WorldWideScience

Sample records for continuous wave microwaves

  1. Chronic exposure of a honey bee colony to 2.45 GHz continuous wave microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, B. B.; Gary, N. E.

    1981-01-01

    A honey bee colony (Apis mellifera L.) was exposed 28 days to 2.45 GHz continuous wave microwaves at a power density (1 mW/sq cm) expected to be associated with rectennae in the solar power satellite power transmission system. Differences found between the control and microwave-treated colonies were not large, and were in the range of normal variation among similar colonies. Thus, there is an indication that microwave treatment had little, if any, effect on (1) flight and pollen foraging activity, (2) maintenance of internal colony temperature, (3) brood rearing activity, (4) food collection and storage, (5) colony weight, and (6) adult populations. Additional experiments are necessary before firm conclusions can be made.

  2. Continuous microwave flow synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, Muhammad; Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Goh, Yi-Fan; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini [Department of Chemistry, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Lintang, Hendrik O. [Centre for Sustainable Nanomaterials (CSNano), Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Hussain, Rafaqat, E-mail: rafaqat@kimia.fs.utm.my [Centre for Sustainable Nanomaterials (CSNano), Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-11-01

    We have successfully used continuous microwave flow synthesis (CMFS) technique for the template free synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite. The continuous microwave flow reactor consisted of a modified 2.45 GHz household microwave, peristaltic pumps and a Teflon coil. This cost effective and efficient system was exploited to produce semi-crystalline phase pure nano-sized hydroxyapatite. Effect of microwave power, retention time and the concentration of reactants on the phase purity, degree of crystallinity and surface area of the final product was studied in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study the phase purity and composition of the product, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the effect of process parameters on the morphology of hydroxyapatite. The TEM analysis confirmed the formation of spherical particles at low microwave power; however the morphology of the particles changed to mesoporous needle and rod-like structure upon exposing the reaction mixture to higher microwave power and longer retention time inside the microwave. The in-vitro ion dissolution behavior of the as synthesized hydroxyapatite was studied by determining the amount of Ca{sup 2+} ion released in SBF solution. - Highlights: • Continuous microwave flow synthesis method was used to prepare hydroxyapatite. • Increase in microwave power enhanced the degree of crystallinity. • TEM images confirmed the presence of mesopores on the surface of HA.

  3. Continuous microwave flow synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Muhammad; Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Goh, Yi-Fan; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Lintang, Hendrik O.; Hussain, Rafaqat

    2015-01-01

    We have successfully used continuous microwave flow synthesis (CMFS) technique for the template free synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite. The continuous microwave flow reactor consisted of a modified 2.45 GHz household microwave, peristaltic pumps and a Teflon coil. This cost effective and efficient system was exploited to produce semi-crystalline phase pure nano-sized hydroxyapatite. Effect of microwave power, retention time and the concentration of reactants on the phase purity, degree of crystallinity and surface area of the final product was studied in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study the phase purity and composition of the product, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the effect of process parameters on the morphology of hydroxyapatite. The TEM analysis confirmed the formation of spherical particles at low microwave power; however the morphology of the particles changed to mesoporous needle and rod-like structure upon exposing the reaction mixture to higher microwave power and longer retention time inside the microwave. The in-vitro ion dissolution behavior of the as synthesized hydroxyapatite was studied by determining the amount of Ca 2+ ion released in SBF solution. - Highlights: • Continuous microwave flow synthesis method was used to prepare hydroxyapatite. • Increase in microwave power enhanced the degree of crystallinity. • TEM images confirmed the presence of mesopores on the surface of HA

  4. Continuous microwave flow synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Alshemary, Ammar Z; Goh, Yi-Fan; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Lintang, Hendrik O; Hussain, Rafaqat

    2015-11-01

    We have successfully used continuous microwave flow synthesis (CMFS) technique for the template free synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite. The continuous microwave flow reactor consisted of a modified 2.45GHz household microwave, peristaltic pumps and a Teflon coil. This cost effective and efficient system was exploited to produce semi-crystalline phase pure nano-sized hydroxyapatite. Effect of microwave power, retention time and the concentration of reactants on the phase purity, degree of crystallinity and surface area of the final product was studied in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study the phase purity and composition of the product, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the effect of process parameters on the morphology of hydroxyapatite. The TEM analysis confirmed the formation of spherical particles at low microwave power; however the morphology of the particles changed to mesoporous needle and rod-like structure upon exposing the reaction mixture to higher microwave power and longer retention time inside the microwave. The in-vitro ion dissolution behavior of the as synthesized hydroxyapatite was studied by determining the amount of Ca(2+) ion released in SBF solution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Continuous microwave regeneration apparatus for absorption media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas D.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for continuously drying and regenerating ceramic beads for use in process gas moisture drying operations such as glove boxes. A microwave energy source is coupled to a process chamber to internally heat the ceramic beads and vaporize moisture contained therein. In a preferred embodiment, the moisture laden ceramic beads are conveyed toward the microwave source by a screw mechanism. The regenerated beads flow down outside of the screw mechanism and are available to absorb additional moisture.

  6. Continuous denitration device using a microwave furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hajime

    1982-04-01

    A continuous denitration device is described that enables to obtain dried U or Pu dioxide or a mixture of these from a solution of uranyl or plutonium nitrate or a mixed solution of these by irradiation with microwaves. This device allows uranyl or plutonium nitrate to crystallize and the resulting crystals to be separated from the solution. A belt conveyer carries the crystals to a microwave heating furnace for denitration. Approximately 2.4 kg dried cake of U dioxide per hour is obtained [fr

  7. Continuous denitration device by microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumaru, Ken-ichi; Sato, Hajime.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To continuously obtain powder of uranium dioxide, plutonium dioxide or a mixture of them respectively from the solution of uranyl nitrate, plutonium nitrate or a mixture of them effectively while maintaining a constant quality. Constitution: Plutonium nitrate or uranium nitrate solution is deposited on a rotational drum having a heater and dried into powderous products. The powderous products are scraped off by a blade, transferred to a belt conveyor, entered into a microwave heating furnace and heated by microwaves while stirring to obtain the powder of plutonium dioxide or uranium dioxide. The powderous products are scraped off by a scraper and collected in a receiving tank for denitration products, whereby the feeding solution can be denitrated continuously. (Horiuchi, T.)

  8. Microwave bale moisture sensing: Field trial continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microwave moisture measurement technique was developed at the USDA, ARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit for moisture sensing of cotton bales after the bale press. The technique measures the propagation delay of a microwave signal that is transmitted through the cotton bale. This res...

  9. Spectroscopic investigation of wave driven microwave plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijtvliet, R.; Felizardo, E.; Tatarova, E.; Dias, F. M.; Ferreira, C. M.; Nijdam, S.; Veldhuizen, E. V.; Kroesen, G.

    2009-01-01

    Large H atom line broadening was found throughout the volume of surface wave generated He-H 2 and H 2 microwave plasmas at low pressures. The measured Doppler temperatures corresponding to the H β , H γ , H δ , H ε , and H ζ line profiles were found to be higher than the rotational temperature of the hydrogen molecular Fulcher-α band and the Doppler temperature of the 667.1 nm singlet He line. No excessive broadening has been found. The Lorentzian and Gaussian widths as determined by fitting the spectral lines with a Voigt profile increase with the principal quantum number of the upper level. In contrast, no such dependence for the Gaussian width has been observed in an Ar-H 2 discharge. No population inversion has been observed from measurements of the relative intensities of transitions within the Balmer series.

  10. Manipulating electromagnetic waves with metamaterials: Concept and microwave realizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qiong; Xiao Shi-Yi; Li Xin; Song Zheng-Yong; Sun Wu-Jiong; Zhou Lei; Sun Shu-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Our recent efforts in manipulating electromagnetic (EM) waves using metamaterials (MTMs) are reviewed with emphasis on 1) manipulating wave polarization and transporting properties using homogeneous MTMs, 2) manipulating surface-wave properties using plasmonic MTMs, and 3) bridging propagating and surface waves using inhomogeneous meta-surfaces. For all these topics, we first illustrate the physical concepts and then present several typical practical realizations and applications in the microwave regime. (topical review - plasmonics and metamaterials)

  11. Quantum and wave dynamical chaos in superconducting microwave billiards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, B; Richter, A

    2015-09-01

    Experiments with superconducting microwave cavities have been performed in our laboratory for more than two decades. The purpose of the present article is to recapitulate some of the highlights achieved. We briefly review (i) results obtained with flat, cylindrical microwave resonators, so-called microwave billiards, concerning the universal fluctuation properties of the eigenvalues of classically chaotic systems with no, a threefold and a broken symmetry; (ii) summarize our findings concerning the wave-dynamical chaos in three-dimensional microwave cavities; (iii) present a new approach for the understanding of the phenomenon of dynamical tunneling which was developed on the basis of experiments that were performed recently with unprecedented precision, and finally, (iv) give an insight into an ongoing project, where we investigate universal properties of (artificial) graphene with superconducting microwave photonic crystals that are enclosed in a microwave resonator, i.e., so-called Dirac billiards.

  12. Microwave Ionization of an Atomic Electron Wave Packet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Michael W.; Ko, Lung; Gallagher, T. F.

    2001-01-01

    A short microwave pulse is used to ionize a lithium Rydberg wave packet launched from the core at a well-defined phase of the field. We observe a strong dependence on the relative phase between the motion of the wave packet and the oscillations of the field. This phase dependent ionization is also studied as a function of the relative frequency. Our experimental observations are in good qualitative agreement with a one-dimensional classical model of wave packet ionization

  13. Millimeter-wave interconnects for microwave-frequency quantum machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechal, Marek; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H.

    2017-10-01

    Superconducting microwave circuits form a versatile platform for storing and manipulating quantum information. A major challenge to further scalability is to find approaches for connecting these systems over long distances and at high rates. One approach is to convert the quantum state of a microwave circuit to optical photons that can be transmitted over kilometers at room temperature with little loss. Many proposals for electro-optic conversion between microwave and optics use optical driving of a weak three-wave mixing nonlinearity to convert the frequency of an excitation. Residual absorption of this optical pump leads to heating, which is problematic at cryogenic temperatures. Here we propose an alternative approach where a nonlinear superconducting circuit is driven to interconvert between microwave-frequency (7 ×109 Hz) and millimeter-wave-frequency photons (3 ×1011 Hz). To understand the potential for quantum state conversion between microwave and millimeter-wave photons, we consider the driven four-wave mixing quantum dynamics of nonlinear circuits. In contrast to the linear dynamics of the driven three-wave mixing converters, the proposed four-wave mixing converter has nonlinear decoherence channels that lead to a more complex parameter space of couplings and pump powers that we map out. We consider physical realizations of such converter circuits by deriving theoretically the upper bound on the maximum obtainable nonlinear coupling between any two modes in a lossless circuit, and synthesizing an optimal circuit based on realistic materials that saturates this bound. Our proposed circuit dissipates less than 10-9 times the energy of current electro-optic converters per qubit. Finally, we outline the quantum link budget for optical, microwave, and millimeter-wave connections, showing that our approach is viable for realizing interconnected quantum processors for intracity or quantum data center environments.

  14. Microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing for security applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nanzer, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing techniques are fast becoming a necessity in many aspects of security as detection and classification of objects or intruders becomes more difficult. This groundbreaking resource offers you expert guidance in this burgeoning area. It provides you with a thorough treatment of the principles of microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing for security applications, as well as practical coverage of the design of radiometer, radar, and imaging systems. You learn how to design active and passive sensors for intruder detection, concealed object detection,

  15. Generation of microwaves by a slow wave electron cyclotron maser with axial injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michie, R.B.; Vomvoridis, J.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental measurements of microwave generation by a new electron beam wave interaction is presented. This slow wave electron cyclotron maser (ECM) has a continuous electron beam injected axially into a slow wave structure containing a circularly polarized HE, hybrid electric (HE) mode. A longitudinal magnetic field produces microwaves by maser action. The slow wave structure allows energy to be coupled out of an electron beam with no initial transverse momentum. This is similar to klystrons, traveling wave tubes, and Cherenkov masers, but there is no axial beam bunching. Therefore, ECM designs using relativistic electron beams are allowed. This ECM is similar to a gyrotron in that the electrons are coupled through their cyclotron motion to the wave, but there is no need for initial electron velocity perpendicular to the background magnetic field. Therefore, a narrower spread of electron beam energy about the ECM resonance is possible which gives higher theoretical efficiency. A nonlinear analysis of energy coupling of electrons to the slow wave in the ECM and the design of the slow wave ECM microwave amplifier at 10 GHz using a 200 KeV axial electron beam in 3 KG magnetic field is included

  16. Continuous vulcanization of extruded profile by microwave process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim Hun Soo

    1994-01-01

    Continuous vulcanization is being increasingly used today in the manufacture of extrusion profiles. This is particularly so with the microwave/hot air continuous vulcanization process. Although this process is now quite widely used in Europe and to a lesser extent in USA, it is still not used in Malaysia. To improve the technological capability of the rubber-based industry in extrusion product, the RRIM has acquired a microwave/hot air tunnel continuous vulcanization equipment to enable development work in this area to be carried out with the aim of upgrading the rubber industry towards this more automated manufacturing process. This is particularly pertinent in view of the anticipated labour shortage, and, increasing labour and energy cost. This paper outlines the basic principles of operation of the microwave/hot air tunnel continuous vulcanization process and describes some aspects of compounding involving natural and synthetic rubbers for use in the process. As temperature increase is one of the major factors influencing the vulcanization of profile in this process, study was therefore concentrated on the heat generation aspect in the microwave tunnel

  17. Continuity of Climate Data Records derived from Microwave Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, C. A.; Wentz, F. J.; Brewer, M.; Meissner, T.; Ricciardulli, L.

    2017-12-01

    Remote Sensing Systems (www.remss.com) has been producing and distributing microwave climate data products from microwave imagers (SSMI, TMI, AMSR, WindSat, GMI, Aquarius, SMAP) over the global oceans since the launch of the first SSMI in 1987. Interest in these data products has been significant as researchers around the world have downloaded the approximate equivalent of 1 million satellite years of processed data. Users, including NASA, NOAA, US National Laboratories, US Navy, UK Met, ECMWF, JAXA, JMA, CMC, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, as well as many hundreds of other agencies and universities routinely access these microwave data products. The quality of these data records has increased as more observations have become available and inter-calibration techniques have improved. The impending end of missions for WindSat, AMSR-2, and the remaining SSMIs will have significant impact on the quality and continuity of long term microwave climate data records. In addition to the problem of reduced numbers of observations, there is a real danger of losing overlapping observations. Simultaneous operation of satellites, especially when the observations are at similar local crossing times, provides a significant benefit in the effort to inter-calibrate satellites to yield accurate and stable long-term records. The end of WindSat and AMSR-2 will leave us without microwave SSTs in cold water, as there will be no microwave imagers with C-band channels. Microwave SSTs have a crucial advantage over IR SSTs, which is not able to measure SST in clouds or if aerosols are present. The gap in ocean wind vectors will be somewhat mitigated as the European ASCAT C-band scatterometer mission on MetOp is continuing. Nonetheless, the anticipated cease of several microwave satellite radiometers retrieving ocean winds in the coming years will lead to a significant gap in temporal coverage. Atmospheric water vapor, cloud liquid water, and rain rate are all important climate

  18. Superstrong coupling of thin film magnetostatic waves with microwave cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xufeng; Tang, Hong X., E-mail: hong.tang@yale.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Zou, Changling [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Jiang, Liang [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    We experimentally demonstrated the strong coupling between a microwave cavity and standing magnetostatic magnon modes in a yttrium iron garnet film. Such strong coupling can be observed for various spin wave modes under different magnetic field bias configurations, with a coupling strength inversely proportional to the transverse mode number. A comb-like spectrum can be obtained from these high order modes. The collectively enhanced magnon-microwave photon coupling strength is comparable with the magnon free spectral range and therefore leads to the superstrong coupling regime. Our findings pave the road towards designing a new type of strongly hybridized magnon-photon system.

  19. Advanced microwave/millimeter-wave imaging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Zuowei; Yang, Lu; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Millimeter wave technology advances have made possible active and passive millimeter wave imaging for a variety of applications including advanced plasma diagnostics, radio astronomy, atmospheric radiometry, concealed weapon detection, all-weather aircraft landing, contraband goods detection, harbor navigation/surveillance in fog, highway traffic monitoring in fog, helicopter and automotive collision avoidance in fog, and environmental remote sensing data associated with weather, pollution, soil moisture, oil spill detection, and monitoring of forest fires, to name but a few. The primary focus of this paper is on technology advances which have made possible advanced imaging and visualization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluctuations and microturbulence in fusion plasmas. Topics of particular emphasis include frequency selective surfaces, planar Schottky diode mixer arrays, electronically controlled beam shaping/steering arrays, and high power millimeter wave local oscillator and probe sources. (author)

  20. Compact continuous HF microwave-discharge mixing laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, J.M.; Bertrand, L.; Conturie, Y.; Mah, S.Q.; Monchalin, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    The performance of a continuous chemical laser is discussed. Fluorine atoms are produced in a SF 6 + He mixture by means of a microwave-discharge apparatus that operates in a continuous mode. A maximum output power of 4 W is obtained for a 5 cm length of amplifying medium; this power output is primarily due to P transitions from the 1-0 and 2-1 bands. Weak transitions in the 3-2 band are also observed. The maximum value of measured gain is 0.11 cm -1 ; good agreement is obtained between theoretical and experimental values of gain. (auth)

  1. Continuous-Wave Single-Photon Transistor Based on a Superconducting Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriienko, Oleksandr; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2016-01-01

    We propose a microwave frequency single-photon transistor which can operate under continuous wave probing and represents an efficient single microwave photon detector. It can be realized using an impedance matched system of a three level artificial ladder-type atom coupled to two microwave cavities...... and the appearance of a photon flux leaving the second cavity through a separate input-output port. The proposal does not require time variation of the probe signals, thus corresponding to a passive version of a single-photon transistor. The resulting device is robust to qubit dephasing processes, possesses low dark...

  2. Electron Density in Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Surface Wave Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinski, M.; Zakrzewski, Z.; Mizeraczyk, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present results of the spectroscopic measurements of the electron density in a microwave surface wave sustained discharges in Ar and Ne at atmospheric pressure. The discharge in the form of a plasma column was generated inside a quartz tube cooled with a dielectric liquid. The microwave power delivered to the discharge via rectangular waveguide was applied in the range of 200-1500 W. In all investigations presented in this paper, the gas flow rate was relatively low (0.5 l/min), so the plasma column was generated in the form of a single filament, and the lengths of the upstream and downstream plasma columns were almost the same. The electron density in the plasma columns was determined using the method based on the Stark broadening of H β spectral line, including plasma region inside the waveguide which was not investigated earlier

  3. Kinetic computer modeling of microwave surface-wave plasma production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganachev, Ivan P.

    2004-01-01

    Kinetic computer plasma modeling occupies an intermediate position between the time consuming rigorous particle dynamic simulation and the fast but rather rough cold- or warm-plasma fluid models. The present paper reviews the kinetic modeling of microwave surface-wave discharges with accent on recent kinetic self-consistent models, where the external input parameters are reduced to the necessary minimum (frequency and intensity of the applied microwave field and pressure and geometry of the discharge vessel). The presentation is limited to low pressures, so that Boltzmann equation is solved in non-local approximation and collisional electron heating is neglected. The numerical results reproduce correctly the bi-Maxwellian electron energy distribution functions observed experimentally. (author)

  4. Hough transform search for continuous gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Badri; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Sintes, Alicia M.; Schutz, Bernard F.; Frasca, Sergio; Palomba, Cristiano

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an incoherent method to search for continuous gravitational waves based on the Hough transform, a well-known technique used for detecting patterns in digital images. We apply the Hough transform to detect patterns in the time-frequency plane of the data produced by an earth-based gravitational wave detector. Two different flavors of searches will be considered, depending on the type of input to the Hough transform: either Fourier transforms of the detector data or the output of a coherent matched-filtering type search. We present the technical details for implementing the Hough transform algorithm for both kinds of searches, their statistical properties, and their sensitivities

  5. Continuous-wave room-temperature diamond maser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Jonathan D.; Salvadori, Enrico; Sathian, Juna; Alford, Neil Mcn.; Kay, Christopher W. M.

    2018-03-01

    The maser—the microwave progenitor of the optical laser—has been confined to relative obscurity owing to its reliance on cryogenic refrigeration and high-vacuum systems. Despite this, it has found application in deep-space communications and radio astronomy owing to its unparalleled performance as a low-noise amplifier and oscillator. The recent demonstration of a room-temperature solid-state maser that utilizes polarized electron populations within the triplet states of photo-excited pentacene molecules in a p-terphenyl host paves the way for a new class of maser. However, p-terphenyl has poor thermal and mechanical properties, and the decay rates of the triplet sublevel of pentacene mean that only pulsed maser operation has been observed in this system. Alternative materials are therefore required to achieve continuous emission: inorganic materials that contain spin defects, such as diamond and silicon carbide, have been proposed. Here we report a continuous-wave room-temperature maser oscillator using optically pumped nitrogen–vacancy defect centres in diamond. This demonstration highlights the potential of room-temperature solid-state masers for use in a new generation of microwave devices that could find application in medicine, security, sensing and quantum technologies.

  6. Handbook of RF, microwave, and millimeter-wave components

    CERN Document Server

    Smolskiy, Sergey M; Kochemasov, Victor N

    2012-01-01

    This unique and comprehensive resource offers you a detailed treatment of the operations principles, key parameters, and specific characteristics of active and passive RF, microwave, and millimeter-wave components. The book covers both linear and nonlinear components that are used in a wide range of application areas, from communications and information sciences, to avionics, space, and military engineering. This practical book presents descriptions and clear examples and of the best materials and products used in the field, including laminates, prepregs, substrates; microstrip, coaxial and wa

  7. Propagating Structure Of A Microwave Driven Shock wave Inside A Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yutaka; Shibata, Teppei; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Oda, Yasuhisa; Kajiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Koji; Kasugai, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Keishi; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2010-01-01

    The thrust generation process of a microwave rocket is similar to a pulse detonation engine, and understanding the interactions between microwave plasma and shock waves is important. Shadowgraph images of the microwave plasma generated in a tube under atmospheric air were taken. The observed plasma and shock wave were propagating one-dimensionally at constant velocity inside the tube. In order to understand the flow field inside the rocket, one-dimensional CFD analysis was conducted. With the change of microwave power density, the structure of the flow field was classified into two regimes: Microwave Supported Combustion (MSC), and Microwave Supported Detonation (MSD). The structure of the MSD was different from the structure of a chemical detonation, which implied the existence of a preheating in front of the shock wave. Furthermore, the flight performance was estimated by calculating the momentum coupling coefficient. It was confirmed that the efficiency was nearly constant in the MSD regime, with the increase of microwave power density.

  8. Long term impairment of cognitive functions and alterations of NMDAR subunits after continuous microwave exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Tan, Shengzhi; Xu, Xinping; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Jing; Yao, Binwei; Gao, Yabing; Zhou, Hongmei; Peng, Ruiyun

    2017-11-01

    The long term effects of continuous microwave exposure cannot be ignored for the simulation of the real environment and increasing concerns about the negative cognitive effects of microwave exposure. In this study, 220 male Wistar rats were exposed by a 2.856GHz radiation source with the average power density of 0, 2.5, 5 and 10mW/cm 2 for 6min/day, 5days/week and up to 6weeks. The MWM task, the EEG analysis, the hippocampus structure observation and the western blot were applied until the 12months after microwave exposure to detect the spatial learning and memory abilities, the cortical electrical activity, changes of hippocampal structure and the NMDAR subunits expressions. Results found that the rats in the 10mW/cm 2 group showed the decline of spatial learning and memory abilities and EEG disorders (the decrease of EEG frequencies, and increase of EEG amplitudes and delta wave powers). Moreover, changes of basic structure and ultrastructure of hippocampus also found in the 10 and 5mW/cm 2 groups. The decrease of NR 2A, 2B and p-NR2B might contribute to the impairment of cognitive functions. Our findings suggested that the continuous microwave exposure could cause the dose-dependent long term impairment of spatial learning and memory, the abnormalities of EEG and the hippocampal structure injuries. The decrease of NMDAR key subunits and phosphorylation of NR 2B might contribute to the cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Imprints of relic gravitational waves in cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskaran, D.; Grishchuk, L. P.; Polnarev, A. G.

    2006-01-01

    A strong variable gravitational field of the very early Universe inevitably generates relic gravitational waves by amplifying their zero-point quantum oscillations. We begin our discussion by contrasting the concepts of relic gravitational waves and inflationary 'tensor modes'. We explain and summarize the properties of relic gravitational waves that are needed to derive their effects on cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies. The radiation field is characterized by four invariants I, V, E, B. We reduce the radiative transfer equations to a single integral equation of Voltairre type and solve it analytically and numerically. We formulate the correlation functions C l XX ' for X, X ' =T, E, B and derive their amplitudes, shapes and oscillatory features. Although all of our main conclusions are supported by exact numerical calculations, we obtain them, in effect, analytically by developing and using accurate approximations. We show that the TE correlation at lower l's must be negative (i.e. an anticorrelation), if it is caused by gravitational waves, and positive if it is caused by density perturbations. This difference in TE correlation may be a signature more valuable observationally than the lack or presence of the BB correlation, since the TE signal is about 100 times stronger than the expected BB signal. We discuss the detection by WMAP of the TE anticorrelation at l≅30 and show that such an anticorrelation is possible only in the presence of a significant amount of relic gravitational waves (within the framework of all other common assumptions). We propose models containing considerable amounts of relic gravitational waves that are consistent with the measured TT, TE and EE correlations

  10. Continuous waves probing in dynamic acoustoelastic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalerandi, M.; Gliozzi, A. S.; Ait Ouarabi, M.; Boubenider, F.

    2016-05-01

    Consolidated granular media display a peculiar nonlinear elastic behavior, which is normally analysed with dynamic ultrasonic testing exploiting the dependence on amplitude of different measurable quantities, such as the resonance frequency shift, the amount of harmonics generation, or the break of the superposition principle. However, dynamic testing allows measuring effects which are averaged over one (or more) cycles of the exciting perturbation. Dynamic acoustoelastic testing has been proposed to overcome this limitation and allow the determination of the real amplitude dependence of the modulus of the material. Here, we propose an implementation of the approach, in which the pulse probing waves are substituted by continuous waves. As a result, instead of measuring a time-of-flight as a function of the pump strain, we study the dependence of the resonance frequency on the strain amplitude, allowing to derive the same conclusions but with an easier to implement procedure.

  11. System to continuously produce carbon fiber via microwave assisted plasma processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Terry L; Paulauskas, Felix L; Bigelow, Timothy S

    2014-03-25

    A method for continuously processing carbon fiber including establishing a microwave plasma in a selected atmosphere contained in an elongated chamber having a microwave power gradient along its length defined by a lower microwave power at one end and a higher microwave power at the opposite end of the elongated chamber. The elongated chamber having an opening in each of the ends of the chamber that are adapted to allow the passage of the fiber tow while limiting incidental gas flow into or out of said chamber. A continuous fiber tow is introduced into the end of the chamber having the lower microwave power. The fiber tow is withdrawn from the opposite end of the chamber having the higher microwave power. The fiber to is subjected to progressively higher microwave energy as the fiber is being traversed through the elongated chamber.

  12. Measurement of optical-beat frequency in a photoconductive terahertz-wave generator using microwave higher harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murasawa, Kengo; Sato, Koki; Hidaka, Takehiko

    2011-05-01

    A new method for measuring optical-beat frequencies in the terahertz (THz) region using microwave higher harmonics is presented. A microwave signal was applied to the antenna gap of a photoconductive (PC) device emitting a continuous electromagnetic wave at about 1 THz by the photomixing technique. The microwave higher harmonics with THz frequencies are generated in the PC device owing to the nonlinearity of the biased photoconductance, which is briefly described in this article. Thirteen nearly periodic peaks in the photocurrent were observed when the microwave was swept from 16 to 20 GHz at a power of -48 dBm. The nearly periodic peaks are generated by the homodyne detection of the optical beat with the microwave higher harmonics when the frequency of the harmonics coincides with the optical-beat frequency. Each peak frequency and its peak width were determined by fitting a Gaussian function, and the order of microwave harmonics was determined using a coarse (i.e., lower resolution) measurement of the optical-beat frequency. By applying the Kalman algorithm to the peak frequencies of the higher harmonics and their standard deviations, the optical-beat frequency near 1 THz was estimated to be 1029.81 GHz with the standard deviation of 0.82 GHz. The proposed method is applicable to a conventional THz-wave generator with a photomixer.

  13. Detectability of inflationary gravitational waves with microwave background polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamionkowski, M.; Kosowsky, A.

    1998-01-01

    Inflation predicts specific relations between the amplitudes and spectral indices of the primordial spectrum of density (scalar metric) perturbations and gravitational waves (tensor metric perturbations). Detection of a stochastic gravitational-wave background is essential for identifying this unmistakable signature. Polarization of the cosmic microwave background can isolate these tensor modes in a model-independent way and thereby circumvent the cosmic-variance limit to detecting a small tensor signal with only a temperature map. Here we assess the detectability of a gravity-wave background with a temperature and polarization map. For detector sensitivities better than 10 endash 20μK√ (sec) , the sensitivity to a tensor signal is always dominated by the polarization map. With a detector sensitivity of order 1μK√ (sec) , polarization could improve on a temperature-map sensitivity to tensor modes by two to three orders of magnitude. Even a small amount of reionization substantially enhances tensor-mode detectability. We also argue that the sensitivity of the Planck Surveyor to tensor modes is significantly improved with polarization, even taking into account the resulting degradation of the intensity determination in the high-frequency channels. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  14. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Signal Power Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadziabdic, Dzenan

    Among the major limitations in high-speed communications and highresolution radars is the lack of efficient and powerful signal sources with low distortion. Microwave and millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal power is needed for signal transmission. Progress in signal generation stems largely from...... distortion and high PAE were observed. The estimated output power of 42.5 dBm and PAE of 31.3% are comparable to the state-of-the-art results reported for GaN HEMT amplifiers. Wireless communication systems planned in the near future will operate at E-band, around 71-86 GHz, and require mm-wave-PAs to boost...... the application of novel materials like galliumnitride (GaN) and silicon-carbide (SiC) and fabrication of indiumphosphide (InP) based transistors. One goal of this thesis is to assess GaN HEMT technology with respect to linear efficient signal power generation. While most reports on GaN HEMT high-power devices...

  15. A low-loss, continuously tunable microwave notch filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acar, Öncel; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    The development in high-end microwave transceiver systems toward the software defined radio has brought about the need for tunable frontend filters. Although the problem is being tackled by the microwave community, there still appears to be an unmet demand for practical tunable filter technologies...

  16. Plasma wave excitation by intense microwave transmission from a space vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, I.; Matsumoto, H.; Kaya, N.; Miyatake, S.

    An impact of intense microwave upon the ionospheric plasma was empirically investigated by an active rocket experiment (MINIX). The rocket carried two high-power (830W) transmitters of 2.45 GHz microwave on the mother section of the rocket. The ionospheric plasma response to the intense microwave was measured by a diagnostic package installed on both mother and daughter sections. The daughter section was separated from the mother with a slow speed of 15 cm/sec. The plasma wave analyzers revealed that various plasma waves are nonlinearly excited by the microwave. Among them, the most intense are electron cyclotron waves, followed by electron plasma waves. Extremely low frequency waves (several tens of Hz) are also found. The results of the data analysis as well as comparative computer simulations are given in this paper.

  17. Ex situ themo-catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapors using a traveling wave microwave reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave heating offers a number of advantages over conventional heating methods, such as, rapid and volumetric heating, precise temperature control, energy efficiency and lower temperature gradient. In this article we demonstrate the use of 2450 MHz microwave traveling wave reactor to heat the cat...

  18. Stochastic generation of continuous wave spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trulsen, J.; Dysthe, K. B.; Pécseli, Hans

    1983-01-01

    Wave packets of electromagnetic or Langmuir waves trapped in a well between oscillating reflectors are considered. An equation for the temporal evolution of the probability distribution for the carrier wave number is derived, and solved analytically in terms of moments in the limits of long...

  19. New cosmic microwave background constraint to primordial gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tristan L; Pierpaoli, Elena; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2006-07-14

    Primordial gravitational waves (GWs) with frequencies > or approximately equal to 10(-15) Hz contribute to the radiation density of the Universe at the time of decoupling of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This affects the CMB and matter power spectra in a manner identical to massless neutrinos, unless the initial density perturbation for the GWs is nonadiabatic, as may occur if such GWs are produced during inflation or some post-inflation phase transition. In either case, current observations provide a constraint to the GW amplitude that competes with that from big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), although it extends to much lower frequencies (approximately 10(-15) Hz rather than the approximately 10(-10) Hz from BBN): at 95% confidence level, omega(gw)h(2)

  20. Soft Computing Methods for Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Design Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Narendra; Mittal, Ankush

    2012-01-01

    The growing commercial market of Microwave/ Millimeter wave industry over the past decade has led to the explosion of interests and opportunities for the design and development of microwave components.The design of most microwave components requires the use of commercially available electromagnetic (EM) simulation tools for their analysis. In the design process, the simulations are carried out by varying the design parameters until the desired response is obtained. The optimization of design parameters by manual searching is a cumbersome and time consuming process. Soft computing methods such as Genetic Algorithm (GA), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Fuzzy Logic (FL) have been widely used by EM researchers for microwave design since last decade. The aim of these methods is to tolerate imprecision, uncertainty, and approximation to achieve robust and low cost solution in a small time frame.  Modeling and optimization are essential parts and powerful tools for the microwave/millimeter wave design. This boo...

  1. The electromagnetic wave energy effect(s) in microwave-assisted organic syntheses (MAOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Tomoki; Narita, Atsushi; Suzuki, Yumiko; Serpone, Nick

    2018-03-26

    Organic reactions driven by microwaves have been subjected for several years to some enigmatic phenomenon referred to as the microwave effect, an effect often mentioned in microwave chemistry but seldom understood. We identify this microwave effect as an electromagnetic wave effect that influences many chemical reactions. In this article, we demonstrate its existence using three different types of microwave generators with dissimilar oscillation characteristics. We show that this effect is operative in photocatalyzed TiO 2 reactions; it negatively influences electro-conductive catalyzed reactions, and yet has but a negligible effect on organic syntheses. The relationship between this electromagnetic wave effect and chemical reactions is elucidated from such energetic considerations as the photon energy and the reactions' activation energies.

  2. Comparison of Microwave Backscatter Measurements and Small-scale Surface Wave Measurements Made from the Dutch Ocean Research Tower "Noordwijk"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeij, P.; Halsema, D. van; Oost, W.A.; Calkoen, C.J.; Vogelzang, J.; Waas, S.; Jaehne, B.

    1991-01-01

    To improve the understanding of the interaction between microwaves and water waves the VIERS-l project started in 1986 with the preparation of two wind/wave tank experiments and an ocean tower experiment. In February 1988, combined measurements of microwave backscatter, wind, waves and gas exchange

  3. Observation of large-amplitude ion acoustic wave in microwave-plasma interaction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugami, Noboru; Nishida, Yasushi

    1997-01-01

    Large amplitude ion acoustic wave, which is not satisfied with a linear dispersion relationship of ion acoustic wave, is observed in microwave-plasma interaction experiments. This ion acoustic wave is excited around critical density layer and begins to propagate to underdense region with a phase velocity one order faster than sound velocity C s , which is predicted by the linear theory, the phase velocity and the wave length of the wave decreases as it propagates. Finally, it converges to C s and strongly dumps. Diagnostic by the Faraday cup indicates that this ion acoustic wave is accompanied with a hot ion beam. (author)

  4. Influence of voltage rise time on microwave generation in relativistic backward wave oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ping; Deng, Yuqun; Sun, Jun; Teng, Yan; Shi, Yanchao; Chen, Changhua

    2015-01-01

    In relativistic backward wave oscillators (RBWOs), although the slow wave structure (SWS) and electron beam determine the main characteristics of beam-wave interaction, many other factors can also significantly affect the microwave generation process. This paper investigates the influence of voltage rise time on beam-wave interaction in RBWOs. Preliminary analysis and PIC simulations demonstrate if the voltage rise time is moderately long, the microwave frequency will gradually increase during the startup process until the voltage reaches its amplitude, which can be explained by the dispersion relation. However, if the voltage rise time is long enough, the longitudinal resonance of the finitely-long SWS will force the RBWO to work with unwanted longitudinal modes for a while and then gradually hop to the wanted longitudinal mode, and this will lead to an impure microwave frequency spectrum. Besides, a longer voltage rise time will delay the startup process and thus lead to a longer microwave saturation time. And if unwanted longitudinal modes are excited due to long voltage rise time, the microwave saturation time will be further lengthened. Therefore, the voltage rise time of accelerators adopted in high power microwave technology should not be too long in case unwanted longitudinal modes are excited

  5. Emergence of traveling wave endothermic reaction in a catalytic fixed bed under microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasev, Alexander P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new phenomenon in a packed bed catalytic reactor under microwave heating - traveling wave (moving reaction zones) endothermic chemical reaction. A two-phase model is developed to simulate the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the packed bed catalytic reactor with an irreversible first-order chemical reaction. The absorbed microwave power was obtained from Lambert's law. The structure of traveling wave endothermic chemical reaction was explored. The effects of the gas velocity and microwave power on performance of the packed bed catalytic reactor were presented. Finally, the effects of the change in the location of the microwave source at the packed bed reactor was demonstrated. - Highlights: • A new phenomenon - traveling waves of endothermic reaction - is predicted. • The physical and mathematical model of a packed bed catalytic reactor under microwave heating is presented. • The structure of the traveling waves is explored. • The configuration of heating the packed bed reactor via microwave plays a key role.

  6. Plasma filamentation and shock wave enhancement in microwave rockets by combining low-frequency microwaves with external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2016-01-01

    A filamentary plasma is reproduced based on a fully kinetic model of electron and ion transports coupled with electromagnetic wave propagation. The discharge plasma transits from discrete to diffusive patterns at a 110-GHz breakdown, with decrease in the ambient pressure, because of the rapid electron diffusion that occurs during an increase in the propagation speed of the ionization front. A discrete plasma is obtained at low pressures when a low-frequency microwave is irradiated because the ionization process becomes more dominant than the electron diffusion, when the electrons are effectively heated by the low-frequency microwave. The propagation speed of the plasma increases with decrease in the incident microwave frequency because of the higher ionization frequency and faster plasma diffusion resulting from the increase in the energy-absorption rate. An external magnetic field is applied to the breakdown volume, which induces plasma filamentation at lower pressures because the electron diffusion is suppressed by the magnetic field. The thrust performance of a microwave rocket is improved by the magnetic fields corresponding to the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) and its higher-harmonic heating, because slower propagation of the ionization front and larger energy-absorption rates are obtained at lower pressures. It would be advantageous if the fundamental mode of ECR heating is coupled with a lower frequency microwave instead of combining the higher-harmonic ECR heating with the higher frequency microwave. This can improve the thrust performance with smaller magnetic fields even if the propagation speed increases because of the decrease in the incident microwave frequency.

  7. Plasma filamentation and shock wave enhancement in microwave rockets by combining low-frequency microwaves with external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Masayuki, E-mail: m.takahashi@al.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku 113-8656 (Japan); Ohnishi, Naofumi [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-08-14

    A filamentary plasma is reproduced based on a fully kinetic model of electron and ion transports coupled with electromagnetic wave propagation. The discharge plasma transits from discrete to diffusive patterns at a 110-GHz breakdown, with decrease in the ambient pressure, because of the rapid electron diffusion that occurs during an increase in the propagation speed of the ionization front. A discrete plasma is obtained at low pressures when a low-frequency microwave is irradiated because the ionization process becomes more dominant than the electron diffusion, when the electrons are effectively heated by the low-frequency microwave. The propagation speed of the plasma increases with decrease in the incident microwave frequency because of the higher ionization frequency and faster plasma diffusion resulting from the increase in the energy-absorption rate. An external magnetic field is applied to the breakdown volume, which induces plasma filamentation at lower pressures because the electron diffusion is suppressed by the magnetic field. The thrust performance of a microwave rocket is improved by the magnetic fields corresponding to the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) and its higher-harmonic heating, because slower propagation of the ionization front and larger energy-absorption rates are obtained at lower pressures. It would be advantageous if the fundamental mode of ECR heating is coupled with a lower frequency microwave instead of combining the higher-harmonic ECR heating with the higher frequency microwave. This can improve the thrust performance with smaller magnetic fields even if the propagation speed increases because of the decrease in the incident microwave frequency.

  8. Microwave power coupling in a surface wave excited plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyananda Kar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, different types of plasma sources have been used for various types of plasma processing, such as, etching and thin film deposition. The critical parameter for effective plasma processing is high plasma density. One type of high density plasma source is Microwave sheath-Voltage combination Plasma (MVP. In the present investigation, a better design of MVP source is reported, in which over-dense plasma is generated for low input microwave powers. The results indicate that the length of plasma column increases significantly with increase in input microwave power.

  9. Microwave pre-heating of natural rubber using a rectangular wave guide (MODE: TE10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo-ngam, N.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of microwave radiation for pre-heating of natural rubbercompounding with various sulphur contents. The natural rubber-compounding was pre-heated by microwave radiation using a rectangular wave guide system (MODE: TE10 operating at frequency of 2.45 GHz in which the power can vary from 0 to 1500 W. In the present work, the influence of power input, sample thickness, and sulphur content were examined after applying microwave radiation to the rubber samples. Results are discussed regarding the thermal properties, 3-D network, dielectric properties and chemical structures. From the result, firstly, it was found that microwave radiation can be applied to pre-heating natural rubber-compounding before the vulcanization process. Secondly, microwave radiation was very useful for pre-heating natural rubber-compounding that has a thickness greater than 5mm. Thirdly, crosslinking in natural rubber-compounding may occurs after pre-heating by microwave radiation though Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy(FTIR. Finally, there a little effect of sulphur content on temperature profiles after applying microwave radiation to the natural rubber-compounding. Moreover, natural rubber-compounding without carbon black showed a lower heat absorption compared with natural rubbercompounding filled carbon black. This is due to the difference in dielectric loss factor. This preliminary result will be useful information in terms of microwave radiation for pre-heating natural rubber-compounding and rubber processing in industry.

  10. Modular Low-Heater-Power Cathode/Electron Gun Assembly for Microwave and Millimeter Wave Traveling Wave Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2000-01-01

    A low-cost, low-mass, electrically efficient, modular cathode/electron gun assembly has been developed by FDE Inc. of Beaverton, Oregon, under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. This new assembly offers significant improvements in the design and manufacture of microwave and millimeter wave traveling-wave tubes (TWT's) used for radar and communications. It incorporates a novel, low-heater-power, reduced size and mass, high-performance barium dispenser type thermionic cathode and provides for easy integration of the cathode into a large variety of conventional TWT circuits. Among the applications are TWT's for Earth-orbiting communication satellites and for deep space communications, where future missions will require smaller spacecraft, higher data transfer rates (higher frequencies and radiofrequency output power), and greater electrical efficiency. A particularly important TWT application is in the microwave power module (a hybrid microwave/millimeter wave amplifier consisting of a low-noise solid-state driver, a small TWT, and an electronic power conditioner integrated into a single compact package), where electrical efficiency and thermal loading are critical factors and lower cost is needed for successful commercialization. The design and fabrication are based on practices used in producing cathode ray tubes (CRT's), which is one of the most competitive and efficient manufacturing operations in the world today. The approach used in the design and manufacture of thermionic cathodes and electron guns for CRT's has been optimized for fully automated production, standardization of parts, and minimization of costs. It is applicable to the production of similar components for microwave tubes, with the additional benefits of low mass and significantly lower cathode heater power (less than half that of dispenser cathodes presently used in TWT s). Modular cathode/electron gun assembly. The modular

  11. An adjustable RF tuning element for microwave, millimeter wave, and submillimeter wave integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubecke, Victor M.; Mcgrath, William R.; Rutledge, David B.

    1991-01-01

    Planar RF circuits are used in a wide range of applications from 1 GHz to 300 GHz, including radar, communications, commercial RF test instruments, and remote sensing radiometers. These circuits, however, provide only fixed tuning elements. This lack of adjustability puts severe demands on circuit design procedures and materials parameters. We have developed a novel tuning element which can be incorporated into the design of a planar circuit in order to allow active, post-fabrication tuning by varying the electrical length of a coplanar strip transmission line. It consists of a series of thin plates which can slide in unison along the transmission line, and the size and spacing of the plates are designed to provide a large reflection of RF power over a useful frequency bandwidth. Tests of this structure at 1 GHz to 3 Ghz showed that it produced a reflection coefficient greater than 0.90 over a 20 percent bandwidth. A 2 GHz circuit incorporating this tuning element was also tested to demonstrate practical tuning ranges. This structure can be fabricated for frequencies as high as 1000 GHz using existing micromachining techniques. Many commercial applications can benefit from this micromechanical RF tuning element, as it will aid in extending microwave integrated circuit technology into the high millimeter wave and submillimeter wave bands by easing constraints on circuit technology.

  12. Continuity relations and quantum wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedecke, G.H.; Davis, B.T.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the mathematical synthesis of the Schroedinger, Klein-Gordon, Pauli-Schroedinger, and Dirac equations starting from probability continuity relations. We utilize methods similar to those employed by R. E. Collins (Lett. Nuovo Cimento, 18 (1977) 581) in his construction of the Schroedinger equation from the position probability continuity relation for a single particle. Our new results include the mathematical construction of the Pauli-Schroedinger and Dirac equations from the position probability continuity relations for a particle that can transition between two states or among four states, respectively.

  13. Wide-band continuous-wave terahertz source with a vertically integrated photomixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peytavit, E.; Lampin, J.-F.; Hindle, F.; Yang, C.; Mouret, G.

    2009-10-01

    A transverse electromagnetic horn antenna is monolithically integrated with a low temperature grown GaAs vertical photodetector on a silicon substrate forming a vertically integrated photomixer. Continuous-wave terahertz radiation is generated at frequencies up to 3.5 THz with a power level reaching 20 nW around 3 THz. Microwave and material concepts allow both qualitative and quantitative explanations of the experimental results. The thin film microstrip line topology has been adapted for active devices by an Au-Au thermocompression layer transfer technique and seems to be a promising generic tool for a new generation of efficient terahertz devices.

  14. Optimization of continuous and intermittent microwave extraction of pectin from banana peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Gabriela John; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan

    2017-04-01

    Continuous and intermittent microwave-assisted extractions were used to extract pectin from banana peels. Extraction parameters which were employed in the continuous process were microwave power (300-900W), time (100-300s), pH (1-3) and in the intermittent process were microwave power (300-900W), pulse ratio (0.5-1), pH (1-3). The independent factors were optimized with the Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) (three factor three level) with the desirability function methodology. Results indicate that the independent factors have substantial effect on the pectin yield. Optimized solutions for highest pectin yield (2.18%) from banana peels were obtained with microwave power of 900W, time 100s and pH 3.00 in the continuous method while the intermittent process yielded the highest pectin content (2.58%) at microwave power of 900W, pulse ratio of 0.5 and pH of 3.00. The optimized conditions were validated and close agreement was observed with the validation experiment and predicted value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Continuous microwave pasteurization of a vegetable smoothie improves its physical quality and hinders detrimental enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmandi, Mitra; Otón, Mariano; Artés, Francisco; Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Gómez, Perla A; Aguayo, Encarna

    2017-01-01

    The effect of a pasteurization treatment at 90 ± 2 ℃ for 35 s provided by continuous microwave under different doses (low power/long time and high power/short time) or conventional pasteurization on the quality of orange-colored smoothies and their changes throughout 45 days of storage at 5 ℃ was investigated. A better color retention of the microwave pasteurization- treated smoothie using high power/short time than in conventionally processed sample was evidenced by the stability of the hue angle. The continuous microwave heating increased the viscosity of the smoothie more than the conventional pasteurization in comparison with non-treated samples. Lower residual enzyme activities from peroxidase, pectin methylesterase and polygalacturonase were obtained under microwave heating, specifically due to the use of higher power/shorter time. For this kind of smoothie, polygalacturonase was the more thermo-resistant enzyme and could be used as an indicator of pasteurization efficiency. The use of a continuous semi-industrial microwave using higher power and shorter time, such as 1600 W/206 s and 3600 W/93 s, resulted in better quality smoothies and greater enzyme reduction than conventional thermal treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, W. Y.; Wu, M. H.; Wu, K. L.; Lin, M. H.; Teng, H. H.; Tsai, Y. F.; Ko, C. C.; Yang, E. C.; Jiang, J. A.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R.

    2014-08-01

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  17. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, W. Y.; Wu, M. H.; Wu, K. L.; Lin, M. H.; Teng, H. H.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R., E-mail: krchu@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Y. F.; Ko, C. C.; Yang, E. C. [Department of Entomology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jiang, J. A. [Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-15

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  18. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, W Y; Wu, M H; Wu, K L; Lin, M H; Teng, H H; Tsai, Y F; Ko, C C; Yang, E C; Jiang, J A; Barnett, L R; Chu, K R

    2014-08-01

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  19. Diffusion and drift regimes of plasma ionization wave propagation in a microwave field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodataev, K.V.; Gorelik, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Investigation into diffusion and drift modes of a plasma ionization wave propagation in the microwave field are conducted within the framework of a one-dimensional model with regard to gas ionization by electron shock in an electrical field, adhesion, mobility and diffusion of electrons

  20. A continuous wave RF vacuum window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, R.

    1999-09-01

    An essential part of an ICRF system to be used in fusion reactor is the RF window. This is fitted in a coaxial transmission line. It forms a vacuum and tritium boundary between the antenna, situated inside the machine, and the transmission line, which feeds it. A double window is required with a vacuum inter-space. The dielectric, which forms the vacuum boundary, must be brazed into its housing. The window must be of a robust construction, and capable of withstanding both axial and radial loads. The vacuum boundaries should be thick walled in order act as a suitable tritium barrier. A further requirement is that the window is capable of continuous operation. The design of such a window is presented below. A half scale prototype has been manufactured, which has successfully completed RF, vacuum, and mechanical testing at JET, but has no water cooling, which is a requirement for continuous operation. The design presented here is for a window to match the existing 30 Ω main transmission lines at JET. It employs two opposed ceramic dielectric cones with a much increased angle of incidence compared with existing JET windows. The housing is machined from titanium. Small corona rings are used, and the tracking distance along the ceramic surface is large. The geometry minimizes the peak electric field strength. The design uses substantial pre-stressing during manufacture, to produce a compressive stress field throughout the dielectric material. Significant tensile stresses in the ceramic, and therefore the possibility of fracture due to applied thermal and mechanical loading, are eliminated in this way. A full-scale actively cooled RF window using this basic design should be capable of continuous use at 50 kV in the 20 - 90 MHz range. A half scale, inertially cooled prototype window has been designed, built and tested successfully at JET to 48 kV for up to 20 seconds. The prototype uses alumina for the dielectric, whereas beryllia is more appropriate for continuous

  1. Quality evaluation of packaged acidified vegetables subjected to continuous microwave pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluated the use of 915 MHz continuous microwave processing with a rotation apparatus for pasteurization of acidified vegetable packages. Broccoli florets, and 1.2 cm cubes of broccoli stems, red bell pepper, and sweetpotato were pre-equilibrated to 1 g/100 g NaCl and 0.38 g/100 mL citric...

  2. System design development for microwave and millimeter-wave materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feher, Lambert; Thumm, Manfred

    2002-06-01

    The most notable effect in processing dielectrics with micro- and millimeter-waves is volumetric heating of these materials, offering the opportunity of very high heating rates for the samples. In comparison to conventional heating where the heat transfer is diffusive and depends on the thermal conductivity of the material, the microwave field penetrates the sample and acts as an instantaneous heat source at each point of the sample. By this unique property, microwave heating at 2.45 GHz and 915 MHz ISM (Industrial, Medical, Scientific) frequencies is established as an important industrial technology since more than 50 years ago. Successful application of microwaves in industries has been reported e.g. by food processing systems, domestic ovens, rubber industry, vacuum drying etc. The present paper shows some outlines of microwave system development at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM by transferring properties from the higher frequency regime (millimeter-waves) to lower frequency applications. Anyway, the need for using higher frequencies like 24 GHz (ISM frequency) for industrial applications has to be carefully verified with respect to special physical/engineering advantages or to limits the standard microwave technology meets for the specific problem.

  3. Wave function of a microwave-driven Bose-Einstein magnon condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, Sergio M.

    2010-01-01

    It has been observed experimentally that a magnon gas in a film of yttrium-iron garnet at room temperature driven by a microwave field exhibits Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) when the driving power exceeds a critical value. In a previous paper we presented a model for the dynamics of the magnon system in wave-vector space that provides firm theoretical support for the formation of the BEC. Here we show that the wave function of the magnon condensate in configuration space satisfies a Gross-Pitaevskii equation similarly to other BEC systems. The theory is consistent with the previous model in wave-vector space, and its results are in qualitative agreement with recent measurements of the spatial distribution of the magnon condensate driven by a nonuniform microwave field.

  4. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of methyl ricinoleate for continuous production of undecylenic acid methyl ester (UAME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yong; Duan, Ying; Gong, Ruchao; Yu, Shangzhi; Lu, Meizhen; Yu, Fengwen; Ji, Jianbing

    2015-06-01

    Undecylenic acid methyl ester (UAME) was continuously produced from methyl ricinoleate using a microwave-assisted pyrolysis system with atomization feeding. The UAME yield of 77 wt.% was obtained at 500°C using SiC as the microwave absorbent and heating medium. The methyl ricinoleate conversion and UAME yield from microwave-assisted pyrolysis process were higher than those from conventional pyrolysis. The effect of temperature on the pyrolysis process was also investigated. The methyl ricinoleate conversion increased but the cracking liquid yield decreased when the temperature increased from 460°C to 560°C. The maximum UAME yield was obtained at the temperature of 500°C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Infrastructure for the design and fabrication of MEMS for RF/microwave and millimeter wave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerguizian, Vahe; Rafaf, Mustapha

    2004-08-01

    This article describes and provides valuable information for companies and universities with strategies to start fabricating MEMS for RF/Microwave and millimeter wave applications. The present work shows the infrastructure developed for RF/Microwave and millimeter wave MEMS platforms, which helps the identification, evaluation and selection of design tools and fabrication foundries taking into account packaging and testing. The selected and implemented simple infrastructure models, based on surface and bulk micromachining, yield inexpensive and innovative approaches for distributed choices of MEMS operating tools. With different educational or industrial institution needs, these models may be modified for specific resource changes using a careful analyzed iteration process. The inputs of the project are evaluation selection criteria and information sources such as financial, technical, availability, accessibility, simplicity, versatility and practical considerations. The outputs of the project are the selection of different MEMS design tools or software (solid modeling, electrostatic/electromagnetic and others, compatible with existing standard RF/Microwave design tools) and different MEMS manufacturing foundries. Typical RF/Microwave and millimeter wave MEMS solutions are introduced on the platform during the evaluation and development phases of the project for the validation of realistic results and operational decision making choices. The encountered challenges during the investigation and the development steps are identified and the dynamic behavior of the infrastructure is emphasized. The inputs (resources) and the outputs (demonstrated solutions) are presented in tables and flow chart mode diagrams.

  6. Optimised frequency modulation for continuous-wave optical magnetic resonance sensing using nitrogen-vacancy ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Ella, Haitham; Ahmadi, Sepehr; Wojciechowski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    transitions, we experimentally show that when the ratio between the hyperfine linewidth and their separation is ≥ 1=4, square-wave based frequency modulation generates the steepest slope at modulation depths exceeding the separation of the hyperfine lines, compared to sine-wave based modulation. We formulate......Magnetometers based on ensembles of nitrogen-vacancy centres are a promising platform for continuously sensing static and low-frequency magnetic fields. Their combination with phase-sensitive (lock-in) detection creates a highly versatile sensor with a sensitivity that is proportional...... to the derivative of the optical magnetic resonance lock-in spectrum, which is in turn dependant on the lock-in modulation parameters. Here we study the dependence of the lock-in spectral slope on the modulation of the spin-driving microwave field. Given the presence of the intrinsic nitrogen hyperfine spin...

  7. Bragg scattering of electromagnetic waves by microwave-produced plasma layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, S. P.; Zhang, Y. S.

    1990-01-01

    A set of parallel plasma layers is generated by two intersecting microwave pulses in a chamber containing dry air at a pressure comparable to the upper atmosphere. The dependencies of breakdown conditions on the pressure and pulse length are examined. The results are shown to be consistent with the appearance of tail erosion of the microwave pulse caused by air breakdown. A Bragg scattering experiment, using the plasma layers as a Bragg reflector, is then performed. Both time domain and frequency domain measurements of wave scattering are conducted. The experimental results are found to agree very well with the theory.

  8. Enhanced polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation from thermal gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Mohanty, Subhendra; Nautiyal, Akhilesh

    2006-12-22

    If inflation was preceded by a radiation era, then at the time of inflation there will exist a decoupled thermal distribution of gravitons. Gravitational waves generated during inflation will be amplified by the process of stimulated emission into the existing thermal distribution of gravitons. Consequently, the usual zero temperature scale invariant tensor spectrum is modified by a temperature dependent factor. This thermal correction factor amplifies the B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation by an order of magnitude at large angles, which may now be in the range of observability of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe.

  9. Polarized Microwave Background Technologies for Inflationary Gravitational Wave Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The detection of primordial gravitational waves (PGWs) from the epoch of inflation is one of the next majors goals in cosmology. These PGWs leave a signature on the...

