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Sample records for continuous gluconic acid

  1. Gluconic Acid: Properties, Applications and Microbial Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Ramachandran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluconic acid is a mild organic acid derived from glucose by a simple oxidation reaction. The reaction is facilitated by the enzyme glucose oxidase (fungi and glucose dehydrogenase (bacteria such as Gluconobacter. Microbial production of gluconic acid is the preferred method and it dates back to several decades. The most studied and widely used fermentation process involves the fungus Aspergillus niger. Gluconic acid and its derivatives, the principal being sodium gluconate, have wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. This article gives a review of microbial gluconic acid production, its properties and applications.

  2. Effects of calcium gluconate and ascorbic acid on controlling shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro shoot necrosis is a quite widespread disorder affecting raspberry micropropagation. This study was conducted to investigate effects of calcium gluconate and ascorbic acid on shoot necrosis and dieback of raspberry shoots during micropropagation. Nodal segments of primocane-fruiting raspberry cultivars 'Allgold', ...

  3. Production of gluconic acid by using some irradiated microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf S. Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate the potential fungal isolates have the ability for gluconic acid production by using some agro industrial byproducts as sugarcane molasses, banana-must and grape-must. The effect of gamma-irradiation on the most potent isolates and the fermentation conditions as pH, incubation temperature and incubation period was also investigated. Results showed that the most potential fungal isolates were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium puberulum and Penicillium frequentans whereas their gluconic acid production was 62.17, 56.25 and 39.69 g/L, respectively on Czapek's Dox media at 28 ± 1 °C, pH 6 for 7 days fermentation period. Irradiation of the three most potential isolates at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 kGy doses of gamma ray showed that 0.1 kGy dose caused an increase in gluconic acid production whereas it was 69.35, 60.17 and 40.31 g/L by the three potential isolates respectively. Data showed that utilization of sugarcane molasses, banana-must and grape-must as a sole carbon source in gluconic acid production by the three potential (0.1 kGy irradiated isolates at pH 6, 30 °C for a 7 days incubation period caused increasing in gluconic acid production whereas the productivity of the three (0.1 kGy irradiated isolates (A. niger, P. puberulum and P. frequentans was 69.87, 63.14 and 51.28 g/L by utilizing sugarcane molasses, 61.28, 56.37, 47.15 g/L by utilizing banana-must and 54.25, 52.75 and 44.75 g/L by utilizing grape-must.

  4. CFD stimulation of gluconic acid production in a stirred gas-liquid fermenter

    OpenAIRE

    Elqotbi, Mohammed; Montastruc, Ludovic; Vlaev, S.D.; Nikov, Iordan

    2006-01-01

    Designing large-scale stirred bioreactors with performance closely matching the one achieved in lab-scale fermenters presents continuous challenge. In this contribution, dynamic modelling of the aerobic biocatalytic conversion process in viscous batch stirred tank reactor is developed. Its operation is illustrated by simulation of the interaction of fluid flow, mass transfer and reaction relevant to gluconic acid production by a strictly aerophilic Aspergiluc niger based on a “two...

  5. High titer gluconic acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger from dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover without detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongsen; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2016-03-01

    This study reported a high titer gluconic acid fermentation using dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover (DDAP) hydrolysate without detoxification. The selected fermenting strain Aspergillus niger SIIM M276 was capable of inhibitor degradation thus no detoxification on pretreated corn stover was required. Parameters of gluconic acid fermentation in corn stover hydrolysate were optimized in flasks and in fermentors to achieve 76.67 g/L gluconic acid with overall yield of 94.91%. The sodium gluconate obtained from corn stover was used as additive for extending setting time of cement mortar and similar function was obtained with starch based sodium gluconate. This study provided the first high titer gluconic acid production from lignocellulosic feedstock with potential of industrial applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Simultaneous production of catalase, glucose oxidase and gluconic acid by Aspergillus niger mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedurek, J; Gromada, A; Pielecki, J

    1998-01-01

    The production of gluconic acid, extracellular glucose oxidase and catalase in submerged culture by a number of biochemical mutants has been evaluated. Optimization of stirrer speed, time cultivation and buffering action of some chemicals on glucose oxidase, catalase and gluconic acid production by the most active mutant, AM-11, grown in a 3-L glass bioreactor was investigated. Three hundred rpm appeared to be optimum to ensure good growth and best glucose oxidase production, but gluconic acid or catalase activity obtained maximal value at 500 or 900 rpm, respectively. Significant increase of dissolved oxygen concentration in culture (16-21%) and extracellular catalase activity were obtained when the traditional aeration was employed together with automatic dosed hydrogen peroxide.

  7. A Doped Polyaniline Modified Electrode Amperometric Biosensor for Gluconic Acid Determination in Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Albanese

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In winemaking gluconic acid is an important marker for quantitative evaluation of grape infection by Botrytis cinerea. A screen-printed amperometric bienzymatic sensor for the determination of gluconic acid based on gluconate kinase (GK and 6-phospho-D-gluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH coimmobilized onto polyaniline/poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid; PANI-PAAMPSA is reported in this study. The conductive polymer electrodeposed on the working electrode surface allowed the detection of NADH at low potential (0.1 V with a linear range from 4 × 10−3 to 1 mM (R2 = 0.99 and a sensitivity of 419.44 nA∙mM−1. The bienzymatic sensor has been optimized with regard to GK/6PGDH enzymatic unit ratio and ATP/NADP+ molar ratio which resulted equal to 0.33 and 1.2, respectively. Under these conditions a sensitivity of 255.2 nA∙mM−1, a limit of detection of 5 μM and a Relative Standard Deviation (RSD of 4.2% (n = 5 have been observed. Finally, the biosensor has been applied for gluconic acid measurements in must grape samples and the matrix effect has been taken into consideration. The results have been compared with those obtained on the same samples with a commercial kit based on a spectrophotometric enzyme assay and were in good agreement, showing the capability of the bienzymatic PANI-PAAMPSA biosensor for gluconic acid measurements and thus for the evaluation of Botrytis cinerea infection in grapes.

  8. Simultaneous determination of glucose, D-gluconic, 2-keto-D-gluconic and 5-keto-D-gluconic acids by ion chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection with column-switching technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zuoyi; Xi, Lingling; Subhani, Qamar; Huang, Zhongping; Zhu, Yan

    2013-09-15

    A simple ion chromatographic (IC) method for simultaneous determination of glucose, D-gluconic acid (DGA), 2-keto-D-gluconic acid (2-KDG) and 5-keto D-gluconic acid (5-KDG) was proposed, with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) and column-switching technique. Using this technique, the four compounds were detected simultaneously in a short time with strongly retained compounds (2-KDG and 5-KDG) eluted out prior to weakly retained compounds (glucose and DGA). Under the optimized conditions, the method showed good linearity in the range of 0.01-20 mg L(-1) with determination coefficients (R(2))≥ 99.84%. Low detection limits (LODs) in the range of 0.87-2.59 μg L(-1) and good repeatability (RSDglucose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Studies on the electrodeposition of tin from acidic chloride-gluconate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnik, Ewa; Włoch, Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    Electrodeposition of tin from acidic chloride-gluconate baths was investigated. Equilibrium distribution of tin(II) species showed domination of Sn(II)-gluconate complexes, but for Sn2+ concentrations 50 mM or higher increased percentage of Sn(II)-chloride complexes was found. Cyclic voltammetry, anodic stripping analysis and potentiostatic measurements indicated that rate of the cathodic process is determined by the release of metal cations from gluconate complexes in diluted bath (5 mM), but for more concentrated solutions reduction of Sn(II) ions run under diffusion control. Studies of anodic response showed that it depends on the Sn(II)/Glu ratio in the bath and deposition potential due to development of different planes of metal crystal. Average effective diffusion coefficients of metal species were determined. Morphology and structure tin deposits were also presented.

  10. Novel degradable polymers combining D-gluconic acid, a sugar of vegetal origin, with lactic and glycolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcincinova-Benabdillah, K; Boustta, M; Coudane, J; Vert, M

    2001-01-01

    To synthesize functionalized poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-based polyesters for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications such as controlled drug delivery, D-gluconic acid was considered as an interesting source of comonomer. Accordingly D-gluconic acid was used to synthesize novel 1,4-dioxane-2,5-diones with protected hydroxyl groups, namely 3-(1,2:3,4-tetraoxobutyl-di-O-isopropylidene)-dioxane-2,5-dione (5a) and 3-methyl-6-(1,2:3,4-tetraoxobutyl-di-O-isopropylidene)-dioxane-2,5-dione (5b). The ring-opening homopolymerization and copolymerization of these cyclic dilactones with DL-lactide provided novel degradable polyesters with higher glass transition temperatures than poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) polymers.

  11. Gluconic acid from biomass fast pyrolysis oils: specialty chemicals from the thermochemical conversion of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanaraj, Daniel; Rover, Marjorie R; Resasco, Daniel E; Brown, Robert C; Crossley, Steven

    2014-11-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass to produce a bio-oil followed by catalytic upgrading is a widely studied approach for the potential production of fuels from biomass. Because of the complexity of the bio-oil, most upgrading strategies focus on removing oxygen from the entire mixture to produce fuels. Here we report a novel method for the production of the specialty chemical, gluconic acid, from the pyrolysis of biomass. Through a combination of sequential condensation of pyrolysis vapors and water extraction, a solution rich in levoglucosan is obtained that accounts for over 30% of the carbon in the bio-oil produced from red oak. A simple filtration step yields a stream of high-purity levoglucosan. This stream of levoglucosan is then hydrolyzed and partially oxidized to yield gluconic acid with high purity and selectivity. This combination of cost-effective pyrolysis coupled with simple separation and upgrading could enable a variety of new product markets for chemicals from biomass. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese gluconate. 184.1452 Section 184.1452 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1452 Manganese gluconate. (a) Manganese gluconate (C12H22MnO14... manganese carbonate with gluconic acid in aqueous medium and then crystallizing the product. (b) The...

  13. Synthesis and characterization of magnesium gluconate contained poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Shekh M. [Department of Chemical, Biological and Bioengineering, North Carolina A& T State University, 1601 East Market Street, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); NSF Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Mahoney, Christopher [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, 4200 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15250 (United States); Sankar, Jagannathan [NSF Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Carolina A& T State University, 1601 East Market Street, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Marra, Kacey G. [NSF Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, 4200 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15250 (United States); Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15250 (United States); McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 450 Technology Drive, Pittsburgh, PA 15250 (United States); Bhattarai, Narayan, E-mail: nbhattar@ncat.edu [Department of Chemical, Biological and Bioengineering, North Carolina A& T State University, 1601 East Market Street, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); NSF Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Magnesium gluconate contained PLGA/chitosan microspheres were fabricated. • In vitro release of magnesium ions was performed using Xylidyl Blue assay. • Chitosan coated PLGA can significantly control the release of magnesium ions. • Cellular compatibility was tested using adipose-derived stem cells and PC12 cells. • The cells encounter acceptably low levels of damage in contact with microspheres. - Abstract: The goal of this study was to fabricate and investigate the chitosan coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres for the development of controlled release magnesium delivery system. PLGA based microspheres are ideal vehicles for many controlled release drug delivery applications. Chitosan is a naturally occurring biodegradable and biocompatible polysaccharide, which can coat the surface of PLGA to alter the release of drugs. Magnesium gluconate (MgG) was encapsulated in the PLGA and PLGA/chitosan microspheres by utilizing the double emulsion solvent evaporation technique for controlled release study. The microspheres were tested with respect to several physicochemical and biological properties, including morphology, chemical structure, chitosan adsorption efficiency, magnesium encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release of magnesium ions, and cellular compatibility using both human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and PC12 cells. Chitosan coated PLGA microspheres can significantly control the release of magnesium ions compared to uncoated PLGA microspheres. Both coated and uncoated microspheres showed good cellular compatibility.

  14. Synthesis of the Galactosyl Derivative of Gluconic Acid With the Transglycosylation Activity of β-Galactosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Wojciechowska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bionic acids are bioactive compounds demonstrating numerous interesting properties. They are widely produced by chemical or enzymatic oxidation of disaccharides. This paper focuses on the galactosyl derivative of gluconic acid as a result of a new method of bionic acid synthesis which utilises the transglycosylation properties of β-galactosidase and introduces lactose as a substrate. Products obtained in such a process are characterised by different structures (and, potentially, properties than those resulting from traditional oxidation of disaccharides. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of selected parameters (concentration and ratio of substrates, dose of the enzyme, time, pH, presence of salts on the course of the reaction carried out with the enzymatic preparation Lactozym, containing β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis. Research has shown that increased dry matter content in the baseline solution (up to 50 %, by mass per volume and an addition of NaCl contribute to higher yield. On the other hand, reduced content of the derivative is a result of increased pH from 7.0 to 9.0 and an addition of magnesium and manganese salts. Moreover, exceeding the β-galactosidase dose over approx. 35 000 U per 100 g of lactose also leads to reduced yield of the process. The most favourable molar ratio of sodium gluconate to lactose is 2.225:0.675. Depending on the conditions of the synthesis, the product concentration ranged between 17.3 and 118.3 g/L of the reaction mixture, which corresponded to the mass fraction of 6.64–23.7 % of dry matter. The data obtained as a result of the present study may be useful for designing an industrial process.

  15. Impact of gluconic fermentation of strawberry using acetic acid bacteria on amino acids and biogenic amines profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, J L; Sainz, F; Callejón, R M; Troncoso, A M; Torija, M J; García-Parrilla, M C

    2015-07-01

    This paper studies the amino acid profile of beverages obtained through the fermentation of strawberry purée by a surface culture using three strains belonging to different acetic acid bacteria species (one of Gluconobacter japonicus, one of Gluconobacter oxydans and one of Acetobacter malorum). An HPLC-UV method involving diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate (DEEMM) was adapted and validated. From the entire set of 21 amino acids, multiple linear regressions showed that glutamine, alanine, arginine, tryptophan, GABA and proline were significantly related to the fermentation process. Furthermore, linear discriminant analysis classified 100% of the samples correctly in accordance with the microorganism involved. G. japonicus consumed glucose most quickly and achieved the greatest decrease in amino acid concentration. None of the 8 biogenic amines were detected in the final products, which could serve as a safety guarantee for these strawberry gluconic fermentation beverages, in this regard. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spores of Aspergillus niger as reservoir of glucose oxidase synthesized during solid‐state fermentation and their use as catalyst in gluconic acid production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramachandran, S; Fontanille, P; Pandey, A; Larroche, C

    2007-01-01

    Aims:  To exploit conidiospores of Aspergillus niger as a vector for glucose oxidase extraction from solid media, and their direct use as biocatalyst in the bioconversion of glucose to gluconic acid...

  17. Magnesium Gluconate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium gluconate is used to treat low blood magnesium. Low blood magnesium is caused by gastrointestinal disorders, prolonged vomiting or ... disease, or certain other conditions. Certain drugs lower magnesium levels as well.This medication is sometimes prescribed ...

  18. Evaluation of chemical interactions of maleic acid with sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Nidambur Vasudev; Moorkoth, Sudheer; Mala, Kundabala; Bhat, Kadengodlu Seetharama; Hussen, Syed Sajjad; Pathak, Shriram

    2011-10-01

    The elimination of microorganisms from the root canal system necessitates the use of combination of irrigating solutions to enhance their antimicrobial property. The combination of irrigants and their interaction sometimes could be detrimental to the outcome of the root canal therapy. The purposes of this study were (1) to evaluate the interaction between 7% maleic acid (MA) and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution (CHX) and to find out the availability of individual irrigant and (2) to determine the free available chlorine content when 7% MA was mixed with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution. Interaction between MA and CHX was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Available chlorine content in NaOCl was evaluated by the standard iodine/thiosulfate titration method. It was observed that more than 90% free MA and CHX were available when MA was combined with CHX. It was also observed that there was no precipitate formation when 7% MA was mixed with 2% CHX. Available chlorine content decreased significantly in the MA/NaOCl mixture. There were no adverse interactions or precipitate formation observed when MA was combined with CHX, but the available chlorine content was reduced when NaOCl was mixed with MA. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 21 CFR 582.5452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese gluconate. 582.5452 Section 582.5452 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5452 Manganese gluconate. (a) Product. Manganese gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. Simultaneous production of lactobionic and gluconic acid in cheese whey/glucose co-fermentation by Pseudomonas taetrolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Saúl; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2015-11-01

    Substrate versatility of Pseudomonas taetrolens was evaluated for the first time in a co-fermentation system combining cheese whey and glucose, glycerol or lactose as co-substrates. Results showed that P. taetrolens displayed different production patterns depending on the co-substrate supplied. Whereas the presence of glucose led to a simultaneous co-production of lactobionic (78g/L) and gluconic acid (8.8g/L), lactose feeding stimulated the overproduction of lactobionic acid from whey with a high specific productivity (1.4g/gh) and yield (100%). Co-substrate supply of glycerol conversely led to reduced lactobionic acid yield (82%) but higher cell densities (1.8g/L), channelling the carbon source towards cell growth and maintenance. Higher carbon availability impaired the metabolic activity as well as membrane integrity, whereas lactose feeding improved the cellular functionality of P. taetrolens. Insights into these mixed carbon source strategies open up the possibility of co-producing lactobionic and gluconic acid into an integrated single-cell biorefinery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Whole-cell biotransformation for simultaneous synthesis of L-2-aminobutyric acid and D-gluconic acid in recombinant Escherichia coli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caizhe; Yang, Taowei; Zhou, Junping; Zheng, Junxian; Xu, Meijuan; Zhang, Xian; Rao, Zhiming

    2017-12-25

    A whole-cell catalyst using Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) as a host, expressing L- threonine dehydratase from Escherichia coli, and co-expressing leucine dehydrogenase from Bacillus cereus and glucose dehydrogenase from Bacillus subtilis for cofactor regeneration, was constructed and used for one-pot production of L-2-aminobutyric acid (L-ABA) and D- gluconic acid from L-threonine and D-glucose. We used shake-flask culture to study the whole-cell catalytic condition including temperature, pH, proper permeabilization of cells and optimal wet cells amount. Moreover, the whole-cell catalyst was cultured in 5-L fermentor by fed-batch fermentation, and 164 g/L L-threonine and 248 g/L D-glucose were converted to 141.6 g/L L-ABA and 269.4 g/L D-gluconic acid. The whole-cell catalyst is promising to fulfill industrial requirements for L-ABA and D-gluconic acid.

  2. The acute toxicity of gluconic acid, beta-alaninediacetic acid, diethylenetriaminepentakismethylenephosphonic acid, and nitrilotriacetic acid determined by Daphnia magna, Raphidocelis subcapitata, and Photobacterium phosphoreum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, Mika; Pirkanniemi, Kari; Dhondup, Pasang

    2003-04-01

    Acute toxicity of four relatively new chelating agents and their equimolar manganese and cadmium complexes was studied. The chelating agents studied were gluconic acid (GA), beta-alaninediacetic acid (ADA), diethylenetriaminepentakismethylenephosphonic acid (DTPMP), and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA). Three common bioassays, namely Daphnia magna, Raphidocelis subcapitata, and Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox bioassay) were applied. R. subcapitata proved the most sensitive to these compounds. With D. magna bioassay the LC(50) values were 600-900 mg/L with all other studied chelates and their Mn complexes, except Mn-GA, which yielded LC(50) value of 240 mg/L. The Cd-chelate complexes proved highly more toxic compared to Mn-chelate complexes or uncomplexed chelates exhibiting LC(50) values of 130-200 microg/L. However, Cd-DTPMP was an exception exhibiting LC(50) value of 2170 microg/L. That is to say, DTPMP proved the strongest chelating agent to reduce the Cd toxicity in the present study. The results from these bioassays were well in agreement to each other as well as with the results published elsewhere.

  3. Complexation of Gluconate with Uranium(VI) in Acidic Solutions: Thermodynamic Study with Structural Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhicheng; Helms, G.; Clark, S. B.; Tian, Guoxin; Zanonato, PierLuigi; Rao, Linfeng

    2009-01-05

    Within the pC{sub H} range of 2.5 to 4.2, gluconate forms three uranyl complexes UO{sub 2}(GH{sub 4}){sup +}, UO{sub 2}(GH{sub 3})(aq), and UO{sub 2}(GH{sub 3})(GH{sub 4}){sup -}, through the following reactions: (1) UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} + GH{sub 4}{sup -} = UO{sub 2}(GH{sub 4}){sup +}, (2) UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} + GH{sub 4}{sup -} = UO{sub 2}(GH{sub 3})(aq) + H{sup +}, and (3) UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} + 2GH{sub 4}{sup -} = UO{sub 2}(GH{sub 3})(GH{sub 4}){sup -} + H{sup +}. Complexes were inferred from potentiometric, calorimetric, NMR, and EXAFS studies. Correspondingly, the stability constants and enthalpies were determined to be log {Beta}{sub 1} = 2.2 {+-} 0.3 and {Delta}H{sub 1} = 7.5 {+-} 1.3 kJ mol{sup -1} for reaction (1), log {Beta}{sub 2} = -(0.38 {+-} 0.05) and {Delta}H{sub 2} = 15.4 {+-} 0.3 kJ mol{sup -1} for reaction (2), and log {Beta}{sub 3} = 1.3 {+-} 0.2 and {Delta}H{sub 3} = 14.6 {+-} 0.3 kJ mol{sup -1} for reaction (3), at I = 1.0 M NaClO{sub 4} and t = 25 C. The UO{sub 2}(GH{sub 4}){sup +} complex forms through the bidentate carboxylate binding to U(VI). In the UO{sub 2}(GH{sub 3})(aq) complex, hydroxyl-deprotonated gluconate (GH{sub 3}{sup 2-}) coordinates to U(VI) through the five-membered ring chelation. For the UO{sub 2}(GH{sub 3})(GH{sub 4}){sup -} complex, multiple coordination modes are suggested. These results are discussed in the context of trivalent and pentavalent actinide complexation by gluconate.

  4. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1308 - Ferrous gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-yellow powder or granules. It is prepared by reacting hot solutions of barium or calcium gluconate with ferrous sulfate or by heating freshly prepared ferrous carbonate with gluconic acid in aqueous solution...) of the act (21 U.S.C. 350a(a)(2)). (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses...

  6. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  7. Accumulation of the mycotoxin patulin in the presence of gluconic acid contributes to pathogenicity of Penicillium expansum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barad, Shiri; Horowitz, Sigal Brown; Kobiler, Ilana; Sherman, Amir; Prusky, Dov

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium expansum, the causal agent of blue mold rot, causes severe postharvest fruit maceration through secretion of D-gluconic acid (GLA) and secondary metabolites such as the mycotoxin patulin in colonized tissue. GLA involvement in pathogenicity has been suggested but the mechanism of patulin accumulation and its contribution to P. expansum pathogenicity remain unclear. The roles of GLA and patulin accumulation in P. expansum pathogenicity were studied using i) glucose oxidase GOX2-RNAi mutants exhibiting decreased GOX2 expression, GLA accumulation, and reduced pathogenicity; ii) IDH-RNAi mutants exhibiting downregulation of IDH (the last gene in patulin biosynthesis), reduced patulin accumulation, and no effect on GLA level; and iii) PACC-RNAi mutants exhibiting downregulation of both GOX2 and IDH that reduced GLA and patulin production. Present results indicate that conditions enhancing the decrease in GLA accumulation by GOX2-RNAi and PACC-RNAi mutants, and not low pH, affected patulin accumulation, suggesting GLA production as the driving force for further patulin accumulation. Thus, it is suggested that GLA accumulation may modulate patulin synthesis as a direct precursor under dynamic pH conditions modulating the activation of the transcription factor PACC and the consequent pathogenicity factors, which contribute to host-tissue colonization by P. expansum.

  8. Combinatorial metabolic engineering of industrial Gluconobacter oxydans DSM2343 for boosting 5-keto-D-gluconic acid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jianfeng; Wu, Mianbin; Lin, Jianping; Yang, Lirong

    2016-05-17

    L-(+)-tartaric acid (L-TA) is an important organic acid, which is produced from the cream of tartar or stereospecific hydrolysis of the cis-epoxysuccinate. The former method is limited by the availability of raw material and the latter is dependent on the petrochemical material. Thus, new processes for the economical preparation of L-TA from carbohydrate or renewable resource would be much more attractive. Production of 5-keto-D-gluconate (5-KGA) from glucose by Gluconobacter oxydans is the first step to produce L-TA. The aim of this work is to enhance 5-KGA accumulation using combinatorial metabolic engineering strategies in G. oxydans. The sldAB gene, encoding sorbitol dehydrogenase, was overexpressed in an industrial strain G. oxydans ZJU2 under a carefully selected promoter, P0169. To enhance the efficiency of the oxidation by sldAB, the coenzyme pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) and respiratory chain were engineered. Besides, the role in sldAB overexpression, coenzyme and respiratory chain engineering and their subsequent effects on 5-KGA production were investigated. An efficient, stable recombinant strain was constructed, whereas the 5-KGA production could be enhanced. By self-overexpressing the sldAB gene in G. oxydans ZJU2 under the constitutive promoter P0169, the resulting strain, G. oxydans ZJU3, produced 122.48 ± 0.41 g/L of 5-KGA. Furthermore, through the coenzyme and respiratory chain engineering, the titer and productivity of 5-KGA reached 144.52 ± 2.94 g/L and 2.26 g/(L · h), respectively, in a 15 L fermenter. It could be further improved the 5-KGA titer by 12.10 % through the fed-batch fermentation under the pH shift and dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) control condition, obtained 162 ± 2.12 g/L with the productivity of 2.53 g/(L · h) within 64 h. The 5-KGA production could be significantly enhanced with the combinatorial metabolic engineering strategy in Gluconobacter strain, including sldAB overexpression, coenzyme

  9. Analytical expressions for the steady-state concentrations of glucose, oxygen and gluconic acid in a composite membrane for closed-loop insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, L; Bieniasz, L K

    2013-02-01

    The mathematical model of Abdekhodaie and Wu (J Membr Sci 335:21-31, 2009) of glucose-responsive composite membranes for closed-loop insulin delivery is discussed. The glucose composite membrane contains nanoparticles of an anionic polymer, glucose oxidase and catalase embedded in a hydrophobic polymer. The model involves the system of nonlinear steady-state reaction-diffusion equations. Analytical expressions for the concentration of glucose, oxygen and gluconic acid are derived from these equations using the Adomian decomposition method. A comparison of the analytical approximation and numerical simulation is also presented. An agreement between analytical expressions and numerical results is observed.

  10. Assay of calcium borogluconate veterinary medicines for calcium gluconate, boric acid, phosphorus, and magnesium by using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, D.J.; Spann, K.P.

    1985-03-01

    An inductively coupled plasma spectrometric method is described for the determination of 4 elements (Ca, B, P, and Mg) in calcium borogluconate veterinary medicines. Samples are diluted, acidified, and sprayed directly into the plasma. Reproducibility relative confidence intervals for a single sample assay are +/- 1.4% (calcium), +/- 1.8% (boron), +/- 2.6% (phosphorus), and +/- 1.4% (magnesium). The total element concentrations for each of 4 elements compared favorably with concentrations determined by alternative methods. Formulation estimates of levels of calcium gluconate, boric acid, phosphorus, and magnesium salts can be made from the analytical data.

  11. High efficiency cell-recycle continuous sodium gluconate production by Aspergillus niger using on-line physiological parameters association analysis to regulate feed rate rationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fei; Li, Chao; Wang, Zejian; Zhao, Wei; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a system of cell-recycle continuous fermentation for sodium gluconate (SG) production by Aspergillus niger (A. niger) was established. Based on initial continuous fermentation result (100.0h) with constant feed rate, an automatic feedback strategy to regulate feed rate using on-line physiological parameters (OUR and DO) was proposed and applied successfully for the first time in the improved continuous fermentation (240.5h). Due to less auxiliary time, highest SG production rate (31.05±0.29gL(-1)h(-1)) and highest yield (0.984±0.067molmol(-1)), overall SG production capacity (975.8±5.8gh(-1)) in 50-L fermentor of improved continuous fermentation increased more than 300.0% compared to that of batch fermentation. Improvement of mass transfer and dispersed mycelia morphology were the two major reasons responsible for the high SG production rate. This system had been successfully applied to industrial fermentation and SG production was greatly improved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. DNA-guided assembly of a five-component enzyme cascade for enhanced conversion of cellulose to gluconic acid and H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Yu, Sooyoun; Myung, Nosang; Chen, Wilfred

    2017-12-10

    Enzymatic fuel cells have received considerable attention because of their potential for direct conversion of abundant raw materials such as cellulose to electricity. The use of multi-enzyme cascades is particularly attractive as they offer the possibility of achieving a series of complex reactions at higher efficiencies. Here we reported the use of a DNA-guided approach to assemble a five-component enzyme cascade for direct conversion of cellulose to gluconic acid and H 2 O 2 . Site-specific co-localization of β-glucosidase and glucose oxidase resulted in over 11-fold improvement in H 2 O 2 production from cellobiose, highlighting the benefit of substrate channeling. Although a more modest 1.5-fold improvement in H 2 O 2 production was observed using a five-enzyme cascade, due to H 2 O 2 inhibition on enzyme activity, these results demonstrated the possibility to enhance the production of gluconic acid and H 2 O 2 directly from cellulose by DNA-guided enzyme assembly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 21 CFR 582.5260 - Copper gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper gluconate. 582.5260 Section 582.5260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5308 - Ferrous gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous gluconate. 582.5308 Section 582.5308 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  16. Coencapsulation of oxygen carriers and glucose oxidase in polyelectrolyte complex capsules for the enhancement of D-gluconic acid and delta-gluconolactone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucko, Marek; Gemeiner, Peter; Vikartovská, Alica; Mislovicová, Danica; Lacík, Igor; Tkác, Ján

    2010-04-01

    A novel encapsulated oxidative biocatalyst comprising glucose oxidase (GOD) coencapsulated with oxygen carriers within polyelectrolyte complex capsules was developed for the production of D-gluconic acid and delta-gluconolactone. The capsules containing immobilized GOD were produced by polyelectrolyte complexation with sodium alginate (SA) and cellulose sulfate (CS) as polyanions, poly(methylene-co-guanidine) (PMCG) as the polycation, CaCl(2) as the gelling agent and NaCl as the antigelling agent (GOD-SA-CS/PMCG capsules). Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and an emulsion of n-dodecane (DOD) or perfluorodecaline (PFD) with PDMS were used as the oxygen carriers and MnO(2) was used as a hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalyst. Water-soluble PDMS was found to act as both an oxygen carrier and an emulsifier of water-insoluble DOD and PFD. Stable microcapsules could be produced with concentrations of up to 4% (w/w) of PDMS, 10% (w/w) of DOD and PFD, and 25% (w/w) of MnO(2) in the polyanion solution of SA and CS. Roughly a two-fold increase in the GOD activity from 21.0+/-1.1 to 38.4+/-2.0 U*g(-1) and product space-time yields (STY) from 44.3+/-2.0 to 83.4+/-3.4 g*H*day(-1) could be achieved utilizing coencapsulated oxygen carriers compared to GOD encapsulated in the absence of oxygen carriers. This enhanced production does not significantly depend on the selected oxygen carrier under the conditions used in this study.

  17. Biochemical characterization of human gluconokinase and the proposed metabolic impact of gluconic Acid as determined by constraint based metabolic network analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohatgi, Neha; Nielsen, Tine Kragh; Bjørn, Sara Petersen

    2014-01-01

    of gluconate in humans. Here we report the recombinant expression, purification and biochemical characterization of isoform I of human gluconokinase alongside substrate specificity and kinetic assays of the enzyme catalyzed reaction. The enzyme, shown to be a dimer, had ATP dependent phosphorylation activity...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1260 - Copper gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copper gluconate. 184.1260 Section 184.1260 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1260 Copper gluconate. (a) Copper gluconate (cupric gluconate... solutions with cupric oxide or basic cupric carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

  19. 77 FR 65824 - Calcium Gluconate; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ...; thickeners such as carrageenan and modified cellulose; wetting, spreading, and dispersing agents; propellants in aerosol dispensers; microencapsulating agents; and emulsifiers. The term ``inert'' is not intended... that gluconic acid was not mutagenic with or without metabolic activation. In various subchronic...

  20. Continuously Tunable Nucleic Acid Hybridization Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lucia R.; Wang, J. Sherry; Fang, John Z.; Reiser, Emily; Pinto, Alessandro; Pekker, Irena; Boykin, Richard; Ngouenet, Celine; Webster, Philippa J.; Beechem, Joseph; Zhang, David Yu

    2015-01-01

    In silico designed nucleic acid probes and primers often fail to achieve favorable specificity and sensitivity tradeoffs on the first try, and iterative empirical sequence-based optimization is needed, particularly in multiplexed assays. Here, we present a novel, on-the-fly method of tuning probe affinity and selectivity via the stoichiometry of auxiliary species, allowing independent and decoupled adjustment of hybridization yield for different probes in multiplexed assays. Using this method, we achieve near-continuous tuning of probe effective free energy (0.03 kcal·mol−1 granularity). As applications, we enforced uniform capture efficiency of 31 DNA molecules (GC content 0% – 100%), maximized signal difference for 11 pairs of single nucleotide variants, and performed tunable hybrid-capture of mRNA from total RNA. Using the Nanostring nCounter platform, we applied stoichiometric tuning to simultaneously adjust yields for a 24-plex assay, and we show multiplexed quantitation of RNA sequences and variants from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples (FFPE). PMID:26480474

  1. Efficacy of chlorhexidine gluconate ointment (Oronine H® for experimentally-induced comedones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamakoshi T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Takako Yamakoshi,1 Teruhiko Makino,1 Kenji Matsunaga,1 Yoko Yoshihisa,1 Mati Ur Rehman,1 Taisuke Seki,2 Yoshito Hayashi,3 Tadamichi Shimizu11Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama-shi, Toyama; 2Seki Dermatological Clinic, Toyama-shi, Toyama; 3Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory Inc, Naruto-shi, Tokushima, JapanBackground: Oronine H® ointment, which contains chlorhexidine gluconate as its active component, is a well known disinfectant, and has been widely used for treatment of acne in Japan. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of this ointment on the formation of comedones induced by application of 50% oleic acid on the orifices of the external auditory canals of rabbits.Methods: The application sites were observed with a dermatoscope, and the area of the hair pores was measured using an Image analysis software program.Results: The chlorhexidine gluconate ointment inhibited comedone formation significantly more effectively than the liquid paraffin used as a control (P < 0.001. We also investigated the therapeutic effect of this ointment on comedones. After starting application of chlorhexidine gluconate ointment or liquid paraffin on the comedone area, the hair pore size was gradually decreased in the group treated with chlorhexidine gluconate ointment compared with the hair pore size at baseline.Conclusion: These results suggest that chlorhexidine gluconate ointment is effective for inhibiting comedone formation as well as for treating already formed comedones. Chlorhexidine gluconate ointment is a useful topical medicine for the treatment of early-stage acne and for preventing acne.Keywords: chlorhexidine gluconate ointment, comedones, dermatoscope, oleic acid

  2. Continuous Cultivation of Photosynthetic Bacteria for Fatty Acids Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Ji-Hye; Hwang, Yuhoon

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we introduced a novel approach for microbial fatty acids (FA) production. Photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides KD131, were cultivated in a continuous-flow, stirred-tank reactor (CFSTR) at various substrate (lactate) concentrations.At hydraulic retention time (HRT) 4....... sphaeroides was around 35% of dry cell weight, mainly composed of vaccenic acid (C18:1, omega-7)....

  3. Development of a mutant strain of Aspergillus niger and optimization of some physical factors for improved calcium gluconate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S; Banik, A K

    1994-12-01

    In the course of mutation studies of Aspergillus niger strain AB with ethylene imine (1:4000), a mutant A. niger AB 501, produced greater amount of calcium gluconate in the culture broth (88.0 g/lit) as against the parent strain (36.0 g/lit) by the surface culture method of fermentation. This mutant was then exposed to UV-rays and a mutant, A.niger AB 1801, was found to produce high calcium gluconate in the culture broth (120 g/lit). The optimum cultural conditions for the production of calcium gluconate by A.niger AB 1801 were pH, 6.5; period of incubation, 9 days; volume of medium in 1 litre flask, 150 ml; temperature, 30 degrees C, volume of inoculum, 7.5 ml of cell suspension containing 2.6 x 10(7) spores and age of inoculum, 6 days old spores of A. niger AB 1801. The maximum yield of calcium gluconate to the above conditions was 168 g/lit. The cultural conditions that support maximum cultural growth did not, however, give optimal yield of calcium gluconate because after having yielded the maximum of calcium gluconate the growth of organism continued to increase further.

  4. Corrosion Inhibition by Sodium Gluconate-Zn2+-DTPMP System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Manjula

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency of a phosphonic acid, Diethylene Triamine Pentamethylene Phosphonic acid (DTPMP in controlling corrosion of carbon steel immersed in an aqueous solution containing 60 ppm of Cl- has been evaluated by weight loss method in the absence and presence of Zn2+. The formulation consisting of DTPMP and Zn2+ has excellent inhibition efficiency (IE. A synergistic effect is noticed between Zn2+ and DTPMP. Addition of sodium gluconate (SG enhances the IE of Zn2+ and DTPMP system. The DTPMP-Zn2+-SG system function as a mixed inhibitor as revealed by polarization study. AC impedance spectrum, optical and atomic force micrographs reveal the formation of a protective film on the metal surface. FTIR spectra reveal that the protective film consists of Fe2+-DTPMP complex, Fe2+-SG complex and Zn(OH2.

  5. Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor for Continuous Lactic Acid Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Ebrahimi, Mehrdad; Czermak, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Membrane bioreactor systems can enhance anaerobic lactic acid fermentation by reducing product inhibition, thus increasing productivity. In batch fermentations, the bioconversion of glucose is strongly inhibited in the presence of more than 100 g·L−1 lactic acid and is only possible when the product is simultaneously removed, which can be achieved by ceramic membrane filtration. The crossflow velocity is a more important determinant of flux than the transmembrane pressure. Therefore, to stabilize the performance of the membrane bioreactor system during continuous fermentation, the crossflow velocity was controlled by varying the biomass concentration, which was monitored in real-time using an optical sensor. Continuous fermentation under these conditions, thus, achieved a stable productivity of ~8 g·L−1·h−1 and the concentration of lactic acid was maintained at ~40 g·L−1 at a dilution rate of 0.2 h−1. No residual sugar was detected in the steady state with a feed concentration of 50 g·L−1. PMID:28467384

  6. Enhancement of 5-keto-d-gluconate production by a recombinant Gluconobacter oxydans using a dissolved oxygen control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jianfeng; Wu, Mianbin; Lin, Jianping; Yang, Lirong

    2016-07-01

    The rapid and incomplete oxidation of sugars, alcohols, and polyols by the gram-negative bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans facilitates a wide variety of biological applications. For the conversion of glucose to 5-keto-d-gluconate (5-KGA), a promising precursor of the industrial substance L-(+)-tartaric acid, G. oxydans DSM2343 was genetically engineered to strain ZJU2, in which the GOX1231 and GOX1081 genes were knocked out in a markerless fashion. Then, a secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (GCD) from Xanthomonas campestris DSM3586 was heterologously expressed in G. oxydans ZJU2. The 5-KGA production and cell yield were increased by 10% and 24.5%, respectively. The specific activity of GCD towards gluconate was 1.75±0.02 U/mg protein, which was 7-fold higher than that of the sldAB in G. oxydans. Based on the analysis of kinetic parameters including specific cell growth rate (μ), specific glucose consumption rate (qs) and specific 5-KGA production rate (qp), a dissolved oxygen (DO) control strategy was proposed. Finally, batch fermentation was carried out in a 15-L bioreactor using an initial agitation speed of 600 rpm to obtain a high μ for cell growth. Subsequently, DO was continuously maintained above 20% to achieve a high qp to ensure a high accumulation of 5-KGA. Under these conditions, the maximum concentration of 5-KGA reached 117.75 g/L with a productivity of 2.10 g/(L·h). Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Laboratory testing of a continuous emissions monitor for hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dene, Chuck; Pisano, John T; Durbin, Thomas D; Bumiller, Kurt; Crabbe, Keith; Muzio, Lawrence J

    2014-06-01

    Continuous monitoring of exhaust flue gas has become a common practice in power plants in response to Federal Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) standards. Under the current rules, hydrochloric acid (HCl) is not continuously measured at most plants; however, MATS standards have been proposed for HCl, and tunable diode laser (TDL) absorption spectroscopy is one method that can be used to measure HCl continuously. The focus of this work is on the evaluation and verification of the operation performance of an HCL TDL over a range of real-world operating environments. The testing was conducted at the University of California at Riverside (UCR) spectroscopy evaluation laboratory. Laboratory tests were conducted at three separate temperatures, 25 degrees C, 100 degrees C, and 200 degrees C, and two distinct moisture levels for the enhanced temperatures, 0%, (2 tests) and 4%, over a concentration range from 0 ppmv to 25 ppmv-m at each of the elevated temperatures. The results showed good instrument accuracy as afunction of changing temperature and moisture. Data analysis showed that the average percentage difference between the ammonia concentration and the calibration source was 3.33% for varying moisture from 0% to 4% and 2.69%for varying temperature from 25 to 100/200 degrees C. An HCl absorption line of 1.742 microm was selected for by the manufacturer for this instrument. The Hi Tran database indicated that CO2 is probably the only major interferent, although the CO2 absorption is very weak at that wavelength. Interference tests for NO, CO, SO2, NH3, and CO2 for a range of concentrations typical of flue gasses in coal-fired power plants did not show any interference with TDL HCl measurements at 1.742 microm. For these interference tests, CO2 was tested at a concentration of 11.9% concentration in N2 for these tests. Average precision over the entire range for all 10 tests is 3.12%. The focus of this study was.an evaluation of the operation performance of a

  8. Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of Glass Ionomer Cements with and without Chlorhexidine Gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadiki, Josna Vinutha; Jampanapalli, Sharada Reddy; Konda, Suhasini; Inguva, Hema Chandrika; Chimata, Vamsi Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Chlorhexidine gluconate is a widely used antimicrobial agent. Adding chlorhexidine and quaternary ammonium compounds to filling materials, such as composite resins, acrylic resins, and glass ionomer cements increases the antibacterial property of restorative materials. This study includes antibacterial property of glass ionomer restorative cements with chlorhexidine gluconate. The primary objective of our study was to compare the antimicrobial properties of two commercially available glass ionomer cements with and without chlorhexidine gluconate on strains of mutans streptococci. Two glass ionomers (Fuji II Conventional and Fuji IX) were used. Chlorhexidine gluconate was mixed with glass ionomer cements, and antimicrobial properties against mutans streptococci were assessed by agar diffusion. The tested bacterial strain was inhibited and the antimicrobial properties decreased with time. The highest amount of antimicrobial activity with mean inhibitory zone was found in Fuji II with chlorhexidine gluconate followed by Fuji IX with chlorhexidine gluconate, Fuji II without chlorhexidine gluconate, and Fuji IX without chlorhexidine gluconate. The results of the study confirmed that the addition of 5% chlorhexidine gluconate to Fuji II and Fuji IX glass ionomer cements resulted in a restorative material that had increased antimicrobial properties over the conventional glass ionomer cements alone for Streptococcus mutans. How to cite this article: Yadiki JV, Jampanapalli SR , Konda S, Inguva HC, Chimata VK. Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of Glass Ionomer Cements with and without Chlorhexidine Gluconate. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):99-103.

  9. Step Changes and Deactivation Behavior in the Continuous Decarboxylation of Stearic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Rozmysłowicz, Bartosz; Simakova, Irina L.

    2011-01-01

    Deoxygenation of dilute and concentrated stearic acid over 2% Pd/C beads was performed in a continuous reactor at 300 °C and 20 bar pressure of Ar or 5% H2/Ar. Stable operation was obtained in 5% H2 atmosphere, with 95% conversion of 10 mol % dilute stearic acid in dodecane and 12% conversion...

  10. Development and performance test of a continuous source of nitrous acid (HONO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammann, M.; Roessler, E.; Kalberer, M.; Bruetsch, S.; Schwikowski, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Zellweger, C.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Laboratory investigations involving nitrous acid (HONO) require a stable, continuous source of HONO at ppb levels. A flow type generation system based on the reaction of sodium nitrite with sulfuric acid has been developed. Performance and speciation of gaseous products were tested with denuder and chemiluminescence techniques. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  11. Continuous Catalyst-Free Esterification of Oleic Acid in Compressed Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carolina de Araujo Abdala; Vitor Augusto dos Santos Garcia; Caroline Portilho Trentini; Lúcio Cardozo Filho; Edson Antonio da Silva; Camila da Silva

    2014-01-01

    The esterification of oleic acid in a continuous catalyst-free process using compressed ethanol was investigated in the present study. Experiments were performed in a tubular reactor and variables investigated were temperature, pressure, and oleic acid to ethanol molar ratio for different residence time. Results demonstrated that temperature, in the range of 473 K to 573 K, and pressure had a positive effect on fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) production. In the experimental range investigated,...

  12. Process Intensification of Enzymatic Fatty Acid Butyl Ester Synthesis Using a Continuous Centrifugal Contactor Separator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilmi, Miftahul; Abduh, Muhammad Yusuf; Hommes, Arne; Winkelman, Jozef; Hidayat, C.; Heeres, Hero

    2018-01-01

    Fatty acid butyl esters were synthesized from sunflower oil with 1-butanol using a homogeneous Rhizomucor miehei lipase in a biphasic organic (triglyceride, 1-butanol, hexane)– water (with enzyme) system in a continuous setup consisting of a cascade of a stirred tank reactor and a continuous

  13. Esterification of fatty acids with short-chain alcohols over commercial acid clays in a semi-continuous reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neji, S. B.; Trabelsi, M.; Frikha, M. H. [Laboratory of Applied Chemistry: Heterocycles, Fats and Polymers, Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Route de Soukra Km 3.5, 3038-Sfax (Tunisia)

    2009-07-01

    Production of fatty acid esters from stearic, oleic, and palmitic acids and short-chain alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol) for the production of biodiesel was investigated in this work. A series of montmorillonite-based clays catalysts (KSF, KSF/0, KP10, and K10) were used as acidic catalysts. The influence of the specific surface area and the acidity of the catalysts on the esterification rate were investigated. The best catalytic activities were obtained with KSF/0 catalyst. The esterification reaction has been carried out efficiently in a semi-continuous reactor at 150 {sup o}C temperature higher than the boiling points of water and alcohol. The reactor used enabled the continuous removal of water and esterification with hydrated alcohol (ethanol 95%) without affecting the original activity of the clay. (author)

  14. Esterification of Fatty Acids with Short-Chain Alcohols over Commercial Acid Clays in a Semi-Continuous Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. Frikha

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Production of fatty acid esters from stearic, oleic, and palmitic acids and short-chain alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol for the production of biodiesel was investigated in this work. A series of montmorillonite-based clays catalysts (KSF, KSF/0, KP10, and K10 were used as acidic catalysts. The influence of the specific surface area and the acidity of the catalysts on the esterification rate were investigated. The best catalytic activities were obtained with KSF/0 catalyst. The esterification reaction has been carried out efficiently in a semi-continuous reactor at 150°C temperature higher than the boiling points of water and alcohol. The reactor used enabled the continuous removal of water and esterification with hydrated alcohol (ethanol 95% without affecting the original activity of the clay.

  15. Step changes and deactivation behaviour in the continuous decarboxylation of stearic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Rozmyslowicz, B.; Simakova, I.

    2011-01-01

    Deoxygenation of dilute and concentrated stearic acid over 2% Pd/C beads was performed in a continuous reactor at 300 degrees C and 20 bar pressure of Ar or 5% H-2/Ar. Stable operation was obtained in 5% H-2 atmosphere, with 95% conversion of 10 mol % dilute stearic acid in dodecane and 12......% conversion of pure stearic acid. Deactivation took place in H-2-deficient gas atmosphere, probably as a result of the formation of unsaturated products and coking in the pore system. Transient experiments with step changes were performed: 1 h was required for the step change to be visible in liquid sampling...

  16. Bactericidal Effects and Mechanism of Action of Olanexidine Gluconate, a New Antiseptic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagi, Akifumi; Iwata, Koushi; Nii, Takuya; Nakata, Hikaru; Tsubotani, Yoshie; Inoue, Yasuhide

    2015-08-01

    Olanexidine gluconate [1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-5-octylbiguanide gluconate] (development code OPB-2045G) is a new monobiguanide compound with bactericidal activity. In this study, we assessed its spectrum of bactericidal activity and mechanism of action. The minimal bactericidal concentrations of the compound for 30-, 60-, and 180-s exposures were determined with the microdilution method using a neutralizer against 320 bacterial strains from culture collections and clinical isolates. Based on the results, the estimated bactericidal olanexidine concentrations with 180-s exposures were 869 μg/ml for Gram-positive cocci (155 strains), 109 μg/ml for Gram-positive bacilli (29 strains), and 434 μg/ml for Gram-negative bacteria (136 strains). Olanexidine was active against a wide range of bacteria, especially Gram-positive cocci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and had a spectrum of bactericidal activity comparable to that of commercial antiseptics, such as chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine. In vitro experiments exploring its mechanism of action indicated that olanexidine (i) interacts with the bacterial surface molecules, such as lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid, (ii) disrupts the cell membranes of liposomes, which are artificial bacterial membrane models, (iii) enhances the membrane permeability of Escherichia coli, (iv) disrupts the membrane integrity of S. aureus, and (v) denatures proteins at relatively high concentrations (≥160 μg/ml). These results indicate that olanexidine probably binds to the cell membrane, disrupts membrane integrity, and its bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects are caused by irreversible leakage of intracellular components. At relatively high concentrations, olanexidine aggregates cells by denaturing proteins. This mechanism differs slightly from that of a similar biguanide compound, chlorhexidine. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights

  17. Continuous Catalyst-Free Esterification of Oleic Acid in Compressed Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Araujo Abdala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The esterification of oleic acid in a continuous catalyst-free process using compressed ethanol was investigated in the present study. Experiments were performed in a tubular reactor and variables investigated were temperature, pressure, and oleic acid to ethanol molar ratio for different residence time. Results demonstrated that temperature, in the range of 473 K to 573 K, and pressure had a positive effect on fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE production. In the experimental range investigated, high conversions can be obtained at low ethanol concentrations in the reaction medium and it was observed that oleic acid to ethanol molar ratios greater than 1 : 6 show no significant increase in conversion. Nonnegligible reaction conversions (>90% were achieved at 573 K, 20 MPa, oleic acid to ethanol molar ratio of 1 : 6, and 20 minutes of residence time.

  18. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of performic acid in a continuous flow microstructured reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolhe, P D; Bhanvase, B A; Patil, V S; Sonawane, S H; Potoroko, I

    2017-11-01

    The present work establishes in depth study of ultrasound assisted preparation of performic acid (PFA) in a continuous flow microstructured reactor. The influence of various parameters viz. formic acid: hydrogen peroxide molar ratio, flow rate, temperature and catalyst loading on the PFA formation were studied in a continuous flow microstructured reactor. In a continuous microstructured reactor in the presence of ultrasonic irradiation, the formation of PFA was found to be dependent on the molar ratio of formic acid: hydrogen peroxide, flow rate of reactants, temperature and catalyst loading (Amberlite IR-120H). The optimized parameter values are 1:1M ratio, 50mL/h, 40°C and 471mg/cm(3) respectively. Further, the performance of Amberlite IR-120H catalyst was evaluated for three successive cycles in continuous microstructured reactor. The performance of catalyst was found to be decreased with the usage of the catalyst and is attributed to neutralization of the sulfonic acid groups, catalyst shrinkage, or loss in pore sites. The experimental results revealed that, for an ultrasound assisted synthesis of PFA in continuous microstructured reactor the observed reaction time was even less than 10min. The observed intensification in the PFA synthesis process can be attributed to the intense collapse of the cavities formed at low temperature during ultrasonic irradiations, which further improved the heat and mass transfer rates with the formation of H2O2 during the reaction. The combined use of ultrasound and a continuous flow microstructured reactor has proved beneficial process of performic acid synthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fluorouracil continuous infusion plus alfa interferon plus oral folinic acid in advanced colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, C. J.; de Mulder, P. H.; Burghouts, J. T.; Wagener, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Several reports on fluorouracil (5-FU) and alfa interferon (IFN-alpha) combination therapy in patients with advanced colorectal cancer have been published. In our study high-dose continuous infusion 5-FU (60 mg/kg per 48 hours), oral folinic acid (FA) (8 x 90 mg during 5-FU), and IFN-alpha three

  20. Pulse versus continuous peracetic acid applications: effects on Rainbow trout performance, biofilm formation and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peracetic acid (PAA) products are being introduced to aquaculture as sustainable disinfectants. Two strategies are used to apply PAA: short term high dose (1-2 mg L-1 PAA) periodic pulse applications or continuous low dose (< 0.2 mg L-1 PAA) applications. In the present study, these strategies and a...

  1. Continuous Ethanol Production with a Membrane Bioreactor at High Acetic Acid Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Ylitervo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The release of inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid from lignocellulosic raw materials during hydrolysis is one of the main concerns for 2nd generation ethanol production. The undissociated form of acetic acid can enter the cell by diffusion through the plasma membrane and trigger several toxic effects, such as uncoupling and lowered intracellular pH. The effect of acetic acid on the ethanol production was investigated in continuous cultivations by adding medium containing 2.5 to 20.0 g·L−1 acetic acid at pH 5.0, at a dilution rate of 0.5 h−1. The cultivations were performed at both high (~25 g·L−1 and very high (100–200 g·L−1 yeast concentration by retaining the yeast cells inside the reactor by a cross-flow membrane in a membrane bioreactor. The yeast was able to steadily produce ethanol from 25 g·L−1 sucrose, at volumetric rates of 5–6 g·L−1·h−1 at acetic acid concentrations up to 15.0 g·L−1. However, the yeast continued to produce ethanol also at a concentration of 20 g·L−1 acetic acid but at a declining rate. The study thereby demonstrates the great potential of the membrane bioreactor for improving the robustness of the ethanol production based on lignocellulosic raw materials.

  2. Stimulatory effect of indole-3-acetic acid and continuous illumination on the growth of Parachlorella kessleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magierek, Edyta; Krzemińska, Izabela; Tys, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    The effects of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid and various conditions of illumination on the growth of Parachlorella kessleri were investigated. Two variants of illumination: continuous and photoperiod 16/8 h (light/dark) and two concentrations of the phytohormone - 10-4 M and 10-5 M of indole-3-acetic acid were used in the experiment. The results of this study show that the addition of the higher concentration of indole-3-acetic acid stimulated the growth of P. kessleri more efficiently than the addition of the lower concentration of indole-3-acetic acid. This dependence can be observed in both variants of illumination. Increased biomass productivity was observed in the photo-period conditions. Both the addition of the phytohormone and the conditions of the illumination had an impact on the number of P. kessleri cells. An increased number of cells was observed under the conditions of continuous illumination. This result has shown that the continuous illumination and the higher concentration of the phytohormone stimulated the growth of P. kessleri more effectively than the shorter duration of light (16/8 h (light/dark)).

