzed. Results show that both the upper and lower surfaces are damaged. K9-glass is primarily damaged by the combination of radial and axial stresses. Calculated damage morphology is mainly determined by radial stress. Then damage morphology evolution with the increase of the incident laser energy is investigated, which shows that damage area spreads inward from both the front and rear surfaces. Finally, experimental results of long-pulse laser damage of K9-glass are analyzed. The comparison of numerical results with experimental observations shows a good correlation in damage morphology, which indicates that the built inclusion matrix model is applicable to long-pulse laser damage in K9-glass.

  16. Late radiation damage in bone, bone marrow and brain vasculature, with particular emphasis upon fractionation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, Maunu.

    1986-04-01

    X-ray induced changes in rat and human bone and bone marrow vasculature and in rat brain vasculature were measured as a function of time after irradiation and absorbed dose. The absorbed dose in the organ varied from 5 to 25 Gy for single dose irradiations and from 19 to 58 Gy for fractionated irradiations.The number of fractions varied from 3 to 10 for the rats and from 12 to 25 for the human. Blood flow changes were measured using an ''1''2''5I antipyrine or ''8''6RbCl extraction technique. The red blood cell (RBC) volume was examined by ''5''1Cr labelled red cells. Different fractionation models have been compared. Radiation induced reduction of bone and bone marrow blood flow were both time and dose dependent. Reduced blood flow 3 months after irradiation would seem to be an important factor in the subsequent atrophy of bones. With a single dose of 10 Gy the bone marrow blood flow returned to the control level by 7 months after irradiation. In the irradiated bone the RBC volume was about same as that in the control side but in bone marrow the reduction was from 32 to 59%. The dose levels predicted by the nominal standard dose (NSD) formula produced about the same damage to the rat femur seven months after irradiation when the extraction of ''8''6Rb chloride and the dry weight were concerned as the end points. However, the results suggest that the NSB formula underestimates the late radiation damage in bone marrow when a small number of large fractions are used. In the irradiated brains of the rats the blood flow was on average 20.4% higher compared to that in the control group. There was no significant difference in brain blood flow between different fractionation schemes. The value of 0.42 for the exponent of N corresponds to the average value for central nervous system tolerance in the literature. The model used may be sufficiently accurate for clinical work provided the treatment schemes used do not depart too radically from standard practice

  17. Finite element implementation of a thermo-damage-viscoelastic constitutive model for hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene composite propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinsheng; Han, Long; Zheng, Jian; Chen, Xiong; Zhou, Changsheng

    2017-11-01

    A thermo-damage-viscoelastic model for hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) composite propellant with consideration for the effect of temperature was implemented in ABAQUS. The damage evolution law of the model has the same form as the crack growth equation for viscoelastic materials, and only a single damage variable S is considered. The HTPB propellant was considered as an isotropic material, and the deviatoric and volumetric strain-stress relations are decoupled and described by the bulk and shear relaxation moduli, respectively. The stress update equations were expressed by the principal stresses σ_{ii}R and the rotation tensor M, the Jacobian matrix in the global coordinate system J_{ijkl} was obtained according to the fourth-order tensor transformation rules. Two models having complex stress states were used to verify the accuracy of the constitutive model. The test results showed good agreement with the strain responses of characteristic points measured by a contactless optical deformation test system, which illustrates that the thermo-damage-viscoelastic model perform well at describing the mechanical properties of an HTPB propellant.

  18. Integrated metabolic spatial-temporal model for the prediction of ammonia detoxification during liver damage and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliess, Freimut; Hoehme, Stefan; Henkel, Sebastian G; Ghallab, Ahmed; Driesch, Dominik; Böttger, Jan; Guthke, Reinhard; Pfaff, Michael; Hengstler, Jan G; Gebhardt, Rolf; Häussinger, Dieter; Drasdo, Dirk; Zellmer, Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    The impairment of hepatic metabolism due to liver injury has high systemic relevance. However, it is difficult to calculate the impairment of metabolic capacity from a specific pattern of liver damage with conventional techniques. We established an integrated metabolic spatial-temporal model (IM) using hepatic ammonia detoxification as a paradigm. First, a metabolic model (MM) based on mass balancing and mouse liver perfusion data was established to describe ammonia detoxification and its zonation. Next, the MM was combined with a spatial-temporal model simulating liver tissue damage and regeneration after CCl4 intoxication. The resulting IM simulated and visualized whether, where, and to what extent liver damage compromised ammonia detoxification. It allowed us to enter the extent and spatial patterns of liver damage and then calculate the outflow concentrations of ammonia, glutamine, and urea in the hepatic vein. The model was validated through comparisons with (1) published data for isolated, perfused livers with and without CCl4 intoxication and (2) a set of in vivo experiments. Using the experimentally determined portal concentrations of ammonia, the model adequately predicted metabolite concentrations over time in the hepatic vein during toxin-induced liver damage and regeneration in rodents. Further simulations, especially in combination with a simplified model of blood circulation with three ammonia-detoxifying compartments, indicated a yet unidentified process of ammonia consumption during liver regeneration and revealed unexpected concomitant changes in amino acid metabolism in the liver and at extrahepatic sites. The IM of hepatic ammonia detoxification considerably improves our understanding of the metabolic impact of liver disease and highlights the importance of integrated modeling approaches on the way toward virtual organisms. © 2014 The Authors. Hepatology published by Wiley on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  19. Damage characteristics and constitutive modeling of the 2D C/SiC composite: Part II – Material model and numerical implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a macroscopic non-linear constitutive model accounting for damage, inelastic strain and unilateral behavior is proposed for the 2D plain-woven C/SiC composite. A set of scalar damage variables and a new thermodynamic potential expression are introduced in the framework of continuum damage mechanics. In the deduced constitutive equations, the material’s progressive damage deactivation behavior during the compression loading is described by a continuous function, and different deactivation rates under uniaxial and biaxial compression loadings are also considered. In damage evolution laws, the coupling effect among the damage modes and impediment effect of compression stress on the development of shear damage in different plane stress states are taken into account. Besides, the general plasticity theory is applied to describing the evolution of inelastic strain in tension and/or shear stress state. The Tsai–Wu failure criterion is adopted for strength analysis. Additionally, the material model is implemented as a user-defined material subroutine (UMAT and linked to the ABAQUS finite element software, and its performance is demonstrated through several numerical examples.

  20. Modeling of defect generation during plasma etching and its impact on electronic device performance—plasma-induced damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriguchi, Koji

    2017-08-01

    The increasing demand for the higher performance of ultra-large-scale integration (ULSI) circuits requires the aggressive shrinkage of device feature sizes in accordance with the scaling law. Plasma processing plays an important role in achieving fine patterns with anisotropic features in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). This article comprehensively addresses the negative aspects of plasma processing, i.e. plasma process-induced damage, in particular, the defect creation induced by ion bombardment in Si substrates during plasma etching. The ion bombardment damage forms a surface modified region and creates localized defect structures. Modeling and characterization techniques of the ion bombardment damage in Si substrates are overviewed. The thickness of the modified region, i.e. the damaged layer, is modeled by a modified range theory and the density of defects is characterized by photoreflectance spectroscopy (PRS) and the capacitance-voltage technique. The effects of plasma-induced damage (PID) on MOSFET performance are presented. In addition, some of the emerging topics—the enhanced parameter variability in ULSI circuits and recovery of the damage—are discussed as future perspectives.

  1. Preliminayr Study on Diffraction Enhanced Radiographic Imaging for a Canine Model of Cartilage Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehleman,C.; Li, J.; Zhong, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the ability of a novel radiographic technique, Diffraction Enhanced Radiographic Imaging (DEI), to render high contrast images of canine knee joints for identification of cartilage lesions in situ. Methods: DEI was carried out at the X-15A beamline at Brookhaven National Laboratory on intact canine knee joints with varying levels of cartilage damage. Two independent observers graded the DE images for lesions and these grades were correlated to the gross morphological grade. Results: The correlation of gross visual grades with DEI grades for the 18 canine knee joints as determined by observer 1 (r2=0.8856, P=0.001) and observer 2 (r2=0.8818, P=0.001) was high. The overall weighted ? value for inter-observer agreement was 0.93, thus considered high agreement. Conclusion: The present study is the first study for the efficacy of DEI for cartilage lesions in an animal joint, from very early signs through erosion down to subchondral bone, representing the spectrum of cartilage changes occurring in human osteoarthritis (OA). Here we show that DEI allows the visualization of cartilage lesions in intact canine knee joints with good accuracy. Hence, DEI may be applicable for following joint degeneration in animal models of OA.

  2. The role of pneumolysin in mediating lung damage in a lethal pneumococcal pneumonia murine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirofski Liise-Anne

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intranasal inoculation of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 serotype 2 causes fatal pneumonia in mice. The cytotoxic and inflammatory properties of pneumolysin (PLY have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pneumococcal pneumonia. Methods To examine the role of PLY in this experimental model we performed ELISA assays for PLY quantification. The distribution patterns of PLY and apoptosis were established by immunohistochemical detection of PLY, caspase-9 activity and TUNEL assay on tissue sections from mice lungs at various times, and the results were quantified with image analysis. Inflammatory and apoptotic cells were also quantified on lung tissue sections from antibody treated mice. Results In bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL, total PLY was found at sublytic concentrations which were located in alveolar macrophages and leukocytes. The bronchoalveolar epithelium was PLY-positive, while the vascular endothelium was not PLY reactive. The pattern and extension of cellular apoptosis was similar. Anti-PLY antibody treatment decreased the lung damage and the number of apoptotic and inflammatory cells in lung tissues. Conclusion The data strongly suggest that in vivo lung injury could be due to the pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory activity of PLY, rather than its cytotoxic activity. PLY at sublytic concentrations induces lethal inflammation in lung tissues and is involved in host cell apoptosis, whose effects are important to pathogen survival.

  3. Oxidative Damage Compromises Energy Metabolism in the Axonal Degeneration Mouse Model of X-Adrenoleukodystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galino, Jorge; Ruiz, Montserrat; Fourcade, Stéphane; Schlüter, Agatha; López-Erauskin, Jone; Guilera, Cristina; Jove, Mariona; Naudi, Alba; García-Arumí, Elena; Andreu, Antoni L.; Starkov, Anatoly A.; Pamplona, Reinald; Ferrer, Isidre; Portero-Otin, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims Chronic metabolic impairment and oxidative stress are associated with the pathogenesis of axonal dysfunction in a growing number of neurodegenerative conditions. To investigate the intertwining of both noxious factors, we have chosen the mouse model of adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), which exhibits axonal degeneration in spinal cords and motor disability. The disease is caused by loss of function of the ABCD1 transporter, involved in the import and degradation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in peroxisomes. Oxidative stress due to VLCFA excess appears early in the neurodegenerative cascade. Results In this study, we demonstrate by redox proteomics that oxidative damage to proteins specifically affects five key enzymes of glycolysis and TCA (Tricarboxylic acid) cycle in spinal cords of Abcd1− mice and pyruvate kinase in human X-ALD fibroblasts. We also show that NADH and ATP levels are significantly diminished in these samples, together with decrease of pyruvate kinase activities and GSH levels, and increase of NADPH. Innovation Treating Abcd1− mice with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and α-lipoic acid (LA) prevents protein oxidation; preserves NADH, NADPH, ATP, and GSH levels; and normalizes pyruvate kinase activity, which implies that oxidative stress provoked by VLCFA results in bioenergetic dysfunction, at a presymptomatic stage. Conclusion Our results provide mechanistic insight into the beneficial effects of antioxidants and enhance the rationale for translation into clinical trials for X-adrenoleukodystrophy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 2095–2107. PMID:21453200

  4. Protective role of hydrogen sulfide against noise-induced cochlear damage: a chronic intracochlear infusion model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A reduction in cochlear blood flow plays an essential role in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. The timely regulation of cochlear perfusion determines the progression and prognosis of NIHL. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S has attracted increasing interest as a vasodilator in cardiovascular systems. This study identified the role of H(2S in cochlear blood flow regulation and noise protection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The gene and protein expression of the H(2S synthetase cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE in the rat cochlea was examined using immunofluorescence and real-time PCR. Cochlear CSE mRNA levels varied according to the duration of noise exposure. A chronic intracochlear infusion model was built and artificial perilymph (AP, NaHS or DL-propargylglycine (PPG were locally administered. Local sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS significantly increased cochlear perfusion post-noise exposure. Cochlear morphological damage and hearing loss were alleviated in the NaHS group as measured by conventional auditory brainstem response (ABR, cochlear scanning electron microscope (SEM and outer hair cell (OHC count. The highest percentage of OHC loss occurred in the PPG group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that H(2S plays an important role in the regulation of cochlear blood flow and the protection against noise. Further studies may identify a new preventive and therapeutic perspective on NIHL and other blood supply-related inner ear diseases.