  10. Evaluation of ground stiffness parameters using continuous surface wave geophysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Anne; Foged, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Present day knowledge of the magnitude of the strain levels in the ground associated with geotechnical structures, together with an increasing number of projects requiring the best estimates of ground movements around excavations, has led to, inter alia, increased interest in measuring the very......-small-strain stiffness of the ground Gmax. Continuous surface wave geophysics offers a quick, non-intrusive and economical way of making such measurements. This paper reviews the continuous surface wave techniques and evaluates, in engineering terms, the applicability of the method to the site investigation industry....

  11. Experimental measurements of lower-hybrid wave propagation in the Versator II tokamak using microwave scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohatgi, R.; Chen, K.; Bekefi, G.; Bonoli, P.; Luckhardt, S.C.; Mayberry, M.; Porkolab, M.; Villasenor, J.

    1991-01-01

    A series of 139 GHz microwave scattering experiments has been performed on the Versator II tokamak (B. Richards, Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1981) to study the propagation of externally launched 0.8 GHz lower-hybrid waves. During lower-hybrid current drive, the launched waves are found to follow a highly directional resonance cone in the outer portion of the plasma. Wave power is also detected near the center of the plasma, and evidence of wave absorption is seen. Scattering of lower-hybrid waves in k space by density fluctuations appears to be a weak effect, although measurable frequency broadening by density fluctuations is found, Δω/ω=3x10 -4 . In the detectable range (2.5 parallel parallel spectra inferred from the scattering measurements are quite similar above and below the current drive density limit. Numerical modeling of these experiments using ray tracing is also presented

  12. Acousto-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity with Lamb waves in microwave K band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadesse, Semere A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Li, Huan; Liu, Qiyu; Li, Mo, E-mail: moli@umn.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-11-16

    Integrating nanoscale electromechanical transducers and nanophotonic devices potentially can enable acousto-optic devices to reach unprecedented high frequencies and modulation efficiency. Here, we demonstrate acousto-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity using Lamb waves with frequency up to 19 GHz, reaching the microwave K band. The devices are fabricated in suspended aluminum nitride membrane. Excitation of acoustic waves is achieved with interdigital transducers with period as small as 300 nm. Confining both acoustic wave and optical wave within the thickness of the membrane leads to improved acousto-optic modulation efficiency in these devices than that obtained in previous surface acoustic wave devices. Our system demonstrates a scalable optomechanical platform where strong acousto-optic coupling between cavity-confined photons and high frequency traveling phonons can be explored.

  13. High power microwave source with a three dimensional printed metamaterial slow-wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, David M.; Shiffler, Don

    2016-01-01

    For over the last decade, the concept of metamaterials has led to new approaches for considering the interaction of radiation with complex structures. However, practical manifestations of such a device operating at high power densities have proven difficult to achieve due to the resonant nature of metamaterials and the resultant high electric fields, which place severe constraints on manufacturing the slow wave structures. In this paper, we describe the first experimental manifestation of a high power microwave device utilizing a metallic slow wave structure (metamaterial-like) fabricated using additive manufacturing. The feasibility of utilizing additive manufacturing as a technique for building these relatively complicated structures has thus been demonstrated. The MW class microwave source operates in the C-band and shows frequency tunablility with electron beam voltage. The basic electromagnetic characteristics of this device, the construction using additive manufacturing, and the basic performance as a microwave oscillator are considered. Due to the tunable nature of the device, it shows promise not only as an oscillator but also as a microwave amplifier. Therefore, the dispersive characteristics and a discussion of the anticipated gain is included as it relates to an amplifier configuration.

  14. High power microwave source with a three dimensional printed metamaterial slow-wave structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, David M.; Shiffler, Don [Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, Albuquerque, New Mexico 871117 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    For over the last decade, the concept of metamaterials has led to new approaches for considering the interaction of radiation with complex structures. However, practical manifestations of such a device operating at high power densities have proven difficult to achieve due to the resonant nature of metamaterials and the resultant high electric fields, which place severe constraints on manufacturing the slow wave structures. In this paper, we describe the first experimental manifestation of a high power microwave device utilizing a metallic slow wave structure (metamaterial-like) fabricated using additive manufacturing. The feasibility of utilizing additive manufacturing as a technique for building these relatively complicated structures has thus been demonstrated. The MW class microwave source operates in the C-band and shows frequency tunablility with electron beam voltage. The basic electromagnetic characteristics of this device, the construction using additive manufacturing, and the basic performance as a microwave oscillator are considered. Due to the tunable nature of the device, it shows promise not only as an oscillator but also as a microwave amplifier. Therefore, the dispersive characteristics and a discussion of the anticipated gain is included as it relates to an amplifier configuration.

  15. Influence of cathode emission uniformity on microwave generation in relativistic backward wave oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping; Sun, Jun; Teng, Yan

    2017-12-01

    The emission uniformity of explosive emission cathodes is important to the operation of high power microwave generators. Although this concept seems to be widely accepted, the concrete influence of cathode emission uniformity on microwave generation has not been researched in detail and many conclusions on this matter are ambiguous due to the lack of solid evidence. This paper makes an effort to research this issue with particle-in-cell simulations about an X-band relativistic backward wave oscillator. To keep the diode impedance unchanged, an emission model in which each emission cell is artificially assigned a specific current density is adopted. The emission non-uniformity is simulated in three ways: spaced emission, large-area no-emission, and local enhanced emission. The simulation results uncover three phenomena: first, no significant influence is found for the cathode emission uniformity on the microwave starting time as long as no obvious mode competition is excited by emission non-uniformity; second, bad emission uniformity may bring about reduction of microwave power, but this may not happen when the emission non-uniformity is just localized to a few discrete strong emission points; third, under specific circumstances, the emission non-uniformity may lead to the excitation of mode competition, which can significantly delay the starting time and lower the microwave power.

  16. The Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) design and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, A.M.M. (Grumman Space and Electronics Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States)); Nightingale, M.P.S. (AEA Industrial Technology, Culham (United Kingdom)); Yule, T.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The design of the Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) and the status of the fabricated hardware is presented. The CWDD is a high brightness, 352 MHz, CW linear accelerator designed to deliver a 7.54 MeV, 80 mA D[sup [minus

  17. Toward continuous-wave operation of organic semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandanayaka, Atula S. D.; Matsushima, Toshinori; Bencheikh, Fatima; Yoshida, Kou; Inoue, Munetomo; Fujihara, Takashi; Goushi, Kenichi; Ribierre, Jean-Charles; Adachi, Chihaya

    2017-01-01

    The demonstration of continuous-wave lasing from organic semiconductor films is highly desirable for practical applications in the areas of spectroscopy, data communication, and sensing, but it still remains a challenging objective. We report low-threshold surface-emitting organic distributed feedback lasers operating in the quasi–continuous-wave regime at 80 MHz as well as under long-pulse photoexcitation of 30 ms. This outstanding performance was achieved using an organic semiconductor thin film with high optical gain, high photoluminescence quantum yield, and no triplet absorption losses at the lasing wavelength combined with a mixed-order distributed feedback grating to achieve a low lasing threshold. A simple encapsulation technique greatly reduced the laser-induced thermal degradation and suppressed the ablation of the gain medium otherwise taking place under intense continuous-wave photoexcitation. Overall, this study provides evidence that the development of a continuous-wave organic semiconductor laser technology is possible via the engineering of the gain medium and the device architecture. PMID:28508042

  18. Theoretical insight into ArO2 surface-wave microwave discharges

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A zero-dimensional kinetic model has been developed to investigate the coupled electron and heavy-particle kinetics in Ar-O 2 surface-wave microwave discharges generated in long cylindrical tubes, such as those launched with a surfatron or a surfaguide. The model has been validated by comparing the calculated electron temperature and species densities with experimental data available in the literature for different discharge conditions. Systematic studies have been carried out for...

  19. Modeling of microwave applicators with an excitation through the wave guide using TLM method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Tijana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a real microwave applicator with a wave guide used to launch the energy from the source into the cavity is analyzed using 3D TLM method. In order to investigate the influence of the positions and number of feed wave guides to the number of the resonant modes inside the cavity, obtained results are compared with analytical results and results obtained by using TLM software with an impulse excitation as well. TLM method is applied to the both empty and loaded rectangular metallic cavity, and a very good agreement between simulated and experimental results is achieved.

  20. Cluster Observations of Non-Time Continuous Magnetosonic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Simon N.; Demekhov, Andrei G.; Boardsen, Scott A.; Ganushkina, Natalia Y.; Sibeck, David G.; Balikhin, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Equatorial magnetosonic waves are normally observed as temporally continuous sets of emissions lasting from minutes to hours. Recent observations, however, have shown that this is not always the case. Using Cluster data, this study identifies two distinct forms of these non temporally continuous use missions. The first, referred to as rising tone emissions, are characterized by the systematic onset of wave activity at increasing proton gyroharmonic frequencies. Sets of harmonic emissions (emission elements)are observed to occur periodically in the region +/- 10 off the geomagnetic equator. The sweep rate of these emissions maximizes at the geomagnetic equator. In addition, the ellipticity and propagation direction also change systematically as Cluster crosses the geomagnetic equator. It is shown that the observed frequency sweep rate is unlikely to result from the sideband instability related to nonlinear trapping of suprathermal protons in the wave field. The second form of emissions is characterized by the simultaneous onset of activity across a range of harmonic frequencies. These waves are observed at irregular intervals. Their occurrence correlates with changes in the spacecraft potential, a measurement that is used as a proxy for electron density. Thus, these waves appear to be trapped within regions of localized enhancement of the electron density.

  1. EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY WITH CONTINUOUS SPIKES-WAVES ACTIVITY DURING SLEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Belousova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author represents the review and discussion of current scientific literature devoted to epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikes-waves activity during sleep — the special form of partly reversible age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy, characterized by triad of symptoms: continuous prolonged epileptiform (spike-wave activity on EEG in sleep, epileptic seizures and cognitive disorders. The author describes the aspects of classification, pathogenesis and etiology, prevalence, clinical picture and diagnostics of this disorder, including the peculiar anomalies on EEG. The especial attention is given to approaches to the treatment of epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikeswaves activity during sleep. Efficacy of valproates, corticosteroid hormones and antiepileptic drugs of other groups is considered. The author represents own experience of treatment this disorder with corticosteroids, scheme of therapy and assessment of efficacy.

  2. One-step synthesis of pyridines and dihydropyridines in a continuous flow microwave reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C. Bagley

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bohlmann–Rahtz pyridine synthesis and the Hantzsch dihydropyridine synthesis can be carried out in a microwave flow reactor or using a conductive heating flow platform for the continuous processing of material. In the Bohlmann–Rahtz reaction, the use of a Brønsted acid catalyst allows Michael addition and cyclodehydration to be carried out in a single step without isolation of intermediates to give the corresponding trisubstituted pyridine as a single regioisomer in good yield. Furthermore, 3-substituted propargyl aldehydes undergo Hantzsch dihydropyridine synthesis in preference to Bohlmann–Rahtz reaction in a very high yielding process that is readily transferred to continuous flow processing.

  3. Development and application of a continuous fast microwave pyrolysis system for sewage sludge utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junwen; Liu, Shiyu; Zhou, Nan; Fan, Liangliang; Zhang, Yaning; Peng, Peng; Anderson, Erik; Ding, Kuan; Wang, Yunpu; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2018-05-01

    A continuous fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis system was designed, fabricated, and tested with sewage sludge. The system is equipped with continuous biomass feeding, mixing of biomass and microwave absorbent, and separated catalyst upgrading. The effect of the sludge pyrolysis temperature (450, 500, 550, and 600 °C) on the products yield, distribution and potentially energy recovery were investigated. The physical, chemical, and energetic properties of the raw sewage sludge and bio-oil, char and gas products obtained were analyzed using elemental analyzer, GC-MS, Micro-GC, SEM and ICP-OES. While the maximum bio-oil yield of 41.39 wt% was obtained at pyrolysis temperature of 550 °C, the optimal pyrolysis temperature for maximum overall energy recovery was 500 °C. The absence of carrier gas in the process may be responsible for the high HHV of gas products. This work could provide technical support for microwave-assisted system scale-up and sewage sludge utilization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonlinear excitation of electron cyclotron waves by a monochromatic strong microwave: computer simulation analysis of the MINIX results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kimura, T.

    1986-01-01

    Triggered by the experimental results of the MINIX, a computer simulation study was initiated on the nonlinear excitation of electrostatic electron cyclotron waves by a monochromatic electromagnetic wave such as the transmitted microwave in the MINIX. The model used assumes that both of the excited waves and exciting (pumping) electromagnetic wave as well as the idler electromagnetic wave propagate in the direction perpendicular to the external magnetic field. The simulation code used for this study was the one-and-two-half dimensional electromagnetic particle code named KEMPO. The simulation result shows the high power electromagnetic wave produces both the backscattered electromagnetic wave and electrostatic electron cyclotron waves as a result of nonlinear parametric instability. Detailed nonlinear microphysics related to the wave excitation is discussed in terms of the nonlinear wave-wave couplings and associated ponderomotive force produced by the high power electromagnetic waves. 2 references, 4 figures.

  5. Nonlinear excitation of electron cyclotron waves by a monochromatic strong microwave: computer simulation analysis of the MINIX results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kimura, T.

    1986-01-01

    Triggered by the experimental results of the MINIX, a computer simulation study was initiated on the nonlinear excitation of electrostatic electron cyclotron waves by a monochromatic electromagnetic wave such as the transmitted microwave in the MINIX. The model used assumes that both of the excited waves and exciting (pumping) electromagnetic wave as well as the idler electromagnetic wave propagate in the direction perpendicular to the external magnetic field. The simulation code used for this study was the one-and-two-half dimensional electromagnetic particle code named KEMPO. The simulation result shows the high power electromagnetic wave produces both the backscattered electromagnetic wave and electrostatic electron cyclotron waves as a result of nonlinear parametric instability. Detailed nonlinear microphysics related to the wave excitation is discussed in terms of the nonlinear wave-wave couplings and associated ponderomotive force produced by the high power electromagnetic waves. 2 references, 4 figures

  6. Continuous wave room temperature external ring cavity quantum cascade laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revin, D. G., E-mail: d.revin@sheffield.ac.uk; Hemingway, M.; Vaitiekus, D.; Cockburn, J. W. [Physics and Astronomy Department, The University of Sheffield, S3 7RH Sheffield (United Kingdom); Hempler, N.; Maker, G. T.; Malcolm, G. P. A. [M Squared Lasers Ltd., G20 0SP Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-29

    An external ring cavity quantum cascade laser operating at ∼5.2 μm wavelength in a continuous-wave regime at the temperature of 15 °C is demonstrated. Out-coupled continuous-wave optical powers of up to 23 mW are observed for light of one propagation direction with an estimated total intra-cavity optical power flux in excess of 340 mW. The uni-directional regime characterized by the intensity ratio of more than 60 for the light propagating in the opposite directions was achieved. A single emission peak wavelength tuning range of 90 cm{sup −1} is realized by the incorporation of a diffraction grating into the cavity.

  7. Continuous wave room temperature external ring cavity quantum cascade laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revin, D. G.; Hemingway, M.; Vaitiekus, D.; Cockburn, J. W.; Hempler, N.; Maker, G. T.; Malcolm, G. P. A.

    2015-01-01

    An external ring cavity quantum cascade laser operating at ∼5.2 μm wavelength in a continuous-wave regime at the temperature of 15 °C is demonstrated. Out-coupled continuous-wave optical powers of up to 23 mW are observed for light of one propagation direction with an estimated total intra-cavity optical power flux in excess of 340 mW. The uni-directional regime characterized by the intensity ratio of more than 60 for the light propagating in the opposite directions was achieved. A single emission peak wavelength tuning range of 90 cm −1 is realized by the incorporation of a diffraction grating into the cavity

  8. Survey of exposure of physiotherapist operators to emissions from microwave and short wave diathermy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppell, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    An extensive survey of levels of electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of microwave and short wave diathermy equipment is presented and occupational exposure of physiotherapist operators is assessed. There was a good response to mailed questionnaires to 18 hospital boards, 21 private hospitals, and 148 private physiotherapy practices in Christchruch and centres of the north island of New Zealand. Within 34 public hospitals and 57 private practice of those so contacted, who also volunteered to participate, measurements were made in numerous positions about operating equipment. For practical reasons, manufactured phantom sections were substituted for real patients. Levels of microwave power flux density were found to vary according to position and to orientation of equipment and patient phantom. Provided, microwave diathermy equipment is used with reasonable care, excessive exposure of the physiotherapist operator is considered very unlikely. Levels of electric and magnetic field strength squared in the vicinity of simulated body sections under short wave diathermy treatment were found to be highly localised and strongly dependent upon the type of applicator used and the proximity of connecting leads. Operating procedures, including distances of separation, are recommended to protect operators from excessive exposure. (author). 30 refs., 8 tabs., 4 figs., ills

  9. Experimental continuous sludge microwave system to enhance dehydration ability and hydrogen production from anaerobic digestion of sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cuihong; Huang, Xintong; Zeng, Meng

    2018-05-01

    Dehydrating large amounts of sludge produced by sewage treatment plants is difficult. Microwave pretreatment can effectively and significantly improve the dewaterability and hydrogen production of sludge subjected to anaerobic digestion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different microwave conditions on hydrogen production from anaerobic digestion and dewaterability of sludge. Based on an analysis of the electric field distribution, a spiral reactor was designed and a continuous microwave system was built to conduct intermittent and continuous experiments under different conditions. Settling Volume, Capillary Suction Time, particle size, and moisture content of the sludge were measured. The results show that sludge pretreatment in continuous experiments has equally remarkable dehydration performance as in intermittent experiments; the minimum moisture content was 77.29% in the intermittent experiment under a microwave power of 300W and an exposure time of 60sec, and that in the continuous experiment was 77.56% under a microwave power of 400W and an exposure time of 60sec. The peak measured by Differential Scanning Calorimeter appeared earliest under a microwave power of 600W and an exposure time of 180sec. The heat flux at the peak was 4.343W/g, which is relatively small. This indicates that microwave pretreatment induced desirable effects. The maximum yield of hydrogen production was 7.967% under the conditions of microwave power of 500W, exposure time of 120sec, and water bath at 55°C. This research provides a theoretical and experimental basis for the development of a continuous microwave sludge-conditioning system. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Deciphering inflation with gravitational waves: Cosmic microwave background polarization vs direct detection with laser interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Tristan L.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Cooray, Asantha

    2006-01-01

    A detection of the primordial gravitational wave background is considered to be the 'smoking-gun' evidence for inflation. While superhorizon waves are probed with cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization, the relic background will be studied with laser interferometers. The long lever arm spanned by the two techniques improves constraints on the inflationary potential and validation of consistency relations expected under inflation. If gravitational waves with a tensor-to-scalar amplitude ratio greater than 0.01 are detected by the CMB, then a direct-detection experiment with a sensitivity consistent with current concept studies should be pursued vigorously. If no primordial tensors are detected by the CMB, a direct-detection experiment to understand the simplest form of inflation must have a sensitivity improved by two to 3 orders of magnitude over current plans

  11. Temperature measurements with two different IR sensors in a continuous-flow microwave heated system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Rydfjord

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In a continuous-flow system equipped with a nonresonant microwave applicator we have investigated how to best assess the actual temperature of microwave heated organic solvents with different characteristics. This is non-trivial as the electromagnetic field will influence most traditional methods of temperature measurement. Thus, we used a microwave transparent fiber optic probe, capable of measuring the temperature inside the reactor, and investigated two different IR sensors as non-contact alternatives to the internal probe. IR sensor 1 measures the temperature on the outside of the reactor whilst IR sensor 2 is designed to measure the temperature of the fluid through the borosilicate glass that constitutes the reactor wall. We have also, in addition to the characterization of the before mentioned IR sensors, developed statistical models to correlate the IR sensor reading to a correct value of the inner temperature (as determined by the internal fiber optic probe, thereby providing a non-contact, indirect, temperature assessment of the heated solvent. The accuracy achieved with these models lie well within the range desired for most synthetic chemistry applications.

  12. A Microwave Driven Ion Source for Continuous-Flow AMS (Abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, J.; Schneider, R.J.; Reden, K.F. von; Hayes, J.M.; Roberts, M.L.; Benthien, A.

    2005-01-01

    A microwave-driven, gas-fed ion source originally developed as a high-current positive ion injector for a Tandem accelerator at Chalk River has been the subject of a three-year development program at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution NOSAMS facility. Off-line tests have demonstrated positive carbon currents of 1 mA and negative carbon currents of 80 μA from CO2 gas feed. This source and a magnesium charge-exchange canal were coupled to the recombinator of the NOSAMS Tandetron for on-line tests, with the source fed with reference gasses and a combustion device.The promising results obtained have prompted the redesign of the microwave source for use as an on-line, continuous-flow injector for a new AMS facility under construction at NOSAMS. The new design is optimized for best transmission of the extracted positive-ion beam through the charge-exchange canal and for reliable operation at 40 kV extraction voltage. Other goals of the re-design include improved lifetime of the microwave window and the elimination of dead volumes in the plasma generator that increase sample hold-up time.This talk will include a summary of results obtained to date at NOSAMS with the Chalk River source and a detailed description of the new design

  13. Impacts of microwave pretreatments on the semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of dairy waste activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uma Rani, R.; Adish Kumar, S.; Kaliappan, S.; Yeom, IckTae; Rajesh Banu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Microwave pretreatment of dairy WAS was studied. ► MW pretreatment at 70% intensity for 12 min, COD solubilization was 18.6%. ► Biogas production and SS reduction was 35% and 14% higher than control. ► In digester at 15 days SRT with medium OLR, SS and VS reduction was 67% and 64%. ► Biogas and methane production was 57% and 49% higher than control, in digesters. - Abstract: Microwave (MW) irradiation is one of the new and possible methods used for pretreating the sludge. Following its use in different fields, this MW irradiation method has proved to be more appropriate in the field of environmental research. In this paper, we focused on the effects of MW irradiation at different intensities on solubilization, biodegradation and anaerobic digestion of sludge from the dairy sludge. The changes in the soluble fractions of the organic matter, the biogas yield, the methane content in the biogas were used as control parameters for evaluating the efficiency of the MW pretreatment. Additionally, the energetic efficiency was also examined. In terms of an energetic aspect, the most economical pretreatment of sludge was at 70% intensity for 12 min irradiation time. At this, COD solubilization, SS reduction and biogas production were found to be 18.6%, 14% and 35% higher than the control, respectively. Not only the increase in biogas production was investigated, excluding protein and carbohydrate hydrolysis was also performed successfully by this microwave pretreatment even at low irradiation energy input. Also, experiments were carried out in semi continuous anaerobic digesters, with 3.5 L working volume. Combining microwave pretreatment with anaerobic digestion led to 67%, 64% and 57% of SS reduction, VS reduction and biogas production higher than the control, respectively

  14. Modeling of the response of the POLARBEAR bolometers with a continuously rotating half-wave plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Satoru; POLARBEAR Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The curly pattern, the so-called B-mode, in the polarization anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is a powerful probe to measure primordial gravitational waves from the cosmic inflation, as well as the weak lensing due to the large scale structure of the Universe. At present, ground-based CMB experiments with a few arcminutes resolution such as POLARBEAR, SPTpol, and ACTPol have successfully measured the angular power spectrum of the B-mode only in sub-degree scales, though these experiments also have potential to measure the inflationary B-modes in degree scales in absence of the low-frequency noise (1/f noise). Thus, techniques of polarization signal modulation such as a continuously rotating half-wave plate (CRHWP) are widely investigated to suppress the 1/f noise and also to reduce instrumental systematic errors. In this study, we have implemented a CRHWP placed around the prime focus of the POLARBEAR telescope and operated at ambient temperatures. We construct a comprehensive model including half-wave plate synchronous signals, detector non-linearities, beam imperfections, and all noise sources. Using this model, we show that, in practice, the 1/f noise and instrumental systematics could remain even with the CRHWP. However, we also evaluate those effects from test observations using a prototype CRHWP on the POLARBEAR telescope and find that the residual 1/f noise is sufficiently small for POLARBEAR to probe the multipoles about 40. We will also discuss prospects for future CMB experiments with better sensitivities.

  15. High-precision terahertz frequency modulated continuous wave imaging method using continuous wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Wang, Tianyi; Dai, Bing; Li, Wenjun; Wang, Wei; You, Chengwu; Wang, Kejia; Liu, Jinsong; Wang, Shenglie; Yang, Zhengang

    2018-02-01

    Inspired by the extensive application of terahertz (THz) imaging technologies in the field of aerospace, we exploit a THz frequency modulated continuous-wave imaging method with continuous wavelet transform (CWT) algorithm to detect a multilayer heat shield made of special materials. This method uses the frequency modulation continuous-wave system to catch the reflected THz signal and then process the image data by the CWT with different basis functions. By calculating the sizes of the defects area in the final images and then comparing the results with real samples, a practical high-precision THz imaging method is demonstrated. Our method can be an effective tool for the THz nondestructive testing of composites, drugs, and some cultural heritages.

  16. Continuous-wave terahertz light from optical parametric oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowade, Rosita

    2010-12-15

    Continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) are working horses for spectroscopy in the near and mid infrared. However, in the terahertz frequency range (0.1 to 10 THz), the pump threshold is more than 100 W due to the high absorption in nonlinear crystals and thus exceeds the power of standard cw single-frequency pump sources. In this thesis the first cw OPO capable of generating terahertz radiation is demonstrated. To overcome the high threshold, the signal wave of a primary infrared process is resonantly enhanced to serve as the pump wave for a cascaded parametric process with one wave being at the terahertz frequency level. A terahertz output power of more than two microwatts is measured and tuning is achieved from 1.3 to 1.7 THz. This terahertz source emits a narrow-band, diffraction-limited beam which remains mode-hop free over more than one hour. Such a device inhibits high potential for applications in areas like astronomy, telecommunications or high-resolution spectroscopy. (orig.)

  17. Continuous-wave terahertz light from optical parametric oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowade, Rosita

    2010-12-01

    Continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) are working horses for spectroscopy in the near and mid infrared. However, in the terahertz frequency range (0.1 to 10 THz), the pump threshold is more than 100 W due to the high absorption in nonlinear crystals and thus exceeds the power of standard cw single-frequency pump sources. In this thesis the first cw OPO capable of generating terahertz radiation is demonstrated. To overcome the high threshold, the signal wave of a primary infrared process is resonantly enhanced to serve as the pump wave for a cascaded parametric process with one wave being at the terahertz frequency level. A terahertz output power of more than two microwatts is measured and tuning is achieved from 1.3 to 1.7 THz. This terahertz source emits a narrow-band, diffraction-limited beam which remains mode-hop free over more than one hour. Such a device inhibits high potential for applications in areas like astronomy, telecommunications or high-resolution spectroscopy. (orig.)

  18. Nonlinear wave propagation in discrete and continuous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothos, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this review we try to capture some of the recent excitement induced by a large volume of theoretical and computational studies addressing nonlinear Schrödinger models (discrete and continuous) and the localized structures that they support. We focus on some prototypical structures, namely the breather solutions and solitary waves. In particular, we investigate the bifurcation of travelling wave solution in Discrete NLS system applying dynamical systems methods. Next, we examine the combined effects of cubic and quintic terms of the long range type in the dynamics of a double well potential. The relevant bifurcations, the stability of the branches and their dynamical implications are examined both in the reduced (ODE) and in the full (PDE) setting. We also offer an outlook on interesting possibilities for future work on this theme.

  19. High-performance packaging for monolithic microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkhauser, K. A.; Li, K.; Shih, Y. C.

    1992-01-01

    Packaging schemes are developed that provide low-loss, hermetic enclosure for enhanced monolithic microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits. These package schemes are based on a fused quartz substrate material offering improved RF performance through 44 GHz. The small size and weight of the packages make them useful for a number of applications, including phased array antenna systems. As part of the packaging effort, a test fixture was developed to interface the single chip packages to conventional laboratory instrumentation for characterization of the packaged devices.

  20. Separation of gravitational-wave and cosmic-shear contributions to cosmic microwave background polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesden, Michael; Cooray, Asantha; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2002-07-01

    Inflationary gravitational waves (GW) contribute to the curl component in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Cosmic shear--gravitational lensing of the CMB--converts a fraction of the dominant gradient polarization to the curl component. Higher-order correlations can be used to map the cosmic shear and subtract this contribution to the curl. Arcminute resolution will be required to pursue GW amplitudes smaller than those accessible by the Planck surveyor mission. The blurring by lensing of small-scale CMB power leads with this reconstruction technique to a minimum detectable GW amplitude corresponding to an inflation energy near 10(15) GeV.

  1. Modeling dielectric half-wave plates for cosmic microwave background polarimetry using a Mueller matrix formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Sean A; Montroy, Thomas E; Ruhl, John E

    2010-11-10

    We derive an analytic formula using the Mueller matrix formalism that parameterizes the nonidealities of a half-wave plate (HWP) made from dielectric antireflection-coated birefringent slabs. This model accounts for frequency-dependent effects at normal incidence, including effects driven by the reflections at dielectric boundaries. The model also may be used to guide the characterization of an instrument that uses a HWP. We discuss the coupling of a HWP to different source spectra, and the potential impact of that effect on foreground removal for the SPIDER cosmic microwave background experiment. We also describe a way to use this model in a mapmaking algorithm that fully corrects for HWP nonidealities.

  2. Commissioning status of the Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartog, P.D.; Dooling, J.; Lorello, M.; Rathke, J.; Carwardine, J.; Godden, D.; Pile, G.; Yule, T.; Zinneman, T.

    1993-01-01

    Grumman Aerospace Corporation, Argonne National Laboratory, and Culham Laboratory are commissioning the Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) in a facility at Argonne National Laboratory. CWDD is a high-brightness, high-current, 7.5-MeV negative deuterium accelerator. The 352-MHz rf accelerating cavities are cryogenically cooled with supercritical neon to reduce the rf power requirements. Installation of the accelerator into the Argonne facility began in May 1991, and first beam from the injector was extracted in February 1992. The accelerator and facility and described, and current status and future plans are discussed

  3. All-optoelectronic continuous wave THz imaging for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebert, Karsten J; Loeffler, Torsten; Quast, Holger; Thomson, Mark; Bauer, Tobias; Leonhardt, Rainer; Czasch, Stephanie; Roskos, Hartmut G

    2002-01-01

    We present an all-optoelectronic THz imaging system for ex vivo biomedical applications based on photomixing of two continuous-wave laser beams using photoconductive antennas. The application of hyperboloidal lenses is discussed. They allow for f-numbers less than 1/2 permitting better focusing and higher spatial resolution compared to off-axis paraboloidal mirrors whose f-numbers for practical reasons must be larger than 1/2. For a specific histological sample, an analysis of image noise is discussed

  4. Inflationary gravity waves in light of recent cosmic microwave background anisotropies data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchiorri, Alessandro; Oedman, Carolina J.

    2003-01-01

    One of the major predictions of inflation is the existence of a stochastic background of cosmological gravitational waves (GW). These gravitational waves can induce significant temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the angular scales recently probed by the Archeops experiment. Here, we perform a combined analysis of Archeops together with information from other CMB experiments and/or cosmological data sets, in order to constrain the amplitude of the GW background. We find that, for a scale-invariant GW background, the ratio of tensor-scalar perturbations at the CMB quadrupole is now constrained to be r≤0.43 at 95% C.L., while the bound on the spectral index of primordial density fluctuations is n S =0.97 -0.12 +0.10 . We discuss the implications for future GW detections through CMB polarization measurements

  5. Achromatic half-wave plate for submillimeter instruments in cosmic microwave background astronomy: experimental characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Giampaolo; Savini, Giorgio; Ade, Peter A R; Haynes, Vic; Gear, Walter K

    2006-09-20

    An achromatic half-wave plate (HWP) to be used in millimeter cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments has been designed, manufactured, and tested. The design is based on the 5-plates Pancharatnam recipe and it works in the frequency range 85-185 GHz. A model has been used to predict the transmission, reflection, absorption, and phase shift as a function of frequency. The HWP has been tested by using coherent radiation from a back-wave oscillator to investigate its modulation efficiency and with incoherent radiation from a polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) to explore its frequency behavior. The FTS measurements have been fitted with an optical performance model which is in excellent agreement with the data. A detailed analysis of the data also allows a precise determination of the HWP fast and slow axes in the frequency band of operation. A list of the HWP performance characteristics is reported including estimates of its cross polarization.

  6. Generation of ultrasound in materials using continuous-wave lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, James N; DiComo, Gregory P; Nikitin, Sergei

    2012-03-01

    Generating and detecting ultrasound is a standard method of nondestructive evaluation of materials. Pulsed lasers are used to generate ultrasound remotely in situations that prohibit the use of contact transducers. The scanning rate is limited by the repetition rates of the pulsed lasers, ranging between 10 and 100 Hz for lasers with sufficient pulse widths and energies. Alternately, a high-power continuous-wave laser can be scanned across the surface, creating an ultrasonic wavefront. Since generation is continuous, the scanning rate can be as much as 4 orders of magnitude higher than with pulsed lasers. This paper introduces the concept, comparing the theoretical scanning speed with generation by pulsed laser. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  7. Influence of fast waves on the collective scattering of microwaves in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    Microwave scattering by the fluctuations of fusion plasmas is one of the most promising α-diagnostic techniques. Previous investigations have concentrated on the fluctuations near the slow wave branch in the lower hybrid range of frequencies. The small signal and the lack of sensitivity to the contribution of α-particles to the total cross-section near the slow branch severely limits the effectiveness of this technique. In this paper, we report results of investigations of scattering by fluctuations in the lower hybrid range of frequencies near the fast branch. Surprisingly, when both fast and slow branches exist, the scattering amplitudes are comparable. More important, the α-contribution is larger for the fast branch and the fast branch has a larger parameter space where it exists. Specifically, the slow branch exists only above the lower hybrid frequency, while the fast branch can exist at all frequencies up to the electron cyclotron range of frequencies. We find numerically that the scattering amplitudes near the fast branch below the lower hybrid frequency are several orders of magnitude larger than those near the slow branch above that frequency where it can exist. This may make microwave scattering by fast waves a more attractive α-diagnostic technique. (orig.)

  8. Ultrasonic, microwave, and millimeter wave inspection techniques for adhesively bonded stacked open honeycomb core composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Clint D.; Cox, Ian; Ghasr, Mohammad Tayeb Ahmed; Ying, Kuang P.; Zoughi, Reza

    2015-03-01

    Honeycomb sandwich composites are used extensively in the aerospace industry to provide stiffness and thickness to lightweight structures. A common fabrication method for thick, curved sandwich structures is to stack and bond multiple honeycomb layers prior to machining core curvatures. Once bonded, each adhesive layer must be inspected for delaminations and the presence of unwanted foreign materials. From a manufacturing and cost standpoint, it can be advantageous to inspect the open core prior to face sheet closeout in order to reduce end-article scrap rates. However, by nature, these honeycomb sandwich composite structures are primarily manufactured from low permittivity and low loss materials making detection of delamination and some of the foreign materials (which also are low permittivity and low loss) quite challenging in the microwave and millimeter wave regime. Likewise, foreign materials such as release film in adhesive layers can be sufficiently thin as to not cause significant attenuation in through-transmission ultrasonic signals, making them difficult to detect. This paper presents a collaborative effort intended to explore the efficacy of different non-contact NDI techniques for detecting flaws in a stacked open fiberglass honeycomb core panel. These techniques primarily included air-coupled through-transmission ultrasonics, single-sided wideband synthetic aperture microwave and millimeter-wave imaging, and lens-focused technique. The goal of this investigation has been to not only evaluate the efficacy of these techniques, but also to determine their unique advantages and limitations for evaluating parameters such as flaw type, flaw size, and flaw depth.

  9. Forming method of a functional layer-built film by micro-wave plasma CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Keishi

    1988-11-18

    In forming an amorphous semi-conductor material film, the micro-wave plasma CVD cannot be generally used because of such demerits as film-separation, low yield, columnar structure in the film, and problems in the optical and electrical properties. In this invention, a specific substrate is placed in a layer-built film forming unit which is capable of maintaining vacuum; raw material gas for the film formation is introduced; plasma is generated by a micro-wave energy to decompose the raw material gas, thus forming the layer-built film on the substarte. Then a film is made by adding a specific amount of calcoganide-containing gas to the raw material gas. By this, the utilization efficiency of the raw material gas gets roughly 100% and both the adhesion to the substrate and the structural flexibility of the layer-built film increase, enhancing the yield of forming various functional elements (sensor, solar cell, thin transistor film, etc.), and thus greatly reducing the production cost. 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Optimised frequency modulation for continuous-wave optical magnetic resonance sensing using nitrogen-vacancy ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ella, Haitham A R; Ahmadi, Sepehr; Wojciechowski, Adam M; Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik L

    2017-06-26

    Magnetometers based on ensembles of nitrogen-vacancy centres are a promising platform for continuously sensing static and low-frequency magnetic fields. Their combination with phase-sensitive (lock-in) detection creates a highly versatile sensor with a sensitivity that is proportional to the derivative of the optical magnetic resonance lock-in spectrum, which is in turn dependant on the lock-in modulation parameters. Here we study the dependence of the lock-in spectral slope on the modulation of the spin-driving microwave field. Given the presence of the intrinsic nitrogen hyperfine spin transitions, we experimentally show that when the ratio between the hyperfine linewidth and their separation is ≳ 1/4, square-wave based frequency modulation generates the steepest slope at modulation depths exceeding the separation of the hyperfine lines, compared to sine-wave based modulation. We formulate a model for calculating lock-in spectra which shows excellent agreement with our experiments, and which shows that an optimum slope is achieved when the linewidth/separation ratio is ≲ 1/4 and the modulation depth is less then the resonance linewidth, irrespective of the modulation function used.

  11. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  12. Exploiting large-scale correlations to detect continuous gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletsch, Holger J; Allen, Bruce

    2009-10-30

    Fully coherent searches (over realistic ranges of parameter space and year-long observation times) for unknown sources of continuous gravitational waves are computationally prohibitive. Less expensive hierarchical searches divide the data into shorter segments which are analyzed coherently, then detection statistics from different segments are combined incoherently. The novel method presented here solves the long-standing problem of how best to do the incoherent combination. The optimal solution exploits large-scale parameter-space correlations in the coherent detection statistic. Application to simulated data shows dramatic sensitivity improvements compared with previously available (ad hoc) methods, increasing the spatial volume probed by more than 2 orders of magnitude at lower computational cost.

  13. Resonance control for a cw [continuous wave] accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, L.M.; Biddle, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    A resonance-control technique is described that has been successfully applied to several cw accelerating structures built by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the National Bureau of Standards and for the University of Illinois. The technique involves sensing the rf fields in an accelerating structure as well as the rf power feeding into the cavity and, then, using the measurement to control the resonant frequency of the structure by altering the temperature of the structure. The temperature of the structure is altered by adjusting the temperature of the circulating cooling water. The technique has been applied to continuous wave (cw) side-coupled cavities only but should have applications with most high-average-power accelerator structures. Some additional effort would be required for pulsed systems

  14. Simulations of nonlinear continuous wave pressure fields in FOCUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Hamilton, Mark F.; McGough, Robert J.

    2017-03-01

    The Khokhlov - Zabolotskaya - Kuznetsov (KZK) equation is a parabolic approximation to the Westervelt equation that models the effects of diffraction, attenuation, and nonlinearity. Although the KZK equation is only valid in the far field of the paraxial region for mildly focused or unfocused transducers, the KZK equation is widely applied in medical ultrasound simulations. For a continuous wave input, the KZK equation is effectively modeled by the Bergen Code [J. Berntsen, Numerical Calculations of Finite Amplitude Sound Beams, in M. F. Hamilton and D. T. Blackstock, editors, Frontiers of Nonlinear Acoustics: Proceedings of 12th ISNA, Elsevier, 1990], which is a finite difference model that utilizes operator splitting. Similar C++ routines have been developed for FOCUS, the `Fast Object-Oriented C++ Ultrasound Simulator' (http://www.egr.msu.edu/˜fultras-web) to calculate nonlinear pressure fields generated by axisymmetric flat circular and spherically focused ultrasound transducers. This new routine complements an existing FOCUS program that models nonlinear ultrasound propagation with the angular spectrum approach [P. T. Christopher and K. J. Parker, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 488-499 (1991)]. Results obtained from these two nonlinear ultrasound simulation approaches are evaluated and compared for continuous wave linear simulations. The simulation results match closely in the farfield of the paraxial region, but the results differ in the nearfield. The nonlinear pressure field generated by a spherically focused transducer with a peak surface pressure of 0.2MPa radiating in a lossy medium with β = 3.5 is simulated, and the computation times are also evaluated. The nonlinear simulation results demonstrate acceptable agreement in the focal zone. These two related nonlinear simulation approaches are now included with FOCUS to enable convenient simulations of nonlinear pressure fields on desktop and laptop computers.

  15. The EUMETSAT Polar System - Second Generation (EPS-SG) micro-wave imaging (MWI) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkov, B. R.; Accadia, C.; Klaes, D.; Canestri, A.; Cohen, M.

    2017-12-01

    The EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) will be followed by a second generation system called EPS-SG. This new family of missions will contribute to the Joint Polar System being jointly set up with NOAA in the timeframe 2020-2040. These satellites will fly, like Metop (EPS), in a sun synchronous, low earth orbit at 830 km altitude and 09:30 local time descending node, providing observations over the full globe with revisit times of 12 hours. EPS-SG consists of two different satellites configurations, the EPS-SGa series dedicated to IR and MW sounding, and the EPS-SGb series dedicated to microwave imaging and scatterometry. The EPS-SG family will consist of three successive launches of each satellite-type. The Microwave Imager (MWI) will be hosted on Metop-SGb series of satellites, with the primary objective of supporting Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) at regional and global scales. Other applications will be observation of surface parameters such as sea ice concentration and hydrology applications. The 18 MWI instrument frequencies range from 18.7 GHz to 183 GHz. All MWI channels up to 89 GHz will measure V- and H polarizations. The MWI was also designed to provide continuity of measurements for select heritage microwave imager channels (e.g. SSM/I, AMSR-E). The additional sounding channels such as the 50-55 and 118 GHz bands will provide additional cloud and precipitation information over sea and land. This combination of channels was successfully tested on the NPOESS Aircraft Sounder Testbed - Microwave Sounder (NAST-M) airborne radiometer, and it is the first time that will be implemented in a conical scanning configuration in a single instrument. An overview of the EPS-SG programme and the MWI instrument will be presented.

  16. [Physical and mechanical properties of the thermosetting resin for crown and bridge cured by micro-wave heating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, K

    1989-09-01

    A heating method using micro-waves was utilized to obtain strong thermosetting resin for crown and bridge. The physical and mechanical properties of the thermosetting resin were examined. The resin was cured in a shorter time by the micro-waves heating method than by the conventional heat curing method and the working time was reduced markedly. The base resins of the thermosetting resin for crown and bridge for the micro-waves heating method were 2 PA and diluent 3 G. A compounding volume of 30 wt% for diluent 3 G was considered good the results of compressive strength, bending strength and diametral tensile strength. Grams of 200-230 of the filler compounded to the base resins of 2 PA-3 G system provided optimal compressive strength, bending strength and diametral tensile strength. A filler gram of 230 provided optimal hardness and curing shrinkage rate, the coefficient of thermal expansion became smaller with the increase of the compounding volume of the filler. The trial thermosetting resin for crown and bridge formed by the micro-waves heating method was not inferior to the conventional resin by the heat curing method or the light curing method.

  17. Limitations in distance and frequency due to chromatic dispersion in fibre-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Nielsen, Søren Nørskov; Nielsen, Søren Nørskov

    1996-01-01

    Chromatic dispersion significantly limits the distance and/or frequency in fibre-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links based on direct detection due to a decrease of the carrier to noise ratio. The limitations in links based on coherent remote heterodyne detection, however, are far less...

  18. Multi-photon transitions and Rabi resonance in continuous wave EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiko, Alexander P; Fedaruk, Ryhor; Markevich, Siarhei A

    2015-10-01

    The study of microwave-radiofrequency multi-photon transitions in continuous wave (CW) EPR spectroscopy is extended to a Rabi resonance condition, when the radio frequency of the magnetic-field modulation matches the Rabi frequency of a spin system in the microwave field. Using the non-secular perturbation theory based on the Bogoliubov averaging method, the analytical description of the response of the spin system is derived for all modulation frequency harmonics. When the modulation frequency exceeds the EPR linewidth, multi-photon transitions result in sidebands in absorption EPR spectra measured with phase-sensitive detection at any harmonic. The saturation of different-order multi-photon transitions is shown to be significantly different and to be sensitive to the Rabi resonance. The noticeable frequency shifts of sidebands are found to be the signatures of this resonance. The inversion of two-photon lines in some spectral intervals of the out-of-phase first-harmonic signal is predicted under passage through the Rabi resonance. The inversion indicates the transition from absorption to stimulated emission or vice versa, depending on the sideband. The manifestation of the primary and secondary Rabi resonance is also demonstrated in the time evolution of steady-state EPR signals formed by all harmonics of the modulation frequency. Our results provide a theoretical framework for future developments in multi-photon CW EPR spectroscopy, which can be useful for samples with long spin relaxation times and extremely narrow EPR lines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sonoplasma generated by a combination of ultrasonic waves and microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi

    2003-01-01

    Plasma chemical vapor deposition (plasma CVD) is a generic term for methods in which a precursor containing a material to be deposited is dissociated in a plasma where it is subject to chemical reactions, and is then deposited as a film on the surface of a heated substrate. A drawback of plasma CVD is that this process cannot be used to synthesize large amounts of adsorbate, or to deposit onto substrates that are vulnerable to high temperatures. As liquids are much denser than gases, synthesis rates are thought to be much higher in the former. The authors have observed the ignition and maintenance of a stable plasma in a liquid hydrocarbon exposed to a combination of ultrasonic waves and microwave radiation. Microwave energy is effectively injected into the interior of acoustic cavitation bubbles, which act as nuclei for the ignition and maintenance of the plasma. Because the plasma is formed in a liquid environment, it is possible to obtain much higher film deposition rates at much lower plasma temperatures than ever before. In addition, this process can be carried out at normal temperatures and pressures

  20. The Barrier Properties of PET Coated DLC Film Deposited by Microwave Surface-Wave PECVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lianhua; Chen, Qiang

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we report the investigation of diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposited by microwave surface-wave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) web for the purpose of the barrier property improvement. In order to characterize the properties of DLC coatings, we used several substrates, silicon wafer, glass, and PET web and KBr tablet. The deposition rate was obtained by surface profiler based on the DLC deposited on glass substrates; Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) was carried out on KBr tablets to investigate chemical composition and bonding structure; the morphology of the DLC coating was analyzed by atomic force microscope (AFM) on Si substrates. For the barrier properties of PET webs, we measured the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) after coated with DLC films. We addressed the film barrier property related to process parameters, such as microwave power and pulse parameter in this work. The results show that the DLC coatings can greatly improve the barrier properties of PET webs.

  1. Localised surface plasmon-like resonance generated by microwave electromagnetic waves in pipe defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alobaidi, Wissam M.; Nima, Zeid A.; Sandgren, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Localised surface plasmon (LSP)-like resonance phenomena were simulated in COMSOL Multiphysics™, and the electric field enhancement was evaluated in eight pipe defects using the microwave band from 1.80 to 3.00 GHz and analysed by finite element analysis (FEA). The simulation was carried out, in each defect case, on a pipe that has 762 mm length and 152.4 mm inner diameter, and 12.7 mm pipe wall thickness. Defects were positioned in the middle of the pipe and were named as follows; SD: Square Defect, FCD: fillet corner defect, FD: fillet defect, HCD: half circle defect, TCD: triangle corner defect, TD: triangle defect, ZD: zigzag defect, GD: gear defect. The LSP electric field, and scattering parametric (S21, and S11) waves were evaluated in all cases and found to be strongly dependent on the size and the shape of the defect rather than the pipe and or the medium materials.

  2. Monitoring internal organ motion with continuous wave radar in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfanner, Florian; Maier, Joscha; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To avoid motion artifacts in medical imaging or to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues in radiation therapy, medical devices are often synchronized with the patient's respiratory motion. Today's respiratory motion monitors require additional effort to prepare the patients, e.g., mounting a motion belt or placing an optical reflector on the patient's breast. Furthermore, they are not able to measure internal organ motion without implanting markers. An interesting alternative to assess the patient's organ motion is continuous wave radar. The aim of this work is to design, implement, and evaluate such a radar system focusing on application in CT.Methods: The authors designed a radar system operating in the 860 MHz band to monitor the patient motion. In the intended application of the radar system, the antennas are located close to the patient's body inside the table of a CT system. One receive and four transmitting antennas are used to avoid the requirement of exact patient positioning. The radar waves propagate into the patient's body and are reflected at tissue boundaries, for example at the borderline between muscle and adipose tissue, or at the boundaries of organs. At present, the authors focus on the detection of respiratory motion. The radar system consists of the hardware mentioned above as well as of dedicated signal processing software to extract the desired information from the radar signal. The system was evaluated using simulations and measurements. To simulate the radar system, a simulation model based on radar and wave field equations was designed and 4D respiratory-gated CT data sets were used as input. The simulated radar signals and the measured data were processed in the same way. The radar system hardware and the signal processing algorithms were tested with data from ten volunteers. As a reference, the respiratory motion signal was recorded using a breast belt simultaneously with the radar measurements.Results: Concerning the

  3. Nano-optomechanical system based on microwave frequency surface acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Semere Ayalew

    Cavity optomechnics studies the interaction of cavity confined photons with mechanical motion. The emergence of sophisticated nanofabrication technology has led to experimental demonstrations of a wide range of novel optomechanical systems that exhibit strong optomechanical coupling and allow exploration of interesting physical phenomena. Many of the studies reported so far are focused on interaction of photons with localized mechanical modes. For my doctoral research, I did experimental investigations to extend this study to propagating phonons. I used surface travelling acoustic waves as the mechanical element of my optomechanical system. The optical cavities constitute an optical racetrack resonator and photonic crystal nanocavity. This dissertation discusses implementation of this surface acoustic wave based optomechanical system and experimental demonstrations of important consequences of the optomechanical coupling. The discussion focuses on three important achievements of the research. First, microwave frequency surface acoustic wave transducers were co-integrated with an optical racetrack resonator on a piezoelectric aluminum nitride film deposited on an oxidized silicon substrate. Acousto-optic modulation of the resonance modes at above 10 GHz with the acoustic wavelength significantly below the optical wavelength was achieved. The phase and modal matching conditions in this paradigm were investigated for efficient optmechanical coupling. Second, the optomechanical coupling was pushed further into the sideband resolved regime by integrating the high frequency surface acoustic wave transducers with a photonic crystal nanocavity. This device was used to demonstrate optomecahnically induced transparency and absorption, one of the interesting consequences of cavity optomechanics. Phase coherent interaction of the acoustic wave with multiple nanocavities was also explored. In a related experiment, the photonic crystal nanoscavity was placed inside an acoustic

  4. Continuous particle focusing in a waved microchannel using negative dc dielectrophoresis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming; Li, Shunbo; Cao, Wenbin; Li, Weihua; Wen, Weijia; Alici, Gursel

    2012-01-01

    We present a waved microchannel for continuous focusing of microparticles and cells using negative direct current (dc) dielectrophoresis. The waved channel is composed of consecutive s-shaped curved channels in series to generate an electric field

  5. Toward jet injection by continuous-wave laser cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrospe-Rodriguez, Carla; Visser, Claas Willem; Schlautmann, Stefan; Rivas, David Fernandez; Ramos-Garcia, Ruben

    2017-10-01

    This is a study motivated by the need to develop a needle-free device for eliminating major global healthcare problems caused by needles. The generation of liquid jets by means of a continuous-wave laser, focused into a light absorbing solution, was studied with the aim of developing a portable and affordable jet injector. We designed and fabricated glass microfluidic devices, which consist of a chamber where thermocavitation is created and a tapered channel. The growth of a vapor bubble displaces and expels the liquid through the channel as a fast traveling jet. Different parameters were varied with the purpose of increasing the jet velocity. The velocity increases with smaller channel diameters and taper ratios, whereas larger chambers significantly reduce the jet speed. It was found that the initial position of the liquid-air meniscus interface and its dynamics contribute to increased jet velocities. A maximum velocity of 94±3 m/s for a channel diameter of D=120 μm, taper ratio n=0.25, and chamber length E=200 μm was achieved. Finally, agarose gel-based skin phantoms were used to demonstrate the potential of our devices to penetrate the skin. The maximum penetration depth achieved was ˜1 mm, which is sufficient to penetrate the stratum corneum and for most medical applications. A meta-analysis shows that larger injection volumes will be required as a next step to medical relevance for laser-induced jet injection techniques in general.

  6. Continuous wave terahertz reflection imaging of human colorectal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doradla, Pallavi; Alavi, Karim; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

    2013-03-01

    Continuous wave terahertz (THz) imaging has the potential to offer a safe, non-ionizing, and nondestructive medical imaging modality for delineating colorectal cancer. Fresh excisions of normal colon tissue were obtained from surgeries performed at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester. Reflection measurements of thick sections of colorectal tissues, mounted in an aluminum sample holder, were obtained for both fresh and formalin fixed tissues. The two-dimensional reflection images were acquired by using an optically pumped far-infrared molecular gas laser operating at 584 GHz with liquid Helium cooled silicon bolometer detector. Using polarizers in the experiment both co-polarized and cross-polarized remittance form the samples was collected. Analysis of the images showed the importance of understanding the effects of formalin fixation while determining reflectance level of tissue response. The resulting co- and cross-polarized images of both normal and formalin fixed tissues showed uniform terahertz response over the entire sample area. Initial measurements indicated a co-polarized reflectance of 16%, and a cross-polarized reflectance of 0.55% from fresh excisions of normal colonic tissues.

  7. Adaptive clustering procedure for continuous gravitational wave searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Avneet; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Eggenstein, Heinz-Bernd; Walsh, Sinéad

    2017-10-01

    In hierarchical searches for continuous gravitational waves, clustering of candidates is an important post-processing step because it reduces the number of noise candidates that are followed up at successive stages [J. Aasi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 102002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevD.88.102002; B. Behnke, M. A. Papa, and R. Prix, Phys. Rev. D 91, 064007 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevD.91.064007; M. A. Papa et al., Phys. Rev. D 94, 122006 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.94.122006]. Previous clustering procedures bundled together nearby candidates ascribing them to the same root cause (be it a signal or a disturbance), based on a predefined cluster volume. In this paper, we present a procedure that adapts the cluster volume to the data itself and checks for consistency of such volume with what is expected from a signal. This significantly improves the noise rejection capabilities at fixed detection threshold, and at fixed computing resources for the follow-up stages, this results in an overall more sensitive search. This new procedure was employed in the first Einstein@Home search on data from the first science run of the advanced LIGO detectors (O1) [LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration, arXiv:1707.02669 [Phys. Rev. D (to be published)

  8. Environmental assessment of the proposed Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    An assessment was made of the potential environmental impacts of construction and operation of the Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), including an evaluation of alternative actions. Key elements considered were on- and off-site radiological effects and potential impacts to cultural resources. The radiological consequences of routine operations of the CWDD are readily reduced to insignificant levels by bulk shielding, confinement, and containment. The radiation dose to the maximally exposed off-site individual would be 0.52 mrem/yr from direct radiation and 1.2 x 10 -3 mrem/yr from airborne radionuclides, based on maximum planned facility operation. The maximum credible postulated accident would result in a dose to the maximally exposed individual of less than 20 mrem. A cultural resource survey has determined that the location for the CWDD has, no cultural resource sites or materials and construction is permitted by the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency. Demands for utility services would require only about two percent of excess capacity already installed at Argonne. Other environmental impact categories were considered, including socioeconomic effects, aquatic and terrestrial flora and fauna, wetlands, and water and air quality

  9. The Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) design and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, A.M.M. [Grumman Space and Electronics Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States); Nightingale, M.P.S. [AEA Industrial Technology, Culham (United Kingdom); Yule, T.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The design of the Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) and the status of the fabricated hardware is presented. The CWDD is a high brightness, 352 MHz, CW linear accelerator designed to deliver a 7.54 MeV, 80 mA D{sup {minus}} beam at a transverse normalized rms emittance of 0.11 {pi} mm-mrad and a longitudinal rms emittance of 0.20 {pi} mm-mrad. End-to-end beam dynamics analysis for nominal and off-design conditions is described. The tuning and predicted operational performance os the as-built device are also discussed. These results all indicate that the present design can meet the output performance specifications in the presence of combined errors at the limits of the specified engineering tolerances. Preliminary injector operations have been conducted at AEA Technologies, Culham Laboratory and at Argonne National Laboratory, where the CWDD is sited. Initial RGQ beam experiments at Argonne are projected for October 1993. DTL installation and commissioning will be completed in 1994.

  10. Advanced Sine Wave Modulation of Continuous Wave Laser System for Atmospheric CO2 Differential Absorption Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with ITT Exelis have been experimenting with Continuous Wave (CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) as a means of performing atmospheric CO2 column measurements from space to support the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission.Because range resolving Intensity Modulated (IM) CW lidar techniques presented here rely on matched filter correlations, autocorrelation properties without side lobes or other artifacts are highly desirable since the autocorrelation function is critical for the measurements of lidar return powers, laser path lengths, and CO2 column amounts. In this paper modulation techniques are investigated that improve autocorrelation properties. The modulation techniques investigated in this paper include sine waves modulated by maximum length (ML) sequences in various hardware configurations. A CW lidar system using sine waves modulated by ML pseudo random noise codes is described, which uses a time shifting approach to separate channels and make multiple, simultaneous online/offline differential absorption measurements. Unlike the pure ML sequence, this technique is useful in hardware that is band pass filtered as the IM sine wave carrier shifts the main power band. Both amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated IM carriers are investigated that exibit perfect autocorrelation properties down to one cycle per code bit. In addition, a method is presented to bandwidth limit the ML sequence based on a Gaussian filter implemented in terms of Jacobi theta functions that does not seriously degrade the resolution or introduce side lobes as a means of reducing aliasing and IM carrier bandwidth.