  3. Continuous bio-hydrogen production from citric acid wastewater via facultative anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haijun; Shen, Jianquan [Institute of Chemistry, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100080 (China); Shao, Peng; Yuan, Xing [Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Lu, Tingmao; Wang, Dufu; Xu, Zhinian [Shandong Environment Protection Industry Co. Ltd, Jinan 250014 (China)

    2006-08-15

    In this study, continuous biological hydrogen production using wastewater from citric acid factory as raw materials was investigated. And enrichment cultures from facultative hydrogen-producing anaerobe together with citric acid wastewater were utilized. For finding out the industrialized feasibility of continuous H2 bio-production, the ability of H2-production via facultative anaerobe, optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) and optimum volume loading rate (VLR) were also studied. The experimental results showed that facultative anaerobic bacteria could yield hydrogen as high as 0.84 mol/H{sub 2}/ mol hexose consumed at the VLR of 38.4 kg COD/m{sup 3} d. Butyric acid was the dominant product among volatile fatty acids (VFAs). An improved upward-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor with a working volume 50m{sup 3} was used. Continuous hydrogen yield was 0.72 m{sup 3} H{sub 2}/m{sup 3} reactor d under the following conditions: temperature at 35-38{sup o}, initial pH at 6.8-7.2, HRT=12. The study also indicates that the reactor used has a better operational stability and the facultative anaerobe has an excellent adaptive capacity for organic loading rate. Furthermore, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency exceeded 60% and the total sugar degradation efficiency (TSDE) was close to or over 90%, even up to 96.6% at HRT of 12 h during the experiment. (author)

  4. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and quantitative analysis of metal gluconates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaoxian; Yang, Jingqi; Zhao, Hongwei; Yang, Na; Jing, Dandan; Zhang, Jianbing; Li, Qingnuan; Han, Jiaguang

    2015-01-01

    A series of metal gluconates (Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Fe(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+)) were investigated by terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy. The absorption coefficients and refractive indices of the samples were obtained in the frequency range of 0.5-2.6 THz. The gluconates showed distinct THz characteristic fingerprints, and the dissimilarities reflect their different structures, hydrogen-bond networks, and molecular interactions. In addition, some common features were observed among these gluconates, and the similarities probably come from the similar carbohydrate anion group. The X-ray powder diffraction measurements of these metal gluconates were performed, and the copper(II) gluconate was found to be amorphous, corresponding to the monotonic increase feature in the THz absorption spectrum. The results suggest that THz spectroscopy is sensitive to molecular structure and physical form. Binary and ternary mixtures of different gluconates were quantitatively analyzed based on the Beer-Lambert law. A chemical map of a tablet containing calcium D-gluconate monohydrate and α-lactose in the polyethylene host was obtained by THz imaging. The study shows that THz technology is a useful tool in pharmaceutical research and quality control applications.

  5. Process Intensification of Enzymatic Fatty Acid Butyl Ester Synthesis Using a Continuous Centrifugal Contactor Separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmi, Miftahul; Abduh, Muhammad Y; Hommes, Arne; Winkelman, Jozef G M; Hidayat, Chusnul; Heeres, Hero J

    2018-01-17

    Fatty acid butyl esters were synthesized from sunflower oil with 1-butanol using a homogeneous Rhizomucor miehei lipase in a biphasic organic (triglyceride, 1-butanol, hexane)- water (with enzyme) system in a continuous setup consisting of a cascade of a stirred tank reactor and a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS), the latter being used for integrated reaction and liquid-liquid separation. A fatty acid butyl ester yield up to 93% was obtained in the cascade when operated in a once-through mode. The cascade was run for 8 h without operational issues. Enzyme recycling was studied by reintroduction of the water phase from the CCCS outlet to the stirred tank reactor. Product yield decreased over time to an average of 50% of the initial value, likely due to accumulation of 1-butanol in water phase, loss of enzyme due to agglomeration, and the formation of a separate enzyme layer.

  6. Solid-phase synthesis of graphitic carbon nanostructures from iron and cobalt gluconates and their utilization as electrocatalyst supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla, M; Salinas Martínez-de Lecea, C; Valdés-Solís, T; Morallón, E; Fuertes, A B

    2008-03-14

    We present a novel and facile synthesis methodology for obtaining graphitic carbon structures from Fe(II) and Co(II) gluconates. The formation of graphitic carbon can be carried out in only one step by means of heat treatment of these organic salts at a temperature of 900 degrees C or 1000 degrees C under inert atmosphere. This process consists of the following steps: (a) pyrolysis of the organic gluconate and its transformation to amorphous carbon, (b) conversion of Fe(2+) and Co(2+) ions to Fe(2)O(3) and CoO and their subsequent reduction to metallic nanoparticles by the carbon and (c) conversion of a fraction of formed amorphous carbon to graphitic structures by Fe and Co nanoparticles that act as catalysts in the graphitization process. The removal of the amorphous carbon and metallic nanoparticles by means of oxidative treatment (KMnO(4) in an acid solution) allows graphitic carbon nanostructures (GCNs) to be selectively recovered. The GCNs thus obtained (i.e. nanocapsules and nanopipes) have a high crystallinity as evidenced by TEM/SAED, XRD and Raman analysis. In addition, we used these GCNs as supports for platinum nanoparticles, which were well dispersed (mean Pt size approximately 2.5-3.2 nm). Most electrocatalysts prepared in this way have a high electrocatalytical surface area, up to 90 m(2) g(-1) Pt, and exhibit high catalytic activities toward methanol electrooxidation.

  7. Pulse versus continuous peracetic acid applications: Effects on rainbow trout performance, biofilm formation and water quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dibo; Straus, David L.; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2017-01-01

    . Meanwhile, no mortality and no impact on growth or innate cellular immunity were observed. The pulse applications restricted biofilm formation, and partially inhibited nitrification. Additionally, the highest oxygen concentration and stable pH were observed. In contrast, the continuous application promoted...... biofilm formation, and caused a pH increase and intermediate oxygen concentration. The contrast was probably due to different susceptibility of microbes to PAA-induced oxidative stress. To summarize, pulse PAA applications cause minor stress in fish, but have advantages over continuous application......Peracetic acid (PAA) products are being introduced to aquaculture as sustainable disinfectants. Two strategies are used to apply PAA: high dose pulse applications, or low dose continuous application. In the present study, their impacts on fish health and water quality were investigated...

  8. Bactericidal Effects and Mechanism of Action of Olanexidine Gluconate, a New Antiseptic

    OpenAIRE

    Hagi, Akifumi; Iwata, Koushi; Nii, Takuya; Nakata, Hikaru; Tsubotani, Yoshie; Inoue, Yasuhide

    2015-01-01

    Olanexidine gluconate [1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-5-octylbiguanide gluconate] (development code OPB-2045G) is a new monobiguanide compound with bactericidal activity. In this study, we assessed its spectrum of bactericidal activity and mechanism of action. The minimal bactericidal concentrations of the compound for 30-, 60-, and 180-s exposures were determined with the microdilution method using a neutralizer against 320 bacterial strains from culture collections and clinical isolates. Based on t...

  9. Calcium gluconate supplementation is effective to balance calcium homeostasis in patients with gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, M; Keller, J; Beil, B; van Driel, I; Zustin, J; Barvencik, F; Schinke, T; Amling, M

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate histological evidence for hyperparathyroidism in patients with gastrectomy. This is, at least in part, explained by impaired calcium absorption, resulting in mineralization defects and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Additionally, we demonstrate improved bone mineralization in patients with gastrectomy after gluconate therapy and showed the effectiveness of calcium gluconate over carbonate to balance impaired calcium hemostasis in mice. Gastrectomy and hypochlorhydria due to long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy are associated with increased fracture risk because of intestinal calcium malabsorption. Hence, our objectives were to histologically investigate bone metabolism in patients with gastrectomy and to analyze the impact of calcium gluconate supplementation on skeletal integrity in the setting of impaired gastric acidification. Undecalcified bone biopsies of 26 gastrectomized individuals were histologically analyzed. In the clinical setting, we retrospectively identified 5 gastrectomized patients with sufficient vitamin D level, who were additionally supplemented with calcium gluconate and had a real bone mineral density (aBMD) follow-up assessments. A mouse model of achlorhydria (ATP4b-/-) was used to compare the effect of calcium gluconate and calcium carbonate supplementation on bone metabolism. Biopsies from gastrectomized individuals showed significantly increased osteoid, osteoclast, and osteoblast indices and fibroosteoclasia (p < 0.05) as well as impaired calcium distribution in mineralized bone matrix compared to healthy controls. Five gastrectomized patients with sufficient vitamin D level demonstrated a significant increase in aBMD after a treatment with calcium gluconate alone for at least 6 months (p < 0.05). Calcium gluconate was superior to calcium carbonate in maintaining calcium metabolism in a mouse model of achlorhydria. Gastrectomy is associated with severe osteomalacia, marrow fibrosis, and impaired calcium distribution

  10. Inhibitive Action of Ferrous Gluconate on Aluminum Alloy in Saline Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Abimbola Idowu Popoola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion of aluminum in saline environment in the presence of ferrous gluconate was studied using weight loss and linear polarization methods. The corrosion rates were studied in different concentrations of ferrous gluconate 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g/mL at 28°C. Experimental results revealed that ferrous gluconate in saline environment reduced the corrosion rate of aluminum alloy at the different concentrations studied. The minimum inhibition efficiency was obtained at 1.5 g/mL concentration of inhibitor while the optimum inhibition efficiency was achieved with 1.0 g/mL inhibitor concentration. The results showed that adsorption of ferrous gluconate on the aluminium alloy surface fits Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The potentiodynamic polarization results showed that ferrous gluconate is a mixed type inhibitor. Ferrous gluconate acted as an effective inhibitor for aluminium alloy within the temperature and concentration range studied. The data obtained from weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization methods were in good agreement.

  11. Large-scale separation of amino acids by continuous displacement chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeCarli, J.P. II; Carta, G.; Byers, C.H.

    1989-10-01

    Continuous annular chromatography (CAC) is a developing technology that allows truly continuous chromatographic separations. Previous work has demonstrated the utility of this technology for the separation of various materials by isocratic elution on a bench scale. Novel applications and improved operation of the process were studied in this work, demonstrating that CAC is a versatile apparatus which is capable of separations at high throughput. Three specific separation systems were investigated. Pilot-scale separations at high loadings were performed using an industrial sugar mixture as an example of scale-up for isocratic separations. Bench-scale experiments of a low concentration metal ion mixture were performed to demonstrate stepwise elution, a chromatographic technique which decreases dilution and increases sorbent capacity. Finally, the separation of mixtures of amino acids by ion exchange was investigated to demonstrate the use of displacement development on the CAC. This technique, which perhaps has the most potential, when applied to the CAC allowed simultaneous separation and concentration of multicomponent mixtures on a continuous basis. Mathematical models were developed to describe the CAC performance and optimize the operating conditions. For all the systems investigated, the continuous separation performance of the CAC was found to be very nearly the same as the batchwise performance of conventional chromatography. The technology appears, thus, to be very promising for industrial applications.

  12. Electrochemical and SEM investigations of the influence of gluconate on the electroless deposition of Ni-Cu-P alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larhzil, H.; Cisse, M.; Touir, R.; Touhami, M. Ebn; Cherkaoui, M. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Traitements de Surface, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco)

    2007-12-01

    The effect of gluconate on the deposition rate and the deposit composition was examined at low pH of solution. The deposition rate exhibit a maximum and the content of copper present a minimum when the gluconate concentration changes between 0 and 40 g/l. The kinetic study carried out by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance showed that the gluconate acts on the anodic and cathodic reactions. The activation energy of the alloy deposition was determined. In addition, gluconate does not affect the crystallinity of the Ni-Cu-P deposit. (author)

  13. Comparison of intratesticular injection of zinc gluconate versus surgical castration to sterilize male dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Julie K; Crawford, P Cynda; Appel, Leslie D; Clifford, Emma L

    2008-01-01

    To compare castration of dogs by use of intratesticular injection of zinc gluconate with traditional surgical procedures in terms of acceptance by pet owners, ease of use, and short-term outcomes on Isabela Island of the Galápagos Islands. 161 privately owned male dogs admitted to a neuter program. Medical records of male dogs neutered during a 4-week animal control campaign were reviewed to collect information regarding signalment, method of castration, complication rate, and treatment outcomes. Of the 161 dogs admitted for castration, 58 were surgically castrated and 103 were treated with zinc gluconate. Dogs were returned to their owners for observation following castration. Wound dehiscence occurred in 2 skin incisions, representing 3.4% of the 58 dogs that underwent bilateral orchiectomy. Necrotizing zinc-gluconate injection-site reactions occurred in 4 dogs receiving injection volumes near the maximum label dose (0.8 to 1.0 mL), representing 3.9% of the zinc-gluconate procedures. Surgical wound complications were treated by superficial wound debridement and resuturing, in contrast to zinc-gluconate injection-site reactions, which all required orchiectomy and extensive surgical debridement, including scrotal ablation in 2 dogs. Low cost, ease of use, and cultural acceptance of a castration technique that does not require removal of the testes make zinc gluconate a valuable option for large-scale use in dogs, particularly in remote locations lacking sophisticated clinical facilities or skilled surgeons and staff. Further investigation is needed to identify risk factors in dogs for adverse reactions to zinc gluconate and to develop strategies for avoidance.

  14. Comparison of femtosecond laser and continuous wave UV sources for protein-nucleic acid crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecko, Christopher J; Munson, Katherine M; Saunders, Abbie; Sun, Guangxing; Begley, Tadhg P; Lis, John T; Webb, Watt W

    2007-01-01

    Crosslinking proteins to the nucleic acids they bind affords stable access to otherwise transient regulatory interactions. Photochemical crosslinking provides an attractive alternative to formaldehyde-based protocols, but irradiation with conventional UV sources typically yields inadequate product amounts. Crosslinking with pulsed UV lasers has been heralded as a revolutionary technique to increase photochemical yield, but this method had only been tested on a few protein-nucleic acid complexes. To test the generality of the yield enhancement, we have investigated the benefits of using approximately 150 fs UV pulses to crosslink TATA-binding protein, glucocorticoid receptor and heat shock factor to oligonucleotides in vitro. For these proteins, we find that the quantum yields (and saturating yields) for forming crosslinks using the high-peak intensity femtosecond laser do not improve on those obtained with low-intensity continuous wave (CW) UV sources. The photodamage to the oligonucleotides and proteins also has comparable quantum yields. Measurements of the photochemical reaction yields of several small molecules selected to model the crosslinking reactions also exhibit nearly linear dependences on UV intensity instead of the previously predicted quadratic dependence. Unfortunately, these results disprove earlier assertions that femtosecond pulsed laser sources provide significant advantages over CW radiation for protein-nucleic acid crosslinking.

  15. Soil stabilisation using AMD sludge, compost and lignite: TCLP leachability and continuous acid leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Daniel C W; Olds, William E; Weber, Paul A; Yip, Alex C K

    2013-11-01

    Utilising locally available industrial by-products for in situ metal stabilisation presents a low-cost remediation approach for contaminated soil. This study explored the potential use of inorganic (acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge and zero-valent iron) and carbonaceous materials (green waste compost, manure compost, and lignite) for minimising the environmental risks of As and Cu at a timber treatment site. After 9-month soil incubation, significant sequestration of As and Cu in soil solution was accomplished by AMD sludge, on which adsorption and co-precipitation could take place. The efficacy of AMD sludge was comparable to that of zero-valent iron. There was marginal benefit of adding carbonaceous materials. However, in a moderately aggressive environment (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure), AMD sludge only suppressed the leachability of As but not Cu. Therefore, the provision of compost and lignite augmented the simultaneous reduction of Cu leachability, probably via surface complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups. Under continuous acid leaching in column experiments, combined application of AMD sludge with compost proved more effective than AMD sludge with lignite. This was possibly attributed to the larger amount of dissolved organic matter with aromatic moieties from lignite, which may enhance Cu and As mobility. Nevertheless, care should be taken to mitigate ecological impact associated with short-term substantial Ca release and continuous release of Al at a moderate level under acid leaching. This study also articulated the engineering implications and provided recommendations for field deployment, material processing, and assessment framework to ensure an environmentally sound application of reactive materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Continuous Decolorization of Acid Blue 62 Solution in an Enzyme Membrane Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewańczuk, Marcin; Bryjak, Jolanta

    2015-09-01

    This paper focuses on using an enzyme membrane reactor (EMR) for the effective continuous decolorization of Acid Blue 62 (AB62). The following factors were considered for the effective use of Cerrena unicolor laccase immobilized in the EMR volume: the enzyme was stable in six successive runs in a batch reactor; no aeration was necessary; AB62 and the oxidized products were sorbed onto the membrane but were not rejected; and the enzyme was stable in the EMR system. It is obvious that any continuous process must be predictable, and thus, the objective was to verify the process model experimentally. For this reason, a proper isoenzyme kinetic equation was selected and the parameters were evaluated. The obtained kinetic parameters were used to plan processes and to verify their applicability to long-term AB62 decolorization, and a very good agreement between the calculated and the measured data was obtained. In the main designed continuous decolorization process, the conversion reached 98 % and was stable for 4 days. The membrane reactor with C. unicolor laccase appears to be very promising for AB62 decolorization.

  17. The role of organic acids on microbial deterioration in the Radix pseudostellariae rhizosphere under continuous monoculture regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Hongmiao; Wu, Linkun; Zhu, Quan; Wang, Juanying; Qin, Xianjin; Xu, Jiahui; Kong, Lufei; Chen, Jun; Lin, Sheng; Umar Khan, Muhammad; Amjad, Hira; Lin, Wenxiong

    2017-01-01

    A three-year field monoculture trial of Radix pseudostellariae and complementary laboratory studies were conducted to further elucidate the underlying mechanism responsible for significant decreases in the biomass yield and quality of R. pseudostellariae under continuous monoculture regimes. HPLC analysis indicated that continuous monoculture soil was rich in organic acids, which had cumulative effects over time. Further analysis suggested that the application of a mixture of organic acids si...

  18. Thermodynamic stability assessment of a colloidal iron drug product: sodium ferric gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongsheng; Shah, Rakhi B; Faustino, Patrick J; Raw, Andre; Yu, Lawrence X; Khan, Mansoor A

    2010-01-01

    A high performance gel permeation chromatography (HP-GPC) method was developed, validated and used to determine the molecular weight (MW) of sodium ferric gluconate following various stress conditions. The intra-day accuracy (90-103%), intra-day precision (1.5-2.7%), inter-day accuracy (91-105%), inter-day precision (1.3-3.2%) were within acceptable range stated in FDA guidance. The MW of sodium ferric gluconate remained unchanged after: (1) autoclaving (121 degrees C), (2) moderate thermal stress (30 days at 50 degrees C or 7 days at 70 and 90 degrees C), (3) excipient dilution, (4) basic buffer dilution (pH of 8 and 9), (5) ultracentrifugation, (6) dialysis, and (7) electrolyte dilution. However sodium ferric gluconate showed signs of instability at higher temperatures (>90 degrees C) after 30 days and at pH of 10-11. Sodium ferric gluconate was found to be a lypophilic colloidal solution with an average particle size of 10 nm and a zeta potential of -13 mV. The colloid osmotic pressure was 3.5 mmHg and remained unchanged after moderate thermal stress. Additionally, in-house drug products with similar MW to sodium ferric gluconate were produced by three different synthetic procedures, suggesting that this colloidal iron drug product might be thermodynamically stable.

  19. Photoredox activation of carbon dioxide for amino acid synthesis in continuous flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyowon; Katcher, Matthew H.; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2017-05-01

    Although carbon dioxide (CO2) is highly abundant, its low reactivity has limited its use in chemical synthesis. In particular, methods for carbon-carbon bond formation generally rely on two-electron mechanisms for CO2 activation and require highly activated reaction partners. Alternatively, radical pathways accessed via photoredox catalysis could provide new reactivity under milder conditions. Here we demonstrate the direct coupling of CO2 and amines via the single-electron reduction of CO2 for the photoredox-catalysed continuous flow synthesis of α-amino acids. By leveraging the advantages of utilizing gases and photochemistry in flow, a commercially available organic photoredox catalyst effects the selective α-carboxylation of amines that bear various functional groups and heterocycles. The preliminary mechanistic studies support CO2 activation and carbon-carbon bond formation via single-electron pathways, and we expect that this strategy will inspire new perspectives on using this feedstock chemical in organic synthesis.

  20. Ligand Exchange Reactions of a Monomeric Zirconium Carbonate Complex with Carboxylic Acids Studied by Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure, UV Absorption and Raman Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Fumiyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhiko; Kikuchi, Tomomi; Tanno, Takenori; Nakajima, Yasushi; Toyoda, Yasunori; Ogawa, Nobuaki

    2017-01-01

    Ligand exchange reactions of a monomeric zirconium carbonate complex with carboxylic acids were studied by means of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), UV absorption spectrophotometry and Raman spectrometry. Three carboxylic acids, gluconic acid, and L-tartaric acid and citric acid, which are mono-, di- and tri-carboxylic acids, respectively, were employed in this study. These three carboxylic acids gave different spectral signatures and concentration dependences, respectively. In the gluconic acid system, the peaks on Fourier transform of EXAFS spectrum and Raman spectrum caused by carbonate ion coordinating to zirconium atom were obviously decreased with increasing gluconic acid concentration compared to the other two carboxylic acid systems. This indicates the high association ability of gluconic acid to zirconium, which was revealed by UV spectrophotometric analysis.

  1. Aluminum and Phthalates in Calcium Gluconate: Contribution From Glass and Plastic Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokel, Robert A; Unrine, Jason M

    2017-01-01

    Aluminum contamination of parenteral nutrition solutions has been documented for 3 decades. It can result in elevated blood, bone, and whole body aluminum levels associated with neurotoxicity, reduced bone mass and mineral content, and perhaps hepatotoxicity. The primary aluminum source among parenteral nutrition components is glass-packaged calcium gluconate, in which aluminum concentration in the past 3 decades has averaged approximately 4000 μg/L, compared with container-packaged calcium gluconate. A concern about plastic packaging is leaching of plasticizers, including phthalates, which have the potential to cause endocrine (male reproductive system) disruption and neurotoxicity. Aluminum was quantified in samples collected periodically for more than 2 years from 3 calcium gluconate sources used to prepare parenteral nutrition solutions; 2 packaged in glass (from France and the United States) and 1 in plastic (from Germany); in a recently released plastic-packaged solution (from the United States); and in the 2 glass containers. Phthalate concentration was determined in selected samples of each product and leachate of the plastic containers. The initial aluminum concentration was approximately 5000 μg/L in the 2 glass-packaged products and approximately 20 μg/L in the plastic-packaged product, and increased approximately 30%, 50%, and 100% in 2 years, respectively. The aluminum concentration in a recently released Calcium Gluconate Injection USP was approximately 320 μg/L. Phthalates were not detected in any calcium gluconate solutions or leachates. Plastic packaging greatly reduces the contribution of aluminum to parenteral nutrition solutions from calcium gluconate compared with the glass-packaged product.

  2. Gastric acid secretion and gastrin release during continuous vagal neuromonitoring in thyroid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoli, Liu; Wu, Che-Wei; Kim, Hoon Yub; Tian, Wen; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Liu, Renbin; Anuwong, Angkoon; Randolph, Gregory W; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Lavazza, Matteo

    2017-03-01

    The vagus nerve (VN) has essential regulatory roles in the gastric acid secretion and gastrin release. Continuous intraoperative neuromonitoring (CIONM) via VN stimulation is a promising technique in thyroid surgery because it potentially avoids injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve. However, no studies have investigated changes in gastric acid secretion and gastrin release during CIONM. This prospective study of 58 thyroid surgery patients compared gastric acid and serum gastrin at five time points: (1) before skin incision, (2) after baseline calibration of CIONM probe, (3) +20 min from baseline, (4) before probe removal, and (5) after extubation. Patients were excluded if they had any history of using tobacco, acid suppression medications, or drugs that affect gastric motility. Patients were also excluded if they had any history of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, helicobacter pylori infection, or chronic kidney disease. Non significant differences in mean gastric pH values were observed at all time points, i.e., (1) before skin incision (2.2 ± 0.2; p = 0.50), (2) after baseline calibration of CIONM probe (2.0 ± 0.8; p = 0.62), (3) +20 min from baseline (2.5 ± 0.5; p = 0.24), (4) before probe removal (2.9 ± 0.9; p = 0.52), and (5) after extubation (2.6 ± 1.0; p = 0.60). Comparisons of pH monitoring parameters revealed no significant differences in age, gender, side of CIONM (left vs. right), sequence of CIONM, or duration of CIONM. Gastrin values were normal in sequential determinations and did not significantly differ at any time points. CIONM performed via VN stimulation during total thyroidectomy in healthy patients does not influence gastrin secretion and gastric pH.

  3. Calcium gluconate infusion is as effective as the vascular endothelial growth factor antagonist cabergoline for the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Naredi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS is an iatrogenic and potentially life-threatening disease process, which may occur in healthy young women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for assisted reproduction. As the treatment is largely empirical, prevention forms the mainstay of management. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous (IV calcium gluconate infusion in comparison to the dopamine agonist cabergoline (Cb2 in preventing OHSS in high risk patients undergoing assisted reproductive technique cycles. Materials and Methods: It was a comparative study wherein the 202 high risk patients undergoing in vitro-fertilization over a period of 18 months after meeting the strict inclusion and the exclusion criteria, were randomly divided into two groups (98 subjects in Group I and 104 in Group II. Women in Group I were administered IV calcium gluconate while the remaining 104 received the dopamine agonist Cb2. The 104 patients belonging to Group II were started Cb2 0.5 mg/day from the day of ovulation trigger and continued until the next 8 days while the 98 high risk patients from Group I were infused with 10 ml of 10% calcium gluconate solution in 200 ml physiologic saline within 30 min of ovum pick up and continued thereafter on day 1, day 2 and day 3. Results: The occurrence of OHSS was seen in only nine patients (in the calcium infusion group, when compared with 16 patients (9.2% vs. 15.4% who were administered Cb2, but it was not statistically significant. However, only one had severe OHSS in Group I, whereas two women were diagnosed as severe OHSS belonging to the Cb2 arm. Conclusion: Our results document that calcium infusion can effectively prevent severe OHSS and decreases OHSS occurrence rates when used for high-risk patients, but does not suggest its superiority over Cb2. With comparable success rates, either of them can be employed as a preventive strategy for OHSS.

  4. Continuous volatile fatty acid production from lignocellulosic biomass by a novel rumen-mimetic bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agematu, Hitosi; Takahashi, Takehiko; Hamano, Yoshio

    2017-11-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive source of biofuels and biochemicals, being abundant in various plant sources. However, processing this type of biomass requires hydrolysis of cellulose. The proposed rumen-mimetic bioprocess consists of dry-pulverization of lignocellulosic biomass and pH-controlled continuous cultivation of ruminal bacteria using ammonium as a nitrogen source. In this study, ruminal bacteria were continuously cultivated for over 60 days and used to digest microcrystalline cellulose, rice straw, and Japanese cedar to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The ruminal bacteria grew well in the chemically defined medium. The amounts of VFAs produced from 20 g of cellulose, rice straw, and Japanese cedar were 183 ± 29.7, 69.6 ± 12.2, and 21.8 ± 12.9 mmol, respectively. Each digestion completed within 24 h. The carbon yield was 60.6% when 180 mmol of VFAs was produced from 20 g of cellulose. During the cultivation, the bacteria were observed to form flocs that enfolded the feed particles. These flocs likely contain all of the bacterial species necessary to convert lignocellulosic biomass to VFAs and microbial protein symbiotically. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments revealed that the bacterial community was relatively stable after 1 week in cultivation, though it was different from the original community structure. Furthermore, sequence analysis of the DGGE bands indicates that the microbial community includes a cellulolytic bacterium, a bacterium acting synergistically with cellulolytic bacteria, and a propionate-producing bacterium, as well as other anaerobic bacteria. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of pyrophosphate and gluconate scan of dog hearts with experimental cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duska, F.; Novak, J.; Kafka, P.; Kubicek, J.; Vizda, J.; Mazurova, Y.; Veverkova, O. (Karlova Univ., Hradec Kralove (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta)

    1983-04-01

    High intravenous doses of theophylline with adrenalin were used to produce experimental cardiomyopathy in dogs. This damage was visualized scintigraphically using either sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate (10 dogs) or sup(99m)Tc-gluconate (another 10 dogs). Scintigraphic examinations using sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate were carried out 48 hours after the damage had developed: in two dogs the examination was negative, in two cases boundary, in 6 cases the scintigraphic finding was clearly positive. sup(99m)Tc-gluconate was used in the examination of 5 animals four hours after the damage had developed. In this case the scan was significantly positive in all cases. The gluconate scan was made 24 hours after damage, again in 5 dogs. Here the positive change was less explicit, in one case the finding was negative. Histological examination of the affected myocardium showed in all cases a very light damage, in many instances on the limit of resolution by light microscopy. The findings were always of degenerative (dystrophic) changes and microcirculation disorders without any necrosis. The work showed that both studied radiopharmaceutical preparations are a very sensitive but nonspecific indicator of non-ischemic disorders of the myocardium. For sup(99m)Tc-gluconate this is an original finding.

  6. 76 FR 79064 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Zinc Gluconate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510 and 522 New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Zinc Gluconate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and..., Inc., to Ark Sciences, Inc. DATES: This rule is effective December 21, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  7. Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Cellulose to Gluconate on Carbon Aerogel Supported Gold Nanoparticles Anode in Alkaline Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanshuang Xiao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of high efficient and low energy consumption approaches for the transformation of cellulose is of high significance for a sustainable production of high value-added feedstocks. Herein, electrocatalytic oxidation technique was employed for the selective conversion of cellulose to gluconate in alkaline medium by using concentrated HNO3 pretreated carbon aerogel (CA supported Au nanoparticles as anode. Results show that a high gluconate yield of 67.8% and sum salts yield of 88.9% can be obtained after 18 h of electrolysis. The high conversion of cellulose and high selectivity to gluconate could be attributed to the good dissolution of cellulose in NaOH solution which promotes its hydrolysis, the surface oxidized CA support and Au nanoparticles catalyst which possesses high amount of active sites. Moreover, the bubbled air also plays important role in the enhancement of cellulose electrocatalytic conversion efficiency. Lastly, a probable mechanism for electrocatalytic oxidation of cellulose to gluconate in alkaline medium was also proposed.

  8. The gntP Gene of Escherichia coli Involved in Gluconate Uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Tong, S.; Nielsen, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The gntP gene, located between the fim and uxu loci in Escherichia coli K-12, has been cloned and characterized. Nucleotide sequencing of a region encompassing the gntP gene revealed an open reading frame of 447 codons with significant homology to the Bacillus subtilis gluconate permease. Northern...

  9. Diagnosis of digestive functional disease by the statistics of continuous monitoring of esophageal acidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Landa, Rogelio; Cardenas Cardenas, Eduardo; Fossion, Ruben; Pérez Zepeda, Mario Ulises

    2014-11-01

    Technological advances in the last few decennia allow the monitoring of many physiological observables in a continuous way, which in physics is called a "time series". The best studied physiological time series is that of the heart rhythm, which can be derived from an electrocardiogram (ECG). Studies have shown that a healthy heart is characterized by a complex time series and high heart rate variability (HRV). In adverse conditions, the cardiac time series degenerates towards randomness (as seen in, e.g., fibrillation) or rigidity (as seen in, e.g., ageing), both corresponding to a loss of HRV as described by, e.g., Golberger et. al [1]. Cardiac and digestive rhythms are regulated by the autonomous nervous system (ANS), that consists of two antagonistic branches, the orthosympathetic branch (ONS) that accelerates the cardiac rhythm but decelerates the digestive system, and the parasympathetic brand (PNS) that works in the opposite way. Because of this reason, one might expect that the statistics of gastro-esophageal time series, as described by Gardner et. al. [2,3], reflects the health state of the digestive system in a similar way as HRV in the cardiac case, described by Minocha et. al. In the present project, we apply statistical methods derived from HRV analysis to time series of esophageal acidity (24h pHmetry). The study is realized on data from a large patient population from the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán. Our focus is on patients with functional disease (symptoms but no anatomical damage). We find that traditional statistical approaches (e.g. Fourier spectral analysis) are unable to distinguish between different degenerations of the digestive system, such as gastric esophageal reflux disease (GERD) or functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID).

  10. Semi-continuously addition of peracetic acid to a flow-through fish farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Henriksen, Niels Henrik

    2017-01-01

    •Demonstration of a safe and reliable practical method to reduce ectoparasites related mortality of farmed fish.•Central peracetic acid application caused even distribution to all ponds and considered suitable for organic fish farming.•Low dose and easy degradable peracetic acid is an alternative...... aquaculture management approach to formalin flush treatment....

  11. Biological attenuation of arsenic and iron in a continuous flow bioreactor treating acid mine drainage (AMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rojo, L; Héry, M; Le Pape, P; Braungardt, C; Desoeuvre, A; Torres, E; Tardy, V; Resongles, E; Laroche, E; Delpoux, S; Joulian, C; Battaglia-Brunet, F; Boisson, J; Grapin, G; Morin, G; Casiot, C

    2017-10-15

    Passive water treatments based on biological attenuation can be effective for arsenic-rich acid mine drainage (AMD). However, the key factors driving the biological processes involved in this attenuation are not well-known. Here, the efficiency of arsenic (As) removal was investigated in a bench-scale continuous flow channel bioreactor treating As-rich AMD (∼30-40 mg L(-1)). In this bioreactor, As removal proceeds via the formation of biogenic precipitates consisting of iron- and arsenic-rich mineral phases encrusting a microbial biofilm. Ferrous iron (Fe(II)) oxidation and iron (Fe) and arsenic removal rates were monitored at two different water heights (4 and 25 mm) and with/without forced aeration. A maximum of 80% As removal was achieved within 500 min at the lowest water height. This operating condition promoted intense Fe(II) microbial oxidation and subsequent precipitation of As-bearing schwertmannite and amorphous ferric arsenate. Higher water height slowed down Fe(II) oxidation, Fe precipitation and As removal, in relation with limited oxygen transfer through the water column. The lower oxygen transfer at higher water height could be partly counteracted by aeration. The presence of an iridescent floating film that developed at the water surface was found to limit oxygen transfer to the water column and delayed Fe(II) oxidation, but did not affect As removal. The bacterial community structure in the biogenic precipitates in the bottom of the bioreactor differed from that of the inlet water and was influenced to some extent by water height and aeration. Although potential for microbial mediated As oxidation was revealed by the detection of aioA genes, removal of Fe and As was mainly attributable to microbial Fe oxidation activity. Increasing the proportion of dissolved As(V) in the inlet water improved As removal and favoured the formation of amorphous ferric arsenate over As-sorbed schwertmannite. This study proved the ability of this bioreactor

  12. A study on clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces clavuligerus in batch, fed-batch and continuous processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Neto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavulanic acid (CA is a potent inhibitor of beta-lactamases, enzymes that are responsible for the hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics. It is a secondary metabolite produced by the filamentous aerobic bacterium Streptomyces clavuligerus in submerged cultivations. In the present work clavulanic acid production in batch, fed-batch and continuous bioreactors was studied with the objective of increasing productivity. The operating conditions: temperature, aeration and agitation, were the same in all cases, 28º C, 0.5 vvm and 800 rpm, respectively. The CA concentration obtained in the fed-batch culture, 404 mg L-1, was ca twice the value obtained in the batch culture, 194 mg L-1, while 293 mg L-1 was obtained in the continuous culture. The highest productivity was obtained in the continuous cultivation, 10.6 mg L-1 h-1, as compared with 8.8 mg L-1 h-1 in the fed-batch process and 3.5 mg L-1 h-1 in the batch process, suggesting that continuous culture of Streptomyces clavuligerus is a promising strategy for clavulanic acid production.

  13. The role of organic acids on microbial deterioration in the Radix pseudostellariae rhizosphere under continuous monoculture regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongmiao; Wu, Linkun; Zhu, Quan; Wang, Juanying; Qin, Xianjin; Xu, Jiahui; Kong, Lufei; Chen, Jun; Lin, Sheng; Umar Khan, Muhammad; Amjad, Hira; Lin, Wenxiong

    2017-06-14

    A three-year field monoculture trial of Radix pseudostellariae and complementary laboratory studies were conducted to further elucidate the underlying mechanism responsible for significant decreases in the biomass yield and quality of R. pseudostellariae under continuous monoculture regimes. HPLC analysis indicated that continuous monoculture soil was rich in organic acids, which had cumulative effects over time. Further analysis suggested that the application of a mixture of organic acids significantly promoted growth of pathogenic fungi, and increased the expression of chemotaxis-related gene (cheA) and biofilm formation of the specific pathogenic Kosakonia sacchari. However, opposite reactions were observed in the case of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus pumilus. Concurrently, the present results revealed that the mixed organic acids stimulated the production of toxins, as well as H2O2 in the pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, the presence of organic acids reflecting environmental conditions under monocropping had negative effects on the expression of the biocontrol-related genes, which resulted in attenuated antagonistic activities of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to suppress mycelial growth of the pathogenic fungi. These results help to unveil the mechanisms associated with how accumulated organic acids differentially mediate deterioration of soil microbial composition and structure in monocropping system.

  14. Peritoneal lavage using chlorhexidine gluconate at the end of colon surgery reduces postoperative intra-abdominal infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Wael E; Hanley, Gregory A; Orvik, Andrea; Lewis, Nicole; Shurbaji, M Salah

    2015-05-01

    The use of peritoneal lavage with antiseptic solutions after bowel surgery remains controversial. This study compared peritoneal lavage using chlorhexidine gluconate at low concentrations and normal saline in mice with cecal ligation and perforation. A total of 180 mice were randomized to six groups. Groups A, B, and C received one-time intraperitoneal injections of normal saline, chlorhexidine gluconate 0.05%, and chlorhexidine gluconate 0.025%, respectively. Groups D, E, and F were all subject to cecal ligation and perforation, then underwent partial cecectomy and peritoneal lavage with normal saline only, chlorhexidine gluconate 0.05% followed by normal saline, and chlorhexidine gluconate 0.025% followed by normal saline, respectively. Animals were followed postoperatively then sacrificed and examined at necropsy for occurrence of intra-abdominal abscesses, adhesions, or other pathology. A total of 48 mice (26.7%) developed postoperative intra-abdominal abscesses. Group E mice that had chlorhexidine gluconate 0.05% lavage had significantly lower incidence of postoperative intra-abdominal abscesses compared with that of group D mice that had saline lavage only (P = 0.0113). There was no significant difference in occurrence of macroscopic adhesions among mice groups that had or did not have surgery. (P = 1 and P = 0.3728). Microscopic peritoneal fibrosis occurred significantly more among group E mice that had chlorhexidine gluconate 0.05% lavage compared with group D mice that had saline lavage only (P = Chlorhexidine gluconate 0.05% peritoneal lavage after partial colectomy (cecectomy) in mice reduces postoperative intra-abdominal infection without significant macroscopic adhesion formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. In-depth investigation on physicochemical and thermal properties of magnesium (II gluconate using spectroscopic and thermoanalytical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium gluconate is a classical organometallic pharmaceutical compound used for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesemia as a source of magnesium ion. The present research described the in-depth study on solid state properties viz. physicochemical and thermal properties of magnesium gluconate using sophisticated analytical techniques like PXRD, PSA, FT-IR, UV–Vis spectroscopy, TGA/DTG, and DSC. Magnesium gluconate was found to be crystalline in nature along with the crystallite size ranging from 14.10 to 47.35 nm. The particle size distribution was at d(0.1=6.552 µm, d(0.5=38.299 µm, d(0.9=173.712 µm and D(4,3=67.122 µm along with the specific surface area of 0.372 m2/g. The wavelength for the maximum absorbance was at 198.0 nm. Magnesium gluconate exhibited 88.51% weight loss with three stages of thermal degradation process up to 895.18 °C from room temperature. The TGA/DTG thermograms of the analyte indicated that magnesium gluconate was thermally stable up to around 165 °C. Consequently, the melting temperature of magnesium gluconate was found to be 169.90 °C along with the enthalpy of fusion of 308.7 J/g. Thus, the authors conclude that the achieved results from this study are very useful in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries for the identification, characterization and qualitative analysis of magnesium gluconate for preformulation studies and also for developing magnesium gluconate based novel formulation.

  16. Continuous butyric acid fermentation coupled with REED technology for enhanced productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Skiadas, Ioannis; Westermann, Peter

    , today’s organic residues and wastes may become tomorrow’s platform for a variety of products for industrial use. Butyric acid fermentation has long been discussed in the last decade due to the wide application of butyric acid in chemical, pharmaceutical and food industries. Compared to other microbial......A major step towards the development of a sustainable industrial society is a shift from petroleum-based resources to renewable resources. An ongoing effort is focused on developing bio-refineries as an alternative way of producing fuels and chemical building-blocks from renewable resources. Thus...... strains, C.tyrobutyricum seems the most promising for biological production of butyric acid as it is characterised by higher selectivity and higher tolerance to butyric acid. However, studies on fermentative butyric production from lignocellulosic biomasses are scarce in the international literature...

  17. Daily 2% chlorhexidine gluconate bath wash in a tertiary adult intensive care and high dependency units to reduce risk of hospital acquired multi resistant organisms: a best practice implementation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgleish, Lizanne; Jhattu, Hardeep; Gomersall, Judith Streak

    2015-07-17

    There is growing evidence that the incidence of hospital acquired multi resistant organisms are increasing worldwide. Intensive care patients are particularly prone to hospital-acquired infections. In an effort to combat increasing nosocomial infections rates within the intensive care/high dependency unit setting, Canberra Hospital has implemented a daily 2% chlorhexidine gluconate bath wash in combination as part of a best practice policy to reduce hospital acquired multi resistant organism rates of colonization. This project focused on auditing the extent to which the protocol was implemented and on promoting its implementation. The primary aim of this evidence implementation project was to promote best practice in the use of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate body cleansing in the Canberra Hospital intensive care unit and high dependency unit settings. A secondary aim was to improve intensive care/high dependency unit patient outcomes and resource utilization. The project used the Joanna Briggs Institute's Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System and Getting Research into Practice audit tools for promoting change in 2% chlorhexidine gluconate wash health practice. A baseline audit was conducted followed by a three-prong education approach strategy targeted at clinicians and finalized using a follow-up audit. There was an improvement in best practice for all criteria monitored in the follow-up audit compared to the initial audit. The most significant improvement was education and allergy assessment with 90% and 46% improvements respectively. Wipe application compliance improved by 28% to 55%, suggesting a need for continual education. Minor decreases in compliance were also noted in allergy documentation and application technique by 2% and 7% respectively. The project was successful in increasing knowledge surrounding 2% chlorhexidine gluconate wash administration and has provided a future direction for sustaining evidence-based practice change. Further audits

  18. Bioavailability of two manufacturers' sustained-release quinidine gluconate tablets at steady state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinny, M A; Taggart, W V

    1984-01-01

    Steady-state bioavailability of sustained-release quinidine gluconate tablets manufactured by two companies was compared in a crossover study. The tablets were Quinaglute Dura-Tabs, manufactured by Berlex Laboratories, Inc., and generic quinidine gluconate tablets, manufactured by Bolar Pharmaceutical Company. Sixteen healthy male volunteers were given multiple doses of the two products in randomized sequence. Blood samples were obtained immediately before administration of the seventh dose (hour 72) and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hours after administration. Plasma samples were assayed for quinidine content by high-performance liquid chromatography. The tablets manufactured by Berlex provided statistically significantly higher plasma levels during the second half of the dosing interval (six to 12 hours postdose). A 29% difference in plasma levels was observed between the products at the end of the dosing interval. The Bolar quinidine gluconate tablets had a statistically significant lower area under the curve (AUC). The greatest difference in AUC occurred during the last six hours of the dosing period. The six- to 12-hour AUC for the Bolar tablets was 24% less than that for Berlex tablets. The generic tablets also achieved peak plasma level 31% sooner than did Quinaglute Dura-Tabs. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of the two products at steady state indicate that the Bolar quinidine gluconate tablet exhibited a more rapid onset of peak plasma levels and a more rapid decline to minimum plasma levels. In summary, the data from this multiple-dose study, performed using commercially available material, indicate that differences exist in pharmacokinetic performance of the products. However, the exact correlation between pharmacokinetic data and clinical effectiveness has not been established.

  19. Quality medicines in maternal health: results of oxytocin, misoprostol, magnesium sulfate and calcium gluconate quality audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyakora, Chimezie; Oni, Yetunde; Ezedinachi, Uchenna; Adekoya, Adebola; Ali, Ibrahim; Nwachukwu, Charles; Esimone, Charles; Abiola, Victor; Nwokike, Jude

    2018-01-30

    The high level of maternal mortality and morbidity as a result of complications due to childbirth is unacceptable. The impact of quality medicines in the management of these complications cannot be overemphasized. Most of those medicines are sensitive to environmental conditions and must be handled properly. In this study, the quality of oxytocin injection, misoprostol tablets, magnesium sulfate, and calcium gluconate injections was assessed across the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Simple, stratified random sampling of health facilities in each of the political zones of Nigeria. Analysis for identification and content of active pharmaceutical ingredient was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography procedures of 159 samples of oxytocin injection and 166 samples of misoprostol tablets. Titrimetric methods were used to analyze 164 samples of magnesium sulfate and 148 samples of calcium gluconate injection. Other tests included sterility, pH measurement, and fill volume. Samples of these commodities were procured mainly from wholesale and retail pharmacies, where these were readily available, while the federal medical centers reported low availability. Approximately, 74.2% of oxytocin injection samples failed the assay test, with the northeast and southeast zones registering the highest failure rates. Misoprostol tablets recorded a percentage failure of 33.7%. Magnesium sulfate and Calcium gluconate injection samples recorded a failure rate of 6.8% and 2.4%, respectively. The prevalence of particularly of oxytocin and misoprostol commodities was of substandard quality. Strengthening the supply chain of these important medicines is paramount to ensuring their effectiveness in reducing maternal deaths in Nigeria.

  20. Effect of zinc gluconate, sage oil on inflammatory patterns and hyperglycemia in zinc deficient diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elseweidy, Mohamed M; Ali, Abdel-Moniem A; Elabidine, Nabila Zein; Mursey, Nada M

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between zinc homeostasis and pancreatic function had been established. In this study we aimed firstly to configure the inflammatory pattern and hyperglycemia in zinc deficient diabetic rats. Secondly to illustrate the effect of two selected agents namely Zinc gluconate and sage oil (Salvia Officinalis, family Lamiaceae). Rats were fed on Zinc deficient diet, deionized water for 28days along with Zinc level check up at intervals to achieve zinc deficient state then rats were rendered diabetic through receiving one dose of alloxan monohydrate (120mg/kg) body weight, classified later into 5 subgroups. Treatment with sage oil (0.042mg/kg IP) and Zinc gluconate orally (150mg/kg) body weight daily for 8 weeks significantly reduced serum glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α), interleukins-6 1 β, inflammatory8 (IFN ȣ), pancreatic 1L1-β along with an increase in serum Zinc and pancreatic Zinc transporter 8 (ZNT8). Histopathological results of pancreatic tissues showed a good correlation with the biochemical findings. Both sage oil and zinc gluconate induced an improvement in the glycemic and inflammatory states. This may be of value like the therapeutic agent for diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. A continuous displacement immunoassay for human heart-type fatty acid-binding protein in plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voort, D; Pelsers, MMAL; Korf, J; Hermens, WT; Glatz, JFC

    2004-01-01

    Human heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) is suggested as an early plasma marker of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and several studies have proved that, for early diagnosis of AMI, FABP performs better than myoglobin, which is a more often used early marker protein. Because serial

  2. Comparison of continuous and episodic exposure to acidic, aluminum-contaminated waters of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddens, L.K.; Seim, W.K.; Curtis, L.R.; Chapman, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    This study demonstrated that repetitive, intermittent exposures to aluminum (Al) under acidic conditions produced greater cumulative mortality and lower growth rates of brook trout than would be extrapolated from continuous exposure experiments. During a 24-d study, exposures were at pH 4.4 or 4.9 with 0.2-1.2 mg Al-L-1. Data were analyzed based on peak and 24-d mean Al concentrations of continuous and intermittent (2-d toxicant, 4-d ambient condition cycle) exposures. Survival was lower in groups exposed at pH 4.9 than those at 4.4 when intermittently exposed but not when continuously exposed. Growth rates were less for fish continuously exposed at pH 4.4 compared with those at pH 4.9, while intermittent exposures to Al acidity alone did not affect growth. Fish intermittently exposed to Al at pH 4.4 grew faster than those at pH 4.9, indicating greater Al toxicity at the higher pH. (Copyright (c) Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 43, 1986.)

  3. Amino Acid requirements in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury treated with continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Btaiche, Imad F; Mohammad, Rima A; Alaniz, Cesar; Mueller, Bruce A

    2008-05-01

    Acute kidney injury in critically ill patients is often a complication of an underlying condition such as organ failure, sepsis, or drug therapy. In these patients, stress-induced hypercatabolism results in loss of body cell mass. Unless nutrition support is provided, malnutrition and negative nitrogen balance may ensue. Because of metabolic, fluid, and electrolyte abnormalities, optimization of nutrition to patients with acute kidney injury presents a challenge to the clinician. In patients treated with conventional intermittent hemodialysis, achieving adequate amino acid intake can be limited by azotemia and fluid restriction. With the use of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), however, better control of azotemia and liberalization of fluid intake allow amino acid intake to be maximized to support the patient's metabolic needs. High amino acid doses up to 2.5 g/kg/day in patients treated with CRRT improved nitrogen balance. However, to our knowledge, no studies have correlated increased amino acid intake with improved outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Data from large, prospective, randomized, controlled trials are needed to optimize the dosing of amino acids in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury who are treated with CRRT and to study the safety of high doses and their effects on patient morbidity and survival.

  4. Flow Chemistry on Multigram Scale: Continuous Synthesis of Boronic Acids within 1 s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Andreas; Meisenbach, Mark; Sedelmeier, Joerg

    2016-08-05

    The benefits and limitations of a simple continuous flow setup for handling and performing of organolithium chemistry on the multigram scale is described. The developed metalation platform embodies a valuable complement to existing methodologies, as it combines the benefits of Flash Chemistry (chemical synthesis on a time scale of <1 s) with remarkable throughput (g/min) while mitigating the risk of blockages.

  5. Continuous method to remove acid gases from a gas mixture supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butwell, K.F.; Kubek, D.J.

    1979-07-05

    It is proposed to remove acid gases - particularly CO/sub 2/ - from process gases (e.g. hydrocarbon mixtures, synthesis gas) by counter-current absorption with alcohol amines, to use monoethanol amine to which antimony and vanadium compounds are added as corrosion inhibitors. The patent claim includes a combination of 11 process steps, whose aim is to reduce the necessity of heating and cooling by external sources to a minimum. The method is described in detail.

  6. Resorption and tolerance of the high doses of ferrous sulfate and ferrous gluconate in the patients on peritoneal dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laušević Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Iron supplementation plays a crucial role in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. Oral iron substitution is more convenient than intravenous therapy in PD patients, but impaired absorption and adverse effects may be limiting factors for oral treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the absorption and side effects of high doses ferrous sulphate and ferrous gluconate in PD patients. Methods. Blood samples were taken from 29 PD patients at baseline, as well as 2, 4 and 8 hours after oral intake of 4 ferrous sulphate tablets (containing 105 mg elemental iron per tablet. The test was repeated using 8 ferrous gluconate drinkable ampoules (containing 50 mg elemental iron per ampoule. Results. The maximal increase in serum iron level during the test with iron sulphate was 113.51±103.37% versus the initial values of 183.87±37.38% during the ferrous gluconate test. The maximal values of serum iron after the intake of ferrous sulphate were 26.23±9.95 µmol/l versus 30.97±8.65 µmol/l after the intake of ferrous gluconate. There was a statistically significant difference between these two groups. Six patients showed an increase in serum iron of more than 300% after a high ferrous gluconate dose, while in 15 of the patients serum iron increased between 100% and 300%, and in 8 of the patients serum iron levels increased by less than 100%. Side effects occurred more frequently after the intake of ferrous sulphate than ferrous gluconate. Conclusion. High doses of oral iron were well absorbed and tolerated in PD patients. Ferrous gluconate was better absorbed and tolerated than ferrous sulphate, thus we recommend it for oral iron supplementation in PD patients.

  7. Effects of octane on the fatty acid composition and transition temperature of Pseudomonas oleovorans membrane lipids during growth in two-liquid-phase continuous cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Qi; Nijenhuis, Atze; Preusting, Hans; Dolfing, Jan; Janssen, Dick B.; Witholt, Bernard

    Growth of Pseudomonas oleovorans GPol in continuous culture containing a bulk n-octane phase resulted in changes of the fatty acid composition of the membrane lipids. Compared to citrate-grown cells, the ratio of C-18 to C-16 fatty acids and the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids

  8. Continuous esterification of free fatty acids in crude biodiesel by an integrated process of supercritical methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dan; Li, Ruosong; Feng, Mingjun; Fang, Tao

    2014-10-01

    An integrated process of supercritical methanol (SCM) and sodium methoxide catalyst was developed to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) via continuous esterification from crude biodiesel. The crude biodiesel with high free fatty acid (FFA) content must be refined to reduce the acid value (AV) for meeting the quality standards. The process parameters were studied by Box-Behnken design (BBD) of response surface methodology (RSM). The experimental results revealed that the AV of crude biodiesel decreased from 18.66 to 0.55 mg KOH g(-1) at the reaction conditions of 350 °C, 0.5 % amount of sodium methoxide catalyst, and 10 MPa. Temperature shows the most significant effect on the esterification, followed by pressure and amount of sodium methoxide catalyst. This integrated process proved to be a potential route to refine the crude biodiesel because of its continuity, high efficiency, and less energy consumption with relatively moderate reaction conditions compared with conventional methods.

  9. Sustainable and Continuous Synthesis of Enantiopure l-Amino Acids by Using a Versatile Immobilised Multienzyme System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Lozano, Susana; da Silva, Eunice S; Llop, Jordi; López-Gallego, Fernando

    2017-10-09

    The enzymatic synthesis of α-amino acids is a sustainable and efficient alternative to chemical processes, through which achieving enantiopure products is difficult. To more address this synthesis efficiently, a hierarchical architecture that irreversibly co-immobilises an amino acid dehydrogenase with polyethyleneimine on porous agarose beads has been designed and fabricated. The cationic polymer acts as an irreversible anchoring layer for the formate dehydrogenase. In this architecture, the two enzymes and polymer colocalise across the whole microstructure of the porous carrier. This multifunctional heterogeneous biocatalyst was kinetically characterised and applied to the enantioselective synthesis of a variety of canonical and noncanonical α-amino acids in both discontinuous (batch) and continuous modes. The co-immobilised bienzymatic system conserves more than 50 % of its initial effectiveness after five batch cycles and 8 days of continuous operation. Additionally, the environmental impact of this process has been semiquantitatively calculated and compared with the state of the art. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Continuous liquid fermentation of pretreated waste activated sludge for high rate volatile fatty acids production and online nutrients recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihui; Liu, He; Zheng, Zhiyong; Ma, Huijun; Yang, Meng; Liu, Hongbo

    2017-11-04

    Raw sludge was pretreated, and the separated sludge liquid was used as substrate in a continuous operated up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The highest VFA productivity of continuous fermentation with sludge liquid at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 10.0 kg COD/m3/d was about 5.0-fold and 4.0-fold higher than batch and semi-continuous fermentation with pretreated sludge slurry, respectively. Moreover, the liquid fermentation with an OLR of 10.0 kg COD/m3/d consumed the least energy, which was about 10.57% and 12.12% of batch and semi-continuous sludge fermentation, respectively. When combined with online nitrogen and phosphorus recovery, VFA production further increased by 20.67% and struvite recovery efficiency reached 1.98  ±  0.28 g/g PO43-. The process showed high VFA production, low energy consumption and good nutrients recovery by continuous liquid anaerobic fermentation, significantly increasing the economic potential of VFA production from waste activated sludge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparisons between continuous and batch processing to produce clavulanic acid by Streptomyces clavuligerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Baptista-Neto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare CA production in continuous culture with and without cell recycling and in batch process by Streptomyces clavuligerus. Continuous cultivations with high cell concentration using cell recycling were performed utilizing a hollow fiber ultrafiltration module to separate cells from the filtrate broth. The continuous cultures without cell recycling and the batch cultivations were performed conventionally. The highest productivity was attained in the continuous cultivation with cell recycling (22.2 mg.L-1.h-1. The highest CA concentration was obtained in the batch process (470 mg.L-1.h-1.O ácido clavulânico (AC é um importante inibidor de beta-lactamases, enzimas que degradampartir do metabolismo secundário do Streptomyces clavuligerus, bactéria filamentosa e estritamente aeróbia. Considerando que a velocidade de produção de metabólitos secundários está ligada à concentração celular, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo comparar a produção de AC nos processos contínuos com e sem reciclo celular e em batelada, realizando cultivos dessa bactéria com alta densidade celular. Para cumprir com o objetivo proposto, foram realizados experimentos em biorreator operando na forma contínua com reciclo utilizando-se um módulo de filtração tangencial de fibra oca para a separação celular. Os processos contínuos sem reciclo e em batelada foram realizados de forma convencional. A produtividade em AC no cultivo contínuo com reciclo celular (22,2 mg.L-1h-1 foi superior aos processos convencionais, apesar de obter-se maior concentração do produto (470 mg.L-1 em batelada.