  5. Caffeine Prevents Blood Retinal Barrier Damage in a Model, In Vitro, of Diabetic Macular Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugeri, Grazia; D'Amico, Agata Grazia; Rasà, Daniela Maria; La Cognata, Valentina; Saccone, Salvatore; Federico, Concetta; Cavallaro, Sebastiano; D'Agata, Velia

    2017-08-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the major cause of vision loss in patients affected by diabetic retinopathy. Hyperglycemia and hypoxia represent the key elements in the progression of these pathologies, leading to breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Caffeine, a psychoactive substance largely consumed in the world, is a nonselective antagonist of adenosine receptors (AR) and it possesses a protective effect in various diseases, including eye pathologies. Here, we have investigated the effect of this substance on BRB integrity following exposure to hyperglycemic/hypoxic insult. Retinal pigmented epithelial cells, ARPE-19, have been grown on semi-permeable supports mimicking an experimental model, in vitro, of outer BRB. Caffeine treatment has reduced cell monolayer permeability after exposure to high glucose and desferoxamine as shown by TEER and FITC-dextran permeability assays. This effect is also mediated through the restoration of membrane's tight junction expression, ZO-1. Moreover, we have demonstrated that caffeine is able to prevent outer BRB damage by inhibiting apoptotic cell death induced by hyperglycemic/hypoxic insult since it downregulates the proapoptotic Bax and upregulates the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 genes. Although further studies are needed to better comprise the beneficial effect of caffeine, we can speculate that it might be used as an innovative drug for DME treatment. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2371-2379, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. VIP Family Members Prevent Outer Blood Retinal Barrier Damage in a Model of Diabetic Macular Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugeri, Grazia; D'Amico, Agata Grazia; Gagliano, Caterina; Saccone, Salvatore; Federico, Concetta; Cavallaro, Sebastiano; D'Agata, Velia

    2017-05-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME), characterized by an increase of thickness in the eye macular area, is due to breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Hypoxia plays a key role in the progression of this pathology by activating the hypoxia-inducible factors. In the last years, various studies have put their attention on the role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in retinal dysfunction. However, until now, no study has investigated their protective role against the harmful combined effect of both hyperglycemia and hypoxia on outer BRB. Therefore, in the present study, we have analyzed the role of these peptides on permeability, restoration of tight junctions expression and inhibition of hyperglycemia/hypoxia-induced apoptosis, in an experimental in vitro model of outer BRB. Our results have demonstrated that the peptides' treatment have restored the integrity of outer BRB induced by cell exposure to hyperglycemia/hypoxia. Their effect is mediated through the activation of phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mammalian mitogen activated protein kinase/Erk kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathways. In conclusion, our study further clarifies the mechanism through which PACAP and VIP perform the beneficial effect on retinal damage induced by hyperglycemic/hypoxic insult, responsible of DME progression. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1079-1085, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mulberry Fruit Extract Protects against Memory Impairment and Hippocampal Damage in Animal Model of Vascular Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewkaen, Pratchaya; Tong-un, Terdthai; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Kaewrueng, Wiroje; Wongcharoenwanakit, Sathaporn

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the preventive strategy of vascular dementia, one of the challenge problems of elderly, has received attention due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we aimed to determine the protective effect and possible mechanism of action of mulberry fruit extract on memory impairment and brain damage in animal model of vascular dementia. Male Wistar rats, weighing 300–350 g, were orally given mulberry extract at doses of 2, 10 and 50 mg/kg at a period of 7 days before and 21 days after the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO). It was found that rats subjected to mulberry fruits plus Rt.MCAO showed the enhanced memory, the increased densities of neuron, cholinergic neuron, Bcl-2-immunopositive neuron together with the decreased oxidative stress in hippocampus. Taken all data together, the cognitive enhancing effect of mulberry fruit extract observed in this study might be partly associated with the increased cholinergic function and its neuroprotective effect in turn occurs partly via the decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therefore, mulberry fruit is the potential natural cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredient. PMID:22952555

  8. Mulberry Fruit Extract Protects against Memory Impairment and Hippocampal Damage in Animal Model of Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratchaya Kaewkaen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the preventive strategy of vascular dementia, one of the challenge problems of elderly, has received attention due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we aimed to determine the protective effect and possible mechanism of action of mulberry fruit extract on memory impairment and brain damage in animal model of vascular dementia. Male Wistar rats, weighing 300–350 g, were orally given mulberry extract at doses of 2, 10 and 50 mg/kg at a period of 7 days before and 21 days after the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO. It was found that rats subjected to mulberry fruits plus Rt.MCAO showed the enhanced memory, the increased densities of neuron, cholinergic neuron, Bcl-2-immunopositive neuron together with the decreased oxidative stress in hippocampus. Taken all data together, the cognitive enhancing effect of mulberry fruit extract observed in this study might be partly associated with the increased cholinergic function and its neuroprotective effect in turn occurs partly via the decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therefore, mulberry fruit is the potential natural cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredient.

  9. Modelling single shot damage thresholds of multilayer optics for high-intensity short-wavelength radiation sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loch, R.A.; Sobierajski, R.; Louis, Eric; Bosgra, J.; Bosgra, J.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The single shot damage thresholds of multilayer optics for highintensity short-wavelength radiation sources are theoretically investigated, using a model developed on the basis of experimental data obtained at the FLASH and LCLS free electron lasers. We compare the radiation hardness of commonly

  10. A PVC-foam material model based on a thermodynamically elasto-plastic-damage framework exhibiting failure and crushing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A.W.J.

    2008-01-01

    A well known foam for naval sandwiches is PVC (polyvinyl chloride) foam. This foam exhibits elasto-damage behavior under tension and elasto-plastic behavior under compression. A proper material model is required for the prediction of the failure and post-failure behavior of these sandwiches during

  11. Characteristics of mechanical wellbore failure and damage: Insights of discrete element modelling and application to CO2 storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heege, J.H. ter; Orlic, B.; Hoedeman, G.C.

    2015-01-01

    Wellbore zonal isolation is particularly important for subsurface storage of CO2, where well integrity must be ensured for very long time spans. In this study, three dimensional discrete element models of wellbore systems have been used to simulate failure and damage of wellbore cement and

  12. How does a cadaver model work for testing ultrasound diagnostic capability for rheumatic-like tendon damage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janta, Iustina; Morán, Julio; Naredo, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    To establish whether a cadaver model can serve as an effective surrogate for the detection of tendon damage characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, we evaluated intraobserver and interobserver agreement in the grading of RA-like tendon tears shown by US, as well as the concordan...

  13. Modeling of beam-induced damage of the LHC tertiary collimators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Quaranta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern hadron machines with high beam intensity may suffer from material damage in the case of large beam losses and even beam-intercepting devices, such as collimators, can be harmed. A systematic method to evaluate thresholds of damage owing to the impact of high energy particles is therefore crucial for safe operation and for predicting possible limitations in the overall machine performance. For this, a three-step simulation approach is presented, based on tracking simulations followed by calculations of energy deposited in the impacted material and hydrodynamic simulations to predict the thermomechanical effect of the impact. This approach is applied to metallic collimators at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC, which in standard operation intercept halo protons, but risk to be damaged in the case of extraction kicker malfunction. In particular, tertiary collimators protect the aperture bottlenecks, their settings constrain the reach in β^{*} and hence the achievable luminosity at the LHC experiments. Our calculated damage levels provide a very important input on how close to the beam these collimators can be operated without risk of damage. The results of this approach have been used already to push further the performance of the present machine. The risk of damage is even higher in the upgraded high-luminosity LHC with higher beam intensity, for which we quantify existing margins before equipment damage for the proposed baseline settings.

  14. A damage model of Zr {alpha} under cyclic loading at 200 degree Celsius; Modelisation de l`endommagement du Zr {alpha} sous chargement cyclique a 200 deg C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, C.; Drubay, B. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie; Cailletaud, G. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 75 - Paris (France); Mottot, M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction des Technologies Avancees

    1994-12-31

    A damage model for anticipating zirconium {alpha} test-piece rupture under cyclic solicitations at 200 degree Celsius is presented. The article is divided into three parts : an experimental approach, the damage model presentation and the application of this model. (O.L.). 10 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Modelling of Lamb wave interaction with open and closed fatigue cracks for damage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B C; Staszewski, W J

    2010-01-01

    Lamb waves are the most widely used guided ultrasonic waves for structural damage detection. Lamb wave propagation in complex structures is very complicated due to multiple reflections and mode conversion at geometrical and material features. Numerical simulations can significantly ease wave propagation analysis for damage detection. The local interaction simulation approach is used for Lamb wave interaction with fatigues cracks in an aluminium plate. The results, investigated for various crack lengths, are validated experimentally. The study shows that Lamb wave amplitude and arrival time are different for fully open and closed fatigue cracks. As a result damage detection sensitivity could be affected.

  16. An over-nonlocal implicit gradient-enhanced damage-plastic model for trabecular bone under large compressive strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Hadi S; Horák, Martin; Zysset, Philippe K; Jirásek, Milan

    2015-11-01

    Investigation of trabecular bone strength and compaction is important for fracture risk prediction. At 1-2% compressive strain, trabecular bone undergoes strain softening, which may lead to numerical instabilities and mesh dependency in classical local damage-plastic models. The aim of this work is to improve our continuum damage-plastic model of bone by reducing the influence of finite element mesh size under large compression. This spurious numerical phenomenon may be circumvented by incorporating the nonlocal effect of cumulated plastic strain into the constitutive law. To this end, an over-nonlocal implicit gradient model of bone is developed and implemented into the finite element software ABAQUS using a user element subroutine. The ability of the model to detect the regions of bone failure is tested against experimental stepwise loading data of 16 human trabecular bone biopsies. The numerical outcomes of the nonlocal model revealed reduction of finite element mesh dependency compared with the local damage-plastic model. Furthermore, it helped reduce the computational costs of large-strain compression simulations. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed model is the first to predict the failure and densification of trabecular bone up to large compression independently of finite element mesh size. The current development enables the analysis of trabecular bone compaction as in osteoporotic fractures and implant migration, where large deformation of bone plays a key role. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Seismic ground motion modelling and damage earthquake scenarios: A bridge between seismologists and seismic engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Romanelli, F.; Vaccari. F.; . E-mails: Luis.Decanini@uniroma1.it; Fabrizio.Mollaioli@uniroma1.it)