  11. Performance of a continuously rotating half-wave plate on the POLARBEAR telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakura, Satoru [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043 Japan (Japan); Aguilar, Mario [Departamento de Física, FCFM, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Akiba, Yoshiki [SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Hayama, Miura District, Kanagawa, 240-0115 Japan (Japan); Arnold, Kam; Elleflot, Tucker; Galitzki, Nicholas [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA, 92093-0424 (United States); Baccigalupi, Carlo [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Bonomea 265, Trieste, I-34136 Italy (Italy); Barron, Darcy; Beckman, Shawn; Chinone, Yuji; Cukierman, Ari; Goeckner-Wald, Neil [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Boettger, David [Centro de Astro-Ingeniería, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Borrill, Julian [Computational Cosmology Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Chapman, Scott [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 Canada (Canada); Ducout, Anne [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8583 Japan (Japan); Errard, Josquin [Sorbonne Universités, Institut Lagrange de Paris (ILP), 98 bis Boulevard Arago, Paris, 75014 France (France); Fabbian, Giulio [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS (UMR 8617), Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, bât. 121, Orsay, 91405 France (France); Fujino, Takuro, E-mail: takakura@vega.ess.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 240-8501 Japan (Japan); and others

    2017-05-01

    A continuously rotating half-wave plate (CRHWP) is a promising tool to improve the sensitivity to large angular scales in cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization measurements. With a CRHWP, single detectors can measure three of the Stokes parameters, I , Q and U , thereby avoiding the set of systematic errors that can be introduced by mismatches in the properties of orthogonal detector pairs. We focus on the implementation of CRHWPs in large aperture telescopes (i.e. the primary mirror is larger than the current maximum half-wave plate diameter of ∼0.5 m), where the CRHWP can be placed between the primary mirror and focal plane. In this configuration, one needs to address the intensity to polarization ( I → P ) leakage of the optics, which becomes a source of 1/f noise and also causes differential gain systematics that arise from CMB temperature fluctuations. In this paper, we present the performance of a CRHWP installed in the (\\scshape Polarbear) experiment, which employs a Gregorian telescope with a 2.5 m primary illumination pattern. The CRHWP is placed near the prime focus between the primary and secondary mirrors. We find that the I → P leakage is larger than the expectation from the physical properties of our primary mirror, resulting in a 1/f knee of 100 mHz. The excess leakage could be due to imperfections in the detector system, i.e. detector non-linearity in the responsivity and time-constant. We demonstrate, however, that by subtracting the leakage correlated with the intensity signal, the 1/f noise knee frequency is reduced to 32 mHz (ℓ ∼ 39 for our scan strategy), which is very promising to probe the primordial B-mode signal. We also discuss methods for further noise subtraction in future projects where the precise temperature control of instrumental components and the leakage reduction will play a key role.

  12. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of

  13. 77 FR 3386 - Export and Reexport License Requirements for Certain Microwave and Millimeter Wave Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... microwave ``monolithic integrated circuits'' power amplifiers that meet certain criteria with respect to... packaged microwave ``monolithic integrated circuits'' (MMIC) power amplifiers that meet certain criteria.... 110825537-2038-02] RIN 0694-AF38 Export and Reexport License Requirements for Certain Microwave and...

  14. 77 FR 1017 - Export and Reexport License Requirements for Certain Microwave and Millimeter Wave Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... packaged high electron mobility transistors and packaged microwave ``monolithic integrated circuits'' power... paragraph .b.3 of this entry. (4) Packaged microwave ``monolithic integrated circuits'' (packaged MMIC... Related Controls: (1) See ECCN 3A001.b.2 for certain microwave ``monolithic integrated circuits'' (MMIC...

  15. LDRD final report on continuous wave intersubband terahertz sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samora, Sally; Mangan, Michael A.; Foltynowicz, Robert J.; Young, Erik W.; Fuller, Charles T.; Stephenson, Larry L.; Reno, John Louis; Wanke, Michael Clement; Hudgens, James J.

    2005-02-01

    There is a general lack of compact electromagnetic radiation sources between 1 and 10 terahertz (THz). This a challenging spectral region lying between optical devices at high frequencies and electronic devices at low frequencies. While technologically very underdeveloped the THz region has the promise to be of significant technological importance, yet demonstrating its relevance has proven difficult due to the immaturity of the area. While the last decade has seen much experimental work in ultra-short pulsed terahertz sources, many applications will require continuous wave (cw) sources, which are just beginning to demonstrate adequate performance for application use. In this project, we proposed examination of two potential THz sources based on intersubband semiconductor transitions, which were as yet unproven. In particular we wished to explore quantum cascade lasers based sources and electronic based harmonic generators. Shortly after the beginning of the project, we shifted our emphasis to the quantum cascade lasers due to two events; the publication of the first THz quantum cascade laser by another group thereby proving feasibility, and the temporary shut down of the UC Santa Barbara free-electron lasers which were to be used as the pump source for the harmonic generation. The development efforts focused on two separate cascade laser thrusts. The ultimate goal of the first thrust was for a quantum cascade laser to simultaneously emit two mid-infrared frequencies differing by a few THz and to use these to pump a non-linear optical material to generate THz radiation via parametric interactions in a specifically engineered intersubband transition. While the final goal was not realized by the end of the project, many of the completed steps leading to the goal will be described in the report. The second thrust was to develop direct THz QC lasers operating at terahertz frequencies. This is simpler than a mixing approach, and has now been demonstrated by a few groups

  16. Drying properties and quality parameters of dill dried with intermittent and continuous microwave

    OpenAIRE

    Eştürk, Okan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, influence of various microwave-convective air drying applications on drying kinetics, color and sensory quality of dill leaves (Anethum graveolens L.) were investigated. In general, increasing the drying air temperature decreased the drying time, and increased the drying rate. Increasing microwave pulse ratio increased the drying time. Page, Logarithmic, Midilli et al, Wang & Singh and Logistic models were fitted to drying data and the Page model was found to satisfactorily...

  17. [Analysis of triterpenoids in Ganoderma lucidum by microwave-assisted continuous extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan-fang; An, Jing; Jiang, Ye

    2015-04-01

    For further improving the extraction efficiency of microwave extraction, a microwave-assisted contijuous extraction (MACE) device has been designed and utilized. By contrasting with the traditional methods, the characteristics and extraction efficiency of MACE has also been studied. The method was validated by the analysis of the triterpenoids in Ganoderma lucidum. The extraction conditions of MACE were: using 95% ethanol as solvent, microwave power 200 W and radiation time 14.5 min (5 cycles). The extraction results were subsequently compared with traditional heat reflux extraction ( HRE) , soxhlet extraction (SE), ultrasonic extraction ( UE) as well as the conventional microwave extraction (ME). For triterpenoids, the two methods based on the microwaves (ME and MACE) were in general capable of finishing the extraction in 10, 14.5 min, respectively, while other methods should consume 60 min and even more than 100 min. Additionally, ME can produce comparable extraction results as the classical HRE and higher extraction yield than both SE and UE, however, notably lower extraction yield than MASE. More importantly, the purity of the crud extract by MACE is far better than the other methods. MACE can effectively combine the advantages of microwave extraction and soxhlet extraction, thus enabling a more complete extraction of the analytes of TCMs in comparison with ME. And therefore makes the analytic result more accurate. It provides a novel, high efficient, rapid and reliable pretreatment technique for the analysis of TCMs, and it could potentially be extended to ingredient preparation or extracting techniques of TCMs.

  18. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes, E.coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella spp. on catfish fillets exposed to microwave heating in a continuous mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave (MW) heating using continuous power output with feedback control and a modified ingredient formulation, may provide better and consistent cooking of foods. Currently, household units with build-in inverter power supply units are available. These new generation microwave ovens provide con...

  19. Efficiency of Artemia cysts removal as a model invasive spore using a continuous microwave system with heat recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Sundar; Ortego, Jeffrey; Rusch, Kelly A; Boldor, Dorin

    2008-12-15

    A continuous microwave system to treat ballast water inoculated with Artemia salina cysts as a model invasive spore was tested for its efficacy in inactivating the cysts present. The system was tested at two different flow rates (1 and 2 L x min(-1)) and two different power levels (2.5 and 4.5 kW). Temperature profiles indicate that the system could deliver heating loads in excess of 100 degrees C in a uniform and near-instantaneous manner when using a heat recovery system. Except for a power and flow rate combination of 2.5 kW and 2 L x min(-1), complete inactivation of the cysts was observed at all combinations at holding times below 100 s. The microwave treatment was better or equal to the control treatment in inactivating the cysts. Use of heat exchangers increased the power conversion efficiency and the overall efficiency of the treatment system. Cost economics analysis indicates that in the present form of development microwave treatment costs are higher than the existing ballast water treatment methods. Overall, tests results indicated that microwave treatment of ballast water is a promising method that can be used in conjunction with other methods to form an efficient treatment system that can prevent introduction of potentially invasive spore forming species in non-native waters.

  20. PRIMORDIAL GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND RESCATTERED ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION IN THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon [Basic Science Research Institute, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760 (Korea, Republic of); Trippe, Sascha, E-mail: ki13130@gmail.com, E-mail: trippe@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-20

    Understanding the interaction of primordial gravitational waves (GWs) with the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) plasma is important for observational cosmology. In this article, we provide an analysis of an apparently as-yet-overlooked effect. We consider a single free electric charge and suppose that it can be agitated by primordial GWs propagating through the CMB plasma, resulting in periodic, regular motion along particular directions. Light reflected by the charge will be partially polarized, and this will imprint a characteristic pattern on the CMB. We study this effect by considering a simple model in which anisotropic incident electromagnetic (EM) radiation is rescattered by a charge sitting in spacetime perturbed by GWs, and becomes polarized. As the charge is driven to move along particular directions, we calculate its dipole moment to determine the leading-order rescattered EM radiation. The Stokes parameters of the rescattered radiation exhibit a net linear polarization. We investigate how this polarization effect can be schematically represented out of the Stokes parameters. We work out the representations of gradient modes (E-modes) and curl modes (B-modes) to produce polarization maps. Although the polarization effect results from GWs, we find that its representations, the E- and B-modes, do not practically reflect the GW properties such as strain amplitude, frequency, and polarization states.

  1. A compact micro-wave synthesizer for transportable cold-atom interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautier, J.; Lours, M.; Landragin, A., E-mail: arnaud.landragin@obspm.fr [LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, 61 avenue de l’Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

    2014-06-15

    We present the realization of a compact micro-wave frequency synthesizer for an atom interferometer based on stimulated Raman transitions, applied to transportable inertial sensing. Our set-up is intended to address the hyperfine transitions of {sup 87}Rb at 6.8 GHz. The prototype is evaluated both in the time and the frequency domain by comparison with state-of-the-art frequency references developed at Laboratoire national de métrologie et d'essais−Systémes de référence temps espace (LNE-SYRTE). In free-running mode, it features a residual phase noise level of −65 dB rad{sup 2} Hz{sup −1} at 10 Hz offset frequency and a white phase noise level in the order of −120 dB rad{sup 2} Hz{sup −1} for Fourier frequencies above 10 kHz. The phase noise effect on the sensitivity of the atomic interferometer is evaluated for diverse values of cycling time, interrogation time, and Raman pulse duration. To our knowledge, the resulting contribution is well below the sensitivity of any demonstrated cold atom inertial sensors based on stimulated Raman transitions. The drastic improvement in terms of size, simplicity, and power consumption paves the way towards field and mobile operations.

  2. Robust Likelihoods for Inflationary Gravitational Waves from Maps of Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Eric Ryan; Watts, Duncan J.

    2016-01-01

    The B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background provides a unique window into tensor perturbations from inflationary gravitational waves. Survey effects complicate the estimation and description of the power spectrum on the largest angular scales. The pixel-space likelihood yields parameter distributions without the power spectrum as an intermediate step, but it does not have the large suite of tests available to power spectral methods. Searches for primordial B-modes must rigorously reject and rule out contamination. Many forms of contamination vary or are uncorrelated across epochs, frequencies, surveys, or other data treatment subsets. The cross power and the power spectrum of the difference of subset maps provide approaches to reject and isolate excess variance. We develop an analogous joint pixel-space likelihood. Contamination not modeled in the likelihood produces parameter-dependent bias and complicates the interpretation of the difference map. We describe a null test that consistently weights the difference map. Excess variance should either be explicitly modeled in the covariance or be removed through reprocessing the data.

  3. The gravitational wave contribution to cosmic microwave background anisotropies and the amplitude of mass fluctuations from COBE results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchin, Francesco; Matarrese, Sabino; Mollerach, Silvia

    1992-01-01

    A stochastic background of primordial gravitational waves may substantially contribute, via the Sachs-Wolfe effect, to the large-scale cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies recently detected by COBE. This implies a bias in any resulting determination of the primordial amplitude of density fluctuations. We consider the constraints imposed on n is less than 1 ('tilted') power-law fluctuation spectra, taking into account the contribution from both scalar and tensor waves, as predicted by power-law inflation. The gravitational wave contribution to CMB anisotropies generally reduces the required rms level of mass fluctuation, thereby increasing the linear bias parameter, even in models where the spectral index is close to the Harrison-Zel'dovich value n = 1. This 'gravitational wave bias' helps to reconcile the predictions of CDM models with observations on pairwise galaxy velocity dispersion on small scales.

  4. Continuing studies of the plasma beat wave accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, C.

    1990-01-01

    This is a proposal for the release of third year funds for the ''Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator'' program (PBWA) at UCLA under the direction of Professor C. Joshi. This report is also a summary of progress on this project since March 1990; i.e., the date of the last report to the DOE. Once again we note that although the program is for historical reasons called the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator Program, our group is active in all areas of applications of lasers and plasmas in future high energy accelerators. These are as follows: heat gradient plasma structures; excited by plasma beat wave technique; laser wake field technique; and plasma wake field technique. Development of a photoinjector-driven, 20 MeV linac; and theoretical studies of the plasma lens and use of plasmas at the final focus

  5. Advances in microwaves 8

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 8 covers the developments in the study of microwaves. The book discusses the circuit forms for microwave integrated circuits; the analysis of microstrip transmission lines; and the use of lumped elements in microwave integrated circuits. The text also describes the microwave properties of ferrimagnetic materials, as well as their interaction with electromagnetic waves propagating in bounded waveguiding structures. The integration techniques useful at high frequencies; material technology for microwave integrated circuits; specific requirements on technology for d

  6. Noninvasive continuous monitoring of digital pulse waves during hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkert, Antje; Scholze, Alexandra; Tepel, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Intermittent hemodynamic instability during hemodialysis treatment is a frequent complication in patients with end-stage renal failure. A noninvasive method for continuous hemodynamic monitoring is needed. We used noninvasive digital photoplethysmography and an algorithm for continuous, investiga...

  7. High-Frequency Microwave Processing of Materials Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Conducts research on high-frequency microwave processing of materials using a highpower, continuous-wave (CW), 83-GHz, quasi-optical beam system for rapid,...

  8. Microwave metamaterials—from passive to digital and programmable controls of electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tie Jun

    2017-08-01

    Since 2004, my group at Southeast University has been carrying out research into microwave metamaterials, which are classified into three catagories: metamaterials based on the effective medium model, plasmonic metamaterials for spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), and coding and programmable metamaterials. For effective-medium metamaterials, we have developed a general theory to accurately describe effective permittivity and permeability in semi-analytical forms, from which we have designed and realized a three dimensional (3D) wideband ground-plane invisibility cloak, a free-space electrostatic invisibility cloak, an electromagnetic black hole, optical/radar illusions, and radially anisotropic zero-index metamaterial for omni-directional radiation and a nearly perfect power combination of source array, etc. We have also considered the engineering applications of microwave metamaterials, such as a broadband and low-loss 3D transformation-optics lens for wide-angle scanning, a 3D planar gradient-index lens for high-gain radiations, and a random metasurface for reducing radar cross sections. In the area of plasmonic metamaterials, we proposed an ultrathin, narrow, and flexible corrugated metallic strip to guide SPPs with a small bending loss and radiation loss, from which we designed and realized a series of SPP passive devices (e.g. power divider, coupler, filter, and resonator) and active devices (e.g. amplifier and duplexer). We also showed a significant feature of the ultrathin SPP waveguide in overcoming the challenge of signal integrity in traditional integrated circuits, which will help build a high-performance SPP wireless communication system. In the area of coding and programmable metamaterials, we proposed a new measure to describe a metamaterial from the viewpoint of information theory. We have illustrated theoretically and experimentally that coding metamaterials composed of digital units can be controlled by coding sequences, leading to different

  9. Free wave propagation in continuous pipes carrying a flowing fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espindola, J.J. de; Silva, J.B. da

    1982-01-01

    The propagation constants of a periodically supported pipe are computed. Use is made of a general free wave-propagation theory, based on transfer matrices. Comparison is made with previously published results, computed through a simpler, limited scope theory. (Author) [pt

  10. Unusual continuous dual absorption peaks in Ca-doped BiFeO3 nanostructures for broadened microwave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Jun; Hou, Zhi-Ling; Song, Wei-Li; Liu, Xing-Da; Cao, Wen-Qiang; Shao, Xiao-Hong; Cao, Mao-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    Electromagnetic absorption materials have received increasing attention owing to their wide applications in aerospace, communication and the electronics industry, and multiferroic materials with both polarization and magnetic properties are considered promising ceramics for microwave absorption application. However, the insufficient absorption intensity coupled with the narrow effective absorption bandwidth has limited the development of high-performance multiferroic materials for practical microwave absorption. To address such issues, in the present work, we utilize interfacial engineering in BiFeO3 nanoparticles via Ca doping, with the purpose of tailoring the phase boundary. Upon Ca-substitution, the co-existence of both R3c and P4mm phases has been confirmed to massively enhance both dielectric and magnetic properties via manipulating the phase boundary and the destruction of the spiral spin structure. Unlike the commonly reported magnetic/dielectric hybrid microwave absorption composites, Bi0.95Ca0.05FeO3 has been found to deliver unusual continuous dual absorption peaks at a small thickness (1.56 mm), which has remarkably broadened the effective absorption bandwidth (8.7-12.1 GHz). The fundamental mechanisms based on the phase boundary engineering have been discussed, suggesting a novel platform for designing advanced multiferroic materials with wide applications.Electromagnetic absorption materials have received increasing attention owing to their wide applications in aerospace, communication and the electronics industry, and multiferroic materials with both polarization and magnetic properties are considered promising ceramics for microwave absorption application. However, the insufficient absorption intensity coupled with the narrow effective absorption bandwidth has limited the development of high-performance multiferroic materials for practical microwave absorption. To address such issues, in the present work, we utilize interfacial engineering in BiFeO3

  11. Methods to filter out spurious disturbances in continuous-wave searches from gravitational-wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaci, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Semicoherent all-sky searches over year-long observation times for continuous gravitational wave signals produce various thousands of potential periodic source candidates. Efficient methods able to discard false candidate events are crucial in order to put all the efforts into a computationally intensive follow-up analysis for the remaining most promising candidates (Shaltev et al 2014 Phys. Rev. D 89 124030). In this paper we present a set of techniques able to fulfill such requirements, identifying and eliminating false candidate events, reducing thus the bulk of candidate sets that need to be further investigated. Some of these techniques were also used to streamline the candidate sets returned by the Einstein@Home hierarchical searches presented in (Aasi J et al (The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration) 2013 Phys. Rev. D 87 042001). These powerful methods and the benefits originating from their application to both simulated and on detector data from the fifth LIGO science run are illustrated and discussed. (paper)

  12. Influence of continuous microwave irradiation of low intensity on the behaviour of albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rynskov, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of a single 10 min exposure of albino rats to microwaves (6 GHz, 0.2 MW/cm 2 ) on their orientative-trying reaction. The locomotive activity, attentiveness and trying activity of the experimental animals were found to increase

  13. Blandford's argument: The strongest continuous gravitational wave signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knispel, Benjamin; Allen, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    For a uniform population of neutron stars whose spin-down is dominated by the emission of gravitational radiation, an old argument of Blandford states that the expected gravitational-wave amplitude of the nearest source is independent of the deformation and rotation frequency of the objects. Recent work has improved and extended this argument to set upper limits on the expected amplitude from neutron stars that also emit electromagnetic radiation. We restate these arguments in a more general framework, and simulate the evolution of such a population of stars in the gravitational potential of our galaxy. The simulations allow us to test the assumptions of Blandford's argument on a realistic model of our galaxy. We show that the two key assumptions of the argument (two dimensionality of the spatial distribution and a steady-state frequency distribution) are in general not fulfilled. The effective scaling dimension D of the spatial distribution of neutron stars is significantly larger than two, and for frequencies detectable by terrestrial instruments the frequency distribution is not in a steady state unless the ellipticity is unrealistically large. Thus, in the cases of most interest, the maximum expected gravitational-wave amplitude does have a strong dependence on the deformation and rotation frequency of the population. The results strengthen the previous upper limits on the expected gravitational-wave amplitude from neutron stars by a factor of 6 for realistic values of ellipticity.

  14. High quality silicon-based substrates for microwave and millimeter wave passive circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaroussi, Y.; Rack, M.; Saadi, A. A.; Scheen, G.; Belaroussi, M. T.; Trabelsi, M.; Raskin, J.-P.

    2017-09-01

    Porous silicon substrate is very promising for next generation wireless communication requiring the avoidance of high-frequency losses originating from the bulk silicon. In this work, new variants of porous silicon (PSi) substrates have been introduced. Through an experimental RF performance, the proposed PSi substrates have been compared with different silicon-based substrates, namely, standard silicon (Std), trap-rich (TR) and high resistivity (HR). All of the mentioned substrates have been fabricated where identical samples of CPW lines have been integrated on. The new PSi substrates have shown successful reduction in the substrate's effective relative permittivity to values as low as 3.7 and great increase in the substrate's effective resistivity to values higher than 7 kΩ cm. As a concept proof, a mm-wave bandpass filter (MBPF) centred at 27 GHz has been integrated on the investigated substrates. Compared with the conventional MBPF implemented on standard silicon-based substrates, the measured S-parameters of the PSi-based MBPF have shown high filtering performance, such as a reduction in insertion loss and an enhancement of the filter selectivity, with the joy of having the same filter performance by varying the temperature. Therefore, the efficiency of the proposed PSi substrates has been well highlighted. From 1994 to 1995, she was assistant of physics at (USTHB), Algiers . From 1998 to 2011, she was a Researcher at characterization laboratory in ionized media and laser division at the Advanced Technologies Development Center. She has integrated the Analog Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits team as Researcher since 2011 until now in Microelectronic and Nanotechnology Division at Advanced Technologies Development Center (CDTA), Algiers. She has been working towards her Ph.D. degree jointly at CDTA and Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, Algiers, since 2012. Her research interest includes fabrication and characterization of microwave passive devices on porous

  15. Rotational spectroscopy and three-wave mixing of 4-carvomenthenol: A technical guide to measuring chirality in the microwave regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubert, V. Alvin; Schmitz, David; Medcraft, Chris; Krin, Anna; Patterson, David; Doyle, John M.; Schnell, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    We apply chirality sensitive microwave three-wave mixing to 4-carvomenthenol, a molecule previously uncharacterized with rotational spectroscopy. We measure its rotational spectrum in the 2-8.5 GHz range and observe three molecular conformers. We describe our method in detail, from the initial step of spectral acquisition and assignment to the final step of determining absolute configuration and enantiomeric excess. Combining fitted rotational constants with dipole moment components derived from quantum chemical calculations, we identify candidate three-wave mixing cycles which were further tested using a double resonance method. Initial optimization of the three-wave mixing signal is done by varying the duration of the second excitation pulse. With known transition dipole matrix elements, absolute configuration can be directly determined from a single measurement

  16. Influence of local hyperthermia induced by micro-waves and X-rays on the Walker carcinoma of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, V.; Zywietz, F.; Jung, H.

    1979-01-01

    The authors studied the influence on the solid Walker carcinoma in the rat exerted by a slight hyperthermia induced by micro-waves, which was applied alone and combined with X-ray irradiations. It could be demonstrated that the tumor has the same temperature as the sub-peritoneal region. Thus the final temperature reached by the treatment with microwaves can be exactly controlled. Heating up to 41 0 C for 30 minutes produces an increase of the survival rate of animals with tumors of 2 to 6 grams from 17% to 27%, whereas the healing rate is 57% after an X-ray irradiation with 1130 rad and 75% after the combined treatment. Each of the three therapy methods produces a significant prolongation of the survival time of the dying animals. The disadvantes of an anisologic tumor-host system are discussed on the basis of the results achieved. (orig.) [de

  17. Unusual continuous dual absorption peaks in Ca-doped BiFeO3 nanostructures for broadened microwave absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Jun; Hou, Zhi-Ling; Song, Wei-Li; Liu, Xing-Da; Cao, Wen-Qiang; Shao, Xiao-Hong; Cao, Mao-Sheng

    2016-05-21

    Electromagnetic absorption materials have received increasing attention owing to their wide applications in aerospace, communication and the electronics industry, and multiferroic materials with both polarization and magnetic properties are considered promising ceramics for microwave absorption application. However, the insufficient absorption intensity coupled with the narrow effective absorption bandwidth has limited the development of high-performance multiferroic materials for practical microwave absorption. To address such issues, in the present work, we utilize interfacial engineering in BiFeO3 nanoparticles via Ca doping, with the purpose of tailoring the phase boundary. Upon Ca-substitution, the co-existence of both R3c and P4mm phases has been confirmed to massively enhance both dielectric and magnetic properties via manipulating the phase boundary and the destruction of the spiral spin structure. Unlike the commonly reported magnetic/dielectric hybrid microwave absorption composites, Bi0.95Ca0.05FeO3 has been found to deliver unusual continuous dual absorption peaks at a small thickness (1.56 mm), which has remarkably broadened the effective absorption bandwidth (8.7-12.1 GHz). The fundamental mechanisms based on the phase boundary engineering have been discussed, suggesting a novel platform for designing advanced multiferroic materials with wide applications.

  18. Detection of lower hybrid waves in the scrape-off layer of tokamak plasmas with microwave backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, S. G.; Shiraiwa, S.; Parker, R. R.; Bonoli, P. T.; Marmar, E. S.; Wallace, G. M.; Lau, C.; Dominguez, A.; Kramer, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    Microwave backscattering experiments have been performed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak in order to investigate the propagation of lower hybrid (LH) waves in reactor-relevant, high-density plasmas. When the line-averaged density is raised above 1 × 10 20 m –3 , lower hybrid current drive efficiency is found to be lower than expected [Wallace et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 062505 (2012)] and LH power is thought to be dissipated at the plasma edge. Using a single channel (60 GHz) ordinary-mode (O-mode) reflectometer system, we demonstrate radially localized LH wave measurements in the scrape-off layer of high density plasmas (n ¯ e  ≳ 0.9×10 20  m −3 ). Measured backscattered O-mode power varies depending on the magnetic field line mapping, suggesting the resonance cone propagation of LH waves. Backscattered power is also sensitive to variations in plasma density and the launched parallel refractive index of the LH waves. LH ray-tracing simulations have been carried out to interpret the observed variations. To understand the measured LH waves in regions not magnetically connected to the launcher, two hypotheses are examined. One is the weak single pass absorption and the other is scattering of LH waves by non-linear effects

  19. Non-invasive Continuous Monitoring of Cerebral Edema Using Portable Microwave Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhao; Zhao, Minji; Wang, Huiqian; Li, Guoquan

    2018-01-01

    A portable non-invasive head detecting system based on microwave technology was developed for evaluation of cerebral edema change inside human brain. Real-time monitoring of cerebral edema in the brain helps the clinician to assess medical condition and treatment. In this work, a microwave signal was transmitted and coupled into an open-end circular waveguide sensor, incident on a 3D printed head phantom, and reflected back to receiver. Theoretically, the operation of this instrument depends on the conductivity contrast between cerebral edema and healthy brain tissues. The efficacy of the proposed detecting system is verified using 3D printed anatomically and dielectrically realistic human head phantoms with simulated cerebral edema targets with different size. Changes in the amplitude of time domain result were shown to be induced by the expansion or decrease of the edema volume. The eventual goal of this proposed head evaluating system is use in the hospital as an effective real-time monitoring tool.

  20. Towards the Detection of Explosive Taggants: Microwave and Millimetre-Wave Gas-Phase Spectroscopies of 3-Nitrotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roucou, Anthony; Kleiner, Isabelle; Goubet, Manuel; Bteich, Sabath; Mouret, Gael; Bocquet, Robin; Hindle, Francis; Meerts, W Leo; Cuisset, Arnaud

    2018-01-12

    The monitoring of gas-phase mononitrotoluenes is crucial for defence, civil security and environmental interests because they are used as taggant for TNT detection and in the manufacturing of industrial compounds such as dyestuffs. In this study, we have succeeded to measure and analyse at high-resolution a room temperature rotationally resolved millimetre-wave spectrum of meta-nitrotoluene (3-NT). Experimental and theoretical difficulties have been overcome, in particular, those related to the low vapour pressure of 3-NT and to the presence of a CH 3 internal rotation in an almost free rotation regime (V 3 =6.7659(24) cm -1 ). Rotational spectra have been recorded in the microwave and millimetre-wave ranges using a supersonic jet Fourier Transform microwave spectrometer (T rot <10 K) and a millimetre-wave frequency multiplication chain (T=293 K), respectively. Spectral analysis of pure rotation lines in the vibrational ground state and in the first torsional excited state supported by quantum chemistry calculations permits the rotational energy of the molecule, the hyperfine structure due to the 14 N nucleus, and the internal rotation of the methyl group to be characterised. A line list is provided for future in situ detection. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Gold film-catalysed benzannulation by Microwave-Assisted, Continuous Flow Organic Synthesis (MACOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjergji Shore

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Methodology has been developed for laying down a thin gold-on-silver film on the inner surface of glass capillaries for the purpose of catalysing benzannulation reactions. The cycloaddition precursors are flowed through these capillaries while the metal film is being heated to high temperatures using microwave irradiation. The transformation can be optimized rapidly, tolerates a wide number of functional groups, is highly regioselective, and proceeds in good to excellent conversion.

  2. A Wave-Optics Approach to Paraxial Geometrical Laws Based on Continuity at Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, J.; Nistal, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a derivation of the paraxial geometrical laws starting from a wave-optics approach, in particular by using simple continuity conditions of paraxial spherical waves at boundaries (discontinuities) between optical media. Paraxial geometrical imaging and magnification laws, under refraction and reflection at boundaries, are derived for…

  3. Rapidly tunable continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator pumped by a fiber laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, M.E.; Gross, P.; Boller, Klaus J.; Auerbach, M.; Wessels, P.; Fallnich, C.

    2003-01-01

    We report on rapid, all-electronically controlled wavelength tuning of a continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by an ytterbium fiber laser. The OPO is singly resonant for the signal wave and consists of a 40-mm-long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal in a

  4. Next wave EM technology : Electromagnetic communication technology continues to progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwick, J.

    1998-01-01

    Alpine Oil Services Corp. and Ryan Energy Technologies Inc., have made technological advances in the use of real time electromagnetic (EM) data transmission, using low frequency radio waves to transmit well commands or geological information. The development of the telemetry activated tool was done in two steps. The first technology was real time EM data transmission from the subsurface which used the wellbore to transfer information. The second step was constructing a memory pack which involved an electronic instrument installed in the wellbore which was programmed to perform certain tasks at certain times by transmitting signals back and forth. The use of EM communication allows the geological steering information to come back faster. The EM signal is much faster compared to MWD systems for deeper directional wells. The EM technology also has immediate applications in underbalanced drilling. 1 fig

  5. Continuity Conditions on Schrodinger Wave Functions at Discontinuities of the Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, David

    1979-01-01

    Several standard arguments which attempt to show that the wave function and its derivative must be continuous across jump discontinuities of the potential are reviewed and their defects discussed. (Author/HM)

  6. Coherent Microwave-to-Optical Conversion via Six-Wave Mixing in Rydberg Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingshan; Vogt, Thibault; Gross, Christian; Jaksch, Dieter; Kiffner, Martin; Li, Wenhui

    2018-03-01

    We present an experimental demonstration of converting a microwave field to an optical field via frequency mixing in a cloud of cold 87Rb atoms, where the microwave field strongly couples to an electric dipole transition between Rydberg states. We show that the conversion allows the phase information of the microwave field to be coherently transferred to the optical field. With the current energy level scheme and experimental geometry, we achieve a photon-conversion efficiency of ˜0.3 % at low microwave intensities and a broad conversion bandwidth of more than 4 MHz. Theoretical simulations agree well with the experimental data, and they indicate that near-unit efficiency is possible in future experiments.

  7. The Polatron: A Millimeter-Wave Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimeter for the OVRO 5.5 m Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Philhour, B. J.; Keating, B. G.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bhatia, R. S.; Bock, J. J.; Church, S. E.; Glenn, J.; Hinderks, J. R.; Hristov, V. V.; Jones, W. C.; Kamionkowski, M.; Kumar, D. E.; Lange, A. E.; Leong, J. R.; Marrone, D. P.

    2001-01-01

    We describe the development of a bolometric receiver designed to measure the arcminute-scale polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The Polatron will be mounted at the Cassegrain focus of the 5.5 m telescope at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO). The receiver will measure both the Q and U Stokes parameters over a 20% pass-band centered near 100 GHz, with the input polarization signal modulated at ~0.6 Hz by a rotating, birefringent, quartz half-wave plate. In six months...

  8. Production of ethyl ester from crude palm oil by two-step reaction using continuous microwave system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukritthira Ratanawilai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The esterification of free fatty acids (FFA in vegetable oils with alcohol using an acid catalyst is a promising methodto convert FFA into valuable ester and obtain a FFA-free oil that can be further transesterified using alkali bases. In thiswork, the direct esterification reaction of FFA in crude palm oil to ethyl ester by continuous microwave was studied and theeffects of the main variables involved in the process, amount of catalyst, reaction time and the molar ratio oil/ alcohol, wereanalyzed. The optimum condition for the continuous esterification process was carried out with a molar ratio of oil to ethanol1:6, using 1.25%wt of H2SO4/oil as a catalyst, microwave power of 78 W and a reaction time 90 min. This esterification processshows that the amount of FFA was reduced from 7.5%wt to values around 1.4 %wt. Similar results were obtained followingconventional heating at 70°C, but only after a reaction time of 240 min. The esterified crude palm oil is suitable to perform thetransesterification process. Transesterification of the esterified palm oil has been accomplished with a molar ratio of oil toethanol of 1:8.5, 2.5%wt of KOH as a catalyst, a microwave power of 78 W, and a reaction time of 7 min. In addition, theproblem of glycerin separation was solved by mixing 10%wt of pure glycerin into the ethyl ester to induce the glycerin fromthe reaction to separated. This two-step esterification and transesterification process provided a yield of 78%wt with anester content of 97.4%wt. The final ethyl ester product met with the specifications stipulated by ASTM D6751-02.

  9. Characterization of microwave plasma in a multicusp using 2D emission based tomography: Bessel modes and wave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Kavita; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Munshi, Prabhat

    2017-06-01

    A tomographic method based on the Fourier transform is used for characterizing a microwave plasma in a multicusp (MC), in order to obtain 2D distribution of plasma emissions, plasma (electron) density (Ne) and temperature (Te). The microwave plasma in the MC is characterized as a function of microwave power, gas pressure, and axial distance. The experimentally obtained 2D emission profiles show that the plasma emissions are generated in a circular ring shape. There are usually two bright rings, one at the plasma core and another near the boundary. The experimental results are validated using a numerical code that solves Maxwell's equations inside a waveguide filled with a plasma in a magnetic field, with collisions included. It is inferred that the dark and bright circular ring patterns are a result of superposition of Bessel modes (TE11 and TE21) of the wave electric field inside the plasma filled MC, which are in reasonable agreement with the plasma emission profiles. The tomographically obtained Ne and Te profiles indicate higher densities in the plasma core (˜1010 cm-3) and enhanced electron temperature in the ECR region (˜13 eV), which are in agreement with earlier results using a Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) diagnostics.

  10. Comparison between off-resonance and electron Bernstein waves heating regime in a microwave discharge ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, G.; Di Giugno, R.; Miracoli, R. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, V. S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Mascali, D. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CSFNSM, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Romano, F. P. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CNR-IBAM Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Lanaia, D.; Ciavola, G. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Serafino, T. [CSFNSM, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Di Bartolo, F. [Universita di Messina, Ctr. da Papardo-Sperone, 98100 Messina (Italy); Gambino, N. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, V. S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); IET-Institute of Energy Technology, LEC-Laboratory for Energy Conversion, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-02-15

    A microwave discharge ion source (MDIS) operating at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of INFN, Catania has been used to compare the traditional electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating with an innovative mechanisms of plasma ignition based on the electrostatic Bernstein waves (EBW). EBW are obtained via the inner plasma electromagnetic-to-electrostatic wave conversion and they are absorbed by the plasma at cyclotron resonance harmonics. The heating of plasma by means of EBW at particular frequencies enabled us to reach densities much larger than the cutoff ones. Evidences of EBW generation and absorption together with X-ray emissions due to high energy electrons will be shown. A characterization of the discharge heating process in MDISs as a generalization of the ECR heating mechanism by means of ray tracing will be shown in order to highlight the fundamental physical differences between ECR and EBW heating.

  11. Continuous country-wide rainfall observation using a large network of commercial microwave links: Challenges, solutions and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwala, Christian; Boose, Yvonne; Smiatek, Gerhard; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Commercial microwave link (CML) networks have proven to be a valuable source for rainfall information over the last years. However, up to now, analysis of CML data was always limited to certain snapshots of data for historic periods due to limited data access. With the real-time availability of CML data in Germany (Chwala et al. 2016) this situation has improved significantly. We are continuously acquiring and processing data from 3000 CMLs in Germany in near real-time with one minute temporal resolution. Currently the data acquisition system is extended to 10000 CMLs so that the whole of Germany is covered and a continuous country-wide rainfall product can be provided. In this contribution we will elaborate on the challenges and solutions regarding data acquisition, data management and robust processing. We will present the details of our data acquisition system that we run operationally at the network of the CML operator Ericsson Germany to solve the problem of limited data availability. Furthermore we will explain the implementation of our data base, its web-frontend for easy data access and present our data processing algorithms. Finally we will showcase an application of our data in hydrological modeling and its potential usage to improve radar QPE. Bibliography: Chwala, C., Keis, F., and Kunstmann, H.: Real-time data acquisition of commercial microwave link networks for hydrometeorological applications, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 991-999, doi:10.5194/amt-9-991-2016, 2016

  12. Microwave heating type evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taura, Masazumi; Nishi, Akio; Morimoto, Takashi; Izumi, Jun; Tamura, Kazuo; Morooka, Akihiko.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent evaporization stills against corrosion due to radioactive liquid wastes. Constitution: Microwaves are supplied from a microwave generator by way of a wave guide tube and through a microwave permeation window to the inside of an evaporatization still. A matching device is attached to the wave guide tube for transmitting the microwaves in order to match the impedance. When the microwaves are supplied to the inside of the evaporization still, radioactive liquid wastes supplied from a liquid feed port by way of a spray tower to the inside of the evaporization still is heated and evaporated by the induction heating of the microwaves. (Seki, T.)

  13. Temporal variability of tidal and gravity waves during a record long 10-day continuous lidar sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Kathrin; Gerding, Michael; Baumgarten, Gerd; Lübken, Franz-Josef

    2018-01-01

    Gravity waves (GWs) as well as solar tides are a key driving mechanism for the circulation in the Earth's atmosphere. The propagation of gravity waves is strongly affected by tidal waves as they modulate the mean background wind field and vice versa, which is not yet fully understood and not adequately implemented in many circulation models. The daylight-capable Rayleigh-Mie-Raman (RMR) lidar at Kühlungsborn (54° N, 12° E) typically provides temperature data to investigate both wave phenomena during one full day or several consecutive days in the middle atmosphere between 30 and 75 km altitude. Outstanding weather conditions in May 2016 allowed for an unprecedented 10-day continuous lidar measurement, which shows a large variability of gravity waves and tides on timescales of days. Using a one-dimensional spectral filtering technique, gravity and tidal waves are separated according to their specific periods or vertical wavelengths, and their temporal evolution is studied. During the measurement period a strong 24 h wave occurs only between 40 and 60 km and vanishes after a few days. The disappearance is related to an enhancement of gravity waves with periods of 4-8 h. Wind data provided by ECMWF are used to analyze the meteorological situation at our site. The local wind structure changes during the observation period, which leads to different propagation conditions for gravity waves in the last days of the measurement period and therefore a strong GW activity. The analysis indicates a further change in wave-wave interaction resulting in a minimum of the 24 h tide. The observed variability of tides and gravity waves on timescales of a few days clearly demonstrates the importance of continuous measurements with high temporal and spatial resolution to detect interaction phenomena, which can help to improve parametrization schemes of GWs in general circulation models.

  14. Microwave absorption properties of a wave-absorbing coating employing carbonyl-iron powder and carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lidong; Duan Yuping; Ma Lixin; Liu Shunhua; Yu Zhen

    2010-01-01

    To prevent serious electromagnetic interference, a single-layer wave-absorbing coating employing complex absorbents composed of carbonyl-iron powder (CIP) and carbon black (CB) with epoxy resin as matrix was prepared. The morphologies of CIP and CB were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. The electromagnetic parameters of CIP and CB were measured in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz by transmission/reflection technology, and the electromagnetic loss mechanisms of the two particles were discussed, respectively. The microwave absorption properties of the coatings were investigated by measuring reflection loss (RL) using arch method. The effects of CIP ratio, CB content and thickness on the microwave absorption properties were discussed, respectively. The results showed that the higher thickness, CIP or CB content could make the absorption band shift towards the lower frequency range. Significantly, the wave-absorbing coating could be applied in different frequency ranges according to actual demand by controlling the content of CIP or CB in composites.

  15. Microwave absorption properties of a wave-absorbing coating employing carbonyl-iron powder and carbon black

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lidong; Duan, Yuping; Ma, Lixin; Liu, Shunhua; Yu, Zhen

    2010-11-01

    To prevent serious electromagnetic interference, a single-layer wave-absorbing coating employing complex absorbents composed of carbonyl-iron powder (CIP) and carbon black (CB) with epoxy resin as matrix was prepared. The morphologies of CIP and CB were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. The electromagnetic parameters of CIP and CB were measured in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz by transmission/reflection technology, and the electromagnetic loss mechanisms of the two particles were discussed, respectively. The microwave absorption properties of the coatings were investigated by measuring reflection loss (RL) using arch method. The effects of CIP ratio, CB content and thickness on the microwave absorption properties were discussed, respectively. The results showed that the higher thickness, CIP or CB content could make the absorption band shift towards the lower frequency range. Significantly, the wave-absorbing coating could be applied in different frequency ranges according to actual demand by controlling the content of CIP or CB in composites.

  16. Neuronal Networks in Children with Continuous Spikes and Waves during Slow Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniatchkin, Michael; Groening, Kristina; Moehring, Jan; Moeller, Friederike; Boor, Rainer; Brodbeck, Verena; Michel, Christoph M.; Rodionov, Roman; Lemieux, Louis; Stephani, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep is an age-related disorder characterized by the presence of interictal epileptiform discharges during at least greater than 85% of sleep and cognitive deficits associated with this electroencephalography pattern. The pathophysiological mechanisms of continuous spikes and…

  17. Design and fabrication of a continuous wave electron accelerating structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Jiro

    1997-01-01

    The Physics Institute of Sao Paulo University, SP, Brazil is fabricating a 31 MeV cw racetrack microtron (RTM) designed for nuclear physics research. This is a two-stage microtron that includes a 1.93 MeV injector linac feeding a five-turn microtron booster. After 28 turns, the main microtron delivers a 31 MeV continuous electron beam. The objective of this work is the development and fabrication of an advanced, beta=l, cw accelerating structure for the main microtron. The accelerating structure will be a side-coupled structure (SCS). We have chosen this kind of cavity, because it presents good vacuum properties, allows operation at higher accelerating electric fields and has a shunt impedance better than 81 MQ/m, with a high coupling factor ( 3 - 5%). The engineering design is the Los Alamos one. There will be two tuning plungers placed at both ends of the accelerating structure. They automatically and quickly compensate for the variation in the resonance frequency caused by changes in the structure temperature. Our design represents an advanced accelerating structure with the optimum SCS properties coexisting with the plunger's good tuning properties. (author)

  18. Bi-directional ultrasonic wave coupling to FBGs in continuously bonded optical fiber sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Junghyun; Hackney, Drew; Bradford, Philip; Peters, Kara

    2017-09-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are typically spot-bonded onto the surface of a structure to detect ultrasonic waves in laboratory demonstrations. However, to protect the rest of the optical fiber from any environmental damage during real applications, bonding the entire length of fiber, called continuous bonding, is commonly done. In this paper, we investigate the impact of continuously bonding FBGs on the measured Lamb wave signal. In theory, the ultrasonic wave signal can bi-directionally transfer between the optical fiber and the plate at any adhered location, which could potentially produce output signal distortion for the continuous bonding case. Therefore, an experiment is performed to investigate the plate-to-fiber and fiber-to-plate signal transfer, from which the signal coupling coefficient of each case is theoretically estimated based on the experimental data. We demonstrate that the two coupling coefficients are comparable, with the plate-to-fiber case approximately 19% larger than the fiber-to-plate case. Finally, the signal waveform and arrival time of the output FBG responses are compared between the continuous and spot bonding cases. The results indicate that the resulting Lamb wave signal output is only that directly detected at the FBG location; however, a slight difference in signal waveform is observed between the two bonding configurations. This paper demonstrates the practicality of using continuously bonded FBGs for ultrasonic wave detection in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications.

  19. Stable indications of relic gravitational waves in Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and forecasts for the Planck mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, W.; Baskaran, D.; Grishchuk, L. P.

    2009-01-01

    The relic gravitational waves are the cleanest probe of the violent times in the very early history of the Universe. They are expected to leave signatures in the observed cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We significantly improved our previous analysis [W. Zhao, D. Baskaran, and L. P. Grishchuk, Phys. Rev. D 79, 023002 (2009)] of the 5-year WMAP TT and TE data at lower multipoles l. This more general analysis returned essentially the same maximum likelihood result (unfortunately, surrounded by large remaining uncertainties): The relic gravitational waves are present and they are responsible for approximately 20% of the temperature quadrupole. We identify and discuss the reasons by which the contribution of gravitational waves can be overlooked in a data analysis. One of the reasons is a misleading reliance on data from very high multipoles l and another a too narrow understanding of the problem as the search for B modes of polarization, rather than the detection of relic gravitational waves with the help of all correlation functions. Our analysis of WMAP5 data has led to the identification of a whole family of models characterized by relatively high values of the likelihood function. Using the Fisher matrix formalism we formulated forecasts for Planck mission in the context of this family of models. We explore in detail various 'optimistic', 'pessimistic', and 'dream case' scenarios. We show that in some circumstances the B-mode detection may be very inconclusive, at the level of signal-to-noise ratio S/N=1.75, whereas a smarter data analysis can reveal the same gravitational wave signal at S/N=6.48. The final result is encouraging. Even under unfavorable conditions in terms of instrumental noises and foregrounds, the relic gravitational waves, if they are characterized by the maximum likelihood parameters that we found from WMAP5 data, will be detected by Planck at the level S/N=3.65.

  20. Fabrication of novel structures to enhance the performance of microwave, millimeter wave and optical radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbele, Kokou

    full depletion-recovery cycle in the nonequilibrium state. The third part discusses work in the microwave and millimeter wave frequency regimes. A new method to fabricate Luneburg lenses was proposed and demonstrated. This type of lens is well known; it is versatile and has been used for many applications, including high power radars, satellite communications, and remote sensing systems. Because the fabrication of such a lens requires intricate and time consuming processes, we demonstrated the design, fabrication and testing of a Luneburg lens prototype using a 3-D printing rapid prototyping technique both at the X and Ka-V frequency bands. The measured results were in very good agreement with their simulated values. The fabricated X-band lens had a 12 cm diameter and produced a beam having a maximum gain of 20 dB and a beam directivity (half-power beam width (HPBW)) ranging from 12° to 19°). The corresponding Ka-V band lens had a 7 cm diameter; it produced a beam with a HPBW about the same as the X-band lens, but with a maximum gain of more than 20 dB.

  1. Multiple Volume Scattering in Random Media and Periodic Structures with Applications in Microwave Remote Sensing and Wave Functional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shurun

    The objective of my research is two-fold: to study wave scattering phenomena in dense volumetric random media and in periodic wave functional materials. For the first part, the goal is to use the microwave remote sensing technique to monitor water resources and global climate change. Towards this goal, I study the microwave scattering behavior of snow and ice sheet. For snowpack scattering, I have extended the traditional dense media radiative transfer (DMRT) approach to include cyclical corrections that give rise to backscattering enhancements, enabling the theory to model combined active and passive observations of snowpack using the same set of physical parameters. Besides DMRT, a fully coherent approach is also developed by solving Maxwell's equations directly over the entire snowpack including a bottom half space. This revolutionary new approach produces consistent scattering and emission results, and demonstrates backscattering enhancements and coherent layer effects. The birefringence in anisotropic snow layers is also analyzed by numerically solving Maxwell's equation directly. The effects of rapid density fluctuations in polar ice sheet emission in the 0.5˜2.0 GHz spectrum are examined using both fully coherent and partially coherent layered media emission theories that agree with each other and distinct from incoherent approaches. For the second part, the goal is to develop integral equation based methods to solve wave scattering in periodic structures such as photonic crystals and metamaterials that can be used for broadband simulations. Set upon the concept of modal expansion of the periodic Green's function, we have developed the method of broadband Green's function with low wavenumber extraction (BBGFL), where a low wavenumber component is extracted and results a non-singular and fast-converging remaining part with simple wavenumber dependence. We've applied the technique to simulate band diagrams and modal solutions of periodic structures, and to

  2. Wave function continuity and the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction at conical intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Garrett A; Levine, Benjamin G

    2016-05-14

    We demonstrate that though exact in principle, the expansion of the total molecular wave function as a sum over adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer (BO) vibronic states makes inclusion of the second-derivative nonadiabatic energy term near conical intersections practically problematic. In order to construct a well-behaved molecular wave function that has density at a conical intersection, the individual BO vibronic states in the summation must be discontinuous. When the second-derivative nonadiabatic terms are added to the Hamiltonian, singularities in the diagonal BO corrections (DBOCs) of the individual BO states arise from these discontinuities. In contrast to the well-known singularities in the first-derivative couplings at conical intersections, these singularities are non-integrable, resulting in undefined DBOC matrix elements. Though these singularities suggest that the exact molecular wave function may not have density at the conical intersection point, there is no physical basis for this constraint. Instead, the singularities are artifacts of the chosen basis of discontinuous functions. We also demonstrate that continuity of the total molecular wave function does not require continuity of the individual adiabatic nuclear wave functions. We classify nonadiabatic molecular dynamics methods according to the constraints placed on wave function continuity and analyze their formal properties. Based on our analysis, it is recommended that the DBOC be neglected when employing mixed quantum-classical methods and certain approximate quantum dynamical methods in the adiabatic representation.

  3. Continuous synthesis of magnesium-hydroxide, zinc-oxide, and silver nanoparticles by microwave plasma in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yoshiaki; Mukasa, Shinobu; Toyota, Hiromichi; Inoue, Toru; Nomura, Shinfuku

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles are continuously synthesized from submerged magnesium, zinc, and silver rods 1–2 mm in diameter by microwave plasma in pure water at 20 kPa. Magnesium-hydroxide nanoplates shaped as triangles, truncated triangles or hexagons with 25–125 nm in size are synthesized with a production rate of 60 g h −1 . Zinc-oxide nanoparticles formed as sharp sticks with diameters of 50 nm and lengths of 150–200 nm are synthesized with a production rate of 14 g h −1 . Silver nanoparticles with a diameter of approximately 6 nm are synthesized with a production rate of 0.8 g h −1 . The excitation temperature is estimated by applying the Boltzmann plot method in assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The excitation temperatures obtained from hydrogen, magnesium, and zinc lines are 3300 ± 100 K, 4000 ± 500 K, and 3200 ± 500 K, respectively.

  4. Time series analysis of continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar wind measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Mikkelsen, Torben; Mann, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    The influence of spatial volume averaging of a focused 1.55 mu m continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar on observed wind turbulence measured in the atmospheric surface layer over homogeneous terrain is described and analysed. Comparison of Lidar-measured turbulent spectra with spectra simultaneou......The influence of spatial volume averaging of a focused 1.55 mu m continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar on observed wind turbulence measured in the atmospheric surface layer over homogeneous terrain is described and analysed. Comparison of Lidar-measured turbulent spectra with spectra...

  5. Second-order interference of two independent and tunable single-mode continuous-wave lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianbin; Chen Hui; Zheng Huaibin; Xu Zhuo; Wei Dong; Zhou Yu; Gao Hong; Li Fu-Li

    2016-01-01

    The second-order temporal interference of two independent single-mode continuous-wave lasers is discussed by employing two-photon interference in Feynman’s path integral theory. It is concluded that whether the second-order temporal interference pattern can or cannot be retrieved via two-photon coincidence counting rate is dependent on the resolution time of the detection system and the frequency difference between these two lasers. Two identical and tunable single-mode continuous-wave diode lasers are employed to verify the predictions. These studies are helpful to understand the physics of two-photon interference with photons of different spectra. (paper)

  6. Microwave and Millimeter Wave Properties of Vertically-Aligned Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi, K.; Tripon-Canseliet, C.; Hivin, Q.; Ducournau, G.; Teo, E.; Coquet, P.; Tay, B. K.; Lepilliet, S.; Avramovic, V.; Chazelas, J.; Decoster, D.

    2016-05-01

    We present the experimental determination of the complex permittivity of vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) films grown on quartz substrates in the microwave regime from 10 MHz up to 67 GHz, with the electrical field perpendicular to the main axis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), based on coplanar waveguide transmission line approach together with the measurement of the microwave impedance of top metalized vertically—aligned SWCNTs grown on conductive silicon substrates up to 26 GHz. From coplanar waveguide measurements, we obtain a real part of the permittivity almost equal to unity, which is interpreted in terms of low carbon atom density (3 × 1019 at/cm3) associated with a very low imaginary part of permittivity (vertically aligned CNTs bundle equivalent to a low resistance reveals a good conductivity (3 S/cm) parallel to the CNTs axis. From these two kinds of data, we experimentally demonstrate the tensor nature of the vertically grown CNTs bundles.

  7. Design and microwave test of an ultrawideband input/output structure for sheet beam travelling wave tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Guoxiang; Wang, Jianxun; Liu, Guo; Yang, Liya; Luo, Yong; Wang, Shafei

    2015-01-01

    Broadband operation is of great importance for the applications of travelling wave tubes such as high-data communication and wideband radar. An input/output (I/O) structure operating with broadband property plays a significant role to achieve these applications. In this paper, a Y-type branch waveguide (YTBW) coupler and its improvements are proposed and utilized to construct an extremely wideband I/O structure to ensure the broadband operation for sheet beam travelling wave tubes (SB-TWTs). Cascaded reflection resonators are utilized to improve the isolation characteristic and transmission efficiency. Furthermore, to minimize the reflectivity of the port connected with the RF circuit, wave-absorbing material (WAM) is loaded in the resonator. Simulation results for the YTBW loaded with WAM predict an excellent performance with a 50.2% relative bandwidth for port reflectivity under −15 dB, transmission up to −1.5 dB, and meanwhile isolation under −20 dB. In addition, the coupler has a relatively compact configuration and the beam tunnel can be widened, which is beneficial for the propagation of the electrons. A Q-band YTBW loaded with two reflection resonators is fabricated and microwave tested. Vector network analyzer (VNA) measured results have an excellent agreement with our simulation, which verify our theoretical analysis and simulation calculation

  8. Design and microwave test of an ultrawideband input/output structure for sheet beam travelling wave tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Guoxiang; Wang, Jianxun; Liu, Guo; Yang, Liya; Luo, Yong [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Wang, Shafei [North Electronic Device Research Institution, P.O. Box 947, Beijing 100141 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Broadband operation is of great importance for the applications of travelling wave tubes such as high-data communication and wideband radar. An input/output (I/O) structure operating with broadband property plays a significant role to achieve these applications. In this paper, a Y-type branch waveguide (YTBW) coupler and its improvements are proposed and utilized to construct an extremely wideband I/O structure to ensure the broadband operation for sheet beam travelling wave tubes (SB-TWTs). Cascaded reflection resonators are utilized to improve the isolation characteristic and transmission efficiency. Furthermore, to minimize the reflectivity of the port connected with the RF circuit, wave-absorbing material (WAM) is loaded in the resonator. Simulation results for the YTBW loaded with WAM predict an excellent performance with a 50.2% relative bandwidth for port reflectivity under −15 dB, transmission up to −1.5 dB, and meanwhile isolation under −20 dB. In addition, the coupler has a relatively compact configuration and the beam tunnel can be widened, which is beneficial for the propagation of the electrons. A Q-band YTBW loaded with two reflection resonators is fabricated and microwave tested. Vector network analyzer (VNA) measured results have an excellent agreement with our simulation, which verify our theoretical analysis and simulation calculation.