  12. Continuous Fermentation of Clostridium tyrobutyricum with Partial Cell Recycle as a Long-Term Strategy for Butyric Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar C. Clausen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In making alternative fuels from biomass feedstocks, the production of butyric acid is a key intermediate in the two-step production of butanol. The fermentation of glucose via Clostridium tyrobutyricum to butyric acid produces undesirable byproducts, including lactic acid and acetic acid, which significantly affect the butyric acid yield and productivity. This paper focuses on the production of butyric acid using Clostridium tyrobutyricum in a partial cell recycle mode to improve fermenter yield and productivity. Experiments with fermentation in batch, continuous culture and continuous culture with partial cell recycle by ultrafiltration were conducted. The results show that a continuous fermentation can be sustained for more than 120 days, which is the first reported long-term production of butyric acid in a continuous operation. Further, the results also show that partial cell recycle via membrane ultrafiltration has a great influence on the selectivity and productivity of butyric acid, with an increase in selectivity from ≈9% to 95% butyric acid with productivities as high as 1.13 g/Lh. Continuous fermentation with low dilution rate and high cell recycle ratio has been found to be desirable for optimum productivity and selectivity toward butyric acid and a comprehensive model explaining this phenomenon is given.

  13. Prevalence of periconceptional folic acid use and perceived barriers to the postgestation continuance of supplemental folic acid: survey results from a Teratogen Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Beck B; Alvarado, Sonia; Chavez, Carmen; Chen, Brian H; Dick, Lyn M; Felix, Robert J; Kao, Kelly K; Chambers, Christina D

    2006-03-01

    Fewer than 40% of U.S. women are taking folic acid supplements periconceptionally at a time when the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) can be reduced by supplementation. A better understanding of the vitamin-taking habits of childbearing-age women and effective methods for improving periconceptional supplement use are needed. A telephone survey conducted through the California Teratogen Information Service (TIS) between August 2003 and January 2004 assessed the prevalence and characteristics of pregnant callers who did not use folic acid supplements in the periconceptional period, and explored attitudes toward advice to continue vitamin use following pregnancy in order to be protected in a future pregnancy. A total of 327 pregnant women who called the TIS for information agreed to participate in the survey. More than half (53.2%) were not taking folic acid-containing supplements in the periconceptional period. Predictors of lack of use included a higher prepregnancy body mass index, younger maternal age, non-white race/ethnicity, lower education level, and unplanned pregnancy. One-quarter of the women said they would be willing to continue taking vitamins after the pregnancy if advised to do so by a physician. The remainder identified obstacles to following that advice--notably, not planning to become pregnant again and the belief that enough folate is derived from diet alone. More than half of the callers to the TIS were not compliant with recommendations regarding periconceptional folic acid supplementation. This represents an opportunity for TIS specialists and physicians to intervene in a current pregnancy to encourage maintenance of supplement use in the subsequent interpregnancy interval. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Acid Mine Drainage Treatment by Perlite Nanomineral, Batch and Continuous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Kumars Seifpanahi; Ardejani, Faramarz Doulati; Badii, Khshayar; Olya, Mohammad Ebrahim

    2014-03-01

    In this paper the adsorption activity of perlite nanoparticles for removal of Cu2+, Fe2+ and Mn2+ ions at Iran Sarcheshmeh copper acid mine drainage was discussed. Thus, raw perlite that provided from internal resource was modified and prepared via particles size reduction to nano scale and characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transforms infrared and BET specific surface area analysis. The results of acid mine drainage show that pH of acid mine drainage is 5.1 and Cu2+, Fe2+ and Mn2+ ions are 10.5, 4.1 and 8.3 ppm, respectively. Firstly in the batch system the influence of adsorbent dose and temperature parameters were considered and then isothermal and kinetic models were investigated. According to the results the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model showed better correlation with the experimental data than other isotherm and kinetic models. Obtained thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° show that the Cu2+, Fe2+ and Mn2+ ions adsorption from acid mine drainage is spontaneous and endothermic. Finally, perlite nanoparticles adsorbent was packed inside a glass column and used for the removal of heavy metals in 1, 3, 5 ml/min acid mine drainage flow rates, the breakthrough curves show that the column was saturated at 180, 240 and 315 min for different flow rates, respectively. According to the obtained results, this abundant, locally available and cheap silicate mineral showed a great efficiency for the removal of heavy metal pollutants from acid mine drainage and can be utilized for much volume of acid mine drainage or industrial scale. W pracy omówiono zdolności adsorpcyjne nano-cząsteczek perlitu wykorzystywanych o usuwania jonów Cu2+, Fe2+ i Mn2+ z kwaśnych wód kopalniach w kopalni miedzi w Sarcheshmeh w Iranie. Surowy perlit pozyskiwany ze źródeł własnych został zmodyfikowany i odpowiednio spreparowany poprzez zre-dukowanie cz

  15. The role of gluconate production by Pseudomonas spp. in the mineralization and bioavailability of calcium-phytate to Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Courtney D; Hsu, Pei-Chun Lisa; Richardson, Alan E; Hurst, Mark R H; Hill, Jane E

    2015-12-01

    Organic phosphorus (P) is abundant in most soils but is largely unavailable to plants. Pseudomonas spp. can improve the availability of P to plants through the production of phytases and organic anions. Gluconate is a major component of Pseudomonas organic anion production and may therefore play an important role in the mineralization of insoluble organic P forms such as calcium-phytate (CaIHP). Organic anion and phytase production was characterized in 2 Pseudomonas spp. soil isolates (CCAR59, Ha200) and an isogenic mutant of strain Ha200, which lacked a functional glucose dehydrogenase (Gcd) gene (strain Ha200 gcd::Tn5B8). Wild-type and mutant strains of Pseudomonas spp. were evaluated for their ability to solubilize and hydrolyze CaIHP and to promote the growth and assimilation of P by tobacco plants. Gluconate, 2-keto-gluconate, pyruvate, ascorbate, acetate, and formate were detected in Pseudomonas spp. supernatants. Wild-type pseudomonads containing a functional gcd could produce gluconate and mineralize CaIHP, whereas the isogenic mutant could not. Inoculation with Pseudomonas improved the bioavailability of CaIHP to tobacco plants, but there was no difference in plant growth response due to Gcd function. Gcd function is required for the mineralization of CaIHP in vitro; however, further studies will be needed to quantify the relative contribution of specific organic anions such as gluconate to plant growth promotion by soil pseudomonads.

  16. Continuous fermentation and in-situ reed separation of butyric acid for higher sugar consumption rate and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Skiadas, Ioannis; Westermann, Peter

    and development, and process improvement for higher yield, productivity and selectivity. Compared with other microbial strains Clostridium tyrobutyricum has been well characterised, exhibits higher yield and selectivity and can utilize glucose and xylose simultaneously. However, a prerequisite for cost effective...... that disconnection of the REED system resulted to much lower (48 and 83% for glucose and xylose, respectively) sugars consumption rates and consequently lower butyric acid production rates. It was also noticeable that continuous operation, even without the REED system, resulted to higher glucose consumption rates...

  17. Investigation on hemolytic effect of poly(lactic co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles synthesized using continuous flow and batch processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libi, Sumit; Calenic, Bogdan; Astete, Carlos E.; Kumar, Challa; Sabliov, Cristina M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract

    With the increasing interest in polymeric nanoparticles for biomedical applications, there is a need for continuous flow methodologies that allow for the precise control of nanoparticle synthesis. Poly(lactide-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles with diameters of 220–250 nm were synthesized using a lab-on-a-chip, exploiting the precise flow control offered by a millifluidic platform. The association and the effect of PLGA nanoparticles on red blood cells (RBCs) were compared for fluorescent PLGA nanoparticles made by this novel continuous flow process using a millifluidic chip and smaller PLGA nanoparticles made by a batch method. Results indicated that all PLGA nanoparticles studied, independent of the synthesis method and size, adhered to the surface of RBCs but had no significant hemolytic effect at concentrations lower than 10 mg/ml.

  18. Preoperative Chlorhexidine Gluconate Use Can Increase Risk for Surgical Site Infections after Ventral Hernia Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Ajita S; Krpata, David M; Phillips, Sharon; Huang, Li-Ching; Haskins, Ivy N; Rosenblatt, Steven; Poulose, Benjamin K; Rosen, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    There is varying evidence about the use of preoperative chlorhexidine gluconate to decrease surgical site infection for elective surgery. This intervention has never been studied in ventral hernia repair, the most common general surgery procedure in the US. We aimed to determine whether preoperative chlorhexidine gluconate decreases the risk of 30-day wound morbidity in patients undergoing ventral hernia repair. All patients undergoing ventral hernia repair in the Americas Hernia Society Quality Collaborative were separated into 2 groups: 1 group received preoperative chlorhexidine scrub and the other did not. The 2 groups were evaluated for 30-day wound morbidity, including surgical site occurrence (SSO), surgical site infection (SSI), and SSO requiring procedural intervention. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate regression analysis and propensity score modeling. Multiple factors were controlled for statistical analysis, including patient-related factors and operative factors. In total, 3,924 patients were included for comparison. After multivariate logistic regression modeling, the preoperative chlorhexidine scrub group had a higher incidence of SSOs (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.61) and SSIs (OR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.07). After propensity score modeling, the increased risk of SSO and SSI persisted (SSO: OR = 1.39; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.70; SSI: OR = 1.45; 95% CI 1.011 to 2.072, respectively). Prehospital chlorhexidine gluconate scrub appears to increase the risk of 30-day wound morbidity in patients undergoing ventral hernia repair. These findings suggest that the generalized use of prehospital chlorhexidine might not be desirable for all surgical populations. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of a Novel Vascular Access Film Dressing Containing Chlorhexidine Gluconate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibaux, Anne; Thota, Priyaleela; Mastej, Jozef; Prince, Daniel L.; Carty, Neal; Johnson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Covering insertion sites with chlorhexidine impregnated dressings has been proven to be clinically effective in reducing catheter related blood stream infections (CR-BSI). Two chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG)-impregnated dressings are commercially available, a polyurethane foam disk and a film dressing containing a chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated gel pad. While both have demonstrated efficacy in clinical settings, the major drawback of high cost and impaired IV insertion site visibility limits their usage. A new, simple film dressing containing CHG within its adhesive layer is now available. The objective of this study was to test the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of the new dressing in comparison to the CHG-impregnated gel dressing. Methods Quantitative aliquots of suspensions (concentration of 1.0x106 to 5.0x106 cfu/sample) of clinically relevant challenge organisms (Staphylococcus species, gram-negative bacilli, Candida albicans) were incubated in contact with the new CHG-containing film dressing, a placebo version of the same (negative control) and the commercially available CHG-impregnated gel dressing (positive control). Serial dilutions of the surviving organisms were quantified using the pour plate after 1, 3, 5, and 7 days of incubation in order to calculate an antimicrobial log10 reduction for each organism/dressing combination at each point in time. Results The new CHG-containing film dressing delivered greater than 5.0 log10 reduction throughout the 7 days on all aerobic gram-negative bacilli and Staphylococcus species tested. As of day 1 the CHG-containing film dressing provided greater than 5.0 log10 reduction on Candida albicans. There were no statistically significant differences in the log10 reduction between the two dressings tested. Conclusion The new CHG-containing film dressing was found to be as effective as the chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated gel dressing on clinically relevant microbes. PMID:26599087

  20. Continuous-flow electro-assisted acid hydrolysis of granular potato starch via inductive methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Yang, Na; Jin, Yamei; Guo, Lunan; Zhou, Yuyi; Xie, Zhengjun; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2017-08-15

    The induced electric field assisted hydrochloric acid (IEF-HCl) hydrolysis of potato starch was investigated in a fluidic system. The impact of various reaction parameters on the hydrolysis rate, including reactor number (1-4), salt type (KCl, MgCl2, FeCl3), salt concentration (3-12%), temperature (40-55°C), and hydrolysis time (0-60h), were comprehensively assessed. Under optimal conditions, the maximum reducing sugar content in the hydrolysates was 10.59g/L. X-ray diffraction suggested that the crystallinity of IEF-HCl-modified starches increased with the intensification of hydrolysis but was lower than that of native starch. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the surface and interior regions of starch granules were disrupted by the hydrolysis. The solubility of IEF-HCl-modified starches increased compared to native starch while their swelling power decreased, contributing to a decline in paste viscosity. These results suggest that IEF is a notable potential electrotechnology to conventional hydrolysis under mild conditions without any electrode touching the subject. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Enantiomerically pure trans-beta-lactams from alpha-amino acids via compact fluorescent light (CFL) continuous-flow photolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaske, Yvette S Mimieux; Mahoney, Maximillian E; Konopelski, Joseph P; Rogow, David L; McDonald, William J

    2010-08-18

    Photolysis of alpha-diazo-N-methoxy-N-methyl (Weinreb) beta-ketoamides derived from enantiomerically pure (EP) alpha-amino acids affords the corresponding EP beta-lactams via an intramolecular Wolff rearrangement. The photochemistry is promoted with either standard UV irradiation or through the use of a 100 W compact fluorescent light; the latter affords a safe and environmentally friendly alternative to standard photolysis conditions. A continuous-flow photochemical reactor made from inexpensive laboratory equipment reduced reaction times and was amenable to scale-up. The diastereoselectivity (cis or trans) of the product beta-lactams has been shown to vary from modest to nearly complete. An extremely facile, atom-economical method for the epimerization of the product mixture to the trans isomer, which is generally highly crystalline, has been developed. Evidence for C3 epimerization of Weinreb amide structures via a nonbasic, purely thermal route is presented. Subsequent transformations of both the Weinreb amide at C3 (beta-lactam numbering) and the amino acid side chain at C4 are well-tolerated, allowing for a versatile approach to diverse beta-lactam structures. The technology is showcased in the synthesis of a common intermediate used toward several carbapenem-derived structures starting from unfunctionalized aspartic acid.

  2. Acid protease and formation of multiple forms of glucoamylase in batch and continuous cultures of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Thomas; Reeslev, Morten; Jensen, Bo

    2002-01-01

    In order to identify factors responsible for production of multiple forms of glucoamylase (GA) by Aspergillus niger Bo-1, the fungus was cultured in both complex and defined media in pH-controlled batch fermenters and chemostats. At all culture conditions three forms of GA were produced...... was cultivated in batch and continuous fermentations with a constant pH of 3.0 or 5.0, whereas acidification of both complex and defined batch culture media after 20 h of growth induced a significant secretion of acid protease(s). The protease(s) present in the complex medium catalysed modification...... with molecular weights of approx. 91 (GAI), 73 (GAII), and 59 kDa (GAIII). Data from batch fermentations with constant pH 3.0 and 5.0 showed a uniform distribution of extracellular GA forms throughout the fermentations and independent of culture growth phases. Furthermore, steady-state data from chemostat...

  3. Acid protease and formation of multiple forms of glycoamylase in batch and continuous cultures of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Thomas; Reeslev, Morten; Jensen, Bo

    2002-01-01

    In order to identify factors responsible for production of multiple forms of glucoamylase (GA) by Aspergillus niger Bo-1, the fungus was cultured in both complex and defined media in pH-controlled batch fermenters and chemostats. At all culture conditions three forms of GA were produced...... was cultivated in batch and continuous fermentations with a constant pH of 3.0 or 5.0, whereas acidification of both complex and defined batch culture media after 20 h of growth induced a significant secretion of acid protease(s). The protease(s) present in the complex medium catalysed modification...... with molecular weights of approx. 91 (GAI), 73 (GAII), and 59 kDa (GAIII). Data from batch fermentations with constant pH 3.0 and 5.0 showed a uniform distribution of extracellular GA forms throughout the fermentations and independent of culture growth phases. Furthermore, steady-state data from chemostat...

  4. Continuous Exposure Of Vibrio Anguillarum To Tropodithietic Acid: Genetic Changes And Influence On Virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bastian Barker; D'Alvise, Paul; Grotkjær, Torben

    2015-01-01

    be promising as probiotics in fish rearing. Production of the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA) by roseobacters is key in the antagonism of vibrios. However, the effects of continuous exposure to TDA on V. anguillarum remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate how prolonged TDA...... exposure affects V. anguillarum focusing on the development of resistance towards TDA and changes in virulence.Methods: Seven lineages of V. anguillarum were exposed to increasing TDA concentrations over 300-400 generations and were subsequently genome sequenced. Virulence of the lineages is currently...... motor switch protein. However, mutations in this gene were observed in non-exposed controls as well.Conclusions: In conclusion, TDA resistance does not appear to develop, and the virulence genes of V. anguillarum are unaffected by TDA exposure, supporting the application of TDA-producing roseobacters...

  5. Optimization of asparaginase production from Zymomonas mobilis by continuous fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Bortoluzzi Menegat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Asparaginase is an enzyme used in clinical treatments as a chemotherapeutic agent and in food technology to prevent acrylamide formation in fried and baked foods. Asparaginase is industrially produced by microorganisms, mainly gram-negative bacteria. Zymomonas mobilis is a Gram-negative bacterium that utilizes glucose, fructose and sucrose as carbon source and has been known for its efficiency in producing ethanol, sorbitol, levan, gluconic acid and has recently aroused interest for asparaginase production. Current assay optimizes the production of Z. mobilis asparaginase by continuous fermentation using response surface experimental design and methodology. The studied variables comprised sucrose, yeast extract and asparagine. Optimized condition obtained 117.45 IU L-1 with dilution rate 0.20 h-1, yeast extract 0.5 g L-1, sucrose 20 g L-1 and asparagine 1.3 g L-1. Moreover, carbon:nitrogen ratio (1:0.025 strongly affected the response of asparaginase activity. The use of Z. mobilis by continuous fermentation has proved to be a promising alternative for the biotechnological production of asparaginase.

  6. Ethanol and Acetic Acid Production from Carbon Monoxide in a Clostridium Strain in Batch and Continuous Gas-Fed Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Nalakath Abubackar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different sources of nitrogen as well as their concentrations on the bioconversion of carbon monoxide to metabolic products such as acetic acid and ethanol by Clostridium autoethanogenum was studied. In a first set of assays, under batch conditions, either NH4Cl, trypticase soy broth or yeast extract (YE were used as sources of nitrogen. The use of YE was found statistically significant (p < 0.05 on the product spectrum in such batch assays. In another set of experiments, three bioreactors were operated with continuous CO supply, in order to estimate the effect of running conditions on products and biomass formation. The bioreactors were operated under different conditions, i.e., EXP1 (pH = 5.75, YE 1g/L, EXP2 (pH = 4.75, YE 1 g/L and EXP3 (pH = 5.75, YE 0.2 g/L. When compared to EXP2 and EXP3, it was found that EXP1 yielded the maximum biomass accumulation (302.4 mg/L and products concentrations, i.e., acetic acid (2147.1 mg/L and ethanol (352.6 mg/L. This can be attributed to the fact that the higher pH and higher YE concentration used in EXP1 stimulated cell growth and did, consequently, also enhance metabolite production. However, when ethanol is the desired end-product, as a biofuel, the lower pH used in EXP2 was more favourable for solventogenesis and yielded the highest ethanol/acetic acid ratio, reaching a value of 0.54.

  7. Analysis of cytotoxic effects of chlorhexidine gluconate as antiseptic agent on human blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Ahmad; Alami, Bahare; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxicity of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) on human blood lymphocytes as a useful ex vivo model for accelerated human toxicity studies. Using biochemical and flow cytometry assessments, we demonstrated that addition of CHG at 1 μM concentration to human blood lymphocytes induced cytotoxicity following 6 h. The CHG-induced cytotoxicity on human blood lymphocytes was associated with intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, lysosomal membrane injury, lipid peroxidation, and depletion of glutathione. According to our results, CHG triggers oxidative stress and organelles damages in lymphocytes which are important cells in defense against foreign agents. Finally our findings suggest that using of antioxidants and mitochondrial/lysosomal protective agents could be of benefit for the people in the exposure with CHG. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of chlorhexidine gluconate, sodium hypochlorite and octenidine hydrochloride in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirali, Resmiye E; Bodur, Haluk; Sipahi, Bilge; Sungurtekin, Elif

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and octenidine hydrochloride (OCT) in different concentrations against endodontic pathogens in vitro. Agar diffusion procedure was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the tested materials. Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and the mixture of these were used for this study. In the agar diffusion test, 5.25% NaOCl exhibited better antimicrobial effect than the other concentrations of NaOCl for all strains. All concentrations of OCT were effective against C. albicans and E. faecalis. Some 0.2% CHX was ineffective on all microorganisms. Antibacterial effectiveness of all experimental solutions decreased on the mixture of all strains. Decreasing concentrations of NaOCl resulted in significantly reduced antimicrobial effect. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2010 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  9. Evidence for a Standardized Preadmission Showering Regimen to Achieve Maximal Antiseptic Skin Surface Concentrations of Chlorhexidine Gluconate, 4%, in Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Charles E; Lee, Cheong J; Krepel, Candace J; Spencer, Maureen; Leaper, David; Brown, Kellie R; Lewis, Brian D; Rossi, Peter J; Malinowski, Michael J; Seabrook, Gary R

    2015-11-01

    To reduce the amount of skin surface bacteria for patients undergoing elective surgery, selective health care facilities have instituted a preadmission antiseptic skin cleansing protocol using chlorhexidine gluconate. A Cochrane Collaborative review suggests that existing data do not justify preoperative skin cleansing as a strategy to reduce surgical site infection. To develop and evaluate the efficacy of a standardized preadmission showering protocol that optimizes skin surface concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate and to compare the findings with the design and methods of published studies on preoperative skin preparation. A randomized prospective analysis in 120 healthy volunteers was conducted at an academic tertiary care medical center from June 1, 2014, to September, 30, 2014. Data analysis was performed from October 13, 2014, to October 27, 2014. A standardized process of dose, duration, and timing was used to maximize antiseptic skin surface concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate applied during preoperative showering. The volunteers were randomized to 2 chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%, showering groups (2 vs 3 showers), containing 60 participants each, and 3 subgroups (no pause, 1-minute pause, or 2-minute pause before rinsing), containing 20 participants each. Volunteers used 118 mL of chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%, for each shower. Skin surface concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate were analyzed using colorimetric assay at 5 separate anatomic sites. Individual groups were analyzed using paired t test and analysis of variance. Preadmission showers using chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%. The primary outcome was to develop a standardized approach for administering the preadmission shower with chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%, resulting in maximal, persistent skin antisepsis by delineating a precise dose (volume) of chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%; duration (number of showers); and timing (pause) before rinsing. The mean (SD) composite chlorhexidine gluconate

  10. Improved continuous fumaric acid production with immobilised Rhizopus oryzae by implementation of a revised nitrogen control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naude, Andre; Nicol, Willie

    2018-02-22

    A novel fermentation system was employed whereby the mycelial mat of Rhizopus oryzae was attached to a polypropylene tube. Batch operation was used for growth, while continuous operation was employed during the fumaric acid production phase. A clear decrease in respiration, fumaric acid (FA) and ethanol production was observed when zero nitrogen was fed in the production phase, with FA productivity decreasing from an initial 0.7 g L -1  h -1 to 0.3 g L -1  h -1 after 150 hours. With the addition of 0.625 mg L -1  h -1 of urea FA productivity dropped to only 0.4 g L -1  h -1 after 150 hours and 0.3 g L -1  h -1 after 400 hours. Under these conditions it was observed that the ethanol production rate decreased 20 times faster compared with the FA production rate, therefore resulting in high FA yields towards the end of the fermentation (instantaneous 0.96 g g -1 and average 0.81 g g -1 after 400 hours). Increasing the urea feed rate to 1.875 mg L -1  h -1 resulted in a clear increase in FA production and respiration rates. This condition also resulted in a 25% increase in biomass after 150 hours, while the decline in the ethanol production rate was seven times lower than in the 0.625 mg L -1  h -1 urea fermentation, resulting in lower FA yields. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Manuka honey, chlorhexidine gluconate and xylitol on the clinical levels of dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibha A Nayak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare the effect of Manuka honey, chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% mouthwash and xylitol chewing gum on the dental plaque levels. Materials and Methods: Sixty healthy male dental students aged between 21 and 25 years (mean age 23.4 years participated in the study. All the subjects received a professional prophylaxis at the start of the study, with the purpose of making the dentition 100% free of plaque and calculus. The subjects were then randomly divided into three groups, i.e. the Manuka honey group, the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group and the xylitol chewing gum group. Rinsing with water or any other fluid after the procedure was not allowed as also any form of mechanical oral hygiene for all the subjects during the experimental period of 72 h. After the experimental period, the plaque was disclosed using disclosing solution and their scores were recorded at six sites per tooth using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Results: The mean plaque scores for Groups I, II and III were 1.37, 1.35 and 1.57, respectively. The ANOVA revealed that between-group comparison was significant, with an F-value of 5.99 and a probability value of 0.004. The T-test was carried out to evaluate the inter-group significance, which revealed that the plaque inhibition by Manuka honey was similar to that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. Both Manuka honey and chlorhexidine mouthwash reduced plaque formation significantly, better than the xylitol chewing gum. Conclusion: Manuka honey and chlorhexidine mouthwash reduced plaque formation significantly better than xylitol chewing gum.

  12. Calcium gluconate in phosphate buffered saline increases gene delivery with adenovirus type 5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko T Ahonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adenoviruses are attractive vectors for gene therapy because of their stability in vivo and the possibility of production at high titers. Despite exciting preclinical data with various approaches, there are only a few examples of clear efficacy in clinical trials. Effective gene delivery to target cells remains the key variable determining efficacy and thus enhanced transduction methods are important. METHODS/RESULTS: We found that heated serum could enhance adenovirus 5 mediated gene delivery up to twentyfold. A new protein-level interaction was found between fiber knob and serum transthyretin, but this was not responsible for the observed effect. Instead, we found that heating caused the calcium and phosphate present in the serum mix to precipitate, and this was responsible for enhanced gene delivery. This finding could have relevance for designing preclinical experiments with adenoviruses, since calcium and phosphate are present in many solutions. To translate this into an approach potentially testable in patients, we used calcium gluconate in phosphate buffered saline, both of which are clinically approved, to increase adenoviral gene transfer up to 300-fold in vitro. Gene transfer was increased with or without heating and in a manner independent from the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor. In vivo, in mouse studies, gene delivery was increased 2-, 110-, 12- and 13-fold to tumors, lungs, heart and liver and did not result in increased pro-inflammatory cytokine induction. Antitumor efficacy of a replication competent virus was also increased significantly. CONCLUSION: In summary, adenoviral gene transfer and antitumor efficacy can be enhanced by calcium gluconate in phosphate buffered saline.

  13. Relationship between chlorhexidine gluconate skin concentration and microbial density on the skin of critically ill patients bathed daily with chlorhexidine gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovich, Kyle J; Lyles, Rosie; Hayes, Robert; Hota, Bala; Trick, William; Weinstein, Robert A; Hayden, Mary K

    2012-09-01

    Previous work has shown that daily skin cleansing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) is effective in preventing infection in the medical intensive care unit (MICU). A colorimetric, semiquantitative indicator was used to measure CHG concentration on skin (neck, antecubital fossae, and inguinal areas) of patients bathed daily with CHG during their MICU stay and after discharge from the MICU, when CHG bathing stopped. MICU patients at Rush University Medical Center. CHG concentration on skin was measured and skin sites were cultured quantitatively. The relationship between CHG concentration and microbial density on skin was explored in a mixed-effects model using gram-positive colony-forming unit (CFU) counts. For 20 MICU patients studied (240 measurements), the lowest CHG concentrations (0-18.75 μg/mL) and the highest gram-positive CFU counts were on the neck (median, 1.07 log(10) CFUs; [Formula: see text]). CHG concentration increased postbath and decreased over 24 hours ([Formula: see text]). In parallel, median log(10) CFUs decreased pre- to postbath (0.78 to 0) and then increased over 24 hours to the baseline of 0.78 ([Formula: see text]). A CHG concentration above 18.75 μg/mL was associated with decreased gram-positive CFUs ([Formula: see text]). In all but 2 instances, CHG was detected on patient skin during the entire interbath (approximately 24-hour) period (18 [90%] of 20 patients). In 11 patients studied after MICU discharge (80 measurements), CHG skin concentrations fell below effective levels after 1-3 days. In MICU patients bathed daily with CHG, CHG concentration was inversely associated with microbial density on skin; residual antimicrobial activity on skin persisted up to 24 hours. Determination of CHG concentration on the skin of patients may be useful in monitoring the adequacy of skin cleansing by healthcare workers.

  14. U-shaped relationship between uric acid and residual renal function decline in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yao-Peng; Yang, Yu; Chang, Chia-Chu; Kor, Chew-Teng; Wen, Yao-Ko; Chiu, Ping-Fang; Lin, Chi-Chen

    2017-06-01

    There is little information on the relationship between uric acid (UA) and residual renal function (RRF) in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The aim of this research is to study the influence of UA on RRF decline in CAPD patients. A retrospective observational cohort study of 304 patients who started CAPD without anuria between 2001 and 2010 was conducted at a single medical center. The outcomes measured in the study included the rate of RRF decline and anuria. A multiple ordinal logistic regression model with backward elimination was conducted to determine the independent factors of the slope of RRF decline. A Cox proportional hazard model was conducted to determine the independent variables of time to anuria. The average rate of RRF decline was -0.12 ± 0.22 mL/min per month. Multivariate analysis showed that lower UA group (anuria, whereas 24-h urine amount at baseline conferred a protective role in the development of anuria. A U-shaped relationship was found between UA levels and the rate of RRF decline in patients on CAPD, with a faster decline rate in those of higher and lower UA groups. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  15. Temperature-controlled continuous production of all-trans retinoic acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles using static mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wenyao; Yan, Mengwen; Chen, Tingting; Chen, Yuqing; Xiao, Zongyuan

    2017-04-01

    This work aims to develop a temperature-controlled continuous solvent emulsification-diffusion process to synthesize all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) using static mixers. ATRA-loaded SLNs of around 200 nm were obtained when the flow rates of the organic and aqueous phases were 50 ml min-1 and 500 ml min-1, respectively. It was found that the lipid concentration played a dominant role in the size of the obtained SLNs, and higher drug concentration resulted in relatively low entrapment efficiency. The encapsulation of ATRA in the SLNs was effective in improving its stability according to the photo-degradation test. The in vitro release of SLN was slow without an initial burst. This study demonstrates that the solvent emulsification-diffusion technique with static mixing is an effective method of producing SLNs, and could easily be scaled up for industrial applications. Highlights Higher lipid concentration leads to larger SLNs. SLN transformation occurs due to Ostwald ripening. The ATRA-loaded SLNs around 200 nm were successfully produced with static mixers. ATRA-loaded SLNs show better stability towards sunlight. ATRA in SLNs exhibited a relatively slow release rate without a significant initial burst.

  16. Increased biohydrogen yields, volatile fatty acid production and substrate utilisation rates via the electrodialysis of a continually fed sucrose fermenter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rhys Jon; Massanet-Nicolau, Jaime; Mulder, Martijn J J; Premier, Giuliano; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan

    2017-04-01

    Electrodialysis (ED) removed volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from a continually-fed, hydrogen-producing fermenter. Simultaneously, electrochemical removal and adsorption removed gaseous H2 and CO2, respectively. Removing VFAs via ED in this novel process increased H2 yields by a factor of 3.75 from 0.24molH2mol-1hexose to 0.90molH2mol-1hexose. VFA production and substrate utilisation rates were consistent with the hypothesis that end product inhibition arrests H2 production. The methodology facilitated the recovery of 37g of VFAs, and 30L H2 that was more than 99% pure, both of which are valuable, energy dense chemicals. Typically, short hydraulic and solid retention times, and depressed pH levels are used to suppress methanogenesis, but this limits H2 production. To produce H2 from real world, low grade biomass containing complex carbohydrates, longer hydraulic retention times (HRTs) are required. The proposed system increased H2 yields via increased substrate utilisation over longer HRTs. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Continuous collection and simultaneous detection of picoliter volume of nucleic acid samples using a mille-feuille probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hidenori; Tanaka, Motoki; Zhou, Yuanshu; Nashimoto, Yuji; Takahashi, Yasufumi; Ino, Kosuke; Matsue, Tomokazu; Shiku, Hitoshi

    2017-02-01

    Investigation of the positional heterogeneity of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in tissues requires a technology that facilitates analysis of mRNA expression in the selected single cells. We developed a mille-feuille probe (MP) that allows the lamination of the aqueous and organic phases in a nanopipette under voltage control. The MP was used for continuous collection of different nucleic acid samples and sequential evaluation of gene expression with mRNA barcoding tags. First, we found that the aqueous phases could be laminated into five individual layers and separated by the plugs of the organic phases in a nanopipette when the salt (THATPBCl) concentration in the organic phase was 100 mM. Second, the aspiration rate of the MP was stabilized and the velocity of the aqueous phase in the MP was lowered at higher THATPBCl concentrations in the organic phase. This was because the force during ingression of the aqueous phase into the organic - phase-filled nanopipette induced an electro-osmotic flow between the inside wall of the nanopipette and THATPBCl in the organic phase. Third, inclusion of mRNA barcoding tags in the MP facilitated complementary DNA construction and sequential analysis of gene expression. This technique has potential to be applicable to RNA sequencing from different cell samples across the life sciences. Graphical abstract We developed a mille-feuille probe (MP) that allows the lamination of the aqueous and organic phases in a nanopipette under voltage control.

  18. A randomized clinical study for comparative evaluation of Aloe Vera and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash efficacy on de-novo plaque formation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shivjot Chhina; Avnish Singh; Ipseeta Menon; Rickypal Singh; Anubhav Sharma; Vartika Aggarwal

    2016-01-01

    ...% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash on de novo plaque formation. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized, single blind, parallel, controlled clinical study with 90 healthy participants, with mean age of 27.19 +- 12.08 years...

  19. The effect of bicarbonate administration via continuous venovenous hemofiltration on acid-base parameters in ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegretti, Andrew S; Flythe, Jennifer E; Benda, Vinod; Robinson, Emily S; Charytan, David M

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) and metabolic acidosis are common in the intensive care unit. The effect of bicarbonate administration on acid-base parameters is unclear in those receiving continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) and mechanical ventilatory support. Metabolic and ventilatory parameters were prospectively examined in 19 ventilated subjects for up to 96 hours following CVVH initiation for AKI at an academic tertiary care center. Mixed linear regression modeling was performed to measure changes in pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), serum bicarbonate, and base excess over time. During the 96-hour study period, pCO2 levels remained stable overall (initial pCO2 42.0±14.6 versus end-study pCO2 43.8±16.1 mmHg; P=0.13 for interaction with time), for those with initial pCO2≤40 mmHg (31.3±5.7 versus 35.0±4.8; P=0.06) and for those with initial pCO2>40 mmHg (52.7±12.8 versus 53.4±19.2; P=0.57). pCO2 decreased during the immediate hours following CVVH initiation (42.0±14.6 versus 37.3±12.6 mmHg), though this change was nonsignificant (P=0.052). We did not detect a significant increase in pCO2 in response to the administration of bicarbonate via CVVH in a ventilated population. Additional studies of larger populations are needed to confirm this finding.

  20. Effect of low pH start-up on continuous mixed-culture lactic acid fermentation of dairy effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gyucheol; Kim, Jaai; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-12-01

    Mixed-culture fermentation that does not require an energy-intensive sterilization process is a viable approach for the economically feasible production of lactic acid (LA) due to the potential use of organic waste as feedstock. This study investigated mixed-culture LA fermentation of whey, a high-strength organic wastewater, in continuous mode. Variations in the hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 120 to 8 h under different pH regimes in two thermophilic reactors (55 °C) were compared for their fermentation performance. One reactor was maintained at a low pH (pH 3.0) during operation at HRTs of 120 to 24 h and then adjusted to pH 5.5 in the later phases of fermentation at HRTs of 24 to 8 h (R1), while the second reactor was maintained at pH 5.5 throughout the experiment (R2). Although the LA production in R1 was negligible at low pH, it increased dramatically after the pH was raised to 5.5 and exceeded that in R2 when stabilized at HRTs of 8 and 12 h. The maximum yield (0.62 g LA/g substrate fed as the chemical oxygen demand (COD) equivalent), the production rate (11.5 g/L day), and the selectivity (95 %) of LA were all determined at a 12-h HRT in R1. Additionally, molecular and statistical analyses revealed that changes in the HRT and the pH significantly affected the bacterial community structure and thus the fermentation characteristics of the experimental reactors. Bacillus coagulans was likely the predominant LA producer in both reactors. The overall results suggest that low pH start-up has a positive effect on yield and selectivity in mixed-culture LA fermentation.

  1. Reduction in bacterial loading using 2% chlorhexidine gluconate as an irrigant in pulpectomized primary teeth: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Esparza, C L; Garrocho-Rangel, A; Gonzalez-Amaro, A M; Flores-Reyes, H; Pozos-Guillen, A J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction in bacterial loading using 2% chlorhexidine gluconate as an irrigating solution in pulpectomized primary teeth. A randomized, controlled clinical trial was performed that included primary teeth with pulp necrosis. Forty necrotic teeth were included, 20 irrigated with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (experimental group) and 20 with sterile saline solution (control group); in all cases, 2 microbiological samples from within the canals were taken with sterile paper points, the first after the canal opening and before the first irrigation, and the second after instrumentation and final irrigation, before filling. All samples were evaluated by McFarlands scale. The results were statistically analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. After analyzing samples before and after irrigation in the control group (saline), we found a significant decrease of bacterial load (P pulpectomy of necrotic primary teeth.

  2. Leishmania donovani isolates with antimony-resistant but not -sensitive phenotype inhibit sodium antimony gluconate-induced dendritic cell activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Haldar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The inability of sodium antimony gluconate (SAG-unresponsive kala-azar patients to clear Leishmania donovani (LD infection despite SAG therapy is partly due to an ill-defined immune-dysfunction. Since dendritic cells (DCs typically initiate anti-leishmanial immunity, a role for DCs in aberrant LD clearance was investigated. Accordingly, regulation of SAG-induced activation of murine DCs following infection with LD isolates exhibiting two distinct phenotypes such as antimony-resistant (Sb(RLD and antimony-sensitive (Sb(SLD was compared in vitro. Unlike Sb(SLD, infection of DCs with Sb(RLD induced more IL-10 production and inhibited SAG-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and leishmanicidal effects. Sb(RLD inhibited these effects of SAG by blocking activation of PI3K/AKT and NF-kappaB pathways. In contrast, Sb(SLD failed to block activation of SAG (20 microg/ml-induced PI3K/AKT pathway; which continued to stimulate NF-kappaB signaling, induce leishmanicidal effects and promote DC activation. Notably, prolonged incubation of DCs with Sb(SLD also inhibited SAG (20 microg/ml-induced activation of PI3K/AKT and NF-kappaB pathways and leishmanicidal effects, which was restored by increasing the dose of SAG to 40 microg/ml. In contrast, Sb(RLD inhibited these SAG-induced events regardless of duration of DC exposure to Sb(RLD or dose of SAG. Interestingly, the inhibitory effects of isogenic Sb(SLD expressing ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter MRPA on SAG-induced leishmanicidal effects mimicked that of Sb(RLD to some extent, although antimony resistance in clinical LD isolates is known to be multifactorial. Furthermore, NF-kappaB was found to transcriptionally regulate expression of murine gammaglutamylcysteine synthetase heavy-chain (mgammaGCS(hc gene, presumably an important regulator of antimony resistance. Importantly, Sb(RLD but not Sb(SLD blocked SAG-induced mgammaGCS expression in DCs by

  3. Leishmania donovani Isolates with Antimony-Resistant but Not -Sensitive Phenotype Inhibit Sodium Antimony Gluconate-Induced Dendritic Cell Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Eshu; Bisht, Kamlesh Kumar; Singh, Alpana; Bhaumik, Suniti; Basu, Rajatava; Sen, Pradip; Roy, Syamal

    2010-01-01

    The inability of sodium antimony gluconate (SAG)-unresponsive kala-azar patients to clear Leishmania donovani (LD) infection despite SAG therapy is partly due to an ill-defined immune-dysfunction. Since dendritic cells (DCs) typically initiate anti-leishmanial immunity, a role for DCs in aberrant LD clearance was investigated. Accordingly, regulation of SAG-induced activation of murine DCs following infection with LD isolates exhibiting two distinct phenotypes such as antimony-resistant (SbRLD) and antimony-sensitive (SbSLD) was compared in vitro. Unlike SbSLD, infection of DCs with SbRLD induced more IL-10 production and inhibited SAG-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and leishmanicidal effects. SbRLD inhibited these effects of SAG by blocking activation of PI3K/AKT and NF-κB pathways. In contrast, SbSLD failed to block activation of SAG (20 µg/ml)-induced PI3K/AKT pathway; which continued to stimulate NF-κB signaling, induce leishmanicidal effects and promote DC activation. Notably, prolonged incubation of DCs with SbSLD also inhibited SAG (20 µg/ml)-induced activation of PI3K/AKT and NF-κB pathways and leishmanicidal effects, which was restored by increasing the dose of SAG to 40 µg/ml. In contrast, SbRLD inhibited these SAG-induced events regardless of duration of DC exposure to SbRLD or dose of SAG. Interestingly, the inhibitory effects of isogenic SbSLD expressing ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter MRPA on SAG-induced leishmanicidal effects mimicked that of SbRLD to some extent, although antimony resistance in clinical LD isolates is known to be multifactorial. Furthermore, NF-κB was found to transcriptionally regulate expression of murine γglutamylcysteine synthetase heavy-chain (mγGCShc) gene, presumably an important regulator of antimony resistance. Importantly, SbRLD but not SbSLD blocked SAG-induced mγGCS expression in DCs by preventing NF-κB binding to the mγGCShc promoter. Our

  4. A study on the design, formulation and effectiveness of chewing gums containing Chlorhexidine Gluconate in the prevention of dental plaque

    OpenAIRE

    Kolahi Kazerani G; Ghalyani P; Varshosaz J

    2003-01-01

    Statement of Problem: The role of the microbial plaque in caries etiology and periodontal diseases has been"nproved and the mechanical methods for plaque control have special limitations, consequently, chemical"nmethods have been suggested. One of the most effective materials is Chlorhexidine Gluconate that is"ncommonly used as mouth rinses. However, the medicated formulations of chewing gums, due to several"nproperties, have been paid attention. It should be noted that a ...

  5. Alginate inhibits iron absorption from ferrous gluconate in a randomized controlled trial and reduces iron uptake into Caco-2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A Wawer

    Full Text Available Previous in vitro results indicated that alginate beads might be a useful vehicle for food iron fortification. A human study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that alginate enhances iron absorption. A randomised, single blinded, cross-over trial was carried out in which iron absorption was measured from serum iron appearance after a test meal. Overnight-fasted volunteers (n = 15 were given a test meal of 200 g cola-flavoured jelly plus 21 mg iron as ferrous gluconate, either in alginate beads mixed into the jelly or in a capsule. Iron absorption was lower from the alginate beads than from ferrous gluconate (8.5% and 12.6% respectively, p = 0.003. Sub-group B (n = 9 consumed the test meals together with 600 mg calcium to determine whether alginate modified the inhibitory effect of calcium. Calcium reduced iron absorption from ferrous gluconate by 51%, from 11.5% to 5.6% (p = 0.014, and from alginate beads by 37%, from 8.3% to 5.2% (p = 0.009. In vitro studies using Caco-2 cells were designed to explore the reasons for the difference between the previous in vitro findings and the human study; confirmed the inhibitory effect of alginate. Beads similar to those used in the human study were subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion, with and without cola jelly, and the digestate applied to Caco-2 cells. Both alginate and cola jelly significantly reduced iron uptake into the cells, by 34% (p = 0.009 and 35% (p = 0.003 respectively. The combination of cola jelly and calcium produced a very low ferritin response, 16.5% (p < 0.001 of that observed with ferrous gluconate alone. The results of these studies demonstrate that alginate beads are not a useful delivery system for soluble salts of iron for the purpose of food fortification.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01528644.

  6. Influence of pH and lactic acid concentration on Clostridium tyrobutyricum during continuous growth in a pH-auxostat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thylin, I; Schuisky, P; Lindgren, S; Gottschal, J.C

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this project was to establish the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of lactic acid for growth of Clostridium tyrobutyricum. A pH-auxostat was used to maintain a constant pH and to allow continuous growth at the highest possible rates at fixed, but adjustable concentrations of

  7. The single-biopsy approach in determining protein synthesis in human slow-turning-over tissue: use of flood-primed, continuous infusion of amino acid tracer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Reitelseder, Søren; Dideriksen, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) rate is determined conventionally by obtaining two or more tissue biopsies during a primed, continuous infusion of a stable isotopically labeled amino acid. The purpose of the present study was to test whether tracer priming given as a flooding dose, thereby securin...

  8. Comparison of the effect of caffeine containing energy drink and Glucon D on auditory and visual reaction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Shanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the consumption of energy drinks in the last decade which raises a concern regarding its safety. Glucose improves information processing and cognition. But research on only glucose containing drink is lacking. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Red Bull,a caffeine containing energy drink and Glucon D on visual and auditory reaction time in medical students. A total of 30 students,15 boys and 15 girls, in the age group 18 to 22 yrs were recruited for the study after taking approval from the Institutional Ethical Committee. At the beginning, a baseline record of pulse, blood pressure, ART and VRT were taken for all students. The students were given Red Bull and readings were taken after 30 minutes. After an interval of five days the same procedure was repeated with Glucon D. All readings were taken between 10-12 a.m. On comparing the effect of Red Bull on either sex, there was no significant difference. On comparing the effect of the two energy drinks, the p value between the effect of Red Bull and Glucon D on ART was 0.457 and on VRT was 0.314.Both were not statistically significant. There was a significant increase in pulse rate with Red Bull (P=0.036. The mean DBP increased marginally with Red Bull which was not significant (P=0.496.

  9. Is chlorhexidine-gluconate superior than Povidone-Iodine in preventing surgical site infections? A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Safia; Shah, Syed Aslam; Qureshi, Shamim; Siddiqui, Taranum Ruba; Soomro, Iftikhar Ahmed; Ahmed, Waquaruddin; Alam, Syed Ejaz

    2015-11-01

    To compare the efficacy of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine gluconate scrubs in preventing surgical site infections. The randomised controlled clinical trial was conducted from May 2012 to April 2013 in two public-sector hospitals of Pakistan; one each in Karachi and Islamabad. Patients undergoing clean or clean contaminated surgeries were included and were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: group I comprised patients whose skin was preoperatively disinfected using 10% povidone-iodine, and in group II by 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% alcohol. A predesigned proforma was filled for all patients to record demographic data, diagnosis, surgical procedure and antibiotic used. Patients in both groups were followed up for one month postoperatively to monitor any signs of surgical site infections. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 388 patients from the two hospitals, 220(57%) were in group I and 168(43%) were in group II. Surgical site infection was observed in 22(10%) cases in group I and 12(7.1%) in group II (p=0.324). Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23.5%) was the predominant pathogen associated with surgical site infections followed by Staphylococcus aureus (17.6%). Chlorhexidine gluconate was associated with lower infection rates compared to povidone-iodine; but it was not statistically significant.

  10. Optimal design and experimental validation of a simulated moving bed chromatography for continuous recovery of formic acid in a model mixture of three organic acids from Actinobacillus bacteria fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chanhun; Nam, Hee-Geun; Lee, Ki Bong; Mun, Sungyong

    2014-10-24

    The economically-efficient separation of formic acid from acetic acid and succinic acid has been a key issue in the production of formic acid with the Actinobacillus bacteria fermentation. To address this issue, an optimal three-zone simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatography for continuous separation of formic acid from acetic acid and succinic acid was developed in this study. As a first step for this task, the adsorption isotherm and mass-transfer parameters of each organic acid on the qualified adsorbent (Amberchrom-CG300C) were determined through a series of multiple frontal experiments. The determined parameters were then used in optimizing the SMB process for the considered separation. During such optimization, the additional investigation for selecting a proper SMB port configuration, which could be more advantageous for attaining better process performances, was carried out between two possible configurations. It was found that if the properly selected port configuration was adopted in the SMB of interest, the throughout and the formic-acid product concentration could be increased by 82% and 181% respectively. Finally, the optimized SMB process based on the properly selected port configuration was tested experimentally using a self-assembled SMB unit with three zones. The SMB experimental results and the relevant computer simulation verified that the developed process in this study was successful in continuous recovery of formic acid from a ternary organic-acid mixture of interest with high throughput, high purity, high yield, and high product concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasma trans-Fatty Acid Concentrations Continue to Be Associated with Serum Lipid and Lipoprotein Concentrations among US Adults after Reductions in trans-Fatty Acid Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Quanhe; Zhang, Zefeng; Loustalot, Fleetwood; Vesper, Hubert; Caudill, Samuel P; Ritchey, Matthew; Gillespie, Cathleen; Merritt, Robert; Hong, Yuling; Bowman, Barbara A

    2017-05-01

    Background: High intakes of trans-fatty acids (TFAs), especially industrially produced TFAs, can lead to unfavorable lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is unknown how this relation might change in a population after significant reductions in TFA intake.Objective: This study, which used a new analytical method for measuring plasma TFA concentrations, clarified the association between plasma TFA and serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations before and after the US FDA enacted TFA food-labeling regulations in 2006.Methods: Data were selected from the NHANES of 1999-2000 and 2009-2010. Findings on 1383 and 2155 adults, respectively, aged ≥20 y, were evaluated. Multivariable linear regressions were used to examine the associations between plasma TFA concentration and lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. The outcome measures were serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides and the ratio of TC to HDL cholesterol.Results: The median plasma TFA concentration decreased from 80.6 μmol/L in 1999-2000 to 37.0 μmol/L in 2009-2010. Plasma TFA concentration continued to be associated with serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations after significant reductions in TFA intake in the population. For example, by comparing the lowest with the highest quintiles of TFA concentration in 1999-2000, adjusted mean (95% CI) LDL-cholesterol concentrations increased from 118 mg/dL (112, 123 mg/dL) to 135 mg/dL (130, 141 mg/dL) (P-trend < 0.001). The corresponding values for 2009-2010 were 102 mg/dL (97.4, 107 mg/dL) and 129 mg/dL (125, 133 mg/dL) for LDL cholesterol (P-trend < 0.001). Differences between the highest and lowest quintiles were consistent across age groups, sexes, races/ethnicities, and other covariates.Conclusions: Despite a 54% reduction in plasma TFA concentrations in US adults from 1999-2000 to 2009-2010, concentrations remained significantly associated with serum

  12. Continuous Enteral Administration Can Enable Normal Amino Acid Absorption in Rats with Methotrexate-Induced Gastrointestinal Mucositis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijlstra, Margot; Schierbeek, Henk; Voortman, Gardi; Dorst, Kristien Y.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Rings, Edmond H. H. M.; Tissing, Wim J. E.

    2012-01-01

    It is unknown what feeding strategy to use during chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal mucositis, which causes weight loss and possibly malabsorption. To study the absorptive capacity of amino acids during mucositis, we determined the plasma availability of enterally administered amino acids (AA),

  13. Effect of EDTA, sodium hypochlorite, and chlorhexidine gluconate with or without surface modifiers on dentin microhardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslantas, Eda E; Buzoglu, Hatice Dogan; Altundasar, Emre; Serper, Ahmet

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of root canal irrigants on the microhardness of root canal dentin in the presence and absence of surface-modifying agents. Forty-eight root halves were prepared by longitudinal splitting of the distal roots of 24 freshly extracted mandibular human third molars and embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin, leaving the dentin surface exposed. After polishing, the microhardness values of the untreated dentin surfaces were recorded by using Vickers tester at the mid-root level. The root halves were randomly assigned to 6 groups composed of 8 samples each and treated for 5 minutes with one of the following irrigants: 17% EDTA, REDTA, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), 2% CHX with surface modifiers (CHX-Plus), 6% NaOCl, or 6% NaOCl with surface modifiers (Chlor-XTRA). After surface treatment, dentin microhardness values were recorded at close proximity to the initial indentation areas. Experimental data were statistically analyzed by using the t test and one-way analysis of variance, followed by Tukey honestly significant difference test at α = 0.05. EDTA, REDTA, NaOCl, and Chlor-XTRA significantly decreased the microhardness of root dentin compared with intact controls (P < .05). The addition of surface modifiers to the irrigants did not affect the microhardness of the samples. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence of incompatibility for topical anionic agents used in conjunction with chlorhexidine gluconate: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Tran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG is a widely used antiseptic agent for skin and wound disinfection. The cationic properties of CHG may allow its inactivation and precipitation by anionic agents in commonly used topical agents. We conducted a systematic review by searching through PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases and selected original research articles reporting on CHG incompatibility, defined as inactivation or precipitation. The search yielded 22 publications that demonstrated CHG incompatibility via: 1 reduced antibacterial activity (carbomer, acrylates/C10-C30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer, dentin, bovine serum albumin, copolymer M239144, sodium lauryl sulfate, heat-killed microbes, triethanolamine, and bark cork; and 2 visible precipitate formation (sodium hypochlorite, EDTA, saline, ethanol, andnystatin. Only three publications reported on CHG incompatibility in dermatology, specifically for carbomer, triethanolamine, and acrylates/C10-C30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer. Although limited evidence linking CHG incompatibility and anionic agents exists, clinicians should carefully consider the nature of topical agents used if CHG is concurrently applied. Increased awareness of CHG incompatibility may result in better antibacterial activity thus ensuring optimal patient management.

  15. A case report on a systemic toxicity following ingestion of 20% chlorhexidine gluconate solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koiahi-e-Kazerani J

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine is bonded well to the oral mucosa and dental pellicle and is poorly absorbed from the astrointestinal tract, but in high concentration it is absorbed enough to produce liver necrosis. In this case a dentistry student accidentally ingested a shot of 20% chlorhexidine gluconate solution. Treatments included washing the oral cavity with lots of tooth paste, drinking of 5% alginate syrup and ingestion of 5g small pieces of cork .The following adverse effects were experienced: headache, giddiness, mild mist, euphoria, stomachache, diarrhea and complete loss of taste sensation for 8h, which recurred gradually during the last 48 hours. According to the poor absorption, low toxicity and low concentration of conventional mouthwashes, systemic toxicity following drinking of some shots of this solution is rare. Ultimately if may cause gastritis. Other treatments which are helpful in the same cases are: drinking of hard water, kaolin and tragacant syrup, bicarbonates such as baking soda, carbonates such as beverage , citrates such as lemon-juice and chlorides such as brine and so on.

  16. Effect of chlorhexidine gluconate on porosity and compressive strength of a glass ionomer cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Mafra MARTI

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION:For presenting wide antibacterial activity, chlorhexidine (CHX has been extensively used in dentistry and can be easily incorporated into the glass ionomer cement (GIC and consequently released into the oral cavity.AIM: The aim of this study was porosity and compression strength of a GIC, that was added to different concentrations of CHX.MATERIAL AND METHOD: Specimens were prepared with GIC (Ketac Molar Esaymix and divided into 4 groups according to the concentration of CHX: control, 0.5% and 1% and 2% (n = 10. For analysis of pores specimens were fractured with the aid of hammer and chisel surgical, so that the fracture was performed in the center of the specimens, dividing it in half and images were obtained from a scanning electron microscope (SEM analyzed in Image J software. The compressive strength test was conducted in a mechanical testing machine (EMIC - Equipment and Testing Systems Ltd., Joseph of the Pines, PR, Brazil. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA, Tukey test. Significance level of 5%.RESULT: No statistically significant changes between the study groups was observed both for the number of pores as well as for the compressive strength.CONCLUSION: The use of GIC associated with CHX gluconate 1% and 2% is the best option to be used in dental practice.