    2002-07-01

    The input for the seismic risk analysis can be expressed with a description of 'roundshaking scenarios', or with probabilistic maps of perhaps relevant parameters. The probabilistic approach, unavoidably based upon rough assumptions and models (e.g. recurrence and attenuation laws), can be misleading, as it cannot take into account, with satisfactory accuracy, some of the most important aspects like rupture process, directivity and site effects. This is evidenced by the comparison of recent recordings with the values predicted by the probabilistic methods. We prefer a scenario-based, deterministic approach in view of the limited seismological data, of the local irregularity of the occurrence of strong earthquakes, and of the multiscale seismicity model, that is capable to reconcile two apparently conflicting ideas: the Characteristic Earthquake concept and the Self Organized Criticality paradigm. Where the numerical modeling is successfully compared with records, the synthetic seismograms permit the microzoning, based upon a set of possible scenario earthquakes. Where no recordings are available the synthetic signals can be used to estimate the ground motion without having to wait for a strong earthquake to occur (pre-disaster microzonation). In both cases the use of modeling is necessary since the so-called local site effects can be strongly dependent upon the properties of the seismic source and can be properly defined only by means of envelopes. The joint use of reliable synthetic signals and observations permits the computation of advanced hazard indicators (e.g. damaging potential) that take into account local soil properties. The envelope of synthetic elastic energy spectra reproduces the distribution of the energy demand in the most relevant frequency range for seismic engineering. The synthetic accelerograms can be fruitfully used for design and strengthening of structures, also when innovative techniques, like seismic isolation, are employed. For these

  18. DNA damage on nano- and micrometer scales impacts dicentric induction: computer modelling of ion microbeam experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Werner; Kundrat, Pavel; Schmitt, Elke

    2016-07-01

    quasi-homogenous irradiation with these particles [3]. PARTRAC calculations of initial DNA damage showed that the sub-micrometer beam focusing of the ions in these experiments affects neither DSB yields nor local DSB complexity, but considerably enhances the formation of DSB fragments of 10 - 1000 kbp size [4], corresponding to DSB pairs in about 100 - 500 nm distance. Thus, the substantial impact of ion focusing on dicentric induction points out that nanoscale DNA damage clustering can explain only partly the increased RBE of high LET radiation regarding dicentric induction. The measured trends for dicentric induction as a function of grid size (or particle number per spot) were largely reproduced by the calculated induction of total chromosomal aberrations, whereas the calculation of dicentrics yielded apparent discrepancies, such as an overestimation of the focusing effect for protons and of the yield for quasi-homogeneous lithium ions [3]. Since this incongruity was found to be rather robust against model parameter variations, a more basic review of the chromosomal aberration model with in-depth testing of several hypotheses on the origin of misrejoining events of DNA ends has been started considering the reported experimental findings. The results of ongoing parameter studies will be presented at the meeting. Acknowledgement. This work was supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Project 'LET-Verbund', Funding no. 02NUK031C). References [1] Schmid et al. 2012 Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 5889-5907 [2] Friedland et al. 2011 Mutat. Res. 711, 28-40 [3] Schmid et al. 2015 Mutat. Res. 793, 30-40 [4] Friedland et al. 2015 Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 166, 34-37

  19. Modeling of damage evaluation in thin composite plate loaded by pressure loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudinský M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of numerical analysis of elastic damage of thin laminated long fiber-reinforced composite plate consisting of unidirectional layers which is loaded by uniformly distributed pressure. The analysis has been performed by means of the finite element method (FEM. The numerical implementation uses layered plate finite elements based on the Kirchhoff plate theory. System of nonlinear equations has been solved by means of the Newton- Raphson procedure. Evolution of damage has been solved using the return-mapping algorithm based on the continuum damage mechanics (CDM. The analysis was performed using own program created in MATLAB. Problem of laminated fiber-reinforced composite plate fixed on edges for two different materials and three different laminate stacking sequences (LSS was simulated. Evolution of stresses vs. strains and also evolution of damage variables in critical points of the structure are shown.

  20. Anisotropic 3D delay-damage model to simulate concrete structures

    OpenAIRE

    Gatuingt , Fabrice; Desmorat , Rodrigue; Chambart , Marion; Combescure , Didier; Guilbaud , Daniel

    2008-01-01

    International audience; High dynamic loadings lead to material degradation and structural failure. This is even more the case for concrete structures where the parts initially in compression break in ten- sion due to waves propagation and reflection. The dissymmetry of the material behavior plays a major role in such cases, dissymmetry mainly due to damage induced anisotropy. Loading induced damage is most often anisotropic and one proposes here to take advantage of such a feature to build a ...

  1. Neutral beam and ICP etching of HKMG MOS capacitors: Observations and a plasma-induced damage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tai-Chen; Shih, Tzu-Lang; Su, Yin-Hsien; Lee, Wen-Hsi; Current, Michael Ira; Samukawa, Seiji

    2018-04-01

    In this study, TiN/HfO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors were etched by a neutral beam etching technique under two contrasting conditions. The configurations of neutral beam etching technique were specially designed to demonstrate a "damage-free" condition or to approximate "reactive-ion-etching-like" conditions to verify the effect of plasma-induced damage on electrical characteristics of MOS capacitors. The results show that by neutral beam etching (NBE), the interface state density (Dit) and the oxide trapped charge (Qot) were lower than routine plasma etching. Furthermore, the decrease in capacitor size does not lead to an increase in leakage current density, indicating less plasma induced side-wall damage. We present a plasma-induced gate stack damage model which we demonstrate by using these two different etching configurations. These results show that NBE is effective in preventing plasma-induced damage at the high-k/Si interface and on the high-k oxide sidewall and thus improve the electrical performance of the gate structure.

  2. Hypertensive Cardiovascular and Renal Disease and Target Organ Damage: Lessons from Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susic, Dinko; Frohlich, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    This brief review discusses some aspects of hypertensive damage to the kidneys and cardiovascular system. A comparison of renal and cardiac manifestations of hypertensive disease between results of clinical and experimental studies was made, with a major focus on the possible role of salt and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in inducing target organ damage. Thus, some degree of renal impairment is often present in patients with essential hypertension, varying from microalbuminuria to end-stage renal disease, whereas in rats with spontaneous hypertension only slight renal damage is seen in old rats with little evidence of renal failure. Since renal damage in hypertensive rats is induced when they are exposed to increased salt intake, we suggested that salt may also account for kidney injury in hypertensive patients. Similarly, cardiac damage is aggravated in hypertensive human beings and rats when given salt excess. We further presented evidence that the RAS may mediate adverse cardiac and renal effects of excessive salt intake. Finally, we also discussed some aspects of the cardiovascular physiology in the giraffe, the only mammal that in comparison with the human being has extremely high pressure at the level of the heart and kidneys but no target organ damage. PMID:22258536

  3. Atomic and Molecular Data Needs for Radiation Damage Modeling: Multiscale Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Surdutovich, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the multiscale approach towards understanding of the processes responsible for the radiation damage caused by energetic ions. This knowledge is very important, because it can be utilized in the ion-beam cancer therapy, which is one of the most advanced modern techniques to cure certain type of cancer. The central element of the multiscale approach is the theoretical evaluation and quantification of the DNA damage within cell environment. To achieve this goal one needs a significant amount of data on various atomic and molecular processes involved into the cascade of events starting with the ion entering and propagation in the biological medium and resulting in the DNA damage. The discussion of the follow up biological processes are beyond the scope of this brief overview. We consider different paths of the DNA damage and focus on the the illustration of the thermo-mechanical effects caused by the propagation of ions through the biological environment and in particular on the possibility of the creation of the shock waves in the vicinity of the ion tracks. We demonstrate that at the initial stages after ion's passage the shock wave is so strong that it can contribute to the DNA damage due to large pressure gradients developed at the distances of a few nanometers from the ionic tracks. This novel mechanism of the DNA damage provides an important contribution to the cumulative biodamage caused by low-energy secondary electrons, holes and free radicals.

  4. Atomic and Molecular Data Needs for Radiation Damage Modeling: Multiscale Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Surdutovich, Eugene; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2011-05-01

    We present a brief overview of the multiscale approach towards understanding of the processes responsible for the radiation damage caused by energetic ions. This knowledge is very important, because it can be utilized in the ion-beam cancer therapy, which is one of the most advanced modern techniques to cure certain type of cancer. The central element of the multiscale approach is the theoretical evaluation and quantification of the DNA damage within cell environment. To achieve this goal one needs a significant amount of data on various atomic and molecular processes involved into the cascade of events starting with the ion entering and propagation in the biological medium and resulting in the DNA damage. The discussion of the follow up biological processes are beyond the scope of this brief overview. We consider different paths of the DNA damage and focus on the the illustration of the thermo-mechanical effects caused by the propagation of ions through the biological environment and in particular on the possibility of the creation of the shock waves in the vicinity of the ion tracks. We demonstrate that at the initial stages after ion's passage the shock wave is so strong that it can contribute to the DNA damage due to large pressure gradients developed at the distances of a few nanometers from the ionic tracks. This novel mechanism of the DNA damage provides an important contribution to the cumulative biodamage caused by low-energy secondary electrons, holes and free radicals.

  5. Damage modelling: the current state and the latest progress on the development of creep damage constitutive equations for high Cr steels

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qiang; Lu, Zhongyu; Wang, Xue

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the fundamentals of the development of creep damage constitutive equations for high Cr steels including (1) a concise summary of the characteristics of creep deformation and creep damage evolution and their dependence on the stress level and the importance of cavitation for the final fracture; (2) a critical review of the state of art of creep damage equation for high Cr steels; (3) some discussion and comments on the various approaches; (4) consideration and suggestion for...

  6. Development of a novel, physiologically relevant cytotoxicity model: Application to the study of chemotherapeutic damage to mesenchymal stromal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Jennifer E., E-mail: Jennifer2.May@uwe.ac.uk; Morse, H. Ruth, E-mail: Ruth.Morse@uwe.ac.uk; Xu, Jinsheng, E-mail: Jinsheng.Xu@uwe.ac.uk; Donaldson, Craig, E-mail: Craig.Donaldson@uwe.ac.uk

    2012-09-15

    There is an increasing need for development of physiologically relevant in-vitro models for testing toxicity, however determining toxic effects of agents which undergo extensive hepatic metabolism can be particularly challenging. If a source of such metabolic enzymes is inadequate within a model system, toxicity from prodrugs may be grossly underestimated. Conversely, the vast majority of agents are detoxified by the liver, consequently toxicity from such agents may be overestimated. In this study we describe the development of a novel in-vitro model, which could be adapted for any toxicology setting. The model utilises HepG2 liver spheroids as a source of metabolic enzymes, which have been shown to more closely resemble human liver than traditional monolayer cultures. A co-culture model has been developed enabling the effect of any metabolised agent on another cell type to be assessed. This has been optimised to enable the study of damaging effects of chemotherapy on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), the supportive stem cells of the bone marrow. Several optimisation steps were undertaken, including determining optimal culture conditions, confirmation of hepatic P450 enzyme activity and ensuring physiologically relevant doses of chemotherapeutic agents were appropriate for use within the model. The developed model was subsequently validated using several chemotherapeutic agents, both prodrugs and active drugs, with resulting MSC damage closely resembling effects seen in patients following chemotherapy. Minimal modifications would enable this novel co-culture model to be utilised as a general toxicity model, contributing to the drive to reduce animal safety testing and enabling physiologically relevant in-vitro study. -- Highlights: ► An in vitro model was developed for study of drugs requiring hepatic metabolism ► HepG2 spheroids were utilised as a physiologically relevant source of liver enzymes ► The model was optimised to enable study of chemotherapeutic

  7. Development of a novel, physiologically relevant cytotoxicity model: Application to the study of chemotherapeutic damage to mesenchymal stromal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, Jennifer E.; Morse, H. Ruth; Xu, Jinsheng; Donaldson, Craig