  9. Electromagnetic scattering from microwave absorbers - Laboratory verification of the coupled wave theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiewski, A. J.; Jackson, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    W-band measurements of the bistatic scattering function of some common microwave absorbing structures, including periodic wedge-type and pyramid-type iron-epoxy calibration loads and flat carbon-foam 'Echosorb' samples, were made using a network analyzer interface to a focused-lens scattering range. Swept frequency measurements over the 75-100 GHz band revealed specular and Bragg reflection characteristics in the measured data.

  10. The Development of Si and SiGe Technologies for Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Katehi, Linda P. B.; Bhattacharya, Pallab K.

    1997-01-01

    Historically, microwave technology was developed by military and space agencies from around the world to satisfy their unique radar, communication, and science applications. Throughout this development phase, the sole goal was to improve the performance of the microwave circuits and components comprising the systems. For example, power amplifiers with output powers of several watts over broad bandwidths, low noise amplifiers with noise figures as low as 3 dB at 94 GHz, stable oscillators with low noise characteristics and high output power, and electronically steerable antennas were required. In addition, the reliability of the systems had to be increased because of the high monetary and human cost if a failure occurred. To achieve these goals, industry, academia and the government agencies supporting them chose to develop technologies with the greatest possibility of surpassing the state of the art performance. Thus, Si, which was already widely used for digital circuits but had material characteristics that were perceived to limit its high frequency performance, was bypassed for a progression of devices starting with GaAs Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MESFETs) and ending with InP Pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistors (PHEMTs). For each new material or device structure, the electron mobility increased, and therefore, the high frequency characteristics of the device were improved. In addition, ultra small geometry lithographic processes were developed to reduce the gate length to 0.1 pm which further increases the cutoff frequency. The resulting devices had excellent performance through the millimeter-wave spectrum.

  11. Three-dimensional continuous particle focusing in a microfluidic channel via standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinjie; Yazdi, Shahrzad; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Ding, Xiaoyun; Chiang, I-Kao; Sharp, Kendra; Huang, Tony Jun

    2011-07-21

    Three-dimensional (3D) continuous microparticle focusing has been achieved in a single-layer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel using a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW). The SSAW was generated by the interference of two identical surface acoustic waves (SAWs) created by two parallel interdigital transducers (IDTs) on a piezoelectric substrate with a microchannel precisely bonded between them. To understand the working principle of the SSAW-based 3D focusing and investigate the position of the focal point, we computed longitudinal waves, generated by the SAWs and radiated into the fluid media from opposite sides of the microchannel, and the resultant pressure and velocity fields due to the interference and reflection of the longitudinal waves. Simulation results predict the existence of a focusing point which is in good agreement with our experimental observations. Compared with other 3D focusing techniques, this method is non-invasive, robust, energy-efficient, easy to implement, and applicable to nearly all types of microparticles.

  12. Transcranial direct current stimulation in refractory continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep: a controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, Edina T; Terney, Daniella; Atkins, Mary D

    2011-01-01

    Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) decreases cortical excitability. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether cathodal tDCS could interrupt the continuous epileptiform activity. Five patients with focal, refractory continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep were...... recruited. Cathodal tDCS and sham stimulation were applied to the epileptic focus, before sleep (1 mA; 20 min). Cathodal tDCS did not reduce the spike-index in any of the patients....

  13. Continuous-wave optically pumped green perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitter

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Liu, Zhixiong; Alatawi, Abdullah; Ng, Tien Khee; Wu, Tao; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    We report an optically pumped green perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitter operating in continuous-wave (CW) with a power density threshold of ~89 kW/cm2. The device has an active region of CH3NH3PbBr3 embedded in a dielectric microcavity

  14. Continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox with traveling-wave second-harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and quantum entanglement are at the heart of quantum mechanics. Here we show that single-pass traveling-wave second-harmonic generation can be used to demonstrate both entanglement and the paradox with continuous variables that are analogous to the position and momentum of the original proposal

  15. Continuous-wave Optically Pumped Lasing of Hybrid Perovskite VCSEL at Green Wavelength

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2017-05-08

    We demonstrate the lasing of a perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at green wavelengths, which operates under continuous-wave optical pumping at room-temperature by embedding hybrid perovskite between dielectric mirrors deposited at low-temperature.

  16. Continuous-wave Optically Pumped Lasing of Hybrid Perovskite VCSEL at Green Wavelength

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Liu, Zhixiong; Alatawi, Abdullah; Ng, Tien Khee; Wu, Tao; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the lasing of a perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at green wavelengths, which operates under continuous-wave optical pumping at room-temperature by embedding hybrid perovskite between dielectric mirrors deposited at low-temperature.

  17. Search for continuous gravitational waves from neutron stars in globular cluster NGC 6544

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, Laura; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M. Di; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Namjun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patel, P.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, D.M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, Perminder S; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoebeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D.S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Sigurdsson, S.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a directed search for continuous gravitational waves in data from the sixth initial LIGO science run. The target was the nearby globular cluster NGC 6544 at a distance of approximate to 2.7 kpc. The search covered a broad band of frequencies along with first and second frequency

  18. Continuous wave terahertz radiation from an InAs/GaAs quantum-dot photomixer device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczek, T.; Leyman, R.; Carnegie, D.; Bazieva, N.; Erbert, G.; Schulz, S.; Reardon, C.; Reynolds, S.; Rafailov, E. U.

    2012-08-01

    Generation of continuous wave radiation at terahertz (THz) frequencies from a heterodyne source based on quantum-dot (QD) semiconductor materials is reported. The source comprises an active region characterised by multiple alternating photoconductive and QD carrier trapping layers and is pumped by two infrared optical signals with slightly offset wavelengths, allowing photoconductive device switching at the signals' difference frequency ˜1 THz.

  19. Time-Frequency-Wavenumber Analysis of Surface Waves Using the Continuous Wavelet Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, V.; Fäh, D.; Giardini, D.

    2013-03-01

    A modified approach to surface wave dispersion analysis using active sources is proposed. The method is based on continuous recordings, and uses the continuous wavelet transform to analyze the phase velocity dispersion of surface waves. This gives the possibility to accurately localize the phase information in time, and to isolate the most significant contribution of the surface waves. To extract the dispersion information, then, a hybrid technique is applied to the narrowband filtered seismic recordings. The technique combines the flexibility of the slant stack method in identifying waves that propagate in space and time, with the resolution of f- k approaches. This is particularly beneficial for higher mode identification in cases of high noise levels. To process the continuous wavelet transform, a new mother wavelet is presented and compared to the classical and widely used Morlet type. The proposed wavelet is obtained from a raised-cosine envelope function (Hanning type). The proposed approach is particularly suitable when using continuous recordings (e.g., from seismological-like equipment) since it does not require any hardware-based source triggering. This can be subsequently done with the proposed method. Estimation of the surface wave phase delay is performed in the frequency domain by means of a covariance matrix averaging procedure over successive wave field excitations. Thus, no record stacking is necessary in the time domain and a large number of consecutive shots can be used. This leads to a certain simplification of the field procedures. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, we tested it on synthetics as well on real field data. For the real case we also combine dispersion curves from ambient vibrations and active measurements.

  20. Continuous particle focusing in a waved microchannel using negative dc dielectrophoresis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming

    2012-07-26

    We present a waved microchannel for continuous focusing of microparticles and cells using negative direct current (dc) dielectrophoresis. The waved channel is composed of consecutive s-shaped curved channels in series to generate an electric field gradient required for the dielectrophoretic effect. When particles move electrokinetically through the channel, the experienced negative dielectrophoretic forces alternate directions within two adjacent semicircular microchannels, leading to a focused continuous-flow stream along the channel centerline. Both the experimentally observed and numerically simulated results of the focusing performance are reported, which coincide acceptably in proportion to the specified dimensions (i.e. inlet and outlet of the waved channel). How the applied electric field, particle size and medium concentration affect the performance was studied by focusing polystyrene microparticles of varying sizes. As an application in the field of biology, the focusing of yeast cells in the waved mcirochannel was tested. This waved microchannel shows a great potential for microflow cytometry applications and is expected to be widely used before different processing steps in lab-on-A-chip devices with integrated functions. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  1. A continuous wave fan beam tomography system having a best estimating filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    A continuous wave fan beam tomographic system is described which continuously samples X-ray absorption values and a means of providing a best-estimate of the X-ray absorption values at discrete points in time determined by sampling signal s(t). The means to provide the best-estimate include a continuous filter having a frequency range defined by the geometry of the mechanical system. Errors due to the statistical variation in photon emissions of the X-ray source are thereby minimized and the effective signal-to-noise ratio of signals is enhanced, which in turn allows a significant reduction in radiation dosage. (author)

  2. Virtual cathode microwave generation using inhomogeneous magnetic field and wave guide wall configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.; Kwan, T.J.T.

    1984-01-01

    Microwave generation from a virtual cathode system is investigated using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. In the typical virtual cathode geometry, the electron beam diode is separated from the output waveguide by a ground plane which is a thin foil or screen. By lowering the diode impedance sufficiently, it is possible to form a virtual cathode in the waveguide region a short distance from the ground plane. In this configuration two mechanisms can lead to microwave generation: 1) electron bunching due to reflection between the real and virtual cathode and 2) electron bunching due to virtual cathode oscillation. Both mechanisms are typically present, but it appears possible to make one mechanism dominant by adjusting the output waveguide radius. Although such a configuration might generate 1-10 GW output, electron deposition into the ground plane, waveguide wall, and output window causes breakdown. To overcome these disadvantages, the authors have investigated a configuration with no ground plane coupled with the use of an inhomogeneous external magnetic field and waveguide wall

  3. Multikilowatt variable frequency microwave furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.; Everleigh, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a new type of microwave processing furnace in which the frequency can be varied continuously from 4 to 8 GHz and the power level varied from zero up to 2.5 kW. The extraordinary bandwidth of this furnace is achieved by using a traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier originally developed for electronic warfare applications. The TWT is a linear beam device characterized by a traveling electromagnetic wave that continuously extracts energy longitudinally along the path of an electron beam. The TWT, unlike other microwave tubes such as the magnetron, klystron, gyrotron, and others, does not depend upon resonant RF fields and is therefore capable of wide bandwidth operation.operation

  4. Evidence for a continuous spectrum of equatorial waves in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Charles C.

    1980-06-01

    Seven-month records of current and temperature measurements from a moored array centered at 53°E on the equator in the Indian Ocean are consistent with a continuous spectrum of equatorially trapped internal inertial-gravity, mixed Rossby-gravity, and Kelvin waves. A model spectrum of free linear waves analogous to those for mid-latitude internal gravity waves is used to compute spectra of observed quantities at depths greater than about 2000 m. Model parameters are adjusted to fit general patterns in the observed spectra over periods from roughly 2 days to 1 month. Measurements at shallower depths presumably include forced motions which we have not attempted to model. This `straw-person' spectrum is consistent with the limited data available. The model spectru Ē (n, m, ω) = K · B(m) · C(n, ω), where Ē is an average local energy density in the equatorial wave guide which has amplitude K, wave number shape B(m) ∝ (1 + m/m*)-3, where m is vertical mode number and the bandwidth parameter m* is between 4 and 8, and frequency shape C(n, ω) ∝ [(2n + 1 + s2)½ · σ3]-1 where n is meridional mode number, and s and σ are dimensionless zonal wave number and frequency related by the usual dispersion relation. The scales are (β/cm)½ and (β · cm)½ for horizontal wave number and frequency, where cm is the Kelvin wave speed of the vertical mode m. At each frequency and vertical wave number, energy is partitioned equally among the available inertial gravity modes so that the field tends toward horizontal isotropy at high frequency. The transition between Kelvin and mixed Rossby-gravity motion at low frequency and inertial-gravity motion at high frequency occurs at a period of roughly 1 week. At periods in the range 1-3 weeks, the model spectrum which fits the observations suggests that mixed Rossby-gravity motion dominates; at shorter periods gravity motion dominates. The model results are consistent with the low vertical coherence lengths observed (roughly 80 m

  5. Ultralow power continuous-wave frequency conversion in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Yao; Foster, Amy C

    2012-04-15

    We demonstrate wavelength conversion through nonlinear parametric processes in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) with maximum conversion efficiency of -13 dB at telecommunication data rates (10 GHz) using only 15 mW of pump peak power. Conversion bandwidths as large as 150 nm (20 THz) are measured in continuous-wave regime at telecommunication wavelengths. The nonlinear refractive index of the material is determined by four-wave mixing (FWM) to be n(2)=7.43×10(-13) cm(2)/W, approximately an order of magnitude larger than that of single crystal silicon. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  6. Batch and Continuous Flow Preparation of Hantzsch 1,4-Dihydropyridines under Microwave Heating and Simultaneous Real-time Monitoring by Raman Spectroscopy. An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Christiaens

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dialkyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethylpyridine-3,5-dicarboxylates have been prepared in a batch mode under conventional heating as well as under continuous flow conditions in the Miniflow 200SS, Sairem’s microwave-assisted batch and continuous flow equipment. Real-time monitoring of the reactions by Raman spectroscopy enabled to compare both heating modes and to determine (optimized reaction times.

  7. Microwave Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, A D

    2007-01-01

    The IET has organised training courses on microwave measurements since 1983, at which experts have lectured on modern developments. Their lecture notes were first published in book form in 1985 and then again in 1989, and they have proved popular for many years with a readership beyond those who attended the courses. The purpose of this third edition of the lecture notes is to bring the latest techniques in microwave measurements to this wider audience. The book begins with a survey of the theory of current microwave circuits and continues with a description of the techniques for the measureme

  8. Microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chi H

    2006-01-01

    Wireless, optical, and electronic networks continue to converge, prompting heavy research into the interface between microwave electronics, ultrafast optics, and photonic technologies. New developments arrive nearly as fast as the photons under investigation, and their commercial impact depends on the ability to stay abreast of new findings, techniques, and technologies. Presenting a broad yet in-depth survey, Microwave Photonics examines the major advances that are affecting new applications in this rapidly expanding field.This book reviews important achievements made in microwave photonics o

  9. Limitations On The Creation of Continuously Surfable Waves Generated By A Pressure Source Moving In A Circular Path

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmied, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research presented in this work was to investigate the novel idea to produce continuous breaking waves, whereby a pressure source was rotated within an annular wave pool. The concept was that the pressure source generates non-breaking waves that propagate inward to the inner ring of

  10. An RFI Detection Algorithm for Microwave Radiometers Using Sparse Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed-Tano, Priscilla N.; Korde-Patel, Asmita; Gholian, Armen; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Schoenwald, Adam; Bradley, Damon

    2017-01-01

    Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is a threat to passive microwave measurements and if undetected, can corrupt science retrievals. The sparse component analysis (SCA) for blind source separation has been investigated to detect RFI in microwave radiometer data. Various techniques using SCA have been simulated to determine detection performance with continuous wave (CW) RFI.

  11. OPTIMAL STRATEGIES FOR CONTINUOUS GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTION IN PULSAR TIMING ARRAYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J. A.; Siemens, X.; Creighton, J. D. E.

    2012-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are expected to emit a continuous gravitational wave signal in the pulsar timing array (PTA) frequency band (10 –9 to 10 –7 Hz). The development of data analysis techniques aimed at efficient detection and characterization of these signals is critical to the gravitational wave detection effort. In this paper, we leverage methods developed for LIGO continuous wave gravitational searches and explore the use of the F-statistic for such searches in pulsar timing data. Babak and Sesana have used this approach in the context of PTAs to show that one can resolve multiple SMBHB sources in the sky. Our work improves on several aspects of prior continuous wave search methods developed for PTA data analysis. The algorithm is implemented fully in the time domain, which naturally deals with the irregular sampling typical of PTA data and avoids spectral leakage problems associated with frequency domain methods. We take into account the fitting of the timing model and have generalized our approach to deal with both correlated and uncorrelated colored noise sources. We also develop an incoherent detection statistic that maximizes over all pulsar-dependent contributions to the likelihood. To test the effectiveness and sensitivity of our detection statistics, we perform a number of Monte Carlo simulations. We produce sensitivity curves for PTAs of various configurations and outline an implementation of a fully functional data analysis pipeline. Finally, we present a derivation of the likelihood maximized over the gravitational wave phases at the pulsar locations, which results in a vast reduction of the search parameter space.

  12. Analyzing the disturbing effects of microwave probe on mm-wave antenna pattern measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, A.C.F.; Dommele, van A.R.; Huang, M.D.; Herben, M.H.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Realizing an antenna measurement environment with specific supporting structures and interconnection between the antenna under test and measurement equipment like a vector network analyzer in the mm-wave range is not as trivial as for the much lower frequencies. Commonly used interconnection methods

  13. A prospective study of levetiracetam efficacy in epileptic syndromes with continuous spikes-waves during slow sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atkins, Mary; Nikanorova, Marina

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the add-on effect of levetiracetam (LEV) treatment on the EEG and clinical status of children with continuous spikes-waves during slow sleep (CSWS).......To evaluate the add-on effect of levetiracetam (LEV) treatment on the EEG and clinical status of children with continuous spikes-waves during slow sleep (CSWS)....

  14. Microwave Photocatalysis II: Novel Continuous-Flow Microwave Photocatalytic Experimental Set-up with Titania-Coated Mercury Electrodeless Discharge Lamps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žabová, Hana; Církva, Vladimír; Hájek, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 8 (2009), s. 1125-1129 ISSN 0268-2575 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/06/0992; GA ČR GA104/07/1212; GA ČR(CZ) GD203/08/H032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : microwave * photocatalysis * thin film Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 2.045, year: 2009

  15. CdS thin films prepared by continuous wave Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Tenpas, Eric W.; Vuong, Khanh D.; Williams, James A.; Schuesselbauer, E.; Bernstein, R.; Fagan, J. G.; Wang, Xing W.

    1995-08-01

    We report new results on continuous wave Nd:YAG laser deposition of cadmium sulfide thin films. Substrates were soda-lime silicate glass, silica glass, silicon, and copper coated formvar sheets. As deposited films were mixtures of cubic and hexagonal phases, with two different grain sizes. As revealed by SEM micrographs, films had smooth surface morphology. As revealed by TEM analysis, grain sizes were extremely small.

  16. Traveling-wave solutions in continuous chains of unidirectionally coupled oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyzin, S. D.; Kolesov, A. Yu; Rozov, N. Kh

    2017-12-01

    Proposed is a mathematical model of a continuous annular chain of unidirectionally coupled generators given by certain nonlinear advection-type hyperbolic boundary value problem. Such problems are constructed by a limit transition from annular chains of unidirectionally coupled ordinary differential equations with an unbounded increase in the number of links. It is shown that any preassigned finite number of stable periodic motions of the traveling-wave type can coexist in the model.

  17. A diode-end-pumped Nd:GYSGG continuous wave laser at 1104 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, B J; Kang, H X; Zhang, C G; Chen, P; Gao, R L; Liang, J; Gao, H J; Zhang, Q L; Sun, D L; Yin, S T; Luo, J Q

    2013-01-01

    The continuous wave (CW) laser performance of Nd:GYSGG at 1104 nm is investigated for the first time, to our knowledge. A CW laser output power of 4.7 W is obtained when the pump power of the 808 nm fiber coupled laser diode is 19.1 W, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 24.6% and slope efficiency of 37%. (paper)

  18. High performance superconducting radio frequency ingot niobium technology for continuous wave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Myneni, Ganapati R.

    2015-01-01

    Future continuous wave (CW) accelerators require the superconducting radio frequency cavities with high quality factor and medium accelerating gradients (≤20 MV/m). Ingot niobium cavities with medium purity fulfill the specifications of both accelerating gradient and high quality factor with simple processing techniques and potential reduction in cost. This contribution reviews the current superconducting radiofrequency research and development and outlines the potential benefits of using ingot niobium technology for CW applications

  19. Continuous terahertz-wave generation using a monolithically integrated horn antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peytavit, E.; Beck, A.; Akalin, T.; Lampin, J.-F.; Hindle, F.; Yang, C.; Mouret, G.

    2008-09-01

    A transverse electromagnetic horn antenna is monolithically integrated with a standard ultrafast interdigitated electrode photodetector on low-temperature-grown GaAs. Continuous-wave terahertz radiation is generated at frequencies up to 2 THz with a maximum power of approximately 1 μW at 780 GHz. Experimental variations in the terahertz power as function of the frequency are explained by means of electromagnetic simulations of the antenna and the photomixer vicinity.

  20. Time series analysis of continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar wind measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeholm, M; Mikkelsen, T; Mann, J; Enevoldsen, K; Courtney, M

    2008-01-01

    The influence of spatial volume averaging of a focused 1.55 μm continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar on observed wind turbulence measured in the atmospheric surface layer over homogeneous terrain is described and analysed. Comparison of Lidar-measured turbulent spectra with spectra simultaneously obtained from a mast-mounted sonic anemometer at 78 meters height at the test station for large wind turbines at Hoevsoere in Western Jutland, Denmark is presented for the first time

  1. Bound states embedded into continuous spectrum as 'gathered' (compactified) scattering waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhar'ev, B.N.; Chabanov, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that states of continuous spectrum (the half-line case) can be considered as bound states normalized by unity but distributed on the infinite interval with vanishing density. Then the algorithms of shifting the range of primary localization of a chosen bound state in potential well of finite width appear to be applicable to scattering functions. The potential perturbations of the same type (but now on half-axis) concentrate the scattering wave in near vicinity of the origin, which leads to creation of bound state embedded into continuous spectrum. (author). 8 refs., 7 figs

  2. Generation of continuous-wave 194 nm laser for mercury ion optical frequency standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hongxin; Wu, Yue; Chen, Guozhu; Shen, Yong; Liu, Qu; Precision measurement; atomic clock Team

    2015-05-01

    194 nm continuous-wave (CW) laser is an essential part in mercury ion optical frequency standard. The continuous-wave tunable radiation sources in the deep ultraviolet (DUV) region of the spectrum is also serviceable in high-resolution spectroscopy with many atomic and molecular lines. We introduce a scheme to generate continuous-wave 194 nm radiation with SFM in a Beta Barium Borate (BBO) crystal here. The two source beams are at 718 nm and 266 nm, respectively. Due to the property of BBO, critical phase matching (CPM) is implemented. One bow-tie cavity is used to resonantly enhance the 718 nm beam while the 266 nm makes a single pass, which makes the configuration easy to implement. Considering the walk-off effect in CPM, the cavity mode is designed to be elliptical so that the conversion efficiency can be promoted. Since the 266 nm radiation is generated by a 532 nm laser through SHG in a BBO crystal with a large walk-off angle, the output mode is quite non-Gaussian. To improve mode matching, we shaped the 266 nm beam into Gaussian modes with a cylindrical lens and iris diaphragm. As a result, 2.05 mW 194 nm radiation can be generated. As we know, this is the highest power for 194 nm CW laser using SFM in BBO with just single resonance. The work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91436103 and No. 11204374).

  3. Continuous-wave lasing in an organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yufei; Kerner, Ross A.; Grede, Alex J.; Rand, Barry P.; Giebink, Noel C.

    2017-12-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have emerged as promising gain media for tunable, solution-processed semiconductor lasers. However, continuous-wave operation has not been achieved so far1-3. Here, we demonstrate that optically pumped continuous-wave lasing can be sustained above threshold excitation intensities of 17 kW cm-2 for over an hour in methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) distributed feedback lasers that are maintained below the MAPbI3 tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition temperature of T ≈ 160 K. In contrast with the lasing death phenomenon that occurs for pure tetragonal-phase MAPbI3 at T > 160 K (ref. 4), we find that continuous-wave gain becomes possible at T ≈ 100 K from tetragonal-phase inclusions that are photogenerated by the pump within the normally existing, larger-bandgap orthorhombic host matrix. In this mixed-phase system, the tetragonal inclusions function as carrier recombination sinks that reduce the transparency threshold, in loose analogy to inorganic semiconductor quantum wells, and may serve as a model for engineering improved perovskite gain media.

  4. Terminal load response law of coaxial cable to continuous wave electromagnetic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xiaodong; Wei Guanghui; Li Xinfeng; Lu Xinfu

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the coupling response law of continuous wave electromagnetic irradiation to coaxial cable, the typical RF coaxial cable is selected as the object under test. The equipment or subsystem connected by coaxial cable is equivalent to a lumped load. Continuous wave irradiation effect experiments under different conditions are carried out to analyze the terminal load response law of coaxial cable. The results indicate that the coaxial cable has a frequency selecting characteristic under electromagnetic irradiation, and the terminal load response voltage peak appears at a series of discrete frequency points where the test cable's relative lengths equal to semi-integers. When the coaxial cable is irradiated by continuous wave, the induced sheath current converts to the differential-mode induced voltage between inner conductor and shielding layer through transfer impedance, and the internal resistance of induced voltage source is the characteristic impedance of the coaxial cable. The change in terminal load value has no influence on the response curve. The voltages on the terminal load and the internal resistance of equivalent induced voltage source obey the principle of voltage division. Moreover, when the sheath current on the coaxial cable is in resonance, the distributed induced voltage between adjacent current nodes is in the same polarity, which can be equivalent to a single induced voltage source. The induced voltage source which is adjacent to the terminal load plays the leading role in the irradiation response process. (authors)

  5. Approximate likelihood approaches for detecting the influence of primordial gravitational waves in cosmic microwave background polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhen; Anderes, Ethan; Knox, Lloyd

    2018-05-01

    One of the major targets for next-generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments is the detection of the primordial B-mode signal. Planning is under way for Stage-IV experiments that are projected to have instrumental noise small enough to make lensing and foregrounds the dominant source of uncertainty for estimating the tensor-to-scalar ratio r from polarization maps. This makes delensing a crucial part of future CMB polarization science. In this paper we present a likelihood method for estimating the tensor-to-scalar ratio r from CMB polarization observations, which combines the benefits of a full-scale likelihood approach with the tractability of the quadratic delensing technique. This method is a pixel space, all order likelihood analysis of the quadratic delensed B modes, and it essentially builds upon the quadratic delenser by taking into account all order lensing and pixel space anomalies. Its tractability relies on a crucial factorization of the pixel space covariance matrix of the polarization observations which allows one to compute the full Gaussian approximate likelihood profile, as a function of r , at the same computational cost of a single likelihood evaluation.

  6. Theoretical and experimental study of two-frequency solid-state lasers in the GHz to THz ranges. Opto-microwave applications waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, N.D.

    2003-07-01

    We explored some new features of single- and dual-frequency solid-state lasers oscillating in continuous-wave or pulsed regimes. First, we have developed some techniques to optimise the characteristics of pulsed lasers. A weak modulation of the pump power made it possible to obtain a stable repetition rate with a relative stability of 10 -6 . The pulse duration was continuously controlled from ten nanoseconds to a few hundreds nanoseconds by three different methods: adjustment of the laser beam diameter in the absorber, adjustment of the pump beam diameter in the active medium, and, in particular, the use of forked eigenstates in a two-axis laser. Moreover, the forked eigenstates allows to increase the pulse energy by coherent addition of the pulses. A compact two-frequency Nd:YAG-Cr:YAG laser with a beat note frequency continuously adjustable up to 2,7 GHz was demonstrated. The two-frequency pulses are ideal sources to meet various needs of applications such as the Doppler lidar-radar. Moreover, we show that two-frequency pulses at 1,55 μm can be obtained by using a new c-cut Co:ASL saturable absorber in an Er-Yb:glass laser. These pulses are perfectly adapted to free-space detection systems requiring eye safety. The coherence time of the beat note in these lasers was also studied: it is limited by the pulse duration. A new technique of modulating the pump power of a solid-state laser at frequencies close to its relaxation oscillation frequency was studied and made it possible to generate a beat note coherence from pulse to pulse. Frequency conversion techniques using the nonlinear optical effects make it possible to obtain tunable two-frequency sources in the visible spectrum. Green and red two-frequency pulses were obtained by using different conversion techniques, intra-cavity or extra-cavity. A two-frequency THz source in the red spectrum was also obtained by doubling the frequencies of a two-frequency THz Er-Yb:glass laser using a mixed fan-out PPLN crystal

  7. An integrated continuous class-F-1 mode power amplifier design approach for microwave enhanced portable diagnostic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Imtiaz, Azeem; Lees, Jonathan; Choi, Heungjae; Joshi, Lovleen Tina

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 IEEE. This paper presents a novel technique for designing a microwave power delivery system targeted at compact and portable microwave-assisted diagnostic healthcare applications to help tackle the growing problem of anti-microbial resistance. The arrangement comprises a purpose-built cylindrical cavity resonator within which, the bacterial samples are exposed, driven by a high-efficiency 10-W GaN amplifier, critically coupled via a simple, adjustable internal loop antenna. The experim...

  8. Windowing UWB microwave, mm-wave multi-port S-parameter measurements using open-ended excess electrical length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Askari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-port measurements are a big challenge in circuits' verification, especially when the frequency increases. This study presents a new technique for measuring S-parameters of multi-port ultra-wideband (UWB microwave and mm-wave circuits. The concepts are based on direct or indirect applying modulated UWB impulse radio in desired bandwidth to the one port of the modified multi-port circuit and gathering the reflected signal in the same port and the output signal in the second port in time domain, and the other ports are left opened with a special designed added electrical length. Then by applying intelligent windowing in time domain to the gathering data, and using fast Fourier transform, the desired S-parameters are extracted. Validation of this technique is verified by design and fabrication of a three-port UWB Wilkinson power divider in 22–30 GHz. The simulation and measurement results of the reflection and transmission S-parameters by using this new technique are very close to those are extracted with the conventional vector network analysers S-parameters measurements and show the ability and the accuracy of this technique.

  9. Fabrication of Through via Holes in Ultra-Thin Fused Silica Wafers for Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Through via holes in fused silica are a key infrastructure element of microwave and millimeter-wave circuits and 3D integration. In this work, etching through via holes in ultra-thin fused silica wafers using deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE and laser ablation was developed and analyzed. The experimental setup and process parameters for both methods are presented and compared. For DRIE, three types of mask materials including KMPR 1035 (Nippon Kayaku, Tokyo, Japan photoresist, amorphous silicon and chromium—with their corresponding optimized processing recipes—were tested, aiming at etching through a 100 μm fused silica wafer. From the experiments, we concluded that using chromium as the masking material is the best choice when using DRIE. However, we found that the laser ablation method with a laser pulse fluence of 2.89 J/cm2 and a pulse overlap of 91% has advantages over DRIE. The laser ablation method has a simpler process complexity, while offering a fair etching result. In particular, the sidewall profile angle is measured to be 75° to the bottom surface of the wafer, which is ideal for the subsequent metallization process. As a demonstration, a two-inch wafer with 624 via holes was processed using both technologies, and the laser ablation method showed better efficiency compared to DRIE.

  10. Environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS): studies of honey bees exposed to 2. 45 GHz continuous-wave electromagnetic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary, N E; Westerdahl, B B

    1980-12-01

    A system for small animal exposure was developed for treating honey bees, Apis mellifera L., in brood and adult stages, with 2.45 GHz continuous wave microwaves at selected power densities and exposure times. Post-treatment brood development was normal and teratological effects were not detected at exposures of 3 to 50 mw/cm/sup 2/ for 30 minutes. Post-treatment survival, longevity, orientation, navigation, and memory of adult bees were also normal after exposures of 3 to 50 mw/cm/sup 2/ for 30 minutes. Post-treatment longevity of confined bees in the laboratory was normal after exposures of 3 to 50 mw/cm/sup 2/ for 24 hours. Thermoregulation of brood nest, foraging activity, brood rearing, and social interaction were not affected by chronic exposure to 1 mw/cm/sup 2/ during 28 days. In dynamic behavioral bioassays the frequency of entry and duration of activity of unrestrained, foraging adult bees was identical in microwave-exposed (5 to 40 mw/cm/sup 2/) areas versus control areas.

  11. Soliton generation via continuous stokes acoustic self-scattering of hypersonic waves in a paramagnetic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugay, A. N.; Sazonov, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    A new mechanism is proposed for continuous frequency down-conversion of acoustic waves propagating in a paramagnetic crystal at a low temperature in an applied magnetic field. A transverse hypersonic pulse generating a carrier-free longitudinal strain pulse via nonlinear effects is scattered by the generated pulse. This leads to a Stokes shift in the transverse hypersonic wave proportional to its intensity, and both pulses continue to propagate in the form of a mode-locked soliton. As the transverse-pulse frequency is Stokes shifted, its spectrum becomes narrower. This process can be effectively implemented only if the linear group velocity of the transverse hypersonic pulse equals the phase velocity of the longitudinal strain wave. These velocities are renormalized by spin-phonon coupling and can be made equal by adjusting the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. The transverse structure of the soliton depends on the sign of the group velocity dispersion of the transverse component. When the dispersion is positive, planar solitons can develop whose transverse component has a topological defect of dark vortex type and longitudinal component has a hole. In the opposite case, the formation of two-component acoustic 'bullets' or vortices localized in all directions is possible

  12. Coherently combining data between detectors for all-sky semi-coherent continuous gravitational wave searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, E; Riles, K

    2016-01-01

    We present a method for coherently combining short data segments from gravitational-wave detectors to improve the sensitivity of semi-coherent searches for continuous gravitational waves. All-sky searches for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources are computationally limited. The semi-coherent approach reduces the computational cost by dividing the entire observation timespan into short segments to be analyzed coherently, then combined together incoherently. Semi-coherent analyses that attempt to improve sensitivity by coherently combining data from multiple detectors face a computational challenge in accounting for uncertainties in signal parameters. In this article, we lay out a technique to meet this challenge using summed Fourier transform coefficients. Applying this technique to one all-sky search algorithm called TwoSpect, we confirm that the sensitivity of all-sky, semi-coherent searches can be improved by coherently combining the short data segments, e.g., by up to 42% over a single detector for an all-sky search. For misaligned detectors, however, this improvement requires careful attention when marginalizing over unknown polarization parameters. In addition, care must be taken in correcting for differential detector velocity due to the Earth’s rotation for high signal frequencies and widely separated detectors. (paper)

  13. Flow angle dependent photoacoustic Doppler power spectra under intensity-modulated continuous wave laser excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic Doppler (PAD power spectra showing an evident Doppler shift represent the major characteristics of the continuous wave-excited or burst wave-excited versions of PAD flow measurements. In this paper, the flow angle dependences of the PAD power spectra are investigated using an experiment setup that was established based on intensity-modulated continuous wave laser excitation. The setup has an overall configuration that is similar to a previously reported configuration, but is more sophisticated in that it accurately aligns the laser illumination with the ultrasound detection process, and in that it picks up the correct sample position. In the analysis of the power spectra data, we find that the background power spectra can be extracted by combining the output signals from the two channels of the lock-in amplifier, which is very useful for identification of the PAD power spectra. The power spectra are presented and analyzed in opposite flow directions, at different flow speeds, and at different flow angles. The power spectra at a 90° flow angle show the unique properties of symmetrical shapes due to PAD broadening. For the other flow angles, the smoothed power spectra clearly show a flow angle cosine relationship.

  14. Terahertz transmission properties of silicon wafers using continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chihoon; Ahn, Jae Sung; Ji, Taeksoo; Eom, Joo Beom

    2017-04-01

    We present the spectral properties of Si wafers using continuous-wave terahertz (CW-THz) spectroscopy. By using a tunable laser source and a fixed distributed-feedback laser diode (DFB-LD), a stably tunable beat source for CW-THz spectroscopy system can be implemented. THz radiation is generated in the frequency range of 100 GHz-800 GHz by photomixing in a photoconductive antenna. We also measured CW-THz waveforms by changing the beat frequency and confirmed repeatability through repeated measurement. We calculated the peaks of the THz frequency by taking fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) of measured THz waveforms. The feasibility of CW-THz spectroscopy is demonstrated by the THz spectra of Si wafers with different resistivities, mobilities, and carrier concentrations. The results show that Si wafers with a lower resistivity absorb more THz waves. Thus, we expect our CW-THz system to have the advantage of being able to perform fast non-destructive analysis.

  15. Terahertz transmission properties of silicon wafers using continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chihoon; Ahn, Jae Sung; Eom, Joo Beom; Ji, Taeksoo

    2017-01-01

    We present the spectral properties of Si wafers using continuous-wave terahertz (CW-THz) spectroscopy. By using a tunable laser source and a fixed distributed-feedback laser diode (DFB-LD), a stably tunable beat source for CW-THz spectroscopy system can be implemented. THz radiation is generated in the frequency range of 100 GHz–800 GHz by photomixing in a photoconductive antenna. We also measured CW-THz waveforms by changing the beat frequency and confirmed repeatability through repeated measurement. We calculated the peaks of the THz frequency by taking fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) of measured THz waveforms. The feasibility of CW-THz spectroscopy is demonstrated by the THz spectra of Si wafers with different resistivities, mobilities, and carrier concentrations. The results show that Si wafers with a lower resistivity absorb more THz waves. Thus, we expect our CW-THz system to have the advantage of being able to perform fast non-destructive analysis. (paper)

  16. Searching for continuous gravitational wave signals. The hierarchical Hough transform algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papa, M.; Schutz, B.F.; Sintes, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that matched filtering techniques cannot be applied for searching extensive parameter space volumes for continuous gravitational wave signals. This is the reason why alternative strategies are being pursued. Hierarchical strategies are best at investigating a large parameter space when there exist computational power constraints. Algorithms of this kind are being implemented by all the groups that are developing software for analyzing the data of the gravitational wave detectors that will come online in the next years. In this talk I will report about the hierarchical Hough transform method that the GEO 600 data analysis team at the Albert Einstein Institute is developing. The three step hierarchical algorithm has been described elsewhere [8]. In this talk I will focus on some of the implementational aspects we are currently concerned with. (author)

  17. The advanced cosmic microwave explorer - A millimeter-wave telescope and stabilized platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhold, P. R.; Chingcuanco, A. O.; Gundersen, J. O.; Schuster, J. A.; Seiffert, M. D.; Lubin, P. M.; Morris, D.; Villela, T.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed and flown a 1 m diameter Gregorian telescope system for measurements of anisotropy in the Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR). The telescope is incorporated in a balloon-borne stabilized platform with arcminute stabilization capability. To date, the system has flown four times and observed from the ground at the South Pole twice. The telescope has used both coherent and incoherent detectors. We describe the development of the telescope, pointing platform, and one of the receivers employed in making measurements of the CBR. Performance of the system during the first flight and operation on the ground at the South Pole are described, and the quality of the South Pole as a millimeter wave observing site is discussed.

  18. Achromatic half-wave plate for submillimeter instruments in cosmic microwave background astronomy: modeling and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Giorgio; Pisano, Giampaolo; Ade, Peter A R

    2006-12-10

    We adopted an existing formalism and modified it to simulate, with high precision, the transmission, reflection, and absorption of multiple-plate birefringent devices as a function of frequency. To validate the model, we use it to compare the measured properties of an achromatic five-plate device with a broadband antireflection coating to expectations derived from the material optical constants and its geometric configuration. The half-wave plate presented here is observed to perform well with a phase shift variation of < 2 degrees from the ideal 180 degrees over a bandwidth of Deltav/v approximately 1 at millimeter wavelengths. This formalism represents a powerful design tool for birefringent polarization modulators and enables its optical properties to be specified with high accuracy.

  19. Quasi-continuous wave and continuous wave laser operation of Eu:KGd(WO4)2 crystal on a 5D0 → 7F4 transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashkevich, V I; Orlovich, V A; Bui, A A; Bagayev, S N; Vatnik, S M; Loiko, P A; Yumashev, K V; Kuleshov, N V; Pavlyuk, A A

    2015-01-01

    We report on the first demonstration of quasi-continuous wave (quasi-CW) and real CW room-temperature lasing on the 5 D 0  →  7 F 4 transition of Eu 3+ -doped material using a 25 at.%Eu 3+  : KGd(WO 4 ) 2 crystal pumped into the 7 F 1  →  5 D 1 transition by a diode-end-pumped Nd 3+  : KGd(WO 4 ) 2 /KTP green laser at 533.6 nm. The maximum CW output power of this laser at 702.3 nm is 5.3 mW with 1.4% green-to-red conversion efficiency. In quasi-CW operation mode with a 10% duty cycle, the peak power of ms long pulses reaches ∼54 mW, which corresponds to the optical conversion efficiency of 3.5%. (letter)

  20. Pulsar discoveries by volunteer distributed computing and the strongest continuous gravitational wave signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knispel, Benjamin

    2011-07-01

    Neutron stars are the endpoints of stellar evolution and one of the most compact forms of matter in the universe. They can be observed as radio pulsars and are promising sources for the emission of continuous gravitational waves. Discovering new radio pulsars in tight binary orbits offers the opportunity to conduct very high precision tests of General Relativity and to further our understanding of neutron star structure and matter at super-nuclear densities. The direct detection of gravitational waves would validate Einstein's theory of Relativity and open a new window to the universe by offering a novel astronomical tool. This thesis addresses both of these scientific fields: the first fully coherent search for radio pulsars in tight, circular orbits has been planned, set up and conducted in the course of this thesis. Two unusual radio pulsars, one of them in a binary system, have been discovered. The other half of this thesis is concerned with the simulation of the Galactic neutron star population to predict their emission of continuous gravitational waves. First realistic statistical upper limits on the strongest continuous gravitational-wave signal and detection predictions for realistic all-sky blind searches have been obtained. The data from a large-scale pulsar survey with the 305-m Arecibo radio telescope were searched for signals from radio pulsars in binary orbits. The massive amount of computational work was done on hundreds of thousands of computers volunteered by members of the general public through the distributed computing project Einstein@Home. The newly developed analysis pipeline searched for pulsar spin frequencies below 250 Hz and for orbital periods as short as 11 min. The structure of the search pipeline consisting of data preparation, data analysis, result post-processing, and set-up of the pipeline components is presented in detail. The first radio pulsar, discovered with this search, PSR J2007+2722, is an isolated radio pulsar, likely from

  1. Thermal properties and continuous-wave laser performance of Yb:LuVO4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Zhang, H. J.; Yu, Y. G.; Wang, J. Y.; Tao, X. T.; Liu, J. H.; Petrov, V.; Ling, Z. C.; Xia, H. R.; Jiang, M. H.

    2007-03-01

    A laser crystal of Yb:LuVO4 with high optical quality was grown by the Czochralski technique. Its thermal properties including specific heat, thermal expansion coefficients, and thermal conductivities along the a- and c-axis have been measured for the first time. Continuous-wave laser output up to 3.5 W at 1031 nm was obtained at room temperature through end-pumping by a high-power diode laser. The corresponding optical conversion efficiency was 43% and the slope efficiency was 72%.

  2. Beam characterization of a new continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, A., E-mail: aperry4@hawk.iit.edu [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Dickerson, C.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Zinkann, G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    A new Continuous Wave (CW) Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) for the ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System) Intensity Upgrade was developed, built and tested at Argonne National Laboratory. We present here a characterization of the RFQ output beam in the longitudinal phase space, as well as a measurement of the transverse beam halo. Measurement results are compared to simulations performed using the beam dynamics code TRACK. -- Highlights: • Beam commissioning of a new CW RFQ has been performed at Argonne National Laboratory. • Energy spread and bunch shape measurements were conducted. • The formation of a beam halo in the transverse phase space was studied.

  3. Investigation of turbulence measurements with a continuous wave, conically scanning LiDAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Mikkelsen, Torben; Courtney, Michael

    averaging is done in two steps: 1) the weighted averaging of the wind speed in the probe volume of the laser beam; 2) the averaging of the wind speeds occurring on the circular path described by the conically scanning lidar. Therefore the standard deviation measured by a lidar resolves only the turbulence...... of a continuous wave, conically scanning Zephir lidar. First, the wind speed standard deviation measured by such a lidar gives on average 80% of the standard deviation measured by a cup anemometer. This difference is due to the spatial averaging inherently made by a cw conically scanning lidar. The spatial...

  4. 532 nm continuous wave mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser with SESAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L; Liu, J; Liu, M; Liu, S; Chen, F; Wang, W; Wang, Y

    2009-01-01

    We obtain continuous wave mode-locked Nd:GdVO 4 -KTP laser with a SESAM. This is the first report of CW mode-locked Nd:GdVO 4 -KTP laser with a SESAM to our knowledge. 396 mw CW mode-locked pulse is achieved at the incident power of 7.653 W, with the repetition about 95 MHz. The pulse duration is assumed to be 5.5 ps, this is the shortest green pulse of 532 nm with SESAM

  5. Comb-Resolved Dual-Comb Spectroscopy Stabilized by Free-Running Continuous-Wave Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuse, Naoya; Ozawa, Akira; Kobayashi, Yohei

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate dual-comb spectroscopy with relatively phase-locked two frequency combs, instead of frequency combs firmly fixed to the absolute frequency references. By stabilizing two beat frequencies between two mode-locked lasers at different wavelengths observed via free-running continuous-wave (CW) lasers, two combs are tightly phase locked to each other. The frequency noise of the CW lasers barely affects the performance of dual-comb spectroscopy because of the extremely fast common-mode noise rejection. Transform-limited comb-resolved dual-comb spectroscopy with a 6 Hz radio frequency linewidth is demonstrated by the use of Yb-fiber oscillators.

  6. Welding uranium with a multikilowatt, continuous-wave, carbon dioxide laser welder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, P.W.; Townsend, A.B.

    1977-01-01

    A 15-kilowatt, continuous-wave carbon dioxide laser was contracted to make partial-penetration welds in 6.35-and 12.7-mm-thick wrought depleted uranium plates. Welding power and speed ranged from 2.3 to 12.9 kilowatts and from 21 to 127 millimeters per second, respectively. Results show that depth-to-width ratios of at least unity are feasible. The overall characteristics of the process indicate it can produce welds resembling those made by the electron-beam welding process

  7. First all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources in binary systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results of an all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown spinning neutron stars in binary systems using LIGO and Virgo data. Using a specially developed analysis program, the TwoSpect algorithm, the search was carried out on data from the sixth LIGO Science Run and the second and third Virgo Science Runs. The search covers a range of frequencies from 20 Hz to 520 Hz, a range of orbital periods from 2 to ~2,254 h and a frequency- and period-dependent ra...

  8. Continuous wave ultraviolet radiation induced frustration of etching in lithium niobate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mailis, S.; Riziotis, C.; Smith, P.G.R.; Scott, J.G.; Eason, R.W

    2003-02-15

    Illumination of the -z face of congruent lithium niobate single crystals with continuous wave (c.w.) ultraviolet (UV) laser radiation modifies the response of the surface to subsequent acid etching. A frequency doubled Ar{sup +} laser ({lambda}=244 nm) was used to illuminate the -z crystal face making it resistive to HF etching and thus transforming the illuminated tracks into ridge structures. This process enables the fabrication of relief patterns in a photolithographic manner. Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy indicates preservation of the good crystal quality after irradiation.

  9. Enhancement of Continuous Variable Entanglement in Four-Wave Mixing due to Atomic Memory Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Zhu, Zhu; Xiang-Ming, Hu; Fei, Wang; Jing-Yan, Li

    2010-01-01

    We explore the effects of atomic memory on quantum correlations of two-mode light fields from four-wave mixing. A three-level atomic system in Λ configuration is considered, in which the atomic relaxation times are comparable to or longer than the cavity relaxation times and thus there exists the atomic memory. The quantum correlation spectrum in the output is calculated without the adiabatic elimination of atomic variables. It is shown that the continuous variable entanglement is enhanced over a wide range of the normalized detuning in the intermediate and bad cavity cases compared with the good cavity case. In some situations more significant enhancement occurs at sidebands

  10. All-solid-state continuous-wave doubly resonant all-intracavity sum-frequency mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmann, H M; Heine, F; Huber, G; Halldórsson, T

    1997-10-01

    A new resonator design for doubly resonant continuous-wave intracavity sum-frequency mixing is presented. We generated 212 mW of coherent radiation at 618 nm by mixing the radiation of a 1080-nm Nd(3+):YAlO(3) laser and a 1444-nm Nd(3+):YAG laser. Two different mixing resonator setups and several nonlinear-optical crystals were investigated. So far output is limited by unequal performance of the two fundamental lasers and coating problems of the nonlinear crystals.

  11. On the shape of continuous wave infrared stimulated luminescence signals from feldspars: A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagonis, V.; Jain, Mayank; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    2014-01-01

    The continuous-wave IRSL (CW-IRSL) signals from feldspars are known to decay in a non-exponential manner, and their exact mathematical description is of great importance in dosimetric and dating studies. This paper investigates the possibility of fitting experimental CW-IRSL curves from a variety...... to guide future modeling work on luminescence processes in feldspars. Small statistical differences were found between K-rich and Na-rich fractions of the same sample. However, the experimental data shows that the parameters depend on the irradiation dose, but do not depend on the time elapsed after...

  12. Fourier Deconvolution Methods for Resolution Enhancement in Continuous-Wave EPR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, George H; Poyner, Russell R

    2015-01-01

    An overview of resolution enhancement of conventional, field-swept, continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectra using Fourier transform-based deconvolution methods is presented. Basic steps that are involved in resolution enhancement of calculated spectra using an implementation based on complex discrete Fourier transform algorithms are illustrated. Advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. An application to an experimentally obtained spectrum is provided to illustrate the power of the method for resolving overlapped transitions. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Optical phase locking of two infrared continuous wave lasers separated by 100 THz

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chiodo, N.; Du-Burck, F.; Hrabina, Jan; Lours, M.; Chea, E.; Acef, O.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 10 (2014), s. 2936-2939 ISSN 0146-9592 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP102/11/P820; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk EE2.4.31.0016; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14FR040 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Continuous wave lasers * Frequency allocation * Harmonic generation * Laser optics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.292, year: 2014

  14. High-resolution multiphoton microscopy with a low-power continuous wave laser pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang-Dong; Li, Shen; Du, Bo; Dong, Yang; Wang, Ze-Hao; Guo, Guang-Can; Sun, Fang-Wen

    2018-02-15

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has been widely used for three-dimensional biological imaging. Here, based on the photon-induced charge state conversion process, we demonstrated a low-power high-resolution MPM with a nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond. Continuous wave green and orange lasers were used to pump and detect the two-photon charge state conversion, respectively. The power of the laser for multiphoton excitation was 40 μW. Both the axial and lateral resolutions were improved approximately 1.5 times compared with confocal microscopy. The results can be used to improve the resolution of the NV center-based quantum sensing and biological imaging.

  15. Nickel-doped (Zr0.8, Sn0.2)TiO4 for microwave and millimeter-wave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioachim, A.; Banciu, M.G.; Toacsan, M.I.; Nedelcu, L.; Ghetu, D.; Alexandru, H.V.; Stoica, G.; Annino, G.; Cassettari, M.; Martinelli, M.

    2005-01-01

    (Zr 0.8 , Sn 0.2 )TiO 4 ternary compounds (ZST) have been prepared by conventional solid-state reaction from raw materials. The effects of such sintering parameters as sintering temperature, sintering time, and NiO addition on structural and dielectric properties were investigated. The material exhibits a dielectric constant ε r ∼36.0 and high values of the product Qf of the intrinsic quality factor Q and the frequency f from 32,170 to 50,000 at microwave frequencies. The dielectric loss tan δ values of ZST ceramics are decreased by low-level doping of NiO, while the temperature coefficient of the resonance frequency τ f takes values in the range -2 to +4 ppm/ deg. C. Investigations on whispering gallery modes revealed low dielectric loss in millimetre-wave domain. An intrinsic quality factor of 480 was measured at 115.6 GHz. Dielectric resonators and substrates of ZST material were manufactured. The dielectric properties make the ZST material very attractive to microwave and millimeter-wave applications, such as dielectric resonators, filters, planar antennas, hybrid microwave integrated circuits, etc

  16. Variable Power, Short Microwave Pulses Generation using a CW Magnetron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIUPA, R.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Fine control of microwave power radiation in medical and scientific applications is a challenging task. Since a commercial Continuous Wave (CW magnetron is the most inexpensive microwave device available today on the market, it becomes the best candidate for a microwave power generator used in medical diathermy and hyperthermia treatments or high efficiency chemical reactions using microwave reactors as well. This article presents a new method for driving a CW magnetron with short pulses, using a modified commercial Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS inverter, software driven by a custom embedded system. The microwave power generator designed with this method can be programmed for output microwave pulses down to 1% of the magnetron's power and allows microwave low frequency pulse modulation in the range of human brain electrical activity, intended for medical applications. Microwave output power continuous control is also possible with the magnetron running in the oscillating area, using a dual frequency Pulse Width Modulation (PWM, where the low frequency PWM pulse is modulating a higher resonant frequency required by the ZVS inverter's transformer. The method presented allows a continuous control of both power and energy (duty-cycle at the inverter's output.

  17. High speed video shooting with continuous-wave laser illumination in laboratory modeling of wind - wave interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandaurov, Alexander; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Caulliez, Guillemette; Sergeev, Daniil; Vdovin, Maxim

    2014-05-01

    Three examples of usage of high-speed video filming in investigation of wind-wave interaction in laboratory conditions is described. Experiments were carried out at the Wind - wave stratified flume of IAP RAS (length 10 m, cross section of air channel 0.4 x 0.4 m, wind velocity up to 24 m/s) and at the Large Air-Sea Interaction Facility (LASIF) - MIO/Luminy (length 40 m, cross section of air channel 3.2 x 1.6 m, wind velocity up to 10 m/s). A combination of PIV-measurements, optical measurements of water surface form and wave gages were used for detailed investigation of the characteristics of the wind flow over the water surface. The modified PIV-method is based on the use of continuous-wave (CW) laser illumination of the airflow seeded by particles and high-speed video. During the experiments on the Wind - wave stratified flume of IAP RAS Green (532 nm) CW laser with 1.5 Wt output power was used as a source for light sheet. High speed digital camera Videosprint (VS-Fast) was used for taking visualized air flow images with the frame rate 2000 Hz. Velocity air flow field was retrieved by PIV images processing with adaptive cross-correlation method on the curvilinear grid following surface wave profile. The mean wind velocity profiles were retrieved using conditional in phase averaging like in [1]. In the experiments on the LASIF more powerful Argon laser (4 Wt, CW) was used as well as high-speed camera with higher sensitivity and resolution: Optronics Camrecord CR3000x2, frame rate 3571 Hz, frame size 259×1696 px. In both series of experiments spherical 0.02 mm polyamide particles with inertial time 7 ms were used for seeding airflow. New particle seeding system based on utilization of air pressure is capable of injecting 2 g of particles per second for 1.3 - 2.4 s without flow disturbance. Used in LASIF this system provided high particle density on PIV-images. In combination with high-resolution camera it allowed us to obtain momentum fluxes directly from

  18. Continuous ultrasonic waves to detect steam bubbles in water under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulshof, H J.M.; Schurink, F

    1985-01-01

    Steam in the recirculation circuit of boilers may lead to unacceptable high thermal loads on the evaporator tubes. The ability to detect steam in the recirculation circuit during process transients is therefore important. A simple detector using continuous ultrasonic waves and able to detect bubbles in water contained in steel tubes is described in this paper. The variation of the transmitted wave caused by the bubbles was determined by demodulation. The results have met the objectives set for cold water with air bubbles. A clear indication of the presence of steam bubbles was found in fast-flowing hot water in a steel tube with a diameter of 60 mm. A change in the low-frequency region of the modulation was the only indication of the presence of steam bubbles in the large-diameter downcomer of the water-separator drum of a boiler in an electrical power plant. Possible causes of the differences in the results obtained are discussed on the basis of differences in bubble sizes and in focusing and reflection of the ultrasonic waves. (orig.). 11 refs.; 10 figs.

  19. Continuous ultrasonic waves to detect steam bubbles in water under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulshof, H.J.M.; Schurink, F.

    1985-01-01

    Steam in the recirculation circuit of boilers may lead to unacceptable high thermal loads on the evaporator tubes. The ability to detect steam in the recirculation circuit during process transients is therefore important. A simple detector using continuous ultrasonic waves and able to detect bubbles in water contained in steel tubes is described in this paper. The variation of the transmitted wave caused by the bubbles was determined by demodulation. The results have met the objectives set for cold water with air bubbles. A clear indication of the presence of steam bubbles was found in fast-flowing hot water in a steel tube with a diameter of 60 mm. A change in the low-frequency region of the modulation was the only indication of the presence of steam bubbles in the large-diameter downcomer of the water-separator drum of a boiler in an electrical power plant. Possible causes of the differences in the results obtained are discussed on the basis of differences in bubble sizes and in focusing and reflection of the ultrasonic waves. (orig.)

  20. Comparison of photosensitivity in germanium doped silica fibers using 244 nm and 266 nm continuous wave lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bo; Varming, Poul; Liu, B.

    2001-01-01

    Diode pumped continuous-wave UV lasers offer an interesting alternative to frequency doubled argon-ion lasers. We report the first photosensitivity comparison using these lasers on deuterium loaded standard telecommunication fibers and unloaded experimental fibers....

  1. Soliton radiation beat analysis of optical pulses generated from two continuous-wave lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajnulina, M.; Böhm, M.; Blow, K.; Rieznik, A. A.; Giannone, D.; Haynes, R.; Roth, M. M.