  17. Enhancement of osteoinduction by continual simvastatin release from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-hydroxyapatite-simvastatin nano-fibrous scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liming; Sun, Haizhu; Yuan, Anliang; Zhang, Kai; Li, Daowei; Li, Chen; Shi, Ce; Li, Xiangwei; Gao, Kai; Zheng, Changyu; Yang, Bai; Sun, Hongchen

    2013-11-01

    Simvastatin is considered as a stimulator for bone formation. However, the half-life for simvastatin is generally 2 hours, which means, it is difficult to maintain biologically active simvastatin in vivo. To overcome this limitation, we created a system to slowly release simvastatin in vitro and in vivo. We constructed a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/hydroxyapatite nano-fibrous scaffold to carry simvastatin. Releasing assays showed that simvastatin was released from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/hydroxyapatite/simvastatin quickly within - 15 days, and small amounts continued to be released through day 56 (experiments terminated). MTT assays demonstrated that both poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/hydroxyapatite and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/hydroxyapatite/simvastatin promoted MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation. However, Alkaline phosphatase assays showed that only poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/hydroxyapatite/simvastatin scaffold significantly promoted the osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro on day 14. To further test in vivo, we created calvaria bone defect models and implanted either poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/hydroxyapatite or poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/hydroxyapatite/simvastatin. After 4 or 8 weeks post-implantation, the results indicated that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/hydroxyapatite/simvastatin scaffold induced bone formation more efficiently than poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/hydroxyapatite alone. Our data demonstrates that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/hydroxyapatite/simvastatin has the potential to aid in healing bone defects and promoting bone regeneration in the future although we still need to optimize this complex to efficiently promote bone regeneration.

  18. Repression of mineral phosphate solubilizing phenotype in the presence of weak organic acids in plant growth promoting fluorescent pseudomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Divya K; Murawala, Prayag; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2011-02-01

    Two phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB), M3 and SP1, were obtained from the rhizosphere of mungbean and sweet potato, respectively and identified as strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Their rock phosphate (RP) solubilizing abilities were found to be due to secretion high amount of gluconic acid. In the presence of malate and succinate, individually and as mixture, the P solubilizing ability of both the strains was considerably reduced. This was correlated with a nearly 80% decrease in the activity of the glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) but not gluconate dehydrogenase (GAD) in both the isolates. Thus, GDH enzyme, catalyzing the periplasmic production of gluconic acid, is under reverse catabolite repression control by organic acids in P. aeruginosa M3 and SP1. This is of relevance in rhizospheric conditions and is a new explanation for the lack of field efficacy of such PSB. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ethanol and acetic acid production from carbon monoxide in a Clostridium strain in batch and continuous gas-fed bioreactors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abubackar, Haris Nalakath; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different sources of nitrogen as well as their concentrations on the bioconversion of carbon monoxide to metabolic products such as acetic acid and ethanol by Clostridium autoethanogenum was studied...

  20. Continuous-flow synthesis of adipic acid from cyclohexene using hydrogen peroxide in high-temperature explosive regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Markus; Gutmann, Bernhard; Kappe, C Oliver

    2013-06-01

    Safe only in a microreactor! The synthesis of adipic acid from cyclohexene by tungstic acid-catalyzed oxidation using hydrogen peroxide following the classical Noyori protocol can be accomplished in good yields with residence times as short as 20 min at 140 °C using a safe and scalable microreactor environment. Under these intensified conditions the use of a phase-transfer catalyst is not required. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Vibrio anguillarum Is Genetically and Phenotypically Unaffected by Long-Term Continuous Exposure to the Antibacterial Compound Tropodithietic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bastian Barker; Grotkjær, Torben; D'Alvise, Paul

    2016-01-01

    -pathogenic vibrios in fish larvae and live feed cultures for fish larvae. The antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA), an antiporter that disrupts the proton motive force, is key in the antibacterial activity of several roseobacters. Introducing probiotics on a larger scale requires understanding of any......, and whole-genome sequencing of TDA-exposed lineages and clones revealed few mutational changes, compared to lineages grown without TDA. Amino acid-changing mutations were found in two to six different genes per clone; however, no mutations appeared unique to the TDA-exposed lineages or clones. None...... prevent or reduce bacterial diseases in fish larvae, acting as probiotics. Roseobacters produce the antimicrobial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA), and we were concerned regarding whether long-term exposure to this compound could induce resistance or affect the disease-causing ability of the fish...

  2. Continuous production of fatty acid ethyl esters from soybean oil at supercritical conditions - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i2.11255

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE from the transesterification of soybean oil in supercritical ethanol in a continuous catalyst-free process using different reactor configurations. Experiments were performed in a tubular reactor in one-step reaction and experimentally simulating two reactors, one operated in series and the other a recycle reactor. The reaction products were analyzed for their content of residual triglycerides, glycerol, monoglycerides, diglycerides, ethyl esters and decomposition. Results show that the configurations studied with intermediate separation of glycerol afford higher conversions of vegetable oil to their fatty acid ethyl esters derivatives when compared to the one-step reaction, with relatively low decomposition of fatty acids (< 5.0 wt%.

  3. In vitro study on the effects of iron sucrose, ferric gluconate and iron dextran on redox-active iron and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Brigitte; Steinkellner, Hannes; Ternes, Nina; Goldenberg, Hans; Scheiber-Mojdehkar, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Concerns exist that administration of intravenous (i.v.) iron preparations is associated with oxidative stress. Therefore iron sucrose (CAS 8047-67-4), ferric gluconate (CAS 34098-81-1) and iron dextran (CAS 9004-66-4) were assessed for redox-active iron by a dichlorofluorescein assay and for intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Examining each i.v. iron preparation at its maximum concentration achieved following clinically frequently used doses in a 70 kg individual in in vitro experiments, redox-active iron was highest with ferric gluconate, followed by iron dextran and iron sucrose. Interestingly, when the i.v. iron preparations were diluted in human serum instead of buffer, redox-active iron was highest with iron dextran, followed by iron sucrose, and practically disappeared with ferric gluconate. ROS production in HepG2 cells was increased by all i.v. iron preparations. However, in the neutral red cytotoxicity assay all i.v. iron preparations were non-toxic. In conclusion, ferric gluconate showed the highest increase in intracellular ROS-production in HepG2 cells and the highest amount of redox-active iron in buffer in the in vitro assays. In contrast to the other i.v. iron preparations, redox-active iron from ferric gluconate was rendered completely redox-inactive by serum, indicating that redox-active iron in the various preparations has different chemical properties.

  4. Characterization of acid-base properties of unstable drugs using a continuous-flow system with UV-vis spectrophotometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argemí, Anna; Saurina, Javier

    2007-08-15

    In this paper, we propose a continuous-flow system for the study of the acid-base characteristics of unstable drugs. 5-Azacytidine has been selected as a first model of unstable compound, which progressively decomposes in aqueous solutions. Besides, other compounds undergoing hydrolysis and oxidation side reactions have been also analyzed to explore the performance of the method. In comparison with conventional batch titrations, the drug decomposition can be minimized by the continuous renewal of the analyte solution. The composition of the buffer mixture is varied on-line during the process from successive changes in the flow rates of acid and basic stock solutions. As a result, the pH value of the test solution is varied in a controlled manner in the range of 1-13. Multivariate curve resolution based on alternating least squares has been used to extract relevant information concerning the acid-base properties of analytes. Results from the continuous-flow system have been compared with those obtained, using batch spectrophotometric titrations, and in the case of fast degradations, the performance of the proposed procedure has been superior.

  5. Charge conservation in intact frog skeletal muscle fibres in gluconate-containing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C L

    1994-01-01

    1. The conservation of intramembrane charge was investigated in intact voltage-clamped frog skeletal muscle fibres under conditions that minimized time-dependent ionic currents and so facilitated precise determination of capacitative charge. 2. Prolonged (q gamma) transients were demonstrated in 3,4-diaminopyridine and tetraethyl-ammonium gluconate-containing low [Ca2+] solutions in response to 125 ms pulses that explored the voltage range -90 to -20 mV. The tetracaine-sensitive, q gamma, component then accounted for a significant proportion (over 50%) of available charge. 3. Both delayed 'on' q gamma currents and 'off' current tails decayed to steady direct current (DC) baselines without significant residual ionic current slopes in the chosen extracellular solutions. This suggested that the current transients represented capacitative decays. It was also compatible with the precise determination of effective charge by integration. 4. The advent of 'on' q gamma current was accompanied by increased 'off' charge. Thus, charge was conserved through all 'on' and 'off' steps and through test voltages that extended from the threshold appearance of q gamma as a slow transient to its full merger with the earlier q beta decay at stronger depolarizations. 5. Charge conservation persisted through a wide range of 'on' pulse durations between 60 and 370 ms and was therefore independent of the interval following the q gamma decay. 6. The quantity of q gamma charge remained a monotonic single-valued function of test voltage, whether this potential was reached directly from the -90 mV holding potential or following a prepulse to -10 mV. 7. These findings suggest that the q gamma charge movement represents the electrical signature of an intramembrane entity whose transitions are primarily driven by, and therefore conserved with, the steady-state potential.

  6. Effects of olanexidine gluconate on preoperative skin preparation: an experimental study in cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Hikaru; Tsubotani, Yoshie; Nii, Takuya; Hagi, Akifumi; Inoue, Yasuhide; Imamura, Tadashi

    2017-05-01

    To determine the bactericidal efficacy of a new topical antiseptic for preoperative skin preparation, olanexidine gluconate (development code: OPB-2045G), against transient or resident bacterial flora on the skin of cynomolgus monkeys. After measuring baseline bacterial counts on test sites marked on the abdomens, we applied olanexidine, chlorhexidine or povidone-iodine. After 10 min (fast-acting effect) and 6 h (long-lasting effect), bacterial counts were measured again and log10 reductions were calculated. In addition, we determined the bactericidal effects on the skin contaminated with blood before or after applying the antiseptics. In the non-blood-contaminated condition, the mean log10 reductions of olanexidine at doses of 1-2 % were significantly higher than those of saline (negative control), but did not significantly differ from those of 0.5 % chlorhexidine and 10 % povidone-iodine at either time point. But olanexidine was significantly more effective at both time points than chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine when applied after the site was contaminated with blood. Olanexidine was also significantly more effective than chlorhexidine and as effective as or more effective than povidone-iodine at both time points when skin was contaminated with blood after the antiseptics were applied. The bactericidal effects of olanexidine were comparable to those of commercial antiseptics such as chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine in non-blood-contaminated conditions. More importantly, the effect of olanexidine was hardly affected by blood unlike commercial antiseptics. Thus, it is considered that olanexidine has a favourable property for skin preparation in various types of surgical treatments.

  7. Fermentative production of poly (γ-glutamic acid) from renewable carbon source and downstream purification through a continuous membrane-integrated hybrid process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramesh; Pal, Parimal

    2015-02-01

    Experimental investigations were carried out on continuous and direct production of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) in a hybrid reactor system that integrated conventional fermentative production step with membrane-based downstream separation and purification. Novelty of the integrated system lies in high degree of purity, conversion, yield and productivity of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) through elimination of substrate-product inhibitions of traditional batch production system. This new system is compact, flexible, eco-friendly and largely fouling-free ensuring steady and continuous production of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) directly from a renewable carbon source at the rate of 0.91 g/L/h. Cross-flow microfiltration membrane modules ensured almost complete separation and recycle of cells without much fouling problem. Well-screened ultrafiltration membrane module helped to concentrate poly-(γ-glutamic acid) while ensuring recovery and recycle of 96% unconverted carbon source resulting in yield of 0.6g/g along with high product purity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. α-Eleostearic acid-containing triglycerides for a continuous assay to determine lipase sn-1 and sn-3 regio-preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alaoui, Meddy; Soulère, Laurent; Noiriel, Alexandre; Queneau, Yves; Abousalham, Abdelkarim

    2017-08-01

    Lipases are essentially described as sn-1 and sn-3 regio-selective. Actually few methods are available to measure this lipase regio-selectivity, moreover they require chiral chromatography analysis or specific derivations which are discontinuous and time consuming. In this study we describe a new, convenient, sensitive and continuous spectrophotometric method to screen lipases regio-selectivity using synthetic triglycerides (TG) containing α-eleostearic acid (9Z, 11E, 13E-octadecatrienoic acid) either at the sn-1 position [1-α-eleostearoyl-2,3-octadecyl-sn-glycerol (sn-EOO)] or at the sn-3 position [1,2-octadecyl-3-α-eleostearoyl-sn-glycerol (sn-OOE)] and coated onto the wells of microtiter plates. A non-hydrolysable ether bond, with a non UV-absorbing alkyl chain, was introduced at the other sn positions to prevent acyl chain migration during TG synthesis or lipolysis. The synthesis of TG containing α-eleostearic acid was performed from S-glycidol in six steps to obtain sn-EOO and in five steps to sn-OOE. The α-eleostearic acid conjugated triene constitutes an intrinsic chromophore and, consequently, confers the strong UV absorption properties of this free fatty acid as well as of the TG harboring it. The lipase activity on coated sn-EOO or sn-OOE was measured by the increase in the absorbance at 272nm due to the transition of α-eleostearic acid from the adsorbed to the soluble state. Human and porcine pancreatic lipases, guinea pig pancreatic lipase related protein 2, Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase, Candida antarctica lipase A and Candida antarctica lipase B were all used to validate the assay. This continuous high-throughput screening method could determine directly without any processes after lipolysis the regio-selectivity of various lipases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Influence of Lactic Acid Concentration on the Separation of Light Rare Earth Elements by Continuous Liquid-Liquid Extraction with 2-Ethylhexyl Phosphonic Acid Mono-2-ethylhexyl Ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Gomes, Rafael; Seruff, Luciana Amaral; Scal, Maira Labanca Waineraich; Vera, Ysrael Marrero

    2018-02-01

    The separation of rare earth elements (REEs) using solvent extraction adding complexing agents appears to be an alternative to saponification of the extractant. We evaluated the effect of lactic acid concentration on didymium (praseodymium and neodymium) and lanthanum extraction with 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethyl hexyl ester [HEH(EHP)] as extractant. First, we investigated in batch experiments the separation of lanthanum (La) and didymium (Pr and Nd) using McCabe-Thiele diagrams to estimate the number of extraction stages when the feed solution was or was not conditioned with lactic acid. Additionally, we conducted continuous liquid-liquid extraction experiments and evaluated the influence of lactic acid concentration on the REE extraction and separation. The tests showed that the extraction percentage of REEs and the separation factor Pr/La increased when the lactic acid concentration increased, but the didymium purity decreased. Lanthanum, praseodymium, and neodymium extraction rate were 23.0, 89.7, and 99.2 pct, respectively, with 1:1 aqueous/organic volume flow rate and feed solution doped with 0.52 mol L-1 lactic acid. The highest didymium purity reached was 92.0 pct with 0.26 mol L-1 lactic acid concentration.

  10. The Influence of Lactic Acid Concentration on the Separation of Light Rare Earth Elements by Continuous Liquid-Liquid Extraction with 2-Ethylhexyl Phosphonic Acid Mono-2-ethylhexyl Ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Gomes, Rafael; Seruff, Luciana Amaral; Scal, Maira Labanca Waineraich; Vera, Ysrael Marrero

    2017-11-01

    The separation of rare earth elements (REEs) using solvent extraction adding complexing agents appears to be an alternative to saponification of the extractant. We evaluated the effect of lactic acid concentration on didymium (praseodymium and neodymium) and lanthanum extraction with 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethyl hexyl ester [HEH(EHP)] as extractant. First, we investigated in batch experiments the separation of lanthanum (La) and didymium (Pr and Nd) using McCabe-Thiele diagrams to estimate the number of extraction stages when the feed solution was or was not conditioned with lactic acid. Additionally, we conducted continuous liquid-liquid extraction experiments and evaluated the influence of lactic acid concentration on the REE extraction and separation. The tests showed that the extraction percentage of REEs and the separation factor Pr/La increased when the lactic acid concentration increased, but the didymium purity decreased. Lanthanum, praseodymium, and neodymium extraction rate were 23.0, 89.7, and 99.2 pct, respectively, with 1:1 aqueous/organic volume flow rate and feed solution doped with 0.52 mol L-1 lactic acid. The highest didymium purity reached was 92.0 pct with 0.26 mol L-1 lactic acid concentration.

  11. Alginate Inhibits Iron Absorption from Ferrous Gluconate in a Randomized Controlled Trial and Reduces Iron Uptake into Caco-2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawer, Anna A.; Harvey, Linda J.; Dainty, Jack R.; Perez-Moral, Natalia; Sharp, Paul; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous in vitro results indicated that alginate beads might be a useful vehicle for food iron fortification. A human study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that alginate enhances iron absorption. A randomised, single blinded, cross-over trial was carried out in which iron absorption was measured from serum iron appearance after a test meal. Overnight-fasted volunteers (n = 15) were given a test meal of 200 g cola-flavoured jelly plus 21 mg iron as ferrous gluconate, either in alginate beads mixed into the jelly or in a capsule. Iron absorption was lower from the alginate beads than from ferrous gluconate (8.5% and 12.6% respectively, p = 0.003). Sub-group B (n = 9) consumed the test meals together with 600 mg calcium to determine whether alginate modified the inhibitory effect of calcium. Calcium reduced iron absorption from ferrous gluconate by 51%, from 11.5% to 5.6% (p = 0.014), and from alginate beads by 37%, from 8.3% to 5.2% (p = 0.009). In vitro studies using Caco-2 cells were designed to explore the reasons for the difference between the previous in vitro findings and the human study; confirmed the inhibitory effect of alginate. Beads similar to those used in the human study were subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion, with and without cola jelly, and the digestate applied to Caco-2 cells. Both alginate and cola jelly significantly reduced iron uptake into the cells, by 34% (p = 0.009) and 35% (p = 0.003) respectively. The combination of cola jelly and calcium produced a very low ferritin response, 16.5% (palginate beads are not a useful delivery system for soluble salts of iron for the purpose of food fortification. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01528644 PMID:25391138

  12. Continuous high-solids acid hydrolysis of biomass in a 1 1/2-in. Plug flow reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, J.A.; Wooldridge, D.

    1981-01-01

    A continuous pipe reactor fed with a twin-ram pump capable of handling biomass, sawdust, newspaper, straw, bagasse, corncob, and potato pieces, at 20-60% solids content was developed to produce glucose (I) and furfural (II) by hydrolysis with H2SO4. The I and II were obtained in 40-42% yield of theory from oak sawdust at 250 degrees, 4.5 min residence time, and 1.5% H2SO4, starchy materials gave I yields is less than or equal to 73%, and xylose in a 75-80% yield was obtained by continuous hydrolysis. Kinetic parameters for I production were also derived.

  13. Stearic acid and high molecular weight PEO as matrix for the highly water soluble metoprolol tartrate in continuous twin-screw melt granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteyne, Tinne; Adriaensens, Peter; Brouckaert, Davinia; Remon, Jean-Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2016-10-15

    Granules with release-sustaining properties were developed by twin screw hot melt granulation (HMG) using a combination of stearic acid (SA) and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide (PEO) as matrix for a highly water soluble model drug, metoprolol tartrate (MPT). Earlier studies demonstrated that mixing molten SA and PEO resulted in hydrogen bond formation between hydroxyl groups of fatty acid molecules and ether groups in PEO chains. These molecular interactions might be beneficial in order to elevate the sustained release effect of drugs from a SA/PEO matrix. This study aims to investigate the continuous twin screw melt granulation technique to study the impact of a SA/PEO matrix on the dissolution rate of a highly water soluble drug (MPT). Decreasing the SA/PEO ratio improved the release-sustaining properties of the matrix. The solid state of the granules was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) in order to understand the dissolution behavior. The results revealed a preferential interaction of the MPT molecules with stearic acid impeding the PEO to form hydrogen bonds with the stearic acid chains. However, this allowed the PEO chains to recrystallize inside the stearic acid matrix after granulation, hence, elevating the release-sustaining characteristics of the formulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Continuous chiral separation of amino acid derivatives by enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction in centrifugal contactor separators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuur, Boelo; Floure, Joelle; Hallett, Andrew J.; Winkelman, Jozef G.M.; Vries, Johannes G. de; Heeres, Hero J.

    2008-01-01

    The continuous enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction of aqueous 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl-D,L-leucine (DNB-d,l-leu) by a cinchona alkaloid extractant (CA) in 1,2-dichloroethane using a centrifugal contact separator (CCS) was studied at 294 K. Typical concentrations were in the order of 1 mM for both

  15. Effectiveness of zinc gluconate glycine lozenges (Cold-Eeze) against the common cold in school-aged subjects: a retrospective chart review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Betty Howell; Miller, Shelley Porter

    2002-01-01

    Of the 62 million common colds requiring medical attention in the United States each year, more than 80% affect school-aged children. Controlled clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of zinc gluconate glycine lozenges (Cold-Eeze) in reducing cold duration. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of zinc gluconate glycine lozenges in reducing the duration and severity of colds in school-aged subjects and to identify the benefits of prophylactic administration of zinc gluconate glycine lozenges in reducing the occurrence of colds. The medical charts of subjects enrolled at Utah's Heritage Center before and after the introduction of zinc gluconate glycine lozenges (between January 1998 and August 2001) were reviewed to identify those who experienced cold signs or symptoms. Two or more prespecified signs or symptoms on the same day identified a cold and, along with patient or medical staff reports and use of cold medications, were used to determine cold start and resolution dates. Results from subjects who did or did not take study treatment were compared statistically to determine the prophylactic effects of lozenge use. Effects of zinc gluconate glycine lozenges on the need for antibiotic therapy were also analyzed. The review encompassed 496 records. Treatment with zinc gluconate glycine lozenges significantly decreased cold duration (7.5 versus 9.0 days for nonuse; P colds per year (0.0 versus 1.3; P colds (4.1% versus 36.2%; P cold duration and antibiotic use in school-aged subjects. Prophylactic administration also significantly decreased cold frequency.

  16. A membrane-integrated fermentation reactor system: its effects in reducing the amount of sub-raw materials for D-lactic acid continuous fermentation by Sporolactobacillus laevolacticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimitsuka, Takashi; Na, Kyungsu; Morita, Ken; Sawai, Hideki; Minegishi, Shinichi; Henmi, Masahiro; Yamada, Katsushige; Shimizu, Sakayu; Yonehara, Tetsu

    2012-01-01

    Continuous fermentation by retaining cells with a membrane-integrated fermentation reactor (MFR) system was found to reduce the amount of supplied sub-raw material. If the amount of sub-raw material can be reduced, continuous fermentation with the MFR system should become a more attractive process for industrialization, due to decreased material costs and loads during the refinement process. Our findings indicate that the production rate decreased when the amount of the sub-raw material was reduced in batch fermentation, but did not decrease during continuous fermentation with Sporolactobacillus laevolacticus. Moreover, continuous fermentation with a reduced amount of sub-raw material resulted in a productivity of 11.2 g/L/h over 800 h. In addition, the index of industrial process applicability used in the MFR system increased by 6.3-fold as compared with the conventional membrane-based fermentation reactor previously reported, suggesting a potential for the industrialization of this D-lactic acid continuous fermentation process.

  17. Potentiating the antibacterial effect of silver nanospheres by surface-capping with chlorhexidine gluconate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priyadarshini, Balasankar Meera; Fawzy, Amr S., E-mail: denasfmf@nus.edu.sg [National University of Singapore, Discipline of Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry (Singapore)

    2017-04-15

    In this work, the commercial polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-capped silver nanospheres (Ag-NSP) were surface decorated with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHXg) for potentiating the antibacterial properties of Ag-NSP. Different formulations of CHXg-loaded Ag-NSP (Ag-NSP/CHXg) were prepared by varying the incubation times (0.5, 1.5, and 3 h). A thorough characterization of Ag-NSP/CHXg nanospheres has been carried out by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive surface elemental composition spectral analysis (SEM/EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), percentage (%) CHXg loading efficiency (LE), in vitro CHXg and Ag{sup +} ion release, antibacterial/biofilm inhibition assay, and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cytotoxicity evaluation. DLS measured nanospheres to be <160 nm and indicated that CHXg treatment drastically shifted the surface charge from negative to high positive values, with homogenous distribution. TEM revealed spherical Ag-NSP/CHXg nanospheres with a clearly visible surface coating of CHXg. FTIR confirmed association of CHXg with Ag-NSP nanospheres, whereas SEM/EDX data verified presence of spectral peaks specific to silver (Ag), CHXg, and PVP. The %LE gradually increased with increasing incubation times. In vitro CHXg release exhibited a bi-phasic fashion showing maximum release of ~74.83 ± 20.67% from Ag-NSP/CHXg-3h at 14 days. A slow release of Ag{sup +} ions was detected; however, the surface decoration of Ag-NSP substantially hampered/restricted the liberation of ions. Agar well diffusion, MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl) -2H–tetrazolium), and crystal violet assay suggested good antibacterial/antibiofilm activity of Ag-NSP/CHXg that correlated with the increasing %LE of nanospheres. hMSCs cytotoxicity study showed low toxicity properties of all nanosphere formulations, except for Ag-NSP/CHXg-3h, affecting the cell viability at all

  18. Potentiating the antibacterial effect of silver nanospheres by surface-capping with chlorhexidine gluconate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, Balasankar Meera; Fawzy, Amr S.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, the commercial polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-capped silver nanospheres (Ag-NSP) were surface decorated with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHXg) for potentiating the antibacterial properties of Ag-NSP. Different formulations of CHXg-loaded Ag-NSP (Ag-NSP/CHXg) were prepared by varying the incubation times (0.5, 1.5, and 3 h). A thorough characterization of Ag-NSP/CHXg nanospheres has been carried out by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive surface elemental composition spectral analysis (SEM/EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), percentage (%) CHXg loading efficiency (LE), in vitro CHXg and Ag+ ion release, antibacterial/biofilm inhibition assay, and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cytotoxicity evaluation. DLS measured nanospheres to be <160 nm and indicated that CHXg treatment drastically shifted the surface charge from negative to high positive values, with homogenous distribution. TEM revealed spherical Ag-NSP/CHXg nanospheres with a clearly visible surface coating of CHXg. FTIR confirmed association of CHXg with Ag-NSP nanospheres, whereas SEM/EDX data verified presence of spectral peaks specific to silver (Ag), CHXg, and PVP. The %LE gradually increased with increasing incubation times. In vitro CHXg release exhibited a bi-phasic fashion showing maximum release of 74.83 ± 20.67% from Ag-NSP/CHXg-3h at 14 days. A slow release of Ag+ ions was detected; however, the surface decoration of Ag-NSP substantially hampered/restricted the liberation of ions. Agar well diffusion, MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium), and crystal violet assay suggested good antibacterial/antibiofilm activity of Ag-NSP/CHXg that correlated with the increasing %LE of nanospheres. hMSCs cytotoxicity study showed low toxicity properties of all nanosphere formulations, except for Ag-NSP/CHXg-3h, affecting the cell viability at all proposed concentrations and

  19. Local delivery of chlorhexidine gluconate (PerioChip) in periodontal maintenance patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heasman, P A; Heasman, L; Stacey, F; McCracken, G I

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this randomised, split-mouth, single-blind study was to determine the efficacy of controlled-release delivery of chlorhexidine gluconate 2.5 mg (PerioChip) in patients with residual bleeding pockets (>5 mm) at least 3 months following oral hygiene and root debridement phase therapy. 26 patients (non-smokers) were screened and potential study sites identified. Clinical parameters recorded at baseline and all subsequent visits were plaque index (PI), pocket probing depth (PPD), bleeding index (BI) and clinical attachment level (CAL). All study sites were debrided using ultrasonic instrumentation. PerioChips (PC) were placed in the selected sites of two quadrants (left or right) whilst identified sites in the remaining quadrants were left without adjunctive antimicrobial treatment. Clinical measurements were made at follow-up visits after 1, 3 and 6 months. Mean changes from baseline in PPD, BI and CAL were calculated with the patient as the experimental unit and comparability between the treatments was determined using t-tests. At baseline there were no significant differences between PC and control sites for mean PI, PD, BI or CAL. The mean (SE) reductions in PPD for PC and control treatments were: 0.47 (0.1), 0.46 (0.1); 0.76 (0.1), 0.55 (0.1); 0.78 (0.1), 0.45 (0.1) for months 1, 3 and 6 respectively. Only at month 6 did the difference between treatments approach statistical significance (p=0.06). Mean (SE) reductions in CAL over the same periods were: 0.17 (0.1), 0.04 (0.08); 0.38 (0.1), 0.21 (0.1); 0.43 (0.1), 0.15 (0.09) p=0.048. Mean (SE) reduction in BI between PC and control treatments only reached statistical significance at 6 months: 1.08 (0.1), 0.59 (0.1) p=0.05. These data suggest that PerioChip is beneficial for patients on maintenance therapy although the benefit is not apparent until 6 months after placement.

  20. Scintigraphic myocardial imaging with sup(99m)Tc-labelled gluconate of experimentally produced cardiomyopathy in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duska, F.; Novak, J.; Mazurova, Y.; Kubicek, J.; Vizda, J.; Kafka, P.

    1983-02-01

    In 10 dogs experimental cardiomyopathy was produced using high intravenous doses of adrenaline and theophylline. The possibility of scintigraphic detection of this non-ischaemic damage was tested by means of sup(99m)Tc-gluconate. In 5 dogs the scintigraphic examination was carried out 4 hrs following the production of the damage. In all 5 cases a marked positivity of the heart scan was observed. The finding was confirmed by the radioactivity of tissue samples from all sections of the heart. In 3 out of 5 dogs the histological examination of the myocardium (PAS and HBFP staining) was positive. In the remaining 5 dogs the scan was performed 24 hrs following the development of the damage. A positive scintigraphic finding was observed in 4 cases, the degree of accumulation being lower than at 4 hrs. The radioactivities of tissue samples were also significantly lower as compared with the 4-hr values. In contrast, the histological findings were markedly positive in all 5 dogs. It follows that sup(99m)Tc-gluconate is capable of detecting in addition to infarctions non-ischaemic damages to the myocardium, too. The normalization of the finding is very quick. This experimental finding appears to be of importance in clinical practice.

  1. Frequency of oral mucositis and microbiological analysis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Andréa Ferreira; Aquino, Ana Rafaela Luz de; Carvalho, Cyntia Helena Pereira de; Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege; Almeida, Dulce; Pinto, Leão Pereira

    2011-01-01

    In view of the morbidity potential of oral complications in patients with leukemia, this study evaluated the clinical and microbiological alterations that occur in the oral mucosa of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy and prophylactic administration of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate. The sample consisted of 17 children aged 2 to 12 years that underwent clinical examination of the oral mucosa for the detection of oral lesions. In addition, biological material was collected from labial and buccal mucosa for microbiological analysis. Oral mucositis was observed in only 5 (29.4%) patients. Microbiological analysis revealed a reduced number of potentially pathogenic microorganisms, such as coagulase-negative staphylococci (47%), Candida albicans (35.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (5.9%), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (5.9%), and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (5.9%). Patients with oral mucositis showed a higher frequency of coagulase-negative staphylococci (80%) when compared with patients with normal oral mucosa (33.3%). In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that the prophylactic use of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate reduces the frequency of oral mucositis and oral pathogens in children with ALL. In addition, the present findings suggest a possible relationship between coagulase-negative staphylococci and the development of oral mucositis.

  2. Hydrolysis-acidogenesis of food waste in solid-liquid-separating continuous stirred tank reactor (SLS-CSTR) for volatile organic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Obulisamy Parthiba; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-01-01

    The use of conventional continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) can affect the methane (CH4) recovery in a two-stage anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW) due to carbon short circuiting in the hydrolysis-acidogenesis (Hy-Aci) stage. In this research, we have designed and tested a solid-liquid-separating CSTR (SLS-CSTR) for effective Hy-Aci of FW. The working conditions were pH 6 and 9 (SLS-CSTR-1 and -2, respectively); temperature-37°C; agitation-300rpm; and organic loading rate (OLR)-2gVSL(-1)day(-1). The volatile fatty acids (VFA), enzyme activities and bacterial population (by qPCR) were determined as test parameters. Results showed that the Hy-Aci of FW at pH 9 produced ∼35% excess VFA as compared to that at pH 6, with acetic and butyric acids as major precursors, which correlated with the high enzyme activities and low lactic acid bacteria. The design provided efficient solid-liquid separation there by improved the organic acid yields from FW. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficient continuous-flow synthesis of novel 1,2,3-triazole-substituted β-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid derivatives with gram-scale production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor B. Ötvös

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of novel multi-substituted 1,2,3-triazole-modified β-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid derivatives in a simple and efficient continuous-flow procedure is reported. The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions were performed with copper powder as a readily accessible Cu(I source. Initially, high reaction rates were achieved under high-pressure/high-temperature conditions. Subsequently, the reaction temperature was lowered to room temperature by the joint use of both basic and acidic additives to improve the safety of the synthesis, as azides were to be handled as unstable reactants. Scale-up experiments were also performed, which led to the achievement of gram-scale production in a safe and straightforward way. The obtained 1,2,3-triazole-substituted β-aminocyclohexanecarboxylates can be regarded as interesting precursors for drugs with possible biological effects.

  4. Continuous fermentation and kinetic experiments for the conversion of crude glycerol derived from second-generation biodiesel into 1,3 propanediol and butyric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varrone, Cristiano; Floriotis, Georgis; Heggeset, Tonje M. B.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of different mixed microbial cultures (MMC) able to ferment crude glycerol generated from animal fat-based biodiesel to produce 1,3 propanediol (1,3 PDO) and butyric acid, under non-sterile conditions. Eight different continuous flow stirred-tank reactors...... (CSTR) were set up with different inoculum types and growth media. The distribution of metabolic products under variable operating conditions was determined. All MMC were characterized from a kinetic point of view and overall stoichiometric reactions were constructed. Changes in the microbial...... communities were monitored by means of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Maximum substrate degradation rate reached approximately 110 g/L/d of glycerol (with a productivity of 38 g/L/d and 11 g/L/d for 1,3 PDO and butyric acid, respectively), obtained with an hydraulic retention time of 12 h and 60 g/L feed...

  5. Surface engineering on continuous VO2 thin films to improve thermochromic properties: Top-down acid etching and bottom-up self-patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Peh, Yew Keat; Magdassi, Shlomo; Long, Yi

    2018-02-15

    Surface engineering is an effective method to improve the thermochromic performance of VO2. In this paper, an acid-etching top down method was proposed to tailor the VO2 surface morphology from the continuous dense-packed surface to patterned structure, which exhibited the enhanced integrated visible transmittance (Tlum) and the enlarged solar modulating abilities (ΔTsol). Moreover, a self-patterning approach was also illustrated to improve the thermochromic properties. The proposed surface engineering methods represent a facile and cost-effective approach for enhancing thermochromic properties that could promote the application of VO2 thin films in smart windows. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Crassulacean acid metabolism as a continuous trait: variability in the contribution of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM in populations of Portulacaria afra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonnie J. Guralnick

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Portulacaria afra L. is a dominant facultative CAM species growing in the Southeastern Cape of South Africa. P. afra is well adapted to regions of the Spekboom thicket in areas of limited and sporadic rainfall. P. afra populations occur in isolated drainages. We hypothesized the utilization of CAM would vary in the different populations in response to rainfall and temperature gradients. Carbon isotope composition can be used to determine the contribution of CAM in leaf tissue. P. afra leaves of populations were analyzed in transects running south to north and east to west in locations from the coast to elevations of 1400 m. Carbon isotope values ranged from −16.1‰ in Plutosvale to −21.0‰ to −22.7‰ in Port Alfred and Grahamstown populations respectively with some values reaching −25.2‰. These values indicated an estimated variable contribution of the CAM pathway ranging from 23% to almost 60%. The results indicate a much greater range of variability than previously reported. The carbon isotope values showed no direct correlation with rainfall or maximum or minimum day/night temperatures in the summer or winter for the different locations. The results indicated the microclimate may play a more significant role in determining CAM utilization. We present evidence that CAM is a continuous trait in P. afra and CAM is operating continuously at low levels during C3 photosynthesis which may explain the high variability in its carbon isotope composition. P. afra populations illustrate a large phenotypic plasticity and further studies may indicate genotypic differences between populations. This may be valuable in ascertaining the genetic contribution to its water use efficiency and possible use in engineering higher water use efficiency in C3 plants. The results revealed here may explain P. afra’s ability to sequester carbon at high rates compared to more mesic species.

  7. A continuous flow strategy for the coupled transfer hydrogenation and etherification of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural using Lewis acid zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jennifer D; Van de Vyver, Stijn; Crisci, Anthony J; Gunther, William R; Michaelis, Vladimir K; Griffin, Robert G; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2014-08-01

    Hf-, Zr- and Sn-Beta zeolites effectively catalyze the coupled transfer hydrogenation and etherification of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural with primary and secondary alcohols into 2,5-bis(alkoxymethyl)furans, thus making it possible to generate renewable fuel additives without the use of external hydrogen sources or precious metals. Continuous flow experiments reveal nonuniform changes in the relative deactivation rates of the transfer hydrogenation and etherification reactions, which impact the observed product distribution over time. We found that the catalysts undergo a drastic deactivation for the etherification step while maintaining catalytic activity for the transfer hydrogenation step. (119) Sn and (29) Si magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies show that this deactivation can be attributed to changes in the local environment of the metal sites. Additional insights were gained by studying effects of various alcohols and water concentration on the catalytic reactivity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Production of Chlorella vulgaris as a source of essential fatty acids in a tubular photobioreactor continuously fed with air enriched with CO2 at different concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Montoya, Erika Y; Casazza, Alessandro A; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Perego, Patrizia; Converti, Attilio; de Carvalho, João C Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    To reduce CO2 emissions and simultaneously produce biomass rich in essential fatty acids, Chlorella vulgaris CCAP 211 was continuously grown in a tubular photobioreactor using air alone or air enriched with CO2 as the sole carbon source. While on one hand, nitrogen-limited conditions strongly affected biomass growth, conversely, they almost doubled its lipid fraction. Under these conditions using air enriched with 0, 2, 4, 8, and 16% (v/v) CO2 , the maximum biomass concentration was 1.4, 5.8, 6.6, 6.8, and 6.4 gDB L(-1) on a dry basis, the CO2 consumption rate 62, 380, 391, 433, and 430 mgCO2 L(-1) day(-1) , and the lipid productivity 3.7, 23.7, 24.8, 29.5, and 24.4 mg L(-1) day(-1) , respectively. C. vulgaris was able to grow effectively using CO2 -enriched air, but its chlorophyll a (3.0-3.5 g 100gDB (-1) ), chlorophyll b (2.6-3.0 g 100gDB (-1) ), and lipid contents (10.7-12.0 g 100gDB (-1) ) were not significantly influenced by the presence of CO2 in the air. Most of the fatty acids in C. vulgaris biomass were of the saturated series, mainly myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids, but a portion of no less than 45% consisted of unsaturated fatty acids, and about 80% of these were high added-value essential fatty acids belonging to the ω3 and ω6 series. These results highlight that C. vulgaris biomass could be of great importance for human health when used as food additive or for functional food production. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  9. Zinc absorption by young adults from supplemental zinc citrate is comparable with that from zinc gluconate and higher than from zinc oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnic, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F

    2014-02-01

    The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with (67)Zn and (70)Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6-71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6-71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9-57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627.

  10. Computer simulation on a continuous moving chelation boundary in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-based sample sweeping in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jie; Shao, Jing; Li, Si; Zhang, Wei; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi

    2009-06-12

    This paper introduces a mathematic mode of moving chelation boundary (MCB) for computer simulation of a continuous EDTA-based sample sweeping in capillary electrophoresis (CE). Besides the equations of MCB used herein, the mode also includes electro-neutrality equation, constant current density, jump boundary condition of MCB, Kohlrausch' regulating function expressed in MCB formulation, product of water, ionic apparent mobility, ionic strength and conductivity of electrolyte as well as simple equilibrium reaction, etc. The simulation software is developed based on the mode. With the software the relevant simulation is carried out, and the corresponding experiments on a MCB are performed. The results on the simulation and experiments demonstrate that (1) the software can simulate a dynamic process, characteristic peak shape and relevant electrophoregram of a MCB; (2) the simulator can quantitatively compute velocities of MCB and complex boundary (CB), all of ionic concentrations (especially the concentration of complex) and sweeping efficiency; (3) these simulation results mentioned above are generally in accordance with the experiments. The simulation software holds evident significances for the study on a MCB and conditional optimization in such an EDTA-based sample sweeping of metal ion in CE.

  11. A Phosphatidic Acid (PA) conveyor system of continuous intracellular transport from cell membrane to nucleus maintains EGF receptor homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkels, Karen M; Miller, Taylor E; Ganesan, Ramya; Wilkins, Brandon A; Fite, Kristen; Gomez-Cambronero, Julian

    2016-07-26

    The intracellular concentration of the mitogen phosphatidic acid (PA) must be maintained at low levels until the need arises for cell proliferation. How temporal and spatial trafficking of PA affects its target proteins in the different cellular compartments is not fully understood. We report that in cancer cells, PA cycles back and forth from the cellular membrane to the nucleus, affecting the function of epidermal growth factor (EGF), in a process that involves PPARα/LXRα signaling. Upon binding to its ligand, EGF receptor (EGFR)-initiated activation of phospholipase D (PLD) causes a spike in intracellular PA production that forms vesicles transporting EGFR from early endosomes (EEA1 marker) and prolonged internalization in late endosomes and Golgi (RCAS marker). Cells incubated with fluorescent-labeled PA (NBD-PA) show PA in "diffuse" locations throughout the cytoplasm, punctae (small, 0.5 μm) vesicles that co-localize with EGFR. We also report that PPARα/LXRα form heterodimers that bind to new Responsive Elements (RE) in the EGFR promoter. Nuclear PA enhances EGFR expression, a role compatible with the mitogenic ability of the phospholipid. Newly made EGFR is packaged into PA recycling vesicles (Rab11 marker) and transported back to the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. However, a PLD+PA combination impedes binding of PPARα/LXRα to the EGFR promoter. Thus, if PA levels inside the nucleus reach a certain threshold (>100 nM) PA outcompetes the nuclear receptors and transcription is inhibited. This new signaling function of PLD-PA targeting EGFR trafficking and biphasically modulating its transcription, could explain cell proliferation initiation and its maintenance in cancer cells.

  12. Effects of flaxseed and chia seed on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and long-chain fatty acid flow in a dual-flow continuous culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L G; Bunkers, J; Paula, E M; Shenkoru, T; Yeh, Y; Amorati, B; Holcombe, D; Faciola, A P

    2016-04-01

    Flaxseed (FS) and chia seed (CS) are oilseeds rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which may change meat and milk composition when added to ruminants' diets and may have health benefits for humans. Literature on the effects of CS supplementation on ruminal metabolism is nonexistent. A dual-flow continuous culture fermenter system consisting of 6 fermenters was used to assess the effect of FS and CS supplementation in an alfalfa hay-based diet on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and long-chain fatty acid flow. Diets were randomly assigned to fermenters in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, with 3 consecutive periods of 10 d each, consisting of 7 d for diet adaptation and 3 d for sample collection. Each fermenter was fed a total of 72 g of DM/d divided in 6 equal portions. Treatments were 1) alfalfa hay + calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acid (MEG; 69.3 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 2.7 g DM/d of calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acid), 2) alfalfa hay + FS (FLAX; 68.4 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 3.6 g DM/d of ground FS), and 3) alfalfa hay + CS (CHIA; 68.04 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 3.96 g DM/d of ground CS). Dietary treatments had similar amounts of total fat, and fat supplements were ground to 2-mm diameter. Effluents from the last 3 d of incubation were composited for analyses. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Ruminal apparent and true nutrient digestibility of all nutrients did not differ ( > 0.05) among treatments. Compared with MEG, FLAX and CHIA increased the flows of C18:3 -3, C20:4 -6, and total PUFA ( CHIA and FLAX treatments had greater ruminal concentrations of C18:0, indicating that both CS and FS fatty acids were extensively biohydrogenated in the rumen. The NH-N concentration, microbial N flow, and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were not affected ( > 0.05) by treatments. Lastly, there were no differences ( > 0.05) among diets for total VFA concentration and molar proportions of individual

  13. Continuous high and low temperature induced a decrease of photosynthetic activity and changes in the diurnal fluctuations of organic acids in Opuntia streptacantha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Zarely Ojeda-Pérez

    Full Text Available Opuntia plants grow naturally in areas where temperatures are extreme and highly variable in the day during the entire year. These plants survive through different adaptations to respond to adverse environmental conditions. Despite this capability, it is unknown how CAM photosynthetic activity and growth in Opuntia plantlets is affected by constant heat or cold. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to evaluate the short-term effect of high (40°C and low (4°C continuous temperatures on the photosynthetic efficiency, the organic acid content (malic acid and the relative growth rate (RGR in seven-month-old Opuntia streptacantha plantlets during 5, 10, and 15 days. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis allowed us to determine that high temperatures negatively impact the photosynthetic efficiency of O. streptacantha plantlets, which exhibited the lowest values of maximum quantum efficiency of the photosystem II (Fv/Fm = 52%, Fv/F0 = 85%, operational quantum yield of PS (ΦPSII = 65% and relative electron transport rate (rETR = 65%, as well as highest values of basal fluorescence (F0 = 226% during 15 days of treatment. Similarly, low temperatures decreased Fv/Fm (16%, Fv/F0 (50%, ΦPSII and rETR (16%. High temperatures also decreased nocturnal acidification in approximately 34-50%, whereas low temperatures increased it by 30-36%. Additionally, both continuous temperatures affected drastically diurnal consumption of malic acid, which was related to a significant RGR inhibition, where the specific photosynthetic structure area component was the most affected. Our results allowed determining that, despite the high tolerance to extreme temperatures described for Opuntia plants, young individuals of O. streptacantha suffered photosynthetic impairment that led to the inhibition of their growth. Thus, the main findings reported in this study can help to predict the potential impact of climatic change on the establishment and survival of succulent

  14. The efficacy of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% alcohol compared with 10% povidone iodine in reducing blood culture contamination in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangsathapompong, Auchara; Banjongmanee, Pornumpa; Unrit, Kengkaj; Sritipsukho, Paskorn; Mungkornkaew, Narisara; Sajak, Sirinporn

    2014-08-01

    Blood culture is the gold standard for diagnosis of septicemia. However; false-positive blood cultures are associated with increased health care costs due to unnecessary treatment. To evaluate the efficacy of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% alcohol compared with 10% povidone iodine in reducing blood culture contamination inpediatricpatients. This is a prospective study of pediatric patients who were admitted at a tertiary-care hospital. Pediatric patients who neededpercutaneous blood cultures were recruitedfrom two general pediatric wards and the pediatric intensive care unit. The authors used 10% povidone iodine as an antiseptic in odd months and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% alcohol as an antiseptic in even months in obtaining the blood culture samples. There were 1,269 blood culture specimens taken from 821 patients. 654 specimens used 10%povidone iodine as an antiseptic and 619 specimens used 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% alcohol as an antiseptic. The 10% povidone iodine group and the 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% alcohol group had the risk of blood culture contamination of 3.21% (95%CI: 2.00%-4.87%) and 2.28% (95% CI: 1.25%-3.79%) respectively. The risk difference ofblood culture contamination was 0.93% (95% confidence interval: 0. 86-2.72%) with p = 0.31. The most common contamination organism was Coagulase negative staphylococci (68.57%). No adverse skin reactions were observed in both antiseptic solutions groups. Use of2% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% alcohol as an antiseptic seems to reduce the risk of blood culture contamination compared to use of 10% povidone iodine. In addition, neither of the antiseptic solutions resulted in adverse skin reactions.

  15. Ineffectiveness of zinc gluconate nasal spray and zinc orotate lozenges in common-cold treatment: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, George A; Halcomb, William W

    2006-01-01

    Zinc gluconate and zinc acetate lozenges have been reported to shorten the duration of common colds in a dose-response manner when the amount of the active ingredient, positively charged zinc ions, is sufficient. To improve results using a zinc gluconate nasal spray with zinc orotate lozenges. Double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Private physician's clinic in Austin, Texas. Seventy-seven volunteers, all of whom had 2 or more signs and symptoms of common colds (with at least 1 nasal symptom) on enrollment in the study. Zinc gluconate nasal spray (10 mmol) or placebo was used every 15 to 30 minutes, and lozenges were used each several hours to reduce duration and severity of common colds. An intention of treatment was to keep the nasal tissues wet with zinc gluconate solution during wakeful hours. After 7 days of treatment, 10 of 16 (63%) zinc-treated patients were asymptomatic compared to 9 of 17 (53%) placebo-treated patients (P = .57). This treatment caused olfactory region pain in some patients and did not reduce the duration or severity of common colds. Treatment did not produce anosmia, which has been reported in other studies following olfactory region administration of ionic zinc in many species and in humans from zinc nasal sprays and gels. We contend that it is unethical to introduce any potentially permanent anosmia-inducing agent such as zinc or other heavy metals into the interior of the nose in a manner that could result in contact with the olfactory region to treat a temporary discomfort such as a common cold or allergy. We found no reason to recommend intranasal zinc gluconate or zinc orotate lozenges in treating common colds.

  16. Feasibility of aseptic processing of a low-acid multiphase food product (salsa con queso) using a continuous flow microwave system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Coronel, P; Simunovic, J; Sandeep, K P

    2007-04-01

    Aseptic processing of a low-acid multiphase food product using a continuous flow microwave heating system can combine the advantages of an aseptic process along with those of microwave heating. Dielectric properties of 2 different brands of 1 such product (salsa con queso) were measured under continuous flow conditions at a temperature range of 20 to 130 degrees C. At 915 MHz, the dielectric constant ranged from 58.7 at 20 degrees C to 41.3 at 130 degrees C with dielectric loss factor ranging from 41.0 at 20 degrees C to 145.5 at 130 degrees C. The loss tangent at 915 MHz ranged from 0.61 at 20 degrees C to 3.52 at 130 degrees C. The temperature profiles at the outlet during processing of salsa con queso in a 5-kW microwave unit showed a narrow temperature distribution between the center and the wall of the tube. The study showed the feasibility of aseptic processing of salsa con queso using a continuous flow microwave system.

  17. Evaluation of Compatibility of a Gum Mastic Liquid Adhesive and Liquid Adhesive Remover With an Alcoholic Chlorhexidine Gluconate Skin Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Marcia; Duley, Collette

    The compatibility of a 2% chlorhexidine gluconate/70% isopropyl alcohol (CHG/IPA) skin preparation with a gum mastic liquid adhesive (GMLA) and liquid adhesive remover (LAR) was assessed in healthy volunteers. Twenty subjects completed test material combination with microbial sampling at 3- and 7-day time points. Mean log10 reductions from baseline for normal flora were assessed. There was no significant difference in reduction of normal flora on skin prepped with CHG/IPA versus skin prepped with CHG/IPA followed by GMLA or LAR. The conclusion of the study was that the use of GMLA or LAR with CHG/IPA does not affect the antiseptic effectiveness of CHG/IPA.

  18. Antibacterial activity of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite in infected root canal: in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Ertuğrul; Ozekinci, Tuncer; Atakul, Fatma; Gül, Kadri

    2004-02-01

    In this study, the antibacterial activity of the different antibacterial solutions using as root canal irrigant was compared in the teeth with pulpal necrosis and with periapical pathosis. Thirty root canals of incisors and premolars of 20 patients were used. Before and after the root canal preparation, two canal samples were obtained by a harvesting method using a sterile paper point in the first appointment. During the biomechanical preparation, both irrigant solutions were used for each tooth which were randomly divided into two groups. Last samples were also obtained before the root filling procedure. Samples obtained from the root canals were subjected to microbiologic processing, including anaerobic incubation on trypticase soy agar for 5 to 7 days. After counting of CFU on the plates, we concluded that both chlorhexidine gluconate and sodium hypochlorite were significantly effective to reduce the microorganisms in the teeth with necrotic pulp, periapical pathologies, or both, and could be used successfully as an irrigant solution.

  19. Accumulation of the mycotoxin patulin in the presence of gluconic acid contributes to pathogenicity of Penicillium expansum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barad, Shiri; Horowitz, Sigal Brown; Kobiler, Ilana; Sherman, Amir; Prusky, Dov

    2014-01-01

    ...) and secondary metabolites such as the mycotoxin patulin in colonized tissue. GLA involvement in pathogenicity has been suggested but the mechanism of patulin accumulation and its contribution to P...

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Waterborne Fluoropolymers Prepared by the One-Step Semi-Continuous Emulsion Polymerization of Chlorotrifluoroethylene, Vinyl Acetate, Butyl Acrylate, Veova 10 and Acrylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne fluoropolymer emulsions were synthesized using the one-step semi-continuous seed emulsion polymerization of chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE, vinyl acetate (VAc, n-butyl acrylate (BA, Veova 10, and acrylic acid (AA. The main physical parameters of the polymer emulsions were tested and analyzed. Characteristics of the polymer films such as thermal stability, glass transition temperature, film-forming properties, and IR spectrum were studied. Meanwhile, the weatherability of fluoride coatings formulated by the waterborne fluoropolymer and other coatings were evaluated by the quick ultraviolet (QUV accelerated weathering test, and the results showed that the fluoropolymer with more than 12% fluoride content possessed outstanding weather resistance. Moreover, scale-up and industrial-scale experiments of waterborne fluoropolymer emulsions were also performed and investigated.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Waterborne Fluoropolymers Prepared by the One-Step Semi-Continuous Emulsion Polymerization of Chlorotrifluoroethylene, Vinyl Acetate, Butyl Acrylate, Veova 10 and Acrylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongzhu; Bian, Jiming; Wang, Zhonggang; Hou, Chuan-Jin

    2017-01-22

    Waterborne fluoropolymer emulsions were synthesized using the one-step semi-continuous seed emulsion polymerization of chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), vinyl acetate (VAc), n-butyl acrylate (BA), Veova 10, and acrylic acid (AA). The main physical parameters of the polymer emulsions were tested and analyzed. Characteristics of the polymer films such as thermal stability, glass transition temperature, film-forming properties, and IR spectrum were studied. Meanwhile, the weatherability of fluoride coatings formulated by the waterborne fluoropolymer and other coatings were evaluated by the quick ultraviolet (QUV) accelerated weathering test, and the results showed that the fluoropolymer with more than 12% fluoride content possessed outstanding weather resistance. Moreover, scale-up and industrial-scale experiments of waterborne fluoropolymer emulsions were also performed and investigated.

  2. Comparative study of the continuous wavelet transform, derivative and partial least squares methods applied to the overlapping spectra for the simultaneous quantitative resolution of ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid in effervescent tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Erdal; Ozdemir, Abdil; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2005-03-09

    The simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid (AA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in effervescent tablets in the presence of the overlapping spectra was accomplished by the continuous wavelet transform (CWT), derivative spectrophotometry (DS) and partial least squares (PLS) approaches without using any chemical pre-treatment. CWT and DS calibration equations for AA and ASA were obtained by measuring the CWT and DS amplitudes corresponding to zero-crossing points of spectra obtained by plotting continuous wavelet coefficients and first-derivative absorbance values versus the wavelengths, respectively. The PLS calibration was constructed by using the concentration set and its full absorbance data consisting of 850 points from 220 to 305 nm in the range of 210-310 nm. These three methods were tested by analyzing the synthetic mixtures of the above drugs and they were applied to the real samples containing two commercial pharmaceutical preparations of subjected drugs. A comparative study was carried out by using the experimental results obtained from three analytical methodologies and precise and accurate results were obtained.