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing need for development of physiologically relevant in-vitro models for testing toxicity, however determining toxic effects of agents which undergo extensive hepatic metabolism can be particularly challenging. If a source of such metabolic enzymes is inadequate within a model system, toxicity from prodrugs may be grossly underestimated. Conversely, the vast majority of agents are detoxified by the liver, consequently toxicity from such agents may be overestimated. In this study we describe the development of a novel in-vitro model, which could be adapted for any toxicology setting. The model utilises HepG2 liver spheroids as a source of metabolic enzymes, which have been shown to more closely resemble human liver than traditional monolayer cultures. A co-culture model has been developed enabling the effect of any metabolised agent on another cell type to be assessed. This has been optimised to enable the study of damaging effects of chemotherapy on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), the supportive stem cells of the bone marrow. Several optimisation steps were undertaken, including determining optimal culture conditions, confirmation of hepatic P450 enzyme activity and ensuring physiologically relevant doses of chemotherapeutic agents were appropriate for use within the model. The developed model was subsequently validated using several chemotherapeutic agents, both prodrugs and active drugs, with resulting MSC damage closely resembling effects seen in patients following chemotherapy. Minimal modifications would enable this novel co-culture model to be utilised as a general toxicity model, contributing to the drive to reduce animal safety testing and enabling physiologically relevant in-vitro study. -- Highlights: ► An in vitro model was developed for study of drugs requiring hepatic metabolism ► HepG2 spheroids were utilised as a physiologically relevant source of liver enzymes ► The model was optimised to enable study of chemotherapeutic

  8. Modeling of Damage, Permeability Changes and Pressure Responses during Excavation of the TSX Tunnel in Granitic Rock at URL, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Borgesson, Lennart; Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Hernelind, Jan; Jing, Lanru; Kobayashi, Akira; Nguyen, Son

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents numerical modeling of excavation-induced damage, permeability changes, and fluid-pressure responses during excavation of the TSX tunnel at the underground research laboratory (URL) in Canada. Four different numerical models were applied, using a wide range of approaches to model damage and permeability changes in the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) around the tunnel. Using in situ calibration of model parameters the modeling could reproduce observed spatial distribution of damage and permeability changes around the tunnel, as a combination of disturbance induced by stress redistribution around the tunnel and by the drill-and-blast operation. The modeling showed that stress-induced permeability increase above the tunnel is a result of micro and macrofracturing under high deviatoric (shear) stress, whereas permeability increases alongside the tunnel as a result of opening of existing microfractures under decreased mean stress. The remaining observed fracturing and permeability changes around the periphery of the tunnel were attributed to damage from the drill-and-blast operation. Moreover, a reasonably good agreement was achieved between simulated and observed excavation-induced pressure responses around the TSX tunnel for 1 year following its excavation. The simulations showed that these pressure responses are caused by poroelastic effects as a result of increasing or decreasing mean stress, with corresponding contraction or expansion of the pore volume. The simulation results for pressure evolution were consistent with previous studies, indicating that the observed pressure responses could be captured in a Biot model using a relatively low Biot-Willis coefficient, {alpha} {approx} 0.2, a porosity of n {approx} 0.007, and a relatively low permeability of k {approx} 2 x 10{sup -22} m{sup 2}, which is consistent with the very tight, unfractured granite at the site.

  9. Adipose stem cells differentiated chondrocytes regenerate damaged cartilage in rat model of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, Noreen; Raza, Fahad Ali; Bhatti, Fazal-Ur-Rehman; Tarar, Moazzam Nazir; Khan, Shaheen N; Riazuddin, Sheikh

    2016-05-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or autologous chondrocytes has been shown to repair damages to articular cartilage due to osteoarthritis (OA). However, survival of transplanted cells is considerably reduced in the osteoarthritic environment and it affects successful outcome of the transplantation of the cells. Differentiated chrondroytes derived from adipose stem cells have been proposed as an alternative source and our study investigated this possibility in rats. We investigated the regenerative potential of ADSCs and DCs in osteoarthritic environment in the repair of cartilage in rats. We found that ADSCs maintained fibroblast morphology in vitro and also expressed CD90 and CD29. Furthermore, ADSCs differentiated into chondrocytes, accompanied by increased level of proteoglycans and expression of chondrocytes specific genes, such as, Acan, and Col2a1. Histological examination of transplanted knee joints showed regeneration of cartilage tissue compared to control OA knee joints. Increase in gene expression for Acan, Col2a1 with concomitant decrease in the expression of Col1a1 suggested formation of hyaline like cartilage. A significant increase in differentiation index was observed in DCs and ADSCs transplanted knee joints (P = 0.0110 vs. P = 0.0429) when compared to that in OA control knee joints. Furthermore, transplanted DCs showed increased proliferation along with reduction in apoptosis as compared to untreated control. In conclusion, DCs showed better survival and regeneration potential as compared with ADSCs in rat model of OA and thus may serve a better option for regeneration of osteoarthritic cartilage. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  10. Iron-induced neuronal damage in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Yu, Zhibo; Zhang, Yang; Huang, Xueling; Hou, Jingming; Zhao, YanGang; Luo, Wei; Chen, Lin; Ou, Lan; Li, Haitao; Zhang, Jiqiang

    2016-08-25

    Previous studies have shown that iron redistribution and deposition in the brain occurs in some neurodegenerative diseases, and oxidative damage due to abnormal iron level is a primary cause of neuronal death. In the present study, we used the single prolonged stress (SPS) model to mimic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and examined whether iron was involved in the progression of PTSD. The anxiety-like behaviors of the SPS group were assessed by the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field tests, and iron levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Expression of glucocorticoid receptors and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and ferritin (Fn) was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry in selected brain areas; TfR1 and Fn mRNA expression were detected by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Ultrastructures of the hippocampus were observed under a transmission electron microscope. Our results showed that SPS exposure induced anxiety-like symptoms and increased the level of serum cortisol and the concentration of iron in key brain areas such as the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum. The stress induced region-specific changes in both protein and mRNA levels of TfR1 and Fn. Moreover, swelling mitochondria and cell apoptosis were observed in neurons in brain regions with iron accumulation. We concluded that SPS stress increased iron in some cognition-related brain regions and subsequently cause neuronal injury, indicating that the iron may function in the pathology of PTSD. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acutely damaged axons are remyelinated in multiple sclerosis and experimental models of demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Verena; van der Meer, Franziska; Wrzos, Claudia; Scheidt, Uta; Bahn, Erik; Stadelmann, Christine; Brück, Wolfgang; Junker, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    Remyelination is in the center of new therapies for the treatment of multiple sclerosis to resolve and improve disease symptoms and protect axons from further damage. Although remyelination is considered beneficial in the long term, it is not known, whether this is also the case early in lesion formation. Additionally, the precise timing of acute axonal damage and remyelination has not been assessed so far. To shed light onto the interrelation between axons and the myelin sheath during de- and remyelination, we employed cuprizone- and focal lysolecithin-induced demyelination and performed time course experiments assessing the evolution of early and late stage remyelination and axonal damage. We observed damaged axons with signs of remyelination after cuprizone diet cessation and lysolecithin injection. Similar observations were made in early multiple sclerosis lesions. To assess the correlation of remyelination and axonal damage in multiple sclerosis lesions, we took advantage of a cohort of patients with early and late stage remyelinated lesions and assessed the number of APP- and SMI32- positive damaged axons and the density of SMI31-positive and silver impregnated preserved axons. Early de- and remyelinating lesions did not differ with respect to axonal density and axonal damage, but we observed a lower axonal density in late stage demyelinated multiple sclerosis lesions than in remyelinated multiple sclerosis lesions. Our findings suggest that remyelination may not only be protective over a long period of time, but may play an important role in the immediate axonal recuperation after a demyelinating insult. © 2017 The Authors GLIA Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Parameter Calibration of GTN Damage Model and Formability Analysis of 22MnB5 in Hot Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Liang; Liu, Wenquan; Wang, Dantong; Hu, Ping

    2017-11-01

    Hot forming of high strength steel at elevated temperatures is an attractive technology to achieve the lightweight of vehicle body. The mechanical behavior of boron steel 22MnB5 strongly depends on the variation of temperature which makes the process design more difficult. In this paper, the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model is used to study the formability of 22MnB5 sheet at different temperatures. Firstly, the rheological behavior of 22MnB5 is analyzed through a series of hot tensile tests at a temperature range of 600-800 °C. Then, a detailed process to calibrate the damage parameters is given based on the response surface methodology and genetic algorithm method. The GTN model together with the damage parameters calibrated is then implemented to simulate the deformation and damage evolution of 22MnB5 in the process of high-temperature Nakazima test. The capability of the GTN model as a suitable tool to evaluate the sheet formability is confirmed by comparing experimental and calculated results. Finally, as a practical application, the forming limit diagram of 22MnB5 at 700 °C is constructed using the Nakazima simulation and Marciniak-Kuczynski (M-K) model, respectively. And the simulation integrated GTN model shows a higher reliability by comparing the predicted results of these two approaches with the experimental ones.

  13. Thermal tissue damage model analyzed for different whole-body SAR and scan durations for standard MR body coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murbach, Manuel; Neufeld, Esra; Capstick, Myles; Kainz, Wolfgang; Brunner, David O; Samaras, Theodoros; Pruessmann, Klaas P; Kuster, Niels

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the safety of radiofrequency induced local thermal hotspots within a 1.5T body coil by assessing the transient local peak temperatures as a function of exposure level and local thermoregulation in four anatomical human models in different Z-positions. To quantize the effective thermal stress of the tissues, the thermal dose model cumulative equivalent minutes at 43°C was employed, allowing the prediction of thermal tissue damage risk and the identification of potentially hazardous MR scan-scenarios. The numerical results were validated by B1 (+) - and skin temperature measurements. At continuous 4 W/kg whole-body exposure, peak tissue temperatures of up to 42.8°C were computed for the thermoregulated model (60°C in nonregulated case). When applying cumulative equivalent minutes at 43°C damage thresholds of 15 min (muscle, skin, fat, and bone) and 2 min (other), possible tissue damage cannot be excluded after 25 min for the thermoregulated model (4 min in nonregulated). The results are found to be consistent with the history of safe use in MR scanning, but not with current safety guidelines. For future safety concepts, we suggest to use thermal dose models instead of temperatures or SAR. Special safety concerns for patients with impaired thermoregulation (e.g., the elderly, diabetics) should be addressed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Modeling of response, socioeconomic, and natural resource damage costs for hypothetical oil spill scenarios in San Francisco Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, D.S.; French McCay, D.; Whittier, N.; Sankaranarayanan, S.; Jennings, J.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of oil type, spill size, response strategy and location factors on oil spill response costs, with particular reference to the cost benefits of the use of dispersants. Modeling has been conducted for a hypothetical oil spill in San Francisco Bay to determine biological impacts, damages to natural resources and response costs. The SIMAP modeling software by the Applied Science Associates was used to model 3 spill sizes (20, 50 and 95 percentile by volume) and 4 types of oil (gasoline, diesel, heavy fuel oil, and crude oil). Response costs, natural resource damages and socioeconomic impact were determined based on spill trajectory and fate. Mechanical recovery-based operations carry higher response costs than dispersant-based operations. Response costs for diesel and gasoline spills make up 20 per cent of the total costs, compared to 43 per cent for crude and heavy fuel oil spills. Damages to natural resources are higher for spills of toxic lighter fuels such as gasoline and diesel because gasoline has a greater impact on the water column with less shoreline oiling, resulting in more damages to natural resources. Heavier oils have a greater impact on shorelines and higher response and socioeconomic costs. Although socioeconomic costs varied by location, they tend to be greater than response costs and natural resource damage costs. Proportions of the different costs were described with reference to various spill factors. Socioeconomic costs are 61, 76, 45 and 53 per cent respectively for gasoline, diesel, crude oil, and heavy fuel oil spills. 27 refs., 23 tabs., 5 figs

  15. Experimental and numerical investigations of the failure behaviour of 15NiCuMoNb5 pipes by usage of fracture and damage mechanics concepts. Pt. 2. Modellization of failure by damage models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingbeil, D.; Kiyak, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The 4-point bending tests carried out with pipes made of 15NiCuMoNb5 with outer 90 circumferential flaw were simulated using the FE method and a damage model for including the process of ductile crack growth. It could be shown that the input data for geometry of the pipes and bearings must be very exact, so as to enable correct description and consideration of the measured forces and displacements in the numerical analysis. (orig./CB) [de

  16. Vibration-Based Damage Diagnosis in a Laboratory Cable-Stayed Bridge Model via an RCP-ARX Model Based Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelides, P G; Apostolellis, P G; Fassois, S D

    2011-01-01

    Vibration-based damage detection and identification in a laboratory cable-stayed bridge model is addressed under inherent, environmental, and experimental uncertainties. The problem is challenging as conventional stochastic methods face difficulties due to uncertainty underestimation. A novel method is formulated based on identified Random Coefficient Pooled ARX (RCP-ARX) representations of the dynamics and statistical hypothesis testing. The method benefits from the ability of RCP models in properly capturing uncertainty. Its effectiveness is demonstrated via a high number of experiments under a variety of damage scenarios.