    2015-10-01

    We propose a fibre-based approach for generation of optical frequency combs (OFCs) with the aim of calibration of astronomical spectrographs in the low and medium-resolution range. This approach includes two steps: in the first step, an appropriate state of optical pulses is generated and subsequently moulded in the second step delivering the desired OFC. More precisely, the first step is realised by injection of two continuous-wave (CW) lasers into a conventional single-mode fibre, whereas the second step generates a broad OFC by using the optical solitons generated in step one as initial condition. We investigate the conversion of a bichromatic input wave produced by two initial CW lasers into a train of optical solitons, which happens in the fibre used as step one. Especially, we are interested in the soliton content of the pulses created in this fibre. For that, we study different initial conditions (a single cosine-hump, an Akhmediev breather, and a deeply modulated bichromatic wave) by means of soliton radiation beat analysis and compare the results to draw conclusion about the soliton content of the state generated in the first step. In case of a deeply modulated bichromatic wave, we observed the formation of a collective soliton crystal for low input powers and the appearance of separated solitons for high input powers. An intermediate state showing the features of both, the soliton crystal and the separated solitons, turned out to be most suitable for the generation of OFC for the purpose of calibration of astronomical spectrographs.

  2. Continuous wave power scaling in high power broad area quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttinger, M.; Leshin, J.; Go, R.; Figueiredo, P.; Shu, H.; Lyakh, A.

    2018-02-01

    Experimental and model results for high power broad area quantum cascade lasers are presented. Continuous wave power scaling from 1.62 W to 2.34 W has been experimentally demonstrated for 3.15 mm-long, high reflection-coated 5.6 μm quantum cascade lasers with 15 stage active region for active region width increased from 10 μm to 20 μm. A semi-empirical model for broad area devices operating in continuous wave mode is presented. The model uses measured pulsed transparency current, injection efficiency, waveguide losses, and differential gain as input parameters. It also takes into account active region self-heating and sub-linearity of pulsed power vs current laser characteristic. The model predicts that an 11% improvement in maximum CW power and increased wall plug efficiency can be achieved from 3.15 mm x 25 μm devices with 21 stages of the same design but half doping in the active region. For a 16-stage design with a reduced stage thickness of 300Å, pulsed roll-over current density of 6 kA/cm2 , and InGaAs waveguide layers; optical power increase of 41% is projected. Finally, the model projects that power level can be increased to 4.5 W from 3.15 mm × 31 μm devices with the baseline configuration with T0 increased from 140 K for the present design to 250 K.

  3. One step linear reconstruction method for continuous wave diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhrowiyah, N.; Yasin, M.

    2017-09-01

    The method one step linear reconstruction method for continuous wave diffuse optical tomography is proposed and demonstrated for polyvinyl chloride based material and breast phantom. Approximation which used in this method is selecting regulation coefficient and evaluating the difference between two states that corresponding to the data acquired without and with a change in optical properties. This method is used to recovery of optical parameters from measured boundary data of light propagation in the object. The research is demonstrated by simulation and experimental data. Numerical object is used to produce simulation data. Chloride based material and breast phantom sample is used to produce experimental data. Comparisons of results between experiment and simulation data are conducted to validate the proposed method. The results of the reconstruction image which is produced by the one step linear reconstruction method show that the image reconstruction almost same as the original object. This approach provides a means of imaging that is sensitive to changes in optical properties, which may be particularly useful for functional imaging used continuous wave diffuse optical tomography of early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  4. POWER SCALING IN CONTINUOUS-WAVE YB:YAG MICROCHIP LASER FOR MEASURING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Ivashko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics optimization of lasers used in different measuring systems is of great interest up to now. Diode-pumped microchip lasers is one of the most perspective ways for development of solid-state light sources with minimal size and weight together with low energy power consumption. Increasing of output power with good beam quality is rather difficult task for such type of lasers due to thermal effects in the gain crystal under high pump power.The investigation results of continuous-wave longitudinally diode-pumped Yb:YAG microchip laser are presented. In the presented laser radiation from multiple pump laser diodes were focused into the separate zone in one gain crystal that provides simultaneous generation of multiple laser beams. The energy and spatial laser beam characteristics were investigated.Influence of neighboring pumped regions on energy and spatial laser beams parameters both for separate and for sum laser output was observed. The dependences of laser output power from distance between neighboring pumped regions and their number were determined. Decreasing of laser output power was demonstrated with corresponding distance shortening between pumped regions and increasing their quantity with simultaneous improvement of laser beam quality.Demonstrated mutual influence of neighboring pumped regions in the longitudinally diode pumped Yb:YAG microchip laser allow as to generate diffraction limited Gaussian beam with 2W of continuous-wave output power that 30 % higher than in case of one pumped zone. 

  5. Optimally setting up directed searches for continuous gravitational waves in Advanced LIGO O1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jing; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Krishnan, Badri; Prix, Reinhard; Beer, Christian; Zhu, Sylvia J.; Eggenstein, Heinz-Bernd; Bock, Oliver; Machenschalk, Bernd

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we design a search for continuous gravitational waves from three supernova remnants: Vela Jr., Cassiopeia A (Cas A) and G347.3. These systems might harbor rapidly rotating neutron stars emitting quasiperiodic gravitational radiation detectable by the advanced LIGO detectors. Our search is designed to use the volunteer computing project Einstein@Home for a few months and assumes the sensitivity and duty cycles of the advanced LIGO detectors during their first science run. For all three supernova remnants, the sky positions of their central compact objects are well known but the frequency and spin-down rates of the neutron stars are unknown which makes the searches computationally limited. In a previous paper we have proposed a general framework for deciding on what target we should spend computational resources and in what proportion, what frequency and spin-down ranges we should search for every target, and with what search setup. Here we further expand this framework and apply it to design a search directed at detecting continuous gravitational wave signals from the most promising three supernova remnants identified as such in the previous work. Our optimization procedure yields broad frequency and spin-down searches for all three objects, at an unprecedented level of sensitivity: The smallest detectable gravitational wave strain h0 for Cas A is expected to be 2 times smaller than the most sensitive upper limits published to date, and our proposed search, which was set up and ran on the volunteer computing project Einstein@Home, covers a much larger frequency range.

  6. A microwave powered sensor assembly for microwave ovens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a microwave powered sensor assembly for micro- wave ovens. The microwave powered sensor assembly comprises a microwave antenna for generating an RF antenna signal in response to microwave radiation at a predetermined excitation frequency. A dc power supply circuit...... of the microwave powered sensor assembly is operatively coupled to the RF antenna signal for extracting energy from the RF antenna signal and produce a power supply voltage. A sensor is connected to the power supply voltage and configured to measure a physical or chemical property of a food item under heating...... in a microwave oven chamber....

  7. Mean flow generated by an internal wave packet impinging on the interface between two layers of fluid with continuous density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, John P. [The University of New Hampshire, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kingsbury Hall, Durham, NH (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Internal waves propagating in an idealized two-layer atmosphere are studied numerically. The governing equations are the inviscid anelastic equations for a perfect gas atmosphere. The numerical formulation eliminates all variables in the linear terms except vertical velocity, which are then treated implicitly. Nonlinear terms are treated explicitly. The basic state is a two-layer flow with continuous density at the interface. Each layer has a unique constant for the Brunt-Vaeisaelae frequency. Waves are forced at the bottom of the domain, are periodic in the horizontal direction, and form a finite wave packet in the vertical. The results show that the wave packet forms a mean flow that is confined to the interface region that persists long after the wave packet has moved away. Large-amplitude waves are forced to break beneath the interface. (orig.)

  8. Monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} micro-/nanostructures: Microwave and ultrasonic wave combined synthesis and their visible-light photocatalytic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yafang; Li, Guangfang; Yang, Xiaohui; Yang, Hao; Lu, Zhong [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education and Hubei Novel Reactor and Green Chemical Technology Key Laboratory, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Xiongchu Avenue, Wuhan 430073 (China); Chen, Rong, E-mail: rchenhku@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education and Hubei Novel Reactor and Green Chemical Technology Key Laboratory, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Xiongchu Avenue, Wuhan 430073 (China); Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geomaterials of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Lumo Road, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-02-25

    Graphical abstract: Monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} with different sizes and morphologies were synthesized by a facile microwave and ultrasonic wave combined technique for the first time and exhibited different optical properties and visible-light-driven photocatalytic efficiency. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BiVO{sub 4} nanostructures were prepared by microwave and ultrasonic wave combined method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BiVO{sub 4} nanostructures could be modulated by varying the solvent and pH value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different BiVO{sub 4} nanostructures exhibited different photocatalytic activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalytic performance was influenced by the band gap, phase and size. - Abstract: Monoclinic bismuth vanadate (m-BiVO{sub 4}) micro-/nanostructures with different sizes and morphologies were successfully prepared via a facile and rapid microwave and ultrasonic wave combined technique. The obtained BiVO{sub 4} products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS). It was found that the solvent and pH value had a significant influence on morphology, size and crystalline structure of the product. Nut-like, potato-like and broccoli-like monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} were fabricated in different solvents. The crystal phase could be modulated by varying the pH value of reaction system. The photocatalytic activities of the products were also evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. The result revealed that the photocatalytic activities of BiVO{sub 4} nanostructures were closely related to the crystalline phase, band gap and particle size. Monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} nanoparticles with small crystal size and large band gap exhibited remarkable photocatalytic performance.

  9. Monoclinic BiVO4 micro-/nanostructures: Microwave and ultrasonic wave combined synthesis and their visible-light photocatalytic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yafang; Li, Guangfang; Yang, Xiaohui; Yang, Hao; Lu, Zhong; Chen, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Monoclinic BiVO 4 with different sizes and morphologies were synthesized by a facile microwave and ultrasonic wave combined technique for the first time and exhibited different optical properties and visible-light-driven photocatalytic efficiency. Highlights: ► BiVO 4 nanostructures were prepared by microwave and ultrasonic wave combined method. ► BiVO 4 nanostructures could be modulated by varying the solvent and pH value. ► Different BiVO 4 nanostructures exhibited different photocatalytic activities. ► The photocatalytic performance was influenced by the band gap, phase and size. - Abstract: Monoclinic bismuth vanadate (m-BiVO 4 ) micro-/nanostructures with different sizes and morphologies were successfully prepared via a facile and rapid microwave and ultrasonic wave combined technique. The obtained BiVO 4 products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS). It was found that the solvent and pH value had a significant influence on morphology, size and crystalline structure of the product. Nut-like, potato-like and broccoli-like monoclinic BiVO 4 were fabricated in different solvents. The crystal phase could be modulated by varying the pH value of reaction system. The photocatalytic activities of the products were also evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. The result revealed that the photocatalytic activities of BiVO 4 nanostructures were closely related to the crystalline phase, band gap and particle size. Monoclinic BiVO 4 nanoparticles with small crystal size and large band gap exhibited remarkable photocatalytic performance.

  10. Microwave engineering concepts and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Ahmad Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Detailing the active and passive aspects of microwaves, Microwave Engineering: Concepts and Fundamentals covers everything from wave propagation to reflection and refraction, guided waves, and transmission lines, providing a comprehensive understanding of the underlying principles at the core of microwave engineering. This encyclopedic text not only encompasses nearly all facets of microwave engineering, but also gives all topics—including microwave generation, measurement, and processing—equal emphasis. Packed with illustrations to aid in comprehension, the book: •Describes the mathematical theory of waveguides and ferrite devices, devoting an entire chapter to the Smith chart and its applications •Discusses different types of microwave components, antennas, tubes, transistors, diodes, and parametric devices •Examines various attributes of cavity resonators, semiconductor and RF/microwave devices, and microwave integrated circuits •Addresses scattering parameters and their properties, as well a...

  11. Can continuous scans in orthogonal planes improve diagnostic performance of shear wave elastography for breast lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pan; Peng, Yulan; Zhao, Haina; Luo, Honghao; Jin, Ya; He, Yushuang

    2015-01-01

    Static shear wave elastography (SWE) is used to detect breast lesions, but slice and plane selections result in discrepancies. To evaluate the intraobserver reproducibility of continuous SWE, and whether quantitative elasticities in orthogonal planes perform better in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions. One hundred and twenty-two breast lesions scheduled for ultrasound-guided biopsy were recruited. Continuous SWE scans were conducted in orthogonal planes separately. Quantitative elasticities and histopathology results were collected. Reproducibility in the same plane and diagnostic performance in different planes were evaluated. The maximum and mean elasticities of the hardest portion, and standard deviation of whole lesion, had high inter-class correlation coefficients (0.87 to 0.95) and large areas under receiver operation characteristic curve (0.887 to 0.899). Without loss of accuracy, sensitivities had increased in orthogonal planes compared with single plane (from 73.17% up to 82.93% at most). Mean elasticity of whole lesion and lesion-to-parenchyma ratio were significantly less reproducible and less accurate. Continuous SWE is highly reproducible for the same observer. The maximum and mean elasticities of the hardest portion and standard deviation of whole lesion are most reliable. Furthermore, the sensitivities of the three parameters are improved in orthogonal planes without loss of accuracies.

  12. A continuous high-throughput bioparticle sorter based on 3D traveling-wave dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, I-Fang; Froude, Victoria E; Zhu, Yingxi; Chang, Hsueh-Chia; Chang, Hsien-Chang

    2009-11-21

    We present a high throughput (maximum flow rate approximately 10 microl/min or linear velocity approximately 3 mm/s) continuous bio-particle sorter based on 3D traveling-wave dielectrophoresis (twDEP) at an optimum AC frequency of 500 kHz. The high throughput sorting is achieved with a sustained twDEP particle force normal to the continuous through-flow, which is applied over the entire chip by a single 3D electrode array. The design allows continuous fractionation of micron-sized particles into different downstream sub-channels based on differences in their twDEP mobility on both sides of the cross-over. Conventional DEP is integrated upstream to focus the particles into a single levitated queue to allow twDEP sorting by mobility difference and to minimize sedimentation and field-induced lysis. The 3D electrode array design minimizes the offsetting effect of nDEP (negative DEP with particle force towards regions with weak fields) on twDEP such that both forces increase monotonically with voltage to further increase the throughput. Effective focusing and separation of red blood cells from debris-filled heterogeneous samples are demonstrated, as well as size-based separation of poly-dispersed liposome suspensions into two distinct bands at 2.3 to 4.6 microm and 1.5 to 2.7 microm, at the highest throughput recorded in hand-held chips of 6 microl/min.

  13. Acute effects of interval versus continuous endurance training on pulse wave reflection in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Henner; Nussbaumer, Monique; Moor, Christoph; Cordes, Mareike; Schindler, Christian; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2015-02-01

    Our aim was to investigate the acute and 24-hour (h) effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate continuous training (MCT) on arterial pulse wave reflection, an established marker of arterial stiffness and cardiovascular risk. In a randomized cross-over design, 21 young healthy male participants performed a HIIT or a MCT on separate visits. Before and 5 (t5), 20 (t20), 35 (t35), and 50 (t50) minutes after the acute exercise bouts, the crude augmentation index (AIx) and the AIx at a set heart rate (AIx@75) were analysed by applanation tonometry. Starting 1 h post-exercise, both indices were captured over 24-h with an oscillometric monitoring device. AIx did not change significantly after MCT but declined progressively after HIIT, reaching significantly lower values compared to MCT at t35 (P = 0.045) and t50 (P = 0.008). AIx@75 increased after both acute exercise types but was higher after HIIT at t5 (P HIIT (P = 0.007) but not after MCT (P = 0.813). Exercise intensity affects pulse wave reflection, with different time courses for AIx and AIx@75 post-exercise. Although initially higher after HIIT, AIx@75 declines in the 24-h recovery period indicating more favourable effects on pulse wave reflection compared to MCT. This may result in substantial positive chronic training effects on arterial stiffness in health and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimization of microwave heating in an existing cubicle cavity by incorporating additional wave guide and control components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erle, R.R.; Eschen, V.G.; Sprenger, G.S.

    1995-04-01

    The use of microwave energy to thermally treat Low Level (LLW), Transuranic (TRU), and mixed waste has been under development at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) since 1986. During that time, the technology has progressed from bench-scale tests, through pilot-scale tests, and finally to a full-scale demonstration unit. Experimental operations have been conducted on a variety of non-radioactive surrogates and actual radioactive waste forms. Through these studies and development efforts, the Microwave Vitrification Engineering Team (MVET) at Rocky Flats has successfully proven the application of microwave energy for waste treatment operations. In the microwave solidification process, microwave energy is used to heat a mixture of waste and glass frit to produce a vitrified product that meets all the current acceptance criteria at the final disposal sites. All of the development to date has utilized a multi-mode microwave system to provide the energy to treat the materials. Currently, evaluations are underway on modifications to the full-scale demonstration system that provide a single-mode operation as a possible method to optimize the system. This poster presentation describes the modifications made to allow the single-mode operation

  15. Continuous micro-vortex-based nanoparticle manipulation via focused surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David J; Ma, Zhichao; Han, Jongyoon; Ai, Ye

    2016-12-20

    Despite increasing demand in the manipulation of nanoscale objects for next generation biological and industrial processes, there is a lack of methods for reliable separation, concentration and purification of nanoscale objects. Acoustic methods have proven their utility in contactless manipulation of microscale objects mainly relying on the acoustic radiation effect, though the influence of acoustic streaming has typically prevented manipulation at smaller length scales. In this work, however, we explicitly take advantage of the strong acoustic streaming in the vicinity of a highly focused, high frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) beam emanating from a series of focused 6 μm substrate wavelength interdigital transducers patterned on a piezoelectric lithium niobate substrate and actuated with a 633 MHz sinusoidal signal. This streaming field serves to focus fluid streamlines such that incoming particles interact with the acoustic field similarly regardless of their initial starting positions, and results in particle displacements that would not be possible with a travelling acoustic wave force alone. This streaming-induced manipulation of nanoscale particles is maximized with the formation of micro-vortices that extend the width of the microfluidic channel even with the imposition of a lateral flow, occurring when the streaming-induced flow velocities are an order of magnitude larger than the lateral one. We make use of this acoustic streaming to demonstrate the continuous and differential focusing of 100 nm, 300 nm and 500 nm particles.

  16. Fiber fuse behavior in kW-level continuous-wave double-clad field laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jun-Yi; Xiao Qi-Rong; Li Dan; Wang Xue-Jiao; Zhang Hai-Tao; Gong Ma-Li; Yan Ping

    2016-01-01

    In this study, original experimental data for fiber fuse in kW-level continuous-wave (CW) high power double-clad fiber (DCF) laser are reported. The propagating velocity of the fuse is 9.68 m/s in a 3.1-kW Yb-doped DCF laser. Three other cases in Yb-doped DCF are also observed. We think that the ignition of fiber fuse is caused by thermal mechanism, and the formation of bullet-shaped tracks is attributed to the optical discharge and temperature gradient. The inducements of initial fuse and formation of bullet-shaped voids are analyzed. This investigation of fiber fuse helps better understand the fiber fuse behavior, in order to avoid the catastrophic destruction caused by fiber fuse in high power fiber laser. (paper)

  17. Time-synchronized continuous wave laser-induced fluorescence on an oscillatory xenon discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, N A; Cappelli, M A; Hargus, W A

    2012-11-01

    A novel approach to time-synchronizing laser-induced fluorescence measurements to an oscillating current in a 60 Hz xenon discharge lamp using a continuous wave laser is presented. A sample-hold circuit is implemented to separate out signals at different phases along a current cycle, and is followed by a lock-in amplifier to pull out the resulting time-synchronized fluorescence trace from the large background signal. The time evolution of lower state population is derived from the changes in intensity of the fluorescence excitation line shape resulting from laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the 6s(')[1/2](1)(0)-6p(')[3/2](2) xenon atomic transition at λ = 834.68 nm. Results show that the lower state population oscillates at twice the frequency of the discharge current, 120 Hz.

  18. Time-synchronized continuous wave laser-induced fluorescence on an oscillatory xenon discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, N. A.; Cappelli, M. A. [Stanford Plasma Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hargus, W. A. Jr. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards AFB, California 93524 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    A novel approach to time-synchronizing laser-induced fluorescence measurements to an oscillating current in a 60 Hz xenon discharge lamp using a continuous wave laser is presented. A sample-hold circuit is implemented to separate out signals at different phases along a current cycle, and is followed by a lock-in amplifier to pull out the resulting time-synchronized fluorescence trace from the large background signal. The time evolution of lower state population is derived from the changes in intensity of the fluorescence excitation line shape resulting from laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the 6s{sup Prime }[1/2]{sub 1}{sup 0}-6p{sup Prime }[3/2]{sub 2} xenon atomic transition at {lambda}= 834.68 nm. Results show that the lower state population oscillates at twice the frequency of the discharge current, 120 Hz.

  19. Electronic defect levels in continuous wave laser annealed silicon metal oxide semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, M.; Garcia, B. J.; Martinez, J.; Garrido, J.; Piqueras, J.

    1988-09-01

    The effect of laser treatment on the bulk and interface states of the Si-SiO2 structure has been investigated. The annealing was performed prior to the gate metallization using a continuous wave Ar+ laser. For low laser powers the interface state density seems to decrease slightly in comparison with untreated samples. However, for the highest irradiating laser powers a new bulk level at 0.41 eV above the valence band with concentrations up to 1015 cm-3 arises probably due to the electrical activation of the oxygen diluted in the Czochralski silicon. Later postmetallization annealings reduce the interface state density to values in the 1010 cm-2 eV-1 range but leave the concentration of the 0.41-eV center nearly unchanged.

  20. Continuous wave protocol for simultaneous polarization and optical detection of P1-center electron spin resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, E. J.; Carvajal, B.; Samarth, N.

    2018-01-01

    The ready optical detection and manipulation of bright nitrogen vacancy center spins in diamond plays a key role in contemporary quantum information science and quantum metrology. Other optically dark defects such as substitutional nitrogen atoms (`P1 centers') could also become potentially useful in this context if they could be as easily optically detected and manipulated. We develop a relatively straightforward continuous wave protocol that takes advantage of the dipolar coupling between nitrogen vacancy and P1 centers in type 1b diamond to detect and polarize the dark P1 spins. By combining mutual spin flip transitions with radio frequency driving, we demonstrate the simultaneous optical polarization and detection of the electron spin resonance of the P1 center. This technique should be applicable to detecting and manipulating a broad range of dark spin populations that couple to the nitrogen vacancy center via dipolar fields, allowing for quantum metrology using these spin populations.

  1. Comparison of continuous wave, spin echo, and rapid scan EPR of irradiated fused quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Deborah G.; Quine, Richard W.; Tseitlin, Mark; Meyer, Virginia; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    The E' defect in irradiated fused quartz has spin lattice relaxation times (T 1 ) about 100-300 μs and spin-spin relaxation times (T 2 ) up to about 200 μs, depending on the concentration of defects and other species in the sample. These long relaxation times make it difficult to record an unsaturated continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal that is free of passage effects. Signals measured at X-band (∼9.5 GHz) by three EPR methods: conventional slow-scan field-modulated EPR, rapid scan EPR, and pulsed EPR, were compared. To acquire spectra with comparable signal-to-noise, both pulsed and rapid scan EPR require less time than conventional CW EPR. Rapid scan spectroscopy does not require the high power amplifiers that are needed for pulsed EPR. The pulsed spectra, and rapid scan spectra obtained by deconvolution of the experimental data, are free of passage effects.

  2. Continuous-wave ceramic Nd:YAG laser at 1123 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S S; Wang, Q P; Zhang, X Y; Cong, Z H; Fan, S Z; Liu, Z J; Sun, W J

    2009-01-01

    Ceramic Nd:YAG (cNd:YAG) materials are employed to generate 1123-nm laser. A fiber-coupled continuous-wave (CW) 808-nm diode laser is used as the pumping source. With an incident diode power of 26.1 W, a CW output power of up to 10.8 W is obtained with a 10-mm-long ceramic Nd:YAG rod (1.0 at.%-Nd-doped). The conversion efficiency from diode power to 1123-nm laser power is 41.4%. The laser performance of another 10-mm-long cNd:YAG rod with a Nd-doping concentration of 0.6 at.% is studied as a comparison

  3. Generation of bright quadricolor continuous-variable entanglement by four-wave-mixing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Y. B.; Sheng, J. T.; Xiao, M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose an experimentally feasible scheme to produce bright quadricolor continuous-variable (CV) entanglement by a four-wave mixing process (FWM) with four-level atoms inside the optical ring cavities operating above threshold. The Stokes and anti-Stokes beams are generated via the pump beam (tuned close to one atomic transition) and the coupling beam (tuned to the resonance of another atomic transition), respectively. The quadruply resonant and narrowed linewidth of the cavity fields with different frequencies are achieved and quadricolor CV entanglement among the four cavity fields is demonstrated according to the criterion proposed by van Loock and Furusawa [Phys. Rev. A 67, 052315 (2003)]. This scheme provides a way to generate bright quadricolor CV entanglement and will be significant for applications in quantum information processing and quantum networks.

  4. Stimulated Brillouin scattering continuous wave phase conjugation in step-index fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Steven M; Spring, Justin B; Russell, Timothy H

    2008-07-21

    Continuous wave (CW) stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation in step-index optical fibers was studied experimentally and modeled as a function of fiber length. A phase conjugate fidelity over 80% was measured from SBS in a 40 m fiber using a pinhole technique. Fidelity decreases with fiber length, and a fiber with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.06 was found to generate good phase conjugation fidelity over longer lengths than a fiber with 0.13 NA. Modeling and experiment support previous work showing the maximum interaction length which yields a high fidelity phase conjugate beam is inversely proportional to the fiber NA(2), but find that fidelity remains high over much longer fiber lengths than previous models calculated. Conditions for SBS beam cleanup in step-index fibers are discussed.

  5. Interband cascade lasers with >40% continuous-wave wallplug efficiency at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canedy, C. L.; Kim, C. S.; Merritt, C. D.; Bewley, W. W.; Vurgaftman, I.; Meyer, J. R.; Kim, M.

    2015-01-01

    Broad-area 10-stage interband cascade lasers (ICLs) emitting at λ = 3.0–3.2 μm are shown to maintain continuous-wave (cw) wallplug efficiencies exceeding 40% at temperatures up to 125 K, despite having a design optimized for operation at ambient and above. The cw threshold current density at 80 K is only 11 A/cm 2 for a 2 mm cavity with anti-reflection/high-reflection coatings on the two facets. The external differential quantum efficiency for a 1-mm-long cavity with the same coatings is 70% per stage at 80 K, and still above 65% at 150 K. The results demonstrate that at cryogenic temperatures, where free carrier absorption losses are minimized, ICLs can convert electrical to optical energy nearly as efficiently as the best specially designed intersubband-based quantum cascade lasers

  6. Challenges in noise removal from Doppler spectra acquired by a continuous-wave lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelou, Nikolas; Foroughi Abari, Farzad; Mann, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    are presented. A method for determining the background noise spectrum without interrupting the transmission of the laser beam is described. Moreover, the dependency between the determination of the threshold of a Doppler spectrum with low signal-to-noise ratios and the characteristics of the wind flow......This paper is focused on the required post processing of Doppler spectra, acquired from a continuous-wave coherent lidar at high sampling rates (400 Hz) and under rapid scanning of the laser beam. In particular, the necessary steps followed for extracting the wind speed from such Doppler spectra...... are investigated and a systematic approach for removing the noise is outlined. The suggested post processing procedures are applied to two sample time series acquired by a short-range WindScanner during one second each....

  7. Thermal damage produced by high-irradiance continuous wave CO2 laser cutting of tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomacker, K T; Walsh, J T; Flotte, T J; Deutsch, T F

    1990-01-01

    Thermal damage produced by continuous wave (cw) CO2 laser ablation of tissue in vitro was measured for irradiances ranging from 360 W/cm2 to 740 kW/cm2 in order to investigate the extent to which ablative cooling can limit tissue damage. Damage zones thinner than 100 microns were readily produced using single pulses to cut guinea pig skin as well as bovine cornea, aorta, and myocardium. Multiple pulses can lead to increased damage. However, a systematic decrease in damage with irradiance, predicted theoretically by an evaporation model of ablation, was not observed. The damage-zone thickness was approximately constant around the periphery of the cut, consistent with the existence of a liquid layer which stores heat and leads to tissue damage, and with a model of damage and ablation recently proposed by Zweig et al.

  8. Precision improvement of frequency-modulated continuous-wave laser ranging system with two auxiliary interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Fumin

    2018-03-01

    The measurement precision of frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) laser distance measurement should be proportional to the scanning range of the tunable laser. However, the commercial external cavity diode laser (ECDL) is not an ideal tunable laser source in practical applications. Due to the unavoidable mode hopping and scanning nonlinearity of the ECDL, the measurement precision of FMCW laser distance measurements can be substantially affected. Therefore, an FMCW laser ranging system with two auxiliary interferometers is proposed in this paper. Moreover, to eliminate the effects of ECDL, the frequency-sampling method and mode hopping influence suppression method are employed. Compared with a fringe counting interferometer, this FMCW laser ranging system has a measuring error of ± 20 μm at the distance of 5.8 m.

  9. A simple equilibrium theoretical model and predictions for a continuous wave exciplex pumped alkali laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, David L; Verdeyen, Joseph T

    2013-01-01

    The exciplex pumped alkali laser (XPAL) system has been demonstrated in mixtures of Cs vapour, Ar, with and without ethane, by pumping Cs-Ar atomic collision pairs and subsequent dissociation of diatomic, electronically excited CsAr molecules (exciplexes or excimers). The blue satellites of the alkali D 2 lines provide an advantageous pathway for optically pumping atomic alkali lasers on the principal series (resonance) transitions with broad linewidth (>2 nm) semiconductor diode lasers. The development of a simple theoretical analysis of continuous-wave XPAL systems is presented along with predictions as a function of temperature and pump intensity. The model predicts that an optical-to-optical efficiency in the range of 40-50% can be achieved for XPAL.

  10. High-efficiency frequency doubling of continuous-wave laser light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ast, Stefan; Nia, Ramon Moghadas; Schönbeck, Axel; Lastzka, Nico; Steinlechner, Jessica; Eberle, Tobias; Mehmet, Moritz; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Schnabel, Roman

    2011-09-01

    We report on the observation of high-efficiency frequency doubling of 1550 nm continuous-wave laser light in a nonlinear cavity containing a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystal (PPKTP). The fundamental field had a power of 1.10 W and was converted into 1.05 W at 775 nm, yielding a total external conversion efficiency of 95±1%. The latter value is based on the measured depletion of the fundamental field being consistent with the absolute values derived from numerical simulations. According to our model, the conversion efficiency achieved was limited by the nonperfect mode matching into the nonlinear cavity and by the nonperfect impedance matching for the maximum input power available. Our result shows that cavity-assisted frequency conversion based on PPKTP is well suited for low-decoherence frequency conversion of quantum states of light.

  11. Maximizing power output from continuous-wave single-frequency fiber amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Benjamin G

    2015-02-15

    This Letter reports on a method of maximizing the power output from highly saturated cladding-pumped continuous-wave single-frequency fiber amplifiers simultaneously, taking into account the stimulated Brillouin scattering and transverse modal instability thresholds. This results in a design figure of merit depending on the fundamental mode overlap with the doping profile, the peak Brillouin gain coefficient, and the peak mode coupling gain coefficient. This figure of merit is then numerically analyzed for three candidate fiber designs including standard, segmented acoustically tailored, and micro-segmented acoustically tailored photonic-crystal fibers. It is found that each of the latter two fibers should enable a 50% higher output power than standard photonic crystal fiber.

  12. Targeted search for continuous gravitational waves: Bayesian versus maximum-likelihood statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prix, Reinhard; Krishnan, Badri

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the Bayesian framework for detection of continuous gravitational waves (GWs) in the context of targeted searches, where the phase evolution of the GW signal is assumed to be known, while the four amplitude parameters are unknown. We show that the orthodox maximum-likelihood statistic (known as F-statistic) can be rediscovered as a Bayes factor with an unphysical prior in amplitude parameter space. We introduce an alternative detection statistic ('B-statistic') using the Bayes factor with a more natural amplitude prior, namely an isotropic probability distribution for the orientation of GW sources. Monte Carlo simulations of targeted searches show that the resulting Bayesian B-statistic is more powerful in the Neyman-Pearson sense (i.e., has a higher expected detection probability at equal false-alarm probability) than the frequentist F-statistic.

  13. Imitation-tumor targeting based on continuous-wave near-infrared tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Qisong; Lu, Jingyang; Sun, Jinwei

    2017-12-01

    Continuous-wave Near-Infrared (NIR) optical spectroscopy has shown great diagnostic capability in the early tumor detection with advantages of low-cost, portable, non-invasive, and non-radiative. In this paper, Modified Lambert-Beer Theory is deployed to address the low-resolution issues of the NIR technique and to design the tumor detecting and imaging system. Considering that tumor tissues have features such as high blood flow and hypoxia, the proposed technique can detect the location, size, and other information of the tumor tissues by comparing the absorbance between pathological and normal tissues. Finally, the tumor tissues can be imaged through tomographic method. The simulation experiments prove that the proposed technique and designed system can efficiently detect the tumor tissues, achieving imaging precision within 1 mm. The work of the paper has shown great potential in the diagnosis of tumor close to body surface.

  14. Continuous-wave optically pumped green perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitter

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2017-09-11

    We report an optically pumped green perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitter operating in continuous-wave (CW) with a power density threshold of ~89 kW/cm2. The device has an active region of CH3NH3PbBr3 embedded in a dielectric microcavity; this feat was achieved with a combination of optimal spectral alignment of the optical cavity modes with the perovskite optical gain, an adequate Q-factor of the microcavity, adequate thermal stability, and improved material quality with a smooth, passivated, and annealed thin active layer. Our results signify a way towards efficient CW perovskite emitter operation and electrical injection using low-cost fabrication methods for addressing monolithic optoelectronic integration and lasing in the green gap.

  15. Blood-brain barrier disruption by continuous-wave radio frequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirav, Bahriye; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2009-01-01

    The increasing use of cellular phones and the increasing number of associated base stations are becoming a widespread source of non ionizing electromagnetic radiation. Some biological effects are likely to occur even at low-level EM fields. This study was designed to investigate the effects of 900 and 1,800 MHz Continuous Wave Radio Frequency Radiation (CW RFR) on the permeability of Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) of rats. Results have shown that 20 min RFR exposure of 900 and 1,800 MHz induces an effect and increases the permeability of BBB of male rats. There was no change in female rats. The scientific evidence on RFR safety or harm remains inconclusive. More studies are needed to demonstrate the effects of RFR on the permeability of BBB and the mechanisms of that breakdown.

  16. Guided ultrasonic waves for determining effective orthotropic material parameters of continuous-fiber reinforced thermoplastic plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webersen, Manuel; Johannesmann, Sarah; Düchting, Julia; Claes, Leander; Henning, Bernd

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasonic methods are widely established in the NDE/NDT community, where they are mostly used for the detection of flaws and structural damage in various components. A different goal, despite the similar technological approach, is non-destructive material characterization, i.e. the determination of parameters like Young's modulus. Only few works on this topic have considered materials with high damping and strong anisotropy, such as continuous-fiber reinforced plastics, but due to the increasing demand in the industry, appropriate methods are needed. In this contribution, we demonstrate the application of laser-induced ultrasonic Lamb waves for the characterization of fiber-reinforced plastic plates, providing effective parameters for a homogeneous, orthotropic material model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Spectrally resolved, broadband frequency response characterization of photodetectors using continuous-wave supercontinuum sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Vishal; Prakash, Roopa; Nagarjun, K. P.; Supradeepa, V. R.

    2018-02-01

    A simple and powerful method using continuous wave supercontinuum lasers is demonstrated to perform spectrally resolved, broadband frequency response characterization of photodetectors in the NIR Band. In contrast to existing techniques, this method allows for a simple system to achieve the goal, requiring just a standard continuous wave(CW) high-power fiber laser source and an RF spectrum analyzer. From our recent work, we summarize methods to easily convert any high-power fiber laser into a CW supercontinuum. These sources in the time domain exhibit interesting properties all the way down to the femtosecond time scale. This enables measurement of broadband frequency response of photodetectors while the wide optical spectrum of the supercontinuum can be spectrally filtered to obtain this information in a spectrally resolved fashion. The method involves looking at the RF spectrum of the output of a photodetector under test when incident with the supercontinuum. By using prior knowledge of the RF spectrum of the source, the frequency response can be calculated. We utilize two techniques for calibration of the source spectrum, one using a prior measurement and the other relying on a fitted model. Here, we characterize multiple photodetectors from 150MHz bandwidth to >20GHz bandwidth at multiple bands in the NIR region. We utilize a supercontinuum source spanning over 700nm bandwidth from 1300nm to 2000nm. For spectrally resolved measurement, we utilize multiple wavelength bands such as around 1400nm and 1600nm. Interesting behavior was observed in the frequency response of the photodetectors when comparing broadband spectral excitation versus narrower band excitation.

  18. A contactless approach for respiratory gating in PET using continuous-wave radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersepke, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Ersepke@rub.de; Büther, Florian; Heß, Mirco [European Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of Münster, Münster 48149 (Germany); Schäfers, Klaus P. [European Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of Münster, Münster 48149, Germany and DFG EXC 1003, Cluster of Excellence ‘Cells in Motion,’ Münster 48149 (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Respiratory gating is commonly used to reduce motion artifacts in positron emission tomography (PET). Clinically established methods for respiratory gating in PET require contact to the patient or a direct optical line between the sensor and the patient’s torso and time consuming preparation. In this work, a contactless method for capturing a respiratory signal during PET is presented based on continuous-wave radar. Methods: The proposed method relies on the principle of emitting an electromagnetic wave and detecting the phase shift of the reflected wave, modulated due to the respiratory movement of the patient’s torso. A 24 GHz carrier frequency was chosen allowing wave propagation through plastic and clothing with high reflections at the skin surface. A detector module and signal processing algorithms were developed to extract a quantitative respiratory signal. The sensor was validated using a high precision linear table. During volunteer measurements and [{sup 18}F] FDG PET scans, the radar sensor was positioned inside the scanner bore of a PET/computed tomography scanner. As reference, pressure belt (one volunteer), depth camera-based (two volunteers, two patients), and PET data-driven (six patients) signals were acquired simultaneously and the signal correlation was quantified. Results: The developed system demonstrated a high measurement accuracy for movement detection within the submillimeter range. With the proposed method, small displacements of 25 μm could be detected, not considerably influenced by clothing or blankets. From the patient studies, the extracted respiratory radar signals revealed high correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient) to those derived from the external pressure belt and depth camera signals (r = 0.69–0.99) and moderate correlation to those of the internal data-driven signals (r = 0.53–0.70). In some cases, a cardiac signal could be visualized, due to the representation of the mechanical heart motion on the skin

  19. A contactless approach for respiratory gating in PET using continuous-wave radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersepke, Thomas; Büther, Florian; Heß, Mirco; Schäfers, Klaus P

    2015-08-01

    Respiratory gating is commonly used to reduce motion artifacts in positron emission tomography (PET). Clinically established methods for respiratory gating in PET require contact to the patient or a direct optical line between the sensor and the patient's torso and time consuming preparation. In this work, a contactless method for capturing a respiratory signal during PET is presented based on continuous-wave radar. The proposed method relies on the principle of emitting an electromagnetic wave and detecting the phase shift of the reflected wave, modulated due to the respiratory movement of the patient's torso. A 24 GHz carrier frequency was chosen allowing wave propagation through plastic and clothing with high reflections at the skin surface. A detector module and signal processing algorithms were developed to extract a quantitative respiratory signal. The sensor was validated using a high precision linear table. During volunteer measurements and [(18)F] FDG PET scans, the radar sensor was positioned inside the scanner bore of a PET/computed tomography scanner. As reference, pressure belt (one volunteer), depth camera-based (two volunteers, two patients), and PET data-driven (six patients) signals were acquired simultaneously and the signal correlation was quantified. The developed system demonstrated a high measurement accuracy for movement detection within the submillimeter range. With the proposed method, small displacements of 25 μm could be detected, not considerably influenced by clothing or blankets. From the patient studies, the extracted respiratory radar signals revealed high correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient) to those derived from the external pressure belt and depth camera signals (r = 0.69-0.99) and moderate correlation to those of the internal data-driven signals (r = 0.53-0.70). In some cases, a cardiac signal could be visualized, due to the representation of the mechanical heart motion on the skin. Accurate respiratory signals were

  20. Plasma relativistic microwave electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzelev, M.V.; Loza, O.T.; Rukhadze, A.A.; Strelkov, P.S.; Shkvarunets, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    One formulated the principles of plasma relativistic microwave electronics based on the induced Cherenkov radiation of electromagnetic waves at interaction of a relativistic electron beam with plasma. One developed the theory of plasma relativistic generators and accelerators of microwave radiation, designed and studied the prototypes of such devices. One studied theoretically the mechanisms of radiation, calculated the efficiencies and the frequency spectra of plasma relativistic microwave generators and accelerators. The theory findings are proved by the experiment: intensity of the designed sources of microwave radiation is equal to 500 μW, the frequency of microwave radiation is increased by 7 times (from 4 up to 28 GHz), the width of radiation frequency band may vary from several up to 100%. The designed sources of microwave radiation are no else compared in the electronics [ru

  1. Watt-Level Continuous-Wave Emission from a Bi-Functional Quantum Cascade Laser/Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-18

    cally authorized by the U.S. Government may violate any copyrights that exist in this work. Watt-level continuous- wave emission from a bi- functional ... wave bi- functional devices, opens the perspective of on-chip dual comb spectroscopy. Also for discrete sens- ing setups, one can switch to lasers...seas.harvard.edu Abstract Bi- functional active regions, capable of light generation and detection at the same wavelength, allow a straightforward realization of

  2. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The history is described of the discovery of microwave radiation of the cosmic background using the 20-foot horn antenna at the Bell Laboratories back in 1965. Ruby masers with travelling wave were used, featuring the lowest noise in the world. The measurement proceeded on 7 cm. In measuring microwave radiation from the regions outside the Milky Way continuous noise was discovered whose temperature exceeded the calculated contributions of the individual detection system elements by 3 K. A comparison with the theory showed that relict radiation from the Big Bang period was the source of the noise. The discovery was verified by measurements on the 20.1 cm wavelength and by other authors' measurements on 0.5 mm to 74 cm, and by optical measurements of the interstellar molecule spectrum. (Ha)

  3. Resampling to accelerate cross-correlation searches for continuous gravitational waves from binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadors, Grant David; Krishnan, Badri; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Whelan, John T.; Zhang, Yuanhao

    2018-02-01

    Continuous-wave (CW) gravitational waves (GWs) call for computationally-intensive methods. Low signal-to-noise ratio signals need templated searches with long coherent integration times and thus fine parameter-space resolution. Longer integration increases sensitivity. Low-mass x-ray binaries (LMXBs) such as Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1) may emit accretion-driven CWs at strains reachable by current ground-based observatories. Binary orbital parameters induce phase modulation. This paper describes how resampling corrects binary and detector motion, yielding source-frame time series used for cross-correlation. Compared to the previous, detector-frame, templated cross-correlation method, used for Sco X-1 on data from the first Advanced LIGO observing run (O1), resampling is about 20 × faster in the costliest, most-sensitive frequency bands. Speed-up factors depend on integration time and search setup. The speed could be reinvested into longer integration with a forecast sensitivity gain, 20 to 125 Hz median, of approximately 51%, or from 20 to 250 Hz, 11%, given the same per-band cost and setup. This paper's timing model enables future setup optimization. Resampling scales well with longer integration, and at 10 × unoptimized cost could reach respectively 2.83 × and 2.75 × median sensitivities, limited by spin-wandering. Then an O1 search could yield a marginalized-polarization upper limit reaching torque-balance at 100 Hz. Frequencies from 40 to 140 Hz might be probed in equal observing time with 2 × improved detectors.

  4. Pump-Enhanced Continuous-Wave Magnetometry Using Nitrogen-Vacancy Ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Sepehr; El-Ella, Haitham A. R.; Hansen, Jørn Otto Bindslev

    2017-01-01

    a bandwidth up to 159 Hz, and an extracted sensitivity ofapproximately 3 nT/√Hz, with further enhancement limited by thenoise floor of the lock-in amplifier and the laser damage threshold of theoptical components. Exploration of the microwave and optical pump-rateparameter space demonstrates a linewidth...

  5. 270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandusky, James R.; Chen, Jianfeng; Gibb, Shawn R.; Mendrick, Mark C.; Moe, Craig G.; Rodak, Lee; Garrett, Gregory A.; Wraback, Michael; Schowalter, Leo J.

    2013-03-01

    In this letter, the achievement of over 60 mW output power from pseudomorphic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes in continuous wave operation is reported. Die thinning and encapsulation improved the photon extraction efficiency to over 15%. Improved thermal management and a high characteristic temperature resulted in a low thermal rolloff up to 300 mA injection current with an output power of 67 mW, an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 4.9%, and a wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 2.5% for a single-chip device emitting at 271 nm in continuous wave operation.

  6. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for Column CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Obland, M. D.; Liu, Z.; Kooi, S. A.; Fan, T. F.; Nehrir, A. R.; Meadows, B.; Browell, E. V.

    2016-12-01

    Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for Column CO2 MeasurementsJoel F. Campbell1, Bing Lin1, Michael D. Obland1, Zhaoyan Liu1, Susan Kooi2, Tai-Fang Fan2, Amin R. Nehrir1, Byron Meadows1, Edward V. Browell31NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 2SSAI, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 3STARSS-II Affiliate, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 AbstractGlobal and regional atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission and the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) - America project are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space and airborne platforms to meet the ASCENDS and ACT-America science measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud returns. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby minimizing bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new sub-meter hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. These techniques are used in a new data processing

  7. First density profile measurements using frequency modulation of the continuous wave reflectometry on JETa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, L.; Cupido, L.; Sirinelli, A.; Manso, M. E.; Jet-Efds Contributors

    2008-10-01

    We present the main design options and implementation of an X-mode reflectometer developed and successfully installed at JET using an innovative approach. It aims to prove the viability of measuring density profiles with high spatial and temporal resolution using broadband reflectometry operating in long and complex transmission lines. It probes the plasma with magnetic fields between 2.4 and 3.0 T using the V band [~(0-1.4)×1019 m-3]. The first experimental results show the high sensitivity of the diagnostic when measuring changes in the plasma density profile occurring ITER relevant regimes, such as ELMy H-modes. The successful demonstration of this concept motivated the upgrade of the JET frequency modulation of the continuous wave (FMCW) reflectometry diagnostic, to probe both the edge and core. This new system is essential to prove the viability of using the FMCW reflectometry technique to probe the plasma in next step devices, such as ITER, since they share the same waveguide complexity.

  8. Laser ablative nanostructuring of Au in liquid ambience in continuous wave illumination regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherik, A. O.; Kutrovskaya, S. V.; Arakelyan, S. M.; Ryabchikov, Y. V.; Al-Kattan, A.; Kabashin, A. V.; Itina, T. E.

    2016-03-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) attract particular attention because of their unique size-dependent chemical, physicochemical and optical properties and, hence, their potential applications in catalysis, nanoelectronics, photovoltaics and medicine. In particular, laser-produced colloidal nanoparticles are not only biocompatible, but also reveal unique chemical properties. Different laser systems can be used for synthesis of these colloids, varying from continuous wave (CW) to ultra-short femtosecond lasers. The choice of an optimum laser system is still a challenge in application development. To bring more light at this issue, we investigate an influence of laser parameters on nanoparticle formation from a gold target immersed in deionized water. First, an optical diagnostics of laser-induced hydrodynamic processes taking place near the gold surface is performed. Then, gold nanoparticle colloids with average particle sizes smaller than 10 nm and a very narrow dispersion are shown to be formed by CW laser ablation. The obtained results are compared with the ones obtained by using the second harmonics and with previous results obtained by using femtosecond laser systems.

  9. Photo-conductive detection of continuous THz waves via manipulated ultrafast process in nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kiwon; Lee, Eui Su; Lee, Il-Min; Park, Dong Woo; Park, Kyung Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Time-domain and frequency-domain terahertz (THz) spectroscopy systems often use materials fabricated with exotic and expensive methods that intentionally introduce defects to meet short carrier lifetime requirements. In this study, we demonstrate the development of a nano-photomixer that meets response speed requirements without using defect-incorporated, low-temperature-grown (LTG) semiconductors. Instead, we utilized a thin InGaAs layer grown on a semi-insulating InP substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) combined with nano-electrodes to manipulate local ultrafast photo-carrier dynamics via a carefully designed field-enhancement and plasmon effect. The developed nano-structured photomixer can detect continuous-wave THz radiation up to a frequency of 2 THz with a peak carrier collection efficiency of 5%, which is approximately 10 times better than the reference efficiency of 0.4%. The better efficiency results from the high carrier mobility of the MOCVD-grown InGaAs thin layer with the coincidence of near-field and plasmon-field distributions in the nano-structure. Our result not only provides a generally applicable methodology for manipulating ultrafast carrier dynamics by means of nano-photonic techniques to break the trade-off relation between the carrier lifetime and mobility in typical LTG semiconductors but also contributes to mass-producible photo-conductive THz detectors to facilitate the widespread application of THz technology.

  10. Power scaling and experimentally fitted model for broad area quantum cascade lasers in continuous wave operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttinger, Matthew; Go, Rowel; Figueiredo, Pedro; Todi, Ankesh; Shu, Hong; Leshin, Jason; Lyakh, Arkadiy

    2018-01-01

    Experimental and model results for 15-stage broad area quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are presented. Continuous wave (CW) power scaling from 1.62 to 2.34 W has been experimentally demonstrated for 3.15-mm long, high reflection-coated QCLs for an active region width increased from 10 to 20 μm. A semiempirical model for broad area devices operating in CW mode is presented. The model uses measured pulsed transparency current, injection efficiency, waveguide losses, and differential gain as input parameters. It also takes into account active region self-heating and sublinearity of pulsed power versus current laser characteristic. The model predicts that an 11% improvement in maximum CW power and increased wall-plug efficiency can be achieved from 3.15 mm×25 μm devices with 21 stages of the same design, but half doping in the active region. For a 16-stage design with a reduced stage thickness of 300 Å, pulsed rollover current density of 6 kA/cm2, and InGaAs waveguide layers, an optical power increase of 41% is projected. Finally, the model projects that power level can be increased to ˜4.5 W from 3.15 mm×31 μm devices with the baseline configuration with T0 increased from 140 K for the present design to 250 K.

  11. Optical coherence tomography-guided laser microsurgery for blood coagulation with continuous-wave laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Yu; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Wang, Zu-Yi; Chi, Chun-Kai; Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chan, Ming-Che; Lee, Ya-Ju

    2015-11-16

    Blood coagulation is the clotting and subsequent dissolution of the clot following repair to the damaged tissue. However, inducing blood coagulation is difficult for some patients with homeostasis dysfunction or during surgery. In this study, we proposed a method to develop an integrated system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser microsurgery for blood coagulation. Also, an algorithm for positioning of the treatment location from OCT images was developed. With OCT scanning, 2D/3D OCT images and angiography of tissue can be obtained simultaneously, enabling to noninvasively reconstruct the morphological and microvascular structures for real-time monitoring of changes in biological tissues during laser microsurgery. Instead of high-cost pulsed lasers, continuous-wave laser diodes (CW-LDs) with the central wavelengths of 450 nm and 532 nm are used for blood coagulation, corresponding to higher absorption coefficients of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. Experimental results showed that the location of laser exposure can be accurately controlled with the proposed approach of imaging-based feedback positioning. Moreover, blood coagulation can be efficiently induced by CW-LDs and the coagulation process can be monitored in real-time with OCT. This technology enables to potentially provide accurate positioning for laser microsurgery and control the laser exposure to avoid extra damage by real-time OCT imaging.

  12. Surface detection performance evaluation of pseudo-random noise continuous wave laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitev, Valentin; Matthey, Renaud; Pereira do Carmo, Joao

    2017-11-01

    A number of space missions (including in the ESA Exploration Programme) foreseen a use of laser radar sensor (or lidar) for determination of range between spacecrafts or between spacecraft and ground surface (altimetry). Such sensors need to be compact, robust and power efficient, at the same time with high detection performance. These requirements can be achieved with a Pseudo-Random Noise continuous wave lidar (PRN cw lidar). Previous studies have pointed to the advantages of this lidar with respect to space missions, but they also identified its limitations in high optical background. The progress of the lasers and the detectors in the near IR spectral range requires a re-evaluation of the PRN cw lidar potential. Here we address the performances of this lidar for surface detection (altimetry) in planetary missions. The evaluation is based on the following system configuration: (i) A cw fiber amplifier as lidar transmitter. The seeding laser exhibits a single-frequency spectral line, with subsequent amplitude modulation. The fiber amplifier allows high output power level, keeping the spectral characteristics and the modulation of the seeding light input. (ii) An avalanche photodiode in photon counting detection; (iii) Measurement scenarios representative for Earth, Mercury and Mars.

  13. Continuous-wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy based on the control of cavity reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhixin; Ma, Weiguang; Fu, Xiaofang; Tan, Wei; Zhao, Gang; Dong, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Yin, Wangbao; Jia, Suotang

    2013-07-29

    A new type of continuous-wave cavity ringdown spectrometer based on the control of cavity reflection for trace gas detection was designed and evaluated. The technique separated the acquisitions of the ringdown event and the trigger signal to optical switch by detecting the cavity reflection and transmission, respectively. A detailed description of the time sequence of the measurement process was presented. In order to avoid the wrong extraction of ringdown time encountered accidentally in fitting procedure, the laser frequency and cavity length were scanned synchronously. Based on the statistical analysis of measured ringdown times, the frequency normalized minimum detectable absorption in the reflection control mode was 1.7 × 10(-9)cm(-1)Hz(-1/2), which was 5.4 times smaller than that in the transmission control mode. However the signal-to-noise ratio of the absorption spectrum was only 3 times improved since the etalon effect existed. Finally, the peak absorption coefficients of the C(2)H(2) transition near 1530.9nm under different pressures showed a good agreement with the theoretical values.

  14. Sub-wavelength patterning of organic monolayers via nonlinear processing with continuous-wave lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Mareike; Hartmann, Nils, E-mail: nils.hartmann@uni-due.de [Fakultaet fuer Chemie, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); CeNIDE-Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); NETZ-NanoEnergieTechnikZentrum, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In recent years, nonlinear processing with continuous-wave lasers has been demonstrated to be a facile means of rapid nanopatterning of organic monolayers down to the sub-100 nm range. In this study, we report on laser patterning of thiol-based organic monolayers with sub-wavelength resolution. Au-coated silicon substrates are functionalized with 1-hexadecanethiol. Irradiation with a focused beam of an Ar{sup +} laser operating at {lambda}=514 nm allows one to locally remove the monolayer. Subsequently, the patterns are transferred into the Au film via selective etching in a ferri-/ferrocyanide solution. Despite a 1/e{sup 2} spot diameter of about 2.8 {mu}m, structures with lateral dimensions down to 250 nm are fabricated. The underlying nonlinear dependence of the patterning process on laser intensity is traced back to the interplay between the laser-induced transient local temperature rise and the thermally activated desorption of the thiol molecules. A simple thermokinetic analysis of the data allows us to determine the effective kinetic parameters. These results complement our previous work on photothermal laser patterning of ultrathin organic coatings, such as silane-based organic monolayers, organo/silicon interfaces and supported membranes. A general introduction to nonlinear laser processing of organic monolayers is presented.

  15. Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser at 1085 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongyi; Liu, Hong; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jiyan

    2017-11-01

    An admirable and efficient Nd:YVO4 laser at 1085 nm is demonstrated with a compact 35 mm plano-plano cavity. A chosen narrow bandpass filter with high-transmittance (HT) coating at 1064 nm (T=96%) and optimized part-reflection (PR) coating at 1085 nm (T=15%) is used as the output coupler. In the continuous-wave (CW) regime, the maximum output power reaches 3110 mW at the pump power of 11.41 W. Based on a Cr:YAG crystal with initial-transmittance of 91%, the first passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser at 1085 nm is achieved. When the pump power is changed from the threshold of 4.50 to 6.08 W, the dual-wavelength lines at 1064 and 1085 nm are generated simultaneously. However, at the pump power of above 6.08 W, the single-wavelength line at 1085 nm is achieved. The largest output power, the highest peak power, and the narrowest pulse width are 1615 mW, 878 W and 26.2 ns, respectively.

  16. Doppler limited rotational transitions of OH and SH radicals measured by continuous-wave terahertz photomixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliet, Sophie; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Guinet, Mickaël; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gaël; Bocquet, Robin; Cuisset, Arnaud

    2011-12-01

    A continuous-wave terahertz (CW-THz) source generated by photomixing has been employed to detect and quantify radicals produced in a cold plasma probing their spin-rotation transitions. Due to their dual interest for both atmospherists and astrophysicists, the hydroxyl OH and the mercapto SH radicals have been chosen. The photomixing technique which can access the largest range of THz frequencies of any known coherent source, allowed to resolve the Doppler-limited hyperfine transitions of OH in the 2.5 THz frequency region. Line profile analysis of the hyperfine components demonstrated that OH radicals have been detected in this region at a ppm level at a temperature close to 490 K. The hyperfine structure of SH has been resolved for the first time above 1 THz. Ten new frequency transitions have been measured in the 1.3-2.6 THz frequency range using the CW-THz synthesizer based on a frequency comb. With relative uncertainties better than 10 -7, the CW-THz frequencies measured in this study are now competitive with those measured by other instruments such as frequency multiplication chains or FT-FIR spectrometers and are now capable to improve the predictions of the complete high-resolution spectra of these radicals collected in the atmospheric and astrophysical spectroscopic databases. versioncorrigeeAC 2011-07-18 17:32 2011 Arnaud Cuisset.