  3. Effects of organic loading rate on hydrogen and volatile fatty acid production and microbial community during acidogenic hydrogenesis in a continuous stirred tank reactor using molasses wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, J; Cho, K-S

    2016-12-01

    Microbial community associated with hydrogen production and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulation was characterized in acidogenic hydrogenesis using molasses wastewater as a feedstock. Hydrogen and VFAs production were measured under an organic loading rate (OLR) from 19 to 35 g-COD l(-1)  day(-1) . The active microbial community was analysed using RNA-based massively parallel sequencing technique, and their correlation patterns were analysed using networking analysis. The continuous stirred tank reactor achieved stable hydrogen production at different OLR conditions, and the maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) was 1·02 L-H2  l(-1)  day(-1) at 31·0 g-COD l(-1)  day(-1) . Butyrate (50%) and acetate (38%) positively increased with increase in OLR. Total VFA production stayed around 7135 mg l(-1) during the operation period. Although Clostridiales and Lactobacillales were relatively abundant, the HPR was positively associated with Pseudomonadaceae and Micrococcineae. Total VFA and acetate, butyrate and propionate concentrations were positively correlated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) such as Bacillales, Sporolactobacillus and Lactobacillus. The close relationship between Pseudomonadaceae and Micrococcineae, and LAB play important roles for stable hydrogen and VFA production from molasses wastewater. Microbial information on hydrogen and VFA production can be useful to design and operate for acidogenic hydrogenesis using high strength molasses wastewater. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Effects of Continuous Triiodothyronine Infusion on Citric Acid Cycle in the Normal Immature Swine Heart under Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajimoto, Masaki [Seattle Children' s Research Inst., Seattle, WA (United States); O' Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M. [Seattle Children' s Research Inst., Seattle, WA (United States); Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ledee, Dolena R. [Seattle Children' s Research Inst., Seattle, WA (United States); Xu, Chun [Seattle Children' s Research Inst., Seattle, WA (United States); Isern, Nancy G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olson, Aaron [Seattle Children' s Research Inst., Seattle, WA (United States); Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Portman, Michael A. [Seattle Children' s Research Inst., Seattle, WA (United States); Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-02-13

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is frequently used in infants with postoperative cardiopulmonary failure. ECMO also suppresses circulating triiodothyronine (T3) levels and modifies myocardial metabolism. We assessed the hypothesis that T3 supplementation reverses ECMO induced metabolic abnormalities in the immature heart. Twenty-two male Yorkshire pigs (age 25-38 days) with ECMO were received [2-13C]lactate, [2,4,6,8-13C]octanoate (medium chain fatty acid) and [U-13C]long-chain fatty acids as metabolic tracers either systemically (totally physiological intracoronary concentration) or directly into the coronary artery (high substrate concentration) for the last 60 minutes of each protocol. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of left ventricular tissue determined the fractional contribution (Fc) of these substrates to the citric acid cycle (CAC). Fifty percent of the pigs in each group received intravenous T3 supplement (bolus at 0.6 μg/kg and then continuous infusion at 0.2 μg/kg/hour) during ECMO. Under both substrate loading conditions T3 significantly increased lactate-Fc with a marginal increase in octanoate-Fc. Both T3 and high substrate provision increased myocardial energy status indexed by [Phosphocreatine]/[ATP]. In conclusion, T3 supplementation promoted lactate metabolism to the CAC during ECMO suggesting that T3 releases inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Manipulation of substrate utilization by T3 may be used therapeutically during ECMO to improve resting energy state and facilitate weaning.

  5. Characteristics and Sources of Nitrous Acid in the Urban Atmosphere of Ji'nan, North China: Results from 1-yr Continuous Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L.; Li, D.; Wen, L.; Mellouki, A.; Wang, W.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is a key reservoir of the hydroxyl radical (OH) and hence plays a central role in atmospheric chemistry. To understand the sources and impact of HONO in the polluted atmosphere of northern China, continuous measurements of HONO and related parameters have been made since September 2015 at an urban site in Ji'nan, the capital city of Shandong province. The year-round data were analyzed preliminarily to examine the temporal variations, vehicle emission factors, heterogeneous conversion, unknown daytime source(s), and impact on OH production. HONO shows well-defined seasonal and diurnal patterns with clear wintertime and nighttime concentration peaks. Elevated HONO levels (e.g., over 5 ppbv) were frequently observed with a maximum value of 8.4 ppbv. The derived HONO/NO2 ratio from direct vehicle emissions varies in the range of 0.8%-3.4%, which is higher than the commonly-adopted value of 0.8% from a tunnel study. Aerosol surface was found to play an important role in facilitating the heterogeneous conversion of NO2 to HONO. A non-PSS HONO budget analysis suggests the existence of significant unknown HONO source(s) at daytime in Ji'nan. The contributions of HONO photolysis and other radical sources to the atmospheric oxidative capacity are also estimated. The present study presents the first continuous year-round record of HONO measurements in China, and more detailed analyses are under way to explore the potential unknown daytime sources.

  6. Stopping versus continuing acetylsalicylic acid before coronary artery bypass surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 14 randomized controlled trials with 4499 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros Oliveira; Soares, Artur Freire; Miranda, Rodrigo Gusmão Albuquerque; Araújo, Mayara Lopes; Menezes, Alexandre Motta; Silva, Frederico Pires Vasconcelos; Lima, Ricardo Carvalho

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of continuing versus stopping aspirin [acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)] preoperatively in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCTR), ClinicalTrials.gov, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino Americana em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles were searched for randomized controlled trials that reported efficacy outcomes of myocardial infarction and mortality, and safety outcomes of blood loss, packed red blood cell transfusion and surgical re-exploration were compared between groups. Fourteen studies fulfilled our eligibility criteria and included a total of 4499 patients (2329 for 'continuing ASA' and 2170 for 'stopping ASA'). In the pooled analysis, continuing aspirin therapy did not reduce the risk of myocardial infarction [risk ratio 0.834, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.688-1.010; P = 0.063] or operative mortality (risk ratio 1.384, 95% CI 0.727-2.636; P = 0.323). Preoperative ASA increased postoperative chest tube drainage (mean difference 143 ml, 95% CI 39-248 ml; P = 0.007) and packed red blood cell transfusion (mean difference 142 ml, 95% CI 55-228; P = 0.001) but did not increase the risk of surgical re-exploration (risk ratio 1.316, 95% CI 0.910-1.905; P = 0.145). This meta-analysis found no statistically significant difference regarding the risk of operative mortality and myocardial infarction between the 'continuing ASA' and 'stopping ASA' strategies. On the other hand, the mean volume of blood loss and packed red blood cell transfusion was higher in the 'continuing ASA' group, but this finding did not translate into higher risk of reoperation for bleeding. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  7. METABOLISM OF d-RIBOSE-1-C14 AND C14-LABELED d-GLUCONATE IN AN ENZYME SYSTEM OF THE GENUS PROPIONIBACTERIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjernholm, Rune L.; Flanders, Frank

    1962-01-01

    Stjernholm, Rune L. (Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio) and Frank Flanders. Metabolism of d-ribose-1-C14 and C14-labeled d-gluconate in an enzyme system of the genus Propionibacterium. J. Bacteriol. 84:563–568. 1962.—Ribose-1-C14 and potassium gluconate labeled in different positions were incubated with cell-free extracts of Propionibacterium shermanii. The resulting propionate, acetate, and succinate were isolated and the C14 distribution determined by degradation. It is proposed that the extensive randomization observed is caused by the conversion of the labeled substrates to fructose-6-phosphate via the transketolase-transaldolase sequence followed by the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, and that the triosephosphates produced by these metabolic routes are metabolized via pyruvate to succinate and propionate. PMID:13984204

  8. Zinc Absorption by Young Adults from Supplemental Zinc Citrate Is Comparable with That from Zinc Gluconate and Higher than from Zinc Oxide123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnić, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with 67Zn and 70Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6–71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6–71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9–57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627. PMID:24259556

  9. A study on the design, formulation and effectiveness of chewing gums containing Chlorhexidine Gluconate in the prevention of dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolahi Kazerani G

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The role of the microbial plaque in caries etiology and periodontal diseases has been"nproved and the mechanical methods for plaque control have special limitations, consequently, chemical"nmethods have been suggested. One of the most effective materials is Chlorhexidine Gluconate that is"ncommonly used as mouth rinses. However, the medicated formulations of chewing gums, due to several"nproperties, have been paid attention. It should be noted that a new formulation to satisfy the consumers' taste"nseems necessary."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to present a new formulation for chewing gums containing chlorhexidine"nto achieve a pleasant taste coupled with their effectiveness and anti-plaque properties maintenance."nMaterials and Methods: In this double blind, crossover, prospective clinical trial, 18 volunteers were"ninvestigated. Chlorhexidine Gluconate was used and added to the gum-base by Manitole. In order to cover the"nbitter taste of the drug Aspartam, mint essence and Mentole were used. After gums production, the profile of"ndrug dissolution was evaluated by jaw movement simulating system. It took 5 days to study each type of"nchewing gums without any mechanical plaque control method. Medicated and placebo chewing gums were"nidentical in shape, size, color and formulation. The washout period was 2 days. Chewing gums were used"nevery 12 hours for 20 minutes. To determine plaque score, Turesky- Gilmore- Glickman modification index"nwas used. Other variables including: subjective evaluation of taste, cleansing effect and taste disturbance were"nassessed through filling a checklist. The data were analyzed by Paired t test and Wilcoxon test."nResults: During 20 mins, 80% of the drug was released from the gum-base. The mean difference of plaque"nscore between the initial and final stages at the first trial was -0.1589 and at the second trial was 2.994 which"nwas statistically significant (P<0.001. Subjective

  10. Prospective evaluation of 2% (w/v alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate as an antiseptic agent for blood donor arm preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the use of 2% (w/v alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate (2% AlcCHG in donor arm preparation, to monitor the contamination rate of blood products after the collection and to find incidence of transfusion associated bacteremia. Settings and Design: Optimal skin antisepsis of the phlebotomy site is essential to minimize the risk of contamination. Food and Drug Administration (FDA in India has recommended antisepsis with three-step regimen of spirit-10% povidone iodine-spirit for donor arm antisepsis, but not with chlorhexidine, which is recommended by many other authors. Material and Methods: A total of 795 donors were studied from July 2011 to January 2012. Spirit-10% povidone iodine-spirit was used for 398 donors and 2% AlcCHG was used for 397 donors with the two-step method for arm antisepsis. Swabs were collected before and after use of antiseptic agents for all the donors. All the blood products collected from donors with growth in post-antisepsis swabs were cultured. A total of 123 various blood products were cultured irrespective of the method and result of antisepsis was observed. A total of seven patients had mild transfusion reaction. The transfused blood products, blood and urine specimen of the patients who had transfusion reaction were also cultured. Results: Seven donors out of 398 donors had growth in post-antisepsis swab with spirit-10% povidone iodine-spirit protocol and three donors out of 397 donors had growth in post-antisepsis swab with 2% AlcCHG protocol. All blood products collected from donors who had growth in post-antisepsis swabs when cultured had no growth. There was no contamination of blood products. Conclusions: Two percent (w/v alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate with two-step protocol can be used as an antiseptic agent for donor arm preparation without considerable cost difference. It is at par with spirit 10% povidone iodine spirit protocol as suggested by FDA in India

  11. Role of mitochondria biogenesis in the metabolic memory associated with the continued progression of diabetic retinopathy and its regulation by lipoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Julia M; Kowluru, Renu A

    2011-11-11

    Termination of hyperglycemia does not arrest the progression of diabetic retinopathy, and retinal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) remains damaged, resulting in a continuous cycle of mitochondrial dysfunction. This study is to investigate the role of mitochondria biogenesis (regulated by nuclear mitochondrial signaling) in the metabolic memory phenomenon. Mitochondria DNA copy number, functional integrity, and biogenesis (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α [PGC1], nuclear respiratory factor 1 [NRF1], mitochondrial transcriptional factor [TFAM]) were analyzed in the retina from streptozotocin-diabetic rats maintained in poor or good control for 12 months (PC and GC respectively), or in PC for 6 months followed by 6 months of GC (Rev). The effect of direct inhibition of superoxide on prior insult was investigated by supplementing lipoic acid (LA) during their 6 months of GC (R+LA). Binding of TFAM with chaperones (heat shock proteins 70 and 60, Hsp70 and Hsp60 respectively) was quantified by coimmunoprecipitation. The key parameters and the number of mitochondria (by transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy) were confirmed in isolated retinal endothelial cells. Six months of GC in the rats in Rev group did not provide any benefit to diabetes-induced decreased mtDNA copy number, increased gene transcripts of PGC1, NRF1, and TFAM, and decreased mitochondrial TFAM. The binding of TFAM with the chaperones remained subnormal. Supplementation of LA (R+LA), however, had a significant beneficial effect on the impaired mitochondria biogenesis, and also on the continued progression of diabetic retinopathy. Similar results of reversal of high glucose insult were observed in isolated retinal endothelial cells. Dysregulated mitochondria biogenesis contributes to the metabolic memory, and supplementation of GC with therapies targeted in modulating mitochondria homeostasis has potential in helping diabetic patients retard progression of

  12. Continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration with a low citrate dose regional anticoagulation protocol and a phosphate-containing solution: effects on acid-base status and phosphate supplementation needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Santo; Pistolesi, Valentina; Tritapepe, Luigi; Vitaliano, Elio; Zeppilli, Laura; Polistena, Francesca; Fiaccadori, Enrico; Pierucci, Alessandro

    2013-10-25

    Recent guidelines suggest the adoption of regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) as first choice CRRT anticoagulation modality in patients without contraindications for citrate. Regardless of the anticoagulation protocol, hypophosphatemia represents a potential drawback of CRRT which could be prevented by the adoption of phosphate-containing CRRT solutions. The aim was to evaluate the effects on acid-base status and phosphate supplementation needs of a new RCA protocol for Continuous Venovenous Hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) combining the use of citrate with a phosphate-containing CRRT solution. To refine our routine RCA-CVVH protocol (12 mmol/l citrate, HCO3- 32 mmol/l replacement fluid) (protocol A) and to prevent CRRT-related hypophosphatemia, we introduced a new RCA-CVVHDF protocol (protocol B) combining an 18 mmol/l citrate solution with a phosphate-containing dialysate/replacement fluid (HCO3- 30 mmol/l, Phosphate 1.2). A low citrate dose (2.5-3 mmol/l) and a higher than usual target circuit-Ca(2+) (≤ 0.5 mmol/l) have been adopted. Two historical groups of heart surgery patients (n = 40) underwent RCA-CRRT with protocol A (n = 20, 102 circuits, total running time 5283 hours) or protocol B (n = 20, 138 circuits, total running time 7308 hours). Despite higher circuit-Ca(2+) in protocol B (0.37 vs 0.42 mmol/l, p patients while protocol B ensured appropriate acid-base balance without additional interventions: pH 7.43 (7.40-7.46), Bicarbonate 25.3 (23.8-26.6) mmol/l, BE 0.9 (-0.8 to +2.4); median (IQR). No episodes of clinically relevant metabolic alkalosis, requiring modifications of RCA-CRRT settings, were observed. Phosphate supplementation was needed in all group A patients (3.4 ± 2.4 g/day) and in only 30% of group B patients (0.5 ± 1.5 g/day). Hypophosphatemia developed in 75% and 30% of group A and group B patients, respectively. Serum phosphate was significantly higher in protocol B patients (P < 0.001) and, differently to protocol A, appeared to be

  13. A randomized clinical study for comparative evaluation of Aloe Vera and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash efficacy on de-novo plaque formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhina, Shivjot; Singh, Avnish; Menon, Ipseeta; Singh, Rickypal; Sharma, Anubhav; Aggarwal, Vartika

    2016-01-01

    To comparatively assess the antiplaque efficacy of Aloe vera mouthwash and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash on de novo plaque formation. This was a randomized, single blind, parallel, controlled clinical study with 90 healthy participants, with mean age of 27.19 ± 12.08 years. After thorough oral prophylaxis, participants were instructed to discontinue mechanical plaque control. Participants were divided randomly into three groups; pure Aloe vera mouthwash was dispensed to the test group; control group received 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash; in Placebo group, flavored distilled water was used as oral rinse twice daily. Effect on 4-day de novo plaque formation was assessed by comparing pre-rinsing Quigley Hein Modified Plaque Scores were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Post-rinsing control group showed the least plaque score which was comparable to the test group. Both the control group and test group showed significant difference with the placebo group. Herbal mouthwash containing Aloe vera mouthwash has comparable antiplaque efficacy as the gold standard 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate with fewer side effects and can be considered as an alternative.

  14. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufang Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation with folic acid (FA was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW. This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma’anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma’anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy. Small-for-gestational-age (SGA births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04. This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn’s gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To

  15. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-08-15

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma'anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma'anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn's gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these findings, additional

  16. Determination of Non-Transferrin Bound Iron, Transferrin Bound Iron, Drug Bound Iron and Total Iron in Serum in a Rats after IV Administration of Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex by Simple Ultrafiltration Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali K. Matta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, sensitive and specific ultrafiltration inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI, transferrin bound iron (TBI, drug bound iron (DI and total iron (TI in the same rat serum sample after intravenous (IV administration of iron gluconate nanoparticles in sucrose solution (Ferrlecit®. Ultrafiltration with a 30 kDa molecular cut-off filter was used for sample cleanup. Different elution solvents were used to separate each form of iron from sample serum. Isolated fractions were subjected to inductively-coupled mass spectrometric analysis after microwave digestion in 4% nitric acid. The reproducibility of the method was evaluated by precision and accuracy. The calibration curve demonstrated linearity from 5–500 ng/mL with a regression (r2 of more than 0.998. This method was effectively implemented to quantify rat pharmacokinetic study samples after intravenous administration of Ferrlecit®. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic (PK study of Ferrlecit in rats. The colloidal iron followed first order kinetics with half-life of 2.2 h and reached background or pre-dose levels after 12 h post-dosing. The drug shown a clearance of 0.31 mL/min/kg and volume of distribution of 0.05 L/kg. 19.4 ± 2.4 mL/h/kg.

  17. Biomineralization of electrospun poly(L-lactic acid)/gelatin composite fibrous scaffold by using a supersaturated simulated body fluid with continuous CO{sub 2} bubbling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Qing; Xu Qingqing; Feng Qiaofang; Cao Xiaoyan [Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Yang Xiaoping, E-mail: yangxp@mail.buct.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Deng Xuliang [School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-09-15

    To promote the biomineralization, supersaturated simulated body fluids (SBFs), e.g. five times SBF (5 x SBF), were usually applied. In these SBFs, however, homogeneous nucleation of Ca-P mineralites and deposition unavoidably took place owing to the HCO{sub 3}{sup -} decomposition and the pH value increment, which made the prediction of bone bioactivity of substrates controversial. In this study, the classically prepared 5 x SBF was continuously bubbled with CO{sub 2} to keep the pH value stable at 6.4 and the solution transparent, and a kind of electrospun poly(L-lactic acid)/gelatin composite fibers was used for the biomineralization study. In such a modified 5 x SBF, heterogenenous nucleation occurred dominantly and thermodynamical unstable brushites (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, DCPD) were detected shortly on both electrospun PLLA fibers and PLLA/gelatin (1:1 in weight) composite fibers. In comparison with electrospun PLLA fibers, the sheet-like DCPD mineralites transformed into flaky carbonated calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) within 24 h on the PLLA/gelatin composite fibers due to the accelerating effect of gelatin component. The formed apatite coating contained much less Mg{sup 2+} ions than that deposited in the classical 5 x SBF. The results of this study showed that supersaturated SBFs buffered with gassy CO{sub 2} were expected good choices for the accelerated biomineralization, and for the prediction of the bone bonding bioactivity of substrates.

  18. Cubozoan venom-induced cardiovascular collapse is caused by hyperkalemia and prevented by zinc gluconate in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel A Yanagihara

    Full Text Available Chironex fleckeri (Australian box jellyfish stings can cause acute cardiovascular collapse and death. We developed methods to recover venom with high specific activity, and evaluated the effects of both total venom and constituent porins at doses equivalent to lethal envenomation. Marked potassium release occurred within 5 min and hemolysis within 20 min in human red blood cells (RBC exposed to venom or purified venom porin. Electron microscopy revealed abundant ~12-nm transmembrane pores in RBC exposed to purified venom porins. C57BL/6 mice injected with venom showed rapid decline in ejection fraction with progression to electromechanical dissociation and electrocardiographic findings consistent with acute hyperkalemia. Recognizing that porin assembly can be inhibited by zinc, we found that zinc gluconate inhibited potassium efflux from RBC exposed to total venom or purified porin, and prolonged survival time in mice following venom injection. These findings suggest that hyperkalemia is the critical event following Chironex fleckeri envenomation and that rapid administration of zinc could be life saving in human sting victims.

  19. Absorption and Tolerability of Aqueous Chlorhexidine Gluconate Used for Skin Antisepsis Prior to Catheter Insertion in Preterm Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Alison K.; Aucott, Susan W.; Gilmore, Maureen M.; Advani, Sonali; Clarke, William; Milstone, Aaron M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess chlorhexidine absorption and skin tolerability in premature infants following skin antisepsis with 2% aqueous chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) prior to peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) placement. Study Design Neonates less than 32 weeks gestation had skin cleansed with CHG prior to PICC placement. CHG concentrations were measured on serial blood samples. Skin integrity was evaluated for 2 weeks after CHG exposure. Results Twenty infants were enrolled; median gestational age 28 2/7 weeks (range 24 3/7–31 4/7). Ten infants had detectable serum chlorhexidine concentrations (range 1.6–206 ng/ml). Seven of these infants had their highest serum concentration 2 to 3 days following exposure. No CHG-related skin irritation occurred in any infant. Conclusion CHG was detected in the blood of preterm infants receiving CHG skin antisepsis for PICC insertion. Highest serum concentrations occurred 2 to 3 days after exposure. Further investigation is needed to determine the clinical relevance of CHG absorption in preterm infants. PMID:23702618

  20. Antifungal efficacy of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, and 17% EDTA with and without an antifungal agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Saurabh S; Miglani, Revathi; Srinivasan, M R; Indira, Rajamani

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), and 17% EDTA as a final irrigant with and without the inclusion of an antifungal agent (1% clotrimazole) on Candida albicans. Sixty-five single-rooted instrumented and inoculated with a suspension of C. albicans. The experimental specimens were divided into two groups. The irrigant group was divided into three subgroups and irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl, 2% CHX, and 17% EDTA, respectively. The irrigant with antifungal group was divided into three subgroups and irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl, 2% CHX, and 17% EDTA respectively followed by 1% clotrimazole. Aliquots from the experimental teeth were plated on 4% Sabouraud agar (Tital Biotech, Delhi, India), and the colony-forming units (CFUs) were evaluated under light microscopy (400x). NaOCl, 5.25%, exhibited superior antifungal efficacy compared with 2% CHX and 17% EDTA (p < 0.001). On inclusion of 1% clotrimazole, there was a significant decrease in the CFU (p < 0.001); 5.25% NaOCl and 2% CHX with clotrimazole showed significantly greater antifungal properties than 17% EDTA with clotrimazole (p < 0.001). One percent of clotrimazole proved to be effective against C. albicans when used along with root canal irrigants as a final rinse. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Microscopical analysis of Candida albicans biofilms on heat-polymerised acrylic resin after chlorhexidine gluconate and sodium hypochlorite treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Paulo Maurício Batista; Acosta, Emílio José T Rodríguez; Pinto, Luciana de Rezende; Graeff, Márcia; Spolidorio, Denise Madalena P; Almeida, Ricardo S; Porto, Vinícius Carvalho

    2011-11-01

    The ability of Candida albicans to form biofilms on denture surfaces is a significant cofactor in the pathogenesis of denture stomatitis. In this study, we applied a differential staining approach and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyse the effect of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate on the viability, removal and morphology of C. albicans forming biofilms on denture acrylic using an in vitro model. Immediately after treatment, to distinguish live from dead C. albicans cells in the remaining biofilms, the specimens were stained differentially and analysed by confocal scanning laser microscopy. Moreover, morphological alterations of fungal cells were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. All disinfectant solutions killed all remaining fungal cells on the specimens. Interestingly, 4% chlorhexidine did not remove these cells from the acrylic resin surface whereas sodium hypochlorite solutions (1% and 2%) provided almost complete biofilm removal. Furthermore, treating the specimens with sodium hypochlorite induced cell morphology alterations, as seen in the residual fungal cells. Finally, according to our findings, it can be suggested that sodium hypochlorite solutions are the first choice as denture cleanser when compared with 4% chlorhexidine because those solutions not only killed C. albicans biofilms but also removed them from the heat-polymerised acrylic resin. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. A comparison between zinc sulfate and chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwashes in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mehdipour

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Background and the Purpose of the Study: Patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy for hematological malignancies are susceptible to development of oral mucositis, and no effective modality has been reported for its prophylaxis and treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc mouthwash on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis lesions. "nMethods: In this double-blind randomized trial, patients under chemotherapy for acute leukemia were divided into two test and control groups of 15 patients each. The groups were homogeneous with respect to medical history, tumor characteristics, and therapeutic details. The test group received 10ml 0.2% zinc sulfate mouthwash, and the control group received 10ml 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash, twice a day for a period of two weeks. Spijkervet scale was used to grade the severity of mucositis at every other week during eight weeks. The severity scores were analyzed with repeated measure ANOVA using SPSS 13.0 computer software. "nResults: Mean severity scores were generally lower in the test group compared to the controls at all four time intervals evaluated; but only, the differences in weeks of 2 and 3 were statistically significant (P=0.025. Conclusion: Zinc mouthwash used in conjunction with chemotherapy may reduce the severity of oral mucositis lesions in patients with leukaemia.

  3. A reduction in growth rate of Pseudomonas putida KT2442 counteracts productivity advances in medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate production from gluconate

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    Zinn Manfred

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The substitution of plastics based on fossil raw material by biodegradable plastics produced from renewable resources is of crucial importance in a context of oil scarcity and overflowing plastic landfills. One of the most promising organisms for the manufacturing of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA is Pseudomonas putida KT2440 which can accumulate large amounts of polymer from cheap substrates such as glucose. Current research focuses on enhancing the strain production capacity and synthesizing polymers with novel material properties. Many of the corresponding protocols for strain engineering rely on the rifampicin-resistant variant, P. putida KT2442. However, it remains unclear whether these two strains can be treated as equivalent in terms of mcl-PHA production, as the underlying antibiotic resistance mechanism involves a modification in the RNA polymerase and thus has ample potential for interfering with global transcription. Results To assess PHA production in P. putida KT2440 and KT2442, we characterized the growth and PHA accumulation on three categories of substrate: PHA-related (octanoate, PHA-unrelated (gluconate and poor PHA substrate (citrate. The strains showed clear differences of growth rate on gluconate and citrate (reduction for KT2442 > 3-fold and > 1.5-fold, respectively but not on octanoate. In addition, P. putida KT2442 PHA-free biomass significantly decreased after nitrogen depletion on gluconate. In an attempt to narrow down the range of possible reasons for this different behavior, the uptake of gluconate and extracellular release of the oxidized product 2-ketogluconate were measured. The results suggested that the reason has to be an inefficient transport or metabolization of 2-ketogluconate while an alteration of gluconate uptake and conversion to 2-ketogluconate could be excluded. Conclusions The study illustrates that the recruitment of a pleiotropic mutation, whose effects might

  4. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by

  5. Impact of chlorhexidine gluconate intolerance on driveline infection during chronic HeartMate II left ventricular assist device support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Andre Y; Stein, Louis H; DeAnda, Abe; Katz, Stuart D; Smith, Deane E; Reyentovich, Alex; Balsam, Leora B

    2017-01-13

    Driveline exit site (DLES) management following left ventricular assist device implantation is important for preventing driveline infection (DLI). While chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) is generally recommended for DLES antisepsis, CHG intolerance can develop, resulting in a need for alternative antiseptics. We reviewed our institutional experience with DLES antisepsis methods in HeartMate II patients, comparing outcomes of patients with and without CHG intolerance. Between October 2011 and March 2016, 44 patients underwent primary HeartMate II implantation. CHG was used for DLES antisepsis and povidone-iodine (PVP-I) was used in patients with CHG intolerance. DLI was defined by Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) criteria. Of 44 patients, 37 (84%) received CHG and 7 (16%) received PVP-I antisepsis due to CHG intolerance. Five patients (11.4%) developed a DLI, with an event per patient-year rate of 0.07. Median length of support was 521 days (interquartile range 202-881 days). Characteristics were similar between patients with and without DLI. However, a larger proportion of patients with DLI had CHG intolerance compared to patients without DLI (60.0% vs. 10.3%, p:0.05). Causative organisms were Staphylococcus aureus in CHG-intolerant patients and Stenotrophomonas and Acinetobacter in CHG-tolerant patients. Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test demonstrated decreased infection-free days in patients using PVP-I rather than CHG (p:0.01). While the etiology of DLI is multifactorial, CHG intolerance appears to be a risk factor. Our findings highlight the need for larger studies comparing the efficacy of antiseptics for DLES care, particularly for patients with CHG contraindications.

  6. [Disinfection efficacy of hand hygiene based on chlorhexidine gluconate content and usage of alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ippei; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Azuma, Chihiro; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the procedure for surgical hand hygiene has been switching to a two-stage method and hand-rubbing method from the traditional hand-scrubbing method. Both the two-stage and hand-rubbing methods use alcohol-based hand-rubbing after hand washing. The former requires 5 min of antiseptic hand washing, and the latter 1 min of nonantiseptic hand washing. For a prolonged bactericidal effect in terms of surgical hand hygiene, chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) has been noted due to its residual activity. However, no detailed study comparing the disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects according to different contents of CHG and the usage of alcohol-based hand-rubbing has been conducted. The glove juice method is able to evaluate disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects of the disinfectants more accurately because it can collect not only transitory bacteria but also normal inhabitants on hands. In the present study, we examined the disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects on alcohol-based hand-rubbing containing CHG by six hand-rubbing methods and three two-stage methods using the glove juice method. In both methods, 3 mL (one pump dispenser push volume) alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution containing 1% (w/v) CHG showed the highest disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects, and no significant difference was found between the hand-rubbing and two-stage methods. In the two methods of hand hygiene, the hand-rubbing method was able to save time and cost. Therefore, the data strongly suggest that the hand-rubbing method using a one pump dispenser push volume of alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution containing 1% (w/v) CHG is suitable for surgical hand hygiene.

  7. Comparison of cytotoxicity of various concentrations origanum extract solution with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Evren; Adanir, Necdet; Hakki, Sema

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the cytotoxicity of 0.5–4.5 origanum extract solution (OES), 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with WST-1 test on human periodontal ligament (hPDL) fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: About 0.5–4.5% OES, 2% CHX and 5.25% NaOCl solutions cytotoxicity was evaluated with cell culture test using PDL fibroblasts. Viability of hPDL cells was evaluated with WST-1 (Cell Proliferation Reagent WST-1 Roche) test at 1, 24 and 72nd h. hPDL cells were plated at 20 × 103 cells per well in 96-well plates. Absorbance values were read in optical density 480 nm by ELISA plate reader spectrophotometer. The statistical differences between various groups were evaluated using one-way ANOVA, post-hoc Duncan's Multiple Range test using SAS software. Statistically, a significant difference was considered at P < 0.001. Results: According to the 1-h cytotoxicity results, 0.5% OES showed the least cytotoxic effect in test groups. There were not found any statistical significance between 1% OES and 2% CHX. About 5.25% NaOCl showed more cytotoxic effect than 1% OES and 2% CHX. In 24 and 72 h, different concentrations of OES, 5.25% NaOCl, 2% CHX solutions showed similar cytotoxic effect. Conclusions: Based on these results, 1% OES and 2% CHX showed similar results and less cytotoxic effect than 5.25% NaOCl. It could be considered as a favorable solution concentration when OES was used as root canal irrigation solution. PMID:25713477

  8. Comparison of cytotoxicity of various concentrations origanum extract solution with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Evren; Adanir, Necdet; Hakki, Sema

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the cytotoxicity of 0.5-4.5 origanum extract solution (OES), 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with WST-1 test on human periodontal ligament (hPDL) fibroblasts. About 0.5-4.5% OES, 2% CHX and 5.25% NaOCl solutions cytotoxicity was evaluated with cell culture test using PDL fibroblasts. Viability of hPDL cells was evaluated with WST-1 (Cell Proliferation Reagent WST-1 Roche) test at 1, 24 and 72(nd) h. hPDL cells were plated at 20 × 10(3) cells per well in 96-well plates. Absorbance values were read in optical density 480 nm by ELISA plate reader spectrophotometer. The statistical differences between various groups were evaluated using one-way ANOVA, post-hoc Duncan's Multiple Range test using SAS software. Statistically, a significant difference was considered at P < 0.001. According to the 1-h cytotoxicity results, 0.5% OES showed the least cytotoxic effect in test groups. There were not found any statistical significance between 1% OES and 2% CHX. About 5.25% NaOCl showed more cytotoxic effect than 1% OES and 2% CHX. In 24 and 72 h, different concentrations of OES, 5.25% NaOCl, 2% CHX solutions showed similar cytotoxic effect. Based on these results, 1% OES and 2% CHX showed similar results and less cytotoxic effect than 5.25% NaOCl. It could be considered as a favorable solution concentration when OES was used as root canal irrigation solution.

  9. Antibacterial efficacy of lavandula officinalis extract, sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate solutions as root canal irrigations: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pouya Mehmandoust

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This in vitro study aimed to compare the antimicrobial effect of lavandula -0fficinalis extract, with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX, as root canal irrigants, on Enterococcus faecalis (EF. Materials &Methods: Seventy five extracted single-rooted premolars were selected. Root canals were prepared using rotary ProTaper system and were infected with the culture of E. faecalis. Specimens were randomly divided into five groups (n = 15, Group 1, 2: lavandula extracts (0.26 and 0.52 mg/mL, Group 3: 2.5%NaOCL, Group 4: 2%CHX, Group 5: Normal Saline. Irrigation was performed for each group for 5, 10 and 15 min. The viable bacteria obtained by collecting the canal dentin chips. Data analysis was performed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney u tests. Results: The mean number of viable bacteria was significantly reduced after 5 min exposure to lavandula solutions (p<0.05. A significant difference also existed between different times in the NaOCL group, being significant between 5 and 15 min (p<0.05, but there was no significant difference between different times in the CHX group. Comparison of the mean number of viable bacteria between different groups at different exposure times revealed that the difference between lavandula and NaOCL solutions with CHX was significant at 5 and 10 min (p<0.05, however, no statistically significant difference was observed between lavandula solutions and NaOCL. Conclusion: lavandula extract was effective in killing of EF.  Further studies are necessary to fully understand its other properties such as tissue solubility, removal of smear layer and impact on dentin structure.

  10. Surgical hand antisepsis-a pilot study comparing povidone iodine hand scrub and alcohol-based chlorhexidine gluconate hand rub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kah Weng; Foo, Tun Lin; Low, Wilson; Naidu, Ganesan

    2012-01-01

    The surgeon uses different methods of surgical hand antisepsis with the aim of reducing surgical site infections. To date, there are no local studies comparing the efficacy of iodine hand scrub against newer alcohol-based hand rubs with active ingredients. Our pilot study compares a traditional aqueous hand scrub using 7.5% Povidone iodine (PVP-I) against a hand rub using Avagard: 61% ethyl alcohol, 1% chlorhexidine gluconate. The outcome measure is the number of Colony Forming Units (CFU) cultured from 10-digit fingertip imprints on agar plates. Ten volunteers underwent 2 hand preparation protocols, with a 30-minute interval in between-Protocol A (3-minute of aqueous scrub using PVP-I) and Protocol B (3-minute of hand rub, until dry, using Avagard). In each protocol, fingertip imprints were obtained immediately after hand preparation (t(0)). The volunteers proceeded to don sterile gloves and performed specific tasks (suturing). At one hour, the gloves were removed and a second set of imprints was obtained (t(1)). Four sets of fingertip imprints were obtained. All 10 participants complied with the supervised hand preparation procedures for each protocol. CFUs of initial fingertip imprints (t(0)): The median CFU counts for initial imprint was significantly higher in the PVP-I treatment (median = 6, Inter Quartile Range (IQR) = 33) compared to the Avagard treatment (median = 0, IQR = 0, P scrub at reducing baseline colony counts and sustaining this antisepsis effect. Alcohol hand rub with an active compound, demonstrated superior efficacy in CFU reduction. Based on our results, and those pooled from other authors, we suggest that alcohol-based hand rubs could be included in the operating theatre as an alternative to traditional surgical scrub for surgical hand antisepsis.

  11. Nanotube formation through the continuous one-dimensional fusion of hollow nanocapsules composed of layer-by-layer poly(lactic acid) stereocomplex films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Kenta; Kida, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Yuji; Arikawa, Yuuya; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2010-06-23

    Hollow nanocapsules composed of a poly(lactic acid)s (PLAs) stereocomplex can be fabricated by a combination of the layer-by-layer assembly technique and the silica template method. These hollow capsules one-dimensionally fuse together to generate novel PLA nanotubes. The formation of nanotubes was affected by the molecular weights of PLAs constituting the hollow capsules.

  12. Zinc lozenges and the common cold: a meta-analysis comparing zinc acetate and zinc gluconate, and the role of zinc dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of zinc acetate lozenges with zinc gluconate lozenges in common cold treatment and to examine the dose-dependency of the effect. Meta-analysis. Placebo-controlled zinc lozenge trials, in which the zinc dose was > 75 mg/day. The pooled effect of zinc lozenges on common cold duration was calculated by using inverse-variance random-effects method. Seven randomised trials with 575 participants with naturally acquired common colds. Duration of the common cold. The mean common cold duration was 33% (95% CI 21% to 45%) shorter for the zinc groups of the seven included trials. Three trials that used lozenges composed of zinc acetate found that colds were shortened by 40% and four trials that used zinc gluconate by 28%. The difference between the two salts was not significant: 12 percentage points (95% CI: -12 to + 36). Five trials used zinc doses of 80-92 mg/day, common cold duration was reduced by 33%, and two trials used zinc doses of 192-207 mg/day and found an effect of 35%. The difference between the high-dose and low-dose zinc trials was not significant: 2 percentage points (95% CI: -29 to + 32). Properly composed zinc gluconate lozenges may be as effective as zinc acetate lozenges. There is no evidence that zinc doses over 100 mg/day might lead to greater efficacy in the treatment of the common cold. Common cold patients may be encouraged to try zinc lozenges for treating their colds. The optimal lozenge composition and dosage scheme need to be investigated further.

  13. Preliminary study on the effect of parenteral naloxone, alone and in association with calcium gluconate, on bone healing in an ovine "drill hole" model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langhoff Jens D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several diseases affect bone healing and physiology. Many drugs that are commonly used in orthopaedics as "analgesics" or anti-inflammatory agents impair bone healing. Stressful conditions are associated with decreased serum osteocalcin concentration. High endorphin levels alter calcium metabolism, blocking the membrane channels by which calcium normally enters cells. The consequent decrease of intracellular calcium impairs the activities of calcium-related enzymes. Naloxone is a pure opioid antagonist. Morphine-induced osteocalcin inhibition was abolished when osteoblasts were incubated with naloxone. Naloxone restored the altered cellular and tissue physiology by removing β-endorphins from specific receptors. However, this is only possible if the circulating Ca concentration is adequate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of parenteral naloxone administration in inducing fast mineralization and callus remodelling in a group of sheep with a standardised bone lesion. Methods Twenty ewes were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups. Group A acted as control, group B received a solution of calcium gluconate, group C a solution of naloxone, and group D a solution of calcium gluconate and naloxone. A transverse hole was drilled in the left metacarpus, including both cortices, then parenteral treatment was administered intramuscularly, daily for four weeks. Healing was evaluated by weekly radiographic examination for eight weeks. For quantitative evaluation, the ratio of the radiographic bone density between the drill area and the adjacent cortical bone was calculated. After eight weeks the sheep were slaughtered and a sample of bone was collected for histopathology Results Group D showed a higher radiographic ratio than the other groups. Sheep not treated with naloxone showed a persistently lower ratio in the lateral than the medial cortex (P Conclusion A low-dose parenteral regimen of naloxone enhances

  14. Evaluation of continuous ethanol fermentation of dilute-acid corn stover hydrolysate using thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    Dilute sulfuric acid pretreated corn stover is potential feedstock of industrial interest for second generation fuel ethanol production. However, the toxicity of corn stover hydrolysate (PCS) has been a challenge for fermentation by recombinant xylose fermenting organisms. In this work...

  15. Immobilization of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in mesoporous silica-based material: An efficiency continuous cell-recycle fermentation system for lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zijian; Xie, Xiaona; Wang, Zhi; Tao, Yanchun; Niu, Xuedun; Huang, Xuri; Liu, Li; Li, Zhengqiang

    2016-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria immobilization methods have been widely used for lactic acid production. Until now, the most common immobilization matrix used is calcium alginate. However, Ca-alginate gel disintegrated during lactic acid fermentation. To overcome this deficiency, we developed an immobilization method in which Lactobacillus rhamnosus cells were successfully encapsulated into an ordered mesoporous silica-based material under mild conditions with a high immobilization efficiency of 78.77% by using elemental analysis. We also optimized the cultivation conditions of the immobilized L. rhamnosus and obtained a high glucose conversion yield of 92.4%. Furthermore, L. rhamnosus encapsulated in mesoporous silica-based material exhibited operational stability during repeated fermentation processes and no decrease in lactic acid production up to 8 repeated batches. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Continuous cultivations of a Penicillium chrysogenum strain expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus: Kinetics of adipoyl-7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid and byproduct formations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robin, Jarno Jacky Christian; Bruheim, P.; Nielsen, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    The production kinetics of a transformed strain of Penicillium chrysogenum expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus was investigated in chemostat cultivations. The recombinant strain produces adipoyl-7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid (ad-7-ADCA) as the major product; howeve...

  17. Reappraisal of routine oral care with chlorhexidine gluconate for patients receiving mechanical ventilation: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompas, Michael; Speck, Kathleen; Howell, Michael D; Greene, Linda R; Berenholtz, Sean M

    2014-05-01

    Regular oral care with chlorhexidine gluconate is standard of care for patients receiving mechanical ventilation in most hospitals. This policy is predicated on meta-analyses suggesting decreased risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia, but these meta-analyses may be misleading because of lack of distinction between cardiac surgery and non-cardiac surgery studies, conflation of open-label vs double-blind investigations, and insufficient emphasis on patient-centered outcomes such as duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay, and mortality. To evaluate the impact of routine oral care with chlorhexidine on patient-centered outcomes in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science from inception until July 2013 without limits on date or language. Randomized clinical trials comparing chlorhexidine vs placebo in adults receiving mechanical ventilation. Of 171 unique citations, 16 studies including 3630 patients met inclusion criteria. Eligible trials were independently identified, evaluated for risk of bias, and extracted by 2 investigators. Differences were resolved by consensus. We stratified studies into cardiac surgery vs non-cardiac surgery and open-label vs double-blind investigations. Eligible studies were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Ventilator-associated pneumonia, mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, antibiotic prescribing. There were fewer lower respiratory tract infections in cardiac surgery patients randomized to chlorhexidine (relative risk [RR], 0.56 [95% CI, 0.41-0.77]) but no significant difference in ventilator-associated pneumonia risk in double-blind studies of non-cardiac surgery patients (RR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.66-1.16]). There was no significant mortality difference between chlorhexidine and placebo in cardiac surgery studies (RR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.25-2.14]) and nonsignificantly increased mortality in non-cardiac surgery studies (RR

  18. The Effect of Thyroid Hormone, Prostaglandin E2, and Calcium Gluconate on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Root Resorption in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Hamedi, Roya; Khavandegar, Zohre

    2015-03-01

    A major objective of investigators is to clarify the role of metabolites in achievement of maximum tooth movement with minimal root damage during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of administration of thyroid hormone, prostaglandin E2, and calcium on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption in rats. Sixty four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups of eight rats each: 1- 20µg/kg thyroxine was injected in traperitoneally after installation of the orthodontic appliance.  2- 0.1 ml of 1 mg/ml prostaglandin E2 was injected submucosally.  3- 10% (200 mg/kg) calcium gluconate was injected.  4- Prostaglandin E2 was injected submucosally and 10% calcium was injected intraperitoneally.  5- Thyroxine was injected intraperitoneally and prostaglandin E2 was injected submucosally.  6- 20µg/kg thyroxine with calcium was injected. 7- Prostaglandin E2 was injected submucosally with calcium and thyroxine.  8- Distilled water was used in control group. The orthodontic appliances comprised of a NiTi closed coil were posteriorly connected to the right first molar and anteriorly to the upper right incisor. OTM was measured with a feeler gauge. The mid-mesial root of the first molar and the adjacent tissues were histologically evaluated. The Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test. The highest mean OTM was observed in the thyroxine and prostaglandin E2 group (Mean±SD = 0.7375±0.1359 mm) that was significantly different (p< 0.05). A significant difference (p< 0.05) in root resorption was observed between the prostaglandin E2 (0.0192±0.0198 mm(2)) and the other groups. It seems that the combination of thyroxine and prostaglandin E2, with a synergistic effect, would decrease the root resorption and increase the rate of orthodontic tooth movement in rats.

  19. Observational: prospective study of indirect pulp treatment in primary molars using resin-modified glass ionomer and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate: a 12-month Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Linda; Atar, Michael; Daronch, Marcia; Honig, Amy; Chey, Marshall; Funny, Margaret D; Cruz, Luis

    2013-01-01

    This study's purpose was to determine the efficacy of indirect pulp treatment (IPT) in primary molars when using 2% chlorhexidine gluconate disinfecting solution and resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) liner after 12 months. Three- to 10-year-old subjects with deep carious lesions who met selection criteria participated. Infected dentin was removed using a caries detector, and residual affected dentin was left on the pulpal floor to prevent pulp exposure. A 2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution and a RMGI liner were placed. Teeth were restored with composite or full-coverage (stainless steel crown [SSC]) restorations. Follow-up evaluations at 3, 6, and 12 months included clinical, radiographic, and photographic assessments. A total of 60 teeth were treated. Treatment was successful in 50/50 (100%), 41/42 (∼98%), and 31/32 (∼97%) teeth at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up visits, respectively. Failures included one at 6 months in a primary second molar with a composite restoration and another at 12 months in a primary first molar with a SSC. Indirect pulp treatment is effective in primary teeth, although appropriate case selection and an adequate marginal seal are essential for a successful outcome. Further prospective studies are needed to expand the body of evidence that clinicians use to justify decisions on clinical care.

  20. The antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica, Mimusops elengi, Tinospora cardifolia, Ocimum sanctum and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate on common endodontic pathogens: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Kunjal S; Sanghvi, Zarna; Parmar, Girish; Shah, Samir

    2014-04-01

    To check the antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), Mimusops elelngi (Bakul), Tinospora cardifolia (Giloy) and Chlorhexidine Gluconate (CHX) on common endodontic pathogens like Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis and staphylococcus aureus. The agar diffusion test was used to check the antimicrobial activity of the Methanolic extracts of the medicinal plants along with CHX. Six different concentrations of the tested agents were used for the study. The values of Zone of Inhibition were tabulated according to the concentration of the tested agent and data was statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni post- hoc tests. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC) values were also recorded. All the plants extracts showed considerable antimicrobial activity against selected endodontic pathogens. At 3mg. concentration, O.sanctum was the most effective against S. mutans, M. elengi showed highest zone of inhibition against E.faecalis, whereas CHX was the most effective agent against S.aureus. CHX was also the most consistent of all the medicaments testes, showing inhibitory effect against all the tree pathogens at all the selected concentrations. The Methanolic extract of A.Indica, O.sanctum, M. Elengi, T.cardifolia and Chlorhexidine Gluconate has considerable antimicrobial activity against S. mutans, E. faecalis and S. aureus.

  1. Comparison of the antibacterial effects of matrica & Persica™ and chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwashes in mechanically ventilated ICU patients: a double blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi Khezri, Hadi; Haidari Gorji, Mohammad Ali; Morad, Ali; Gorji, Heidari

    2013-08-01

    Accumulation of bacteria in the pharynx is one of the risk factors of pneumonia due to ventilation. One of the methods of prevention from accumulation of bacteria in the pharynx is the use of oral solutions. Chlorhexidine is considered as the gold standard, but it has various side effects. Present study was aimed to determine and compare anti-bacterial effects of the chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2%, herbal mouthwash of Matrica® (chamomile extracts) 10%, PersicaTM 10% and normal saline in intensive care unit patients. In this double blind randomized clinical trial, 80 patients who were admitted in ICU divided into four groups of 20 patients each one. Researchers applied PersicaTM to group one, chlorhexidine gluconate mouth wash 0.2% to group two and third group received Matrica, finally in the control group, normal saline were used. In order to culturing of Staphylococcus aureus and S. pneumoniae,salivary samples were obtained without any stimulation after six minimums oral rinsing. The data were processed in SPSS17 software and analyzed by appropriate statistical tests. Decreased rate of bacterial colonies after intervention in the whole four groups was significant (p mouth wash of chlorhexidine (p chlorhexidine for prevention of VALP in ICU patients.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of U.S. Brand and Generic Intravenous Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex in Sucrose Injection: In Vitro Cellular Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is a common clinical consequence for people who suffer from chronic kidney disease, especially those requiring dialysis. Intravenous (IV iron therapy is a widely accepted safe and efficacious treatment for iron deficiency anemia. Numerous IV iron drugs have been approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA, including a single generic product, sodium ferric gluconate complex in sucrose. In this study, we compared the cellular iron uptake profiles of the brand (Ferrlecit® and generic sodium ferric gluconate (SFG products. We used a colorimetric assay to examine the amount of iron uptake by three human macrophage cell lines. This is the first published study to provide a parallel evaluation of the cellular uptake of a brand and a generic IV iron drug in a mononuclear phagocyte system. The results showed no difference in iron uptake across all cell lines, tested doses, and time points. The matching iron uptake profiles of Ferrlecit® and its generic product support the FDA’s present position detailed in the draft guidance on development of SFG complex products that bioequivalence can be based on qualitative (Q1 and quantitative (Q2 formulation sameness, similar physiochemical characterization, and pharmacokinetic bioequivalence studies.

  3. Influence of temperature and concentration on the dynamic viscosity of sodium hypochlorite in comparison with 17% EDTA and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopikrishna, Velayutham; Ashok, Priyanka; Kumar, Ar Pradeep; Narayanan, L Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of temperature and concentration on the dynamic viscosity of sodium hypochlorite in comparison with 17% EDTA and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate. In vitro. Dynamic viscosity measurements of sodium hypochlorite [NaOCl (5.25%, 2.6%, 1.25%)], EDTA (17%), and chlorhexidine gluconate [CHX, 2%] were measured using a rotational digital viscometer at room temperature (25°C). The influence of temperature (45°C, 60°C) and concentration (5.25%, 2.6%, and 1.25%) on the dynamic viscosity of NaOCl was also evaluated. The measurements were performed using a circulating water bath calibrated with a thermostat, and the dynamic viscosity measurements were noted in Centipoise (Cps). The tests used for the statistical analysis were Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro Wilk tests, one-way ANOVA, and independent sample t-test. Viscosity statistically increased with NaOCl concentration and decreased with increasing temperature. Amongst the tested NaOCl groups, 5.25% NaOCl at room temperature was significantly the most viscous (μ =1.5300 Cps) while 1.25% NaOCl at 60°C was significantly the least viscous (μ =1.1800 Cps). 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA are significantly viscous at room temperature. Elevating the temperature of 1.25% NaOCl to 60°C significantly reduces the viscosity of the NaOCl.

  4. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Sodium hypochlorite, Chlorhexidine gluconate and Octenidine Dihydrochloride in elimination of microor- ganisms within dentinal tubules of primary and permanent teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodur, Haluk; Ece, Gülden

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different irrigation solutions at different time intervals for the elimination of E.faecalis and C.albicans penetrated into the dentine tubules of primary and permanent teeth in vitro. The 4 mm primary and permanent teeth sections were sterilized and contaminated with a mixture of E.faecalis and C.albicans strains. After the application of different irrigation solutions (Sodium hypochlorite, Chlorhexidine gluconate, Octenidine Dihydrochloride, saline) to the contaminated tooth sections according to study groups, neutralizers were applied for inactivation of the solutions after 30 sec, 1 min and 5 min. Dentine shavings were placed into TSB and 10µL from each tube was inoculated on agar plates, followed by an incubation period of 24h at 37°C. The colonies were counted macroscopically. The results were compared by using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests, with a significance level at pChlorhexidine gluconate, dentine tubules, irrigation solutions, Octenidine Dihydrochloride, Sodium hypochlorite. PMID:22143724

  5. Continuous bioconversion of n-octane to octanoic acid by recombinant Escherichia coli (alk+) growing in a two-liquid-phase Chemostat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FAVREBULLE, O; WEENINK, E; VOS, T; Preusting, Hans; Witholt, B.

    1993-01-01

    Escherichia coli is able to grow on sugars in the presence of a bulk n-alkane phase. When E. coli is equipped with the alk genes from Pseudomonas oleovorans, the resulting recombinant strain converts n-alkanes into the corresponding alkanoic acids. To study the effects of growth rate and exposure to

  6. Vibrio anguillarum Is Genetically and Phenotypically Unaffected by Long-Term Continuous Exposure to the Antibacterial Compound Tropodithietic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bastian Barker; Grotkjær, Torben; D'Alvise, Paul

    2016-01-01

    prevent or reduce bacterial diseases in fish larvae, acting as probiotics. Roseobacters produce the antimicrobial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA), and we were concerned regarding whether long-term exposure to this compound could induce resistance or affect the disease-causing ability of the fish......Minimizing the use of antibiotics in the food production chain is essential for limiting the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One alternative intervention strategy is the use of probiotic bacteria, and bacteria of the marine Roseobacter clade are capable of antagonizing fish......-pathogenic vibrios in fish larvae and live feed cultures for fish larvae. The antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA), an antiporter that disrupts the proton motive force, is key in the antibacterial activity of several roseobacters. Introducing probiotics on a larger scale requires understanding of any...

  7. A continuous in vitro method for estimation of the bioavailability of minerals and trace elements in foods : application to breads varying in phytic acid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, M.G.E.; Schreuder, H.A.W.; Heuvel, G. van den; Lonkhuijsen, H.J. van; Hermus, R.J.J.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1993-01-01

    A continuous in vitro method for the estimation of the bioavailability of minerals and trace elements is presented. This in vitro method is believed to be more representative of in vivo physiological conditions than in vitro methods based on equilibrium dialysis, because dialysable components are

  8. Application of a slurry feeder to 1 and 3 stage continuous simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of dilute acid pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brethauer, Simone; Studer, Michael H; Wyman, Charles E

    2014-10-01

    Continuous operation is often chosen for conceptual designs of biological processing of cellulosic biomass to ethanol to achieve higher volumetric productivities. Furthermore, continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) can handle higher solids concentrations than possible in batch mode due to broth thinning at partial conversion in a continuous fermentor. However, experience and literature data are very limited for continuous simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (cSSF) processes. In this work, a slurry feed system was developed and applied to a 3-stage bench-scale cSSF train to convert pretreated corn stover to ethanol and determine the effects of dilution rate and number of fermentation vessels on overall volumetric productivity. The highest productivity of 0.4gL(-1)h(-1) was achieved in a single cSSF vessel with an 8h residence time. Furthermore, productivity at identical total residence times was 12% higher for operation with 3 cSSF stages than for a single CSTR stage for pretreated corn stover. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Co-Fermentation of Cheese Whey and Crude Glycerol in EGSB Reactor as a Strategy to Enhance Continuous Hydrogen and Propionic Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Helberth Júnnior Santos; Ramos, Lucas Rodrigues; Silva, Edson Luiz

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the production of hydrogen and propionic acid in an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor by co-fermentation of cheese whey (CW) and crude glycerol (CG). The reactor was operated at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h by changing the CW/CG ratio from 5:1 to 5:2, 5:3, 5:4, and 5:5. At the ratio of 5:5, HRT was reduced from 8 to 0.5 h. The maximum hydrogen yield of 0.120 mmol H2 g COD-1 was observed at the CW/CG ratio of 5:1. Increasing the CG concentration repressed hydrogen production in favor of propionic acid, with a maximum yield of 6.19 mmol HPr g COD-1 at the CW/CG ratio of 5:3. Moreover, by reducing HRT of 8 to 0.5 h, the hydrogen production rate was increased to a maximum value of 42.5 mL H2 h-1 L-1at HRT of 0.5 h. The major metabolites were propionate, 1,3-propanediol, acetate, butyrate, and lactate.