  17. Vibration-Based Damage Diagnosis in a Laboratory Cable-Stayed Bridge Model via an RCP-ARX Model Based Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, P. G.; Apostolellis, P. G.; Fassois, S. D.

    2011-07-01

    Vibration-based damage detection and identification in a laboratory cable-stayed bridge model is addressed under inherent, environmental, and experimental uncertainties. The problem is challenging as conventional stochastic methods face difficulties due to uncertainty underestimation. A novel method is formulated based on identified Random Coefficient Pooled ARX (RCP-ARX) representations of the dynamics and statistical hypothesis testing. The method benefits from the ability of RCP models in properly capturing uncertainty. Its effectiveness is demonstrated via a high number of experiments under a variety of damage scenarios.

  18. Vibration-Based Damage Diagnosis in a Laboratory Cable-Stayed Bridge Model via an RCP-ARX Model Based Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelides, P G; Apostolellis, P G; Fassois, S D, E-mail: mixail@mech.upatras.gr, E-mail: fassois@mech.upatras.gr [Laboratory for Stochastic Mechanical Systems and Automation (SMSA), Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Patras, GR 265 00 Patras (Greece)

    2011-07-19

    Vibration-based damage detection and identification in a laboratory cable-stayed bridge model is addressed under inherent, environmental, and experimental uncertainties. The problem is challenging as conventional stochastic methods face difficulties due to uncertainty underestimation. A novel method is formulated based on identified Random Coefficient Pooled ARX (RCP-ARX) representations of the dynamics and statistical hypothesis testing. The method benefits from the ability of RCP models in properly capturing uncertainty. Its effectiveness is demonstrated via a high number of experiments under a variety of damage scenarios.

  19. A discrete element model for damage and fracture of geomaterials under fatigue loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaofeng; Koval, Georg; Chazallon, Cyrille

    2017-06-01

    Failure processes in geomaterials (concrete, asphalt concrete, masonry, etc.) under fatigue loading (repeated moving loads, cycles of temperature, etc.) are responsible for most of the dysfunctions in pavements, brick structures, etc. In the beginning of the lifetime of a structure, the material presents only inner defects (micro cracks, voids, etc.). Due to the effect of the cyclic loading, these small defects tend to grow in size and quantity which damage the material, reducing its stiffness. With a relatively high number of cycles, these growing micro cracks become large cracks, which characterizes the fracture behavior. From a theoretical point of view, both mechanisms are treated differently. Fracture is usually described locally, with the propagation of cracks defined by the energy release rate at the crack tip; damage is usually associated to non-local approaches. In the present work, damage and fracture mechanics are combined in a local discrete element approach.

  20. Amifostine does not protect thyroid cancer cells in DNA damaging in vitro models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Klubo-Gwiezdzinska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amifostine is a potent scavenger of reactive oxygen species that is used for the salivary gland protection during therapy with radioactive iodine for thyroid cancer. There are no data on the potential effect of amifostine on thyroid cancer cells. Methods: We investigated the effects of the active form of amifostine (WR-1065 on the response of thyroid cancer cells to treatment with DNA-damaging agents. WR-1065 was examined in human thyroid cancer cell lines (FTC133, TPC1, BCPAP and C643 and embryonic fibroblast cells NIH3T3. DNA damage was induced by exposure to H2O2 (0.1 mM, by treatment with the radiomimetic neocarzinostatin (NCS 250 ng/mL and by γ-radiation (6 Gy. DNA damage, cell viability and apoptosis were examined. Results: We demonstrated the selective action of WR-1065 (0.1 mM, which prevented oxidative stress–induced DNA damage in fibroblasts, but did not protect thyroid cancer cells from DNA damage and apoptosis documented by caspase-3 and PARP cleavage after exposure to H2O2, NCS and γ-radiation. Prolonged exposure to WR-1065 (0.1 mM for 24 h was toxic for thyroid cancer cells; this treatment decreased the number of viable cells by 8% in C643 cells, 47% in TPC cells, 92% in BCPAP cells and 82% in FTC 133 cells. The cytotoxic effects of WR-1065 were not associated with induction of apoptosis. Conclusions: Our data show that amifostine has no protective effect on thyroid cancer cells against DNA-damaging agents in vitro and suggest that amifostine will not attenuate the efficacy of radioiodine treatment in patients with thyroid cancer.

  1. Modeling Reservoir Formation Damage due to Water Injection for Oil Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao

    2010-01-01

    The elliptic equation for non-Fickian transport of suspension in porous media is applied to simulate the reservoir formation damage due to water injection for oil recovery. The deposition release (erosion of reservoir formation) and the suspension deposition (pore plugging) are both taken...... into account. 1-D numerical simulations are carried out to reveal the erosion of reservoir formation due to water injection. 2-D numerical simulations are carried out to obtain the suspension and deposition profiles around the injection wells. These preliminary results indicate the non-Fickian behaviors...... of suspended reservoir fines and the corresponding formation damage due to erosion and relocation of reservoir fines....

  2. A Computational Model of Hepatic Energy Metabolism: Understanding Zonated Damage and Steatosis in NAFLD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Ashworth

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, lipid build-up and the resulting damage is known to occur more severely in pericentral cells. Due to the complexity of studying individual regions of the sinusoid, the causes of this zone specificity and its implications on treatment are largely ignored. In this study, a computational model of liver glucose and lipid metabolism is presented which treats the sinusoid as the repeating unit of the liver rather than the single hepatocyte. This allows for inclusion of zonated enzyme expression by splitting the sinusoid into periportal to pericentral compartments. By simulating insulin resistance (IR and high intake diets leading to the development of steatosis in the model, we identify key differences between periportal and pericentral cells accounting for higher susceptibility to pericentral steatosis. Secondly, variation between individuals is seen in both susceptibility to steatosis and in its development across the sinusoid. Around 25% of obese individuals do not show excess liver fat, whilst 16% of lean individuals develop NAFLD. Furthermore, whilst pericentral cells tend to show higher lipid levels, variation is seen in the predominant location of steatosis from pericentral to pan-sinusoidal or azonal. Sensitivity analysis was used to identify the processes which have the largest effect on both total hepatic triglyceride levels and on the sinusoidal location of steatosis. As is seen in vivo, steatosis occurs when simulating IR in the model, predominantly due to increased uptake, along with an increase in de novo lipogenesis. Additionally, concentrations of glucose intermediates including glycerol-3-phosphate increased when simulating IR due to inhibited glycogen synthesis. Several differences between zones contributed to a higher susceptibility to steatosis in pericentral cells in the model simulations. Firstly, the periportal zonation of both glycogen synthase and the oxidative phosphorylation

  3. A Computational Model of Hepatic Energy Metabolism: Understanding Zonated Damage and Steatosis in NAFLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, William B.; Bogle, I. David L.

    2016-01-01

    In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), lipid build-up and the resulting damage is known to occur more severely in pericentral cells. Due to the complexity of studying individual regions of the sinusoid, the causes of this zone specificity and its implications on treatment are largely ignored. In this study, a computational model of liver glucose and lipid metabolism is presented which treats the sinusoid as the repeating unit of the liver rather than the single hepatocyte. This allows for inclusion of zonated enzyme expression by splitting the sinusoid into periportal to pericentral compartments. By simulating insulin resistance (IR) and high intake diets leading to the development of steatosis in the model, we identify key differences between periportal and pericentral cells accounting for higher susceptibility to pericentral steatosis. Secondly, variation between individuals is seen in both susceptibility to steatosis and in its development across the sinusoid. Around 25% of obese individuals do not show excess liver fat, whilst 16% of lean individuals develop NAFLD. Furthermore, whilst pericentral cells tend to show higher lipid levels, variation is seen in the predominant location of steatosis from pericentral to pan-sinusoidal or azonal. Sensitivity analysis was used to identify the processes which have the largest effect on both total hepatic triglyceride levels and on the sinusoidal location of steatosis. As is seen in vivo, steatosis occurs when simulating IR in the model, predominantly due to increased uptake, along with an increase in de novo lipogenesis. Additionally, concentrations of glucose intermediates including glycerol-3-phosphate increased when simulating IR due to inhibited glycogen synthesis. Several differences between zones contributed to a higher susceptibility to steatosis in pericentral cells in the model simulations. Firstly, the periportal zonation of both glycogen synthase and the oxidative phosphorylation enzymes meant that the

  4. In situ quantification of endothelial cell damage caused by iodinated contrast media using a rat vena cava model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Natsuko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of vascular endothelial cell damage induced by iodinated contrast media using an in situ perfused rat vena cava model. Materials and methods: The institutional review board approved this study protocol prior to the commencement of all studies. A laparotomy was performed in 90 rats divided into 18 groups of five, and an 18G-catheter was inserted into the abdominal vena cava (mean length: ca 8 mm). After sacrificing, a thoracotomy was done and the outflow perfusate was emitted via a polyethylene tube inserted into the thoracic vena cava through the right atrium for an open system. Iopamidol (300 or 370 mg I/mL, 50 or 100 mL) was injected via the abdominal vena cava at a rate of 1, 4, or 8 mL/s. The abdominal vena cava was removed for histological analysis (n = 5). Physiological saline was injected as a negative control. The detachment percentage of endothelial cells was calculated by measuring the circumference and detachment section of the endothelium. The difference of the detachment percentage and circumference between each group was compared with Tukey's range test. Results: In contrast media groups, the severity of damage to the vascular endothelial cell was direct proportional to the increase of injection rate. The detachment percentage at 4 or 8 mL/s was significantly higher than that at 1 mL/s. As a result, the correlation between the injection rate and severity of cell damage was significant; however, the detachment percentage among contrast media groups was not significant at any injection rate. Conclusion: The in situ vena cava model was able to quantify contrast media injection related endothelial damage based on histopathological endpoints. Moreover, our results indicate that mechanical shear stress besides physico-chemical properties such as osmolality or viscosity cause endothelial damage.

  5. Utilizing AE data and stochastic modelling towards fatigue damage diagnostics and prognostics of composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loutas, T.; Eleftheroglou, N.

    2016-01-01

    The procedure of damage accumulation in composite materials, especially during fatigue loading, is a complex phenomenon which depends on a number of parameters such as ply orientation, material properties, geometrical non-linearities etc. Towards condition based health monitoring and decision

  6. Why Are Males Bad for Females? Models for the Evolution of Damaging Male Mating Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    One explanation for the cost to mating for females caused by damaging male mating behavior is that this causes the females to adaptively modify their subsequent life histories in a way that also increases male fitness. This might occur because the reduction in residual reproductive value of the

  7. The Sensitization Model to Explain How Chronic Pain Exists Without Tissue Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C. Paul; Keizer, Doeke

    The interaction of nurses with chronic pain patients is often difficult. One of the reasons is that chronic pain is difficult to explain, because no obvious anatomic defect or tissue damage is present. There is now enough evidence available indicating that chronic pain syndromes such as low back

  8. From electrons to stars : modelling and mitigation of radiation damage effects on astronomical CCDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prod'homme, Thibaut

    2011-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is part of an on-going effort to understand and mitigate the effects of radiation damage in astronomical CCDs. My research was motivated by and took place in the challenging context of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) astrometric mission, Gaia, for which radiation

  9. Internalization of Sexism, Racism & Classism in Damaged Parenting: A Developmental Dialectical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakizegi, B.