  17. Continuous-wave terahertz by photomixing: applications to gas phase pollutant detection and quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Francis; Cuisset, Arnaud; Bocquet, Robin; Mouret, Gaël

    2008-03-01

    Recent advances in the development of monochromatic continuous-wave terahertz sources suitable for high resolution gas phase spectroscopy and pollution monitoring are reviewed. Details of a source using an ultra fast opto-electronic photomixing element are presented. The construction of a terahertz spectrometer using this source has allowed spectroscopic characterisation and application studies to be completed. Analysis of H 2S and OCS under laboratory conditions are used to demonstrate the spectrometer performance, and the determination of the transition line strengths and pressure self broadening coefficients for pure rotational transitions of OCS. The spectral purity 5 MHz, tunability 0.3 to 3 THz, and long wavelength ≈200 μm of this source have been exploited to identify and quantify numerous chemical species in cigarette smoke. The key advantages of this frequency domain are its high species selectivity and the possibility to make reliable measurements of gas phase samples heavily contaminated by aerosols and particles. To cite this article: F. Hindle et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

  18. Application of continuous-wave terahertz computed tomography for the analysis of chicken bone structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Zhai, Changchao; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie

    2018-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is able to penetrate many different types of nonpolar and nonmetallic materials without the damaging effects of x-rays. THz technology can be combined with computed tomography (CT) to form THz CT, which is an effective imaging method that is used to visualize the internal structure of a three-dimensional sample as cross-sectional images. Here, we reported an application of THz as the radiation source in CT imaging by replacing the x-rays. In this method, the sample cross section is scanned in all translation and rotation directions. Then, the projection data are reconstructed using a tomographic reconstruction algorithm. Two-dimensional (2-D) cross-sectional images of the chicken ulna were obtained through the continuous-wave (CW) THz CT system. Given by the difference of the THz absorption of different substances, the compact bone and spongy bone inside the chicken ulna are structurally distinguishable in the 2-D cross-sectional images. Using the filtered back projection algorithm, we reconstructed the projection data of the chicken ulna at different projection angle intervals and found that the artifacts and noise in the images are strikingly increased when the projection angle intervals become larger, reflected by the blurred boundary of the compact bone. The quality and fidelity of the 2-D cross-sectional images could be substantially improved by reducing the projection angle intervals. Our experimental data demonstrated a feasible application of the CW THz CT system in biological imaging.

  19. Pulse propagation dynamics in the presence of a continuous-wave field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrijević, Jelena; Arsenović, Dušan; Jelenković, Branislav M

    2013-01-01

    We present theoretical results for the propagation dynamics of an electromagnetic field pulse through rubidium vapor, while another field, a continuous-wave electromagnetic field, is present. The frequencies of both electromagnetic fields are resonant with the transition between the ground and excited state hyperfine levels of Rb, F g  → F e  = F g  ± 1. Detuning from resonance is done by the magnetic field oriented along the light propagation direction (Hanle configuration). When both the electromagnetic fields are simultaneously interacting with Rb atoms, either electromagnetically induced transparency or absorption is induced. Propagation dynamics was obtained solving the set of Maxwell–Bloch equations for the interacting atoms with two electromagnetic fields. Motivated by recent results (Brazhnikov et al 2011 Eur. Phys. J. D 63 315–25; Brazhnikov et al 2010 JETP Lett. 91 625–9; Kou et al 2011 Phys. Rev. A 84 063807), we have analyzed the influence of experimental parameters, laser polarization, and mutual phases between lasers, which can lead to optical switching, i.e. the transformation from electromagnetically induced absorption to transparency and vice versa. (paper)

  20. Room temperature continuous wave mid-infrared VCSEL operating at 3.35 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, V.; Segal, S.; Lascola, K.; Burgner, C.; Towner, F.; Cazabat, A.; Cole, G. D.; Follman, D.; Heu, P.; Deutsch, C.

    2018-02-01

    Tunable vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) offer a potentially low cost tunable optical source in the 3-5 μm range that will enable commercial spectroscopic sensing of numerous environmentally and industrially important gases including methane, ethane, nitrous oxide, and carbon monoxide. Thus far, achieving room temperature continuous wave (RTCW) VCSEL operation at wavelengths beyond 3 μm has remained an elusive goal. In this paper, we introduce a new device structure that has enabled RTCW VCSEL operation near the methane absorption lines at 3.35 μm. This device structure employs two GaAs/AlGaAs mirrors wafer-bonded to an optically pumped active region comprising compressively strained type-I InGaAsSb quantum wells grown on a GaSb substrate. This substrate is removed in processing, as is one of the GaAs mirror substrates. The VCSEL structure is optically pumped at room temperature with a CW 1550 nm laser through the GaAs substrate, while the emitted 3.3 μm light is captured out of the top of the device. Power and spectrum shape measured as a function of pump power exhibit clear threshold behavior and robust singlemode spectra.

  1. Picosecond pulses from wavelength-swept continuous-wave Fourier domain mode-locked lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenwillig, Christoph M; Wieser, Wolfgang; Todor, Sebastian; Biedermann, Benjamin R; Klein, Thomas; Jirauschek, Christian; Huber, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Ultrafast lasers have a crucial function in many fields of science; however, up to now, high-energy pulses directly from compact, efficient and low-power semiconductor lasers are not available. Therefore, we introduce a new approach based on temporal compression of the continuous-wave, wavelength-swept output of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers, where a narrowband optical filter is tuned synchronously to the round-trip time of light in a kilometre-long laser cavity. So far, these rapidly swept lasers enabled orders-of-magnitude speed increase in optical coherence tomography. Here we report on the generation of ~60-70 ps pulses at 390 kHz repetition rate. As energy is stored optically in the long-fibre delay line and not as population inversion in the laser-gain medium, high-energy pulses can now be generated directly from a low-power, compact semiconductor-based oscillator. Our theory predicts subpicosecond pulses with this new technique in the future.

  2. Infrared skin damage thresholds from 1319-nm continuous-wave laser exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jeffrey W.; Vincelette, Rebecca; Noojin, Gary D.; Clark, Clifton D.; Harbert, Corey A.; Schuster, Kurt J.; Shingledecker, Aurora D.; Kumru, Semih S.; Maughan, Justin; Kitzis, Naomi; Buffington, Gavin D.; Stolarski, David J.; Thomas, Robert J.

    2013-12-01

    A series of experiments were conducted in vivo using Yucatan miniature pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) to determine thermal damage thresholds to the skin from 1319-nm continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Experiments employed exposure durations of 0.25, 1.0, 2.5, and 10 s and beam diameters of ˜0.6 and 1 cm. Thermal imagery data provided a time-dependent surface temperature response from the laser. A damage endpoint of fifty percent probability of a minimally visible effect was used to determine threshold for damage at 1 and 24 h postexposure. Predicted thermal response and damage thresholds are compared with a numerical model of optical-thermal interaction. Resultant trends with respect to exposure duration and beam diameter are compared with current standardized exposure limits for laser safety. Mathematical modeling agreed well with experimental data, predicting that though laser safety standards are sufficient for exposures <10 s, they may become less safe for very long exposures.

  3. Nitinol laser cutting: microstructure and functional properties of femtosecond and continuous wave laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, C. A.; Tuissi, A.

    2017-03-01

    Thermal processing can affect the properties of smart materials, and the correct selection of the best manufacturing technology is fundamental for producing high tech smart devices, containing embedded functional properties. In this work cutting of thin superelastic Nitinol plates using a femtosecond (fs) and continuous wave (CW) laser was studied. Diamond shaped elements were cut to characterize the kerf qualitative features; microstructural analysis of the cross sections allowed identification of thermal damage characteristics introduced into the material during the laser processes. A thermally undamaged microstructure was observed for fs laser cutting, while CW was seen to be characterized by a large heat-affected zone. Functional properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and tensile testing of laser cut microelements and of the reference material. It was seen that the martensitic transformation behavior of Nitinol is not affected by fs regime, while cw cutting provokes an effect equivalent to a high temperature thermal treatment in the material surrounding the cutting kerf, degradating the material properties. Finally, tensile testing indicated that superelastic performances were guaranteed by fs regime, while strong reduction of the recoverable strain was detected in the CW processed sample.

  4. Study of continuous-wave domain fluorescence diffuse optical tomography for quality control on agricultural produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadhira, Vebi, E-mail: vebi@tf.itb.ac.id; Kurniadi, Deddy, E-mail: vebi@tf.itb.ac.id; Juliastuti, E., E-mail: vebi@tf.itb.ac.id; Sutiswan, Adeline, E-mail: vebi@tf.itb.ac.id [Instrumentation and Control Research Group, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institute Technology of Bandung, Ganesha 10 40132 Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    The importance of monitoring the quality of vegetables and fruits is prosperity by giving a competitive advantage for producer and providing a more healthy food for consumer. Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is offering the possibility to detect the internal defects of the agricultural produce quality. Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT) is the development of DOT, offering the possibilities to improve spatial resolution and to contrast image. The purpose of this research is to compare FDOT and DOT in forward analysis with continuous wave approach. The scattering and absorbing parameters of potatoes are used to represent the real condition. The object was illuminated by the NIR source from some positions on the boundary of object. A set of NIR detector are placed on the peripheral position of the object to measure the intensity of propagated or emitted light. In the simulation, we varied a condition of object then we analyzed the sensitivity of forward problem. The result of this study shows that FDOT has a better sensitivity than DOT and a better potential to monitor internal defects of agricultural produce because of the contrast value between optical and fluorescence properties of agricultural produce normal tissue and defects.

  5. Modification of electrical properties of zinc oxide by continuous wave ytterbium fiber laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, H; Takahashi, M; Tani, J; Abe, N; Tsukamoto, M

    2011-01-01

    The polycrystalline plate-like ZnO samples were irradiated by a continuous wave Yb fiber laser and electrical properties of modified layer were investigated. The laser beam of spot size of 16 μm in diameter was scanned on the surface at a velocity of 5mm/s. There was a threshold for the laser modification. The laser etched grooves were formed above laser power of 20 W. The laser etched depth increased in relation to the laser power, 0.46 mm at 20 W and 5.0 mm at 126 W. The surface layers of laser etched grooves were modified in color and electrical property. The color changed from light yellow to black, and the electrical resistivity drastically decreased from initial value of 1.1x10 5 Ωcm to 3.2x10 -1 Ωcm at 56 W, 2.8x10 -1 Ωcm at 91 W, and 2.0x10 -1 Ωcm at 126 W. The Hall measurement showed that the modified surface layer was an n-type semiconductor and carrier concentration of the layer was 1.5x10 17 cm -3 at 56 W, 7.2x10 17 cm -3 at 91 W, and 1.9x10 18 cm -3 at 126 W.

  6. Modification of electrical properties of zinc oxide by continuous wave ytterbium fiber laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kido, H; Takahashi, M; Tani, J [Electronic Materials Research Division, Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute, 1-6-50 Morinomiya, Joto-ku, Osaka 536-8553 (Japan); Abe, N; Tsukamoto, M, E-mail: kido@omtri.or.jp [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    The polycrystalline plate-like ZnO samples were irradiated by a continuous wave Yb fiber laser and electrical properties of modified layer were investigated. The laser beam of spot size of 16 {mu}m in diameter was scanned on the surface at a velocity of 5mm/s. There was a threshold for the laser modification. The laser etched grooves were formed above laser power of 20 W. The laser etched depth increased in relation to the laser power, 0.46 mm at 20 W and 5.0 mm at 126 W. The surface layers of laser etched grooves were modified in color and electrical property. The color changed from light yellow to black, and the electrical resistivity drastically decreased from initial value of 1.1x10{sup 5} {Omega}cm to 3.2x10{sup -1} {Omega}cm at 56 W, 2.8x10{sup -1} {Omega}cm at 91 W, and 2.0x10{sup -1} {Omega}cm at 126 W. The Hall measurement showed that the modified surface layer was an n-type semiconductor and carrier concentration of the layer was 1.5x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} at 56 W, 7.2x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} at 91 W, and 1.9x10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} at 126 W.

  7. Line-robust statistics for continuous gravitational waves: safety in the case of unequal detector sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keitel, David; Prix, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    The multi-detector F-statistic is close to optimal for detecting continuous gravitational waves (CWs) in Gaussian noise. However, it is susceptible to false alarms from instrumental artefacts, for example quasi-monochromatic disturbances (‘lines’), which resemble a CW signal more than Gaussian noise. In a recent paper (Keitel et al 2014 Phys. Rev. D 89 064023), a Bayesian model selection approach was used to derive line-robust detection statistics for CW signals, generalizing both the F-statistic and the F-statistic consistency veto technique and yielding improved performance in line-affected data. Here we investigate a generalization of the assumptions made in that paper: if a CW analysis uses data from two or more detectors with very different sensitivities, the line-robust statistics could be less effective. We investigate the boundaries within which they are still safe to use, in comparison with the F-statistic. Tests using synthetic draws show that the optimally-tuned version of the original line-robust statistic remains safe in most cases of practical interest. We also explore a simple idea on further improving the detection power and safety of these statistics, which we, however, find to be of limited practical use. (paper)

  8. Continuous-wave single-frequency laser with dual wavelength at 1064 and 532 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenwei; Lu, Huadong; Yin, Qiwei; Su, Jing

    2014-10-01

    A continuous-wave high-power single-frequency laser with dual-wavelength output at 1064 and 532 nm is presented. The dependencies of the output power on the transmission of the output coupler and the phase-matching temperature of the LiB(3)O(5) (LBO) crystal are studied. An output coupler with transmission of 19% is used, and the temperature of LBO is controlled to the optimal phase-matching temperature of 422 K; measured maximal output powers of 33.7 W at 1064 nm and of 1.13 W at 532 nm are obtained with optical-optical conversion efficiency of 45.6%. The laser can be single-frequency operated stably and mode-hop-free, and the measured frequency drift is less than 15 MHz in 1 min. The measured Mx2 and My2 for the 1064 nm laser are 1.06 and 1.09, respectively. The measured Mx2 and My2 for the 532 nm laser are 1.12 and 1.11, respectively.

  9. The Monitoring Case of Ground-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar with Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. Y.; Zhai, Q. P.; Chen, L.; Liu, Y. J.; Zhou, K. Q.; Wang, Y. S.; Dou, Y. D.

    2017-09-01

    The features of the landslide geological disaster are wide distribution, variety, high frequency, high intensity, destructive and so on. It has become a natural disaster with harmful and wide range of influence. The technology of ground-based synthetic aperture radar is a novel deformation monitoring technology developed in recent years. The features of the technology are large monitoring area, high accuracy, long distance without contact and so on. In this paper, fast ground-based synthetic aperture radar (Fast-GBSAR) based on frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) system is used to collect the data of Ma Liuzui landslide in Chongqing. The device can reduce the atmospheric errors caused by rapidly changing environment. The landslide deformation can be monitored in severe weather conditions (for example, fog) by Fast-GBSAR with acquisition speed up to 5 seconds per time. The data of Ma Liuzui landslide in Chongqing are analyzed in this paper. The result verifies that the device can monitor landslide deformation under severe weather conditions.

  10. Comparison of femtosecond laser and continuous wave UV sources for protein-nucleic acid crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecko, Christopher J; Munson, Katherine M; Saunders, Abbie; Sun, Guangxing; Begley, Tadhg P; Lis, John T; Webb, Watt W

    2007-01-01

    Crosslinking proteins to the nucleic acids they bind affords stable access to otherwise transient regulatory interactions. Photochemical crosslinking provides an attractive alternative to formaldehyde-based protocols, but irradiation with conventional UV sources typically yields inadequate product amounts. Crosslinking with pulsed UV lasers has been heralded as a revolutionary technique to increase photochemical yield, but this method had only been tested on a few protein-nucleic acid complexes. To test the generality of the yield enhancement, we have investigated the benefits of using approximately 150 fs UV pulses to crosslink TATA-binding protein, glucocorticoid receptor and heat shock factor to oligonucleotides in vitro. For these proteins, we find that the quantum yields (and saturating yields) for forming crosslinks using the high-peak intensity femtosecond laser do not improve on those obtained with low-intensity continuous wave (CW) UV sources. The photodamage to the oligonucleotides and proteins also has comparable quantum yields. Measurements of the photochemical reaction yields of several small molecules selected to model the crosslinking reactions also exhibit nearly linear dependences on UV intensity instead of the previously predicted quadratic dependence. Unfortunately, these results disprove earlier assertions that femtosecond pulsed laser sources provide significant advantages over CW radiation for protein-nucleic acid crosslinking.

  11. Threshold response using modulated continuous wave illumination for multilayer 3D optical data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, A.; Christenson, C. W.; Khattab, T. A.; Wang, R.; Twieg, R. J.; Singer, K. D.

    2017-01-01

    In order to achieve a high capacity 3D optical data storage medium, a nonlinear or threshold writing process is necessary to localize data in the axial dimension. To this end, commercial multilayer discs use thermal ablation of metal films or phase change materials to realize such a threshold process. This paper addresses a threshold writing mechanism relevant to recently reported fluorescence-based data storage in dye-doped co-extruded multilayer films. To gain understanding of the essential physics, single layer spun coat films were used so that the data is easily accessible by analytical techniques. Data were written by attenuating the fluorescence using nanosecond-range exposure times from a 488 nm continuous wave laser overlapping with the single photon absorption spectrum. The threshold writing process was studied over a range of exposure times and intensities, and with different fluorescent dyes. It was found that all of the dyes have a common temperature threshold where fluorescence begins to attenuate, and the physical nature of the thermal process was investigated.

  12. Continuous-wave radar to detect defects within heat exchangers and steam generator tubes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassersharif, Bahram (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Caffey, Thurlow Washburn Howell; Jedlicka, Russell P. (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Garcia, Gabe V. (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2003-01-01

    A major cause of failures in heat exchangers and steam generators in nuclear power plants is degradation of the tubes within them. The tube failure is often caused by the development of cracks that begin on the outer surface of the tube and propagate both inwards and laterally. A new technique was researched for detection of defects using a continuous-wave radar method within metal tubing. The experimental program resulted in a completed product development schedule and the design of an experimental apparatus for studying handling of the probe and data acquisition. These tests were completed as far as the prototypical probe performance allowed. The prototype probe design did not have sufficient sensitivity to detect a defect signal using the defined radar technique and did not allow successful completion of all of the project milestones. The best results from the prototype probe could not detect a tube defect using the radar principle. Though a more precision probe may be possible, the cost of design and construction was beyond the scope of the project. This report describes the probe development and the status of the design at the termination of the project.

  13. Increase of Carrier-to-Noise Ratio in GPS Receivers Caused by Continuous-Wave Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of personal private devices (PPDs is drawing greater attention to the effects of continuous-wave interference (CWI on the performance of global positioning system (GPS receivers. The effective carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N0, an essential index of GNSS receiver performance, is studied in this paper. Receiver tracking performance deteriorates in the presence of interference. Hence, the effective C/N0, which measures tracking performance, decreases. However, simulations and bench tests have shown that the effective C/N0 may increase in the presence of CWI. The reason is that a sinusoidal signal is induced by the CWI in the correlator and may be tracked by the carrier tracking loop. Thus, the effective carrier power depends on the power of the signal induced by the CWI, and the effective C/N0 increases with the power of the CWI. The filtering of the CWI in the carrier tracking loop correlator and its effect on the phase locked loop (PLL tracking performance are analyzed. A mathematical model of the effect of the CWI on the effective C/N0 is derived. Simulation results show that the proposed model is more accurate than existing models, especially when the jam-to-signal ratio (JSR is greater than 30 dBc.

  14. Microcontroller based resonance tracking unit for time resolved continuous wave cavity-ringdown spectroscopy measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votava, Ondrej; Mašát, Milan; Parker, Alexander E; Jain, Chaithania; Fittschen, Christa

    2012-04-01

    We present in this work a new tracking servoloop electronics for continuous wave cavity-ringdown absorption spectroscopy (cw-CRDS) and its application to time resolved cw-CRDS measurements by coupling the system with a pulsed laser photolysis set-up. The tracking unit significantly increases the repetition rate of the CRDS events and thus improves effective time resolution (and/or the signal-to-noise ratio) in kinetics studies with cw-CRDS in given data acquisition time. The tracking servoloop uses novel strategy to track the cavity resonances that result in a fast relocking (few ms) after the loss of tracking due to an external disturbance. The microcontroller based design is highly flexible and thus advanced tracking strategies are easy to implement by the firmware modification without the need to modify the hardware. We believe that the performance of many existing cw-CRDS experiments, not only time-resolved, can be improved with such tracking unit without any additional modification to the experiment. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  15. Parameter-space metric of semicoherent searches for continuous gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletsch, Holger J.

    2010-01-01

    Continuous gravitational-wave (CW) signals such as emitted by spinning neutron stars are an important target class for current detectors. However, the enormous computational demand prohibits fully coherent broadband all-sky searches for prior unknown CW sources over wide ranges of parameter space and for yearlong observation times. More efficient hierarchical ''semicoherent'' search strategies divide the data into segments much shorter than one year, which are analyzed coherently; then detection statistics from different segments are combined incoherently. To optimally perform the incoherent combination, understanding of the underlying parameter-space structure is requisite. This problem is addressed here by using new coordinates on the parameter space, which yield the first analytical parameter-space metric for the incoherent combination step. This semicoherent metric applies to broadband all-sky surveys (also embedding directed searches at fixed sky position) for isolated CW sources. Furthermore, the additional metric resolution attained through the combination of segments is studied. From the search parameters (sky position, frequency, and frequency derivatives), solely the metric resolution in the frequency derivatives is found to significantly increase with the number of segments.

  16. Preliminary tests on a new near-infrared continuous-wave tissue oximeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casavola, Claudia; Cicco, Giuseppe; Pirrelli, Anna; Lugara, Pietro M.

    2000-11-01

    We present a preliminary study, in vitro and in vivo, with a novel device for near-infrared tissue oximetry. The light sources used are two quasi-continuous-wave LEDs, emitting at 656 and 851 nm, and the detector is a photodiode. The data are acquired in back-scattering configuration, thus allowing the non-invasive characterization of thick tissues. Stability tests were performed by placing the optical probe on a tissue- like phantom and acquiring data for periods of time ranging from 5 to 40 minutes. No significant drifts in the DC signal were observed after a warm-up period of no more than 10 minutes. We performed reproducibility tests by repositioning the optical probe on the phantom for a number of times. We found a reproducibility better than 5% in the DC signal. We also present the results of a preliminary study conducted in vivo, on the calf muscle of human subjects. We report a comparison of the results obtained with the near-infrared oximeter with the values of blood oxygenation ctO2 measured with conventional chemical tests.

  17. Detection of undistorted continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra with non-adiabatic rapid sweep (NARS) of the magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittell, Aaron W.; Camenisch, Theodore G.; Ratke, Joseph J.; Sidabras, Jason W.; Hyde, James S.

    2011-01-01

    A continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum is typically displayed as the first harmonic response to the application of 100 kHz magnetic field modulation, which is used to enhance sensitivity by reducing the level of 1/f noise. However, magnetic field modulation of any amplitude causes spectral broadening and sacrifices EPR spectral intensity by at least a factor of two. In the work presented here, a CW rapid-scan spectroscopic technique that avoids these compromises and also provides a means of avoiding 1/f noise is developed. This technique, termed non-adiabatic rapid sweep (NARS) EPR, consists of repetitively sweeping the polarizing magnetic field in a linear manner over a spectral fragment with a small coil at a repetition rate that is sufficiently high that receiver noise, microwave phase noise, and environmental microphonics, each of which has 1/f characteristics, are overcome. Nevertheless, the rate of sweep is sufficiently slow that adiabatic responses are avoided and the spin system is always close to thermal equilibrium. The repetitively acquired spectra from the spectral fragment are averaged. Under these conditions, undistorted pure absorption spectra are obtained without broadening or loss of signal intensity. A digital filter such as a moving average is applied to remove high frequency noise, which is approximately equivalent in bandwidth to use of an integrating time constant in conventional field modulation with lock-in detection. Nitroxide spectra at L- and X-band are presented. PMID:21741868

  18. Real-time process monitoring in a semi-continuous fluid-bed dryer - microwave resonance technology versus near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Johanna; Teske, Andreas; Taute, Wolfgang; Döscher, Claas; Höft, Michael; Knöchel, Reinhard; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2018-02-15

    The trend towards continuous manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry is associated with an increasing demand for advanced control strategies. It is a mandatory requirement to obtain reliable real-time information on critical quality attributes (CQA) during every process step as the decision on diversion of material needs to be performed fast and automatically. Where possible, production equipment should provide redundant systems for in-process control (IPC) measurements to ensure continuous process monitoring even if one of the systems is not available. In this paper, two methods for real-time monitoring of granule moisture in a semi-continuous fluid-bed drying unit are compared. While near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has already proven to be a suitable process analytical technology (PAT) tool for moisture measurements in fluid-bed applications, microwave resonance technology (MRT) showed difficulties to monitor moistures above 8% until recently. The results indicate, that the newly developed MRT sensor operating at four resonances is capable to compete with NIR spectroscopy. While NIR spectra were preprocessed by mean centering and first derivative before application of partial least squares (PLS) regression to build predictive models (RMSEP = 0.20%), microwave moisture values of two resonances sufficed to build a statistically close multiple linear regression (MLR) model (RMSEP = 0.07%) for moisture prediction. Thereby, it could be verified that moisture monitoring by MRT sensor systems could be a valuable alternative to NIR spectroscopy or could be used as a redundant system providing great ease of application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The cause of high-intensity long-duration continuous AE activity (HILDCAAS): interplanetary Alfven wave trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Gonzalez, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that high intensity (AE > 1,000 nT), long duration (T > 2 d) continuous auroral activity (HILDCAA) events are caused by outward (from the sun) propagating interplanetary Alfven wave trains. The Alfven waves are often (but not always) detected several days after major interplanetary events, such as shocks and solar wind density enhancements. Presumably magnetic reconnection between the southward components of the Alfven wave magnetic fields and magnetospheric fields is the mechanism for transfer of solar wind energy to the magnetosphere. If the stringent requirements for HILDCAA events are relaxed, there are many more AE events of this type. A brief inspection indicates that these are also related to interplanetary Alfvenic fluctuations. We therefore suggest that most auroral activity may be caused by reconnection associated with Alfven waves in the interplanetary medium. (author)

  20. Continuous sheathless microparticle and cell patterning using CL-SSAWs (conductive liquid-based standing surface acoustic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghun Nam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present continuous, sheathless microparticle patterning using conductive liquid (CL-based standing surface acoustic waves (SSAWs. Conventional metal electrodes patterned on a piezoelectric substrate were replaced with electrode channels filled with a CL. The device performance was evaluated with 5-μm fluorescent polystyrene particles at different flow rate and via phase shifting. In addition, our device was further applied to continuous concentration of malaria parasites at the sidewalls of the fluidic channel.

  1. Antioxidant activity measurement and potential antioxidant peptides exploration from hydrolysates of novel continuous microwave-assisted enzymolysis of the Scomberomorus niphonius protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yipeng; Ruan, Guihua; Qin, Zhijun; Li, Haiyun; Zheng, Yanjie

    2017-05-15

    A novel continuous microwave-assisted enzymatic digestion (cMAED) method is proposed for the digestion of protein from Scomberomorus niphonius to obtain potential antioxidant peptides. In this study, bromelain was found to have a high capacity for the digestion of the Scomberomorus niphonius protein. The following cMAED conditions were investigated: protease species, microwave power, temperature, bromelain content, acidity of the substrate solution, and incubation time. At 400W, 40°C, 1500U·g -1 bromelain, 20% substrate concentration, pH 6.0 and 5min incubation, the degree of hydrolysis and total antioxidant activity of the hydrolysates were 15.86% and 131.49μg·mL -1 , respectively. The peptide analyses showed that eight of the potential antioxidant peptide sequences, which ranged from 502.32 to 1080.55Da with 4-10 amino acid residues, had features typical of well-known antioxidant proteins. Thus, the new cMAED method can be useful to obtain potential antioxidant peptides from protein sources, such as Scomberomorus niphonius. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Distinguishing transient signals and instrumental disturbances in semi-coherent searches for continuous gravitational waves with line-robust statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keitel, David

    2016-01-01

    Non-axisymmetries in rotating neutron stars emit quasi-monochromatic gravitational waves. These long-duration ‘continuous wave’ signals are among the main search targets of ground-based interferometric detectors. However, standard detection methods are susceptible to false alarms from instrumental artefacts that resemble a continuous-wave signal. Past work [Keitel, Prix, Papa, Leaci and Siddiqi 2014, Phys. Rev. D 89 064023] showed that a Bayesian approach, based on an explicit model of persistent single-detector disturbances, improves robustness against such artefacts. Since many strong outliers in semi-coherent searches of LIGO data are caused by transient disturbances that last only a few hours or days, I describe in a recent paper [Keitel D 2015, LIGO-P1500159] how to extend this approach to cover transient disturbances, and demonstrate increased sensitivity in realistic simulated data. Additionally, neutron stars could emit transient signals which, for a limited time, also follow the continuous-wave signal model. As a pragmatic alternative to specialized transient searches, I demonstrate how to make standard semi-coherent continuous-wave searches more sensitive to transient signals. Focusing on the time-scale of a single segment in the semi-coherent search, Bayesian model selection yields a simple detection statistic without a significant increase in computational cost. This proceedings contribution gives a brief overview of both works. (paper)

  3. Rapid and sensitive trace gas detection with continuous wave Optical Parametric Oscillator-based Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arslanov, D.D.; Spunei, M.; Ngai, A.K.Y.; Cristescu, S.M.; Lindsay, I.D.; Lindsay, I.D.; Boller, Klaus J.; Persijn, S.T.; Harren, F.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A fiber-amplified Distributed Bragg Reflector diode laser is used to pump a continuous wave, singly resonant Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO). The output radiation covers the 3–4 μm with ability of rapid (100 THz/s) and broad mode-hop-free tuning (5 cm−1). Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy is

  4. Scale-up of microwave-assisted polymerizations in continuous-flow mode : cationic ring-opening polymerization of 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulus, R.M.; Erdmenger, T.; Becer, C.R.; Hoogenboom, R.; Schubert, U.S.

    2007-01-01

    Microwave-assisted polymerizations is a growing field of interest because the use of microwave irradiation instead of thermal heating was demonstrated to result in faster, cleaner, and higher yielding reactions. To overcome the one-at-a-time nature of preparing polymerizations in single microwave

  5. Handbook of RF, Microwave, and Millimeter-Wave Components. Edited by Leonid A. Belov, Sergey M. Smolskiy and Victor N. Kochemasov, Artech House, 2012; 504 pages. Price: £119.00, ISBN 978-1-60807-209-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This unique and comprehensive resource offers you a detailed treatment of the operations principles, key parameters, and specific characteristics of active and passive RF, microwave, and millimeter-wave components. The book covers both linear and nonlinear components that are used in a wide range of application areas, from communications and information sciences, to avionics, space, and military engineering.

  6. Self-excitation of microwave oscillations in plasma-assisted slow-wave oscillators by an electron beam with a movable focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliokh, Yu. P.; Nusinovich, G. S.; Shkvarunets, A. G.; Carmel, Y.

    2004-10-01

    Plasma-assisted slow-wave oscillators (pasotrons) operate without external magnetic fields, which makes these devices quite compact and lightweight. Beam focusing in pasotrons is provided by ions, which appear in the device due to the impact ionization of a neutral gas by beam electrons. Typically, the ionization time is on the order of the rise time of the beam current. This means that, during the rise of the current, beam focusing by ions becomes stronger. Correspondingly, a beam of electrons, which was initially diverging radially due to the self-electric field, starts to be focused by ions, and this focus moves towards the gun as the ion density increases. This feature makes the self-excitation of electromagnetic (em) oscillations in pasotrons quite different from practically all other microwave sources where em oscillations are excited by a stationary electron beam. The process of self-excitation of em oscillations has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that in pasotrons, during the beam current rise the amount of current entering the interaction space and the beam coupling to the em field vary. As a result, the self-excitation can proceed faster than in conventional microwave sources with similar operating parameters such as the operating frequency, cavity quality-factor and the beam current and voltage.

  7. Mathematical characterization of continuous wave infrared stimulated luminescence signals (CW-IRSL) from feldspars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagonis, V.; Phan, Huy; Goodnow, Rebecca; Rosenfeld, Sara; Morthekai, P.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous-wave infrared stimulated luminescence signals (CW-IRSL) from feldspars have been the subject of many experimental studies, due to their importance in luminescence dating and dosimetry. Accurate mathematical characterization of the shape of these CW-IRSL signals in feldspars is of practical and theoretical importance, especially in connection with “anomalous fading” of luminescence signals in dating studies. These signals are known to decay in a non-exponential manner and their exact mathematical shape as a function of stimulation time is an open research question. At long stimulation times the IRSL decay has been shown experimentally to follow a power law of decay, and previous researchers have attempted to fit the overall shape of these signals empirically using the well known Becquerel function (or compressed hyperbola decay law). This paper investigates the possibility of fitting CW-IRSL curves using either the Becquerel decay law, or a recently developed analytical equation based on localized electronic recombination of donor–acceptor pairs in luminescent materials. It is shown that both mathematical approaches can give excellent fits to experimental CW-IRSL curves, and the precision of the fitting process is studied by analyzing a series of curves measured using a single aliquot of a feldspar sample. Both fitting equations are solutions of differential equations involving numerically similar time dependent recombination probabilities k(t). It is concluded that both fitting equations provide approximately equivalent mathematical descriptions of the CW-IRSL curves in feldspars, and can be used as mathematical representations of the shape of CW-IRSL signals. - Highlights: • Feldspar CW-IRSL curves fitted using Becquerel decay law and new analytical equation. • Both mathematical approaches give excellent fits to experimental CW-IRSL curves. • Series of experimental CW-IRSL curves analyzed using both fitting expressions. • The time

  8. Advanced intensity-modulation continuous-wave lidar techniques for ASCENDS CO2 column measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. W.; Obland, Michael D.; Meadows, Byron

    2015-10-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity- Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation, where it is shown useful for making tree canopy measurements.

  9. 205 nm continuous-wave laser: application to the measurement of the Lamb shift in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourzeix, S.

    1995-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the construction of an experimental set-up, and in particular of a tunable continuous-wave laser at 205 nm, for the measurement of the ground state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen. Chapter 1 deals with the Lamb shift from a historical point of view, and with the interest of its measurement, for metrology and test of quantum electrodynamics. Chapter 2 is devoted to the theory of the hydrogen atom. The principle of the experiment is based on the comparison of two frequencies which are in a ratio of 4: those of the two-photon transitions of 2S-6S or 2S-6D and 1S-3S. Chapter 3 describes the experimental set-up used to measure the 2S-6D transition which is excited by a titanium-sapphire laser at 820 nm. The 205 nm light required to excite the 1S-3S transition is generated by two frequency-doubling of the titanium-sapphire laser, made in non-linear crystals placed in enhancement cavities. Chapter 4 is entirely devoted to the frequency-doubling. After a recall of non-linear optics, the enhancement cavities are described in detail, as well as the results we achieved. At last chapter 5 describes the research for a signal on the 1S-3S transition: the construction of a ground state atomic beam, and the development of the detection system. This work has led to a preliminary measurement of the ground state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen: L(1S) = 8172.850 (174) MHz whose result is in very good agreement with both the previous measurements and the most recent theoretical results. (author)

  10. The Measurement of Aerosol Optical Properties Using Continuous Wave Cavity Ring-Down Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawa, A. W.; Owano, T.; Castaneda, R.; Baer, D. S.; Paldus, B. A.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Large uncertainties in the effects that aerosols have on climate require improved in-situ measurements of extinction coefficient and single-scattering albedo. This abstract describes the use of continuous wave cavity ring-down (CW-CRD) technology to address this problem. The innovations in this instrument are the use of CW-CRD to measure aerosol extinction coefficient, the simultaneous measurement of scattering coefficient, and small size suitable for a wide range of aircraft applications. Our prototype instrument measures extinction and scattering coefficient at 690 nm and extinction coefficient at 1550 nm. The instrument itself is small (60 x 48 x 15 cm) and relatively insensitive to vibrations. The prototype instrument has been tested in our lab and used in the field. While improvements in performance are needed, the prototype has been shown to make accurate and sensitive measurements of extinction and scattering coefficients. Combining these two parameters, one can obtain the single-scattering albedo and absorption coefficient, both important aerosol properties. The use of two wavelengths also allows us to obtain a quantitative idea of the size of the aerosol through the Angstrom exponent. Minimum sensitivity of the prototype instrument is 1.5 x 10(exp -6)/m (1.5/Mm). Validation of the measurement of extinction coefficient has been accomplished by comparing the measurement of calibration spheres with Mie calculations. This instrument and its successors have potential to help reduce uncertainty currently associated with aerosol optical properties and their spatial and temporal variation. Possible applications include studies of visibility, climate forcing by aerosol, and the validation of aerosol retrieval schemes from satellite data.

  11. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for ASCENDS O2 Column Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. Wallace; Obland, Michael D.; Meadows, Byron

    2015-01-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity- Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation, where it is shown useful for making tree canopy measurements.

  12. All-periodically poled, high-power, continuous-wave, single-frequency tunable UV source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadhi, A; Chaitanya N, Apurv; Jabir, M V; Singh, R P; Samanta, G K

    2015-01-01

    We report on experimental demonstration of an all-periodically poled, continuous-wave (CW), high-power, single-frequency, ultra-violet (UV) source. Based on internal second-harmonic-generation (SHG) of a CW singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped in the green, the UV source provides tunable radiation across 398.94-417.08 nm. The compact source comprising of a 25-mm-long MgO-doped periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate (MgO:sPPLT) crystal of period Λ(SLT)=8.5  μm for OPO and a 5-mm-long, multi-grating (Λ(KTP)=3.3, 3.4, 3.6 and 3.8 μm), periodically poled potassium titanium phosphate (PPKTP) for intra-cavity SHG, provides as much as 336 mW of UV power at 398.94 nm, corresponding to a green-to-UV conversion efficiency of ∼6.7%. In addition, the singly resonant OPO (SRO) provides 840 mW of idler at 1541.61 nm and substantial signal power of 108 mW at 812.33 nm transmitted through the high reflective cavity mirrors. UV source provides single-frequency radiation with instantaneous line-width of ∼18.3  MHz and power >100  mW in Gaussian beam profile (ellipticity >92%) across the entire tuning range. Access to lower UV wavelengths requires smaller grating periods to compensate high phase-mismatch resulting from high material dispersion in the UV wavelength range. Additionally, we have measured the normalized temperature and spectral acceptance bandwidth of PPKTP crystal in the UV wavelength range to be ∼2.25°C·cm and ∼0.15  nm·cm, respectively.

  13. Intensity Modulation Techniques for Continuous-Wave Lidar for Column CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Obland, M. D.; Kooi, S. A.; Fan, T. F.; Meadows, B.; Browell, E. V.; Erxleben, W. H.; McGregor, D.; Dobler, J. T.; Pal, S.; O'Dell, C.

    2017-12-01

    Global and regional atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission and the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) - America project are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space and airborne platforms to meet the ASCENDS and ACT-America science measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) and Linear Swept Frequency modulations to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud returns. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that take advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques and provides very high (at sub-meter level) range resolution. We compare BPSK to linear swept frequency and introduce a new technique to eliminate sidelobes in situations from linear swept frequency where the SNR is high with results that rival BPSK. We also investigate the effects of non-linear modulators, which can in some circumstances degrade the orthogonality of the waveforms, and show how to avoid this. These techniques are used in a new data processing architecture written in

  14. Frequency-Modulated, Continuous-Wave Laser Ranging Using Photon-Counting Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Barber, Zeb W.; Dahl, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Optical ranging is a problem of estimating the round-trip flight time of a phase- or amplitude-modulated optical beam that reflects off of a target. Frequency- modulated, continuous-wave (FMCW) ranging systems obtain this estimate by performing an interferometric measurement between a local frequency- modulated laser beam and a delayed copy returning from the target. The range estimate is formed by mixing the target-return field with the local reference field on a beamsplitter and detecting the resultant beat modulation. In conventional FMCW ranging, the source modulation is linear in instantaneous frequency, the reference-arm field has many more photons than the target-return field, and the time-of-flight estimate is generated by balanced difference- detection of the beamsplitter output, followed by a frequency-domain peak search. This work focused on determining the maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation algorithm when continuous-time photoncounting detectors are used. It is founded on a rigorous statistical characterization of the (random) photoelectron emission times as a function of the incident optical field, including the deleterious effects caused by dark current and dead time. These statistics enable derivation of the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRB) on the accuracy of FMCW ranging, and derivation of the ML estimator, whose performance approaches this bound at high photon flux. The estimation algorithm was developed, and its optimality properties were shown in simulation. Experimental data show that it performs better than the conventional estimation algorithms used. The demonstrated improvement is a factor of 1.414 over frequency-domainbased estimation. If the target interrogating photons and the local reference field photons are costed equally, the optimal allocation of photons between these two arms is to have them equally distributed. This is different than the state of the art, in which the local field is stronger than the target return. The optimal

  15. Microwave system engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Raff, Samuel J

    1977-01-01

    Microwave System Engineering Principles focuses on the calculus, differential equations, and transforms of microwave systems. This book discusses the basic nature and principles that can be derived from thermal noise; statistical concepts and binomial distribution; incoherent signal processing; basic properties of antennas; and beam widths and useful approximations. The fundamentals of propagation; LaPlace's Equation and Transmission Line (TEM) waves; interfaces between homogeneous media; modulation, bandwidth, and noise; and communications satellites are also deliberated in this text. This bo

  16. Enhanced Microwave Absorption and Surface Wave Attenuation Properties of Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 Fibers/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinrui Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 fibers with a diameter of about 270 nm and a length of about 10 μm were synthesized by a microemulsion-mediated solvothermal method with subsequent heat treatment. The Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 fibers/reduced graphene oxide (RGO composite was prepared by a facile in-situ chemical reduction method. The crystalline structures and morphologies were investigated based on X-ray diffraction patterns and scanning electron microscopy. Magnetization measurements were carried out using a vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature. Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 fibers/RGO composites achieve both a wider and stronger absorption and an adjustable surface wave attenuation compared with Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 fibers, indicating the potential for application as advanced microwave absorbers.

  17. Modulation of cosmic microwave background polarization with a warm rapidly rotating half-wave plate on the Atacama B-Mode Search instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, A; Essinger-Hileman, T; Appel, J W; Gallardo, P; Irwin, K D; Jarosik, N; Nolta, M R; Page, L A; Parker, L P; Raghunathan, S; Sievers, J L; Simon, S M; Staggs, S T; Visnjic, K

    2014-02-01

    We evaluate the modulation of cosmic microwave background polarization using a rapidly rotating, half-wave plate (HWP) on the Atacama B-Mode Search. After demodulating the time-ordered-data (TOD), we find a significant reduction of atmospheric fluctuations. The demodulated TOD is stable on time scales of 500-1000 s, corresponding to frequencies of 1-2 mHz. This facilitates recovery of cosmological information at large angular scales, which are typically available only from balloon-borne or satellite experiments. This technique also achieves a sensitive measurement of celestial polarization without differencing the TOD of paired detectors sensitive to two orthogonal linear polarizations. This is the first demonstration of the ability to remove atmospheric contamination at these levels from a ground-based platform using a rapidly rotating HWP.

  18. Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products and Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Microwave Ovens Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 1030.10 - Microwave Ovens Required Reports for the Microwave Oven Manufacturers or Industry Exemption from Certain Reporting ...

  19. Microwave engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pozar, David M

    2012-01-01

    The 4th edition of this classic text provides a thorough coverage of RF and microwave engineering concepts, starting from fundamental principles of electrical engineering, with applications to microwave circuits and devices of practical importance.  Coverage includes microwave network analysis, impedance matching, directional couplers and hybrids, microwave filters, ferrite devices, noise, nonlinear effects, and the design of microwave oscillators, amplifiers, and mixers. Material on microwave and RF systems includes wireless communications, radar, radiometry, and radiation hazards. A large

  20. Evaluation of cellular effects of pulsed and continuous wave radiofrequency radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicic, Ivan; Trosic, Ivancica

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In less than twenty years, the mobile telephone has gone from being rare, expensive equipment of the business elite to a pervasive, low-cost personal item. Since the introduction of mobile phones, concerns have been raised about the potential detrimental impacts on living beings from regular use. The first 'modern' network technology on second generation cellular technology was launched in 1991 in Finland on the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) standard. This study evaluates cellular effects of, both, continuous (CW) and pulsed GSM modulated waves (PW). Continuous cell culture of Chinese hamster lung cells, line V79, was used in this study. Cell growth and colony forming ability (CFA) was analyzed after 1, 2 and 3 hours of exposure to the both frequency fields, 935 MHz CW and 915 MHz PW. Selected frequency fields were generated inside gigahertz transversal electromagnetic mode cell (GTEM) equipped with the signal generators. Hewlett Packard HP8657A signal generator was used to generate CW 935 MHz frequency field. Anritzu MS2711B spectrum analyzer with tracking generator and Micro devices RF 3146 power amplifier module generated PW radiofrequency field of 915 MHz. Averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) belonging to the CW 935 MHz frequency field was calculated to be 0.12 W/kg, and for GSM modulated 915 MHz field was 0.23 W/kg. Cell samples were irradiated in triplicate. The sham exposed control cell samples were included in the study. The temperature inside the exposure set-up was recorded in ten-minute intervals through the irradiation treatment. Both, sham-exposed and exposed cell samples were kept in the same condition, except in the time of irradiation for experimental samples when signal generator was switched on. To determine cell growth, V79 samples were plated in concentration of 1x10 4 cells/mL. Cells were maintained in the standard laboratory conditions, which are humidified atmosphere, 37 C degrees, and 5% CO 2 . Cell

  1. Nondestructive Imaging of an Object Using the Compact Continuous-Wave Sub-Terahertz Imaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin Seok; Kwon, Il Bub; Yoon, Dong Jin; Seo, Dae Cheol [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    This paper presented compact CW sub-THz imaging system using the terahertz transmitter(Tx) that generating 0.34 THz electromagnetic wave on based electronic device. Using 0.34 THz electromagnetic wave generated by Tx, we transmitted to sample by point by point scan method and measured transmitting terahertz wave magnitude and phase information respectively with terahertz receiver(Rx) based on sub harmonic mixer. This paper measured and compared images of several samples to obtain better imaging results by changing time delay and step distance of scanning stage which affect image resolution. Also, through the imaging measurement of various samples, we were able to assure possibility of application of terahertz wave

  2. Nondestructive Imaging of an Object Using the Compact Continuous-Wave Sub-Terahertz Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jin Seok; Kwon, Il Bub; Yoon, Dong Jin; Seo, Dae Cheol

    2010-01-01

    This paper presented compact CW sub-THz imaging system using the terahertz transmitter(Tx) that generating 0.34 THz electromagnetic wave on based electronic device. Using 0.34 THz electromagnetic wave generated by Tx, we transmitted to sample by point by point scan method and measured transmitting terahertz wave magnitude and phase information respectively with terahertz receiver(Rx) based on sub harmonic mixer. This paper measured and compared images of several samples to obtain better imaging results by changing time delay and step distance of scanning stage which affect image resolution. Also, through the imaging measurement of various samples, we were able to assure possibility of application of terahertz wave

  3. Fault Classification and Location in Transmission Lines Using Traveling Waves Modal Components and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Namdari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate fault classification and localization are the bases of protection for transmission systems. This paper presents a new method for classifying and showing location of faults by travelling waves and modal analysis. In the proposed method, characteristics of different faults are investigated using Clarke transformation and initial current traveling wave; then, appropriate indices are introduced to identify different types of faults. Continuous wavelet transform (CWT is employed to extract information of current and voltage travelling waves. Fault location and classification algorithm is being designed according to wavelet transform coefficients relating to current and voltage modal components. The performance of the proposed method is tested for different fault conditions (different fault distance, different fault resistances, and different fault inception angles by using PSCAD and MATLAB with satisfactory results

  4. Cutting performances with new industrial continuous wave ND:YAG high power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagnot, C.; Dinechin, G. de; Canneau, G.

    2010-01-01

    Dismantling is a great challenge for nuclear companies which are facing with the cleaning of former nuclear sites. Among the available cutting processes is the multi-kilowatts laser whose power is transmitted through optical fibers. Unlike other cutting processes such as the plasma arc cutting process or the oxy-cutting process, the laser process can be easily implemented by robotic equipments. The mechanised robotic arm carries a laser cutting head to perform, with remote-controlled equipments, the cutting operation. The present study deals with the performances which can be reached with high power continuous wave ND:YAG lasers. The cutting tests were carried out up to 8 kW. The laser power was delivered through a specific power supply chain: a 0.4 mm fiber was transporting the power from the laser to a first interface (coupler) then a second 0.6 mm fiber was bringing the laser power to the cutting head. This solution allowed a power delivery chain whose length could be as high as 100 + 20/50 m. Another advantage of this kind of power supply is that the first fiber can be set in a non-contaminated environment whereas the second fiber lies in the contaminated area. The cutting head used for these tests was a specific tool developed for this laser dismantling work: it is a laser cutting head cooled by pressurized air. This tool was developed with the requirement to be able to sustain a laser power of 14 kW. The pressurized air used to cool the head is also used as cutting gas. The cutting capability was about 10 mm by kW. At the power of 8 kW, austenitic steel plates of thickness 100 mm were cut. These performances were reached with the cut started on the plate's edge. If the cut started in the middle of the plate, the cutting performances were not so high: 8 kW became the power to drill and to cut plates of thickness 40 mm.

  5. Effect of Early Diagnosis and Treatment on the Prognosis of Children with Epilepsy Accompanied by Continuous Spikes and Waves during Slow Wave Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahua Ju

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment on the prognosis of children with epilepsy accompanied by continuous spikes and waves during slow wave sleep (CSCW. Methods: The clinical characteristics, electroencephalogram (ECG features, treatment and prognosis of 12 children with CSCW in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed, and the followup of 6 months to 4 years was given. Results: Imaging showed that 8 children suffered from brain lesions, while other 4 were normal. The initial onset of 10 children was at night, whereas 2 began with absence seizure in lucid interval, and they gradually appeared comprehensive brain function decline, meanwhile, ECG was characterized by continuous discharge during slow wave sleep. After 3 months of treatment with valproic acid, clonazepam, lamotrigine and hormones, the clinical symptoms and ECG of 10 children improved significantly, in which 3 ones recurred after 6 months of comprehensive treatment. Conclusion: The early manifestation of CSWS is untypical, and hence, early diagnosis and treatment can ameliorate the epileptic seizures of children, effectively inhibit epileptic electrical activity and has favorable prognosis.

  6. Wideband 360 degrees microwave photonic phase shifter based on slow light in semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Weiqi; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, José; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-03-15

    In this work we demonstrate for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a continuously tunable 360 degrees microwave phase shifter spanning a microwave bandwidth of several tens of GHz (up to 40 GHz). The proposed device exploits the phenomenon of coherent population oscillations, enhanced by optical filtering, in combination with a regeneration stage realized by four-wave mixing effects. This combination provides scalability: three hybrid stages are demonstrated but the technology allows an all-integrated device. The microwave operation frequency limitations of the suggested technique, dictated by the underlying physics, are also analyzed.

  7. SeismicWaveTool: Continuous and discrete wavelet analysis and filtering for multichannel seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiana-Merino, J. J.; Rosa-Herranz, J. L.; Rosa-Cintas, S.; Martinez-Espla, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    A MATLAB-based computer code has been developed for the simultaneous wavelet analysis and filtering of multichannel seismic data. The considered time-frequency transforms include the continuous wavelet transform, the discrete wavelet transform and the discrete wavelet packet transform. The developed approaches provide a fast and precise time-frequency examination of the seismograms at different frequency bands. Moreover, filtering methods for noise, transients or even baseline removal, are implemented. The primary motivation is to support seismologists with a user-friendly and fast program for the wavelet analysis, providing practical and understandable results. Program summaryProgram title: SeismicWaveTool Catalogue identifier: AENG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENG_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC license, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 611072 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 14688355 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MATLAB (MathWorks Inc.) version 7.8.0.347 (R2009a) or higher. Wavelet Toolbox is required. Computer: Developed on a MacBook Pro. Tested on Mac and PC. No computer-specific optimization was performed. Operating system: Any supporting MATLAB (MathWorks Inc.) v7.8.0.347 (R2009a) or higher. Tested on Mac OS X 10.6.8, Windows XP and Vista. Classification: 13. Nature of problem: Numerous research works have developed a great number of free or commercial wavelet based software, which provide specific solutions for the analysis of seismic data. On the other hand, standard toolboxes, packages or libraries, such as the MathWorks' Wavelet Toolbox for MATLAB, offer command line functions and interfaces for the wavelet analysis of one-component signals. Thus, software usually is focused on very specific problems

  8. A non-intrusive and continuous-in-space technique to investigate the wave transformation and breaking over a breakwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Simone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To design longshore breakwaters, the evaluation of the wave motion transformations over the structures and of the energy they are able to absorb, dissipate and reflect is necessary. To characterize features and transformations of monochromatic wave trains above a breakwater, both submerged and emerged, we have designed and developed a non-intrusive and continuous-in-space technique, based on Image Analysis, and carried out an experimental campaign, in a laboratory flume equipped with a wave-maker, in order to test it. The investigation area was lighted with a light sheet and images were recorded by a video-camera. The working fluid was seeded with non buoyant particles to make it bright and clearly distinct from dark background and breakwater. The technique, that is based on a robust algorithm to identify the free surface, has showed to properly work also in prohibitive situations for traditional resistive probes (e.g., very shallow waters and/or breaking waves and to be able to measure the free surface all over the investigation field in a non-intrusive way. Two kind of analysis were mainly performed, a statistical and a spectral one. The peculiarities of the measurement technique allowed to describe the whole wave transformation and to supply useful information for design purposes.

  9. Compilation and assessment of microwave bioeffects. Final report. A selective review of the literature on biological effects of microwaves in relation to the satellite power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justesen, D. R.; Ragan, H. A.; Rogers, L. E.; Guy, A. W.; Hjeresen, D. L.; Hinds, W. T.

    1978-05-01

    Potential biological and ecological problems are the focus of a review of the world's scientific literature on biological effects of microwave radiation. The emphasis is on recently reported data and on the 2450-MHz continuous-wave (CW) radiation that is envisioned for a Satellite Power System (SPS).

  10. Design of a Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement System Based on Pulse Wave and ECG Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Qiang; Li, Rui; Chen, Zhuang-Zhuang; Deng, Gen-Qiang; Wang, Huihui; Mavromoustakis, Constandinos X; Song, Houbing; Ming, Zhong

    2018-01-01

    With increasingly fierce competition for jobs, the pressures on people have risen in recent years, leading to lifestyle and diet disorders that result in significantly higher risks of cardiovascular disease. Hypertension is one of the common chronic cardiovascular diseases; however, mainstream blood pressure measurement devices are relatively heavy. When multiple measurements are required, the user experience and the measurement results may be unsatisfactory. In this paper, we describe the design of a signal collection module that collects pulse waves and electrocardiograph (ECG) signals. The collected signals are input into a signal processing module to filter the noise and amplify the useful physiological signals. Then, we use a wavelet transform to eliminate baseline drift noise and detect the feature points of the pulse waves and ECG signals. We propose the concept of detecting the wave shape associated with an instance, an approach that minimizes the impact of atypical pulse waves on blood pressure measurements. Finally, we propose an improved method for measuring blood pressure based on pulse wave velocity that improves the accuracy of blood pressure measurements by 58%. Moreover, the results meet the american medical instrument promotion association standards, which demonstrate the feasibility of our measurement system.

  11. Nonlinear waveform distortion and shock formation in the near field of a continuous wave piston source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Cathignol, Dominique

    2004-05-01

    A classical effect of nonlinear acoustics is that a plane sinusoidal acoustic wave propagating in a nonlinear medium transforms to a sawtooth wave with one shock per cycle. However, the waveform evolution can be quite different in the near field of a plane source due to diffraction. Previous numerical simulations of nonlinear acoustic waves in the near field of a circular piston source predict the development of two shocks per wave cycle [Khokhlova et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 95-108 (2001)]. Moreover, at some locations the peak pressure may be up to 4 times the source amplitude. The motivation of this work was to experimentally verify and further explain the phenomena of the nonlinear waveform distortion. Measurements were conducted in water with a 47-mm-diameter unfocused transducer, working at 1-MHz frequency. For pressure amplitudes higher than 0.5 MPa, two shocks per cycle were observed in the waveform beyond the last minimum of the fundamental harmonic amplitude. With the increase of the observation distance, these two shocks collided and formed one shock (per cycle), i.e., the waveform developed into the classical sawtooth wave. The experimental results were in a very good agreement with the modeling based on the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation.

  12. Computer-Generated Microwave Holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leming, Charles W.; Hastings, Orestes Patterson, III

    1980-01-01

    Described is the phasor method of superposition of waves. The intensity pattern from a system of microwave sources is calculated point by point on a plane corresponding to a film emulsion, and then printed and directly converted to a hologram for 3-cm microwaves. Calculations, construction, and viewing of holograms are included. (Author/DS)

  13. High-Temperature Monitoring of Refractory Wall Recession Using Frequency-Modulated Continuous-wave (FM-CW) Radar Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghese, B.; DeConick, C.; Cartee, G.; Zoughi, R.; Velez, M.; Moore, R.

    2005-01-01

    Furnaces are among the most crucial components in the glass and metallurgical industry. Nowadays, furnaces are being operated at higher temperatures and for longer periods of time thus increasing the rate of wear on the furnace refractory lining. Consequently, there is a great need for a nondestructive tool that can accurately measure refractory wall thickness at high temperatures. In this paper the utility of a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FM-CW) radar is investigated for this purpose

  14. Correlation analysis between surface electromyography and continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy parameters during isometric exercise to volitional fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAYLİ, Ömer; AKIN, Ata; ÇOTUK, Hasan Birol

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the process of muscular fatigue was examined using surface electromyography (sEMG) and continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (cw-NIRS) simultaneously during an isometric hand grip exercise at 50% and 75% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), sustained until volitional fatigue. The mean frequency of the sEMG decreased during the whole exercise, whereas the root mean square had a tendency to increase. Oxyhemoglobin/deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes computed ...