  10. Continuity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed, self-contained theory of continuous mappings. It is mainly addressed to students who have already studied these mappings in the setting of metric spaces, as well as multidimensional differential calculus. The needed background facts about sets, metric spaces and linear algebra are developed in detail, so as to provide a seamless transition between students' previous studies and new material. In view of its many novel features, this book will be of interest also to mature readers who have studied continuous mappings from the subject's classical texts and wish to become acquainted with a new approach. The theory of continuous mappings serves as infrastructure for more specialized mathematical theories like differential equations, integral equations, operator theory, dynamical systems, global analysis, topological groups, topological rings and many more. In light of the centrality of the topic, a book of this kind fits a variety of applications, especially those that contribute to ...

  11. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne

    2016-02-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting.

  12. Comparative evaluation of antifungal action of tea tree oil, chlorhexidine gluconate and fluconazole on heat polymerized acrylic denture base resin - an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalwai, Sameen; Rodrigues, Shobha J; Baliga, Shrikala; Shenoy, Vidya K; Shetty, Thilak B; Pai, Umesh Y; Saldanha, Sharon

    2016-09-01

    Candida albicans-associated denture stomatitis is the most common type of denture stomatitis seen in denture wearers. This study evaluates and compares the antifungal action of fluconazole, chlorhexidine gluconate and tea tree oil on heat-polymerised denture base resin, which has been previously contaminated with C. albicans grown in BHI broth. Seventy-five specimens were immersed in BHI broth previously inoculated with C. albicans and stored for 3 h at 37°C. They were divided into five groups (n = 15): G1: 2% chlorhexidine solution; G2: 100% pure pharmaceutical grade tea tree oil; G3: 65 μg/ml fluconazole solution; C1: specimens not disinfected; C2: specimens not contaminated with Candida. Each specimen was then transferred to individual tubes containing BHI broth and incubated for 24 h. Culture media turbidity was evaluated for absorbance over a period of 14 days using a microplate reader. It was observed that the lower the absorbance, the stronger the antimicrobial action. Statistical analysis was performed (two-way anova and Bonferroni test, p tree oil inhibited Candida up to the 14th day, whereas antifungal effect of fluconazole was not significant after the 7th day. Tea tree oil and chlorhexidine gluconate are more effective than fluconazole in inhibiting C. albicans growth on heat-polymerised acrylic resin. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Identification of 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-Gluconate Kinase and 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-Phosphogluconate Aldolase in an Alginate-Assimilating Bacterium, Flavobacterium sp. Strain UMI-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryuji; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2017-02-14

    Recently, we identified an alginate-assimilating gene cluster in the genome of Flavobacterium sp. strain UMI-01, a member of Bacteroidetes. Alginate lyase genes and a 4-deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH) reductase gene in the cluster have already been characterized; however, 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate (KDG) kinase and 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate (KDPG) aldolase genes, i.e., flkin and flald, still remained uncharacterized. The amino acid sequences deduced from flkin and flald showed low identities with those of corresponding enzymes of Saccharophagus degradans 2-40T, a member of Proteobacteria (Kim et al., Process Biochem., 2016). This led us to consider that the DEH-assimilating enzymes of Bacteroidetes species are somewhat deviated from those of Proteobacteria species. Thus, in the present study, we first assessed the characteristics in the primary structures of KDG kinase and KDG aldolase of the strain UMI-01, and then investigated the enzymatic properties of recombinant enzymes, recFlKin and recFlAld, expressed by an Escherichia coli expression system. Multiple-sequence alignment among KDG kinases and KDG aldolases from several Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes species indicated that the strain UMI-01 enzymes showed considerably low sequence identities (15%-25%) with the Proteobacteria enzymes, while they showed relatively high identities (47%-68%) with the Bacteroidetes enzymes. Phylogenetic analyses for these enzymes indicated the distant relationship between the Proteobacteria enzymes and the Bacteroidetes enzymes, i.e., they formed distinct clusters in the phylogenetic tree. recFlKin and recFlAld produced with the genes flkin and flald, respectively, were confirmed to show KDG kinase and KDPG aldolase activities. Namely, recFlKin produced 1.7 mM KDPG in a reaction mixture containing 2.5 mM KDG and 2.5 mM ATP in a 90-min reaction, while recFlAld produced 1.2 mM pyruvate in the reaction mixture containing 5 mM KDPG at the equilibrium state

  14. Application of a fuzzy logic control system for continuous anaerobic digestion of low buffered, acidic energy crops as mono-substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, P; Lehmann, K; Schmidt, O; Demirel, B

    2009-02-15

    A fuzzy logic control (FLC) system was developed at the Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (HAW Hamburg) for operation of biogas reactors running on energy crops. Three commercially available measuring parameters, namely pH, the methane (CH4) content, and the specific gas production rate (spec. GPR = m(3)/kg VS/day) were included. The objective was to avoid stabilization of pH with use of buffering supplements, like lime or manure. The developed FLC system can cover most of all applications, such as a careful start-up process and a gentle recovery strategy after a severe reactor failure, also enabling a process with a high organic loading rate (OLR) and a low hydraulic retention time (HRT), that is, a high throughput anaerobic digestion process with a stable pH and CH4 content. A precondition for a high load process was the concept of interval feeding, for example, with 8 h of interval. The FLC system was proved to be reliable during the long term fermentation studies over 3 years in one-stage, completely stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with acidic beet silage as mono-input (pH 3.3-3.4). During fermentation of the fodder beet silage (FBS), a stable HRT of 6.0 days with an OLR of up to 15 kg VS/m(3)/day and a volumetric GPR of 9 m(3)/m(3)/day could be reached. The FLC enabled an automatic recovery of the digester after two induced severe reactor failures. In another attempt to prove the feasibility of the FLC, substrate FBS was changed to sugar beet silage (SBS), which had a substantially lower buffering capacity than that of the FBS. With SBS, the FLC accomplished a stable fermentation at a pH level between 6.5 and 6.6, and a volatile fatty acid level (VFA) below 500 mg/L, but the FLC had to interact and to change the substrate dosage permanently. In a further experiment, the reactor temperature was increased from 41 to 50 degrees C. Concomitantly, the specific GPR, pH and CH4 dropped down. Finally, the FLC automatically enabled a complete recovery in 16 days.

  15. Enteric methane production in lactating dairy cows with continuous feeding of essential oils or rotational feeding of essential oils and lauric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, G; Dijkstra, J; Dieho, K; Hendriks, W H; Bannink, A

    2017-05-01

    Rumen microbes can adapt to feed additives, which may make the decrease in enteric CH4 production upon feeding an additive a transient response only. This study investigated alternate feeding of 2 CH4 mitigating feed additives with a different mode of action on persistency of lowering CH4 production compared with feeding a single additive over a period of 10 wk. Four pairs of cows were selected, and within pairs, cows were randomly assigned to either the control (AR-AR) or the alternating (AR-LA) concentrate treatment. The AR concentrate contained a blend of essential oils (Agolin Ruminant, Agolin SA, Bière, Switzerland; 0.17 g/kg of dry matter) and the LA concentrate contained lauric acid (C12:0; 65 g/kg of dry matter). A basal concentrate without Agolin Ruminant and lauric acid was fed during the pretreatment period (2 wk). Thereafter, the cows assigned to the AR-AR treatment received the AR concentrate during all 10 treatment weeks (5 periods of 2 wk each), whereas cows assigned to the AR-LA treatment received AR and LA concentrates rotated on a weekly basis. Methane emission was measured in climate respiration chambers during periods 1, 3, and 5. From period 3 onward, dry matter intake and milk protein concentration were reduced with the AR-LA treatment. Milk fat concentration was not affected, but the proportion of C12:0 in milk fat increased upon feeding C12:0. Molar proportions of acetate and propionate in rumen fluid were lower and higher, respectively, with the AR-LA than with the AR-AR treatment. Methane yield (g/kg of dry matter intake) and intensity (g/kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk yield) were not affected by treatment. Methane yield and intensity were significantly lower (12 and 11%, respectively) in period 1 compared with the pretreatment period, but no significant difference relative to pretreatment period was observed in period 3 (numerically 9 and 7% lower, respectively) and in period 5 (numerically 8 and 4% lower, respectively). Results

  16. Continuation calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Geron

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Programs with control are usually modeled using lambda calculus extended with control operators. Instead of modifying lambda calculus, we consider a different model of computation. We introduce continuation calculus, or CC, a deterministic model of computation that is evaluated using only head reduction, and argue that it is suitable for modeling programs with control. It is demonstrated how to define programs, specify them, and prove them correct. This is shown in detail by presenting in CC a list multiplication program that prematurely returns when it encounters a zero. The correctness proof includes termination of the program. In continuation calculus we can model both call-by-name and call-by-value. In addition, call-by-name functions can be applied to call-by-value results, and conversely.

  17. Experimental and Model Studies on Continuous Separation of 2-Phenylpropionic Acid Enantiomers by Enantioselective Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Centrifugal Contactor Separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaofeng; Tang, Kewen; Zhang, Pangliang; Yin, Shuangfeng

    2016-03-01

    Multistage enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) of 2-phenylpropionic acid (2-PPA) enantiomers using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) as extractant was studied experimentally in a counter-current cascade of centrifugal contactor separators (CCSs). Performance of the process was evaluated by purity (enantiomeric excess, ee) and yield (Y). A multistage equilibrium model was established on the basis of single-stage model for chiral extraction of 2-PPA enantiomers and the law of mass conservation. A series of experiments on the extract phase/washing phase ratio (W/O ratio), extractant concentration, the pH value of aqueous phase, and the number of stages was conducted to verify the multistage equilibrium model. It was found that model predictions were in good agreement with the experimental results. The model was applied to predict and optimize the symmetrical separation of 2-PPA enantiomers. The optimal conditions for symmetric separation involves a W/O ratio of 0.6, pH of 2.5, and HP-β-CD concentration of 0.1 mol L(-1) at a temperature of 278 K, where eeeq (equal enantiomeric excess) can reach up to 37% and Yeq (equal yield) to 69%. By simulation and optimization, the minimum number of stages was evaluated at 98 and 106 for eeeq > 95% and eeeq > 97%. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. High-throughput reaction optimisation and activity screening of ferrocene-based Lewis acid-catalyst complexes by using continuous-flow reaction detection mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha, Cornelius T; Heemskerk, Anton; Hoogendoorn, Jan-Carel; Elders, Niels; Niessen, Wilfried M A; Orru, Romano V A; Irth, Hubertus

    2009-07-27

    Optimising synthetic conversions and assessing catalyst performance is a tedious and laborious endeavour. Herein, we present an automated alternative to the commonly applied sequential approaches that are used to increase catalyst discovery process efficiencies by increasing the number of entities that can be tested. This new approach combines conversion of the reactants and determination of product formation into a single comprehensive reaction detection system that can be operated with minimal catalyst and reactant consumption. With this approach, rudimentary reaction conditions can be quickly optimised and the same system can then be used to screen for the optimal homogenous catalyst in a selected solution-phase synthetic conversion. The system, which is composed of standard HPLC components, can be used to screen catalyst libraries at a repetition rate of five minutes and can be run unsupervised. The sensitive mass spectrometric detection that is implemented in the reaction detection methodology can be used for the simultaneous monitoring of reactants, catalysts and product ions. In the experiments, the three-component reaction that gives a substituted 2-imidazoline was optimised. Afterwards, the same method was used to assess a library of ferrocene-based Lewis acid catalysts for performance in the aforementioned conversion in six different solvents. We demonstrate the feasibility of using this methodology to directly compare the performance results obtained in different solvents by calibrating the solvent-specific MS responses.

  19. Dumping syndrome following nissen fundoplication in an adult patient diagnosed by continuous online 13C/12C monitoring of ¹³C-Octanoic acid breath test "a case report".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Meir; Almogy, Gideon; Adar, Tomer; Lysy, Joseph

    2011-09-19

    Nissen Fundoplication is a common surgical procedure performed in treating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Complications include dysphagia, gastric hypersensitivity, abnormal gastric motility, gas bloat syndrome and GERD relapse. Dumping syndrome may occur when a large volume of gastric content is delivered to the duodenum or jejunum, resulting in both gastrointestinal and vasomotor symptoms. Occasionally, dumping syndrome may be a complication in patients that have undergone nissen Fundoplication, especially in adults. The BreathID® continuous online 13C-Octanoicoctanoic acid breath test detects variations of less than 1/100,000 in the 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air. We report a case of a 38 year old male who was admitted and diagnosed with dumping syndrome following nissen Fundoplication, who was diagnosed using the BreathID® continuous online 13C-Octanoic acid breath test. Early performance of a gastric emptying rate breath test in symptomatic patients, following upper GI tract surgery may help in the prediction or diagnosis of nissen Fundoplication complications such as dumping syndrome.

  20. Dumping syndrome following nissen fundoplication in an adult patient diagnosed by continuous online 13C/12C monitoring of 13C-Octanoic acid breath test "a case report"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Nissen Fundoplication is a common surgical procedure performed in treating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Complications include dysphagia, gastric hypersensitivity, abnormal gastric motility, gas bloat syndrome and GERD relapse. Dumping syndrome may occur when a large volume of gastric content is delivered to the duodenum or jejunum, resulting in both gastrointestinal and vasomotor symptoms. Occasionally, dumping syndrome may be a complication in patients that have undergone nissen Fundoplication, especially in adults. The BreathID® continuous online 13C-Octanoicoctanoic acid breath test detects variations of less than 1/100,000 in the 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air. Case presentation We report a case of a 38 year old male who was admitted and diagnosed with dumping syndrome following nissen Fundoplication, who was diagnosed using the BreathID® continuous online 13C-Octanoic acid breath test. Conclusions Early performance of a gastric emptying rate breath test in symptomatic patients, following upper GI tract surgery may help in the prediction or diagnosis of nissen Fundoplication complications such as dumping syndrome. PMID:21929798

  1. Dumping syndrome following nissen fundoplication in an adult patient diagnosed by continuous online 13C/12C monitoring of 13C-Octanoic acid breath test "a case report"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adar Tomer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nissen Fundoplication is a common surgical procedure performed in treating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. Complications include dysphagia, gastric hypersensitivity, abnormal gastric motility, gas bloat syndrome and GERD relapse. Dumping syndrome may occur when a large volume of gastric content is delivered to the duodenum or jejunum, resulting in both gastrointestinal and vasomotor symptoms. Occasionally, dumping syndrome may be a complication in patients that have undergone nissen Fundoplication, especially in adults. The BreathID® continuous online 13C-Octanoicoctanoic acid breath test detects variations of less than 1/100,000 in the 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air. Case presentation We report a case of a 38 year old male who was admitted and diagnosed with dumping syndrome following nissen Fundoplication, who was diagnosed using the BreathID® continuous online 13C-Octanoic acid breath test. Conclusions Early performance of a gastric emptying rate breath test in symptomatic patients, following upper GI tract surgery may help in the prediction or diagnosis of nissen Fundoplication complications such as dumping syndrome.

  2. Early continuous white noise exposure alters l-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor subunit glutamate receptor 2 and gamma-aminobutyric acid type a receptor subunit beta3 protein expression in rat auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinghong; Yu, Liping; Zhang, Jiping; Cai, Rui; Sun, Xinde

    2010-02-15

    Auditory experience during the postnatal critical period is essential for the normal maturation of auditory function. Previous studies have shown that rearing infant rat pups under conditions of continuous moderate-level noise delayed the emergence of adult-like topographic representational order and the refinement of response selectivity in the primary auditory cortex (A1) beyond normal developmental benchmarks and indefinitely blocked the closure of a brief, critical-period window. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of these physiological changes after noise rearing, we studied expression of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 and GABA(A) receptor subunit beta3 in the auditory cortex after noise rearing. Our results show that continuous moderate-level noise rearing during the early stages of development decreases the expression levels of GluR2 and GABA(A)beta3. Furthermore, noise rearing also induced a significant decrease in the level of GABA(A) receptors relative to AMPA receptors. However, in adult rats, noise rearing did not have significant effects on GluR2 and GABA(A)beta3 expression or the ratio between the two units. These changes could have a role in the cellular mechanisms involved in the delayed maturation of auditory receptive field structure and topographic organization of A1 after noise rearing. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Anaerobic Fermentation for Production of Carboxylic Acids as Bulk Chemicals from Renewable Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jufang; Lin, Meng; Xu, Mengmeng; Yang, Shang-Tian

    Biomass represents an abundant carbon-neutral renewable resource which can be converted to bulk chemicals to replace petrochemicals. Carboxylic acids have wide applications in the chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. This chapter provides an overview of recent advances and challenges in the industrial production of various types of carboxylic acids, including short-chain fatty acids (acetic, propionic, butyric), hydroxy acids (lactic, 3-hydroxypropionic), dicarboxylic acids (succinic, malic, fumaric, itaconic, adipic, muconic, glucaric), and others (acrylic, citric, gluconic, pyruvic) by anaerobic fermentation. For economic production of these carboxylic acids as bulk chemicals, the fermentation process must have a sufficiently high product titer, productivity and yield, and low impurity acid byproducts to compete with their petrochemical counterparts. System metabolic engineering offers the tools needed to develop novel strains that can meet these process requirements for converting biomass feedstock to the desirable product.

  4. Membrane separation of enzyme-converted biomass compounds: Recovery of xylose and production of gluconic acid as a value-added product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthensen, Sofie Thage; Zeuner, Birgitte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficiency of enzyme-assisted nanofiltration for separation of xylose from glucose present in genuine biorefinery liquors obtained from hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw, corn stover and Miscanthus stalks. Glucose oxidase and catalase were...

  5. Evaluation of acid-base control, electrolyte balance, and filter patency of a Prismaflex-based regional citrate anticoagulation protocol for pre-dilution continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadzhynov, Dmytro; Slowinski, Torsten; Lieker, Ina; Neumayer, Hans-H; Peters, Harm

    2014-05-01

    Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is increasingly used in patients requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). This study evaluated a new RCA protocol based on the Prismaflex® dialysis device and an isotonic citrate solution (prismocitrate) for pre-dilution continous veno-venous hemodiafiltration. The Prismaflex®/Prismocitrate-based protocol involved an AN69ST® membrane (Prisma Flex ST100), a blood flow of 120 mL/min, 1.8 L/h Prismocitrate (10 mmol/L citrate/2 mmol/L citric acid) substitution fluid in pre-dilution mode, and 0.8 L/h dialysate flow (PrismOcal) at the start. In parallel, infusions of potassium, calcium, and magnesium were initiated. Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and ionized calcium levels were measured in 6 hours intervals and magnesium levels every 24 hours. Scheduled hemofilter run time was 72 hours. A consecutive series of 25 continuous renal replacement treatments was analyzed in 15 patients. After at least 6h of RRT, 69.9% of bicarbonate concentrations and 84.6% base excess (BE) calculations were below normal range. During CRRT, mean bicarbonate decreased from 22.9 to 20.2 mmol/L and mean BE from -1.5 to -4.2 mmol/L. In addition, 66.3% of ionized systemic calcium concentrations were out of the normal range, while 54.1% of the magnesium readings were above normal range. Five filters reached the scheduled run time of 72 hours, 19 treatments stopped prematurely because of RRT related reasons (5 filter clottings, 2 severe metabolic disarrangements, 12 major Prismaflex® hardware or software handling problems). One patient was switched to intermittent hemodialysis. The evaluated Prismaflex®/ Prismocitrate-based citrate anticoagulation protocol provides insufficient control of blood acid-base and electrolyte balance.

  6. Persistent fibrosis in the liver of choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis rat due to continuing oxidative stress after choline supplementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi-Yorimoto, Ayano, E-mail: ayano.takeuchi@astellas.com [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Noto, Takahisa [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Yamada, Atsushi [Drug Safety Research Division, Astellas Research Technologies Co., Ltd., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Miyamae, Yoichi; Oishi, Yuji; Matsumoto, Masahiro [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by combined pathology of steatosis, lobular inflammation, fibrosis, and hepatocellular degeneration, with systemic symptoms of diabetes or hyperlipidemia, all in the absence of alcohol abuse. Given the therapeutic importance and conflicting findings regarding the potential for healing the histopathologic features of NASH in humans, particularly fibrosis, we investigated the reversibility of NASH-related findings in Wistar rats fed a choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet for 12 weeks, with a recovery period of 7 weeks, during which the diets were switched to a choline-sufficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CSAA) one. Analysis showed that steatosis and inflammation were significantly resolved by the end of the recovery period, along with decreases in AST and ALT activities within 4 weeks. In contrast, fibrosis remained even after the recovery period, to an extent similar to that in continuously CDAA-fed animals. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical investigations revealed that expression of some factors indicating oxidative stress (CYP2E1, 4-HNE, and iNOS) were elevated, whereas catalase and SOD1 were decreased, and a hypoxic state and CD34-positive neovascularization were evident even after the recovery period, although the fibrogenesis pathway by activated α-SMA-positive hepatic stellate cells via TGF-β and TIMPs decreased to the CSAA group level. In conclusion, persistent fibrosis was noted after the recovery period of 7 weeks, possibly due to sustained hypoxia and oxidative stress supposedly caused by capillarization. Otherwise, histopathological features of steatosis and inflammation, as well as serum AST and ALT activities, were recovered. - Highlights: ► NASH-like liver lesions are induced in rats by feeding a CDAA diet. ► Steatosis and lobular inflammation are resolved after switching to a

  7. Structural and thermodynamic study of rare earth(III) complexation by poly-hydroxylated carboxylic acids: synthesis of new extractants and outlook for the extraction of these cations; Etude structurale et thermodynamique de la complexation de lanthanides (III) par des acides carboxyliques polyhydroxyles: synthese de nouveaux extractants et perspectives pour l'extraction de ces cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aury, S

    2002-12-15

    The aim of this work is: to improve the knowledge on the binding sites of the poly-hydroxylated carboxylic acids with the trivalent lanthanide(III) ions by comparing them to gluconic acid (previously studied) and to molecules with different configuration and with a variable number of OH functions (threonic acid, glyceric acid, 2-hydroxy-butanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-butanoic acid). To find the best complexing agent among different acids (aldonic acids, aldaric acids, di-hydroxybenzoic acids) (determination of the set of complexes and their stability constants by potentiometry, NMR and UV-Visible spectroscopy). To synthesize hydrophobic monoamides from one lactone form of saccharic acid, to study their complexing power and their capacity to extract the trivalent lanthanide(III) ions. (author)

  8. Comparative Evaluation of U.S. Brand and Generic Intravenous Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex in Sucrose Injection: Biodistribution after Intravenous Dosing in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekman, Christopher R; Matta, Murali; Thomas, Christopher D; Mohammad, Adil; Stewart, Sharron; Xu, Lin; Chockalingam, Ashok; Shea, Katherine; Sun, Dajun; Jiang, Wenlei; Patel, Vikram; Rouse, Rodney

    2017-12-28

    Relative biodistribution of FDA-approved innovator and generic sodium ferric gluconate (SFG) drug products was investigated to identify differences in tissue distribution of iron after intravenous dosing to rats. Three equal cohorts of 42 male Sprague-Dawley rats were created with each cohort receiving one of three treatments: (1) the innovator SFG product dosed intravenously at a concentration of 40 mg/kg; (2) the generic SFG product dosed intravenously at a concentration of 40 mg/kg; (3) saline dosed intravenously at equivalent volume to SFG products. Sampling time points were 15 min, 1 h, 8 h, 1 week, two weeks, four weeks, and six weeks post-treatment. Six rats from each group were sacrificed at each time point. Serum, femoral bone marrow, lungs, brain, heart, kidneys, liver, and spleen were harvested and evaluated for total iron concentration by ICP-MS. The ICP-MS analytical method was validated with linearity, range, accuracy, and precision. Results were determined for mean iron concentrations (µg/g) and mean total iron (whole tissue) content (µg/tissue) for each tissue of all groups at each time point. A percent of total distribution to each tissue was calculated for both products. At any given time point, the overall percent iron concentration distribution did not vary between the two SFG drugs by more than 7% in any tissue. Overall, this study demonstrated similar tissue biodistribution for the two SFG products in the examined tissues.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of U.S. Brand and Generic Intravenous Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex in Sucrose Injection: Biodistribution after Intravenous Dosing in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Beekman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Relative biodistribution of FDA-approved innovator and generic sodium ferric gluconate (SFG drug products was investigated to identify differences in tissue distribution of iron after intravenous dosing to rats. Three equal cohorts of 42 male Sprague-Dawley rats were created with each cohort receiving one of three treatments: (1 the innovator SFG product dosed intravenously at a concentration of 40 mg/kg; (2 the generic SFG product dosed intravenously at a concentration of 40 mg/kg; (3 saline dosed intravenously at equivalent volume to SFG products. Sampling time points were 15 min, 1 h, 8 h, 1 week, two weeks, four weeks, and six weeks post-treatment. Six rats from each group were sacrificed at each time point. Serum, femoral bone marrow, lungs, brain, heart, kidneys, liver, and spleen were harvested and evaluated for total iron concentration by ICP-MS. The ICP-MS analytical method was validated with linearity, range, accuracy, and precision. Results were determined for mean iron concentrations (µg/g and mean total iron (whole tissue content (µg/tissue for each tissue of all groups at each time point. A percent of total distribution to each tissue was calculated for both products. At any given time point, the overall percent iron concentration distribution did not vary between the two SFG drugs by more than 7% in any tissue. Overall, this study demonstrated similar tissue biodistribution for the two SFG products in the examined tissues.

  10. Comparison of the efficacy of chlorhexidine gluconate versus povidone iodine as preoperative skin preparation for the prevention of surgical site infections in clean-contaminated upper abdominal surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Anirudh; Kaman, Lileswar; Raj, Prithivi; Gautam, Vikas; Dahiya, Divya; Singh, Gurpreet; Singh, Rajinder; Medhi, Bikash

    2015-11-01

    To compare the efficacy of chlorhexidine-gluconate versus povidone iodine in preoperative skin preparation in the prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs) in clean-contaminated upper abdominal surgeries. This was a prospective randomized controlled trial conducted on patients undergoing clean-contaminated upper abdominal surgeries. A total of 351 patients 18-70 years old were randomized into two groups; chlorhexidine and povidone iodine skin preparation before surgery. The incidence of SSIs in the chlorhexidine group was 10.8 %, in comparison to 17.9 % in the povidone iodine group. The odds ratio was 0.6 in favor of chlorhexidine use, but the results were not statistically significant (P = 0.06). In the first postoperative week, SSIs developed in 7 % of patients in the chlorhexidine group and 14.1 % in the povidone iodine group (P = 0.03), and in the second postoperative week, SSIs were present in 4.1 % of the patients in the chlorhexidine group and 4.4 % in the povidone iodine group, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.88). The incidence of SSIs after clean-contaminated upper abdominal surgeries was lower with the use of chlorhexidine skin preparation than with povidone iodine preparation, although the results were not statistically significant. However, the odds ratio between the two groups favored the use of chlorhexidine over povidone iodine for preventing SSIs.

  11. In vitro antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine gluconate and octenidine dihydrochloride in elimination of microorganisms within dentinal tubules of primary and permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirali, Resmiye-Ebru; Bodur, Haluk; Ece, Gülden

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different irrigation solutions at different time intervals for the elimination of E. faecalis and C. albicans penetrated into the dentine tubules of primary and permanent teeth in vitro. The 4 mm primary and permanent teeth sections were sterilized and contaminated with a mixture of E. faecalis and C. albicans strains. After the application of different irrigation solutions (Sodium hypochlorite, Chlorhexidine gluconate, Octenidine Dihydrochloride, saline) to the contaminated tooth sections according to study groups, neutralizers were applied for inactivation of the solutions after 30 sec, 1 min and 5 min. Dentine shavings were placed into TSB and 10 µL from each tube was inoculated on agar plates, followed by an incubation period of 24 h at 37°C. The colonies were counted macroscopically. The results were compared by using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests, with a significance level at p<0.05. Among the irrigation solutions that were tested against E. faecalis on primary and permanent teeth, the most effective one was found as 5-minute application of 0.1% Octenidine Dihydrochloride. The antibacterial effects of the tested solutions on the same time periods against C. albicans revealed no significant difference. There were no statistically significant differences between primary and permanent teeth with respect to the antimicrobial activity of the tested solutions. Moreover, Octenidine Dihydrochloride may be used as an alternative endodontic irrigant.

  12. Comparison of Periochip (chlorhexidine gluconate 2.5 mg) and Arestin (Minocycline hydrochloride 1 mg) in the management of chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhinger, Navjot; Kapoor, Daljit; Jain, Rachna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of chlorhexidine gluconate 2.5 mg (Periochip) and Minocycline hydrochloride 1 mg (Arestin) as local drug delivery agents in the management of chronic periodontitis. Twenty patients in the age group of 30-50 years suffering from chronic periodontitis (12 males and 8 females), with almost identical probing depth bilaterally (5-8 mm), and exhibiting bleeding on probing were selected and divided into two groups: Group I consisted of periodontal pockets on the left side and received Periochip and group II consisted of periodontal pockets on the right side and received Arestin. Patients were recalled after 6 weeks and 3 months intervals from the baseline visit to record plaque index, gingival index, and probing depth. There was reduction in all the parameters in both the groups at 6 weeks and 3 months as compared to baseline. From the results of the present study, it was concluded that both the drugs were equally effective in reduction of plaque scores as well as gingival scores. It was further observed that Arestin resulted in better results at 6 weeks while Periochip showed better results at 3 months with respect to probing depth reduction.

  13. The effect of baking soda/hydrogen peroxide dentifrice (Mentadent) and a 0.12 percent chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinse (Peridex) in reducing gingival bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taller, S H

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a baking soda/hydrogen peroxide dentifrice, Mentadent, and a 0.12 percent chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinse, Peridex, in reducing gingival bleeding. Forty subjects were divided into three groups; the baking soda group, the chlorhexidine group and the control group. All groups received oral hygiene instruction and brushed and flossed three times per day. Bleeding point scores were evaluated at baseline and at five weeks. The baking soda/hydrogen peroxide group used the supplied dentifrice as their sole toothpaste. The 0.12 percent chlorhexidine group used the mouthrinse twice per day. The control group performed oral hygiene as instructed. At five weeks, the 0.12 percent chlorhexidine mouthrinse significantly reduced gingival bleeding. The dentifrice and control groups revealed no statistically significant reductions. The results indicate that the 0.12 percent chlorhexidine mouthrinse is useful in improving oral health, whereas the baking soda/hydrogen peroxide dentifrice offered no advantages to conventional oral hygiene.

  14. The effects of various organic acids on phytate phosphorus utilization in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafacz-Livingston, K A; Parsons, C M; Jungk, R A

    2005-09-01

    Previous research from our laboratory has shown that citric acid improves phytate P utilization in chicks fed a P-deficient corn-soybean meal diet. The current study was conducted to determine if other organic acids also are effective, with an emphasis on gluconic acid. Four experiments were conducted in which 4 replicate groups of 5 crossbred chicks (New Hampshire x Columbian) were fed a P-deficient diet (0.16% nonphyate P) from 8 to 22 d of age. In Experiment 1, chick weight gain and tibia ash were significantly increased (P Alimet). In experiment 2, tibia ash was significantly increased (P Alimet, and citric acid, but not fumaric acid or EDTA, improved phytate P utilization in chicks fed a corn-soybean meal diet.

  15. Sodium ferric gluconate (SFG) in complex with sucrose for IV infusion: bioequivalence of a new generic product with the branded product in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baribeault, David

    2011-08-01

    Parenteral sodium ferric gluconate in complex (Ferrlecit [branded SFG]) is used to treat patients with iron deficiency anemia undergoing chronic hemodialysis and receiving supplemental epoetin. This comparative pharmacokinetic study (GeneraMedix, Inc., Study 17909) evaluates whether the recently approved generic product Nulecit (generic SFG) and the branded product Ferrlecit (branded SFG) are bioequivalent. In this open-label study, 240 healthy volunteers in a fasting state were assigned randomly to a single 10-min intravenous (IV) infusion of 125 mg of generic or branded SFG. Total and transferrin-bound iron concentrations were determined for the 36-h period after infusion and corrected for pretreatment levels. Maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve of 0 to 36 h (AUC[0-36]) were compared between the two products. Demonstration of bioequivalence required that the 90% confidence intervals of each parameter evaluated for generic SFG were within 80% to 125% of the corresponding values for branded SFG. Uncorrected and baseline-corrected mean serum concentrations of total serum iron during the 36-h assessment period were similar for generic and branded SFG. For total serum iron, the geometric mean ratios of corrected Cmax and AUC[0-36] were 100%. For transferrin-bound iron, the geometric mean ratios were 87% for corrected Cmax and 92% for corrected AUC[0-36]. All associated 90% confidence intervals were within the range of 80% to 125%. A new generic SFG in complex for IV infusion is bioequivalent to the branded SFG in complex for IV infusion. The generic SFG is AB rated by the FDA and considered therapeutically equivalent to the branded product.

  16. Reduction in hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus with daily chlorhexidine gluconate bathing for medical inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Christopher F; Lloyd-Smith, Elisa; Sidhu, Baljinder; Ritchie, Gordon; Sharma, Azra; Jang, Willson; Wong, Anna; Bilawka, Jennifer; Richards, Danielle; Kind, Thomas; Puddicombe, David; Champagne, Sylvie; Leung, Victor; Romney, Marc G

    2017-03-01

    Daily bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) is increasingly used in intensive care units to prevent hospital-associated infections, but limited evidence exists for noncritical care settings. A prospective crossover study was conducted on 4 medical inpatient units in an urban, academic Canadian hospital from May 1, 2014-August 10, 2015. Intervention units used CHG over a 7-month period, including a 1-month wash-in phase, while control units used nonmedicated soap and water bathing. Rates of hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) colonization or infection were the primary end point. Hospital-associated S. aureus were investigated for CHG resistance with a qacA/B and smr polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and agar dilution. Compliance with daily CHG bathing was 58%. Hospital-associated MRSA and VRE was decreased by 55% (5.1 vs 11.4 cases per 10,000 inpatient days, P = .04) and 36% (23.2 vs 36.0 cases per 10,000 inpatient days, P = .03), respectively, compared with control cohorts. There was no significant difference in rates of hospital-associated Clostridium difficile. Chlorhexidine resistance testing identified 1 isolate with an elevated minimum inhibitory concentration (8 µg/mL), but it was PCR negative. This prospective pragmatic study to assess daily bathing for CHG on inpatient medical units was effective in reducing hospital-associated MRSA and VRE. A critical component of CHG bathing on medical units is sustained and appropriate application, which can be a challenge to accurately assess and needs to be considered before systematic implementation. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultrastructural analysis of the root canal walls after simultaneous irrigation of different sodium hypochlorite concentration and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasic, Jovanka; Popovic, Jelena; Zivković, Slavoljub; Petrovic, Aleksandar; Barac, Radomir; Nikolic, Marija

    2012-08-01

    To determine whether sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) leads to colour change and precipitate formation, and to ultrastructurally analyse the dentine surface after simultaneous irrigation with 0.5% NaOCl and 0.2% CHX. Four tubes in which 5ml of different NaOCl concentrations and 5ml 0,2% CHX were placed, were observed every 15 minutes in the first two hours and after 7 days. Mixture solutions were centrifuged at 800 rpm/4 min. A precipitate is observed under light-microscopy. Thirty-five single-rooted teeth were instrumented using crown-down technique with irrigation: Positive control: distilled water, Negative control: 0,5% NaOCl+15% EDTA, Experimental group: identical to the negative control, then canals were treated with 0.5% NaOCl+0.2% CHX. The longitudinal root sections were observed under scanning-electron-microscopy. The amount of debris was assessed with 5/score-system, and the results were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U test (p < 0.001). Change in colour was noticed immediately after the merger and it did not change with time. Mixture solutions showed considerable turbidity, but precipitate was observed only after centrifugation. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the dentinal wall purity when comparing the cervical and middle root canal thirds between the experimental and negative control group. The difference was also observed between the cervical and middle thirds compared to the apical third of the root canal within these groups. Interaction between NaOCl and CHX, as well as the creation of precipitates, depends not only on the concentration of NaOCl, but also on the concentration of CHX. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The postantifungal effect and phospholipase production of oral Candida albicans from smokers, diabetics, asthmatics, denture wearers and healthy individuals following brief exposure to subtherapeutic concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellepola, Arjuna N B; Joseph, Bobby K; Khan, Z U

    2014-09-01

    Candida albicans is the major aetiological agent of oral candidosis and one of its important virulent factors is the production of extracellular phospholipases, which can be modulated by subtherapeutic concentrations of antifungal agents thus decreasing their pathogenicity. Hence, considering that chlorhexidine gluconate (CG) is a common antimicrobial mouthwash used in dentistry and that its concentration in the mouth reaches subtherapeutic levels during dosage intervals due to the diluent effect of saliva and cleansing effect of the oral musculature, the postantifungal effect (PAFE) and the phospholipase production of oral C. albicans following brief exposure to subtherapeutic concentrations of CG was studied. Fifty C. albicans planktonic oral isolates obtained from smokers, diabetics, asthmatics using steroid inhalers, partial denture wearers and healthy individuals were exposed to three subtherapeutic concentrations of CG (0.005%, 0.0025% and 0.00125%) for 1 h. Isolates unexposed to CG was the control group. Thereafter the antiseptic was removed and the PAFE and phospholipase production was determined by a turbidometric method and a plate assay using an egg yolk agar medium respectively. Mean PAFE (hours) of 50 oral isolates of C. albicans following 1-h exposure to 0.005%, 0.0025% and 0.00125% CG was 6.97, 1.85 and 0.62 respectively. The phospholipase production of these isolates was significantly suppressed with a percentage reduction of 21.68, 18.20 and 14.04% following exposure to 0.005%, 0.0025% and 0.00125% CG respectively. Brief exposure of C. albicans isolates to subtherapeutic concentrations of CG would wield an antifungal effect by suppressing growth and phospholipase production, thereby quelling its pathogenicity. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Completely continuous and weakly completely continuous abstract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if the operator ρa of right multiplication by a is compact (weakly compact, respectively). An algebra A is called right completely continuous (right weakly completely continuous) if any element a ∈ A is right completely continuous (right weakly completely con- tinuous, respectively). Left completely continuous (left weakly ...

  20. Method and apparatus for continuously removing the acid contained in old batteries when processing them. Verfahren und Anlage zur kontinuierlichen Abtrennung der in Altakkumulatoren enthaltenen Saeure bei der Aufbereitung von Altakkumulatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahmand, A.; Spuerck, P.

    1982-01-14

    The acid contained in old batteries can be recovered without any further dilution or contamination and without having manually to open the batteries and empty them of the acid. The lead deposit which the acid brings with it can be recovered as filter cake. After running through the drums, the battery waste, cut up into small prices and freed of acid, can be put through a mechanical process which, with the exception of the field of neutralisation, need no longer be acid resistant. This is the case since as a consequence of a constant quantity of trapped acid, the concentration system is no longer subject to a fluctuating quantity of acid. Drum 10 can also be used for removing the deposit and water from other bulky products.

  1. Daily rhythms of cloacal temperature in broiler chickens of different age groups administered with zinc gluconate and probiotic during the hot-dry season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluwong, Tagang; Sumanu, Victory O; Ayo, Joseph O; Ocheja, Benjamin O; Zakari, Friday O; Minka, Ndazo S

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the experiment was to evaluate effects of zinc gluconate (ZnGlu) and probiotic administration on the daily rhythm of cloacal temperature (tcloacal) in broiler chickens of different age groups during the hot-dry season. One-day-old broiler chicks (n = 60) were divided into groups I-IV of 15 chicks per group, and treated for 35 days: Group I (control) was given deionized water; Group II, ZnGlu (50 mg/kg); Group III, probiotic (4.125 × 106 cfu/100 mL), and Group IV, ZnGlu (50 mg/kg) + probiotic (4.125 × 106 cfu/100 mL). Air dry-bulb temperature (tdb), relative humidity (RH), and temperature-humidity index (THI) inside the pen, and tcloacal of each broiler chick were obtained bihourly over a 24-h period; on days 21, 28, and 35 of the study. Values of tdb (32.10 ± 0.49°C), RH (49.94 ± 1.91%), and THI (38.85 ± 0.42) obtained were outside the thermoneutral zone for broiler chickens, and suggested that the birds were subjected to heat stress. Application of the periodic model showed disruption of daily rhythm of tcloacal in broilers on day 21, which was synchronized by probiotic administration. The administration of probiotics or ZnGlu + probiotics to a greater extent decreased the mesor and amplitude, delayed the acrophases of tcloacal in broilers, especially at day 35, as compared to the controls. Overall, the tcloacal values in broiler chickens administered with probiotic alone (41.25 ± 0.05°C) and ZnGlu + probiotic (41.52 ± 0.05°C) were lower (P broiler chickens during the hot-dry season. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  2. Antisepsis of the skin before spinal surgery with povidone iodine-alcohol followed by chlorhexidine gluconate-alcohol versus povidone iodine-alcohol applied twice for the prevention of contamination of the wound by bacteria: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, S; McDowell, A; Lee, A; Frau, A; Martin, U; Gardner, E; McLorinan, G; Eames, N

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the sequential application of povidone iodine-alcohol (PVI) followed by chlorhexidine gluconate-alcohol (CHG) would reduce surgical wound contamination to a greater extent than PVI applied twice in patients undergoing spinal surgery. A single-centre, interventional, two arm, parallel group randomised controlled trial was undertaken, involving 407 patients who underwent elective spinal surgery. For 203 patients, the skin was disinfected before surgery using PVI (10% [w/w (1% w/w available iodine)] in 95% industrial denatured alcohol, povidone iodine; Videne Alcoholic Tincture) twice, and for 204 patients using PVI once followed by CHG (2% [w/v] chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% [v/v] isopropyl alcohol; Chloraprep with tint). The primary outcome measure was contamination of the wound determined by aerobic and anaerobic bacterial growth from samples taken after disinfection. The detection of viable bacteria in any one of the samples taken after disinfection (culture-positive) was significantly lower in the group treated with both PVI and CHG than in the group treated with PVI alone (59 (29.1%) versus 85 (41.7%), p = 0.009; odds ratio 0.574; 95% confidence interval, 0.380 to 0.866). Antisepsis of the skin with the sequential application of PVI and CHG more effectively reduces the contamination of a surgical wound than PVI alone. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1354-65. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  3. Method for the continuous production of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, John Paul; Orr, Mark T.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a method for the continuous production of hydrogen. The present method comprises reacting a metal catalyst with a degassed aqueous organic acid solution within a reaction vessel under anaerobic conditions at a constant temperature of .ltoreq.80.degree. C. and at a pH ranging from about 4 to about 9. The reaction forms a metal oxide when the metal catalyst reacts with the water component of the organic acid solution while generating hydrogen, then the organic acid solution reduces the metal oxide thereby regenerating the metal catalyst and producing water, thus permitting the oxidation and reduction to reoccur in a continual reaction cycle. The present method also allows the continuous production of hydrogen to be sustained by feeding the reaction with a continuous supply of degassed aqueous organic acid solution.

  4. Complete oxidative conversion of lignocellulose derived non-glucose sugars to sugar acids by Gluconobacter oxydans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruimiao; Hou, Weiliang; Bao, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Non-glucose sugars derived from lignocellulose cover approximately 40% of the total carbohydrates of lignocellulose biomass. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars to the target products is an important task of lignocellulose biorefining research. Here we report a fast and complete conversion of the total non-glucose sugars from corn stover into the corresponding sugar acids by whole cell catalysis and aerobic fermentation of Gluconobacter oxydans. The conversions include xylose to xylonate, arabinose to arabonate, mannose to mannonate, and galactose to galactonate, as well as with glucose into gluconate. These cellulosic non-glucose sugar acids showed the excellent cement retard setting property. The mixed cellulosic sugar acids could be used as cement retard additives without separation. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars not only makes full use of lignocellulose derived sugars, but also effectively reduces the wastewater treatment burden by removal of residual sugars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 16S rRNA in situ Hybridization Followed by Flow Cytometry for Rapid Identification of Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Submerged Industrial Vinegar Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Lipoglavšek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid bacteria are involved in many biotechnological processes such as vitamin C, gluconic acid, miglitol or acetic acid production, and others. For a technologist trying to control the industrial process, the ability to follow the microbiological development of the process is thus of importance. During the past few years hybridization in a combination with flow cytometry has often been used for this purpose. Since vinegar is a liquid, it is an ideal matrix for flow cytometry analysis. In this work we have constructed a specific probe for highly acetic acid-resistant species of the acetic acid bacteria and a protocol for in situ hybridization, which in combination with flow cytometry enables direct monitoring of bacteria producing vinegar with >10 % of acetic acid. The approach was successfully applied for monitoring microbiota during industrial vinegar production.

  6. Providing Continuous Assurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, Jonne; Hulstijn, Joris

    2017-01-01

    It has been claimed that continuous assurance can be attained by combining continuous monitoring by management, with continuous auditing of data streams and the effectiveness of internal controls by an external auditor. However, we find that in existing literature the final step to continuous

  7. Fabrication of a glucose biosensor based on citric acid assisted cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Rahul; Titus, Elby; Chandra, Sudeshna; Bardhan, Neel Kanth; Krishna, Rohit; Bahadur, Dhirendra; Gracio, José

    2012-08-01

    A novel and practical glucose biosensor was fabricated with immobilization of Glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme on the surface of citric acid (CA) assisted cobalt ferrite (CF) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). This innovative sensor was constructed with glassy carbon electrode which is represented as (GOx)/CA-CF/(GCE). An explicit high negative zeta potential value (-22.4 mV at pH 7.0) was observed on the surface of CA-CF MNPs. Our sensor works on the principle of detection of H2O2 which is produced by the enzymatic oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid. This sensor has tremendous potential for application in glucose biosensing due to the higher sensitivity 2.5 microA/cm2-mM and substantial increment of the anodic peak current from 0.2 microA to 10.5 microA.

  8. Organocatalysis in continuous flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Continuous flow chemistry is an enabling technique in organic chemistry. Advantages include extremely fast mixing and heat transfer capabilities as well as rapid screening of reaction conditions. Combining continuous flow chemistry with solid-supported organocatalysis presents challenges that have

  9. Continuity of transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.

    1991-01-01

    Let u be a continuous function from Re to Re. Let f be a transformation (which in our terminology does not have to be bijective) from the range of u to Re. v = f(u(.)) is the composition of f and u. It is well-known that continuity of f implies continuity of v. We consider the reversed question:

  10. Secretion of Organic Acids by Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Isolated from Oxisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Dwidya Prijambada

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus availability is a major limiting for crop production. Bacterial solubilization of insoluble inorganic phosphate has been studied as a means of providing available phosphorus for crop production. Bacterial abilities to solubilize calcium phosphate and rock phosphate have been identified to be related with their abilities to produce gluconic acid and ketogluconic acid. However, there is no information regarding the relationship between bacterial ability to solubilize aluminum phosphate and their ability to produce organic acids. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between bacterial ability to solubilize calcium and aluminum phosphates with their ability to produce organic acids. Bacterial ability to solubilize calcium and aluminum phosphates were determined as the concentration of soluble phosphate in the filtrate of bacterial cultivation media, while bacterial ability to produce organic acids were assessed from the accumulated organic acids in its. The results showed that bacterial abilities to solubilize calcium and aluminum phosphates well related to their abilities to produce organic acids. Organic acids related with the solubilization of calcium phosphate differ from the ones related with the solubilization of aluminum phosphate. Moreover, there is similarity in the production of organic acids related to the solubilization of aluminum phosphates and iron phosphate.

  11. Cutting Out Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In the field of program transformation, one often transforms programs into continuation-passing style to make their flow of control explicit, and then immediately removes the resulting continuations using defunctionalisation to make the programs first-order. In this article, we show how these two...... transformations can be fused together into a single transformation step that cuts out the need to first introduce and then eliminate continuations. Our approach is calculational, uses standard equational reasoning techniques, and is widely applicable....

  12. Two-stage fermentation for 2-Ketogluconic acid production by Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuehong; Wei, Dong; Shi, Jiping; Mojović, Ljiljana; Han, Zengsheng; Hao, Jian

    2014-06-28

    2-Ketogluconic acid production by Klebsiella pneumoniae is a pH-dependent process, strictly proceeding under acidic conditions. Unfortunately, cell growth is inhibited by acidic conditions, resulting in low productivity of 2-ketogluconic acid. To overcome this deficiency, a two-stage fermentation strategy was exploited in the current study. During the first stage, the culture was maintained at neutral pH, favoring cell growth. During the second stage, the culture pH was switched to acidic conditions favoring 2-ketogluconic acid accumulation. Culture parameters, including switching time, dissolved oxygen levels, pH, and temperature were optimized for the fed-batch fermentation. Characteristics of glucose dehydrogenase and gluconate dehydrogenase were revealed in vitro, and the optimal pHs of the two enzymes coincided with the optimum culture pH. Under optimum conditions, a total of 186 g/l 2- ketogluconic acid was produced at 26 h, and the conversion ratio was 0.98 mol/mol. This fermentation strategy has successfully overcome the mismatch between optimum parameters required for cell growth and 2-ketogluconic acid accumulation, and this result has the highest productivity and conversion ratio of 2-ketogluconic and produced by microorganism.

  13. Effects of vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc gluconate, and selenomethionine supplementation on muscle function and oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passerieux, Emilie; Hayot, Maurice; Jaussent, Audrey; Carnac, Gilles; Gouzi, Fares; Pillard, Fabien; Picot, Marie-Christine; Böcker, Koen; Hugon, Gerald; Pincemail, Joel; Defraigne, Jean O; Verrips, Theo; Mercier, Jacques; Laoudj-Chenivesse, Dalila

    2015-04-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by progressive weakness and atrophy of specific skeletal muscles. As growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress may contribute to FSHD pathology, antioxidants that might modulate or delay oxidative insults could help in maintaining FSHD muscle function. Our primary objective was to test whether oral administration of vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc gluconate, and selenomethionine could improve the physical performance of patients with FSHD. Adult patients with FSHD (n=53) were enrolled at Montpellier University Hospital (France) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot clinical trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 500 mg vitamin C, 400mg vitamin E, 25mg zinc gluconate and 200 μg selenomethionine (n=26), or matching placebo (n=27) once a day for 17 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in the two-minute walking test (2-MWT), maximal voluntary contraction, and endurance limit time of the dominant and nondominant quadriceps (MVCQD, MVCQND, TlimQD, and TlimQND, respectively) after 17 weeks of treatment. Secondary outcomes were changes in the antioxidant status and oxidative stress markers. Although 2-MWT, MVCQ, and TlimQ were all significantly improved in the supplemented group at the end of the treatment compared to baseline, only MVCQ and TlimQ variations were significantly different between groups (MVCQD: P=0.011; MVCQND: P=0.004; TlimQD: P=0.028; TlimQND: P=0.011). Similarly, the vitamin C (P<0.001), vitamin E as α-tocopherol (P<0.001), vitamin C/vitamin E ratio (P=0.017), vitamin E γ/α ratio (P=0.022) and lipid peroxides (P<0.001) variations were significantly different between groups. In conclusion, vitamin E, vitamin C, zinc, and selenium supplementation has no significant effect on the 2-MWT, but improves MVCQ and TlimQ of both quadriceps by enhancing the antioxidant defenses and reducing oxidative stress. This trial was registered at

  14. On continued fraction algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Ionica

    2010-01-01

    Is there a good continued fraction approximation between every two bad ones? What is the entropy of the natural extension for alpha-Rosen fractions? How do you find multi-dimensional continued fractions with a guaranteed quality in polynomial time? These, and many more, questions are answered in

  15. Archives: Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 88 ... Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home > Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 50 of 88 ...

  16. Discretization of continuous frame

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which is a positive, self-adjoint, invertible operator on H with A · IdH ≤ SWω ≤ B · IdH. 2. Main result. For establishing a relationship between discrete and continuous frame of subspaces, we generalize the concept of continuous frame and resolution of identity to arbitrary Hilbert space H. For this purpose, we introduce the ...

  17. Continuous Markovian Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Cardelli, Luca; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    Continuous Markovian Logic (CML) is a multimodal logic that expresses quantitative and qualitative properties of continuous-time labelled Markov processes with arbitrary (analytic) state-spaces, henceforth called continuous Markov processes (CMPs). The modalities of CML evaluate the rates...... of the exponentially distributed random variables that characterize the duration of the labeled transitions of a CMP. In this paper we present weak and strong complete axiomatizations for CML and prove a series of metaproperties, including the finite model property and the construction of canonical models. CML...

  18. Continuous elimination of Pb{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, H{sup +} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} from acidic waters by ionic exchange on natural zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, Benjamin [E.T.S. Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Rios Rosas 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Canoira, Laureano, E-mail: laureano.canoira.lopez@upm.es [E.T.S. Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Rios Rosas 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Morante, Fernando, E-mail: fmorante@espol.edu.ec [Instituto de Ciencias Quimicas y Ambientales, Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, P.O. Box 09-01-5863, Guayaquil (Ecuador); Martinez-Bedia, Jose M.; Vinagre, Carlos; Garcia-Gonzalez, Jeronimo-Emilio [E.T.S. Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Rios Rosas 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Elsen, Jan, E-mail: jan.elsen@geo.kuleuven.be [Physico-Chemische Geologie, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E, B-3001, Heverlee (Belgium); Alcantara, Ramon [E.T.S. Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Rios Rosas 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-30

    A study of breakthrough curves for cations usually found in acid mine drainage (Pb{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} and H{sup +}) and municipal wastewater (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) have been conducted on some natural zeolitic tuffs. The zeolitic tuffs used in this study are: three zeolitic tuffs from Cayo Formation, Guayaquil (Ecuador), characterized by X-ray diffraction as clinoptilolite (sample CLI-1) and heulandite (samples HEU-1 and HEU-2)-rich tuffs, and two zeolitic tuffs from Parnaiba Basin, Belem do Para (Brazil), characterized as stilbite-rich tuffs (samples STI-1 and STI-2). The clinoptilolite sample CLI-1 shows an exceedingly good exchange capacities for Pb{sup 2+} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} as received, and also a very high exchange capacity for Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} when conditioned with 2 M sodium chloride, with much higher values than those reported in the literature for other clinioptilolite ores. A general order of effective cation exchange capacity could be inferred from breakthrough curves on these zeolitic tuffs: CLI-1>HEU-2>HEU-1>STI-2 Since it is true for most of the cations studied.

  19. DEVELOPPEMENT DES COMPRIMES AVEC ACIDE ACETYLSALICILIQUE TAMPONNEES (AAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu G. Cazacincu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available On the Romanian market there are several buffered acetylsalycilic acid tablets (BASAT, made by different producers that use the same acetylsalycilic acid quantity (500 mg/tablet but use different agents like calcium gluconate (150 mg/tablet or calcium carbonate (250 mg/tablet. The objective of this work is to obtain an optimal formulation for BASAT. Four different BASAT formulations have been obtained by wet granulation followed by compression. These formulations have been submitted to control tests as indicated by Pharmacopoeias. All the four formulations correspond regarding organoleptic examination, mass uniformity, mechanical strength (mean values between 67.6 – 199.4 N, friability (0.1832 – 0.4612% compared to max. 1%, disintegration (33.6 – 76.66 s. The mechanical strength and disintegration for F3 are greater than for F1, F2, and F4. The neutralizing capacity (0.91 – 2.71 mEq HCl that can neutralize 325 mg acetylsalycilic acid is according to Pharmacopoeia only for F3 and F4 formulations.

  20. Methods for evaluating changes in skin condition due to the effects of antimicrobial hand cleansers: two studies comparing a new waterless chlorhexidine gluconate/ethanol-emollient antiseptic preparation with a conventional water-applied product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, G L; Zerweck, C R; Heilman, J M; Pyrek, J D

    2001-12-01

    Hand-cleansing products that are milder to the skin of health care personnel are being developed, but the available methodologies to appropriately evaluate these products and quantify differences are not generally being applied in well-controlled studies. Two randomized, blinded, bilateral comparison studies evaluated skin condition during use of 2 antiseptic hand preparation products: a new 1% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG)/61% wt/wt ethanol antiseptic hand preparation in a unique emollient system for waterless/brushless application and a conventional 4% CHG antimicrobial product that is applied with water and a scrub brush. Trained technicians applied treatments 6 times (for a surgical scrub study) or 24 times (for a personnel handwash study) daily to the hands of healthy volunteers during 5 days of controlled washing. An expert grader evaluated skin for dryness, erythema, and roughness. Subjects completed a self-assessment questionnaire on skin condition. Transepidermal water loss was measured by an evaporimeter, and the skin surface hydration level was measured by an electrical conductance meter. Fifty-eight subjects were enrolled in the 2 studies and received both treatments. In general, skin treated with the waterless CHG/ethanol product scored significantly (P care personnel handwash study, transepidermal water loss was less than that for skin treated with the conventional CHG product (P skin than the conventional CHG product.