    This paper examines the relevance of social structure, in terms of class, race, and gender, in the lives of damaged parents of low power positions who abuse or neglect their children. The predominant view in the understanding and treatment of abusive parents stresses the parent's poor childhood experiences and the "intergenerational…

  10. Impact of Higher Fidelity Models on Simulation of Active Aerodynamic Load Control For Fatigue Damage Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resor, B.; Wilson, D.; Berg, D.; Berg, J.; Barlas, T.; Van Wingerden, J.W.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Active aerodynamic load control of wind turbine blades is being investigated by the wind energy research community and shows great promise, especially for reduction of turbine fatigue damage in blades and nearby components. For much of this work, full system aeroelastic codes have been used to

  11. MICROARRAY PROFILE OF SEIZURE DAMAGE-REFRACTORY HIPPOCAMPAL CA3 IN A MOUSE MODEL OF EPILEPTIC PRECONDITIONING

    OpenAIRE

    HATAZAKI, S.; BELLVER-ESTELLES, C.; JIMENEZ-MATEOS, E. M.; MELLER, R.; BONNER, C.; MURPHY, N.; MATSUSHIMA, S.; TAKI, W.; PREHN, J. H. M.; SIMON, R. P.; HENSHALL, D. C.

    2007-01-01

    A neuroprotected state can be acquired by preconditioning brain with a stimulus that is subthreshold for damage (tolerance). Acquisition of tolerance involves coordinate, bi-directional changes to gene expression levels and the re-programmed phenotype is determined by the preconditioning stimulus. While best studied in ischemic brain there is evidence brief seizures can confer tolerance against prolonged seizures (status epilepticus). Presently, we developed a model of epileptic preconditioni...

  12. Diffusion-controlled and creep-mitigated ASR damage via microplane model: II. Material degra- dation, drying, and verification

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimi-Aghdam, Saeed; P. Bažant, Zdenek; Caner, Ferhun Cem

    2016-01-01

    The theory for the material and structural damage due to the alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in concrete is calibrated and validated by finite element fitting of the main test results from the literature. The fracture mechanics aspects, and particularly the localization limiter, are handled by the crack band model. It is shown that the theory can capture the following features quite well: (1) the effects of various loading conditions and stress states on the ASR-induced expansion and it...

  13. Advanced hair damage model from ultra-violet radiation in the presence of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J M; Davis, M G; Flagler, M J; Sun, Y; Chaudhary, T; Mamak, M; McComb, D W; Williams, R E A; Greis, K D; Rubio, L; Coderch, L

    2015-10-01

    Damage to hair from UV exposure has been well reported in the literature and is known to be a highly complex process involving initiation via absorption of UV light followed by formation and propagation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The objective of this work was to understand these mechanisms, explain the role of copper in accelerating the formation of ROS and identify strategies to reduce the hair damage caused by these reactive species. The location of copper in hair was measured by Transmission electron microscopy-(TEM) X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) and levels measured by ICP-OES. Protein changes were measured as total protein loss via the Lowry assay, and MALDI ToF was used to identify the biomarker protein fragments. TBARS assay was used to measure lipid peroxide formation. Sensory methods and dry combing friction were used to measure hair damage due to copper and UV exposure and to demonstrate the efficacy of N,N' ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) and histidine chelants to reduce this damage. In this work, a biomarker protein fragment formed during UV exposure is identified using mass spectrometry. This fragment originates from the calcium-binding protein S100A3. Also shown is the accelerated formation of this peptide fragment in hair containing low levels of copper absorbed from hair during washing with tap water containing copper ions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) studies indicate copper is located in the sulphur-poor endo-cuticle region, a region where the S100A3 protein is concentrated. A mechanism for formation of this peptide fragment is proposed in addition to the possible role of lipids in UV oxidation. A shampoo and conditioner containing chelants (EDDS in shampoo and histidine in conditioner) is shown to reduce copper uptake from tap water and reduce protein loss and formation of S100A3 protein fragment. In addition, the long-term consequences of UV oxidation and

  14. On the Influence of Input Data Quality to Flood Damage Estimation: The Performance of the INSYDE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Molinari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available IN-depth SYnthetic Model for Flood Damage Estimation (INSYDE is a model for the estimation of flood damage to residential buildings at the micro-scale. This study investigates the sensitivity of INSYDE to the accuracy of input data. Starting from the knowledge of input parameters at the scale of individual buildings for a case study, the level of detail of input data is progressively downgraded until the condition in which a representative value is defined for all inputs at the census block scale. The analysis reveals that two conditions are required to limit the errors in damage estimation: the representativeness of representatives values with respect to micro-scale values and the local knowledge of the footprint area of the buildings, being the latter the main extensive variable adopted by INSYDE. Such a result allows for extending the usability of the model at the meso-scale, also in different countries, depending on the availability of aggregated building data.

  15. Modelling of pavement materials on steel decks using the five-point bending test: Thermo mechanical evolution and fatigue damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, L; Houel, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the modelling of wearing courses on steel orthotropic decks such as the Millau viaduct in France. This is of great importance when dealing with durability: due to the softness of such a support, the pavement is subjected to considerable strains that may generate top-down cracks in the layer at right angles of the orthotropic plate stiffeners and shear cracks at the interface between pavement and steel. Therefore, a five-point bending fatigue test was developed and improved since 2003 at the ENTPE laboratory, to test different asphalt concrete mixes. This study aims at modelling the mechanical behavior of the wearing course throughout the fatigue test by a finite element method (Comsol Multiphysics software). Each material - steel, sealing sheet, asphalt concrete layer - is considered and modelled. The modelling of asphalt concrete is complex since it is a heterogeneous material, a viscoelastic medium and it thermosensitive. The actual characteristics of the asphalt concrete (thermo physical parameter and viscoelastic complex modulus) are determined experimentally on cylindrical cores. Moreover, a damage law based on Miner's damage is included in the model. The modelling of the fatigue test leads to encouraging results. Finally, results from the model are compared to the experimental data obtained from the five-point bending fatigue test device. The experimental data are very consistent with the numerical simulation.

  16. Characterizing and modeling the pressure- and rate-dependent elastic-plastic-damage behaviors of polypropylene-based polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Pulungan, Ditho Ardiansyah

    2018-02-24

    Polymers in general exhibit pressure- and rate-dependent behavior. Modeling such behavior requires extensive, costly and time-consuming experimental work. Common simplifications may lead to severe inaccuracy when using the model for predicting the failure of structures. Here, we propose a viscoelastic viscoplastic damage model for polypropylene-based polymers. Such a set of constitutive equations can be used to describe the response of polypropylene under various strain-rates and stress-triaxiality conditions. Our model can also be applied to a broad range of thermoplastic polymers. We detail the experimental campaign that is needed to identify every parameter of the model at best. We validated the proposed model by performing 3-point bending tests at different loading speeds, where the load-displacement response of polypropylene beam up to failure was accurately predicted.

  17. Probabilistic modelling of the damage of geological barriers of the nuclear waste deep storage - ENDOSTON project, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    As the corrosion of metallic casings of radioactive waste storage packages releases hydrogen under pressure, and as the overpressure disturbs the stress fields, the authors report the development of methodologies and numerical simulation tools aimed at a better understanding of the mechanisms of development and propagation of crack networks in the geological barrier due to this overpressure. They present a probabilistic model of the formation of crack networks in rocks, with the probabilistic post-processing of a finite element calculation. They describe the modelling of crack propagation and damage in quasi-brittle materials. They present the ENDO-HETEROGENE model for the formation and propagation of cracks in heterogeneous media, describe the integration of the model into the Aster code, and report the model validation (calculation of the stress intensity factor, grid dependence). They finally report a test case of the ENDO-HETEROGENE model

  18. Modeling pitting corrosion damage of high-level radioactive-waste containers, with emphasis on the stochastic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henshall, G.A.; Halsey, W.G.; Clarke, W.L.; McCright, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Recent efforts to identify methods of modeling pitting corrosion damage of high-level radioactive-waste containers are described. The need to develop models that can provide information useful to higher level system performance assessment models is emphasized, and examples of how this could be accomplished are described. Work to date has focused upon physically-based phenomenological stochastic models of pit initiation and growth. These models may provide a way to distill information from mechanistic theories in a way that provides the necessary information to the less detailed performance assessment models. Monte Carlo implementations of the stochastic theory have resulted in simulations that are, at least qualitatively, consistent with a wide variety of experimental data. The effects of environment on pitting corrosion have been included in the model using a set of simple phenomenological equations relating the parameters of the stochastic model to key environmental variables. The results suggest that stochastic models might be useful for extrapolating accelerated test data and for predicting the effects of changes in the environment on pit initiation and growth. Preliminary ideas for integrating pitting models with performance assessment models are discussed. These ideas include improving the concept of container ``failure``, and the use of ``rules-of-thumb`` to take information from the detailed process models and provide it to the higher level system and subsystem models. Finally, directions for future work are described, with emphasis on additional experimental work since it is an integral part of the modeling process.

  19. Modeling pitting corrosion damage of high-level radioactive-waste containers, with emphasis on the stochastic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshall, G.A.; Halsey, W.G.; Clarke, W.L.; McCright, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Recent efforts to identify methods of modeling pitting corrosion damage of high-level radioactive-waste containers are described. The need to develop models that can provide information useful to higher level system performance assessment models is emphasized, and examples of how this could be accomplished are described. Work to date has focused upon physically-based phenomenological stochastic models of pit initiation and growth. These models may provide a way to distill information from mechanistic theories in a way that provides the necessary information to the less detailed performance assessment models. Monte Carlo implementations of the stochastic theory have resulted in simulations that are, at least qualitatively, consistent with a wide variety of experimental data. The effects of environment on pitting corrosion have been included in the model using a set of simple phenomenological equations relating the parameters of the stochastic model to key environmental variables. The results suggest that stochastic models might be useful for extrapolating accelerated test data and for predicting the effects of changes in the environment on pit initiation and growth. Preliminary ideas for integrating pitting models with performance assessment models are discussed. These ideas include improving the concept of container ''failure'', and the use of ''rules-of-thumb'' to take information from the detailed process models and provide it to the higher level system and subsystem models. Finally, directions for future work are described, with emphasis on additional experimental work since it is an integral part of the modeling process

  20. Environmental Barrier Coating Fracture, Fatigue and High-Heat-Flux Durability Modeling and Stochastic Progressive Damage Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Nemeth, Noel N.

    2017-01-01

    Advanced environmental barrier coatings will play an increasingly important role in future gas turbine engines because of their ability to protect emerging light-weight SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) engine components, further raising engine operating temperatures and performance. Because the environmental barrier coating systems are critical to the performance, reliability and durability of these hot-section ceramic engine components, a prime-reliant coating system along with established life design methodology are required for the hot-section ceramic component insertion into engine service. In this paper, we have first summarized some observations of high temperature, high-heat-flux environmental degradation and failure mechanisms of environmental barrier coating systems in laboratory simulated engine environment tests. In particular, the coating surface cracking morphologies and associated subsequent delamination mechanisms under the engine level high-heat-flux, combustion steam, and mechanical creep and fatigue loading conditions will be discussed. The EBC compostion and archtechture improvements based on advanced high heat flux environmental testing, and the modeling advances based on the integrated Finite Element Analysis Micromechanics Analysis Code/Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures (FEAMAC/CARES) program will also be highlighted. The stochastic progressive damage simulation successfully predicts mud flat damage pattern in EBCs on coated 3-D specimens, and a 2-D model of through-the-thickness cross-section. A 2-parameter Weibull distribution was assumed in characterizing the coating layer stochastic strength response and the formation of damage was therefore modeled. The damage initiation and coalescence into progressively smaller mudflat crack cells was demonstrated. A coating life prediction framework may be realized by examining the surface crack initiation and delamination propagation in conjunction with environmental

  1. Thermo-Oxidative Induced Damage in Polymer Composites: Microstructure Image-Based Multi-Scale Modeling and Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Rafid M.; Chandrashekhara, K.