  15. Frequency-Modulated Continuous-Wave Fm-Cw Radar for Evaluation of Refractory Structures Used in Glass Manufacturing Furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, B.; Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Limmer, R.

    2009-03-01

    A frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FM-CW) handheld radar operating in the frequency range of 8-18 GHz, resulting in a relatively fine range resolution was designed and constructed for on-site inspection of refractory structure thickness. This paper presents the design of the radar and the results of measurements conducted on typical refractory furnace structures assembled in the laboratory.

  16. A review of micro-wave techniques in plasma studies; Survol des techniques micro-ondes pour l'etude des plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consoli, T [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The problem of the application of micro-wave techniques to the study of plasma properties is considered in this report. In section I, the author summarizes a few fundamental laws concerning the theory of waves in an ionised medium as well as measurable effects of transverse and longitudinal propagation. Section II is a rapid review of the experimental methods and of the various measurements which may be effected in very high frequency plasmas. Only recent experimental work carried out since the last U. R.S.I. Assembly is considered. Section III is devoted to micro-wave techniques developed during this period in the laboratories of the Applied Physics Service. These techniques deal with longitudinal propagation and in particular with the propagation along a right mode. Section IV is a general view of similar studies undertaken in European Research Centres working on plasma physics or controlled fusion. Section V is a contribution concerning three particular topics from the Juelich and Max Planck Institute laboratories. (author) [French] On etudie dans ce rapport le probleme de l'application des techniques micro-ondes a l'etude des proprietes d'un plasma. Dans la section I, l'auteur rappelle rapidement quelques lois fondamentales de la theorie des ondes dans un milieu ionise ainsi que les effets mesurables en propagation transversale et longitudinale. La section II est une revue rapide des methodes experimentales et des diverses mesures qui peuvent etre faites dans les plasmas aux tres hautes frequences. On ne considere seulement que les etudes experimentales recentes depuis la derniere assemblee de l'U.R.S.I. La section III est consacree aux techniques hyperfrequences developpees durant la meme periode dans les laboratoires des Services de Physique Appliquee. Ces techniques se rapportent a la propagation longitudinale et particulierement a la propagation suivant le mode droit. La section IV est un panorama de travaux similaires entrepris dans les centres europeens

  17. Continuous-Wave Radar to Detect Defects Within Heat Exchangers and Steam Generator Tubes; Revised September 3, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, Gary E.; Caffey, Thurlow W.H.; Bahram Nassersharif; Garcia, Gabe V.; Jedlicka, Russell P.

    2003-01-01

    OAK B204 Continuous-Wave Radar to Detect Defects Within Heat Exchangers and Steam Generator Tubes ; Revised September 3, 2003. A major cause of failures in heat exchangers and steam generators in nuclear power plants is degradation of the tubes within them. The tube failure is often caused by the development of cracks that begin on the outer surface of the tube and propagate both inwards and laterally. A new technique was researched for detection of defects using a continuous-wave radar method within metal tubing. The technique is 100% volumetric, and may find smaller defects, more rapidly, and less expensively than present methods. The project described in this report was a joint development effort between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) funded by the US Department of Energy. The goal of the project was to research, design, and develop a new concept utilizing a continuous wave radar to detect defects inside metallic tubes and in particular nuclear plant steam generator tubing. The project was divided into four parallel tracks: computational modeling, experimental prototyping, thermo-mechanical design, and signal detection and analysis

  18. Continuous-Wave Radar to Detect Defects Within Heat Exchangers and Steam Generator Tubes ; Revised September 3, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary E. Rochau and Thurlow W.H. Caffey, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0740; Bahram Nassersharif and Gabe V. Garcia, Department of Mechanical Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001; Russell P. Jedlicka, Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001

    2003-05-01

    OAK B204 Continuous-Wave Radar to Detect Defects Within Heat Exchangers and Steam Generator Tubes ; Revised September 3, 2003. A major cause of failures in heat exchangers and steam generators in nuclear power plants is degradation of the tubes within them. The tube failure is often caused by the development of cracks that begin on the outer surface of the tube and propagate both inwards and laterally. A new technique was researched for detection of defects using a continuous-wave radar method within metal tubing. The technique is 100% volumetric, and may find smaller defects, more rapidly, and less expensively than present methods. The project described in this report was a joint development effort between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) funded by the US Department of Energy. The goal of the project was to research, design, and develop a new concept utilizing a continuous wave radar to detect defects inside metallic tubes and in particular nuclear plant steam generator tubing. The project was divided into four parallel tracks: computational modeling, experimental prototyping, thermo-mechanical design, and signal detection and analysis.

  19. Prospects of microwave processing: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    wave heating. In addition, microwave energy is being explored for the sintering of metal powders also. Ceramic and metal nanopowders have been sintered in microwave. Furthermore, initiatives have been taken to process the amorphous materials (e.g. glass) by microwave heating. Besides this, an attempt has been made ...

  20. Pitch angle scattering of relativistic electrons from stationary magnetic waves: Continuous Markov process and quasilinear theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemons, Don S.

    2012-01-01

    We develop a Markov process theory of charged particle scattering from stationary, transverse, magnetic waves. We examine approximations that lead to quasilinear theory, in particular the resonant diffusion approximation. We find that, when appropriate, the resonant diffusion approximation simplifies the result of the weak turbulence approximation without significant further restricting the regime of applicability. We also explore a theory generated by expanding drift and diffusion rates in terms of a presumed small correlation time. This small correlation time expansion leads to results valid for relatively small pitch angle and large wave energy density - a regime that may govern pitch angle scattering of high-energy electrons into the geomagnetic loss cone.

  1. A Multi Mega Watt Continuous Wave RF Window for Particle Accelerator Applications. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vguyen-Tuong, V.

    2004-01-01

    In this analysis the proposed 10MW window design is free of multipacting on the ceramic surface for the full power range, both in the traveling wave and full reflection mode. Near 7MW and 8MW in the traveling wave mode, multipacting might show up on the outer conductor of the matching section. These multipacting barriers are however very soft and are expected to be easily eliminated by regular RF processing. The multipacting analysis can identify early design problems while it is unable to provide certainty in design success and testing of window designs is the only certain measure of freedom from multipacting

  2. Microwave imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Pastorino, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    An introduction to the most relevant theoretical and algorithmic aspects of modern microwave imaging approaches Microwave imaging-a technique used in sensing a given scene by means of interrogating microwaves-has recently proven its usefulness in providing excellent diagnostic capabilities in several areas, including civil and industrial engineering, nondestructive testing and evaluation, geophysical prospecting, and biomedical engineering. Microwave Imaging offers comprehensive descriptions of the most important techniques so far proposed for short-range microwave imaging-in

  3. Residual losses in epitaxial thin films of YBa2Cu3O7 from microwave to submillimeter wave frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.; Richards, P.L.; Etemad, S.; Inam, A.; Venkatesan, T.; Dutta, B.; Wu, X.D.; Eom, C.B.; Geballe, T.H.; Newman, N.; Cole, B.F.

    1991-01-01

    We have measured the residual loss in five epitaxial a-b plane films of the high-T c superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . Microwave measurements near 10 GHz were made by resonance techniques at 4 K. Submillimeter measurements from ∼1.5 to 21 THz were made at 2 K by a direct absorption technique. We use a model of weakly coupled superconducting grains and a homogeneous two-fluid model to fit the data for each film below the well-known absorption edge at 13.5 THz. When the penetration depth determined from muon spin rotation measurements is used to constrain each model, the weakly coupled grain model is able to fit the measured absorptivities for all films, but the two-fluid model is less successful

  4. A bolometric millimeter-wave system for observations of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation on medium angular scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M. L.; Alsop, D. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Clapp, A. C.; Cottingham, D. A.; Gundersen, J. O.; Koch, T. C.; Kreysa, E.; Meinhold, P. R.; Lange, A. E.

    1992-01-01

    We report the performance of a bolometric system designed to measure the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation on angular scales from 0 deg 3 min to 3 deg. The system represents a collaborative effort combining a low-background 1 m diameter balloon-borne telescope with new multimode feed optics, a beam modulation mechanism with high stability, and a four-channel bolometric receiver with passbands centered near frequencies of 3 (90), 6 (180), 9 (270), and 12 (360) cm(exp -1) (GHz). The telescope was flown three times with the bolometric receiver and has demonstrated detector noise limited performance capable of reaching sensitivity levels of Delta(T)/T(sub CMB) is approximately equal to 10(exp -5) with detectors operated at T = 0.3 K.

  5. First low frequency all-sky search for continuous gravitational wave signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D. V.; Andersen, M.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Ashton, G.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, C. D.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Branco, V.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Celerier, C.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Colombini, M.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M. D.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Dia, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J. -D.; Franco, S; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. A.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Gonzalez, J.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gossler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammer, D. X.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hoelscher-Obermaier, J.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M. B.; Jang, D.H.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karlen, J. L.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kerrigan, J.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J. T.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, J. P.; Lee, J. P.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Lodhia, D.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lubinski, M. J.; Luck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; Macdonald, E. P.; MacDonald, T.T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Madden-Fong, D. X.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mangini, N. M.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Ma, H.Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R.M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nagy, M. F.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okounkova, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W. E.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C. T.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J. H.; Poggiani, R.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Purrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Racz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rodger, A. S.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosins, D.; Rowan, S.; Rud, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schonbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffery, P.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Simakov, D.; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tap, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; Van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; Van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; van der Schaaf, L.; van der Sluys, M. V.; Eijningen, J. V.; Eggel, A. A. V.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, MT; Wade, L. E.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, K. J.; Williams, L.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2016-01-01

    Following a major upgrade, the two advanced detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) held their first observation run between September 2015 and January 2016. With a strain sensitivity of 10−23/√Hz at 100 Hz, the product of observable volume and measurement time

  6. SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF CONTINUOUS OUTFLOWS AND PROPAGATING WAVES FROM NOAA 10942 WITH EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER/HINODE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizuka, N.; Hara, H.

    2011-01-01

    We focused on 'sit-and-stare' observations of an outflow region at the edge of active region NOAA 10942 on 2007 February 20 obtained by the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode. We analyzed the data above the base of the outflow and found both continuous outflows and waves, which propagate from the base of the outflow. The spectra at the base of the outflow and at higher locations show different properties. The line profiles show blue-side asymmetry at the base of the outflow where nonthermal broadening becomes large because of fast upflows generated by heating events. On the other hand, at higher locations line profiles are symmetric and the intensity disturbances vary in phase with the velocity disturbances. The correlations between the intensity and velocity disturbances become noticeable at higher locations, so this indicates evidence of (at least locally) upward propagating slow-mode waves along the outflow. We also found a transient oscillation of different period in the wavelet spectrum. This indicates that a different wave is additionally observed during a limited period. High cadence spectroscopic observations revealed intermittent signatures of nonthermal velocities. Each of them seems to correspond to the base of the propagating disturbances. Furthermore, a jet was captured by the sit-and-stare observations across the slit. The similarity of line profiles of the outflow and the jet may indicate that the flows and waves originate in unresolved explosive events in the lower atmosphere of the corona.

  7. A coherent method for the detection and parameter estimation of continuous gravitational wave signals using a pulsar timing array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yan; Mohanty, Soumya D.; Jenet, Fredrick A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of a high precision pulsar timing array is a promising approach to detecting gravitational waves in the very low frequency regime (10 –6 -10 –9 Hz) that is complementary to ground-based efforts (e.g., LIGO, Virgo) at high frequencies (∼10-10 3 Hz) and space-based ones (e.g., LISA) at low frequencies (10 –4 -10 –1 Hz). One of the target sources for pulsar timing arrays is individual supermassive black hole binaries which are expected to form in galactic mergers. In this paper, a likelihood-based method for detection and parameter estimation is presented for a monochromatic continuous gravitational wave signal emitted by such a source. The so-called pulsar terms in the signal that arise due to the breakdown of the long-wavelength approximation are explicitly taken into account in this method. In addition, the method accounts for equality and inequality constraints involved in the semi-analytical maximization of the likelihood over a subset of the parameters. The remaining parameters are maximized over numerically using Particle Swarm Optimization. Thus, the method presented here solves the monochromatic continuous wave detection and parameter estimation problem without invoking some of the approximations that have been used in earlier studies.

  8. A coherent method for the detection and parameter estimation of continuous gravitational wave signals using a pulsar timing array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan; Mohanty, Soumya D.; Jenet, Fredrick A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, 1 West University Boulevard, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The use of a high precision pulsar timing array is a promising approach to detecting gravitational waves in the very low frequency regime (10{sup –6}-10{sup –9} Hz) that is complementary to ground-based efforts (e.g., LIGO, Virgo) at high frequencies (∼10-10{sup 3} Hz) and space-based ones (e.g., LISA) at low frequencies (10{sup –4}-10{sup –1} Hz). One of the target sources for pulsar timing arrays is individual supermassive black hole binaries which are expected to form in galactic mergers. In this paper, a likelihood-based method for detection and parameter estimation is presented for a monochromatic continuous gravitational wave signal emitted by such a source. The so-called pulsar terms in the signal that arise due to the breakdown of the long-wavelength approximation are explicitly taken into account in this method. In addition, the method accounts for equality and inequality constraints involved in the semi-analytical maximization of the likelihood over a subset of the parameters. The remaining parameters are maximized over numerically using Particle Swarm Optimization. Thus, the method presented here solves the monochromatic continuous wave detection and parameter estimation problem without invoking some of the approximations that have been used in earlier studies.

  9. Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade laser at λ ~ 9.4 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chuncai; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Jinchuan; Zhai, Shenqiang; Zhuo, Ning; Liu, Junqi; Wang, Lijun; Liu, Shuman; Liu, Fengqi; Wang, Zhanguo

    2018-03-01

    Continuous wave (CW) operation of long wave infrared (LWIR) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) is achieved up to a temperature of 303 K. For room temperature CW operation, the wafer with 35 stages was processed into buried heterostructure lasers. For a 2-mm-long and 10-μm-wide laser with high-reflectivity (HR) coating on the rear facet, CW output power of 45 mW at 283 K and 9 mW at 303 K is obtained. The lasing wavelength is around 9.4 μm locating in the LWIR spectrum range. Project supported by the National Key Research And Development Program (No. 2016YFB0402303), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61435014, 61627822, 61574136, 61774146, 61674144, 61404131), the Key Projects of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Nos. ZDRW-XH-2016-4, QYZDJ-SSW-JSC027), and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No. 4162060, 4172060).

  10. New applications of microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejiri, A.; Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K.; Ito, Y.; Tokuzawa, T.

    2000-01-01

    Interferometry and reflectometry measure phase of the transparent or the reflected wave to derive the information on plasma density. Homodyne reflectometry for an interlock and transmissiometry for sheet plasma measurements could be another class of microwave diagnostics, which does not measure the phase. (author)

  11. Excitation of hypersonic acoustic waves in diamond-based piezoelectric layered structure on the microwave frequencies up to 20GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, B P; Kvashnin, G M; Novoselov, A S; Bormashov, V S; Golovanov, A V; Burkov, S I; Blank, V D

    2017-07-01

    First ultrahigh frequency (UHF) investigation of quality factor Q for the piezoelectric layered structure «Al/(001)AlN/Mo/(100) diamond» has been executed in a broad frequency band from 1 up to 20GHz. The record-breaking Q·f quality parameter up to 2.7·10 14 Hz has been obtained close to 20GHz. Frequency dependence of the form factor m correlated with quality factor has been analyzed by means of computer simulation, and non-monotonic frequency dependence can be explained by proper features of thin-film piezoelectric transducer (TFPT). Excluding the minimal Q magnitudes measured at the frequency points associated with minimal TFPT effectiveness, one can prove a rule of Qf∼f observed for diamond on the frequencies above 1GHz and defined by Landau-Rumer's acoustic attenuation mechanism. Synthetic IIa-type diamond single crystal as a substrate material for High-overtone Bulk Acoustic Resonator (HBAR) possesses some excellent acoustic properties in a wide microwave band and can be successfully applied for design of acoustoelectronic devices, especially the ones operating at a far UHF band. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. On continuous ambiguities in model-independent partial wave analysis - 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, I.N.

    1995-01-01

    A problem of amplitude reconstruction in terms of the given angular distribution is considered. Solution of this problem is not unique. A class of amplitudes, correspondent to one and the same angular distribution, forms a region in projection onto a finite set of spherical harmonics. An explicit parametrization of a boundary of the region is obtained. A shape of the region of ambiguities is studied in particular example. A scheme of partial-wave analysis, which describes all solutions in the limits of the region, is proposed. 5 refs., 5 figs

  13. GaN-based Power amplifiers for microwave applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Julián Moreno-Rubio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a discussion about the design strategies of different kind of power amplifiers for RF/Microwave appli- cations, such as the tuned load power amplifier, class F, class F-1 and Doherty. Furthermore, it is shown the continuous wave characterization of the amplifiers above mentioned. A comparison between the obtained results, in terms of gain, efficiency and output power is presented.

  14. A scheme for recording a fast process at nanosecond scale by using digital holographic interferometry with continuous wave laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zhao, Jianlin; Di, Jianglei; Jiang, Biqiang

    2015-04-01

    A scheme for recording fast process at nanosecond scale by using digital holographic interferometry with continuous wave (CW) laser is described and demonstrated experimentally, which employs delayed-time fibers and angular multiplexing technique and can realize the variable temporal resolution at nanosecond scale and different measured depths of object field at certain temporal resolution. The actual delay-time is controlled by two delayed-time fibers with different lengths. The object field information in two different states can be simultaneously recorded in a composite hologram. This scheme is also suitable for recording fast process at picosecond scale, by using an electro-optic modulator.

  15. Field test of an all-semiconductor laser-based coherent continuous-wave Doppler lidar for wind energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Dellwik, Ebba; Hu, Qi

    -produced all-semiconductor laser. The instrument is a coherent continuous-wave lidar with two fixed-focus telescopes for launching laser beams in two different directions. The alternation between the telescopes is achieved by a novel switching technique without any moving parts. Here, we report results from...... signal strength from external atmospheric parameters such as relative humidity and concentrations of atmospheric particles is discussed. This novel lidar instrument design seems to offer a promising low-cost alternative for prevision remote sensing of wind turbine inflow....

  16. High-power continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser operations of a Nd:GGG crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, L J; Tang, D Y; Xie, G Q; Dong, C M; Jia, Z T; Tao, X T

    2008-01-01

    We report on the continuous wave (CW) and passive Q-switching performance of a high-power diode-pumped Nd:GGG laser. A CW output power of 7.20 W was obtained under an absorbed pump power of 14.97 W, which gives a slop efficiency of 52.7%. With a Cr 4+ doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal as the saturable absorber, the shortest passively Q-switched pulse width, largest pulse energy, and highest peak power achieved were 7.7 ns, 126.25 μJ, and 15.5 kW, respectively

  17. Resonantly diode-pumped continuous-wave and Q-switched Er:YAG laser at 1645 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, N W H; Simakov, N; Hosken, D J; Munch, J; Ottaway, D J; Veitch, P J

    2010-06-21

    We describe an efficient Er:YAG laser that is resonantly pumped using continuous-wave (CW) laser diodes at 1470 nm. For CW lasing, it emits 6.1 W at 1645 nm with a slope efficiency of 36%, the highest efficiency reported for an Er:YAG laser that is pumped in this manner. In Q-switched operation, the laser produces diffraction-limited pulses with an average power of 2.5 W at 2 kHz PRF. To our knowledge this is the first Q-switched Er:YAG laser resonantly pumped by CW laser diodes.

  18. Detection of benzene and toluene gases using a midinfrared continuous-wave external cavity quantum cascade laser at atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydoryk, Ihor; Lim, Alan; Jäger, Wolfgang; Tulip, John; Parsons, Matthew T

    2010-02-20

    We demonstrate the application of a commercially available widely tunable continuous-wave external cavity quantum cascade laser as a spectroscopic source for the simultaneous detection of multiple gases. We measured broad absorption features of benzene and toluene between 1012 and 1063 cm(-1) (9.88 and 9.41 microm) at atmospheric pressure using an astigmatic Herriott multipass cell. Our results show experimental detection limits of 0.26 and 0.41 ppm for benzene and toluene, respectively, with a 100 m path length for these two gases.

  19. SiOx Ink-Repellent Layer Deposited by Radio Frequency (RF) Plasmas in Continuous Wave and Pulse Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiang; Fu Yabo; Pang Hua; Zhang Yuefei; Zhang Guangqiu

    2007-01-01

    Low surface energy layers, proposed application for non-water printing in computer to plate (CTP) technology, are deposited in both continuous wave and pulse radio frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as precursor. It is found that the plasma mode dominates the polymer growth rate and the surface composition. Derived from the spectra of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and combined with printable test it is concluded that concentration of Si in coatings plays an important role for the ink printability and the ink does not adhere on the surface with high silicon concentration

  20. Experimental and numerical investigation of shock wave propagation through complex geometry, gas continuous, two-phase media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James Chien-Chih [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The work presented here investigates the phenomenon of shock wave propagation in gas continuous, two-phase media. The motivation for this work stems from the need to understand blast venting consequences in the HYLIFE inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor. The HYLIFE concept utilizes lasers or heavy ion beams to rapidly heat and compress D-T targets injected into the center of a reactor chamber. A segmented blanket of failing molten lithium or Li2BeF4 (Flibe) jets encircles the reactors central cavity, shielding the reactor structure from radiation damage, absorbing the fusion energy, and breeding more tritium fuel.

  1. Experimental and numerical investigation of shock wave propagation through complex geometry, gas continuous, two-phase media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J. Chien-Chih

    1993-01-01

    The work presented here investigates the phenomenon of shock wave propagation in gas continuous, two-phase media. The motivation for this work stems from the need to understand blast venting consequences in the HYLIFE inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor. The HYLIFE concept utilizes lasers or heavy ion beams to rapidly heat and compress D-T targets injected into the center of a reactor chamber. A segmented blanket of failing molten lithium or Li 2 BeF 4 (Flibe) jets encircles the reactors central cavity, shielding the reactor structure from radiation damage, absorbing the fusion energy, and breeding more tritium fuel

  2. Optimizing microwave photodetection: input-output theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöndorf, M.; Govia, L. C. G.; Vavilov, M. G.; McDermott, R.; Wilhelm, F. K.

    2018-04-01

    High fidelity microwave photon counting is an important tool for various areas from background radiation analysis in astronomy to the implementation of circuit quantum electrodynamic architectures for the realization of a scalable quantum information processor. In this work we describe a microwave photon counter coupled to a semi-infinite transmission line. We employ input-output theory to examine a continuously driven transmission line as well as traveling photon wave packets. Using analytic and numerical methods, we calculate the conditions on the system parameters necessary to optimize measurement and achieve high detection efficiency. With this we can derive a general matching condition depending on the different system rates, under which the measurement process is optimal.

  3. Microwave Irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Way to Eco-friendly, Green Chemistry. Rashmi ... The rapid heating of food in the kitchen using microwave ovens ... analysis; application to waste treatment; polymer technology; ... of microwave heating in organic synthesis since the first contri-.

  4. Applications of continuity and discontinuity of a fractional derivative of the wave functions to fractional quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jianping; Xu Mingyu

    2008-01-01

    The space fractional Schroedinger equation with a finite square potential, periodic potential, and delta-function potential is studied in this paper. We find that the continuity or discontinuity condition of a fractional derivative of the wave functions should be considered to solve the fractional Schroedinger equation in fractional quantum mechanics. More parity states than those given by standard quantum mechanics for the finite square potential well are obtained. The corresponding energy equations are derived and then solved by graphical methods. We show the validity of Bloch's theorem and reveal the energy band structure for the periodic potential. The jump (discontinuity) condition for the fractional derivative of the wave function of the delta-function potential is given. With the help of the jump condition, we study some delta-function potential fields. For the delta-function potential well, an alternate expression of the wave function (the H function form of it was given by Dong and Xu [J. Math. Phys. 48, 072105 (2007)]) is obtained. The problems of a particle penetrating through a delta-function potential barrier and the fractional probability current density of the particle are also discussed. We study the Dirac comb and show the energy band structure at the end of the paper

  5. Separation of traveling and standing waves in a finite dispersive string with partial or continuous viscoelastic foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiangle; Blanchard, Antoine; Tan, Chin An; Lu, Huancai; Bergman, Lawrence A.; McFarland, D. Michael; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2017-12-01

    The free and forced vibrations of a linear string with a local spring-damper on a partial elastic foundation, as well as a linear string on a viscoelastic foundation conceptualized as a continuous distribution of springs and dampers, are studied in this paper. Exact, analytical results are obtained for the free and forced response to a harmonic excitation applied at one end of the string. Relations between mode complexity and energy confinement with the dispersion in the string system are examined for the steady-state forced vibration, and numerical methods are applied to simulate the transient evolution of energy propagation. Eigenvalue loci veering and normal mode localization are observed for weakly coupled subsystems, when the foundation stiffness is sufficiently large, for both the spatially symmetric and asymmetric systems. The forced vibration results show that nonproportional damping-induced mode complexity, for which there are co-existing regions of purely traveling waves and standing waves, is attainable for the dispersive string system. However, this wave transition phenomenon depends strongly on the location of the attached discrete spring-damper relative to the foundation and whether the excitation frequency Ω is above or below the cutoff frequency ωc. When Ωcontrol strategies.

  6. Hidden Markov model tracking of continuous gravitational waves from young supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Melatos, A.; Suvorova, S.; Moran, W.; Evans, R. J.

    2018-02-01

    Searches for persistent gravitational radiation from nonpulsating neutron stars in young supernova remnants are computationally challenging because of rapid stellar braking. We describe a practical, efficient, semicoherent search based on a hidden Markov model tracking scheme, solved by the Viterbi algorithm, combined with a maximum likelihood matched filter, the F statistic. The scheme is well suited to analyzing data from advanced detectors like the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO). It can track rapid phase evolution from secular stellar braking and stochastic timing noise torques simultaneously without searching second- and higher-order derivatives of the signal frequency, providing an economical alternative to stack-slide-based semicoherent algorithms. One implementation tracks the signal frequency alone. A second implementation tracks the signal frequency and its first time derivative. It improves the sensitivity by a factor of a few upon the first implementation, but the cost increases by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude.

  7. Continuous-wave dual-wavelength operation of a distributed feedback laser diode with an external cavity using a volume Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yujin; Sekine, Takashi; Kurita, Takashi; Kato, Yoshinori; Kawashima, Toshiyuki

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate continuous-wave dual-wavelength operation of a broad-area distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode with a single external-cavity configuration. This high-power DFB laser has a narrow bandwidth (current and temperature ranges.

  8. A Phase-Locked Loop Continuous Wave Sonic Anemometer-Thermometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling; Weller, F. W.; Busings, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    A continuous wake sonic anemometer-thermometer has been developed for simultaneous measurements of vertical velocity and temperature. The phase angle fluctuations are detected by means of a monolithic integrated phase-locked loop, the latter feature providing for inexpensive and accurate...

  9. Effect of temperature on electrical conductance of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle ink during continuous wave laser sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae-Geon; Kim, Dong Keun; Moon, Yoon-Jae; Moon, Seung-Jae

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effect of temperature on the specific electrical conductance of inkjet-printed ink during continuous wave laser sintering, the temperature of the sintered ink was estimated. The ink, which contained 34 wt.% silver nanoparticles with an average size of approximately 50 nm, was inkjet-printed onto a liquid crystal display glass substrate. The printed ink was irradiated with a 532 nm continuous wave laser for 60 s with various laser intensities. During laser irradiation, the in-situ electrical conductance of the sintered ink was measured to estimate the transient thermal conductivity of the ink. The electrical conductance and thermal conductivity of the ink was coupled to obtain the transient temperature by applying the Wiedemann–Franz law to a two-dimensional transient heat conduction equation. The electrical conductance of laser-sintered ink was highly dependent on the sintering temperature of the ink. - Highlights: • The in-situ electrical conductance was measured during the laser sintering process. • Wiedemann–Franz law coupled the electrical conductance with transient temperature. • The transient temperature of the laser-sintered Ag nanoparticle ink was estimated

  10. Comparison of time-resolved and continuous-wave near-infrared techniques for measuring cerebral blood flow in piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Mamadou; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Migueis, Mark; Lee, Ting-Yim; Lawrence, Keith St.

    2010-09-01

    A primary focus of neurointensive care is monitoring the injured brain to detect harmful events that can impair cerebral blood flow (CBF), resulting in further injury. Since current noninvasive methods used in the clinic can only assess blood flow indirectly, the goal of this research is to develop an optical technique for measuring absolute CBF. A time-resolved near-infrared (TR-NIR) apparatus is built and CBF is determined by a bolus-tracking method using indocyanine green as an intravascular flow tracer. As a first step in the validation of this technique, CBF is measured in newborn piglets to avoid signal contamination from extracerebral tissue. Measurements are acquired under three conditions: normocapnia, hypercapnia, and following carotid occlusion. For comparison, CBF is concurrently measured by a previously developed continuous-wave NIR method. A strong correlation between CBF measurements from the two techniques is revealed with a slope of 0.79+/-0.06, an intercept of -2.2+/-2.5 ml/100 g/min, and an R2 of 0.810+/-0.088. Results demonstrate that TR-NIR can measure CBF with reasonable accuracy and is sensitive to flow changes. The discrepancy between the two methods at higher CBF could be caused by differences in depth sensitivities between continuous-wave and time-resolved measurements.

  11. Continuous-wave to pulse regimes for a family of passively mode-locked lasers with saturable nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikandé, Alain M.; Voma Titafan, J.; Essimbi, B. Z.

    2017-10-01

    The transition dynamics from continuous-wave to pulse regimes of operation for a generic model of passively mode-locked lasers with saturable absorbers, characterized by an active medium with non-Kerr nonlinearity, are investigated analytically and numerically. The system is described by a complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with a general m:n saturable nonlinearity (i.e {I}m/{(1+{{Γ }}I)}n, where I is the field intensity and m and n are two positive numbers), coupled to a two-level gain equation. An analysis of stability of continuous waves, following the modulational instability approach, provides a global picture of the self-starting dynamics in the system. The analysis reveals two distinct routes depending on values of the couple (m, n), and on the dispersion regime: in the normal dispersion regime, when m = 2 and n is arbitrary, the self-starting requires positive values of the fast saturable absorber and nonlinearity coefficients, but negative values of these two parameters for the family with m = 0. However, when the spectral filter is negative, the laser can self-start for certain values of the input field and the nonlinearity saturation coefficient Γ. The present work provides a general map for the self-starting mechanisms of rare-earth doped figure-eight fiber lasers, as well as Kerr-lens mode-locked solid-state lasers.

  12. Nanoscale steady-state temperature gradients within polymer nanocomposites undergoing continuous-wave photothermal heating from gold nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Somsubhra; Wu, Wei-Chen; Tracy, Joseph B; Clarke, Laura I; Bochinski, Jason R

    2017-08-17

    Anisotropically-shaped metal nanoparticles act as nanoscale heaters via excitation of a localized surface plasmon resonance, utilizing a photothermal effect which converts the optical energy into local heat. Steady-state temperatures within a polymer matrix embedded with gold nanorods undergoing photothermal heating using continuous-wave excitation are measured in the immediate spatial vicinity of the nanoparticle (referred to as the local temperature) from observing the rate of physical rotation of the asymmetric nanoparticles within the locally created polymer melt. Average temperatures across the entire (mostly solid) sample (referred to as the global temperature) are simultaneously observed using a fluorescence method from randomly dispersed molecular emitters. Comparing these two independent measurements in films having varying concentrations of nanorods reveals the interplay between the local and global temperatures, clearly demonstrating the capability of these material samples to sustain large steady-state spatial temperature gradients when experiencing continuous-wave excitation photothermal heating. These results are discussed quantitatively. Illustrative imaging studies of nanofibers under photothermal heating also support the presence of a large temperature gradient. Photothermal heating in this manner has potential utility in creating unique thermal processing conditions for outcomes such as driving chemical reactions, inducing crystallinity changes, or enhancing degradation processes in a manner unachievable by conventional heating methods.

  13. Continuous wave superconducting radio frequency electron linac for nuclear physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, has been actively serving the nuclear physics research community as a unique forefront international resource since 1995. This cw electron linear accelerator (linac) at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) has continued to evolve as a precision tool for discerning the structure and dynamics within nuclei. Superconducting rf (SRF) technology has been the essential foundation for CEBAF, first as a 4 GeV machine, then 6 GeV, and currently capable of 12 GeV. Lastly, we review the development, implementation, and performance of SRF systems for CEBAF from its early beginnings to the commissioning of the 12 GeV era.

  14. Continuous wave superconducting radio frequency electron linac for nuclear physics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Reece

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, has been actively serving the nuclear physics research community as a unique forefront international resource since 1995. This cw electron linear accelerator (linac at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab has continued to evolve as a precision tool for discerning the structure and dynamics within nuclei. Superconducting rf (SRF technology has been the essential foundation for CEBAF, first as a 4 GeV machine, then 6 GeV, and currently capable of 12 GeV. We review the development, implementation, and performance of SRF systems for CEBAF from its early beginnings to the commissioning of the 12 GeV era.

  15. Development of an Internally-Calibrated Wide-Band Airborne Microwave Radiometer to Provide High-Resolution Wet-Tropospheric Path Delay Measurements for SWOT (HAMMR - High-frequency Airborne Microwave and Millimeter-wave Radiometer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Internally-Calibrated Wide-Band Airborne Microwave Radiometer to Provide High-Resolution Wet-Tropospheric Path Delay Measurements for SWOT (HAMMR -...

  16. Searching for Survivors through Random Human-Body Movement Outdoors by Continuous-Wave Radar Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuantao; Chen, Fuming; Qi, Fugui; Liu, Miao; Li, Zhao; Liang, Fulai; Jing, Xijing; Lu, Guohua; Wang, Jianqi

    2016-01-01

    It is a major challenge to search for survivors after chemical or nuclear leakage or explosions. At present, biological radar can be used to achieve this goal by detecting the survivor's respiration signal. However, owing to the random posture of an injured person at a rescue site, the radar wave may directly irradiate the person's head or feet, in which it is difficult to detect the respiration signal. This paper describes a multichannel-based antenna array technology, which forms an omnidirectional detection system via 24-GHz Doppler biological radar, to address the random positioning relative to the antenna of an object to be detected. Furthermore, since the survivors often have random body movement such as struggling and twitching, the slight movements of the body caused by breathing are obscured by these movements. Therefore, a method is proposed to identify random human-body movement by utilizing multichannel information to calculate the background variance of the environment in combination with a constant-false-alarm-rate detector. The conducted outdoor experiments indicate that the system can realize the omnidirectional detection of random human-body movement and distinguish body movement from environmental interference such as movement of leaves and grass. The methods proposed in this paper will be a promising way to search for survivors outdoors.

  17. Searching for Survivors through Random Human-Body Movement Outdoors by Continuous-Wave Radar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Li, Zhao; Liang, Fulai; Jing, Xijing; Lu, Guohua; Wang, Jianqi

    2016-01-01

    It is a major challenge to search for survivors after chemical or nuclear leakage or explosions. At present, biological radar can be used to achieve this goal by detecting the survivor’s respiration signal. However, owing to the random posture of an injured person at a rescue site, the radar wave may directly irradiate the person’s head or feet, in which it is difficult to detect the respiration signal. This paper describes a multichannel-based antenna array technology, which forms an omnidirectional detection system via 24-GHz Doppler biological radar, to address the random positioning relative to the antenna of an object to be detected. Furthermore, since the survivors often have random body movement such as struggling and twitching, the slight movements of the body caused by breathing are obscured by these movements. Therefore, a method is proposed to identify random human-body movement by utilizing multichannel information to calculate the background variance of the environment in combination with a constant-false-alarm-rate detector. The conducted outdoor experiments indicate that the system can realize the omnidirectional detection of random human-body movement and distinguish body movement from environmental interference such as movement of leaves and grass. The methods proposed in this paper will be a promising way to search for survivors outdoors. PMID:27073860

  18. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Remote Sensing for Security Applications. By Jeffrey A. Nanzer, Artech House, 2012; 372 pages. Price £109.00, ISBN 978-1-60807-172-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing techniques are fast becoming a necessity in many aspects of security as detection and classification of objects or intruders becomes more difficult. This groundbreaking resource offers you expert guidance in this burgeoning area. It provides you with a thorough treatment of the principles of microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing for security applications, as well as practical coverage of the design of radiometer, radar, and imaging systems. You learn how to design active and passive sensors for intruder detection, concealed object detection, and human activity classification. This detailed book presents the fundamental concepts practitioners need to understand, including electromagnetic wave propagation in free space and in media, antenna theory, and the principles of receiver design. You find in-depth discussions on the interactions of electromagnetic waves with human tissues, the atmosphere and various building and clothing materials. This timely volume explores recently developed detection techniques, such as micro-Doppler radar signatures and correlation radiometry. The book is supported with over 200 illustrations and 1,135 equations.

  19. Continuous control of light group velocity from subluminal to superluminal propagation with a standing-wave coupling field in a Rb vapor cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, In-Ho; Moon, Han Seb

    2011-01-01

    We present the continuous control of the light group velocity from subluminal to superluminal propagation with an on-resonant standing-wave coupling field in the 5S 1/2 -5P 1/2 transition of the Λ-type system of 87 Rb atoms. When a coupling field was changed from a traveling-wave to a standing-wave field by adjusting the power of a counterpropagating coupling field, the probe pulse propagation continuously transformed from subluminal propagation, due to electromagnetically induced transparency with the traveling-wave coupling field, to superluminal propagation, due to narrow enhanced absorption with the standing-wave coupling field. The group velocity of the probe pulse was measured to be approximately 0.004c to -0.002c as a function of the disparity between the powers of the copropagating and the counterpropagating coupling fields.

  20. Continuous-wave spatial quantum correlations of light induced by multiple scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Huck, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    and reflectance. Utilizing frequency-resolved quantum noise measurements, we observe that the strength of the spatial quantum correlation function can be controlled by changing the quantum state of an incident bright squeezed-light source. Our results are found to be in excellent agreement with the developed......We present theoretical and experimental results on spatial quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of nonclassical light. A continuous-mode quantum theory is derived that enables determining the spatial quantum correlation function from the fluctuations of the total transmittance...... theory and form a basis for future research on, e. g., quantum interference of multiple quantum states in a multiple scattering medium....

  1. Recent Advancements in Microwave Imaging Plasma Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.; Chang, C.C.; Deng, B.H.; Domier, C.W.; Donni, A.J.H.; Kawahata, K.; Liang, C.; Liang, X.P.; Lu, H.J.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Mase, A.; Matsuura, H.; Mazzucato, E.; Miura, A.; Mizuno, K.; Munsat, T.; Nagayama, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Pol, M.J. van de; Wang, J.; Xia, Z.G.; Zhang, W-K.

    2002-01-01

    Significant advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology over the past decade have enabled the development of a new generation of imaging diagnostics for current and envisioned magnetic fusion devices. Prominent among these are revolutionary microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI), microwave phase imaging interferometers, imaging microwave scattering and microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) systems for imaging electron temperature and electron density fluctuations (both turbulent and coherent) and profiles (including transport barriers) on toroidal devices such as tokamaks, spherical tori, and stellarators. The diagnostic technology is reviewed, and typical diagnostic systems are analyzed. Representative experimental results obtained with these novel diagnostic systems are also presented

  2. Evaluation of wind flow with a nacelle-mounted, continuous wave wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medley, John; Barker, Will; Harris, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Nacelle-mounted lidar is becoming widely recognized as a tool with potential for assessing power curves, understanding wind flow characteristics, and controlling turbines. As rotor diameters continue to increase, and the deployment of turbines in complex terrain becomes more widespread, knowledge...... mounted on the nacelle of a 550 kW turbine at the Risø campus of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Lidar measurements of wind speed and turbulence were compared against those made by anemometers on a high-quality traditional mast. Analysis showed excellent correlation between mast and Zeph...... that this is the first time that a commercially available nacelle-mounted lidar has been used to evaluate such rotor-equivalent power curves....

  3. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  4. Continuity and completeness in physical theory: Schroedinger's return to the wave interpretation of quantum mechanics in the 1950's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostino, S.

    1992-01-01

    In the 50s, Schroedinger proposed a new conception of a continuous theory of Quantum Mechanics, which remarkably modified his 1926 ideas on ondulatory mechanics. The lack of individuality of the atomic particles presented in the new statistics, and in Heisenberg's Indeterminacy Relations, was by him considered as an aspect of a more general crisis in the anthology itself of classical atomism. Unlike his 1926 ideas, he proposed now to represent the wave equation in an n-dimensional space and he considered second-quantization technique as the proper mathematical tool for his new physical conception. Although he accepted that space-time discontinuities and casual gaps may appear here and there on the observational level (e.g. in the Indeterminacy Relations), he was convinced that they could be made compatible with a continuous pure theory, provided one accepted a suitable conception of the theory's epistemiological status. For him, only a continuous theory satisfied the conditions for a complete theory. On these matters, he thought he was somehow orthodox to the ideas of Hertz and Boltzmann, which were also reflected in the teaching of Exner. (author). 69 refs

  5. Experimental study of turbulence on Tore Supra by plasma micro-waves interaction; Etude experimentale de la turbulence sur Tore Supra par interaction plasma micro-ondes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colas, L

    1996-09-23

    Internal small-scale magnetic turbulence is a serious candidate to explain the anomalous heat transport in tokamaks. This turbulence is badly known in the gradient region of large machines. In this work internal magnetic fluctuations are measured on Tore Supra with an original diagnostic : Cross Polarization Scattering (CPS). This experimental tool relies on the Eigenmode change of a probing polarised microwave beam scattered by magnetic fluctuations, close to a cut-off layer for the incident wave. In this work, the diagnostic is first qualified to assess its sensitivity to magnetic fluctuations, and the spatial localisation for its measurements. The magnetic fluctuation behaviour is then analysed over a wide range of plasma current, density and additional power, and interpreted with a simple 1-D scattering model. A scan of the plasma density or magnetic field is used to move the CPS measurement location from r/a = 0.3 to r/a = 0.75. A fluctuation radial profile is obtained by two means. In L-mode discharges, the relation between magnetic fluctuations, temperature profiles and local heat diffusivities is investigated. With all measurements, it is also possible to look for a local parameter correlated to the turbulence in a large domain of plasma conditions. The fluctuation-induced local heat diffusivity expected from the measured fluctuations is estimated using the non-collisional quasi-linear formula: X{sup mag}{sub e} = {pi}qRV{sub te}({delta}B / B){sup 2}. Both the absolute values and the parametric dependence of calculated X{sup mag}{sub e} are close to the electron thermal diffusivities Xe determined by transport analysis. In particular, a threshold is evidenced in the dependence of fluctuation-induced heat fluxes on local {nabla}T{sub e}, which is analogous to the critical gradient for measured heat fluxes. The experimental setup is also sensitive to the Thomson scattering of the probing wave by density fluctuations. Its measurements are analysed as the

  6. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of

  7. Comparing and Merging Observation Data from Ka-Band Cloud Radar, C-Band Frequency-Modulated Continuous Wave Radar and Ceilometer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment in South China was undertaken to improve understanding of cloud and precipitation properties. Measurements of the vertical structures of non-precipitating and precipitating clouds were obtained using passive and active remote sensing equipment: a Ka-band cloud radar (CR system, a C-band frequency modulated continuous wave vertical pointing radar (CVPR, a microwave radiometer and a laser ceilometer (CEIL. CR plays a key role in high-level cloud observation, whereas CVPR is important for observing low- and mid-level clouds and heavy precipitation. CEIL helps us diminish the effects of “clear-sky” in the planetary boundary layer. The experiment took place in Longmen, Guangdong Province, China from May to September of 2016. This study focuses on evaluating the ability of the two radars to deliver consistent observation data and develops an algorithm to merge the CR, CVPR and CEIL data. Cloud echo base, thickness, frequency of observed cloud types and reflectivity vertical distributions are analyzed in the radar data. Comparisons between the collocated data sets show that reflectivity biases between the CR three operating modes are less than 2 dB. The averaged difference between CR and CVPR reflectivity can be reduced with attenuation correction to 3.57 dB from the original 4.82 dB. No systemic biases were observed between velocity data collected in the three CR modes and CVPR. The corrected CR reflectivity and velocity data were then merged with the CVPR data and CEIL data to fill in the gaps during the heavy precipitation periods and reduce the effects of Bragg scattering and fog on cloud observations in the boundary layer. Meanwhile, the merging of velocity data with different Nyquist velocities and resolutions diminishes velocity folding to provide fine-grain information about cloud and precipitation dynamics. The three daily periods in which low-level clouds tended to occur were at sunrise, noon and sunset and large

  8. Quasi-periodic Schroedinger operators in one dimension, absolutely continuous spectra, Bloch waves, and integrable Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chierchia, L.

    1986-01-01

    In the first chapter, the eigenvalue problem for a periodic Schroedinger operator, Lf = (-d 2 /dx 2 + v)f = Ef, is viewed as a two-dimensional Hamiltonian system which is integrable in the sense of Arnold and Liouville. With the aid of the Floquet-BLoch theory, it is shown that such a system is conjugate to two harmonic oscillators with frequencies α and omega, being the rotation number for L and 2π/omega the period of the potential v. This picture is generalized in the second chapter, to quasi periodic Schroedinger operators, L/sub epsilon/, with highly irrational frequencies (omega 1 , ..., omega/sub d/), which are a small perturbation of periodic operators. In the last chapter, the absolutely continuous spectrum σ/sub ac/ of a general quasi-periodic Schroedinger operators is considered. The Radon-Nikodym derivatives (with respect to Lebesgue measure) of the spectral measures are computed in terms of special independent eigensolutions existing for almost ever E in σ/sub ac/. Finally, it is shown that weak Bloch waves always exist for almost ever E in σ/sub ac/ and the question of the existence of genuine Bloch waves is turned into a regularity problem for a certain nonlinear partial differential equation on a d-dimensional torus

  9. Crystal growth, spectroscopic characterization, and continuous wave laser operation of Nd3+-doped LiLuF4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C. C.; Hang, Y.; Zhang, L. H.; He, X. M.; Yin, J. G.; Li, R.; Yu, T.; Chen, W. B.

    2011-04-01

    Nd3+-doped LiLuF4 single crystal with high optical quality was grown by Czochralski technique. The segregation coefficient of Nd3+ in LiLuF4 crystal was determined by the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry method. Polarized absorption and fluorescence spectra were investigated. The peak absorption cross section at 792 nm and peak emission cross section at 1053 nm are 6.94×10-20 and 7.60×10-20 cm2, respectively. With a laser-diode as the pump source, a maximum 6.22 W continuous-wave laser output at 1053 nm has been obtained with a slope efficiency of 37.2% with respect to the pump power.

  10. Characterization of wind velocities in the upstream induction zone of a wind turbine using scanning continuous-wave lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simley, Eric; Angelou, Nikolas; Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh

    2016-01-01

    As a wind turbine generates power, induced velocities, lower than the freestream velocity, will be present upstream of the turbine due to perturbation of the flow by the rotor. In this study, the upstream induction zone of a 225kW horizontal axis Vestas V27 wind turbine located at the Danish...... Technical University’s Risø campus is investigated using a scanning Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) system. Three short-range continuous-wave “WindScanner” lidars are positioned in the field around the V27 turbine allowing detection of all three components of the wind velocity vectors within...... the induction zone. The time-averaged mean wind speeds at different locations in the upstream induction zone are measured by scanning a horizontal plane at hub height and a vertical plane centered at the middle of the rotor extending roughly 1.5 rotor diameters (D) upstream of the rotor. Turbulence statistics...

  11. Diode-side-pumped continuous wave Nd³⁺ : YVO₄ self-Raman laser at 1176 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kores, Cristine Calil; Jakutis-Neto, Jonas; Geskus, Dimitri; Pask, Helen M; Wetter, Niklaus U

    2015-08-01

    Here we report, to the best of our knowledge, the first diode-side-pumped continuous wave (cw) Nd3+:YVO4 self-Raman laser operating at 1176 nm. The compact cavity design is based on the total internal reflection of the laser beam at the pumped side of the Nd3+:YVO4 crystal. Configurations with a single bounce and a double bounce of the laser beam at the pumped faced have been characterized, providing a quasi-cw peak output power of more than 8 W (multimode) with an optical conversion efficiency of 11.5% and 3.7 W (TEM00) having an optical conversion efficiency of 5.4%, respectively. Cw output power of 1.8 W has been demonstrated.

  12. High power diode-pumped continuous wave and Q-switch operation of Tm,Ho:YVO4 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, B Q; Li, G; Meng, P B; Zhu, G L; Ju, Y L; Wang, Y Z

    2010-01-01

    High power diode-pumped continuous wave (CW) and Q-switch operation of Tm,Ho:YVO 4 laser is reported. Using two Tm,Ho:YVO 4 rods in a single cavity, up to 20.2 W of CW output lasing at 2054.7 nm was obtained under cryogenic temperature of 77 K with an optical to optical conversion efficiency of 32.9%. For Q-switch operation, up to 19.4 W of output was obtained under 15 kHz pulse repetition frequency (PRF) with a minimum pulse width of 24.2 ns. In addition, different pulse repetition frequencies of Q-switch operation with 10.0 kHz, 12.5 kHz and 15.0 kHz were investigated comparatively

  13. Efficient continuous-wave eye-safe region signal output from intra-cavity singly resonant optical parametric oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bin; Ding Xin; Sheng Quan; Yin Su-Jia; Shi Chun-Peng; Li Xue; Wen Wu-Qi; Yao Jian-Quan; Yu Xuan-Yi

    2012-01-01

    We report an efficient continuous-wave (CW) tunable intra-cavity singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on the multi-period periodically poled lithium niobate and using a laser diode (LD) end-pumped CW 1064 nm Nd:YVO 4 laser as the pump source. A highly efficiency CW operation is realized through a careful cavity design for mode matching and thermal stability. The signal tuning range is 1401–1500 nm obtained by varying the domain period. The maximum output power of 2.2 W at 1500 nm is obtained with a 17.1 W 808 nm LD power and the corresponding conversion efficiency is 12.9%. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  14. Contrast improvement of continuous wave diffuse optical tomography reconstruction by hybrid approach using least square and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Rusha; Dutta, Pranab K.

    2015-07-01

    Reconstruction of the absorption coefficient of tissue with good contrast is of key importance in functional diffuse optical imaging. A hybrid approach using model-based iterative image reconstruction and a genetic algorithm is proposed to enhance the contrast of the reconstructed image. The proposed method yields an observed contrast of 98.4%, mean square error of 0.638×10-3, and object centroid error of (0.001 to 0.22) mm. Experimental validation of the proposed method has also been provided with tissue-like phantoms which shows a significant improvement in image quality and thus establishes the potential of the method for functional diffuse optical tomography reconstruction with continuous wave setup. A case study of finger joint imaging is illustrated as well to show the prospect of the proposed method in clinical diagnosis. The method can also be applied to the concentration measurement of a region of interest in a turbid medium.

  15. Coherent search of continuous gravitational wave signals: extension of the 5-vectors method to a network of detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astone, P; Colla, A; Frasca, S; Palomba, C; D'Antonio, S

    2012-01-01

    We describe the extension to multiple datasets of a coherent method for the search of continuous gravitational wave signals, based on the computation of 5-vectors. In particular, we show how to coherently combine different datasets belonging to the same detector or to different detectors. In the latter case the coherent combination is the way to have the maximum increase in signal-to-noise ratio. If the datasets belong to the same detector the advantage comes mainly from the properties of a quantity called coherence which is helpful (in both cases, in fact) in rejecting false candidates. The method has been tested searching for simulated signals injected in Gaussian noise and the results of the simulations are discussed.

  16. Effects of respiration depth on human body radar cross section Using 2.4GHz continuous wave radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alexander; Xiaomeng Gao; Jia Xu; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2017-07-01

    In this study, it was tested whether deep and shallow breathing has an effect on the cardiopulmonary radar cross-section (RCS). Continuous wave radar with quadrature architecture at 2.4GHz was used to test 2 human subjects breathing deep and shallow for 30 seconds each while seated 2 meters away from the radar. A retro-reflective marker was placed on the sternum of each subject and measured by infrared motion capture cameras to accurately track displacement of the chest. The quadrature radar outputs were processed to find the radius of the arc on the IQ plot using a circle-fitting algorithm. Results showed that the effective RCS ratio of deep to shallow breathing for subjects 1 and 2 was 6.99 and 2.24 respectively.

  17. End-pumped continuous-wave intracavity yellow Raman laser at 590 nm with SrWO4 Raman crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F. G.; You, Z. Y.; Zhu, Z. J.; Wang, Y.; Li, J. F.; Tu, C. Y.

    2010-01-01

    We present an end-pumped continuous-wave intra-cavity yellow Raman laser at 590 nm with a 60 mm long pure crystal SrWO4 and an intra-cavity LiB3O5 frequency doubling crystal. The highest output power of yellow laser at 590 nm was 230 mW and the output power and threshold were found to be correlative with the polarized directions of pure single crystal SrWO4 deeply. Along different directions, the minimum and maximum thresholds of yellow Raman laser at 590 nm were measured to be 2.8 W and 14.3 W with respect to 808 nm LD pump power, respectively.

  18. End-pumped continuous-wave intracavity yellow Raman laser at 590 nm with SrWO4 Raman crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, F G; You, Z Y; Zhu, Z J; Wang, Y; Li, J F; Tu, C Y

    2010-01-01

    We present an end-pumped continuous-wave intra-cavity yellow Raman laser at 590 nm with a 60 mm long pure crystal SrWO 4 and an intra-cavity LiB 3 O 5 frequency doubling crystal. The highest output power of yellow laser at 590 nm was 230 mW and the output power and threshold were found to be correlative with the polarized directions of pure single crystal SrWO 4 deeply. Along different directions, the minimum and maximum thresholds of yellow Raman laser at 590 nm were measured to be 2.8 W and 14.3 W with respect to 808 nm LD pump power, respectively

  19. Design of neutron beams at the Argonne Continuous Wave Linac (ACWL) for boron neutron capture therapy and neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.L.; McMichael, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron beams are designed for capture therapy based on p-Li and p-Sc reactions using the Argonne Continuous Wave Linac (ACWL). The p-Li beam will provide a 2.5 x 10 9 n/cm 2 s epithermal flux with 7 x 10 5 γ/cm 2 s contamination. On a human brain phantom, this beam allows an advantage depth (AD) of 10 cm, an advantage depth dose rate (ADDR) of 78 cGy/min and an advantage ratio (AR) of 3.2. The p-Sc beam offers 5.9 x 10 7 n/cm 2 s and a dose performance of AD = 8 cm and AR = 3.5, suggesting the potential of near-threshold (p,n) reactions such as the p-Li reaction at E p = 1.92 MeV. A thermal radiography beam could also be obtained from ACWL

  20. Theoretical and experimental signal-to-noise ratio assessment in new direction sensing continuous-wave Doppler lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Foroughi Abari, Farzad; Mann, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    A new direction sensing continuous-wave Doppler lidar based on an image-reject homodyne receiver has recently been demonstrated at DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark. In this contribution we analyse the signal-to-noise ratio resulting from two different data processing methods both...... leading to the direction sensing capability. It is found that using the auto spectrum of the complex signal to determine the wind speed leads to a signal-to-noise ratio equivalent to that of a standard self-heterodyne receiver. Using the imaginary part of the cross spectrum to estimate the Doppler shift...... has the benefit of a zero-mean background spectrum, but comes at the expense of a decrease in the signal-to noise ratio by a factor of √2....

  1. Efficiency of different methods of extra-cavity second harmonic generation of continuous wave single-frequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khripunov, Sergey; Kobtsev, Sergey; Radnatarov, Daba

    2016-01-20

    This work presents for the first time to the best of our knowledge a comparative efficiency analysis among various techniques of extra-cavity second harmonic generation (SHG) of continuous-wave single-frequency radiation in nonperiodically poled nonlinear crystals within a broad range of power levels. Efficiency of nonlinear radiation transformation at powers from 1 W to 10 kW was studied in three different configurations: with an external power-enhancement cavity and without the cavity in the case of single and double radiation pass through a nonlinear crystal. It is demonstrated that at power levels exceeding 1 kW, the efficiencies of methods with and without external power-enhancement cavities become comparable, whereas at even higher powers, SHG by a single or double pass through a nonlinear crystal becomes preferable because of the relatively high efficiency of nonlinear transformation and fairly simple implementation.

  2. Frequency comb generation by a continuous-wave-pumped optical parametric oscillator based on cascading quadratic nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvila, Ville; Phillips, C R; Halonen, Lauri; Vainio, Markku

    2013-11-01

    We report optical frequency comb generation by a continuous-wave pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) without any active modulation. The OPO is configured as singly resonant with an additional nonlinear crystal (periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3) placed inside the OPO for phase mismatched second harmonic generation (SHG) of the resonating signal beam. The phase mismatched SHG causes cascading χ(2) nonlinearities, which can substantially increase the effective χ(3) nonlinearity in MgO:LiNbO3, leading to spectral broadening of the OPO signal beam via self-phase modulation. The OPO generates a stable 4 THz wide (-30 dB) frequency comb centered at 1.56 μm.