  1. Effect of Cinnamon Extract and Chlorhexidine Gluconate (0.2%) on the Clinical Level of Dental Plaque and Gingival Health: A 4-Week, Triple-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Devanand; Jain, Ankita

    2015-07-01

    To compare the effect of cinnamon extract, chlorhexidine mouthwash and placebo on dental plaque level and gingivitis. One hundred five healthy dental and medical students aged 21 to 25 years participated in the study. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups: i.e., the cinnamon group, the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group and the placebo (distilled water) group. Data were collected at baseline, the 15th and the 30th day. Plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Gingival scoring was done by the gingival index of Löe and Silness. Statistical analysis was carried out to compare the effect of all three treatments groups; p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The chlorhexidine group showed the maximum decrease in both plaque and gingival scores, followed by cinnamon extract, but the result was statistically insignificant. The plaque and gingival scores remained almost unchanged in the distilled water group. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that cinnamon may prove to be an effective agent owing to its ability to reduce plaque level and gingivitis.

  2. Comparative evaluation of honey, chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% and combination of xylitol and chlorhexidine mouthwash (0.2% on the clinical level of dental plaque: A 30 days randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effect of honey, chlorhexidine mouthwash and combination of xylitol chewing gum and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Materials and Methods: Ninety healthy dental students, both male and female, aged between 21 to 25 years participated in the study. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. the honey group, the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group and the combination of xylitol chewing gum and chlorhexidine (CHX mouthwash group. The data was collected at the baseline, 15 th day and 30 th day; the plaque was disclosed using disclosing solution and their scores were recorded at six sites per tooth using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the three groups. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Our result showed that all the three groups were effective in reducing the plaque but post-hoc LSD (Least Significant Difference showed that honey group and chlorhexidine + xylitol group were more effective than chlorhexidine group alone. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of plaque indices in honey group and chlorhexidine + xylitol group over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to chlorhexidine.

  3. Continuous-time signals

    CERN Document Server

    Shmaliy, Yuriy

    2006-01-01

    Gives a modern description of continuous-time deterministic signals Signal formation techniquesTime vs. frequency and frequency vs. time analysisCorrelation and energy analysisNarrowband signals and sampling.

  4. Continuous cultures of phytoplankton

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baron, Ron; Davie, Alexander; Gaines, Alec; Grant, Darren; Okay, Oya; Ozsoy, Emin

    2014-01-01

    The development of cultures of phytoplankton adapting throughout several days in an axenic, continuous-flow chemostat to yield a steady kinetic state of competing species is described mathematically...

  5. 2015 Workshop on Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    his volume contains the papers presented at WoC 2015, the Workshop on Continuations held at ETAPS 2015. There were four submissions. Each of them was reviewed by, on the average, three PC members. The committee decided to accept three papers. The program also includes one invited talk. It also...... documents the depth, variety, and richness of continuations with four distilled tutorials. Thanks are due to the local organizers of ETAPS 2015 for the infras- tructure and to the general chairman of WoC 2015, Ugo de'Liguoro, for initiating this workshop and making it happen...

  6. Continued Fractions for e

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 1. Continued Fractions for e. Shailesh A Shirali. General Article Volume 5 Issue 1 January 2000 pp 14-28. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/01/0014-0028. Author Affiliations.

  7. Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review article willintroduce readers to the educational subject matter, along with one-page summarises (in print) of additional articles that may be accessed in full online. We will continue to offer topical and up-to-date CME material. Readers are encouraged to register with samj.org.za to receive future notifications of new ...

  8. Continuous digital health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Halteren, Aart; Gay, Vaĺerie

    2015-01-01

    A transformation is underway regarding how we deal with our health, not only because mobile Internet technology has made it possible to have continuous access to personal health information, but also because breaking the trend of ever-growing healthcare costs is increasingly necessary. Connectivity,

  9. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...

  10. Continuous venovenous haemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Bistrup, C; Pedersen, R S

    1996-01-01

    A simple three-pump-based system for the performance of continuous venovenous haemodialysis is described. The method employs access to the circulation via a double-lumen catheter, and by means of a standard extracorporeal peristaltic pump the blood is circulated through a haemofiltration filter. ...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.5013 Section 582.5013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may be...

  13. Organic acid production in vitro and plant growth promotion in maize under controlled environment by phosphate-solubilizing fluorescent Pseudomonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyas Pratibha

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphorus deficiency is a major constraint to crop production due to rapid binding of the applied phosphorus into fixed forms not available to the plants. Microbial solubilization of inorganic phosphates has been attributed mainly to the production of organic acids. Phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms enhance plant growth under conditions of poor phosphorus availability by solubilizing insoluble phosphates in the soil. This paper describes the production of organic acids during inorganic phosphate solubilization and influence on plant growth as a function of phosphate solubilization by fluorescent Pseudomonas. Results Nineteen phosphate-solubilizing fluorescent Pseudomonas strains of P. fluorescens, P. poae, P. trivialis, and Pseudomonas spp. produced gluconic acid, oxalic acid, 2-ketogluconic acid, lactic acid, succinic acid, formic acid, citric acid and malic acid in the culture filtrates during the solubilization of tricalcium phosphate, Mussoorie rock phosphate, Udaipur rock phosphate and North Carolina rock phosphate. The strains differed quantitatively and qualitatively in the production of organic acids during solubilization of phosphate substrates. Cluster analysis based on organic acid profiling revealed inter-species and intra-species variation in organic acids produced by Pseudomonas strains. The phosphate-solubilizing bacterial treatments P. trivialis BIHB 745, P. trivialis BIHB 747, Pseudomonas sp. BIHB 756 and P. poae BIHB 808 resulted in significantly higher or statistically at par growth and total N, P and K content over single super phosphate treatment in maize. These treatments also significantly affected pH, organic matter, and N, P, and K content of the soil. Conclusion The results implied that organic acid production by Pseudomonas strains is independent of their genetic relatedness and each strain has its own ability of producing organic acids during the solubilization of inorganic phosphates

  14. Organic acid production in vitro and plant growth promotion in maize under controlled environment by phosphate-solubilizing fluorescent Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Pratibha; Gulati, Arvind

    2009-08-22

    Phosphorus deficiency is a major constraint to crop production due to rapid binding of the applied phosphorus into fixed forms not available to the plants. Microbial solubilization of inorganic phosphates has been attributed mainly to the production of organic acids. Phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms enhance plant growth under conditions of poor phosphorus availability by solubilizing insoluble phosphates in the soil. This paper describes the production of organic acids during inorganic phosphate solubilization and influence on plant growth as a function of phosphate solubilization by fluorescent Pseudomonas. Nineteen phosphate-solubilizing fluorescent Pseudomonas strains of P. fluorescens, P. poae, P. trivialis, and Pseudomonas spp. produced gluconic acid, oxalic acid, 2-ketogluconic acid, lactic acid, succinic acid, formic acid, citric acid and malic acid in the culture filtrates during the solubilization of tricalcium phosphate, Mussoorie rock phosphate, Udaipur rock phosphate and North Carolina rock phosphate. The strains differed quantitatively and qualitatively in the production of organic acids during solubilization of phosphate substrates. Cluster analysis based on organic acid profiling revealed inter-species and intra-species variation in organic acids produced by Pseudomonas strains. The phosphate-solubilizing bacterial treatments P. trivialis BIHB 745, P. trivialis BIHB 747, Pseudomonas sp. BIHB 756 and P. poae BIHB 808 resulted in significantly higher or statistically at par growth and total N, P and K content over single super phosphate treatment in maize. These treatments also significantly affected pH, organic matter, and N, P, and K content of the soil. The results implied that organic acid production by Pseudomonas strains is independent of their genetic relatedness and each strain has its own ability of producing organic acids during the solubilization of inorganic phosphates. Significant difference in plant growth promotion by efficient

  15. Safety Campaign Continues

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    If you see this poster, stop and read it! This is the third poster produced by TIS Division as part of its information campaign on health and safety in the workplace. It provides statistics on occupational accidents at CERN. You will see that, as in the rest of Europe, falls, slips and trips continue to be the main cause of accident. So, eyes open and take care! For more information : http://safety.cern.ch/

  16. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  17. Enhanced recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries through optimization of organic acids produced by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaloo-Horeh, Nazanin; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, spent medium bioleaching method was performed using organic acids produced by Aspergillus niger to dissolve Ni, Co, Mn, Li, Cu and Al from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects and interactions between the effective factors of sucrose concentration, initial pH, and inoculum size to optimize organic acid production. Maximum citric acid, malic acid, and gluconic acid concentrations of 26,478, 1832.53 and 8433.76ppm, respectively, and a minimum oxalic acid concentration of 305.558ppm were obtained under optimal conditions of 116.90 (gl(-1)) sucrose concentration, 3.45% (vv(-1)) inoculum size, and a pH value of 5.44. Biogenically-produced organic acids are used for leaching of spent LIBs at different pulp densities. The highest metal recovery of 100% Cu, 100% Li, 77% Mn, and 75% Al occurred at 2% (wv(-1)) pulp density; 64% Co and 54% Ni recovery occurred at 1% (wv(-1)) pulp density. The bioleaching of metals from spent LIBs can decrease the environmental impact of this waste. The results of this study suggest that the process can be used for large scale industrial purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Simultaneous determination of wine sugars, glycerol and organic acids 13C/12C isotopic ratio by ion chromatography-co-IRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyon Francois

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ion chromatography (IC isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS coupling is possible using a liquid interface allowing chemical oxidation (co of organic compounds. Synthetic solutions containing a mixture of glycerol, sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose and organic acids (gluconic, lactic, malic, tartaric, oxalic, fumaric, citric and isocitric were elaborated to estimate analytical applications of two different IC systems. It appears that the use of carbonated solution in the eluting phase is a perturbation for 13C isotope measurements as it creates a δ13C deviation from the expected values. A sample of authentic sweet wine was analyzed by IC-co-IRMS using KOH gradient. Ratios of isotopic, ratios of organic acids and glycerol was found to be, in average, equal 1.01 ± 0.04 that is in accordance with our previous results.

  19. To Be Continued

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlmann, Anita; Harrison, Madaline

    2018-01-01

    The article explores the representation of Michael J. Fox’s Parkinson’s disease in the TV-series The Good Wife and The Michael J. Fox Show. We suggest that serial narration may offer intriguing ways to rethink the function and meaning of narratives in health contexts and that the episodic narrative...... structure of TV-series may afford insights into the structure of medical encounters. More specifically, we examine to what extent serial narration with its focus on continuity and repetition might help reimagine the typical narrative of decline, which is implicit in the terminology of neurodegeneration...

  20. Nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Christiane; Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: A reliable method to detect biochemical nocturnal hypoglycemia is highly needed, especially in patients with recurrent severe hypoglycemia. We evaluated reliability of nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with type 1 diabetes at high risk of severe...... from 23:00 to 07:00 h for plasma glucose (PG) measurements (gold standard). Results: Valid data were obtained in 217 nights. The sensitivity of CGM was 65% (95% confidence interval, 53-77%) below 4 mmol/L, 40% (24-56%) below 3 mmol/L, and 17% (0-47%) below 2.2 mmol/L. PG and CGM readings correlated...

  1. Continuous Shearlet Tight Frames

    KAUST Repository

    Grohs, Philipp

    2010-10-22

    Based on the shearlet transform we present a general construction of continuous tight frames for L2(ℝ2) from any sufficiently smooth function with anisotropic moments. This includes for example compactly supported systems, piecewise polynomial systems, or both. From our earlier results in Grohs (Technical report, KAUST, 2009) it follows that these systems enjoy the same desirable approximation properties for directional data as the previous bandlimited and very specific constructions due to Kutyniok and Labate (Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 361:2719-2754, 2009). We also show that the representation formulas we derive are in a sense optimal for the shearlet transform. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  2. Continuous Integration in CFMGR

    CERN Document Server

    Frohlingsdorf, David

    2017-01-01

    Cfmgr is a managing tool for network devices. At the moment there is no way to automatically check the working behaviour of the tool, meaning that a lot of effort is spend into manually testing the tool after an update. During my stay at CERN I developed a black-box testing framework for Cfmgr according to Continuous Integration practices and successfully deployed the framework using Jenkins and Docker. This report discusses in detail how the framework works and how it can be configured, and equally gives a broad problem description and outlines future work directions.

  3. Continuous Isosorbide Production From Sorbitol Using Solid Acid Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, R.; Holladay,J.; Jaffe, M.; Brunelle, D.

    2006-09-29

    This is a final report for a project funded by the US Department of Agriculture and managed by the US Department of Energy. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board was the principal contracting entity for the grant. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board subcontracted with General Electric, Pacific Northwest National Lab and New Jersey Institute of Technology to conduct research in this project. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board and General Electric provided cost share for the project. The purpose of this diverse collaboration was to integrate both the conversion and the polymer applications into one project and increase the likelihood of success. This project has led to additional collaborations among other polymer companies. The goals of the project were to develop a renewable route to isosorbide for commercialization that is economically competitive with all existing production technologies and to develop new applications for isosorbide in various products such as polymers and materials. Under this program a novel process for the production of isosorbide was developed and evaluated. The novel process converts corn based sorbitol into isosorbide using a solid catalyst with integrated water removal and product recovery. In addition the work under this program has identified several novel products based on isosorbide chemistries. These market applications include: epoxy resins, UV stabilizers, plasticizers and polyesters. These market applications have commercial interest within the current polymer industry. This report contains an overview summary of the accomplishments. Six inventions and four patent applications have been written as a result of this project. Additional data will be published in the patent applications. The data developed at New Jersey Institute of Technology was presented at two technical conferences held in June of 2006. Several companies have made inquiries about using this material in their products.

  4. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  5. Continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, D

    1987-04-01

    With the rapid advances in medical science and increasing complexities of patient care, the need for continuing medical education (CME) is widely accepted by the profession. CME follows general and higher professional training, and should be a life long process. Teaching hospitals and postgraduate professional institutions play vital roles in organising, promoting, and monitoring this activity. CME directorates should be established. University authorities must recognise the important role of medical teachers in postgraduate and continuing medical education, and the staff establishment and terms of service should be held regularly. Medical libraries should have easy borrowing facilities. Self-assessment and audio-visual material are particularly helpful to the busy practitioner and inexpensive local or regional journals of quality can provide pertinent and up-to-date information. All charges for attending scientific meetings and educational material should be tax deductible or subsidized. The effectiveness of CME is difficult to assess and participation is almost impossible to enforce. Much depends on the standard of medical practice wanted by society. Recertification of general practitioners or specialists poses many problems. On the other hand, completion of self-assessment programmes, active participation at medical meetings, contributions to scientific literature, and membership of medical societies with built-in peer review could be monitored and regularly used to evaluate professional status.

  6. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership formed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit in January 2013. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 41-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archiving, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (30-meter spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of landcover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis at no cost to the user.

  7. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaslee, Kent D [Rolla, MO; Peter, Jorg J [McMinnville, OR; Robertson, David G. C. [Rolla, MO; Thomas, Brian G [Champaign, IL; Zhang, Lifeng [Trondheim, NO

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  8. [Continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canepari, G; Inguaggiato, P; Gigliola, G; Bainotti, S; Formica, M

    2006-01-01

    Several techniques are currently available in the continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) spectrum, adhering to different clinical conditions and illness severity. Commercially available machines have become more user-friendly, even for non-dialysis staff however, nephrologists need specific knowledge to give an adequate prescription that must be different from chronic hemodialysis. Competence and experience in the technical possibilities of CRRT lead to an individual ultra-filtration and treatment dose prescription. Clearances of solutes with different molecular weight can be modulated by coupling (combining) diffusion and convection, and by changing the fluid infusion rate. In addition, CRRT has an important impact on metabolism with its cooling effect, removal of nourishing substances and modification of electrolytic and acid-base balance. In septic patients standard CRRT has no specific indications in the absence of acute renal failure. Other extracorporeal therapies, such as high volume hemofiltration coupled with plasma filtration-adsorption (CPFA), have been developed aiming for a major influence on sepsis evolution. The versatility of CRRT has great value not only in adapting the treatment schedule to clinical conditions, but also in performing extracorporeal therapies in a wide array of logistical circumstances.

  9. Spaces of continuous functions

    CERN Document Server

    Groenewegen, G L M

    2016-01-01

    The space C(X) of all continuous functions on a compact space X carries the structure of a normed vector space, an algebra and a lattice. On the one hand we study the relations between these structures and the topology of X, on the other hand we discuss a number of classical results according to which an algebra or a vector lattice can be represented as a C(X). Various applications of these theorems are given. Some attention is devoted to related theorems, e.g. the Stone Theorem for Boolean algebras and the Riesz Representation Theorem. The book is functional analytic in character. It does not presuppose much knowledge of functional analysis; it contains introductions into subjects such as the weak topology, vector lattices and (some) integration theory.

  10. [Continuous-infusion ketamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, P G; Caggese, G; Di Fabio, A; Di Nino, G F; Cocchi, V

    1980-08-01

    An investigation was made of the employment of ketamin as the sole anaesthetic in general surgery, using continuous infusion of a 1% solution for both induction and maintenance in 118 cases. ECG was monitored and arterial pressure was measured invasively. Central venous pressure was also determined in 10 cases. Changes in serum enzyme values during and after surgery were examined in 35 patients. Blood samples were withdrawn before induction, after the return to consciousness, and 24 hr after the operation. Side-effects were common, but slight. Five patients suffered from nightmares, but these were persons with marked imaginative activity and a melancholic nature. Cardiocirculatory function was satisfactory. In particular, peripheral perfusion was excellent in all cases.

  11. Continuity and change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Reenberg, Anette; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Traditional agricultural land use systems in the humid tropics of the Southwest Pacific are, as elsewhere, affected by globalization processes. This paper analyzes the directions of change in the land use system of Bellona, a small outer island in the Solomon Islands. We focus on the human...... reveal only minor changes in the agricultural system. Land use and land cover dynamics are related to agricultural strategies, demographic factors, institutional actors as well as biophysical drivers or constraints. Local agricultural production still contributes significantly to local subsistence...... is a supplement to a range of strategies supporting the increasing number of people on the island. This explains why land use patterns continue relatively unchanged while livelihood and food supply strategies have changed....

  12. Influence of levan-producing acetic acid bacteria on buckwheat-sourdough breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ua-Arak, Tharalinee; Jakob, Frank; Vogel, Rudi F

    2017-08-01

    Buckwheat sourdoughs supplemented with molasses as natural sucrose source were fermented with levan-producing Gluconobacter (G.) albidus TMW 2.1191 and Kozakia (K.) baliensis NBRC 16680. Cell growth, concomitant levan and low-molecular-weight metabolite production were monitored. Sourdough breads were prepared with different sourdoughs from both strains (24, 30 and 48 h fermentation, respectively) and analyzed with respect to bread volume, crumb hardness and sensory characteristics. During fermentation, levan, acetic and gluconic acids were increasingly produced, while spontaneously co-growing lactic acid bacteria additionally formed acetic and lactic acids. Sourdoughs from both strains obtained upon 24 h of fermentation significantly improved the bread sensory and quality, including higher specific volume as well as lower crumb hardness. Buckwheat doughs containing isolated levan, with similar molecular size and mass compared to in situ produced levan in the sourdough at 48 h, verified the positive effect of levan on bread quality. However, the positive effects of levan were masked to a certain extent by the impact from the natural acidification during fermentations. While levan-producing acetic acid bacteria are a promising alternative for the development of clean-label gluten-free breads without the need of additives, an appropriate balance between acidification and levan production (amount and structure) must be reached. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Utilization of supplemented sugarcane molasses for continuous production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus curvatus/ Produção contínua de ácido láctico por Lactobacillus curvatus a partir de melaço de cana-de-açúcar suplementado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia de Oliveira Hauly

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Several by-products and raw-materials of food and agricultural industries have been used as culture medium. It is rich nutrients sources, and it is considered low cost and high availability of molasses as a substrate can be used in lactic fermentation. Lactic acid has tradicionally been obtained by chemical process, however, lactic acid production by fermentative process is considered most viable economically. Lactic acid has application in different industries such as pharmaceutical, cosmetic, textiles, leather, chemical and food industries, where about 82% of all world production is used. In this work, lactic acid production by L. curvatus under continuous culture on sugarcane molasses supplemented with yeast extract and peptone was evaluated. Dilution rates tested were 0,05; 0,10 and 0,15h-1 at 37ºC. Samples were taken for pH, reducing sugar, lactic acid, biomass and cellular viability measurements under steady state conditions. When the D was 0,05; 0,10 and 0,15h-1, the reducing sugar consumption was 7,1; 6,4 and 4,8g/L, respectively. Highest lactic acid production (13,8g/L was obtained when D=0,05h-1 was used, while at D=0,10 and 0,15h-1, lactic acid production reached 10,2 and 7,1g/L, respectively. The highest values of biomass (1,98g/L and cell viability (2,03x109CFU/mL were reached at the lowest dilution rate tested (0,05h-1. In conclusion, the results showed that under tested conditions, low values of dilution rate were most suitable for continuous lactic acid production by L. curvatus in supplemented sugarcane molasses.Melaço é uma matéria prima de baixo custo e rico em nutrientes para a fermentação láctica. O ácido láctico tem aplicação na indústria farmacêutica, cosmética, têxtil, de couro, química e de alimentos, onde são utilizados cerca de 82% de sua produção mundial. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a produção de ácido láctico por Lactobacillus curvatus em fermentação contínua de melaço de cana

  14. Comparative study of anticoagulation versus saline flushes in continuous renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarik Amit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic heparinization during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT is associated with disadvantage of risk of bleeding. This study analyses the efficacy of frequent saline flushes compared with heparin anticoagulation to maintain filter life. From January 2004 to November 2007, 65 critically ill patients with acute renal failure underwent CRRT. Continuous venovenous hemodialfiltration (CVVHDF was performed using Diapact Braun CRRT machine. 1.7% P.D. fluid was used as dialysate. 0.9% NS with addition of 10% Ca Gluconate, Magnesium Sulphate, Soda bicarbonate and Potassium Chloride added sequentially in separate units were used for replacement, carefully monitoring their levels. Anticoagulation of extracorporeal circuit was achieved with unfractionated heparin (250-500 units alternate hour in 35 patients targeting aPTT of 45-55 seconds. No anticoagulation was used in 30 patients with baseline APTT > 55 seconds and extracorporeal circuit was maintained with saline flushes at 30 min interval. 65 pa-tients including 42 males. Co-morbidities were comparable in both groups. HMARF was signifi-cantly more common in heparin group while Sepsis was comparable in both the groups. CRRT parameters were similar in both groups. Average filter life in heparin group was 26 ± 6.4 hours while it was 24.5 ± 6.36 hours in heparin free group ( P=NS. Patients receiving heparin had 16 bleeding episodes (0.45/patient while only four bleeding episodes occurred in heparin free group (0.13/patient, P< 0.05. Mortality was 71% in heparin group and 67% in heparin free group. Frequent saline flushes is an effective mode of maintainance of extracorporeal circuit in CRRT when aPTT is already on the higher side, with significantly decreased bleeding episodes.

  15. Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops ...

  16. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  17. Mefenamic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

  18. Obeticholic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  19. Ethacrynic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  20. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  1. Suplementação de betaglucano a dietas de leitões de 21 a 60 dias de idade Beta-glucon suplementacion in diets for piglets from 21 to 60 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B.S. Mendes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento com 1.500 leitões distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos: controle e com suplementação de 60, 120, 180 e 240g de betaglucano por tonelada de dieta. Foram analisadas as variáveis ganho de peso diário, peso final, consumo de dieta diário e conversão alimentar nos períodos de 21 a 35, 21 a 49 e 21 a 60 dias de idade. Houve aumento linear significativo do peso final e do ganho de peso diário de leitões suplementados com betaglucano na dieta dos 21 aos 60 dias de idade. A inclusão de 240g/ton. proporcionou aumento no peso final de 800g, o que corresponde ao aumento de 3,2% em relação aos animais do grupo-controle. O ganho de peso diário foi 4,7% mais alto para o grupo de animais tratados com 240g/ton. Não se observou efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre: consumo diário de dieta, conversão alimentar, atividade da enzima superóxido dismutase nem sobre a resposta imune.A total of 1,500 piglets were used in a completely randomized experimental block design to study the effects of beta-glucon level (control, 60, 120, 180, and 240g per ton of diet on daily weight gain, body weight, daily feed intake and feed: weight gain ratio from 21 to 35, 21 to 49 and from 21 to 60 days of age Positive and significant linear effects of beta-gluton on body weight and daily weight gain of piglets from 21 to 60 days of age were observed. The inclusion of 240g of beta-gluton in diet resulted in 800g increase in body weight which corresponds to 3.25% increase in body weight and 4.7% increase in daily weight gain in comparison to animals of the control group. No effects of beta-gluton supplementation on feed intake, feed: weight gain ratio and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity or animal immune response were observed.

  2. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-03-08

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in contrast detection thresholds) as a function of the visual features of the stimulus being suppressed and the stimulus evoking suppression, namely, the popular "Mondrian" CFS stimulus (N. Tsuchiya & C. Koch, 2005). First, we found that CFS differentially suppresses the spatial components of the suppressed stimulus: Observers' sensitivity for stimuli of relatively low spatial frequency or cardinally oriented features was more strongly impaired in comparison to high spatial frequency or obliquely oriented stimuli. Second, we discovered that this feature-selective bias primarily arises from the spatiotemporal structure of the CFS stimulus, particularly within information residing in the low spatial frequency range and within the smooth rather than abrupt luminance changes over time. These results imply that this CFS stimulus operates by selectively attenuating certain classes of low-level signals while leaving others to be potentially encoded during suppression. These findings underscore the importance of considering the contribution of low-level features in stimulus-driven effects that are reported under CFS.

  3. Continuous home oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Ruiz, Francisco; Díaz Lobato, Salvador; Galdiz Iturri, Juan Bautista; García Rio, Francisco; Güell Rous, Rosa; Morante Velez, Fátima; Puente Maestu, Luis; Tàrrega Camarasa, Julia

    2014-05-01

    Oxygen therapy is defined as the therapeutic use of oxygen and consists of administering oxygen at higher concentrations than those found in room air, with the aim of treating or preventing hypoxia. This therapeutic intervention has been shown to increase survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and respiratory failure. Although this concept has been extended by analogy to chronic respiratory failure caused by respiratory and non-respiratory diseases, continuous oxygen therapy has not been shown to be effective in other disorders. Oxygen therapy has not been shown to improve survival in patients with COPD and moderate hypoxaemia, nor is there consensus regarding its use during nocturnal desaturations in COPD or desaturations caused by effort. The choice of the oxygen source must be made on the basis of criteria such as technical issues, patient comfort and adaptability and cost. Flow must be adjusted to achieve appropriate transcutaneous oxyhaemoglobin saturation correction. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrostatic continuously variable transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T.; Saito, M.; Matsuto, T.; Nakajima, Y.; Sakakibara, K.; Yakigaya, N.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-05-09

    A hydrostatic continuously variable transmission is described, comprising: a swashplate type hydraulic pump having a pump swashplate and annularly arranged pump plungers whose suction and discharge strokes are provided by the pump swashplate; a swashplate type hydraulic motor having a motor swashplate and annularly arranged motor plungers whose expansion and shrinkage strokes are provided by the motor swashplate; and a hydraulic closed circuit formed between the hydraulic pump and the hydraulic motor. The transmission has at least one of a relationship that a middle point of a discharge region of the hydraulic pump is angularly delayed at a given angle in a direction of rotation of the hydraulic pump relative to a tilting axis of the pump swashplate and a relationship that a middle point of an expansion region of the hydraulic motor is angularly advanced at a given angle in a direction of rotation of the hydraulic motor relative to a tilting axis of the motor swashplate, wherein the transmission has at least one of a relationship that a suction region of the hydraulic pump is set at an angle larger than that of the discharge region thereof and a relationship that a shrinkage region of the hydraulic motor is set at an angle larger than that of the expansion region of the motor.

  5. Biomass Conversion over Heteropoly Acid Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2015-04-01

    (Au/Cs2HPW12O40) that enabled the selective conversion of cellobiose to gluconic acid with a very high yield of 96.4% (Chapter II); we realized a direct oxidative conversion of cellulose to glycolic acid (yield of 49.3 %) in a water medium for the first time, by using a phosphomolybdic acid catalyst (chapter III); we found that a vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdic acid catalyst (H4PVMo11O40) is capable of converting various biomass-derived substrates to formic acid and acetic acid with high selectivity, and under optimized reaction conditions, high yield of formic acid (67.8%) can be obtained from cellulose (chapter IV); we discovered that the vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdic acids can also selectively oxidize glycerol, a low-cost by-product of biodiesel, to formic acid, and interestingly this conversion can be performed in highly concentration aqueous solution (glycerol: water = 50: 50), giving rise to exceptionally high conversion efficiency (chapter V). These results reveal that HPAs are useful and suitable catalysts for selective oxidation of biomass, and that the reaction pathway is largely determined by the type of addenda atom in the HPA catalyst. The optimization of the reaction conditions and processes in these systems are also discussed in this thesis.

  6. Continuous Perioperative Sublingual Buprenorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcelina Jasmine; Rubinstein, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Buprenorphine, a semisynthetic thebaine derivative, is a unique opioid, as it has activity at multiple receptors, including mu (partial agonist), kappa (antagonist), OLR-1 (agonist), and delta (antagonist). Because buprenorphine's pharmacology is relatively complex, misconceptions about its actions are common. Most other opioids act solely or predominately as full mu receptor agonists. Common practice at many institutions calls for the cessation of regular buprenorphine use 48-72 hours prior to surgery. This practice is based on three foundational theories that have come from scant data about the properties of buprenorphine: (1) that buprenorphine is only a partial mu agonist and therefore is not a potent analgesic; (2) because buprenorphine has a ceiling effect on respiratory depression, it also has a ceiling effect on analgesia; and (3) that buprenorphine acts as a "blockade" to the analgesic effects of other opiates when coadministered due to its strong binding affinity. However, several recent studies have called this practice into question. At our institution, we continue buprenorphine perioperatively, whenever possible, in order to provide superior pain control, discourage potentially problematic use and the more dangerous side effects of full mu agonist opiates, and avoid putting recovery at risk for those with opiate dependency issues. We present a unique case comparing two different outcomes for the same surgical course performed at two different times on the same chronic pain patient. These differences may be attributable to the variable of buprenorphine being present for one perioperative course and not the other. Pain control was easier to achieve, and functional recovery was greater when buprenorphine was maintained throughout the perioperative period when compared with using a full mu agonist opioid for chronic pain preoperatively. This is an outcome that much of the literature heretofore suggests would be unlikely. We review some aspects of

  7. Occupancy in continuous habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efford, Murray G.; Dawson, Deanna K.

    2012-01-01

    The probability that a site has at least one individual of a species ('occupancy') has come to be widely used as a state variable for animal population monitoring. The available statistical theory for estimation when detection is imperfect applies particularly to habitat patches or islands, although it is also used for arbitrary plots in continuous habitat. The probability that such a plot is occupied depends on plot size and home-range characteristics (size, shape and dispersion) as well as population density. Plot size is critical to the definition of occupancy as a state variable, but clear advice on plot size is missing from the literature on the design of occupancy studies. We describe models for the effects of varying plot size and home-range size on expected occupancy. Temporal, spatial, and species variation in average home-range size is to be expected, but information on home ranges is difficult to retrieve from species presence/absence data collected in occupancy studies. The effect of variable home-range size is negligible when plots are very large (>100 x area of home range), but large plots pose practical problems. At the other extreme, sampling of 'point' plots with cameras or other passive detectors allows the true 'proportion of area occupied' to be estimated. However, this measure equally reflects home-range size and density, and is of doubtful value for population monitoring or cross-species comparisons. Plot size is ill-defined and variable in occupancy studies that detect animals at unknown distances, the commonest example being unlimited-radius point counts of song birds. We also find that plot size is ill-defined in recent treatments of "multi-scale" occupancy; the respective scales are better interpreted as temporal (instantaneous and asymptotic) rather than spatial. Occupancy is an inadequate metric for population monitoring when it is confounded with home-range size or detection distance.

  8. Appendicitis: a continuing challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, K M; Khan, A

    1998-07-01

    Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency in urban setting, of a developing country. The computerised hospital patient database at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, was utilised to obtain records of all adults with a histologically proven diagnosis of acute appendicitis. A review of patients treated over a 18 month period was undertaken. One hundred and three appendicectomies were performed for acute appendicitis during this period. The diagnosis was clinical in all cases. Investigations like leucocyte count and lower abdominal ultrasound scan were used to improve diagnostic accuracy without a clear advantage. A number of routine investigations like, haemoglobin estimation and urea, creatinine, electrolyte measurements, did not provide additional information. The duration of antibiotic treatment in acute simple appendicitis was empiric and could be reduced to a single preoperative dose. Peritoneal fluid culture studies had a poor yield (26%) and results were not found to effect management in acute simple appendicitis. The routine use of Ampicillin in all cases of bacterial peritonitis needs re-evaluation, as a high incidence (73%) of resistance was seen. Studies to define the role and duration of treatment, with a single antibiotic, in acute simple appendicitis should be undertaken. Acute appendicitis is probably the most frequently considered surgical differential diagnosis at any hospital dealing with acute surgical conditions. The established treatment continues to be surgical removal of the inflamed organ. The diagnosis and decision to operate both are accepted to be based on clinical judgement, though a number of investigative manoeuvres have been described to reduce the negative appendicectomy rate. Other areas of debate are the number and length of antibiotic treatment and use of bacterial culture studies in cases of simple acute appendicitis. To analyse present practice and identify areas for study and change, a retrospective study was

  9. Between continuity and set connectedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Kohli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new weak variants of continuity called 'R-continuity'and 'F-continuity' are introduced. Their basic properties are studied and their place in the hierarchy of weak variants of continuity, that already exist in the literature, is elaborated. The class of R-continuous functions properly contains the class of continuous functions and is strictly contained in each of the three classes of (1 faintly continu-ous functions studied by Long and Herrignton (Kyungpook Math. J.22(1982, 7-14; (2 D-continuous functions introduced by Kohli (Bull.Cal. Math. Soc. 84 (1992, 39-46, and (3 F-continuous functions which in turn are strictly contained in the class of z-continuous functions studied by Singal and Niemse (Math. Student 66 (1997, 193-210.So the class of R-continuous functions is also properly contained in each of the classes of D∗-continuous functions, D-continuous function and set connected functions.

  10. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  11. Whither Acid Rain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  12. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  13. 21 CFR 182.8013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ascorbic acid. 182.8013 Section 182.8013 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.3013 Section 582.3013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  15. 21 CFR 182.3013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ascorbic acid. 182.3013 Section 182.3013 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1099 - Tartaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tartaric acid. 582.1099 Section 582.1099 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1099 Tartaric acid. (a) Product. Tartaric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. 21 CFR 582.3041 - Erythorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Erythorbic acid. 582.3041 Section 582.3041 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3041 Erythorbic acid. (a) Product. Erythorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. 21 CFR 182.1045 - Glutamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glutamic acid. 182.1045 Section 182.1045 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....1045 Glutamic acid. (a) Product. Glutamic acid. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1061 - Lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactic acid. 582.1061 Section 582.1061 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1061 Lactic acid. (a) Product. Lactic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  20. 21 CFR 182.3041 - Erythorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Erythorbic acid. 182.3041 Section 182.3041 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... acid. (a) Product. Erythorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5017 - Aspartic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspartic acid. 582.5017 Section 582.5017 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5017 Aspartic acid. (a) Product. Aspartic acid (L- and DL-forms). (b) Conditions of use...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1073 - Phosphoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Phosphoric acid. 182.1073 Section 182.1073 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....1073 Phosphoric acid. (a) Product. Phosphoric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6099 - Tartaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tartaric acid. 582.6099 Section 582.6099 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... acid. (a) Product. Tartaric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1009 - Adipic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adipic acid. 582.1009 Section 582.1009 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1009 Adipic acid. (a) Product. Adipic acid. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  5. 21 CFR 182.3089 - Sorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sorbic acid. 182.3089 Section 182.3089 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3089 Sorbic acid. (a) Product. Sorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1033 - Citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citric acid. 582.1033 Section 582.1033 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1033 Citric acid. (a) Product. Citric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3089 - Sorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sorbic acid. 582.3089 Section 582.3089 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sorbic acid. (a) Product. Sorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5065 - Linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Linoleic acid. 582.5065 Section 582.5065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5065 Linoleic acid. (a) Product. Linoleic acid prepared from edible fats and oils and free...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Succinic acid. 582.1091 Section 582.1091 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1091 Succinic acid. (a) Product. Succinic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product. Sulfuric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  11. 21 CFR 582.3021 - Benzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 582.3021 Section 582.3021 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Benzoic acid. (a) Product. Benzoic acid. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as safe for...

  12. 46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153.1046 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK....1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external tank...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1069 - Malic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Malic acid. 582.1069 Section 582.1069 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1069 Malic acid. (a) Product. Malic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3081 - Propionic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propionic acid. 582.3081 Section 582.3081 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Propionic acid. (a) Product. Propionic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  15. 7 CFR 58.632 - Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acid. 58.632 Section 58.632 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....632 Acid. Acids used in sherbet shall be wholesome and of food grade quality and consist of one or...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6033 - Citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citric acid. 582.6033 Section 582.6033 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... acid. (a) Product. Citric acid. 2 For the purpose of this subpart, no attempt has been made to...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1073 - Phosphoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphoric acid. 582.1073 Section 582.1073 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1073 Phosphoric acid. (a) Product. Phosphoric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 582.1057 Section 582.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  19. 21 CFR 182.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydrochloric acid. 182.1057 Section 182.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  20. Gluconacetobacter medellinensis sp. nov., cellulose- and non-cellulose-producing acetic acid bacteria isolated from vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Cristina; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Trcek, Janja; Zuluaga, Robin; De Vos, Paul; Caro, Gloria; Aguirre, Ricardo; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Gañán, Piedad

    2013-03-01

    The phylogenetic position of a cellulose-producing acetic acid bacterium, strain ID13488, isolated from commercially available Colombian homemade fruit vinegar, was investigated. Analyses using nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences, nearly complete 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, as well as concatenated partial sequences of the housekeeping genes dnaK, groEL and rpoB, allocated the micro-organism to the genus Gluconacetobacter, and more precisely to the Gluconacetobacter xylinus group. Moreover, the data suggested that the micro-organism belongs to a novel species in this genus, together with LMG 1693(T), a non-cellulose-producing strain isolated from vinegar by Kondo and previously classified as a strain of Gluconacetobacter xylinus. DNA-DNA hybridizations confirmed this finding, revealing a DNA-DNA relatedness value of 81 % between strains ID13488 and LMG 1693(T), and values <70 % between strain LMG 1693(T) and the type strains of the closest phylogenetic neighbours. Additionally, the classification of strains ID13488 and LMG 1693(T) into a single novel species was supported by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and (GTG)5-PCR DNA fingerprinting data, as well as by phenotypic data. Strains ID13488 and LMG 1693(T) could be differentiated from closely related species of the genus Gluconacetobacter by their ability to produce 2- and 5-keto-d-gluconic acid from d-glucose, their ability to produce acid from sucrose, but not from 1-propanol, and their ability to grow on 3 % ethanol in the absence of acetic acid and on ethanol, d-ribose, d-xylose, sucrose, sorbitol, d-mannitol and d-gluconate as carbon sources. The DNA G+C content of strains ID13488 and LMG 1693(T) was 58.0 and 60.7 mol%, respectively. The major ubiquinone of LMG 1693(T) was Q-10. Taken together these data indicate that strains ID13488 and LMG 1693(T) represent a novel species of the genus Gluconacetobacter for which the name Gluconacetobacter

  1. Effect of calcium on the kinetics of free fatty acid release during in vitro lipid digestion in model emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Aiqian; Cui, Jian; Zhu, Xiangqian; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-08-15

    The effects of different calcium salts on in vitro lipid digestion were examined by determining the free fatty acids released from various oil-in-water emulsions. The kinetics of the total and individual free fatty acids released by lipolysis were monitored by the pH-stat method and gas chromatography, respectively. The rate and the extent of free fatty acid release increased with an increase in the added calcium concentration, but the increase was dependent on the emulsifying agent. The effect of calcium was diminished when the emulsion contained phosphate. Soluble calcium salts, such as calcium gluconate, calcium acetate and CaCl2, had greater effects on the rate and extent of free fatty acid release than did insoluble salts, such as CaO and CaSO4, suggesting that the ionic state of calcium plays a critical role in lipid digestion in emulsions. The addition of calcium did not alter the profiles of the individual free fatty acids released. This study provides useful information for food formulation with respect to lipid digestion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Interaction between sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basrani, Bettina R; Manek, Sheela; Sodhi, Rana N S; Fillery, Edward; Manzur, Aldo

    2007-08-01

    The combination of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX) results in the formation of a precipitate. The aim of this study was to determine the minimum concentration of NaOCl required to form a precipitate with 2.0% CHX. This was accomplished with a serial dilution technique. X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) were used to qualify and quantify the precipitate. A color change and precipitate were induced in 2.0% CHX by 0.023% and 0.19% NaOCl, respectively. Both XPS and TOF-SIMS showed the presence of para-chloroaniline in an amount directly related to the concentration of NaOCl used. Until this precipitate is studied further, its formation should be avoided by removing the NaOCl before placing CHX into the canal.

  3. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid...... with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid...

  4. Citric acid production patent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G; Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Finogenova, Tatiana V

    2008-01-01

    Current Review article summarizes the developments in citric acid production technologies in East and West last 100 years. Citric acid is commercially produced by large scale fermentation mostly using selected fungal or yeast strains in aerobe bioreactors and still remains one of the runners in industrial production of biotechnological bulk metabolites obtained by microbial fermentation since about 100 years, reflecting the historical development of modern biotechnology and fermentation process technology in East and West. Citric acid fermentation was first found as a fungal product in cultures of Penicillium glaucum on sugar medium by Wehmer in 1893. Citric acid is an important multifunctional organic acid with a broad range of versatile uses in household and industrial applications that has been produced industrially since the beginning of 20(th) century. There is a great worldwide demand for citric acid consumption due to its low toxicity, mainly being used as acidulant in pharmaceutical and food industries. Global citric acid production has reached 1.4 million tones, increasing annually at 3.5-4.0% in demand and consumption. Citric acid production by fungal submerged fermentation is still dominating, however new perspectives like solid-state processes or continuous yeast processes can be attractive for producers to stand in today's strong competition in industry. Further perspectives aiming in the improvement of citric acid production are the improvement of citric acid producing strains by classical and modern mutagenesis and selection as well as downstream processes. Many inexpensive by-products and residues of the agro-industry (e.g. molasses, glycerin etc.) can be economically utilized as substrates in the production of citric acid, especially in solid-state fermentation, enormously reducing production costs and minimizing environmental problems. Alternatively, continuous processes utilizing yeasts which reach 200-250 g/l citric acid can stand in today

  5. Calculus Student Understanding of Continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangle, Jayleen Lillian

    2013-01-01

    Continuity is a central concept in calculus. Yet very few students seem to understand the nature of continuity. The research described was conducted in two stages. Students were asked questions in multiple choice and true/false format regarding function, limit and continuity. These results were used to identify participants as strong, weak or…

  6. The Continuity of Gerontological Themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Tom

    1992-01-01

    Focuses on continuity in evolution of scientific knowledge about aging. Taking 25-year perspective, uses selected research questions and priorities in biomedical, behavioral, and social domains of aging to exemplify continuity of gerontological knowledge base. Notes considerable evidence of continuity, despite influences of changing cohorts of…

  7. Constitutively elevated salicylic acid levels alter photosynthesis and oxidative state but not growth in transgenic populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Liang-Jiao; Guo, Wenbing; Yuan, Yinan; Anino, Edward O; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Wilson, Mark C; Frost, Christopher J; Chen, Han-Yi; Babst, Benjamin A; Harding, Scott A; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2013-07-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has long been implicated in plant responses to oxidative stress. SA overproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to dwarfism, making in planta assessment of SA effects difficult in this model system. We report that transgenic Populus tremula × alba expressing a bacterial SA synthase hyperaccumulated SA and SA conjugates without negative growth consequences. In the absence of stress, endogenously elevated SA elicited widespread metabolic and transcriptional changes that resembled those of wild-type plants exposed to oxidative stress-promoting heat treatments. Potential signaling and oxidative stress markers azelaic and gluconic acids as well as antioxidant chlorogenic acids were strongly coregulated with SA, while soluble sugars and other phenylpropanoids were inversely correlated. Photosynthetic responses to heat were attenuated in SA-overproducing plants. Network analysis identified potential drivers of SA-mediated transcriptome rewiring, including receptor-like kinases and WRKY transcription factors. Orthologs of Arabidopsis SA signaling components NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and thioredoxins were not represented. However, all members of the expanded Populus nucleoredoxin-1 family exhibited increased expression and increased network connectivity in SA-overproducing Populus, suggesting a previously undescribed role in SA-mediated redox regulation. The SA response in Populus involved a reprogramming of carbon uptake and partitioning during stress that is compatible with constitutive chemical defense and sustained growth, contrasting with the SA response in Arabidopsis, which is transient and compromises growth if sustained.

  8. Type III polyketide synthase is involved in the biosynthesis of protocatechuic acid in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yangyong; Xiao, Jing; Pan, Li

    2014-11-01

    Genomic studies have shown that not only plants but also filamentous fungi contain type III polyketide synthases. To study the function of type III polyketide synthase (AnPKSIII) in Aspergillus niger, a deletion strain (delAnPKSIII) and an overexpression strain (oeAnPKSIII) were constructed in A. niger MA169.4, a derivative of the wild-type (WT) A. niger ATCC 9029 that produces large quantities of gluconic acid. Alterations in the metabolites were analyzed by HPLC when the extract of the overexpression strain was compared with extracts of the WT and deletion strains. Protocatechuic acid (PCA; 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3.2 mg/l) was isolated and identified as the main product of AnPKSIII when inductively expressed in A. niger MA169.4. The molecular weight of PCA was 154.1 (m/z 153.1 [M-H](-)), was detected by ESI-MS in the negative ionization mode, and (1)H and (13)C NMR data confirmed its structure.

  9. Exoplanets: The Hunt Continues!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Swiss Telescope at La Silla Very Successful Summary The intensive and exciting hunt for planets around other stars ( "exoplanets" ) is continuing with great success in both hemispheres. Today, an international team of astronomers from the Geneva Observatory and other research institutes [1] is announcing the discovery of no less than eleven new, planetary companions to solar-type stars, HD 8574, HD 28185, HD 50554, HD 74156, HD 80606, HD 82943, HD 106252, HD 141937, HD 178911B, HD 141937, among which two new multi-planet systems . The masses of these new objects range from slightly less than to about 10 times the mass of the planet Jupiter [2]. The new detections are based on measured velocity changes of the stars [3], performed with the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory , as well as with instruments on telescopes at the Haute-Provence Observatory and on the Keck telescopes on Mauna Kea (Hawaii, USA). Some of the new planets are unusual: * a two-planet system (around the star HD 82943) in which one orbital period is nearly exactly twice as long as the other - cases like this (refered to as "orbital resonance") are well known in our own solar system; * another two-planet system (HD 74156), with a Jupiter-like planet and a more massive planet further out; * a planet with the most elongated orbit detected so far (HD 80606), moving between 5 and 127 million kilometers from the central star; * a giant planet moving in an orbit around its Sun-like central star that is very similar to the one of the Earth and whose potential satellites (in theory, at least) might be "habitable". At this moment, there are 63 know exoplanet candidates with minimum masses below 10 Jupiter masses, and 67 known objects with minimum masses below 17 Jupiter masses. The present team of astronomers has detected about half of these. PR Photo 13a/01 : Radial-velocity measurements of HD 82943, a two-planet system . PR Photo 13b/01 : Radial

  10. Okadaic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K

    2014-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) is a polyether fatty acid produced by marine dinoflagellates and the causative agent of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. The effect of OA on apical endocytosis in the small intestine was studied in organ cultured porcine mucosal explants. Within 0.5-1 h of culture, the toxin caused...... in acidic organelles, implying a different toxic mechanism of action. We propose that rapid induction of LBs, an indicator of phospholipidosis, should be included in the future toxicity profile of OA....

  11. 40 CFR 76.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 76.3 Section 76.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions...

  12. Production of organic acids in an immobilized cell reactor using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immobilized cell reactor (ICR) was developed as a novel bioreactor to convert hydrolyzed sugars to organic acids. Sugar fermentation by Propionibacterium acid-propionici entraped by calcium alginate was carried out in continuous mode to produce propionic and acetic acids. In continuous fermentation, more than 90 ...

  13. Effect of sodium gluconate on performance, carcass characteristics, and intestinal morphometry of broilers from 22 to 42 days of age=Efeito do gluconato de sódio sobre o desempenho, rendimento de carcaça e morfometria da mucosa intestinal de frangos de corte de 22 a 42 dias de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Ferreira Menegucci Praes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of the sodium gluconate addition on performance (feed intake, body weight, weight gain, feed conversion, livability and productive efficiency, carcass characteristics (carcass, breast, thigh and drumstick, wing and back yield, and morphometry of duodenum, jejunal and ileum of broilers from 22 to 42 days of age. A total of 1,200 Cobb male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments (0.00, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30 and 0.40% sodium gluconate, and eight replications of 30 broilers each. The inclusion of sodium gluconate did not affect the broiler performance and carcass characteristics. However, the morphometry of duodenum and jejunal mucosa showed beneficial effects.O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da utilização de níveis crescentes do gluconato de sódio sobre o desempenho, o rendimento de carcaça e de partes e a morfometria da mucosa intestinal de frangos de corte de 22 a 42 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 1200 frangos de corte da linhagem Cobb, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, envolvendo cinco tratamentos (0,00; 0,10; 0,20; 0,30 e 0,40% de gluconato de sódio com oito repetições de 30 aves cada parcela. As variáveis foram submetidas à análise de variância e em caso de significância estatística foram realizadas análises de regressão pelos modelos polinomial e quadrático. A inclusão do gluconato de sódio não afetou o desempenho e o rendimento de carcaça e de partes. Entretanto, exerceu efeito benéfico sobre a morfometria da mucosa intestinal do duodeno e do jejuno.

  14. Identification, quantification and carbon stable isotopes determinations of organic acids in monofloral honeys. A powerful tool for botanical and authenticity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Gaëlle; Maitre, Dany; Casabianca, Hervé

    2012-09-15

    The analytical composition and botanical origin of honey are basic data used to determine the quality of this foodstuff. Although proteins are used to characterise the analytical composition of honey, they can be eliminated during its ultrafiltration and, in the case of honeys not saturated with their own pollen, the use of proteins does not work well. As acidity is a well-known characteristic of honey and organic acids are present at around 0.5% in honey, we therefore investigated an alternative method to the protein-based White method, using organic acids as new internal standards instead of proteins. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of 14 organic acids were carried out by ion chromatography with an electrochemical detector. The (13)C/(12)C isotopic ratios of the honeys, and of the organic acids extracted from them with an anion exchange resin, were determined by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Gluconic acid is the predominant organic acid in honey, at between 1.8 and 12.7 g/kg. For fir honey the major acid is galacturonic acid at around 4.6 g/kg. The isotopic ratios of honeys and of their acids are strongly linked. Correlations between the δ(13)C values of the honey and the acids were significant, and better than those obtained using proteins. This study has provided a method to differentiate honeys from seven botanical origins, based on organic acid analysis. By combining various organic acid contents and isotopic ratio values through statistical processing by Principal Component Analysis it is possible to differentiate honey samples as a function of their botanical origin. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. 40 CFR 75.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 75.3 Section 75.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING General § 75.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions. The...

  16. Continuous supersonic plasma wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Nielsen, P.

    1968-01-01

    The B field configuration of a Q-device has been modified into a magnetic Laval nozzle. Continuous supersonic plasma flow is observed with M≈3......The B field configuration of a Q-device has been modified into a magnetic Laval nozzle. Continuous supersonic plasma flow is observed with M≈3...

  17. On the Continuity of Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaci, D.; Pesic, D.; Tatar, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, results of a questionnaire about continuity of functions are analysed. The tested students attend Novi Sad grammar school. The aim of this test was to check the student's theoretical and visual knowledge of continuous functions at the end of their high school education. The questions were given with and without the graphs of…

  18. Continuous Optimization on Constraint Manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Edwin B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper demonstrates continuous optimization on the differentiable manifold formed by continuous constraint functions. The first order tensor geodesic differential equation is solved on the manifold in both numerical and closed analytic form for simple nonlinear programs. Advantages and disadvantages with respect to conventional optimization techniques are discussed.

  19. Valproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and spinal cord and can also cause lower intelligence in babies exposed to valproic acid before birth. ... all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any ...

  20. Carnosic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birtić, Simona; Dussort, Pierre; Pierre, François-Xavier; Bily, Antoine C; Roller, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Carnosic acid (salvin), which possesses antioxidative and antimicrobial properties, is increasingly exploited within the food, nutritional health and cosmetics industries. Since its first extraction from a Salvia species (∼70 years ago) and its identification (∼50 years ago), numerous articles and patents (∼400) have been published on specific food and medicinal applications of Rosmarinus and Salvia plant extracts abundant in carnosic acid. In contrast, relevant biochemical, physiological or molecular studies in planta have remained rare. In this overview, recent advances in understanding of carnosic acid distribution, biosynthesis, accumulation and role in planta, and its applications are summarised. We also discuss the deficiencies in our understanding of the relevant biochemical processes, and suggest the molecular targets of carnosic acid. Finally, future perspectives and studies related to its potential roles are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Acid Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  2. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... okra, asparagus, fruits (such as bananas, melons, and lemons) beans, yeast, mushrooms, meat (such as beef liver ... after angioplasty. There is inconsistent evidence on the benefits of taking folic acid after a procedure to ...

  3. Continued professional competence and portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michelle; Delarose, Teresa; King, Cecil A; Leske, Jane; Sapnas, Kathryn G; Schroeter, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    It is traditionally assumed that licensure of healthcare professionals means that they are minimally competent. Many nursing specialty organizations offer examinations and other processes for certification, suggesting that certification is associated with continued competency. Can standardized examination for certification and continuing education for recertification ensure continued competency? Continuing education and testing provide a limited picture of an individual's knowledge and/or skill acquisition in a limited area at one point in time. However, portfolios promote critical thinking, self-assessment, and individual accountability. A portfolio is a portable mechanism for evaluating competencies that may otherwise be difficult to assess. This article summarizes some of the literature addressing portfolios, including aspects of portfolio development process, the value of portfolios versus continuing education for competency assessment, evidence associated with portfolio usage, and suggestions for organizing nursing portfolios.

  4. Biological control of phytopathogenic fungi by fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siyun; Ruan, Weibin; Li, Jing; Xu, Hua; Wang, Jingan; Gao, Yubao; Wang, Jingguo

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of fatty acids against phytopathogenic fungi. Two pot experiments were conducted by mixing palmitic and oleic acids in the soil in which poor plant growth was observed. In addition, the antifungal activities of nine fatty acids (butyric acid, caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid) against four phytopathogenic fungi: Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum lagenarium, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, were assessed by measuring mycelial growth and spore germination via Petri dish assay. The results of the pot experiments showed that the mixture of palmitic and oleic acids enhanced the growth of the seedlings of continuous-tomato and continuous-cucumber. Except for oleic acid, in the Petri dish assay, the fatty acids tested were observed to inhibit the mycelial growth of one or more tested fungi. In addition to the suppression of mycelial growth, butyric acid, caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, and palmitic acid showed an inhibitory effect against spore germination and the extent of inhibition varied with both the type of fatty acids, and the fungi. In particular, capric acid displayed strong inhibitory effect against C. lagenarium on the mycelial growth and spore germination. The saturated fatty acids, i.e. palmitic acids, showed stronger antifungal activity than the unsaturated fatty acids, i.e. oleic acid. It suggests that fatty acids might be applicable to exploring for alternative approaches to integrated control of phytopathogens.