    2017-11-01

    A multi-scale modeling approach is presented to simulate and validate thermo-oxidation shrinkage and cracking damage of a high temperature polymer composite. The multi-scale approach investigates coupled transient diffusion-reaction and static structural at macro- to micro-scale. The micro-scale shrinkage deformation and cracking damage are simulated and validated using 2D and 3D simulations. Localized shrinkage displacement boundary conditions for the micro-scale simulations are determined from the respective meso- and macro-scale simulations, conducted for a cross-ply laminate. The meso-scale geometrical domain and the micro-scale geometry and mesh are developed using the object oriented finite element (OOF). The macro-scale shrinkage and weight loss are measured using unidirectional coupons and used to build the macro-shrinkage model. The cross-ply coupons are used to validate the macro-shrinkage model by the shrinkage profiles acquired using scanning electron images at the cracked surface. The macro-shrinkage model deformation shows a discrepancy when the micro-scale image-based cracking is computed. The local maximum shrinkage strain is assumed to be 13 times the maximum macro-shrinkage strain of 2.5 × 10-5, upon which the discrepancy is minimized. The microcrack damage of the composite is modeled using a static elastic analysis with extended finite element and cohesive surfaces by considering the modulus spatial evolution. The 3D shrinkage displacements are fed to the model using node-wise boundary/domain conditions of the respective oxidized region. Microcrack simulation results: length, meander, and opening are closely matched to the crack in the area of interest for the scanning electron images.

  2. Multiscale modeling study of pulsed damage accumulation in alpha-Fe under inertial fusion conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Perlado, J M; Dominguez, E; Prieto, J; Caturla, M J; Díaz de la Rubia, T

    2002-01-01

    Reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steels are being considered as candidate materials for the first structural wall of a future fusion reactor, due to their high resistance to neutron irradiation. A combination of molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo has been utilized to analyze and assess the change and evolution of the microstructure in irradiated alpha-Fe, the main component of RAFM steels. We discuss how the pulse frequency, 1 and 10 Hz, may affect the damage production and accumulation. Dose rates of 0.1 and 0.01 dpa/s will be considered in order to represent the damage suffered by a protected first structural wall. These results will be compared with previous work on the subject and with those achieved with continuous irradiation at similar average dose rate.

  3. Modelling of Debond and Crack Propagation in Sandwich Structures Using Fracture and Damage Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, C.; Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Toernqvist, Rikard

    2003-01-01

    Skin-core de-bonding or core crack propagation will often be dominating mechanisms in the collapse modes of sandwich structures. This paper presents two different methods for prediction of crack propagation in a sandwich structure: a fracture mechanics approach, where a new mode-mix method...... is presented, and a local damage mechanics approach. The paper presents a real-life application example, where the superstructure in a vessel pulls the skin off the sandwich deck. The calculations show almost unstable crack growth initially followed by a stabilization, and a nearly linear relation between...... lifting and crack length. A remarkably good agreement is found between the results of the fracture and damage mechanics approaches....

  4. Comparison of damage induced by mercury chloride and ionizing radiation in the susceptible rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyang; Yoon, Yong Dal; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2003-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), one of the most diffused and hazardous organ-specific environmental contaminants, exists in a wide variety of physical and chemical states. Although the reports indicate that mercury induces a deleterious damage, little has been reported from the investigations of mercury effects in living things. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of mercury chloride and ionizing radiation. Prepubertal male F-344 rats were administered mercury chloride in drinking water throughout the experimental period. Two weeks after whole body irradiation, organs were collected for measuring the induced injury. Serum levels of GOT, GPT, ALP, and LDH were checked in the experimental groups and the hematological analysis was accomplished in plasma. In conclusion, the target organ of mercury chloride seems to be urinary organs and the pattern of damage induced by mercury differs from that of the irradiated group

  5. Artificial Boundary Conditions for Finite Element Model Update and Damage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Combining (2.15) and (2.16) results in the stiffness element matrix:   2 2 2 2 12 6 12 6 6 64 2 12 6 12 6 6 62 4 e L L L L L LEI K L L L L L L L...structural damage detection using artificial boundary conditions,” M.S. thesis, MEC , NPS, Monterey, CA, 2007. [20] R. L. Fox and M. P. Kapoor, “Rate

  6. Piezosurgery prevents brain tissue damage: an experimental study on a new rat model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, G.; Foltán, R.; Burian, M.; Horká, E.; Adámek, S.; Hejčl, Aleš; Hanzelka, T.; Šedý, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 8 (2011), s. 840-844 ISSN 0901-5027 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR GAP304/10/0320 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538 Program:1M Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : piezosurgery * brain * tissue damage Subject RIV: FJ - Surgery incl. Transplants; FH - Neurology (UEM-P) Impact factor: 1.506, year: 2011

  7. Modeling and Simulation for Particle Radiation Damage to Electronic and Opto-Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-25

    is the Planck constant, mt is the effective tunneling mass , Nt is the trap density , Et is the trap energy location, measured from the valence band...effects of radiation damage on this structure. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Unipolar barrier infrared detectors, Dark current density , Quantum efficiency, Minority...Photodetector at V = 0.2 V for T = 80 K, 120 K, and 150 K .............9 6 Measured (Circle) and Simulated (Solid Line) Dark Current Density at 80K

  8. Perfect plasticity with damage and healing at small strains, its modeling, analysis, and computer implementation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubíček, Tomáš; Valdman, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 1 (2016), s. 314-340 ISSN 0036-1399 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18652S; GA ČR GA14-15264S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 ; RVO:61388998 Keywords : Prandtl-Reuss perfect plasticity * bounded-deformation space * incomplete damage Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.670, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/valdman-0458557.pdf

  9. New Modeling Approaches to Study DNA Damage by the Direct and Indirect Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    DNA is damaged both by the direct and indirect effects of radiation. In the direct effect, the DNA itself is ionized, whereas the indirect effect involves the radiolysis of the water molecules surrounding the DNA and the subsequent reaction of the DNA with radical products. While this problem has been studied for many years, many unknowns still exist. To study this problem, we have developed the computer code RITRACKS [1], which simulates the radiation track structure for heavy ions and electrons, calculating all energy deposition events and the coordinates of all species produced by the water radiolysis. In this work, we plan to simulate DNA damage by using the crystal structure of a nucleosome and calculations performed by RITRACKS. The energy deposition events are used to calculate the dose deposited in nanovolumes [2] and therefore can be used to simulate the direct effect of the radiation. Using the positions of the radiolytic species with a radiation chemistry code [3] it will be possible to simulate DNA damage by indirect effect. The simulation results can be compared with results from previous calculations such as the frequencies of simple and complex strand breaks [4] and with newer experimental data using surrogate markers of DNA double ]strand breaks such as . ]H2AX foci [5].

  10. Inspection of the Math Model Tools for On-Orbit Assessment of Impact Damage Report. Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles E.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Piascik, Robert S.; Kramer White, Julie; Labbe, Steve G.; Rotter, Hank A.

    2005-01-01

    In Spring of 2005, the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) was engaged by the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to peer review the suite of analytical tools being developed to support the determination of impact and damage tolerance of the Orbiter Thermal Protection Systems (TPS). The NESC formed an independent review team with the core disciplines of materials, flight sciences, structures, mechanical analysis and thermal analysis. The Math Model Tools reviewed included damage prediction and stress analysis, aeroheating analysis, and thermal analysis tools. Some tools are physics-based and other tools are empirically-derived. Each tool was created for a specific use and timeframe, including certification, real-time pre-launch assessments, and real-time on-orbit assessments. The tools are used together in an integrated strategy for assessing the ramifications of impact damage to tile and RCC. The NESC teams conducted a peer review of the engineering data package for each Math Model Tool. This report contains the summary of the team observations and recommendations from these reviews.

  11. Semiparametric profile likelihood estimation for continuous outcomes with excess zeros in a random-threshold damage-resistance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, John D; Tsodikov, Alex

    2017-05-30

    Continuous outcome data with a proportion of observations equal to zero (often referred to as semicontinuous data) arise frequently in biomedical studies. Typical approaches involve two-part models, with one part a logistic model for the probability of observing a zero and some parametric continuous distribution for modeling the positive part of the data. We propose a semiparametric model based on a biological system with competing damage manifestation and resistance processes. This allows us to derive a closed-form profile likelihood based on the retro-hazard function, leading to a flexible procedure for modeling continuous data with a point mass at zero. A simulation study is presented to examine the properties of the method in finite samples. We apply the method to a data set consisting of pulmonary capillary hemorrhage area in lab rats subjected to diagnostic ultrasound. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Novel Double-Hit Model of Radiation and Hyperoxia-Induced Oxidative Cell Damage Relevant to Space Travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Velalopoulou, Anastasia; Lehman, Stacey L; Arguiri, Evguenia; Solomides, Pantelis; Koch, Cameron J; Mishra, Om P; Koumenis, Constantinos; Goodwin, Thomas J; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2016-06-16

    Spaceflight occasionally requires multiple extravehicular activities (EVA) that potentially subject astronauts to repeated changes in ambient oxygen superimposed on those of space radiation exposure. We thus developed a novel in vitro model system to test lung cell damage following repeated exposure to radiation and hyperoxia. Non-tumorigenic murine alveolar type II epithelial cells (C10) were exposed to >95% O₂ for 8 h only (O₂), 0.25 Gy ionizing γ-radiation (IR) only, or a double-hit combination of both challenges (O₂ + IR) followed by 16 h of normoxia (ambient air containing 21% O₂ and 5% CO₂) (1 cycle = 24 h, 2 cycles = 48 h). Cell survival, DNA damage, apoptosis, and indicators of oxidative stress were evaluated after 1 and 2 cycles of exposure. We observed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in cell survival across all challenge conditions along with an increase in DNA damage, determined by Comet analysis and H2AX phosphorylation, and apoptosis, determined by Annexin-V staining, relative to cells unexposed to hyperoxia or radiation. DNA damage (GADD45α and cleaved-PARP), apoptotic (cleaved caspase-3 and BAX), and antioxidant (HO-1 and Nqo1) proteins were increased following radiation and hyperoxia exposure after 1 and 2 cycles of exposure. Importantly, exposure to combination challenge O₂ + IR exacerbated cell death and DNA damage compared to individual exposures O₂ or IR alone. Additionally levels of cell cycle proteins phospho-p53 and p21 were significantly increased, while levels of CDK1 and Cyclin B1 were decreased at both time points for all exposure groups. Similarly, proteins involved in cell cycle arrest was more profoundly changed with the combination challenges as compared to each stressor alone. These results correlate with a significant 4- to 6-fold increase in the ratio of cells in G2/G1 after 2 cycles of exposure to hyperoxic conditions. We have characterized a novel in vitro model of double-hit, low-level radiation and hyperoxia