  3. Continuous-wave, single-frequency 229  nm laser source for laser cooling of cadmium atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Yushi; Yarborough, J M; Merzlyak, Yevgeny; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Hayashida, Keitaro; Ohmae, Noriaki; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2016-02-15

    Continuous-wave output at 229 nm for the application of laser cooling of Cd atoms was generated by the fourth harmonic using two successive second-harmonic generation stages. Employing a single-frequency optically pumped semiconductor laser as a fundamental source, 0.56 W of output at 229 nm was observed with a 10-mm long, Brewster-cut BBO crystal in an external cavity with 1.62 W of 458 nm input. Conversion efficiency from 458 nm to 229 nm was more than 34%. By applying a tapered amplifier (TA) as a fundamental source, we demonstrated magneto-optical trapping of all stable Cd isotopes including isotopes Cd111 and Cd113, which are applicable to optical lattice clocks.

  4. Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sabry Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on nonlinear frequency conversion from the telecom range via second harmonic generation (SHG and third harmonic generation (THG in suspended gallium nitride slab photonic crystal (PhC cavities on silicon, under continuous-wave resonant excitation. Optimized two-dimensional PhC cavities with augmented far-field coupling have been characterized with quality factors as high as 4.4 × 104, approaching the computed theoretical values. The strong enhancement in light confinement has enabled efficient SHG, achieving a normalized conversion efficiency of 2.4 × 10−3 W−1, as well as simultaneous THG. SHG emission power of up to 0.74 nW has been detected without saturation. The results herein validate the suitability of gallium nitride for integrated nonlinear optical processing.

  5. Efficient continuous-wave 1112 nm Nd:YAG laser operation under direct diode pumping at 885 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, J; Dai, X J; Zhang, L; Wu, X D

    2013-01-01

    We report compact diode-end-pumped continuous-wave laser operation at 1112 nm under 885 nm diode-direct pumping for the first time. On the basis of the R 2 →Y 6 transition in a conventional Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) single crystal, the maximum output power of 12.5 W is achieved, with an optical to optical efficiency of 46.6% and a slope efficiency of 52.9%. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest output at 1112 nm generated by a diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG laser. Furthermore, it is the highest optical to optical efficiency ever reported for 1112 nm Nd:YAG lasers. The short term power stability is ∼0.32% at 12.0 W output. (letter)

  6. Continuous-wave generation and tunability of eye-safe resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němec, Michal; Indra, Lukás.; Šulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena

    2016-03-01

    Laser sources generating radiation in the spectral range from 1.5 to 1.7 μm are very attractive for many applications such as satellite communication, range finding, spectroscopy, and atmospheric sensing. The goal of our research was an investigation of continuous-wave generation and wavelength tuning possibility of diode pumped eye-safe Er:YAG laser emitting radiation around 1645 nm. We used two 0.5 at. % doped Er:YAG active media with lengths of 10 mm and 25 mm (diameter 5 mm). As a pumping source, a fibre-coupled 1452 nm laser-diode was utilized, which giving possibility of the in-band pumping with a small quantum defect and low thermal stress of the active bulk laser material. The 150 mm long resonator was formed by a pump mirror (HT @ 1450 nm, HR @ 1610 - 1660 nm) and output coupler with 96 % reflectivity at 1610 - 1660 nm. For continuous-wave generation, the maximal output powers were 0.7 W and 1 W for 10 mm and 25 mm long laser crystals, respectively. The corresponding slope efficiencies with respect to absorbed pump power for these Er:YAG lasers were 26.5 % and 37.8 %, respectively. The beam spatial structure was close to the fundamental Gaussian mode. A wavelength tunability was realized by a birefringent plate and four local spectral maxima at 1616, 1633, 1645, and 1657 nm were reached. The output characteristics of the designed and realized resonantly diode-pumped eye-safe Er:YAG laser show that this compact system has a potential for usage mainly in spectroscopic fields.

  7. Comparison of the neuroinflammatory responses to selective retina therapy and continuous-wave laser photocoagulation in mouse eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung Woo; Choi, Juhye; Kim, Young Shin; Kim, Jina; Brinkmann, Ralf; Lyu, Jungmook; Park, Tae Kwann

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated microglia and inflammatory cell responses after selective retina therapy (SRT) with microsecond-pulsed laser in comparison to continuous-wave laser photocoagulation (cwPC). Healthy C57BL/6 J mice were treated with either a train of short pulses (SRT; 527-nm, Q-switched, 1.7-μs pulse) or a conventional thermal continuous-wave (532-nm, 100-ms pulse duration) laser. The mice were sacrificed and their eyes were enucleated 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after both laser treatments. Pattern of cell death on retinal section was evaluated by TUNEL assay, and the distribution of activated inflammatory cells and glial cells were observed under immunohistochemistry. Consecutive changes for the expression of cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and TGF-β were also examined using immunohistochemistry, and compared among each period after quantification by Western blotting. The numbers of TUNEL-positive cells in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer did not differ in SRT and cwPC lesions, but TUNEL-positive cells in neural retinas were significantly less on SRT. Vague glial cell activation was observed in SRT-treated lesions. The population of inflammatory cells was also significantly decreased after SRT, and the cells were located in the RPE layer and subretinal space. Proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β and TNF-α, showed significantly lower levels after SRT; conversely, the level of TGF-β was similar to the cwPC-treated lesion. SRT resulted in selective RPE damage without collateral thermal injury to the neural retina, and apparently produced negligible glial activation. In addition, SRT showed a markedly less inflammatory response than cwPC, which may have important therapeutic implications for several macular diseases.

  8. Microwave undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, K.

    1986-03-01

    The theory of a microwave undulator utilizing a plane rectangular waveguide operating in the TE/sub 10n/ mode and other higher order modes is presented. Based on this, a possible undulator configuration is analyzed, leading to the conclusion that the microwave undulator represents a viable option for undulator wavelength down to about 1 cm where peak voltage and available microwave power considerations limit effectiveness. 4 refs., 4 figs

  9. Mathematical modeling and Monte Carlo simulation of thermal inactivation of non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum spores during continuous microwave-assisted pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical method to simulate the internal temperature history of products processed in a prototype microwave-assisted pasteurization system (MAPS) developed by Washington State University. Two products (10 oz. beef meatball trays and 16 oz. salmon fill...

  10. Cost analysis on a continuously operated fine chemicals production plant at 10 kg/day using a combination of microprocessing and microwave heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benaskar, F.; Ben-Abdelmoumen, A.; Patil, N.G.; Rebrov, E.; Meuldijk, J.; Hessel, V.; Hulshof, L.A.; Krtschil, U.; Schouten, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    An extended cost study consisting of 14 process scenarios was carried out to envisage the cost impact of microprocessing and microwaves separately or in combination for two liquid-phase model reactions in fine-chemicals synthesis: (1) Ullmann C–O cross-coupling reaction and (2) the aspirin

  11. Microwave Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Makes ultra-high-resolution field measurements. The Microwave Microscope (MWM) has been used in support of several NRL experimental programs involving sea...

  12. A continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator around 5-μm wavelength for high-resolution spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, J; Klemann, A; Gottbehüt, I; Thorwirth, S; Giesen, T F; Schlemmer, S

    2011-06-01

    We present a continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator (OPO) capable of high resolution spectroscopy at wavelengths between 4.8 μm and 5.4 μm. It is based on periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) and is singly resonant for the signal radiation around 1.35 μm. Because of the strong absorption of PPLN at wavelengths longer than 4.5 μm, the OPO threshold rises to the scale of several watts, while it produces idler powers of more than 1 mW and offers continuous tuning over 15 GHz. A supersonic jet spectrometer is used in combination with the OPO to perform measurements of the transient linear molecule Si(2)C(3) at 1968.2 cm(-1). Fifty rovibrational transition frequencies of the ν(3) antisymmetric stretching mode have been determined with an accuracy on the order of 10(-4) cm(-1), and molecular parameters for the ground and the v(3) = 1 state have been determined most precisely. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  13. Experimental and numerical investigation of shock wave propagation through complex geometry, gas continuous, two-phase media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien-Chih Liu, James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The work presented here investigates the phenomenon of shock wave propagation in gas continuous, two-phase media. The motivation for this work stems from the need to understand blast venting consequences in the HYLIFE inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor. The HYLIFE concept utilizes lasers or heavy ion beams to rapidly heat and compress D-T targets injected into the center of a reactor chamber. A segmented blanket of falling molten lithium or Li2BeF4 (Flibe) jets encircles the reactor`s central cavity, shielding the reactor structure from radiation damage, absorbing the fusion energy, and breeding more tritium fuel. X-rays from the fusion microexplosion will ablate a thin layer of blanket material from the surfaces which face toward the fusion site. This generates a highly energetic vapor, which mostly coalesces in the central cavity. The blast expansion from the central cavity generates a shock which propagates through the segmented blanket - a complex geometry, gas-continuous two-phase medium. The impulse that the blast gives to the liquid as it vents past, the gas shock on the chamber wall, and ultimately the liquid impact on the wall are all important quantities to the HYLIFE structural designers.

  14. High-power, continuous-wave, solid-state, single-frequency, tunable source for the ultraviolet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadhi, A; Apurv Chaitanya, N; Singh, R P; Samanta, G K

    2014-06-15

    We report the development of a compact, high-power, continuous-wave, single-frequency, ultraviolet (UV) source with extended wavelength tunability. The device is based on single-pass, intracavity, second-harmonic-generation (SHG) of the signal radiation of a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) working in the visible and near-IR wavelength range. The SRO is pumped in the green with a 25-mm-long, multigrating, MgO doped periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate (MgO:sPPLT) as nonlinear crystal. Using three grating periods, 8.5, 9.0, and 9.5 μm of the MgO:sPPLT crystal and a single set of cavity mirrors, the SRO can be tuned continuously across 710.7-836.3 nm in the signal and corresponding idler across 2115.8-1462.1 nm with maximum idler power of 1.9 W and maximum out-coupled signal power of 254 mW. By frequency-doubling the intracavity signal with a 5-mm-long bismuth borate (BIBO) crystal, we can further tune the SRO continuously over 62.8 nm across 355.4-418.2 nm in the UV with maximum single-frequency UV power, as much as 770 mW at 398.28 nm in a Gaussian beam profile. The UV radiation has an instantaneous line-width of ∼14.5  MHz and peak-peak frequency stability of 151 MHz over 100 s. More than 95% of the tuning range provides UV power >260  mW. Access to lower UV wavelengths can in principle be realized by operating the SRO in the visible using shorter grating periods.

  15. Epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-waves during sleep: the need for transition from childhood to adulthood medical care appears to be related to etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint-Martin, Anne; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Seegmuller, Caroline; Valenti-Hirsch, Maria Paola; Hirsch, Edouard

    2014-08-01

    Epileptic encephalopathy with continuous diffuse spike-waves during slow-wave sleep (ECSWS) presents clinically with infrequent nocturnal focal seizures, atypical absences related to secondary bilateral synchrony, negative myoclonia, and atonic and rare generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The unique electroencephalography (EEG) pattern found in ECSWS consists of continuous, diffuse, bilateral spike-waves during slow-wave sleep. Despite the eventual disappearance of clinical seizures and EEG abnormalities by adolescence, the prognosis is guarded in most cases because of neuropsychological and behavioral deficits. ECSWS has a heterogeneous etiology (genetic, structural, and unknown). Because epilepsy and electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities in epileptic encephalopathy with continuous diffuse spike-waves during slow-wave sleep (ECSWS) are self-limited and age related, the need for ongoing medical care and transition to adult care might be questioned. For adolescents in whom etiology remains unknown (possibly genetic) and who experience the disappearance of seizures and EEG abnormalities, there is rarely need for long-term neurologic follow-up, because often a relatively normal cognitive and social evolution follows. However, the majority of patients with structural and possibly "genetic syndromic" etiologies will have persistent cognitive deficits and will need suitable socioeducative care. Therefore, the transition process in ECSWS will depend mainly on etiology and its related features (epileptic active phase duration, and cognitive and behavioral evolution) and revolve around neuropsychological and social support rather than medical and pharmacologic follow-up. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  16. Resonant freak microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, F.M. de

    2011-01-01

    The Helmholtz equation describing transverse magnetic modes in a closed flat microwave resonator with 60 randomly distributed discs is numerically solved. At lower frequencies, the calculated wave intensity spatially distributed obeys the universal Porter-Thomas form if localized modes are excluded. A superposition of resonant modes is shown to lead to rare events of extreme intensities (freak waves) at localized 'hot spots'. The temporally distributed intensity of such a superposition at the center of a hot spot also follows the Porter-Thomas form. Branched modes are found at higher frequencies. The results bear resemblance to recent experiments reported in an open cavity.

  17. Continuous-Wave Operation of a Frequency-Tunable 460-GHz Second-Harmonic Gyrotron for Enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrezan, Antonio C.; Han, Seong-Tae; Mastovsky, Ivan; Shapiro, Michael A.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; Temkin, Richard J.; Griffin, Robert G.; Barnes, Alexander B.

    2012-01-01

    The design, operation, and characterization of a continuous-wave (CW) tunable second-harmonic 460-GHz gyrotron are reported. The gyrotron is intended to be used as a submillimeter-wave source for 700-MHz nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with sensitivity enhanced by dynamic nuclear polarization. The gyrotron operates in the whispering-gallery mode TE11,2 and has generated 16 W of output power with a 13-kV 100-mA electron beam. The start oscillation current measured over a range of magnetic field values is in good agreement with theoretical start currents obtained from linear theory for successive high-order axial modes TE11,2,q. The minimum start current is 27 mA. Power and frequency tuning measurements as a function of the electron cyclotron frequency have also been carried out. A smooth frequency tuning range of 1 GHz was obtained for the operating second-harmonic mode either by magnetic field tuning or beam voltage tuning. Long-term CW operation was evaluated during an uninterrupted period of 48 h, where the gyrotron output power and frequency were kept stable to within ±0.7% and ±6 ppm, respectively, by a computerized control system. Proper operation of an internal quasi-optical mode converter implemented to transform the operating whispering-gallery mode to a Gaussian-like beam was also verified. Based on the images of the gyrotron output beam taken with a pyroelectric camera, the Gaussian-like mode content of the output beam was computed to be 92% with an ellipticity of 12%. PMID:23761938

  18. Microwave pulse generation by photoconductive switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocha, M.D.; Druce, R.L.

    1989-03-14

    Laser activated photoconductive semiconductor switching shows significant potential for application in high power microwave generation. Primary advantages of this concept are: small size, light weight, ruggedness, precise timing and phasing by optical control, and the potential for high peak power in short pulses. Several concepts have been suggested for microwave generation using this technology. They generally fall into two categories (1) the frozen wave generator or (2) tuned cavity modulation, both of which require only fast closing switches. We have been exploring a third possibility requiring fast closing and opening switches, that is the direct modulation of the switch at microwave frequencies. Switches have been fabricated at LLNL using neutron irradiated Gallium Arsenide which exhibit response times as short as 50 ps at low voltages. We are in the process of performing high voltage tests. So far, we have been able to generate 2.4 kV pulses with approximately 340 ps response time (FWHM) using approximately a 200..mu..J optical pulse. Experiments are continuing to increase the voltage and improve the switching efficiency. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Microwave pulse generation by photoconductive switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocha, M. D.; Druce, R. L.

    1989-03-01

    Laser activated photoconductive semiconductor switching shows significant potential for application in high power microwave generation. Primary advantages of this concept are: small size, light weight, ruggedness, precise timing and phasing by optical control, and the potential for high peak power in short pulses. Several concepts have been suggested for microwave generation using this technology. They generally fall into two categories: (1) the frozen wave generator, or (2) tuned cavity modulation, both of which require only fast closing switches. We have been exploring a third possibility requiring fast closing and opening switches, that is the direct modulation of the switch at microwave frequencies. Switches have been fabricated at LLNL using neutron irradiated Gallium Arsenide which exhibit response times as short as 50 ps at low voltages. We are in the process of performing high voltage tests. So far, we have been able to generate 2.4 kV pulses with approximately 340 ps response time (FWHM) using approximately a 200 microJ optical pulse. Experiments are continuing to increase the voltage and improve the switching efficiency.

  20. Comparison of therapeutic effects between pulsed and continuous wave 810-nm wavelength laser irradiation for traumatic brain injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ando

    Full Text Available Transcranial low-level laser therapy (LLLT using near-infrared light can efficiently penetrate through the scalp and skull and could allow non-invasive treatment for traumatic brain injury (TBI. In the present study, we compared the therapeutic effect using 810-nm wavelength laser light in continuous and pulsed wave modes in a mouse model of TBI.TBI was induced by a controlled cortical-impact device and 4-hours post-TBI 1-group received a sham treatment and 3-groups received a single exposure to transcranial LLLT, either continuous wave or pulsed at 10-Hz or 100-Hz with a 50% duty cycle. An 810-nm Ga-Al-As diode laser delivered a spot with diameter of 1-cm onto the injured head with a power density of 50-mW/cm(2 for 12-minutes giving a fluence of 36-J/cm(2. Neurological severity score (NSS and body weight were measured up to 4 weeks. Mice were sacrificed at 2, 15 and 28 days post-TBI and the lesion size was histologically analyzed. The quantity of ATP production in the brain tissue was determined immediately after laser irradiation. We examined the role of LLLT on the psychological state of the mice at 1 day and 4 weeks after TBI using tail suspension test and forced swim test.The 810-nm laser pulsed at 10-Hz was the most effective judged by improvement in NSS and body weight although the other laser regimens were also effective. The brain lesion volume of mice treated with 10-Hz pulsed-laser irradiation was significantly lower than control group at 15-days and 4-weeks post-TBI. Moreover, we found an antidepressant effect of LLLT at 4-weeks as shown by forced swim and tail suspension tests.The therapeutic effect of LLLT for TBI with an 810-nm laser was more effective at 10-Hz pulse frequency than at CW and 100-Hz. This finding may provide a new insight into biological mechanisms of LLLT.

  1. A Synthesizable Multicore Platform for Microwave Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleuniger, Pascal; Karlsson, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Active microwave imaging techniques such as radar and tomography are used in a wide range of medical, industrial, scientific, and military applications. Microwave imaging devices emit radio waves and process their reflections to reconstruct an image. However, data processing remains a challenge...

  2. Tunable Water-based Microwave Metasurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapitanova, Polina; Odit, Mikhail; Dobrykh, Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    A water-based dynamically tunable microwave metasurface is developed and experimentally investigated. A simple approach to tune the metasurface properties by changing the shape of water-based unit cells by gravitation force is proposed. The transmission spectra of the metasurface for linear...... angle. The proposed approach can be used to design cheap metasurfaces for electromagnetic wave control in the microwave frequency range....

  3. Highly Efficient Optical Pumping of Spin Defects in Silicon Carbide for Stimulated Microwave Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M.; Sperlich, A.; Kraus, H.; Ohshima, T.; Astakhov, G. V.; Dyakonov, V.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the pump efficiency of silicon-vacancy-related spins in silicon carbide. For a crystal inserted into a microwave cavity with a resonance frequency of 9.4 GHz, the spin population inversion factor of 75 with the saturation optical pump power of about 350 mW is achieved at room temperature. At cryogenic temperature, the pump efficiency drastically increases, owing to an exceptionally long spin-lattice relaxation time exceeding one minute. Based on the experimental results, we find realistic conditions under which a silicon carbide maser can operate in continuous-wave mode and serve as a quantum microwave amplifier.

  4. The review of CAD for simulation of microwave devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drach V.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available the article is devoted to a brief review of modern CAD for electromagnetic modeling of microwave devices. Five major CAD systems are described in the article: FEKO, μWave Wizard, Sonnet, AWR Microwave Office, HFSS. The main methods are given for each CAD system used for simulation of microwave structures and the main advantages that distinguish its use.

  5. Continuous wave and tunable laser operation of Yb3+ in disordered NaLa(MoO4)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, M.; Liu, J.; Cano-Torres, J. M.; García-Cortés, A.; Cascales, C.; Zaldo, C.; Griebner, U.; Petrov, V.

    2005-09-01

    Continuous-wave Yb3+ laser operation is studied in single crystals of disordered NaLa(MoO4)2 at room temperature. The sample used was grown by the Czochralski technique and incorporates an Yb ion density of 3.1×1020 cm-3. The effect of the Yb concentration on some of the crystal properties is described as well as the spectroscopic Yb3+ properties at 5 K. Maximum slope efficiencies of about 40% for π and 38% for σ polarization were obtained under Ti:sapphire laser pumping near 976 nm, respectively. The maximum output power for the π polarization was 400 mW at 1039.5 nm, the threshold in this case amounted to 240 mW (absorbed pump power). The laser emission was tunable between 1016 and 1064 nm with a Lyot filter. Lasing was also realized by pumping with a fiber-coupled diode laser module. Maximum output power of 900 mW at 1035 nm was achieved in this case for the π polarization and the threshold was 280 mW. The results, in terms of output power and tunability, are superior in comparison to all previous reports on Yb-doped disordered double tungstate or molybdate crystals and represent a significant improvement in comparison to earlier experiments with low-doped Yb:NaLa(MoO4)2.

  6. Comparison of 250 MHz electron spin echo and continuous wave oxygen EPR imaging methods for in vivo applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epel, Boris; Sundramoorthy, Subramanian V.; Barth, Eugene D.; Mailer, Colin; Halpern, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compare two electron paramagnetic resonance imaging modalities at 250 MHz to determine advantages and disadvantages of those modalities for in vivo oxygen imaging. Methods: Electron spin echo (ESE) and continuous wave (CW) methodologies were used to obtain three-dimensional images of a narrow linewidth, water soluble, nontoxic oxygen-sensitive trityl molecule OX063 in vitro and in vivo. The authors also examined sequential images obtained from the same animal injected intravenously with trityl spin probe to determine temporal stability of methodologies. Results: A study of phantoms with different oxygen concentrations revealed a threefold advantage of the ESE methodology in terms of reduced imaging time and more precise oxygen resolution for samples with less than 70 torr oxygen partial pressure. Above∼100 torr, CW performed better. The images produced by both methodologies showed pO2 distributions with similar mean values. However, ESE images demonstrated superior performance in low pO2 regions while missing voxels in high pO2 regions. Conclusions: ESE and CW have different areas of applicability. ESE is superior for hypoxia studies in tumors. PMID:21626937

  7. COHERENT NETWORK ANALYSIS FOR CONTINUOUS GRAVITATIONAL WAVE SIGNALS IN A PULSAR TIMING ARRAY: PULSAR PHASES AS EXTRINSIC PARAMETERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurements, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430074 (China); Mohanty, Soumya D.; Jenet, Fredrick A., E-mail: ywang12@hust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, 1 West University Boulevard, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    Supermassive black hole binaries are one of the primary targets of gravitational wave (GW) searches using pulsar timing arrays (PTAs). GW signals from such systems are well represented by parameterized models, allowing the standard Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT) to be used for their detection and estimation. However, there is a dichotomy in how the GLRT can be implemented for PTAs: there are two possible ways in which one can split the set of signal parameters for semi-analytical and numerical extremization. The straightforward extension of the method used for continuous signals in ground-based GW searches, where the so-called pulsar phase parameters are maximized numerically, was addressed in an earlier paper. In this paper, we report the first study of the performance of the second approach where the pulsar phases are maximized semi-analytically. This approach is scalable since the number of parameters left over for numerical optimization does not depend on the size of the PTA. Our results show that for the same array size (9 pulsars), the new method performs somewhat worse in parameter estimation, but not in detection, than the previous method where the pulsar phases were maximized numerically. The origin of the performance discrepancy is likely to be in the ill-posedness that is intrinsic to any network analysis method. However, the scalability of the new method allows the ill-posedness to be mitigated by simply adding more pulsars to the array. This is shown explicitly by taking a larger array of pulsars.

  8. Continuous-wave infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission at ultralow threshold by colloidal HgTe quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiregat, Pieter; Houtepen, Arjan J.; Sagar, Laxmi Kishore; Infante, Ivan; Zapata, Felipe; Grigel, Valeriia; Allan, Guy; Delerue, Christophe; van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger

    2018-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) raise more and more interest as solution-processable and tunable optical gain materials. However, especially for infrared active QDs, optical gain remains inefficient. Since stimulated emission involves multifold degenerate band-edge states, population inversion can be attained only at high pump power and must compete with efficient multi-exciton recombination. Here, we show that mercury telluride (HgTe) QDs exhibit size-tunable stimulated emission throughout the near-infrared telecom window at thresholds unmatched by any QD studied before. We attribute this unique behaviour to surface-localized states in the bandgap that turn HgTe QDs into 4-level systems. The resulting long-lived population inversion induces amplified spontaneous emission under continuous-wave optical pumping at power levels compatible with solar irradiation and direct current electrical pumping. These results introduce an alternative approach for low-threshold QD-based gain media based on intentional trap states that paves the way for solution-processed infrared QD lasers and amplifiers.

  9. Compact, efficient diode-end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 slab continuous-wave 912-nm laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huan; Gong Ma-Li

    2012-01-01

    A fiber-coupled laser-diode (LD) end-pumped Nd:GdVO 4 slab continuous-wave (CW) 912-nm laser and an LD bar end-pumped Nd:GdVO 4 slab CW 912-nm laser are both demonstrated in this paper. Using the fiber-coupled LD of end-pumped type, a highest CW 912-nm laser output power of 10.17 W is obtained with a high optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 24.6% and a slope efficiency of 34.5%. The measured M 2 factors of beam quality in x and y directions are 5.3 and 5.1, respectively. Besides, an LD bar of end-pumped type is used to realize CW 912-nm laser output, which has the advantages of compactness and low cost. When the pump power is 38.8 W, the output power is 8.87 W and the measured M 2 factors of beam quality in x and y directions are 16 and 1.31, respectively. In order to improve the beam quality of the 912-nm laser at x direction, a new quasi-concentric laser resonator will be designed, and an LD bar end-pumped Nd:GdVO 4 slab high-power CW 912-nm TEM 00 laser will be realized in the future. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  10. Experimental investigation on a diode-pumped cesium-vapor laser stably operated at continuous-wave and pulse regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Xu, Dongdong; Gao, Fei; Zheng, Changbin; Zhang, Kuo; He, Yang; Wang, Chunrui; Guo, Jin

    2015-05-04

    Employing a fiber-coupled diode-laser with a center wavelength of 852.25 nm and a line width of 0.17 nm, experimental investigation on diode-end-pumped cesium (Cs) vapor laser stably operated at continuous-wave (CW) and pulse regime is carried out. A 5 mm long cesium vapor cell filled with 60 kPa helium and 20 kPa ethane is used as laser medium. Using an output coupler with reflectivity of 48.79%, 1.26 W 894.57 nm CW laser is obtained at an incident pump power of 4.76 W, corresponding an optical-optical efficiency of 26.8% and a slope-efficiency of 28.8%, respectively. The threshold temperature is 67.5 °C. Stable pulsed cesium laser with a maximum average output power of 2.6 W is obtained at a repetition rate of 76 Hz, and the pulse repetition rate can be extend to 1 kHz with a pulse width of 18 μs.

  11. Study of welding characteristics of inconel 600 alloy using a continuous wave Nd:YAG laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Seong Wook; Yoo, Young Tae; Shin, Ho Jun

    2004-01-01

    Laser beam welding is increasingly being used in welding of structural steels. The laser welding process is one of the most advanced manufacturing technologies owing to its high speed and deep penetration. The thermal cycles associated with laser welding are generally much faster than those involved in conventional arc welding processes, leading to a rather small weld zone. Experiments are performed for Inconel 600 plates changing several process parameter such as laser power, welding speed, shielding gas flow rate, presence of surface pollution, with fixed or variable gap and misalignment between plate and plate, etc. The follow conclusions can be drawn that laser power and welding speed have a pronounced effect on size and shape of the fusion zone. Increase in welding speed resulted in an increase in weld depth/ aspect ratio and hence a decrease in the fusion zone size. The penetration depth increased with the increase in laser power. Welding characteristics of austienite Inconel 600 using a continuous wave Nd:YAG laser are experimentally investigated. This paper describes the weld ability of inconel 600 for machine structural use by Nd:YAG laser

  12. Continuous wave and time resolved spectroscopy of InAsN/GaAsN based quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taliercio, T.; Valvin, P.; Intartaglia, R.; Guillet, T.; Lefebvre, P.; Bretagnon, T.; Gil, B.; Sallet, V.; Harmand, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    We present a study of the optical properties of quantum dots based on a new family of semiconductors: III-V dilute nitrides such as (In,Ga)(N,As). Continuous wave and time resolved photoluminescence (PL) experiments allowed us to evaluate the impact of N incorporation during the growth of InAs/GaAs quantum dots. Previous work [V. Sallet et al., to be submitted to J. Cryst. Growth (2005); O. Schumann et al., J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2832 (2004)] showed that increasing the flux of N atoms into the growth chamber modifies drastically the size of the dots which leads to a bimodal growth. Two populations of dots with different sizes appear. The quantum dot PL line broadens and a second PL line appears at higher energy. Time resolved PL allows us to identify the nature of this second PL line: second population of quantum dots. A second decay time is observed which we interpret as being the consequence of the perturbation of the electronic states of the quantum dots. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Continuous-wave infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission at ultralow threshold by colloidal HgTe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiregat, Pieter; Houtepen, Arjan J; Sagar, Laxmi Kishore; Infante, Ivan; Zapata, Felipe; Grigel, Valeriia; Allan, Guy; Delerue, Christophe; Van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger

    2018-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) raise more and more interest as solution-processable and tunable optical gain materials. However, especially for infrared active QDs, optical gain remains inefficient. Since stimulated emission involves multifold degenerate band-edge states, population inversion can be attained only at high pump power and must compete with efficient multi-exciton recombination. Here, we show that mercury telluride (HgTe) QDs exhibit size-tunable stimulated emission throughout the near-infrared telecom window at thresholds unmatched by any QD studied before. We attribute this unique behaviour to surface-localized states in the bandgap that turn HgTe QDs into 4-level systems. The resulting long-lived population inversion induces amplified spontaneous emission under continuous-wave optical pumping at power levels compatible with solar irradiation and direct current electrical pumping. These results introduce an alternative approach for low-threshold QD-based gain media based on intentional trap states that paves the way for solution-processed infrared QD lasers and amplifiers.

  14. Systematic analysis of DNA damage induction and DNA repair pathway activation by continuous wave visible light laser micro-irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Muster

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Laser micro-irradiation can be used to induce DNA damage with high spatial and temporal resolution, representing a powerful tool to analyze DNA repair in vivo in the context of chromatin. However, most lasers induce a mixture of DNA damage leading to the activation of multiple DNA repair pathways and making it impossible to study individual repair processes. Hence, we aimed to establish and validate micro-irradiation conditions together with inhibition of several key proteins to discriminate different types of DNA damage and repair pathways using lasers commonly available in confocal microscopes. Using time-lapse analysis of cells expressing fluorescently tagged repair proteins and also validation of the DNA damage generated by micro-irradiation using several key damage markers, we show that irradiation with a 405 nm continuous wave laser lead to the activation of all repair pathways even in the absence of exogenous sensitization. In contrast, we found that irradiation with 488 nm laser lead to the selective activation of non-processive short-patch base excision and single strand break repair, which were further validated by PARP inhibition and metoxyamine treatment. We conclude that these low energy conditions discriminated against processive long-patch base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair as well as double strand break repair pathways.

  15. A comparative study of the plasmon effect in nanoelectrode THz emitters: Pulse vs. continuous-wave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Kiwon; Lee, Eui Su; Lee, Il-Min; Han, Sang-Pil; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Park, Kyung Hyun, E-mail: khp@etri.re.kr [Terahertz Basic Research Section, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeongyong [Metal-Insulator Transition Research Section, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Donghun [Optical Internet Components Research Section, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Plasmonic field enhancement in terahertz (THz) generation is one of the recently arisen techniques in the THz field that has attracted considerable interest. However, the reported levels of enhancement of THz output power in the literature are significantly different from each other, from less than two times to about two orders of magnitude of enhancement in power, which implies the existence of other major limiting factors yet to be revealed. In this work, the contribution of the plasmonic effect to the power enhancement of THz emitters is revisited. We show that the carrier collection efficiency in a THz emitter with plasmonic nanostructures is more critical to the device performance than the plasmonic field enhancement itself. The strong reverse fields induced by the highly localized plasmonic carriers in the vicinity of the nanoelectrodes screen the carrier collections and seriously limit the power enhancement. This is supported by our experimental observations of the significantly enhanced power in a plasmonic nanoelectrode THz emitter in continuous-wave radiation mode, while the same device has limited enhancement with pulsed radiation. We hope that our study may provide an intuitive but practical guideline in adopting plasmonic nanostructures with an aim of enhancing the efficiency of optoelectronic devices.

  16. Distance measurement using frequency-modulated continuous-wave ladar with calibration by a femtosecond frequency comb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yang, Linghui; Lin, Jiarui; Zhu, Jigui

    2018-01-01

    Precise distance measurement is of interest for large-scale manufacturing, future space satellite missions, and other industrial applications. The ranging system with femtosecond optical frequency comb (FOFC) could offer high accuracy, stability and direct traceability to SI definition of the meter. Here, we propose a scheme for length measurement based on the frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) ladar with a FOFC. In this scheme, the reference interferometer in the FMCW ladar is calibrated by the intensity detection using the FOFC in the time domain within an optical wavelength resolution. With analysis of the theoretical model, this system has the potential to a high-speed, high-accuracy absolute distance measurement. Then, based on the experimental results, the evaluation of the performance of the calibration of the reference arm is discussed. In addition, the performance of this system is evaluated by a single position measurement with different tuning velocities of wavelength. The experimental results show that the reproducibility of the distance measurement is 10-5 level.

  17. An 8-year old boy with continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep presenting with positive onconeuronal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lin-Yan; Shi, Xiu-Yu; Feng, Chen; Wang, Jian-Wen; Yang, Guan; Lammers, Stephen H T; Yang, Xiao Fan; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Zou, Li-Ping

    2015-03-01

    To determine the etiology of epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep (CSWS)/electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) in an 8-year old boy with a history of neuroblastoma and opsoclonus-myoclonus. A combination of clinical characterization and follow-up, video EEG and laboratory investigations. We report the case of an 8-year old boy with a history of neuroblastoma and opsoclonus-myoclonus, who presented with intellectual disability, pharmacotherapy-resistant epilepsy and CSWS/ESES. Although the patient's neuroblastoma had been successfully treated 8 years prior to presentation and an extensive workup did not show a tumor reoccurrence, testing for onconeuronal antibodies was positive for anti-Ma2 and anti-CV2/CRMP5 antibodies. High-dose intravenous methylprednisolone and a taper of oral methylprednisolone were given, leading to a significant clinical improvement. During the taper the patient's condition and EEG manifestations deteriorated again necessitating another cycle of steroid therapy, which lead to a stable improvement. During a 6-month follow-up no CSWS/ESES was seen on EEG and anti-Ma2 and anti-CV2/CRMP5 antibodies remained undetectable. This case suggests that onconeuronal antibodies may be involved in the pathogenesis of CSWS/ESES. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Formation of porous silicon oxide from substrate-bound silicon rich silicon oxide layers by continuous-wave laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Fricke-Begemann, Th.; Peretzki, P.; Ihlemann, J.; Seibt, M.

    2018-03-01

    Silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon oxide that show room temperature photoluminescence (PL) have great potential in silicon light emission applications. Nanocrystalline silicon particle formation by laser irradiation has the unique advantage of spatially controlled heating, which is compatible with modern silicon micro-fabrication technology. In this paper, we employ continuous wave laser irradiation to decompose substrate-bound silicon-rich silicon oxide films into crystalline silicon particles and silicon dioxide. The resulting microstructure is studied using transmission electron microscopy techniques with considerable emphasis on the formation and properties of laser damaged regions which typically quench room temperature PL from the nanoparticles. It is shown that such regions consist of an amorphous matrix with a composition similar to silicon dioxide which contains some nanometric silicon particles in addition to pores. A mechanism referred to as "selective silicon ablation" is proposed which consistently explains the experimental observations. Implications for the damage-free laser decomposition of silicon-rich silicon oxides and also for controlled production of porous silicon dioxide films are discussed.

  19. High-power, continuous-wave, single-frequency, all-periodically-poled, near-infrared source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kavita; Chaitanya Kumar, S; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M

    2012-12-15

    We report a high-power, single-frequency, continuous-wave (cw) source tunable across 775-807 nm in the near-infrared, based on internal second harmonic generation (SHG) of a cw singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by a Yb-fiber laser. The compact, all-periodically-poled source employs a 48-mm-long, multigrating MgO doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN) crystal for the OPO and a 30-mm-long, fan-out grating MgO-doped stoichiometric periodically poled lithium tantalate (MgO:sPPLT) crystal for intracavity SHG, providing as much as 3.7 W of near-infrared power at 793 nm, together with 4 W of idler power at 3232 nm, at an overall extraction efficiency of 28%. Further, the cw OPO is tunable across 3125-3396 nm in the idler, providing as much as 4.3 W at 3133 nm with >3.8  W over 77% of the tuning range together with >3  W of near-infrared power across 56% of SHG tuning range, in high-spatial beam-quality with M2<1.4. The SHG output has an instantaneous linewidth of 8.5 MHz and exhibits a passive power stability better than 3.5% rms over more than 1 min.

  20. Impact of 120-W 2-μm continuous wave laser vapoenucleation of the prostate on sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubin; Shao, Jinkai; Lu, Yongning; Lü, Yongan; Li, Xiaodong

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of 120-W 2-μm continuous wave (cw) laser vapoenucleation of the prostate in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) on sexual function. One hundred twenty-two consecutive patients with BPH were retrospectively collected in this study and were classified into two groups for surgical treatment with 2-μm cw laser vapoenucleation or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and general assessment questions were completed before and 12 months after treatment to determine the impact on sexual function. A total of 33 patients (52.4%) in group 1 and 31 (52.5%) in group 2 reported various degrees of erectile dysfunction before surgery. Interestingly, an increase in IIEF-EF score by 2 points was reported by 16 (25.4%) and 14 (23.7%) patients, respectively, and mean EF score did show a marginal but not significant increase postoperatively in both group. Differences about orgasmic intercourse satisfaction, sexual desire domain, and overall satisfaction scores in each group were not significant between preoperative and postoperative, but there was a significant decrease in the orgasmic function domain score at 12 months postoperation in both groups (p function. No significant erectile function improvement was observed after surgery, but these two techniques significantly lowered the IIEF orgasmic function domain and this was mainly caused by retrograde ejaculation.

  1. SimLabel: a graphical user interface to simulate continuous wave EPR spectra from site-directed spin labeling experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, E; Le Breton, N; Martinho, M; Mileo, E; Belle, V

    2017-08-01

    Site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) combined with continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (cw EPR) spectroscopy is a powerful technique to reveal, at the residue level, structural transitions in proteins. SDSL-EPR is based on the selective grafting of a paramagnetic label on the protein under study, followed by cw EPR analysis. To extract valuable quantitative information from SDSL-EPR spectra and thus give reliable interpretation on biological system dynamics, numerical simulations of the spectra are required. Such spectral simulations can be carried out by coding in MATLAB using functions from the EasySpin toolbox. For non-expert users of MATLAB, this could be a complex task or even impede the use of such simulation tool. We developed a graphical user interface called SimLabel dedicated to run cw EPR spectra simulations particularly coming from SDSL-EPR experiments. Simlabel provides an intuitive way to visualize, simulate, and fit such cw EPR spectra. An example of SDSL-EPR spectra simulation concerning the study of an intrinsically disordered region undergoing a local induced folding is described and discussed. We believe that this new tool will help the users to rapidly obtain reliable simulated spectra and hence facilitate the interpretation of their results. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. High power microwaves

    CERN Document Server

    Benford, James; Schamiloglu, Edl

    2016-01-01

    Following in the footsteps of its popular predecessors, High Power Microwaves, Third Edition continues to provide a wide-angle, integrated view of the field of high power microwaves (HPMs). This third edition includes significant updates in every chapter as well as a new chapter on beamless systems that covers nonlinear transmission lines. Written by an experimentalist, a theorist, and an applied theorist, respectively, the book offers complementary perspectives on different source types. The authors address: * How HPM relates historically and technically to the conventional microwave field * The possible applications for HPM and the key criteria that HPM devices have to meet in order to be applied * How high power sources work, including their performance capabilities and limitations * The broad fundamental issues to be addressed in the future for a wide variety of source types The book is accessible to several audiences. Researchers currently in the field can widen their understanding of HPM. Present or pot...

  3. On the time-stepping stability of continuous mass-lumped and discontinuous Galerkin finite elements for the 3D acoustic wave equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhebel, E.; Minisini, S.; Mulder, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    We solve the three-dimensional acoustic wave equation, discretized on tetrahedral meshes. Two methods are considered: mass-lumped continuous finite elements and the symmetric interior-penalty discontinuous Galerkin method (SIP-DG). Combining the spatial discretization with the leap-frog

  4. Ceramic matrix composites by microwave assisted CVI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currier, R.P.; Devlin, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) processes for producing continuously reinforced ceramic composites are reviewed. Potential advantages of microwave assisted CVI are noted and numerical studies of microwave assisted CVI are reviewed. The models predict inverted thermal gradients in fibrous ceramic preforms subjected to microwave radiation and suggest processing strategies for achieving uniformly dense composites. Comparisons are made to experimental results on silicon-based composite systems. The role played by the relative ability of fiber and matrix to dissipate microwave energy is noted. Results suggest that microwave induced inverted gradients can be exploited to promote inside-out densification. 10 refs., 2 figs

  5. Freeze dehydration of milk using microwave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souda, K.B.; Akyel, C.; Bilgen, E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental studies on heat and mass transfer during a microwave freeze dehydration process. An experimental system and procedure was developed to freeze dry milk. A 2500-W microwave system with an appropriate wave guide was set up and instrumented, and a procedure was experimentally developed to obtain milk powder first by freezing milk and then dehydrating it at low pressure using microwave energy. An unsteady-state analysis was used to derive a one-dimensional mathematical model of the freeze dehydration process in a microwave electromagnetic field

  6. DOE Final Report -NON-LINEAR WAVES IN CONTINUOUS MEDIA- BES- Division of Engineering and Materials Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth J. Putterman

    2006-01-01

    FINAL REPORT ON : NON-LINEAR WAVES IN CONTINUOUS MEDIA Doe DE FG03-87ER13686 (001312-001) Submitted January 10, 2006 by Seth J. Putterman 310-8252269 Physics Department University of California Los Angeles, CA 90095 puherman at ritva.physics.ucla.edu NON-LINEAR WAVES IN CONTINUOUS MEDIA I am happy to report that this project has been a big success. For over 10 years the DOE [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering] has funded our research program on the overarching theme of spontaneous energy focusing phenomena. These effects occur when a nonlinear macroscopic system is excited so as to drive it far from equilibrium. The subsequent relaxation to equilibrium does not occur smoothly but instead is accompanied by the formation of structured domains where the energy density is highly concentrated. A signature example is picosecond sonoluminescence [1] wherein a smooth sound wave has its energy density focused by 12 orders of magnitude to generate a clock-like string of picosecond flashes of ultraviolet light. Our earlier work on solitons [2] demonstrated how uniform surface waves break up into stable localized structures. Our experimental work on turbulence produced photos of localized structures lying many standard deviations outside the range of gaussian statistics[3]. This effect is referred to as intermittency. Our recent work on friction finds its motivation in those theories of sonoluminescence which invoke frictional electricity. In its most common form this is the generation of a spark when we touch a doorknob after walking over a carpet. Our reading of the literature on this subject indicated that frictional electricity like sonoluminescence is not understood. So to probe triboelectrification we set up a modern version of an experiment performed by Bernoulli in 1700. Here sparking is caused by the rubbing of glass against mercury. We indeed observed flashes of light which were accompanied by events of stick-slip friction at the interface between the

  7. Search of the Orion spur for continuous gravitational waves using a loosely coherent algorithm on data from LIGO interferometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D. V.; Andersen, M.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Ashton, G.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, C. D.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Branco, V.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderon Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Celerier, C.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Colombini, M.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M. D.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J. -D.; Franco, S; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. A.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Gonzalez, J.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gossler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammer, D. X.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hoelscher-Obermaier, J.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M. B.; Jang, D.H.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karlen, J. L.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelecsenyi, N.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kerrigan, J.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J. T.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, J.; Lee, J.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Lodhia, D.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; Macdonald, E. P.; MacDonald, T.T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Madden-Fong, D. X.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mangini, N. M.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R.M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nagy, M. F.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okounkova, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W. E.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C. T.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J. H.; Poggiani, R.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Racz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rodger, A. S.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffery, P.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Simakov, D.; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; van der Schaaf, L.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vansuch, G.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, MT; Wade, L. E.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, K. J.; Williams, L.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2016-01-01

    We report results of a wideband search for periodic gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars within the Orion spur towards both the inner and outer regions of our Galaxy. As gravitational waves interact very weakly with matter, the search is unimpeded by dust and concentrations of stars. One

  8. Low power continuous wave-laser seed irradiation effect on Moringa oleifera germination, seedling growth and biochemical attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urva; Shafique, Hina; Jamil, Yasir; Haq, Zia Ul; Mujahid, Tamveel; Khan, Aman Ullah; Iqbal, Munawar; Abbas, Mazhar

    2017-05-01

    Recently, laser application in agriculture has gained much attention since plant characteristics were improved significantly in response of pre-sowing seed treatment. Pre-sowing laser seed treatment effects on germination, seedling growth and mineral profile were studied in Moringa olifera. M. olifera healthy seeds were exposed to 25, 50, 75mJ low power continuous wave laser light and grown under greenhouse conditions. The seedling growth and biochemical attributes were evaluated from 10-day-old seedlings. The germination parameters (percentage, mean germination time), vigor index, seedling growth (root length, seedling length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root dry weight) enhanced considerably. The laser energy levels used for seed irradiation showed variable effects on germination, seedling growth and mineral profile. The mineral contents were recorded to be higher in seedling raised from laser treated seeds, which were higher in roots versus shoots and leaves. The effect of laser treatment on seedling fat, nitrogen and protein content was insignificant and at higher energy level both nitrogen and protein contents decreased versus control. Results revealed that M. olifera germination, seedling growth and mineral contents were enhanced and optimum laser energy level has more acceleratory effect since at three laser energy levels the responses were significantly different. Overall the laser energy levels effect on germination and seedling growth was found in following order; 75mJ>50mJ>25mJ, where as in case of fat, protein and nitrogen contents the trend was as; 25mJ>50mJ and 75mJ. However, this technique could possibly be used to improve the M. olifera germination, seedling growth, and minerals contents where germination is low due to unfavorable conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantini, S.; Franceschini, M.A.; Gratton, E.; Hueber, D.; Rosenfeld, W.; Maulik, D.; Stubblefield, P.G.; Stankovic, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    We have used continuous-wave (CW) and frequency-domain spectroscopy to investigate the optical properties of the newborn piglet brain in vivo and non-invasively. Three anaesthetized, intubated, ventilated and instrumented newborn piglets were placed into a stereotaxic instrument for optimal experimental stability, reproducible probe-to-scalp optical contact and 3D adjustment of the optical probe. By measuring the absolute values of the brain absorption and reduced scattering coefficients at two wavelengths (758 and 830 nm), frequency-domain spectroscopy provided absolute readings (in contrast to the relative readings of CW spectroscopy) of cerebral haemoglobin concentration and saturation during experimentally induced perturbations in cerebral haemodynamics and oxygenation. Such perturbations included a modulation of the inspired oxygen concentration, transient brain asphyxia, carotid artery occlusion and terminal brain asphyxia. The baseline cerebral haemoglobin saturation and concentration, measured with frequency-domain spectroscopy, were about 60% and 42 μM respectively. The cerebral saturation values ranged from a minimum of 17% (during transient brain asphyxia) to a maximum of 80% (during recovery from transient brain asphyxia). To analyse the CW optical data, we have (a) derived a mathematical relationship between the cerebral optical properties and the differential pathlength factor and (b) introduced a method based on the spatial dependence of the detected intensity (dc slope method). The analysis of the cerebral optical signals associated with the arterial pulse and with respiration demonstrates that motion artefacts can significantly affect the intensity recorded from a single optode pair. Motion artefacts can be strongly reduced by combining data from multiple optodes to provide relative readings in the dc slope method. We also report significant biphasic changes (initial decrease and successive increase) in the reduced scattering coefficient measured

  10. Immediate and long-term changes of fundus autofluorescence in continuous wave laser lesions of the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framme, Carsten; Roider, Johann

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether fundus autofluorescence imaging is able to show changes in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) fluorescence after thermal laser photocoagulation. In vivo imaging of fundus autofluorescence was performed with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. A laser with a wavelength of 488 nm was used for excitation of the tissue and autofluorescence was detected above 500 nm using a barrier filter. One hundred eight eyes of 87 patients who had had previous laser treatment were monitored. The appearance and size of the laser lesions were documented and correlated to the time of treatment. Immediate changes were observed prospectively in 13 eyes; long-term follow-up was studied retrospectively in 95 eyes. In all patients but one, autofluorescence was decreased in the area of laser lesions 1 hour after laser treatment. After 1 month, previously decreased autofluorescence in all lesions changed to significantly increased autofluorescence, which was stable up to 6 months after treatment. Mixed forms were present approximately 6 to 12 months after treatment, showing a central island of increased autofluorescence surrounded by a ring of decreased autofluorescence. After 1 to 2 years, lesions again changed to complete dark spots, enlarging later on. RPE destruction and subsequent proliferation after continuous wave laser photocoagulation can be visualized noninvasively by autofluorescence imaging. Immediate decreased autofluorescence may indicate acute damage of the RPE, subsequent increased autofluorescence seems to indicate proliferative behavior of the RPE, and final dark spots can indicate RPE atrophy secondary to a denaturation of neurosensory retinal tissue. Thus, autofluorescence can be used in the long-term monitoring of RPE changes after laser treatment. The enlargement of the laser atrophy zone demonstrates the potential risk of visual loss after central laser photocoagulation even years after treatment.

  11. Review of Microwave Photonics Technique to Generate the Microwave Signal by Using Photonics Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar; Srivastav, Akash

    2017-12-01

    Microwave photonics system provides high bandwidth capabilities of fiber optic systems and also contains the ability to provide interconnect transmission properties, which are virtually independent of length. The low-loss wide bandwidth capability of optoelectronic systems makes them attractive for the transmission and processing of microwave signals, while the development of high-capacity optical communication systems has required the use of microwave techniques in optical transmitters and receivers. These two strands have led to the development of the research area of microwave photonics. So, we can considered microwave photonics as the field that studies the interaction between microwave and optical waves for applications such as communications, radars, sensors and instrumentations. In this paper we have thoroughly reviewed the microwave generation techniques by using photonics technology.

  12. Design of a New Water Load for S-band 750 kW Continuous Wave High Power Klystron Used in EAST Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Liu, Fukun; Shan, Jiafang; Kuang, Guangli

    2007-04-01

    In order to test the klystrons operated at a frequency of 3.7 GHz in a continuous wave (CW) mode, a type of water load to absorb its power up to 750 kW is presented. The distilled water sealed with an RF ceramic window is used as the absorbent. At a frequency range of 70 MHz, the VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) is below 1.2, and the rise in temperature of water is about 30 oC at the highest power level.

  13. High coincidence-to-accidental ratio continuous-wave photon-pair generation in a grating-coupled silicon strip waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Kai; Christensen, Erik Nicolai; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a very high coincidence-to-accidental ratio of 673 using continuous-wave photon-pair generation in a silicon strip waveguide through spontaneous four-wave mixing. This result is obtained by employing on-chip photonic-crystal-based grating couplers for both low-loss fiber......-to-chip coupling and on-chip suppression of generated spontaneous Raman scattering noise. We measure a minimum heralded second-order correlation of g(H)((2)) (0) = 0.12, demonstrating that our source operates in the single- photon regime with low noise. (C) 2017 The Japan Society of Applied Physics...

  14. Microwave Powered Gravitationally Independent Medical Grade Water Generation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative microwave system is proposed for the continuous production of medical grade water. This system will utilize direct absorption of microwave radiation to...

  15. Spectroscopic characterization of low power argon microwave-induced plasma with gaseous species produced from ethanol-water solutions in continuous hydride generation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlodarczyk, Magdalena; Zyrnicki, Wieslaw E-mail: zyrnicki@ichn.ch.pwr.wroc.pl

    2003-03-31

    Low power microwave-induced argon plasma generated by resonant TE{sub 101} rectangular cavity was investigated upon introduction of volatile species formed in the reaction with sodium tetraborohydrate(III) in hydrochloric acid-ethanol solution. The molecular emission bands of OH and CH were used for rotational temperature (T{sub rot}) determination, while the atomic emission lines of Ar, H and Sb were applied for excitation temperature (T{sub exc}) measurement. Assuming a Boltzmann distribution, the temperatures were calculated with the aid of the least squares method. Electron number density (n{sub e}) derived from Stark broadening of the H{sub {beta}} line was found to be between 2.5x10{sup 15} and 0.57x10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}. The detection limits (DL) were determined for Hg and Sb. The influence of ethanol concentration in analyte solution and microwave power on measured parameters, was investigated. The results showed that T{sub rot}(OH) increased from 2970 to 3820 K while T{sub rot}(CH) decreased from 6100 to 4540 K with ethanol concentration in the solution, ranging from 10 to 90%. Under the same experimental conditions the excitation temperature for Ar, H and Sb varied in the following ranges: 5670-4800, 6190-3950 and 10500-7390 K, respectively. It was observed that element DL were significantly influenced by the presence of ethanol in the sample solution. The DL values for Hg and Sb were, as follows: 0.5-11 and 5.3-35 {mu}g l{sup -1}, respectively.

  16. Histologic evaluation of laser lipolysis comparing continuous wave vs pulsed lasers in an in vivo pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Jessica R; Veerappan, Anna; Chen, Bo; Mirkov, Mirko; Sierra, Ray; Spiegel, Jeffrey H

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate acute and delayed laser effects of subdermal lipolysis and collagen deposition using an in vivo pig model and to compare histologic findings in fatty tissue after continuous wave diode (CW) vs pulsed laser treatment. Three CW lasers (980, 1370, and 1470 nm) and 3 pulsed lasers (1064, 1320, and 1440 nm) were used to treat 4 Göttingen minipigs. Following administration of Klein tumescent solution, a laser cannula was inserted at the top of a 10 × 2.5-cm rectangle and was passed subdermally to create separate laser "tunnels." Temperatures at the surface and at intervals of 4-mm to 20-mm depths were recorded immediately after exposure and were correlated with skin injury. Full-thickness cutaneous biopsy specimens were obtained at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after exposure and were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and trichrome stain. Qualitative and semiquantitative histopathologic evaluations were performed with attention to vascular damage, lipolysis, and collagen deposition. Skin surface damage occurred at temperatures exceeding 46°C. Histologic examination at 1 day after exposure showed hemorrhage, fibrous collagen fiber coagulation, and adipocyte damage. Adipocytes surrounded by histiocytes, a marker of lipolysis, were present at 1 week and 1 month after exposure. Collagen deposition in subdermal fatty tissue and in reticular dermis of some specimens was noted at 1 week and had increased at 1 month. Tissue treated with CW laser at 1470 nm demonstrated greater hemorrhage and more histiocytes at damage sites than tissue treated with pulsed laser at 1440 nm. There was a trend toward more collagen deposition with pulsed lasers than with CW lasers, but this was not statistically significant. Histopathologic comparison between results of CW laser at 980 nm vs pulsed laser at 1064 nm showed the same trend. Hemorrhage differences may result from pulse duration variations. A theoretical calculation estimating temperature rise in vessels supported this

  17. MICROWAVE MEASUREMENT OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS AT HIGH-TEMPERATURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Smith, J.; Davis, B.; Limmer, R.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the electrical behavior of refractory materials may enable the development and optimization of microwave nondestructive techniques to detect and evaluate changes in their physical properties while the materials are in service. This paper presents the results of a limited and preliminary investigation in which two refractory materials (dense chrome and dense zircon) were subjected to increasing temperature in a furnace and in which a frequency-modulated continuous-wave radar operating in the frequency range of 8-18 GHz radar was used to evaluate their attenuation properties.

  18. Microwave Measurement of Refractory Materials at High-Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Smith, J.; Davis, B.; Limmer, R.

    2009-03-01

    Knowledge of the electrical behavior of refractory materials may enable the development and optimization of microwave nondestructive techniques to detect and evaluate changes in their physical properties while the materials are in service. This paper presents the results of a limited and preliminary investigation in which two refractory materials (dense chrome and dense zircon) were subjected to increasing temperature in a furnace and in which a frequency-modulated continuous-wave radar operating in the frequency range of 8-18 GHz radar was used to evaluate their attenuation properties.

  19. Electrically Tuned Microwave Devices Using Liquid Crystal Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Yaghmaee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of liquid crystal technology for microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies is presented. The potential of liquid crystals as reconfigurable materials arises from their ability for continuous tuning with low power consumption, transparency, and possible integration with printed and flexible circuit technologies. This paper describes physical theory and fundamental electrical properties arising from the anisotropy of liquid crystals and overviews selected realized liquid crystal devices, throughout four main categories: resonators and filters, phase shifters and delay lines, antennas, and, finally, frequency-selective surfaces and metamaterials.

  20. Multiwatt-level continuous-wave midwave infrared generation using difference frequency mixing in periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Shekhar; Barnes, Jacob O; Gonzalez, Leonel P

    2014-09-01

    Over 3.5 W of continuous-wave power at 3.4 μm was obtained by single-pass difference frequency mixing of 1.064 and 1.55 μm fiber lasers in a 5 cm long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. Good agreement was obtained between the observed temperature dependence of the generated power and the prediction from focused Gaussian beam theory.