  5. Kinetics of Hydrogen Evolution on Copper Electrode Involving Organic Acids as Proton Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Survila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear potential sweep (LPS voltammetry was applied to study the kinetics of hydrogen evolution in solutions containing glycolic, malic, tartaric, and gluconic acids. The CE mechanism of hydrogen evolution was analyzed invoking the 2nd Fick's law equations supplemented by terms that account for chemical interactions between diffusing particles. Acids are considered as components that are capable of releasing hydrated protons taking part in the charge-transfer step. Current peaks observed on LPS voltammograms are in linear dependence on ν (ν is the potential sweep rate. They obey well-known relationships obtained for simple redox processes, provided that the concentration of oxidant is treated as total concentration of proton donors. Determination of surface concentrations as current density functions makes it possible to transform LPS voltammograms into linear Tafel plots normalized with respect to the surface concentration of hydronium ions. Similar kinetic parameters (α≈0.6 and i0≈ 10 μA cm−2 obtained at pH 3 for all OA solutions indicate that the nature of OA has no noticeable influence on the charge-transfer process.

  6. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production.

  7. Modeling herbivorous animal digestive system as 3- continuous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling herbivorous animal digestive system as 3- continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and 1-plug flow reactor (PFR) in series with specific reference to ... This shows the efficiency of each reactor at converting the purely lignocellulosics substrates to useful products like protein, vitamin, fatty acid and the bye-products.

  8. Continuous analysis of nitrogen dioxide in gas streams of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, W. T.; Kispert, R. C.

    1969-01-01

    Analyzer and sampling system continuously monitors nitrogen dioxide concentrations in the feed and tail gas streams of a facility recovering nitric acid. The system, using a direct calorimetric approach, makes use of readily available equipment and is flexible and reliable in operation.

  9. The continuation inverse problem revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Stephen P.

    1998-06-01

    The non-uniqueness of the continuation of a finite collection of harmonic potential field data to a level surface in the source-free region forces its treatment as an inverse problem. A formalism is proposed for the construction of continuation functions which are extremal by various measures. The problem is cast in such a form that the inverse problem solution is the potential function on the lowest horizontal surface above all sources, serving as the boundary function for the Dirichlet problem in the upper half-plane. The desired continuation, at the higher level of interest, must then be in the range of the upward continuation operator acting on this boundary function, rather than being allowed the full freedom of itself being part of a Dirichlet problem boundary function. Extremal solutions minimize non-linear functionals of the continuation function, which are re-expressed as different functionals of the boundary function. A crux of the method is that there is no essential distinction between the upward and downward continuation inverse problems to levels above or below data locations. Casting the optimization as a Lagrange multiplier problem leads to an integral equation for the boundary function, which is readily solved in the Fourier domain for a certain class of functionals. The desired extremal continuation is then given by upward continuation. It is found that for some functionals, application of the Lagrange multiplier theorem requires a further restriction on the set of allowable boundary functions: bandlimitedness is a natural choice for the continuation problem. With this imposition, the theory is developed in detail for semi-norm functionals penalizing departure from a constant potential, in the 2-norm and Sobelev norm senses, and illustrated by application for a small synthetic Deep Tow magnetic field data set.

  10. A Philosophy of Continuing Education *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodman, Estelle

    1968-01-01

    Continuing education is important to the individual, to the library, and to society as a whole, and therefore each should attempt to foster continued learning and the questioning mind. Today, librarians are seeking “philosophies” for what they do because the changes in the world about them have denied them the comfort of the implicit assumptions about their work which librarians of earlier periods had. The professional association, like the medieval guilds, has a responsibility to its members to aid in their search for reality (“philosophy”) and specifically in their need for continuing education. PMID:5644798

  11. Continuation of superpave projects monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This study involved the continuous monitoring of material properties and field performance of twelve Superpave project sections in Florida for the establishment of reasonable and effective mixture design guidelines and criteria, the identification an...

  12. Continuous Delivery and Quality Monitoring

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    After introducing Continuous Delivery, I will switch the topic and try to answer the question how much should we invest in quality and how to do it efficiently. My observations reveal that software quality is often considered as the slo...

  13. Stratigraphy -- The Fall of Continuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Charles W.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews advances in stratigraphy as illustrated in the current geological literature, discussing discontinuity and how the recognition of discontinuity in the stratigraphic record is changing views of Superposition and Original Lateral Continuity. (Author/JN)

  14. Continuous-Energy Data Checks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeck, Wim [Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Institute, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McCartney, Austin Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parsons, Donald Kent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-25

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of all Quality Assurance tests that have to be performed on a nuclear data set to be transformed into an ACE formatted nuclear data file. The ACE file is capable of containing different types of data such as continuous energy neutron data, thermal scattering data, etc. Within this report, we will limit ourselves to continuous energy neutron data.

  15. 40 CFR 72.31 - Information requirements for Acid Rain permit applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information requirements for Acid Rain... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Permit Applications § 72.31 Information requirements for Acid Rain permit applications. A complete Acid Rain permit application shall include the...

  16. Progress of Pharmaceutical Continuous Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejiang Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization is an important unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry. At present, most pharmaceutical crystallization processes are performed in batches. However, due to product variability from batch to batch and to the low productivity of batch crystallization, continuous crystallization is gaining increasing attention. In the past few years, progress has been made to allow the products of continuous crystallization to meet different requirements. This review summarizes the progress in pharmaceutical continuous crystallization from a product engineering perspective. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of continuous crystallization are compared, with the main difference between the two main types of crystallizers being their difference in residence time distribution. Approaches that use continuous crystallization to meet different quality requirements are summarized. Continuous crystallization has advantages in terms of size and morphology control. However, it also has the problem of a process yield that may be lower than that of a batch process, especially in the production of chirality crystals. Finally, different control strategies are compared.

  17. Continuous-variable supraquantum nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketterer, Andreas; Laversanne-Finot, Adrien; Aolita, Leandro

    2018-01-01

    Supraquantum nonlocality refers to correlations that are more nonlocal than allowed by quantum theory but still physically conceivable in postquantum theories, in the sense of respecting the basic no-faster-than-light communication principle. While supraquantum correlations are relatively well understood for finite-dimensional systems, little is known in the infinite-dimensional case. Here, we study supraquantum nonlocality for bipartite systems with two measurement settings and infinitely many outcomes per subsystem. We develop a formalism for generic no-signaling black-box measurement devices with continuous outputs in terms of probability measures, instead of probability distributions, which involves a few technical subtleties. We show the existence of a class of supraquantum Gaussian correlations, which violate the Tsirelson bound of an adequate continuous-variable Bell inequality. We then introduce the continuous-variable version of the celebrated Popescu-Rohrlich (PR) boxes, as a limiting case of the above-mentioned Gaussian ones. Finally, we characterize the geometry of the set of continuous-variable no-signaling correlations. Namely, we show that that the convex hull of the continuous-variable PR boxes is dense in the no-signaling set. We also show that these boxes are extreme in the set of no-signaling behaviors and provide evidence suggesting that they are indeed the only extreme points of the no-signaling set. Our results lay the grounds for studying generalized-probability theories in continuous-variable systems.

  18. Constitutively Elevated Salicylic Acid Levels Alter Photosynthesis and Oxidative State but Not Growth in Transgenic Populus[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Liang-Jiao; Guo, Wenbing; Yuan, Yinan; Anino, Edward O.; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Wilson, Mark C.; Frost, Christopher J.; Chen, Han-Yi; Babst, Benjamin A.; Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2013-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has long been implicated in plant responses to oxidative stress. SA overproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to dwarfism, making in planta assessment of SA effects difficult in this model system. We report that transgenic Populus tremula × alba expressing a bacterial SA synthase hyperaccumulated SA and SA conjugates without negative growth consequences. In the absence of stress, endogenously elevated SA elicited widespread metabolic and transcriptional changes that resembled those of wild-type plants exposed to oxidative stress-promoting heat treatments. Potential signaling and oxidative stress markers azelaic and gluconic acids as well as antioxidant chlorogenic acids were strongly coregulated with SA, while soluble sugars and other phenylpropanoids were inversely correlated. Photosynthetic responses to heat were attenuated in SA-overproducing plants. Network analysis identified potential drivers of SA-mediated transcriptome rewiring, including receptor-like kinases and WRKY transcription factors. Orthologs of Arabidopsis SA signaling components NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and thioredoxins were not represented. However, all members of the expanded Populus nucleoredoxin-1 family exhibited increased expression and increased network connectivity in SA-overproducing Populus, suggesting a previously undescribed role in SA-mediated redox regulation. The SA response in Populus involved a reprogramming of carbon uptake and partitioning during stress that is compatible with constitutive chemical defense and sustained growth, contrasting with the SA response in Arabidopsis, which is transient and compromises growth if sustained. PMID:23903318

  19. Fenofibric acid for hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurav, Alok; Kaushik, Manu; Mohiuddin, Syed M

    2012-04-01

    3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (i.e., statins) are the mainstay of therapy for hyperlipidemia, as per the current National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) recommendation. However, the role of other agents, such as the fibrates, is continually being debated in the context of incremental risk reduction, especially in the setting of mixed dyslipidemia. Results from the ACCORD Trial have further added to the confusion. Fibrates also have a role to play in familial hyperlipidemias and in hypertriglyceridemia. Fenofibric acid is one of the newly approved forms of fenofibrate with enhanced bioavailability and was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administation (FDA) for the treatment of various types of hyperlipidemia, in conjunction with statins. This article reviews the role of fenofibric acid in the context of results from recent randomized trials on fenofibrate, including the ACCORD Trial. It discusses the current status of fenofibric acid in the management of dyslipidemia, especially in combination with statins, and also addresses the comparative efficacy and safety profile of this new molecule against other agents in its class. Fenofibric acid in combination with low- to moderate-dose statins is an effective and safe option in the treatment of mixed dyslipidemia, although the long-term effects on cardiovascular risk reduction need to be explored further.

  20. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  1. Lipoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Tetikcok

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipoic acid, which is defined as a miralce antioxidan, is used by many departments. Eventhough clinical using data are very limited , it is used in treatment of diabetic neuropathy, physical therapy and rehabilitation clinic, dermatology clinic, geriatric clinics. It has usage area for cosmetic purposes. Although there are reports there are the direction of the effectiveness in these areas, the works done are not enough. Today lipoic acid , used in many areas ,is evaluated as universal antioxidant [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(3.000: 206-209

  2. Beyond Continuous Delivery: An Empirical Investigation of Continuous Deployment Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahin, Mojtaba; Ali Babar, Muhammad; Zahedi, Mansooreh

    2017-01-01

    Context: A growing number of software organizations have been adopting Continuous DElivery (CDE) and Continuous Deployment (CD) practices. Researchers have started investing significant efforts in studying different aspects of CDE and CD. Many studies refer to CDE (i.e., where an application...... of interviewing 21 software practitioners, followed by a survey with 98 respondents. Results: Our study reveals 11 confounding factors that limit or demotivate software organizations to push changes automatically and continuously to production. The most important ones are "lack of automated (user) acceptance test......", "manual quality check", "deployment as business decision", "insufficient level of automated test coverage", and "highly bureaucratic deployment process". Conclusion: Our findings highlight several areas for future research and provide suggestions for practitioners to streamline deployment process....

  3. Business continuity 2014: From traditional to integrated Business Continuity Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, Henry

    As global change continues to generate new challenges and potential threats to businesses, traditional business continuity management (BCM) slowly reveals its limitations and weak points to ensuring 'business resiliency' today. Consequently, BCM professionals also face the challenge of re-evaluating traditional concepts and introducing new strategies and industry best practices. This paper points to why traditional BCM is no longer sufficient in terms of enabling businesses to survive in today's high-risk environment. It also looks into some of the misconceptions about BCM and other stumbling blocks to establishing effective BCM today. Most importantly, however, this paper provides tips based on the Business Continuity Institute's (BCI) Good Practices Guideline (GPG) and the latest international BCM standard ISO 22301 on how to overcome the issues and challenges presented.

  4. Perfluorooctanoic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogt, P.; Wexler, P.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 335-67-1) is used in fluoropolymer production and firefighting foams and persists in the environment. Human exposure to PFOA is mostly through the diet. PFOA primarily affects the liver and can cause developmental and reproductive toxic effects in test animals.

  5. 46 CFR 153.1045 - Inorganic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inorganic acids. 153.1045 Section 153.1045 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING... § 153.1045 Inorganic acids. When Table 1 refers to this section, the person in charge of cargo transfer...

  6. Using continuous renal replacement therapy to manage patients of shock and acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Sachin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of acute renal failure (ARF in the hospital setting is increasing. It portends excessive morbidity and mortality and a considerable burden on hospital resources. Extracorporeal therapies show promise in the management of patients with shock and ARF. It is said that the potential of such therapy goes beyond just providing renal support. The aim of our study was to analyze the clinical setting and outcomes of critically ill ARF patients managed with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT. Patients and Methods: Ours was a retrospective study of 50 patients treated between January 2004 and November 2005. These 50 patients were in clinical shock and had concomitant ARF. All of these patients underwent CVVHDF (continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration in the intensive care unit. For the purpose of this study, shock was defined as systolic BP < 100 mm Hg in spite of administration of one or more inotropic agents. SOFA (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score before initiation of dialysis support was recorded in all cases. CVVHDF was performed using the Diapact ® (Braun CRRT machine. The vascular access used was as follows: femoral in 32, internal jugular in 8, arteriovenous fistula (AVF in 4, and subclavian in 6 patients. We used 0.9% or 0.45% (half-normal saline as a prefilter replacement, with addition of 10% calcium gluconate, magnesium sulphate, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride in separate units, while maintaining careful monitoring of electrolytes. Anticoagulation of the extracorporeal circuit was achieved with systemic heparin in 26 patients; frequent saline flushes were used in the other 24 patients. Results: Of the 50 patients studied, 29 were males and 21 females (1.4:1. The average age was 52.88 years (range: 20-75 years. Causes of ARF included sepsis in 24 (48%, hemodynamically mediated renal failure (HMRF in 18 (36%, and acute over chronic kidney disease in 8 (16% patients. The overall mortality was

  7. Continuous generation of delayed light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smartsev, Slava; Eger, David; Davidson, Nir; Firstenberg, Ofer

    2017-11-01

    We use a four-wave mixing process to read-out light from atomic coherence which is continuously written. The light is continuously generated after an effective delay, allowing the atomic coherence to evolve during the process. Contrary to slow-light delay, which depends on the medium optical depth, here the generation delay is determined solely by the intensive properties of the system, approaching the atomic coherence lifetime at the weak driving limit. The atomic evolution during the generation delay is further manifested in the spatial profile of the generated light due to atomic diffusion. Continuous generation of light with a long intrinsic delay can replace discrete write–read procedures when the atomic evolution is the subject of interest.

  8. Continuous Microbiological Transformation of Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusser, F.; Koepsell, H. J.; Savage, G. M.

    1961-01-01

    Continuous fermentation trials on the bioconversions of pregnadiene to pregnatriene by Septomyxa affinis and progesterone to 11α-hydroxyprogesterone by Rhizopus nigricans were conducted successfully in an eight-stage pilot plant reactor. The first stage was used as the mycelial growth stage while the steroid solutions were added continuously to stage 2, thus using the remaining stages as conversion vessels. Recoveries of 50 to 60% oxidized steroid (based on total steroid supplied) were obtained in both cases upon a contact time of 5 hr between mycelium and steroid. Longer contact times resulted in a gradual net loss of steroid. It was concluded that two-stage reactors (one growth stage and one conversion stage) were adequate for efficient continuous operation of such processes. The reaction volumes of both stages have to be kept in proper balance to insure optimal holdup times for both the cell growth and conversion steps. PMID:13740999

  9. Baseline budgeting for continuous improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilty, G L

    1999-05-01

    This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem.

  10. Distributed synthesis in continuous time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanns, Holger; Krčál, Jan; Vester, Steen

    2016-01-01

    . The flow of time is modelled explicitly based on continuous-time randomness, with two natural implications: First, the non-determinism stemming from interleaving disappears. Second, when we restrict to a subclass of non-urgent models, the quantitative value problem for two players can be solved in EXPTIME....... Indeed, the explicit continuous time enables players to communicate their states by delaying synchronisation (which is unrestricted for non-urgent models). In general, the problems are undecidable already for two players in the quantitative case and three players in the qualitative case. The qualitative...

  11. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Lamwers, Stephanie; Tepel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is linked to increased cardiovascular risk. This risk can be reduced by nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment. As OSA is associated with an increase of several vasoconstrictive factors, we investigated whether nCPAP influences the digital volume...... pulse wave. We performed digital photoplethysmography during sleep at night in 94 consecutive patients who underwent polysomnography and 29 patients treated with nCPAP. Digital volume pulse waves were obtained independently of an investigator and were quantified using an algorithm for continuous...

  12. Composite continuous time random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfer, Rudolf

    2017-12-01

    Random walks in composite continuous time are introduced. Composite time flow is the product of translational time flow and fractional time flow [see Chem. Phys. 84, 399 (2002)]. The continuum limit of composite continuous time random walks gives a diffusion equation where the infinitesimal generator of time flow is the sum of a first order and a fractional time derivative. The latter is specified as a generalized Riemann-Liouville derivative. Generalized and binomial Mittag-Leffler functions are found as the exact results for waiting time density and mean square displacement.

  13. LANL continuity of operations plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senutovitch, Diane M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-22

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is a premier national security research institution, delivering scientific and engineering solutions for the nation's most crucial and complex problems. Our primary responsibility is to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the nation's nuclear stockpile. LANL emphasizes worker safety, effective operational safeguards and security, and environmental stewardship, outstanding science remains the foundation of work at the Laboratory. In addition to supporting the Laboratory's core national security mission, our work advances bioscience, chemistry, computer science, earth and environmental sciences, materials science, and physics disciplines. To accomplish LANL's mission, we must ensure that the Laboratory EFs continue to be performed during a continuity event, including localized acts of nature, accidents, technological or attack-related emergencies, and pandemic or epidemic events. The LANL Continuity of Operations (COOP) Plan documents the overall LANL COOP Program and provides the operational framework to implement continuity policies, requirements, and responsibilities at LANL, as required by DOE 0 150.1, Continuity Programs, May 2008. LANL must maintain its ability to perform the nation's PMEFs, which are: (1) maintain the safety and security of nuclear materials in the DOE Complex at fixed sites and in transit; (2) respond to a nuclear incident, both domestically and internationally, caused by terrorist activity, natural disaster, or accident, including mobilizing the resources to support these efforts; and (3) support the nation's energy infrastructure. This plan supports Continuity of Operations for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This plan issues LANL policy as directed by the DOE 0 150.1, Continuity Programs, and provides direction for the orderly continuation of LANL EFs for 30 days of closure or 60 days for a pandemic/epidemic event. Initiation of COOP operations may

  14. Employers, Employees, and Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebi, William A.

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of continuing education (CE) focuses on motivation for change; the types of CE that exist; whether it should be voluntary or mandatory; institutional and individual aims; the manager as team leader; effects of financial pressures; and the role of library and information science associations. LRW)

  15. Schistosomiasis | Mendelson | Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Great River Valley found in the Gynaecological Papyrus of Kahun circa 1900BC is recognised as the first recorded description of the disease. Its geographical distribution continues to expand, a 5th human pathogenic schistosome, Schistosoma mekongi, having being described in Laos and Cambodia as recently as 1978.

  16. Confidentiality | Benatar | Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 1 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Confidentiality. D Benatar. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.

  17. Educational Continuation by College Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Ross M.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study of the apparently paradoxical absence of background socioeconomic status (SES) effects on school continuation by college graduates. Finds results consistent with earlier studies of SES impact on schooling and explains the absence of parental SES effects on schooling beyond college. (CFR)

  18. Continuity and Change in Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Larry D.

    1999-01-01

    Appalachian continuities include attachment to land and religion, high teen pregnancy, and low literacy and income. Trends in Appalachia that institutions of higher education must address are higher rates of college attendance, migration to urban areas, changes in student learning styles, and increasing pressure to educate students to workplace…

  19. Sarcoidosis | Allwood | Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 31, No 9 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Sarcoidosis. B Allwood, C Ainslie. Abstract. No Abstract ...

  20. Continuous supersonic plasma wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Nielsen, P.

    1969-01-01

    The normal magnetic field configuration of a Q device has been modified to obtain a 'magnetic Laval nozzle'. Continuous supersonic plasma 'winds' are obtained with Mach numbers ~3. The magnetic nozzle appears well suited for the study of the interaction of supersonic plasma 'winds' with either...

  1. For Time-Continuous Optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Mary Katherine; Ayres, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Strategies for optimisation in design normatively assume an artefact end-point, disallowing continuous architecture that engages living systems, dynamic behaviour, and complex systems. In our Flora Robotica investigations of symbiotic plant-robot bio-hybrids, we re- quire computational tools...

  2. Reliability of CHAMP Anomaly Continuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Taylor, Patrick T.; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad F.

    2003-01-01

    CHAMP is recording state-of-the-art magnetic and gravity field observations at altitudes ranging over roughly 300 - 550 km. However, anomaly continuation is severely limited by the non-uniqueness of the process and satellite anomaly errors. Indeed, our numerical anomaly simulations from satellite to airborne altitudes show that effective downward continuations of the CHAMP data are restricted to within approximately 50 km of the observation altitudes while upward continuations can be effective over a somewhat larger altitude range. The great unreliability of downward continuation requires that the satellite geopotential observations must be analyzed at satellite altitudes if the anomaly details are to be exploited most fully. Given current anomaly error levels, joint inversion of satellite and near- surface anomalies is the best approach for implementing satellite geopotential observations for subsurface studies. We demonstrate the power of this approach using a crustal model constrained by joint inversions of near-surface and satellite magnetic and gravity observations for Maude Rise, Antarctica, in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Our modeling suggests that the dominant satellite altitude magnetic anomalies are produced by crustal thickness variations and remanent magnetization of the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone.

  3. Workload Control with Continuous Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, B. S. Nguyen; Land, M. J.; Gaalman, G. J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Workload Control (WLC) is a production planning and control concept which is suitable for the needs of make-to-order job shops. Release decisions based on the workload norms form the core of the concept. This paper develops continuous time WLC release variants and investigates their due date

  4. Teamwork, Leadership, and Continuous Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijser, Wouter Alexander; Glaudemans, Andor; Medema, Jitze; Dierckx, Rudi; Ahaus, Kees

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the enhanced TeamSTEPPS® curriculum as fundament to creating a “culture of continuous improvement” in nuclear medicine. This evidence-based and modular teamwork system is deployed in concordance with a novel medical leadership development program. It provides a

  5. In the interest of continuity

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2009-01-01

    Every five years a new Management takes over the fifth floor of the Main Building. The arrival of a new Director-General comes with a desire to change the managerial style. Whilst not contesting the current need for this, we would like to remind you that continuity in the Organization is ensured by the personnel and its Staff Association representatives.

  6. Comprehensive geriatric assessment | Lipschitz | Continuing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 25, No 9 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Comprehensive geriatric assessment. S Lipschitz. Abstract.

  7. Continuing Education for Distance Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassner, Mary; Adams, Kate E.

    2012-01-01

    Distance librarians as engaged professionals work in a complex environment of changes in technologies, user expectations, and institutional goals. They strive to keep current with skills and competencies to support distance learners. This article provides a selection of continuing education opportunities for distance librarians, and is relevant…

  8. From turnaround to continuous innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnø, Ole-Christian

    2002-01-01

    sourcing, explorative case research and continuous innovation a series of findings is identified, and from these findings a management model is proposed. This model is intended to fill in an identified gap in the toolbox for maintenance and further development of the business partners network established...

  9. Marketing Continuing Education for Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    This guide presents an overview of marketing and its potential value in continuing education programs for nurses. The first portion of the guide briefly discusses the concept of marketing. It contains definitions of key marketing concepts (product, place, price, and promotion), discussion of the basic tenets of marketing (consumer needs…

  10. 21 CFR 172.320 - Amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Amino acids. 172.320 Section 172.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.320...

  11. Organic acids in naturally colored surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar, William L.; Goerlitz, D.F.

    1966-01-01

    Most of the organic matter in naturally colored surface waters consists of a mixture of carboxylic acids or salts of these acids. Many of the acids color the water yellow to brown; however, not all of the acids are colored. These acids range from simple to complex, but predominantly they are nonvolatile polymeric carboxylic acids. The organic acids were recovered from the water by two techniques: continuous liquid-liquid extraction with n-butanol and vacuum evaporation at 50?C (centigrade). The isolated acids were studied by techniques of gas, paper, and column chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. About 10 percent of the acids recovered were volatile or could be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Approximately 30 of these carboxylic acids were isolated, and 13 of them were individually identified. The predominant part of the total acids could not be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Infrared examination of many column chromatographic fractions indicated that these nonvolatile substances are primarily polymeric hydroxy carboxylic acids having aromatic and olefinic unsaturation. The evidence suggests that some of these acids result from polymerization in aqueous solution. Elemental analysis of the sodium fusion products disclosed the absence of nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens.

  12. Levulinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hachuła

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound (systematic name: 4-oxopentanoic acid, C5H8O3, is close to planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0762 Å. In the crystal, the molecules interact via O—H...O hydrogen bonds in which the hydroxy O atoms act as donors and the ketone O atoms in adjacent molecules as acceptors, forming C(7 chains along [20-1].

  13. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, J. L.; Vierinen, J.; Pfeffer, N.; Clahsen, M.; Stober, G.

    2016-12-01

    The concept of a coded continuous wave specular meteor radar (SMR) is described. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudorandom phase-modulated waveform, which has several advantages compared to conventional pulsed SMRs. The coding avoids range and Doppler aliasing, which are in some cases problematic with pulsed radars. Continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation at lower peak power than a pulsed system. With continuous coding, the temporal and spectral resolution are not dependent on the transmit waveform and they can be fairly flexibly changed after performing a measurement. The low signal-to-noise ratio before pulse compression, combined with independent pseudorandom transmit waveforms, allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band simultaneously without significantly interfering with each other. Because the same frequency band can be used by multiple transmitters, the same interferometric receiver antennas can be used to receive multiple transmitters at the same time. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large-scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. Such a system would be useful for increasing the number of meteor detections to obtain improved meteor radar data products, such as wind fields. This type of a radar would also be useful for over-the-horizon radar, ionosondes, and observations of field-aligned-irregularities.

  14. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  15. Enhanced citric acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by overexpression of the Escherichia coli citrate synthase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Aditi D; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2009-08-01

    Citric acid secretion by fluorescent pseudomonads has a distinct significance in microbial phosphate solubilization. The role of citrate synthase in citric acid biosynthesis and glucose catabolism in pseudomonads was investigated by overexpressing the Escherichia coli citrate synthase (gltA) gene in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525. The resultant approximately 2-fold increase in citrate synthase activity in the gltA-overexpressing strain Pf(pAB7) enhanced the intracellular and extracellular citric acid yields during the stationary phase, by about 2- and 26-fold, respectively, as compared to the control, without affecting the growth rate, glucose depletion rate or biomass yield. Decreased glucose consumption was paralleled by increased gluconic acid production due to an increase in glucose dehydrogenase activity. While the extracellular acetic acid yield increased in Pf(pAB7), pyruvic acid secretion decreased, correlating with an increase in pyruvate carboxylase activity and suggesting an increased demand for the anabolic precursor oxaloacetate. Activities of two other key enzymes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase, remained unaltered, and the contribution of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and isocitrate lyase to glucose catabolism was negligible. Strain Pf(pAB7) demonstrated an enhanced phosphate-solubilizing ability compared to the control. Co-expression of the Synechococcus elongatus PCC 6301 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and E. coli gltA genes in P. fluorescens ATCC 13525, so as to supplement oxaloacetate for citrate biosynthesis, neither significantly affected citrate biosynthesis nor caused any change in the other physiological and biochemical parameters measured, despite approximately 1.3- and 5-fold increases in citrate synthase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities, respectively. Thus, our results demonstrate that citrate synthase is rate-limiting in enhancing citrate biosynthesis in P. fluorescens ATCC 13525

  16. Bolus vs. continuous feeding to optimize anabolism in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Teresa A; Fiorotto, Marta L; Suryawan, Agus

    2015-01-01

    Neonates with feeding difficulties can be fed by orogastric tube, using either continuous or bolus delivery. This review reports on recent findings that bolus is advantageous compared to continuous feeding in supporting optimal protein anabolism. Whether bolus or continuous feeding is more beneficial has been controversial, largely due to limitations inherent in clinical studies, such as the presence of confounding variables and the inability to use invasive approaches. Recent studies using the piglet as a model of the human neonate showed that, compared to continuous feeding, bolus feeding enhances protein synthesis and promotes greater protein deposition. The increase in protein synthesis occurs in muscles of varying fiber type and in visceral tissues whereas muscle protein degradation is largely insensitive to feeding pattern. This higher protein synthesis rate is enabled by the rapid and profound increases in circulating amino acids and insulin that occur following a bolus feed, which activate the intracellular signaling pathways leading to mRNA translation. Recent findings indicate that bolus feeding enhances protein synthesis more than continuous feeding and promotes greater protein anabolism. The difference in response is attributable to the pulsatile pattern of amino acid-induced and insulin-induced translation initiation induced only by bolus feeding.

  17. Continuous Chemistry in Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid

    corrections. Further the method successfully identified volcanic eruptions as well as the underlying anthropogenic signal related to the industrial pollution peaking in the 1970’s. The pH method was also applied on the Antarctic RICE ice core and proved useful, contrary to both the ECM and melt water......Ice cores provide high resolution records of past climate and environment. In recent years the use of continuous flow analysis (CFA) systems has increased the measurement throughput, while simultaneously decreasing the risk of contaminating the ice samples. CFA measurements of high temporal...... for the continuous determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) by means of a reaction with molybdenum blue. The concentration of DRP in polar ice is low and thus the method relies on enhancing the limit of detection by increasing the absorption length by means of a 2.5 metre LiquidWaveguide Capillary Cell...

  18. Continuous-Variable Entanglement Swapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Marshall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a very brief overview of entanglement swapping as it relates to continuous-variable quantum information. The technical background required is discussed and the natural link to quantum teleportation is established before discussing the nature of Gaussian entanglement swapping. The limitations of Gaussian swapping are introduced, along with the general applications of swapping in the context of to quantum communication and entanglement distribution. In light of this, we briefly summarize a collection of entanglement swapping schemes which incorporate a non-Gaussian ingredient and the benefits of such schemes are noted. Finally, we motivate the need to further study and develop such schemes by highlighting requirements of a continuous-variable repeater.

  19. PIPER Continuous Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Mark O.; Shirron, Peter J.; Canavan, Edgar R.; James, Bryan L.; Sampson, Michael A.; Letmate, Richard V.

    2017-01-01

    We report upon the development and testing of a 4-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) capable of continuous cooling at 0.100 Kelvin. This cooler is being built to cool the detector array aboard NASA's Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) observatory. The goal of this balloon mission is to measure the primordial gravitational waves that should exist if the theory of cosmological inflation is correct. At altitude, the ADR will hold the array of transition-edge sensors at 100 mK continuously while periodically rejecting heat to a 1.2 K pumped helium bath. During testing on ground, the array is held at the same temperature but heat is rejected to a 4.2 K helium bath indicating the flexibility in this coolers design.

  20. Formal Verification of Continuous Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer

    2012-01-01

    to the high complexity of both the dynamical system and the specification. Therefore, there is a need for methods capable of verifying complex specifications of complex systems. The verification of high dimensional continuous dynamical systems is the key to verifying general systems. In this thesis......, an abstraction approach is taken to the verification problem. A method is developed for abstracting continuous dynamical systems by timed automata. This method is based on subdividing the state space into cells by use of subdivisioning functions that are decreasing along the vector field. To allow....... It is shown that dual decomposition can be applied on the problem of generating barrier certificates, resulting in a compositional formulation of the safety verification problem. This makes the barrier certificate method applicable to the verification of high dimensional systems, but at the cost...

  1. REMOTE TRAINING AND CONTINUING EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Petrov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider two trends in teaching methods and tools chosen on the base of continuing education concept and challenges of the information society. Indeed, the modern post-school education requires improved efficiency and activity of training as it should or can be combined with productive activity of students. Here we discuss and analyze some trends of contemporary distance learning in order to include them into solution of lifelong learning problems. 

  2. Bunching of continuous neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golub, R. [Hahn Meitner Institut, Glienickerstr. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Gaehler, R. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: gahler@ill.fr; Habicht, K. [Hahn Meitner Institut, Glienickerstr. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Klimko, S. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2006-01-09

    We present a system which can shape the intensity of a continuous, polychromatic polarized neutron beam into a high frequency sinusoidal signal of high contrast. It is based on a pure quantum-mechanical effect (longitudinal Stern-Gerlach). The system relies on a sequence of three RF flippers, and it works virtually loss-free. The signal occurs far downstream of the last flipper within a well defined region. As an application we discuss its use in high resolution neutron spectroscopy.

  3. Continuous-Tone Electrostatic Electrography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-06-15

    Chief j Engineering « Technical Div., SIGTM-S... Office >o:t the; Chief S/ignal Officer, Washington 2ß, D, C. ^.Technical Reports Libr ; Fort...the metal backing plate?. With this arrangement* a continuous electrical current, was Observed to flow through the selenium film as. long as. it...electrode would also accept a charge under the corona -discharge, wires. This charge could be • dissipated by ah exposure to light in a. manner similar to

  4. Developing a Continuous Improvement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-16

    disagree that continuous improvement is critical to an organization’s suc-cess, since conducting business using a status quo philosophy will not work...tionally recognized series of standards for an effective quality conformance system, with over a million certified organiza- tions worldwide. Other...excuses. There was no substance, little buy -in, and filling out an IDP was really just extra work. The managers at CAAA use the IDP system within the

  5. Topological Photonics for Continuous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveirinha, Mario

    Photonic crystals have revolutionized light-based technologies during the last three decades. Notably, it was recently discovered that the light propagation in photonic crystals may depend on some topological characteristics determined by the manner how the light states are mutually entangled. The usual topological classification of photonic crystals explores the fact that these structures are periodic. The periodicity is essential to ensure that the underlying wave vector space is a closed surface with no boundary. In this talk, we prove that it is possible calculate Chern invariants for a wide class of continuous bianisotropic electromagnetic media with no intrinsic periodicity. The nontrivial topology of the relevant continuous materials is linked with the emergence of edge states. Moreover, we will demonstrate that continuous photonic media with the time-reversal symmetry can be topologically characterized by a Z2 integer. This novel classification extends for the first time the theory of electronic topological insulators to a wide range of photonic platforms, and is expected to have an impact in the design of novel photonic systems that enable a topologically protected transport of optical energy. This work is supported in part by Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia Grant Number PTDC/EEI-TEL/4543/2014.

  6. Contraceptive continuation in Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, S Rose; Secura, Gina M; Broughton, Hilary O; Jones, Maria E; Dickey, Viani; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Hispanic ethnicity on the continuation and satisfaction of reversible contraceptive methods. We analyzed 12 months of data that were collected from 7913 participants in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to estimate continuation, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the risk of discontinuation. Hispanic women were more likely to choose a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) method compared with non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white women (80%, 73%, and 75%, respectively; P methods than combined hormonal methods for all race/ethnicity (Hispanic women, 87% vs 40%; non-Hispanic black women, 85% vs 46%; non-Hispanic white women, 87% vs 56%). There was no statistical difference in discontinuation of LARC methods at 12 months. Eighty percent of LARC users reported high satisfaction levels at 12 months, regardless of race/ethnicity. Hispanic women in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project experienced high continuation and satisfaction for LARC methods, similar to women of other ethnicities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Continuous Chemistry in Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid

    on parameters involved in the study of photolysis as a source of in situ CO2. The concentration of organic substances in Greenland ice is poorly known due to their low levels and the fact that only a few studies evaluate the concentrations of specific organic compounds. Light does not penetrate deep...... depth was found as a function of wavelength. Further, by computational chemistry hybrid density functional methods (DFT), the four most common conformers of pyruvic acid were investigated in both gas, water and ice using the DFT model CAM-B3LYP with dielectric medium methods. A de rease of the energy...

  8. Ferrocenylphosphonic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Zhang Yang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Fe(C5H5(C5H6O3P], the phosphate group is bonded to the ferrocene unit with a P—C bond length of 1.749 (3 Å. In the crystal, six ferrocenylphosphonic acid molecules are connected by 12 strong intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of a highly distorted octahedral cage. The volume of the octahedral cage is about 270 Å3.

  9. A new hypothesis concerning continuous distillation with stripping gas and its application in the physical refining of edible oils

    OpenAIRE

    Graciani Constante, E.; Prieto González, Mª. M.; Bada, J. C.; León-Camacho, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The influence of the free fatty acid concentration in the gas inside the continuous deodorizer in continuous physical refining was studied and a hypothesis was formed to explain the results: In a continuous process of deacidification by distillation of free fatty acids at low pressure (2 - 3 mbar), high temperature (180 – 260 ºC), with stripping gas, initial free fatty acid content of oil ≤ 7.4% w/w and similar temperature for both the gas distillate inside the continuous deodorizer and the o...

  10. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182.1047 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (b...

  12. 76 FR 50756 - Sulfanilic Acid From China and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... COMMISSION Sulfanilic Acid From China and India Scheduling of expedited five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order and antidumping duty orders on sulfanilic acid from China and India. AGENCY: United... on sulfanilic acid from China and India would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  13. 76 FR 62843 - Sulfanilic Acid From China and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... COMMISSION Sulfanilic Acid From China and India Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing duty order on sulfanilic acid from India and antidumping duty orders on sulfanilic acid from China and India would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in...

  14. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Folic Acid and ... conception and during early pregnancy . What Is Folic Acid? Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  17. Maximization of organic acids production by Aspergillus niger in a bubble column bioreactor for V and Ni recovery enhancement from power plant residual ash in spent-medium bioleaching experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulnia, P; Mousavi, S M

    2016-09-01

    Spent-medium bioleaching of V and Ni from a power plant residual ash (PPR ash) was conducted using organic acids produced by Aspergillus niger. The production of organic acids in a bubble column bioreactor was optimized through selecting three most influencing factors. Under optimum condition of aeration rate of 762.5(ml/min), sucrose concentration of 101.9(g/l) and inoculum size of 40(ml/l), respectively 17,185, 4539, 1042 and 502(ppm) of oxalic, gluconic, citric and malic acids were produced. Leaching experiments were carried out using biogenic produced organic acids under leaching environment temperature of 60°C and rotary shaking speed of 135rpm, with various pulp densities of 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9(%w/v). The results showed that biogenic produced organic acids leached V much more efficiently than Ni so that even at high pulp density of 9(%w/v), 83% of V was recovered while Ni recovery yield was 30%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optoelectrowetting for continuous microdroplet actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Christopher M.; Hill, Kyle A.; DeWachter, Mark A.; Huizing, Alex M.; Holzman, Jonathan F.

    2014-05-01

    Microfluidics technologies have received great attention and appear in many bioanalyses applications. A recent microfluidics subset has appeared as droplet-based digital microfluidics (DMF). Here, microdroplets are manipulated in a two-dimensional on-chip plane using electric fields, contrasting the one-dimensional pressure-based channel flow of continuous flow microfluidics. These DMF systems fundamentally offer reconfigurability, whereby one device performs many bioanalysis tasks. A subset of DMF systems called optoelectrowetting is also of recent interest due to its ability for intricate microdroplet routing processes in the on-chip plane. For an optoelectrowetting chip, the DMF structure is modified with optically triggered electrodes with arrayed photoconductive switches. The arrayed photoconductive switches are optically-activated so microdroplets in the vicinity are routed to the illuminated switch. Unfortunately, such systems still require intricate electrode arrays, limiting microdroplet actuation resolution by the electrode size. This work proposes an on-chip optofluidic device with a continuous and planar semiconductor layer as the photoconductive mechanism. An illuminated section of the semiconductor layer acts as a localized electrode, with the photogenerated charge-carriers attracting nearby microdroplets. Given this planar topology, the illuminating beam is used to move the microdroplets continuously over the on-chip plane with precise optical control. The resolution for such a process is ultimately limited by charge-carrier diffusion, so an alternative material, a nanocomposite, is introduced to the on-chip device design. The nanocomposite consists of 20 nm semiconductor nanoparticles embedded in an insulative polymer host. This gives restricted diffusion length, being on the nanometer-scale of the nanoparticle diameter. Experimental device operation is demonstrated.

  19. Continuing professional development of doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tejinder

    2017-01-01

    After graduating from medical school, all doctors need to undertake some training activities lifelong to maintain, update or develop their knowledge, skills and attitudes towards their professional practice. Continuing professional development (CPD) refers to continuing development of medical and non- medical competencies including professionalism, and interpersonal, managerial and communication skills. There is no single correct way of doing CPD. Most learning in CPD is self-directed and based on one's own learning needs. Effective CPD is characterized by the presence of three factors: a clear reason why a particular CPD needs to be undertaken, learning activities appropriate to identified needs and follow- up on learning. There are several models for CPD. However, the onus is on doctors to show that they continue to maintain appropriate professional standards after training. Here, regulation becomes essential for revalidation, monitoring and to provide the necessary impetus to make CPD mandatory. In India, the credit point system is followed by some states, but the policy to link credit hours with renewal of registration thereafter is not uniform. While the present system is able to monitor time devoted to CPD, it encourages people to gather certificates of attendance at sessions without relevance to or real interest in the subject. The quality and relevance of CPD activities matter more than the quantity of hours. Eventually, we need to move away from credit point counting towards a process of self-accreditation and reflection. Each individual will have to find appropriate methods, learn, document and present evidence that learning has happened, and show that it has been applied in practice. As a profession, we need to encourage a culture where doctors do not view CPD and recertification as a threat. Doctors will need to understand that they are accountable to their patients, and should prioritize and build CPD into their practice.

  20. FACTORS INFLUENCING CONTINUOUS ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Rizescu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Change involves the continuous adjustment to the external conditions of organizations in the operating environment, in parallel with the growth of domestic stability. This process constitutes the dilemma of change-stability, which can be tackled only through a vision of the future, meaning the idorganization of organization-environment interaction along with a flexible organizational structure, the use of advanced technology and the existence of a system of rewarding employees that reflects the values and priorities of both, organizational norms and individual needs.

  1. Roc curves for continuous data

    CERN Document Server

    Krzanowski, Wojtek J

    2009-01-01

    Since ROC curves have become ubiquitous in many application areas, the various advances have been scattered across disparate articles and texts. ROC Curves for Continuous Data is the first book solely devoted to the subject, bringing together all the relevant material to provide a clear understanding of how to analyze ROC curves.The fundamental theory of ROC curvesThe book first discusses the relationship between the ROC curve and numerous performance measures and then extends the theory into practice by describing how ROC curves are estimated. Further building on the theory, the authors prese

  2. Sustaining motivation for continuous improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Kofoed, Lise Busk

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this article is to explore possibilities for improving motivation for participation in Continuous Improvement (CI). Due to a number of issues, for example, challenges with measuring outcomes of CI activities on performance, the inherent slower, incremental rather than big bang...... activities is an important issue for managers. The paper begins with a short description of CI, with an emphasis on barriers to successful implementation cited in the literature. Thereafter, a number of widely-acknowledged-albeit perhaps somewhat dated-theories of motivation are explored in relation...

  3. Continuously-Variable Vernier Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Irvin M.

    1989-01-01

    Easily fabricated device increases precision in reading graphical data. Continuously-variable vernier scale (CV VS) designed to provide greater accuracy to scientists and technologists in reading numerical values from graphical data. Placed on graph and used to interpolate coordinate value of point on curve or plotted point on figure within division on each coordinate axis. Requires neither measurement of line segments where projection of point intersects division nor calculation to quantify projected value. Very flexible device constructed with any kind of scale. Very easy to use, requiring no special equipment of any kind, and saves considerable amount of time if numerous points to be evaluated.

  4. Biochar Enhances Aspergillus niger Rock Phosphate Solubilization by Increasing Organic Acid Production and Alleviating Fluoride Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo

    2014-01-01

    During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F−) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F− adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F− released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F− while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F− measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F− per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter−1 to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F− sink during RP solubilization and led to an F− concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F− and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F−, the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP. PMID:24610849

  5. Ammonia activates pacC and patulin accumulation in an acidic environment during apple colonization by Penicillium expansum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barad, Shiri; Espeso, Eduardo A; Sherman, Amir; Prusky, Dov

    2016-06-01

    Penicillium expansum, the causal agent of blue mould rot, causes severe post-harvest fruit maceration simultaneously with the secretion of d-gluconic acid (GLA) and the mycotoxin patulin in colonized tissue. The factor(s) inducing patulin biosynthesis during colonization of the host acidic environment is unclear. During the colonization of apple fruit in vivo and growth in culture, P. expansum secretes pH-modulating GLA and ammonia. Although patulin and its possible opportunistic precursor GLA accumulate together during fungal development, ammonia is detected on the colonized tissue's leading edge and after extended culture, close to patulin accumulation. Here, we demonstrate ammonia-induced transcript activation of the global pH modulator PacC and patulin accumulation in the presence of GLA by: (i) direct exogenous treatment of P. expansum growing on solid medium; (ii) direct exogenous treatment on colonized apple tissue; (iii) growth under self-ammonia production conditions with limited carbon; and (iv) analysis of the transcriptional response to ammonia of the patulin biosynthesis cluster. Ammonia induced patulin accumulation concurrently with the transcript activation of pacC and patulin biosynthesis cluster genes, indicating the regulatory effect of ammonia on pacC transcript expression under acidic conditions. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using P. expansum PacC and antibodies to the different cleaved proteins showed that PacC is not protected against proteolytic signalling at pH 4.5 relative to pH 7.0, but NH4 addition did not further enhance its proteolytic cleavage. Ammonia enhanced the activation of palF transcript in the Pal pathway under acidic conditions. Ammonia accumulation in the host environment by the pathogen under acidic pH may be a regulatory cue for pacC activation, towards the accumulation of secondary metabolites, such as patulin. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  6. New bioactive fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  7. Continuous auditing: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cruz de Souza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent fraud scandals involving highly known corporations like Enron, WorldCom, and Xerox have eroded public confidence in financial reporting. At the same time, the auditing profession has suffered a big hit. In this scenario, Continuous Auditing (CA seems to have emerged as a response to recover the credibility of the auditing profession as well as meeting Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX requirements. This study, that adopts an exploratory approach, analyzes the existing literature on this topic. First, we address the concepts, models and implications of CA. After, throughout a search on the journals indexed at the CAPES's Basis, a literature review is conducted. A total of 57 articles were selected. We analyze authorship, affiliation, publications, year and type of research of papers that have addressed CA. Findings evidence that most articles addressing CA are non-empirical and adopt a conceptual approach. Also, there is an increasing tendency of continuous auditing studies. Rutgers University seems to be the World's leading research center on CA. This study aims to contribute to the Accounting Science by evidencing possibilities for research and publication in CA.

  8. Continuous Steelmaking Directly from Ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Noel A.

    2014-12-01

    In-line continuous processing of high-grade hematite ore (crushed ore or fines) with a pure hydrogen reductant is assessed. An appraisal is made of the rate controlling mechanisms involved in the reduction of a pure layer of molten wustite being transported by floating on a molten carrier iron carbon-free medium at temperatures just in excess of the iron melting point. Published research clearly indicates that under these conditions the kinetics are principally controlled by molecular gaseous diffusion. Thus, the rate is essentially not influenced by total gas pressure above 1 atmosphere. Accordingly, on safety grounds it is recommended that high pressure should not be used for hydrogen steelmaking in the future, but the operation should be conducted close to atmospheric pressure with low pressure steam encapsulation of the plant items involved. Using hydrogen as the reductant means that sub-surface nucleation of CO bubbles cannot disrupt continuous processing. The operation is then no different to processing a normal liquid phase. The off-gases from the reduction zone of a melt circulation loop are super-clean and only contaminated with iron vapor. Accordingly, the best available technology becomes available for energy conservation without risk of non-fusible solids deposition. The net result is that the energy requirements are expected to be superior to other potential processes.

  9. Best evidence continuous medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Amer; Coomarasamy, Arri; Khan, Khalid S

    2009-10-01

    Health care professionals need to approach their profession with a view to life long learning. They need to develop a strategy to meet their learning needs in a reflective and effective manner. Continuous medical educational (CME) is the traditional tool for learning and updating knowledge. Most of them are in the forms of courses, conferences, journal clubs and workshops. They are mostly didactic sessions and evidence suggests that they are not effective to improve the clinical skills and attitude. Systematic review of teaching evidence-based medicine shows that interactive and clinically integrated learning is the most effective form of learning. It enhances knowledge and skills. Professionals should view CME in a holistic manner in the context of continuous professional development (CPD) and even in the wider concept of knowledge translation, which encompasses both CME and CPD. e Learning is one of the most important forms of non-traditional CME. It provides an efficient and increasingly interactive delivery system that can handle complex and layered information. More work needs to be done to see its effectiveness for practising clinicians.

  10. Continuous-Flow Processes in Heterogeneously Catalyzed Transformations of Biomass Derivatives into Fuels and Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. Romero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuous flow chemical processes offer several advantages as compared to batch chemistries. These are particularly relevant in the case of heterogeneously catalyzed transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules into valuable chemicals and fuels. This work is aimed to provide an overview of key continuous flow processes developed to date dealing with a series of transformations of platform chemicals including alcohols, furanics, organic acids and polyols using a wide range of heterogeneous catalysts based on supported metals, solid acids and bifunctional (metal + acidic materials.

  11. Tryptophan and kynurenines: continuing to court controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Trevor W

    2016-08-01

    The role of the amino acid tryptophan in the generation of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT) has been expanded over the past 30 years with recognition that its oxidation by indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) results in the formation of kynurenine and metabolites which regulate neuronal excitability, psychiatric status, immune cell activity and balance, and probably implantation and the development of embryos. While the amount of work on this kynurenine pathway continues to accelerate, it is important that disagreements about results, differences of interpretation or problems with technical issues are presented openly and discussed thoroughly so that new research is not mis-led in ways that could have been foreseen. In this issue of Clinical Science, Badawy et al. discuss in depth two opposing views of how changes in tryptophan availability or utilisation bring about their effects on cell function. The original concept that local depletion of tryptophan is responsible seems to be less attractive than the view that kynurenine and its metabolites have direct, potent actions on cells. This conclusion not only clarifies our understanding of the importance of tryptophan metabolism to kynurenine but also raises the possibility that the actions of those metabolites could be novel targets for the development of agonists and antagonists with a range of medical implications. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  12. Continuous sampling from distributed streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Cormode; Muthukrishnan, S.; Yi, Ke

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental problem in data management is to draw and maintain a sample of a large data set, for approximate query answering, selectivity estimation, and query planning. With large, streaming data sets, this problem becomes particularly difficult when the data is shared across multiple...... distributed sites. The main challenge is to ensure that a sample is drawn uniformly across the union of the data while minimizing the communication needed to run the protocol on the evolving data. At the same time, it is also necessary to make the protocol lightweight, by keeping the space and time costs low...... for each participant. In this article, we present communication-efficient protocols for continuously maintaining a sample (both with and without replacement) from k distributed streams. These apply to the case when we want a sample from the full streams, and to the sliding window cases of only the W most...

  13. Continuous magnetic separator and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Robin R.; Jamison, Russell E.

    2008-04-22

    A continuous magnetic separator and process for separating a slurry comprising magnetic particles into a clarified stream and a thickened stream. The separator has a container with a slurry inlet, an overflow outlet for the discharge of the clarified slurry stream, and an underflow outlet for the discharge of a thickened slurry stream. Magnetic particles in the slurry are attracted to, and slide down, magnetic rods within the container. The slurry is thus separated into magnetic concentrate and clarified slurry. Flow control means can be used to control the ratio of the rate of magnetic concentrate to the rate of clarified slurry. Feed control means can be used to control the rate of slurry feed to the slurry inlet.

  14. Continuous animal exposure to dichloromethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macewen, J. D.; Vernot, E. H.; Haun, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    Continuous exposures of dogs, monkeys, rats and mice to 5000 ppm and 1000 ppm of dichloromethane vapor (CH2Cl2) produced severe toxic effects on dogs, rats and mice. Dogs died after 3 weeks exposure to 1000 ppm and after 6 weeks exposure to 5000 ppm. Thirty percent of the mice also succumbed during four weeks exposure to 5000 ppm CH2Cl2. Although rats survived 14 weeks exposure to 5000 ppm, they experienced subnormal weight gains. Significant gross and histopathological hepatic lesions were noted in all 3 species at death or experimental termination in 14 weeks. In addition, rats showed abnormal kidney histopathology. Fat stains disclosed mild fatty increase in monkey livers after 14 weeks exposure to 1000 ppm CH2Cl2.

  15. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  16. Reliability and continuous regeneration model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pavlisková

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The failure-free function of an object is very important for the service. This leads to the interest in the determination of the object reliability and failure intensity. The reliability of an element is defined by the theory of probability.The element durability T is a continuous random variate with the probability density f. The failure intensity (tλ is a very important reliability characteristics of the element. Often it is an increasing function, which corresponds to the element ageing. We disposed of the data about a belt conveyor failures recorded during the period of 90 months. The given ses behaves according to the normal distribution. By using a mathematical analysis and matematical statistics, we found the failure intensity function (tλ. The function (tλ increases almost linearly.

  17. Microfluidic continuous flow digital loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Tushar D; Chen, Liben; Zec, Helena C; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2015-02-07

    Digital nucleic acid detection is rapidly becoming a popular technique for ultra-sensitive and quantitative detection of nucleic acid molecules in a wide range of biomedical studies. Digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) remains the most popular way of conducting digital nucleic acid detection. However, due to the need for thermocycling, digital PCR is difficult to implement in a streamlined manner on a single microfluidic device, leading to complex fragmented workflows and multiple separate devices and instruments. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an excellent isothermal alternative to PCR with potentially better specificity than PCR because of the use of multiple primer sets for a nucleic acid target. Here we report a microfluidic droplet device implementing all the steps required for digital nucleic acid detection including droplet generation, incubation and in-line detection for digital LAMP. As compared to microchamber or droplet array-based digital assays, the continuous flow operation of this device eliminates the constraints on the number of total reactions imposed by the footprint of the device and the analysis throughput caused by the time for lengthy incubation and transfer of materials between instruments.

  18. Determination of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Bodiroga Milanka; Ognjanović Jasminka

    2002-01-01

    Iodometric and permanganometric titrations were used for determination of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the mixture. Two procedures were described and compared. Titrations could be done in only one vessel, in the same reaction mixture, when iodometric titration of peracetic acid was continued after the permanganometric titration of H2O2, (procedure A). Peracetic acid and H2O2, as oxidizing agents, reacted with potassium iodide in an acid medium, evolving iodine. This reaction...

  19. Sulfuric acid on Europa and the radiolytic sulfur cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R. W.; Johnson, R. E.; Anderson, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison of laboratory spectra with Galileo data indicates that hydrated sulfuric acid is present and is a major component of Europa's surface. In addition, this moon's visually dark surface material, which spatially correlates with the sulfuric acid concentration, is identified as radiolytically altered sulfur polymers. Radiolysis of the surface by magnetospheric plasma bombardment continuously cycles sulfur between three forms: sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, and sulfur polymers, with sulfuric acid being about 50 times as abundant as the other forms. Enhanced sulfuric acid concentrations are found in Europa's geologically young terrains, suggesting that low-temperature, liquid sulfuric acid may influence geological processes.

  20. 40 CFR 1065.150 - Continuous sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continuous sampling. 1065.150 Section... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.150 Continuous sampling. You may use continuous sampling techniques for measurements that involve raw or dilute sampling. Make sure continuous sampling...