  13. Integrated flood damage modelling in the Ebro river basin under hydrodynamic, socio-economic and environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudi, S.; Galarraga, I.; Osés, N.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a model of flood damage measurement. It studies the socio-economic and environmental potential damage of floods in the Ebro river basin. We estimate the damage to the urban, rural and environmental sectors. In these sectors, we make distinctions between residential, non residential, cultural, agricultural, public facilities and utilities, environmental and human subsectors. We focus on both the direct, indirect, tangible and intangible impacts. The residential damages refer to the damages on housing, costs of repair and cleaning as direct effects and the re-housing costs as an indirect effect. The non residential and agricultural impacts concern the losses to the economic sectors (industry, business, agricultural): production, capital losses, costs of cleaning and repairs for the direct costs and the consequences of the suspension of activities for the indirect costs. For the human sector, we refer to the physical impacts (injuries and death) in the direct tangible effects and to the posttraumatic stress as indirect intangible impact. The environmental impacts focus on a site of Community Interests (pSCIs) in the case study area. The case study is located the Ebro river basin, Spain. The Ebro river basin is the larger river basin in term of surface and water discharge. The Ebro river system is subject to Atlantic and Mediterranean climatic influences. It gathers most of its water from the north of Spain (in the Pyrenees Mountains) and is the most important river basin of Spain in term of water resources. Most of the flooding occurs during the winter period. Between 1900- 2010, the National Catalogue of Historical Floods identifies 372 events: meanly 33 events every 10 years and up to 58 during the 1990-2000. Natural floods have two origins: (i) persistent rainfalls in large sub basins raised up by high temperature giving rise to a rapid thaw in the Pyrenees, (ii) local rainfalls of short duration and high intensity that gives rise to rapid and

  14. Novel Double-Hit Model of Radiation and Hyperoxia-Induced Oxidative Cell Damage Relevant to Space Travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph A. Pietrofesa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spaceflight occasionally requires multiple extravehicular activities (EVA that potentially subject astronauts to repeated changes in ambient oxygen superimposed on those of space radiation exposure. We thus developed a novel in vitro model system to test lung cell damage following repeated exposure to radiation and hyperoxia. Non-tumorigenic murine alveolar type II epithelial cells (C10 were exposed to >95% O2 for 8 h only (O2, 0.25 Gy ionizing γ-radiation (IR only, or a double-hit combination of both challenges (O2 + IR followed by 16 h of normoxia (ambient air containing 21% O2 and 5% CO2 (1 cycle = 24 h, 2 cycles = 48 h. Cell survival, DNA damage, apoptosis, and indicators of oxidative stress were evaluated after 1 and 2 cycles of exposure. We observed a significant (p < 0.05 decrease in cell survival across all challenge conditions along with an increase in DNA damage, determined by Comet analysis and H2AX phosphorylation, and apoptosis, determined by Annexin-V staining, relative to cells unexposed to hyperoxia or radiation. DNA damage (GADD45α and cleaved-PARP, apoptotic (cleaved caspase-3 and BAX, and antioxidant (HO-1 and Nqo1 proteins were increased following radiation and hyperoxia exposure after 1 and 2 cycles of exposure. Importantly, exposure to combination challenge O2 + IR exacerbated cell death and DNA damage compared to individual exposures O2 or IR alone. Additionally levels of cell cycle proteins phospho-p53 and p21 were significantly increased, while levels of CDK1 and Cyclin B1 were decreased at both time points for all exposure groups. Similarly, proteins involved in cell cycle arrest was more profoundly changed with the combination challenges as compared to each stressor alone. These results correlate with a significant 4- to 6-fold increase in the ratio of cells in G2/G1 after 2 cycles of exposure to hyperoxic conditions. We have characterized a novel in vitro model of double-hit, low-level radiation and hyperoxia

  15. An Improved Gaussian Mixture Model for Damage Propagation Monitoring of an Aircraft Wing Spar under Changing Structural Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Fang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technology is considered to be a key technology to reduce the maintenance cost and meanwhile ensure the operational safety of aircraft structures. It has gradually developed from theoretic and fundamental research to real-world engineering applications in recent decades. The problem of reliable damage monitoring under time-varying conditions is a main issue for the aerospace engineering applications of SHM technology. Among the existing SHM methods, Guided Wave (GW) and piezoelectric sensor-based SHM technique is a promising method due to its high damage sensitivity and long monitoring range. Nevertheless the reliability problem should be addressed. Several methods including environmental parameter compensation, baseline signal dependency reduction and data normalization, have been well studied but limitations remain. This paper proposes a damage propagation monitoring method based on an improved Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). It can be used on-line without any structural mechanical model and a priori knowledge of damage and time-varying conditions. With this method, a baseline GMM is constructed first based on the GW features obtained under time-varying conditions when the structure under monitoring is in the healthy state. When a new GW feature is obtained during the on-line damage monitoring process, the GMM can be updated by an adaptive migration mechanism including dynamic learning and Gaussian components split-merge. The mixture probability distribution structure of the GMM and the number of Gaussian components can be optimized adaptively. Then an on-line GMM can be obtained. Finally, a best match based Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence is studied to measure the migration degree between the baseline GMM and the on-line GMM to reveal the weak cumulative changes of the damage propagation mixed in the time-varying influence. A wing spar of an aircraft is used to validate the proposed method. The results indicate that the crack

  16. An Improved Gaussian Mixture Model for Damage Propagation Monitoring of an Aircraft Wing Spar under Changing Structural Boundary Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Fang, Fang

    2016-02-26

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technology is considered to be a key technology to reduce the maintenance cost and meanwhile ensure the operational safety of aircraft structures. It has gradually developed from theoretic and fundamental research to real-world engineering applications in recent decades. The problem of reliable damage monitoring under time-varying conditions is a main issue for the aerospace engineering applications of SHM technology. Among the existing SHM methods, Guided Wave (GW) and piezoelectric sensor-based SHM technique is a promising method due to its high damage sensitivity and long monitoring range. Nevertheless the reliability problem should be addressed. Several methods including environmental parameter compensation, baseline signal dependency reduction and data normalization, have been well studied but limitations remain. This paper proposes a damage propagation monitoring method based on an improved Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). It can be used on-line without any structural mechanical model and a priori knowledge of damage and time-varying conditions. With this method, a baseline GMM is constructed first based on the GW features obtained under time-varying conditions when the structure under monitoring is in the healthy state. When a new GW feature is obtained during the on-line damage monitoring process, the GMM can be updated by an adaptive migration mechanism including dynamic learning and Gaussian components split-merge. The mixture probability distribution structure of the GMM and the number of Gaussian components can be optimized adaptively. Then an on-line GMM can be obtained. Finally, a best match based Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence is studied to measure the migration degree between the baseline GMM and the on-line GMM to reveal the weak cumulative changes of the damage propagation mixed in the time-varying influence. A wing spar of an aircraft is used to validate the proposed method. The results indicate that the crack

  17. Modeling of delamination in carbon/epoxy composite laminates under four point bending for damage detection and sensor placement optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu, Stephen Aboagye

    Laminated carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites (CFRPs) possess very high specific strength and stiffness and this has accounted for their wide use in structural applications, most especially in the aerospace industry, where the trade-off between weight and strength is critical. Even though they possess much larger strength ratio as compared to metals like aluminum and lithium, damage in the metals mentioned is rather localized. However, CFRPs generate complex damage zones at stress concentration, with damage progression in the form of matrix cracking, delamination and fiber fracture or fiber/matrix de-bonding. This thesis is aimed at performing; stiffness degradation analysis on composite coupons, containing embedded delamination using the Four-Point Bend Test. The Lamb wave-based approach as a structural health monitoring (SHM) technique is used for damage detection in the composite coupons. Tests were carried-out on unidirectional composite coupons, obtained from panels manufactured with pre-existing defect in the form of embedded delamination in a laminate of stacking sequence [06/904/0 6]T. Composite coupons were obtained from panels, fabricated using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), a liquid composite molding (LCM) process. The discontinuity in the laminate structure due to the de-bonding of the middle plies caused by the insertion of a 0.3 mm thick wax, in-between the middle four (4) ninety degree (90°) plies, is detected using lamb waves generated by surface mounted piezoelectric (PZT) actuators. From the surface mounted piezoelectric sensors, response for both undamaged (coupon with no defect) and damaged (delaminated coupon) is obtained. A numerical study of the embedded crack propagation in the composite coupon under four-point and three-point bending was carried out using FEM. Model validation was then carried out comparing the numerical results with the experimental. Here, surface-to-surface contact property was used to model the

  18. Effects of Acute Systemic Hypoxia and Hypercapnia on Brain Damage in a Rat Model of Hypoxia-Ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchao Yang

    Full Text Available Therapeutic hypercapnia has the potential for neuroprotection after global cerebral ischemia. Here we further investigated the effects of different degrees of acute systemic hypoxia in combination with hypercapnia on brain damage in a rat model of hypoxia and ischemia. Adult wistar rats underwent unilateral common carotid artery (CCA ligation for 60 min followed by ventilation with normoxic or systemic hypoxic gas containing 11%O2,13%O2,15%O2 and 18%O2 (targeted to PaO2 30-39 mmHg, 40-49 mmHg, 50-59 mmHg, and 60-69 mmHg, respectively or systemic hypoxic gas containing 8% carbon dioxide (targeted to PaCO2 60-80 mmHg for 180 min. The mean artery pressure (MAP, blood gas, and cerebral blood flow (CBF were evaluated. The cortical vascular permeability and brain edema were examined. The ipsilateral cortex damage and the percentage of hippocampal apoptotic neurons were evaluated by Nissl staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL assay as well as flow cytometry, respectively. Immunofluorescence and western blotting were performed to determine aquaporin-4 (AQP4 expression. In rats treated with severe hypoxia (PaO2 50 mmHg, hypercapnia protected against these pathophysiological changes. Moreover, hypercapnia treatment significantly reduced brain damage in the ischemic ipsilateral cortex and decreased the percentage of apoptotic neurons in the hippocampus after the CCA ligated rats were exposed to mild or moderate hypoxemia (PaO2 > 50 mmHg; especially under mild hypoxemia (PaO2 > 60 mmHg, hypercapnia significantly attenuated the expression of AQP4 protein with brain edema (p < 0.05. Hypercapnia exerts beneficial effects under mild to moderate hypoxemia and augments detrimental effects under severe hypoxemia on brain damage in a rat model of hypoxia-ischemia.

  19. Modeling and analysis framework for core damage propagation during flow-blockage-initiated accidents in the advanced neutron source reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Georgevich, V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes modeling and analysis to evaluate the extent of core damage during flow blockage events in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor planned to be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Damage propagation is postulated to occur from thermal conduction between damaged and undamaged plates due to direct thermal contact. Such direct thermal contact may occur because of fuel plate swelling during fission product vapor release or plate buckling. Complex phenomena of damage propagation were modeled using a one-dimensional heat transfer model. A scoping study was conducted to learn what parameters are important for core damage propagation, and to obtain initial estimates of core melt mass for addressing recriticality and steam explosion events. The study included investigating the effect of the plate contact area, the convective heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity upon fuel swelling, and the initial temperature of the plate being contacted by the damaged plate. Also, the side support plates were modeled to account for their effects on damage propagation. The results provide useful insights into how various uncertain parameters affect damage propagation.

  20. Physics-Based Stress Corrosion Cracking Component Reliability Model cast in an R7-Compatible Cumulative Damage Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Lowry, Peter P.; Layton, Robert F.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Sanborn, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    This is a working report drafted under the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, describing statistical models of passives component reliabilities. The Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) pathway is a set of activities defined under the U.S. Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The overarching objective of RISMC is to support plant life-extension decision-making by providing a state-of-knowledge characterization of safety margins in key systems, structures, and components (SSCs). The methodology emerging from the RISMC pathway is not a conventional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA)-based one; rather, it relies on a reactor systems simulation framework in which physical conditions of normal reactor operations, as well as accident environments, are explicitly modeled subject to uncertainty characterization. RELAP 7 (R7) is the platform being developed at Idaho National Laboratory to model these physical conditions. Adverse effects of aging systems could be particularly significant in those SSCs for which management options are limited; that is, components for which replacement, refurbishment, or other means of rejuvenation are least practical. These include various passive SSCs, such as piping components. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing passive component reliability models intended to be compatible with the R7 framework. In the R7 paradigm, component reliability must be characterized in the context of the physical environments that R7 predicts. So, while conventional reliability models are parametric, relying on the statistical analysis of service data, RISMC reliability models must be physics-based and driven by the physical boundary conditions that R7 provides, thus allowing full integration of passives into the R7 multi-physics environment. The model must also be cast in a form compatible with the cumulative damage framework that R7